Science.gov

Sample records for archean spherule beds

  1. Early Archean Spherule Beds-Confirmation of Impact Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Kyte, F. T.; Lugmair, G. W.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    2000-01-01

    The oldest record of major impact events on Earth may be a number of early Archean (3.5 to 3.2 Ga) spherule beds that have been identified in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Several field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria distinguish these beds from typical volcanic and clastic sediments. These criteria include the wide geographic distribution of two beds in a variety of depositional environments, the presence of relict quench textures, absence of juvenile volcaniclastic debris within the beds, and extreme enrichment of Ir and other platinum group elements (PGE) as compared to surrounding sediments. Some researchers, however, argued for a terrestrial origin for spherule bed formation, possibly related to volcanism and gold mineralization.

  2. Early Archean spherule beds of possible impact origin from Barberton, South Africa: A detailed mineralogical and geochemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Boer, Rudolf H.

    1992-12-01

    The Barberton Greenstone belt is a 3.5- to 3.2-Ga-old formation situated in the Swaziland Supergroup near Barberton, northeast Transvaal, South Africa. The belt includes a lower, predominantly volcanic sequence, and an upper sedimentary sequence (e.g., the Fig Tree Group). Within this upper sedimentary sequence, Lowe and Byerly identified a series of different beds of spherules with diameters of around 0.5-2 mm. Lowe and Byerly and Lowe et al. have interpreted these spherules to be condensates of rock vapor produced by large meteorite impacts in the early Archean. We have collected a series of samples from drill cores from the Mt. Morgan and Princeton sections near Barberton, as well as samples taken from underground exposures in the Sheba and Agnes mines. These samples seem much better preserved than the surface samples described by Lowe and Byerly and Lowe et al. Over a scale of just under 30 cm, several well-defined spherule beds are visible, interspaced with shales and/or layers of banded iron formation. Some spherules have clearly been deposited on top of a sedimentary unit because the shale layer shows indentions from the overlying spherules. Although fresher than the surface samples (e.g., spherule bed S-2), there is abundant evidence for extensive alteration, presumably by hydrothermal processes. In some sections of the cores sulfide mineralization is common. For our mineralogical and petrographical studies we have prepared detailed thin sections of all core and underground samples (as well as some surface samples from the S-2 layer for comparison). For geochemical work, layers with thicknesses in the order of 1-5 mm were separated from selected core and underground samples. The chemical analyses are being performed using neutron activation analysis in order to obtain data for about 35 trace elements in each sample. Major elements are being determined by XRF and plasma spectrometry. To clarify the history of the sulfide mineralization, sulfur isotopic

  3. Early Archean spherule beds of possible impact origin from Barberton, South Africa: A detailed mineralogical and geochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Boer, Rudolf H.

    1992-01-01

    The Barberton Greenstone belt is a 3.5- to 3.2-Ga-old formation situated in the Swaziland Supergroup near Barberton, northeast Transvaal, South Africa. The belt includes a lower, predominantly volcanic sequence, and an upper sedimentary sequence (e.g., the Fig Tree Group). Within this upper sedimentary sequence, Lowe and Byerly identified a series of different beds of spherules with diameters of around 0.5-2 mm. Lowe and Byerly and Lowe et al. have interpreted these spherules to be condensates of rock vapor produced by large meteorite impacts in the early Archean. We have collected a series of samples from drill cores from the Mt. Morgan and Princeton sections near Barberton, as well as samples taken from underground exposures in the Sheba and Agnes mines. These samples seem much better preserved than the surface samples described by Lowe and Byerly and Lowe et al. Over a scale of just under 30 cm, several well-defined spherule beds are visible, interspaced with shales and/or layers of banded iron formation. Some spherules have clearly been deposited on top of a sedimentary unit because the shale layer shows indentions from the overlying spherules. Although fresher than the surface samples (e.g., spherule bed S-2), there is abundant evidence for extensive alteration, presumably by hydrothermal processes. In some sections of the cores sulfide mineralization is common. For our mineralogical and petrographical studies we have prepared detailed thin sections of all core and underground samples (as well as some surface samples from the S-2 layer for comparison). For geochemical work, layers with thicknesses in the order of 1-5 mm were separated from selected core and underground samples. The chemical analyses are being performed using neutron activation analysis in order to obtain data for about 35 trace elements in each sample. Major elements are being determined by XRF and plasma spectrometry. To clarify the history of the sulfide mineralization, sulfur isotopic

  4. Early Archean Spherule Beds: Chromium Isotopes Confirm Origin Through Multiple Impacts of Projectiles of Carbonaceous Chondrite Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter W.; Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    Three Early Archean spherule beds from Barberton, South Africa, have anomalous Cr isotope compositions in addition to large Ir anomalies, confirming the presence of meteoritic material with a composition similar to that in carbonaceous chondrites. The extra-terrestrial components in beds S2, S3, and S4 are estimated to be approx. l%, 50% - 60%, and 15% - 30%, respectively. These beds are probably the distal, and possibly global, ejecta from major large-body impacts. These impacts were probably much larger than the Cretaceous-Tertiary event, and all occurred over an interval of approx. 20 m.y., implying an impactor flux at 3.2 Ga that was more than an order of magnitude greater than the present flux.

  5. Early Archean Spherule Beds: Chromium Isotopes Confirm Origin through Multiple Impacts of Projectiles of Carbonaceous Chondrite Type: Comment and Reply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    This is a exchange in the form of a comment and a reply in regards to an earlier article. The authors of the original article, consider it likely that virtually all of the projectile will condense with the silicate fraction, resulting in very little platinum group element fractionation in the final ejecta deposit. Further, we find no evidence in the commentator's, (i.e., Glikson), comment to support vapor fractionation. We note that the Pd/Ir ratios of published data on 2.56 Ga Hamersley Basin spherules are all greater than in chondrites, contrary to the assertion by Glikson. This is consistent with relatively high Pd concentrations (and Pd/Ir ratios) in crustal rocks.

  6. Early terrestrial impact events: Archean spherule layers in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Seda; Koeberl, Christian; Schulz, Toni; Reimold, W. Uwe; Hofmann, Axel

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the oldest known impact structure on Earth, the 2.02-billion-year-old Vredefort Structure in South Africa, the evidence of Early Earth impact events are Archean spherule beds in South Africa and Australia. These spherules have been interpreted as condensation products from impact plumes and molten impact ejecta or/and impact ejecta that were melted during atmospheric re-entry [e.g., 1,2]. The 3.2-3.5 Ga spherule layers in the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa currently represent the oldest known remnants of impact deposits on Earth. Aiming at identification of extraterrestrial components and to determine the diagenetic and metamorphic history of spherule layer intersections recently recovered in the CT3 drill core from the northeastern part of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, we have studied samples from these layers in terms of petrography and geochemistry. All samples, including spherule layer intersections and intercalating country rocks, were studied for mineral identification by optical and electron microscopy, as well as electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) at Natural History Museum Vienna and Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (MfN). Major and trace element compositions were determined via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry at MfN and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at University of Vienna. Os isotopes were measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS) at University of Vienna. Eighteen spherule beds are distributed over 150 meter drill core in CT3. Spherules are variably, deformed or undeformed. The high number of these layers may have been caused by tectonic duplication. Spherule beds are intercalated with shale, chert, carbonate, and/or sulfide deposits (country rocks). The size range of spherules is 0.5 to 2 mm, and some layers exhibit gradation. Shapes of spherules differ from spherical to ovoid, as well as teardrops, and spherules commonly show off-center vesicles, which have been interpreted as a primary

  7. Archean spherule classification of CT3 drill core, Barberton Greenstone Belt (South Africa) based on petrography and mineral chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Seda; Koeberl, Christian; Mohr-Westheide, Tanja; Reimold, W. Uwe; Hofmann, Axel

    2016-04-01

    The impact history of the Early Archean Earth is not well documented. The oldest known impact structure is about 2 Ga years old; impact-related signatures in Precambrian rocks are scarce. The possible impact signature might be the Archean spherule layers that occur in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, and in the Pilbara Craton Western Australia, with ages of 3.2-3.4 and around 2.5 Ga [1]. These spherules were interpreted as impact-generated and ballistically emplaced silicate melt droplets [2]. This study is focused on petrographic and mineralogical characteristics from a set of newly drilled Archean spherule layers in drill core CT3 from the northeastern part of the BGB. The investigation of the three main intervals (A, B, and C, which include 2, 13, and 2 individual spherule layers, respectively) within CT3, contains the classification of spherules based on their shapes, textural features, deformation types, and mineral content. All of the intervals show spherule variation in those features. Therefore, the classification helps to understand if the spherules underwent processes such as tectonic deformation or if multiple impact events occurred in the area, which both might a reason of spherule layer duplications. The aim of the work is to differentiate various spherule types and the groundmasses in which they are embedded. The spherules within 17 identified spherule layers have been examined by optical microscopy (polarized and reflected) and secondary electron microscopy and were classified by shape and textural features. Subsequently, mineral phases and the chemical composition of the spherules and their matrices were investigated by using electron microprobe analysis. Regarding the shapes of the spherules they were divided into two main groups: undeformed and deformed. Undeformed spherules have spherical to ovoid as well as tear-drop shapes; deformed spherules were further subdivided into three main groups; flattened, crushed

  8. Paleoarchean Spherule Beds in the CT3 Drill Core from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: Geochemistry and Os Isotopic Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, S.; Schulz, T.; Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.; Mohr-Westheide, T.; Hofmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    Archean spherules are important to understand the early Earth's impact history. We performed detailed petrographic, geochemical and Os isotope analysis to obtain possible meteoritic components on spherule layers from Barberton Greenstone Belt.

  9. Compositional Grading in an Impact-produced Spherule Bed, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Key to Condensation History of Rock Vapor Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krull, A. E.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical and physical processes by which spherules form during the condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds are poorly understood. Although efforts have been made to model the processes of spherule formation, there is presently a paucity of field data to constrain the resulting theoretical models. The present study examines the vertical compositional variability in a single early Archean spherule bed in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), South Africa, in order to better identify the process by which impact vapor clouds condense and spherules form and accumulate. The BGB spherule beds are suitable for this type of study because of their great thickness, often exceeding 25cm of pure spherules, due to the massive sizes of the impactors. Two main problems complicate analysis of vertical compositional variability of graded spherule beds: (1) differential settling of particles in both the vapor and water column due to density and size differences and (2) turbulence within the vapor cloud. The present study compares sections of spherule bed S3 from four different depositional environments in the Barberton Greenstone Belt: (1) The Sheba Mine section (SAF-381) was deposited under fairly low energy conditions in deep water, providing a nice fallout sequence, and also has abundant Ni-rich spinels; (2) Jay's Chert section (SAF-380) was deposited in subaerial to shallow-water conditions with extensive post-depositional reworking by currents. The spherules also have preserved spinels; (3) the Loop Road section (loc. SAF-295; samp. KSA-7) was moderately reworked and has only rare preservation of spinels; and (4) the shallow-water Barite Syncline section (loc. SAF-206; samp KSA-1) has few to no spinels preserved and is not reworked. Although all of the spherule beds have been altered by silica diagenesis and K-metasomatism, most of the compositional differences between these sections appear to reflect their diagenetic histories, possibly related to their differing

  10. Petrography of Archean Spherule Layers from the CT3 Drill Core, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehnel, D.; Reimold, W. U.; Mohr-Westheide, T.; Hofmann, A.; Altenberger, U.

    2016-08-01

    One of the major questions to be addressed in the core CT3 from the northeastern Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa is about the actual number of impact events represented by the 17 spherule layers over a stratigraphic interval of 150 m.

  11. Inferred Primary Compositions of Archean Spherules Formed by the Condensation of an Impact-produced Rock Vapor Cloud, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krull, A. E.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the lunar cratering record, impacts were larger and more frequent on the early Earth than they are today. There is no persevered record of these early terrestrial impacts because rocks of this age have been obliterated by tectonism and erosion. The oldest known evidence of impacts on Earth lies in four beds (S1, S2, S3 and S4) in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), South Africa, ranging in age from about 3.24 to 3.47 Ga. These beds are composed in large part of sand-sized spherical particles, termed spherules, that are thought to have formed by the condensation of rock vapor clouds ejected above the atmosphere as a result of large impacts. Spherule beds S2 and S3 are both about 20 cm thick where composed entirely of fall-deposited spherules and up to a meter thick where spherules are mixed with locally derived debris. The diameters the bolides have been estimated to be between 20 and 50 km, based on bed thickness, size of the largest spherules, Ir fluence and extraterrestrial Cr.

  12. Impact glass spherules in the Chicxulub K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti: Alteration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Xenia; Deutsch, Alexander; Berndt, Jasper; Robin, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated six impact glass spherules from the K-Pg event bed at Beloc, Haiti, using optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe and in situ laser ablation-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 37 trace elements, spot size 90-35 μm), in order to understand geochemical changes during alteration. The mm-sized glass spherules are partly or totally altered to smectite, but original textural features are preserved. The average trace-element composition of glass matches that one of the upper continental crust. Hints for a "meteoritic component" are lacking (Ni/Cr < 1.3 Pt below detection limit). Compared to this fresh glass, smectites are strongly depleted in trace elements, except for Li, Sc, V, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Ba. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are flat with subchondritic abundances, related to their very low degree of crystallinity. We observe a positive Eu and a strong negative Ce anomaly; the latter is explained by formation of an organic Ce4+-complex, soluble under reducing conditions. Zr/Hf of glasses and smectites is chondritic to superchondritic (35-40), whereas Nb/Ta in smectite is subchondritic (5-12) compared to Nb/Ta in the glass (~14-18). The low Nb/Ta is due to the low Nb concentrations in the smectite. Using in situ techniques with high spatial resolution, we have documented for the first time the significant changes in diagnostic elemental ratios during alteration of glass spherules. This has to be taken into account in the interpretation of geochemical data of not only impact materials but also volcanic glass, especially if bulk rock methods are used.

  13. Spherule beds 3.47-3.24 billion years old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Donald R; Byerly, Gary R; Kyte, Frank T; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approximately 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record. PMID:12804363

  14. Spherule Beds 3.47-3.24 Billion Years Old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Record of Large Meteorite Impacts and Their Influence on Early Crustal and Biological Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approx. 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

  15. Spherule beds 3.47-3.24 billion years old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Donald R; Byerly, Gary R; Kyte, Frank T; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approximately 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

  16. Micro-XRF Analysis of Archean Spherule Layers and Host Rocks from the CT3 Drill Core, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehnel, D.; Tagle, R.; Hofmann, A.; Reimold, W. U.; Mohr-Westheide, T.; Fritz, J.; Altenberger, U.

    2016-08-01

    Spherule layers and host rock samples from the Barberton Greenstone Belt were studied with a µ-XRF spectrometer. Elemental distribution maps indicate distinct folding that had been recognized neither by visual inspection nor by petrographic analysis.

  17. Plasma Generated Spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    Z-pinch plasma simulations have been performed that indicate the production of spherules under certain experimental parameters. (A. L. Peratt, private communication) While performing experiments dealing with the impact of plasma discharges on various materials, we observed that spherules were created at the surface of some of the materials. For specific materials and conditions, spherules were always produced. Both individual spherules and joined spherules were created. The size and shapes were nearly identical to items found by the Mars rover, Opportunity, and called ``blueberries.'' Sky & Telescope, June 2004, p. 20, among other sources indicated the blueberries were gray spherules composed of hematite. The experiments produced hematite spherules identical in appearance to those found on Mars. These experiments suggest how the newly discovered blueberries were formed on Mars while providing an explanation that does not depend on the presence of water.

  18. Petrographic criteria for recognizing certain types of impact spherules in well-preserved precambrian successions.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Bruce M

    2003-01-01

    Impact spherule layers in sedimentary successions can open a new window on large impacts to complement the better-known record of terrestrial craters. At least six spherule layers have been found in well-preserved late Archean to Paleoproterozoic strata, and a growing body of geochemical evidence indicates they are impact ejecta. The most distinctive characteristics of these impact spherules are: (1) a predominance of highly spherical grains; (2) the presence of grains with unusual shapes such as teardrops and dumbbells; (3) fibroradial aggregates of K-feldspar crystals nucleated on the edges of spherules; and (4) clear internal spots representing both cement-filled vesicles and replaced glass cores, which, in contrast to the nuclei of ooids and armored lapilli, are not always located in the centers of the spherules. These characteristics permit the reliable differentiation of these impact spherules from spheroidal particles of other origins, such as sedimentary ooids or volcanic accretionary lapilli, often with just a hand lens. However, petrographic identification becomes progressively more difficult as the spherules become smaller or more altered. Moreover, impact spherules in other layers of other ages sometimes have different textures, so the ones described here are not representative of all types of impact spherules. They are provided as a starting point for researchers interested in identifying impact spherule layers. Given the visible record of impacts on the Moon and the much greater mass of the Earth, there should be many more impact spherule layers on Earth than have been discovered to date.

  19. Transmission Electron Microscope Study of Platinum Group Element-Rich Micronuggets from Two Spherule Layer Intersections, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr-Westheide, T.; Greshake, A.; Wirth, R.; Reimold, W. U.; Fritz, J.

    2016-08-01

    New results of a comprehensive transmission electron microscope (TEM) study including microstructural and chemical analyses of three submicrometer sized, primary PGE metal nuggets in Archean spherule layer material from the Barberton Mountain Land.

  20. Search for shock-metamorphosed grains in Precambrian spherule layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Frank C.

    2014-10-01

    . This study has documented, apparently for the first time, a shock-induced, high-pressure polymorph (TiO2 II) from Archean terrestrial rocks. The Graenseso spherule layer (˜145 cm thick) is a dolomixtite that predominantly contains spherules and mm-to-dm-sized chert and carbonate intraclasts in a dolomitic matrix, and it records a singular debris flow within a low-energy marine environment.

  1. Evidence for and implications of an Early Archean terrestrial impact record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    1988-01-01

    Early Archean, 3.5 to 3.2 Ga, greenstone sequences in South Africa and Western Australia contain a well-preserved record of early terrestrial meteorite impacts. The main impact-produced deposits are layers, 10 cm to over 1 m thick, composed largely of sand-sized spherules, 0.1 to 4 mm in diameter. The beds studied to date show an assemblage of features indicating formation by the fall of debris from impact-generated ejecta clouds. Some presented data effectively rule out normal magmatic or sedimentary processes in the origin of these units and provide substantial support for an origin by large impacts on the early earth. The presence of at least four, remarkably thick, nearly pure spherule layers suggests that smaller-scale impact deposits may be even more abundant in these sequences. The existence of a well-preserved Archean terrestrial impact record suggests that a direct source of evidence is available regarding a number of important aspects of early earth history.

  2. Diagenetic alteration of impact spherules in the Neoarchean Monteville layer, South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohl, I.; Simonson, B.M.; Berke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Intercontinental correlation of distal Archean impact ejecta layers can be used to help create a global time-stratigraphic framework for early Earth events. For example, an impact spherule layer in the Neoarchean Monteville Formation (Griqualand West Basin, South Africa) may be correlated with layers in one or more formations in Western Australia. To help assess the degree to which diagenetic alteration would hinder such correlations, we performed a petrographic study of spherules in the Monteville layer. Most of the spherules in the Monteville layer have botryoidal rims composed of radial-fibrous K-feldspar, but compaction and replacement have greatly altered their appearance and mineralogy. Moreover, the Monteville spherule layer consists of three main subunits, and spherule compaction varies between subunits as well as across the Griqualand West region. Compaction is about three times greater in a medial spherulerich subunit as compared to a basal subunit rich in large intraclasts, resulting in better preservation of the shapes of melt particles in the latter. However, spherule rims have omparable numbers of fractures in both subunits, indicating the melt particles were fractured prior to compaction. Some spherules contain mica ribbons with a septarian geometry. Fracturing via rapid thermal quenching could help explain all of these features. f hot spherules possessing crystalline rims were thermally shocked when they hit the ocean, fractures would have the observed geometries and provide pathways for fluid infiltration and local replacement of glass by mica. Although heavily distorted, impact spherules in the Monteville layer are very similar to those in the Hesta occurrence of the Neoarchean Jeerinah spherule layer of the Hamersley Basin, even showing similar diagenetic histories. In this instance, diagenetic alteration may actually help rather than hinder intercontinental correlation of impact spherule layers. ??2006 Geological Society of America.

  3. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  4. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS

  5. Spherule layers, crater scaling laws, and the population of ancient terrestrial impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brandon C.; Collins, Gareth S.; Minton, David A.; Bowling, Timothy J.; Simonson, Bruce M.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-06-01

    Ancient layers of impact spherules provide a record of Earth's early bombardment history. Here, we compare different bombardment histories to the spherule layer record and show that 3.2-3.5 Ga the flux of large impactors (10-100 km in diameter) was likely 20-40 times higher than today. The E-belt model of early Solar System dynamics suggests that an increased impactor flux during the Archean is the result of the destabilization of an inward extension of the main asteroid belt (Bottke et al., 2012). Here, we find that the nominal flux predicted by the E-belt model is 7-19 times too low to explain the spherule layer record. Moreover, rather than making most lunar basins younger than 4.1 Gyr old, the nominal E-belt model, coupled with a corrected crater diameter scaling law, only produces two lunar basins larger than 300 km in diameter. We also show that the spherule layer record when coupled with the lunar cratering record and careful consideration of crater scaling laws can constrain the size distribution of ancient terrestrial impactors. The preferred population is main-belt-like up to ∼50 km in diameter transitioning to a steep distribution going to larger sizes.

  6. Geological evidence for a 2.6-Ga strewn field of impact spherules in the Hamersley Basin of Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, Bruce M.

    1992-01-01

    Sand-sized spherules up to 1.7 mm across with spherulitic, vesicular, and other crystalline textures that consist mainly of K-feldspar help define a unique horizon in the well-preserved 2.6-Ga Wittenoom Formation in the Hamersley Basin of Western Australia. This layer is informally known as the spherule marker bed. In the northeastern part of the Hamersley Basin, similar spherules again occur at only one horizon, but here they are a minor constituent of a dolomitic debris-flow deposit known as the dolomixtite layer. The dolomixtite layer occurs in the Carawine Dolomite, which is stratigraphically equivalent to the Wittenoom Formation. Moreover, paleocurrent data from closely associated carbonate and volcaniclastic turbidites indicate the spherule marker bed was deposited in deeper-water paleoenvironments than the dolomixtite layer. Therefore, the dolomixtite layer is believed to be a proximal equivalent of the spherule marker bed. The layers that host the spherules are interpreted to be the deposits of a major sediment gravity flow that exhumed and redeposited most of the spherules after shallow burial, although the flow is not believed to have been a direct result of the proposed impact. The most likely site for the proposed impact would have been in the early Precambrian ocean close to the northeastern edge of the Pilbara Craton. Another thin horizon in the overlying Brockman Iron Formation contains spherules that again consist largely of K-feldspar and have internal textures strikingly similar to those of the Wittenoom Formation and Carawine Dolomite. The close resemblance of these spherules to those of the Wittenoom Formation and Carawine Dolomite suggests they also originated as impact melt droplets, even though they are admixed with volcaniclastic detritus. The stratigraphic separation between the two suggests that a second major impact occurred near the Hamersley Basin after a time interval of about 75 m.y. elapsed. This suggests the record of impacts in

  7. Compositional Constraints on Hematite-Rich Spherule (Blueberry) Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, A. L.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Jolliff, B.

    2007-01-01

    Meridiani Planum was chosen as the landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity partially based on Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data indicating an abundance of hematite. Hematite often forms through processes that involve water, so the site was a promising one to determine whether conditions on Mars were ever suitable for life. Opportunity struck pay dirt; it s Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB) confirmed the presence of hematite in sulfate-rich sedimentary beds and in lag deposits. Meridiani Planum rocks contain three main components: silicate phases, sulfate and possibly chloride salts, and ferric oxide phases such as hematite. Primary igneous phases are at low abundance despite the basaltic origin of the protoliths. Jarosite, an alkali ferric sulfate, was identified by Mossbauer. Some of the hematite is contained in the spherules, and some resides in finer grains in outcrops. Mossbauer and Mini-TES data indicate that hematite is a dominant constituent of the spherules. Panoramic Camera (Pancam) and Microscopic Imager (MI) images of spherule interiors show that hematite is present throughout. The exact composition of the spherules is unknown. Mini-TES only identifies a hematite signature in the spherules; any other constituents have an upper limit of 5-10% .The MB data are consistent with the spherules being composed of only hematite.

  8. Archean Microbial Mat Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Michael M.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pope, Michael C.; Olszewski, Thomas D.; Gong, Jian

    2011-05-01

    Much of the Archean record of microbial communities consists of fossil mats and stromatolites. Critical physical emergent properties governing the evolution of large-scale (centimeters to meters) topographic relief on the mat landscape are (a) mat surface roughness relative to the laminar sublayer and (b) cohesion. These properties can be estimated for fossil samples under many circumstances. A preliminary analysis of Archean mat cohesion suggests that mats growing in shallow marine environments from throughout this time had cohesions similar to those of modern shallow marine mats. There may have been a significant increase in mat strength at the end of the Archean.

  9. ODP Hole 689B spherules and upper Eocene microtektite and clinopyroxene-bearing spherule strewn fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.; Koeberl, C.

    1999-03-01

    Montanari et al. (1993) reported a positive Ir anomaly in the upper Eocene sediments from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 689B on the Maud Rise, Southern Ocean. Vonhof (1998) described microtektites and clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherules associated with the Ir anomaly in Hole 689B and suggested that they belong to the North American and equatorial Pacific cpx strewn fields, respectively. We searched a suite of 27 samples taken through the spherule layer from Hole 689B and we recovered 386 microtektites and 667 cpx spherules. We studied the petrography of the microtektites and cpx spherules and determined the major element compositions of 31 microtektites and 14 cpx spherules using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. We also determined the minor element compositions of eight microtektites using instrumental neutron activation analysis. We found that the peak abundance of cpx spherules is ~2 cm below the peak abundance of the microtektites (~128.7 m below sea floor), suggesting that the cpx spherule layer may be slightly older (~3-5 ka). The microtektites are mostly spherical and are generally transparent and colorless. They are similar to the North American microtektites in composition; the biggest differences being their generally lower Na2O and generally higher Zr, Ba, and Ir (up to 0.3 ppb) contents. We agree with Vonhof (1998) that the Hole 689B microtektites probably belong to the North American tektite strewn field. We calculate that the number of microtektites (>125 microns)/cm2 at Hole 689B is 52. This number is close to the concentration predicted by extrapolation of the trend of concentration versus distance from the Chesapeake Bay structure based on data from other North American microtektite-bearing sites. Thus, the North American strewn field may be at least four times larger than previously mapped. The Hole 689B cpx spherules range from translucent yellow to opaque black, but most are opaque tan to dark brown. They are generally spherical in shape and all

  10. Metallic spherules in tektites from Isabela, Philippine Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Adler, I.; Dwornik, E.J.; Littler, J.

    1962-01-01

    Iron-nickel spherules, as much as 0.5 mm in diameter, have been found completely embedded in some philippinites. The spherules consist mainly of kamacite with unidentified pink inclusions. The meteoritic origin of these spherules seems reasonable, suggesting that the tektites containing them were formed by asteroidal or meteoritic impact.

  11. Oxygen isotopes in deep sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the genetic relationships between the dust and small particles in the solar system, and the meteorites and larger bodies are examined. Oxygen isotopes proved useful in the identification of such relationships between one meteorite group and another. Of the various samples of submillimeter extraterrestrial particles available for laboratory study, only the deep sea spherules are abundant enough for precise oxygen isotope analysis using existing techniques. Complications arise in interpretation of the isotopic data, since these particles were melted during passage through the Earth's atmosphere, and have been in contact with seawater for prolonged periods. Spherules that were originally silicates are considered with the originally metallic ones to deduce their preterrestrial isotopic compositions. The type 1 spherules which enter the atmosphere as metallic particles, contain only atmospheric oxygen. The type S spherules contain a mixture of atmospheric oxygen and their original extraterrestrial oxygen. It is suggested that the Earth's mesosphere is strongly enriched in heavy isotopes of oxygen at altitudes near 90 km at which the iron particles are oxidized. Fractionation due to the combined diffusion of O atoms and O2 molecules may be responsible.

  12. Hematite spherules at Meridiani: Results from MI, Mini-TES, and Pancam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.; Shoffner, J. D.; Johnson, J. R.; Knoll, A. H.; Pocock, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Weitz, C. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; de Souza, P. A.; Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T. D.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knudson, A. T.; McLennan, S. M.; Rogers, A. D.; Thompson, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    We report on observations of hematite-bearing spherules at Meridiani Planum made using the Microscopic Imager (MI), Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Spherules were observed on soil surfaces and in outcrop rocks, both on undisturbed surfaces and in abraded surfaces ground using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). Spherule size and shape change little along the 850 m eastward traverse from Eagle Crater to Endurance Crater, but spherules decrease and then slightly increase in size along the 6 km traverse from Endurance south to Victoria Crater. Local populations range from submillimeters to several millimeters in diameter. An additional small diameter (100 μm) size population is possible. An increase in irregular shapes is found near Victoria Crater. This, combined with the size decrease south of Endurance, suggests either a changing depositional environment, or variation in the duration and timing of diagenetic events. The dominant smaller size population observed early in the mission in aeolian areas and ripple crests is observed as the primary size population in abraded outcrop farther south. This suggests that successively younger beds are exposed at the surface along the southward traverse. Stratigraphically higher units removed by erosion could be recorded by the present surface lag deposit. Coordinated systematic observations are used to determine optical and infrared hematite indices of the surface soils in Pancam and Mini-TES. In spite of the systematic variation seen in MI, both Pancam and Mini-TES indices are highly variable based on the local surface, and neither show systematic trends south of Endurance. The lack of a 390 cm-1 feature in Mini-TES spectra suggests concentric or radial interior structure within the spherules at scales too fine for MI to observe. Mini-TES does not detect any silicate component in the spherules. A bound water component in soils or in

  13. Hematite spherules at Meridiani: results from MI, Mini-TES, and Pancam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Shoffner, J.D.; Johnson, J. R.; Knoll, A.H.; Pocock, J.M.; Squyres, S. W.; Weitz, C.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Christensen, P.R.; de Souza, P. A.; Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.M.; Rogers, A.D.; Thompson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    We report on observations of hematite-bearing spherules at Meridiani Planum made using the Microscopic Imager (MI), Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Spherules were observed on soil surfaces and in outcrop rocks, both on undisturbed surfaces and in abraded surfaces ground using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). Spherule size and shape change little along the 850 m eastward traverse from Eagle Crater to Endurance Crater, but spherules decrease and then slightly increase in size along the 6 km traverse from Endurance south to Victoria Crater. Local populations range from submillimeters to several millimeters in diameter. An additional small diameter (100 μm) size population is possible. An increase in irregular shapes is found near Victoria Crater. This, combined with the size decrease south of Endurance, suggests either a changing depositional environment, or variation in the duration and timing of diagenetic events. The dominant smaller size population observed early in the mission in aeolian areas and ripple crests is observed as the primary size population in abraded outcrop farther south. This suggests that successively younger beds are exposed at the surface along the southward traverse. Stratigraphically higher units removed by erosion could be recorded by the present surface lag deposit. Coordinated systematic observations are used to determine optical and infrared hematite indices of the surface soils in Pancam and Mini-TES. In spite of the systematic variation seen in MI, both Pancam and Mini-TES indices are highly variable based on the local surface, and neither show systematic trends south of Endurance. The lack of a 390 cm?1 feature in Mini-TES spectra suggests concentric or radial interior structure within the spherules at scales too fine for MI to observe. Mini-TES does not detect any silicate component in the spherules. A bound water component in soils or in

  14. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  15. Submicroscopic spherules and color of tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.

    1964-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 18 tektites from various strewn fields have been made as a function of temperature from 77??K to room temperature. A relatively large temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility was observed in all cases, and an analysis of the data shows that this component is the result of submicroscopic iron spherules in the tektites. An analysis of the color of tektites in terms of the magnetic measurements and also of the optical absorption spectra suggests that the basic color of all tektites is green or greenish-blue, and that the brown to black coloration in some tektites is due to finely dispersed Fe2O3 and/or many metallic spherules, both probably of colloidal size. ?? 1964.

  16. The Archean kerogen paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    The constituents of organic matter buried in sediments (kerogen) are classified into three types: (1) liable components that may be decomposed by aerobic and anaerobic microbes during the early diagenesis of sediments, and by thermal decomposition during the burial at ~3-5 km depths (T = 100 ~150°C) to generate bitumen (oil); (2) refractory components that may decompose into gaseous components at greater depths (T = 150-230°C); and (iii) inert components that may be converted to graphite during high temperature metamorphism. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that matured kerogen (i.e., refractory and inert components) is decomposed during the weathering under an oxygenated atmosphere by reaction C + O2 → CO2, promoted by aerobic organisms. This has resulted in the general absence of old detrital kerogen (except debris of vascular plants) in Phanerozoic-aged sedimentary rocks. In contrast, matured kerogen would not be decomposed during the weathering under a reducing atmosphere, because the reactions C + 2H2 → CH4, C + 2H2O → CO2 + 2H2 and 2C + 2H2O → CO2 + CH4 would not proceed at low temperatures even with the aid of anaerobic organisms. If such reactions could occur at low temperatures, sedimentary rocks, regardless of their age, would have lost all their kerogen before being buried to depths ~3 km. If the Archean atmosphere had been reducing, as postulated by the dominant paradigm of the early Earth, detrital kerogen should be ubiquitously present in Archean-aged sedimentary rocks. We should also find general increasing trends in both the ratio of detrital/syngenetic kerogens and the total amount of reduced C (syngenetic and detrital kerogens) in sedimentary rocks from ~3.8 Ga to ~2.5 Ga in age. Because the detrital kerogen had been subjected to metamorphism and weathering before being transported to the oceans, detrital kerogen would have different structures, textures, and elemental and isotopic ratios compared to the syngenetic

  17. Analysis of Cosmic Spherule Candidates from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Russell, S. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brownlee, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Kwajalein micrometeorite collection utilised high volume air samplers fitted with 5 micrometer laser-etched polycarbonate membrane filters to capture particles directly from the atmosphere. The filters were changed weekly over several months throughout 2011/12, providing the opportunity to investigate the contemporary flux of micrometeorites. We recently reported the results of our initial survey of cosmic spherule-like particles on several of these filters. We identified three main groups of particle based on bulk compositions: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Mg, Ca and Fe, 2. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and/or Na and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Abundances appeared to change over time suggesting links with celestial activity (e.g. meteor showers), however, spherules similar to groups 2 and 3 can be produced by terrestrial and anthropogenic activity (e.g. volcanic microspherules exhibit similar compositions to group 2 spherules and metallic spherules similar to those of group 3 can be formed during fuel combustion). We are now studying the internal structures and chemistries of these spherules and comparing against cosmic spherules identified in other collections to confrim their origins and further contrain the contemporary micrometeorite flux. Particles are being picked, embedded in resin and polished through to reveal their interiors. Here we will describe our ongoing analyses of these particles via SEM. We will also introduce our new collection using this method that is currently being performed in the Antarctic.

  18. Examining Archean methanotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratios preserved in sedimentary rocks can be used to fingerprint ancient metabolisms. Organic carbon in Late Archean samples stands out from that of other intervals with unusually low δ13C values (∼-45 to -60‰). It was hypothesized that these light compositions record ecosystem-wide methane cycling and methanotrophy, either of the aerobic or anaerobic variety. To test this idea, we studied the petrography and carbon and oxygen isotope systematics of well-known and spectacular occurrences of shallow water stromatolites from the 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation of Western Australia. We examined the carbonate cements and kerogen produced within the stromatolites, because methanotrophy is expected to leave an isotopic fingerprint in these carbon reservoirs. Mathematical modeling of Archean carbonate chemistry further reveals that methanotrophy should still have a discernible signature preserved in the isotopic record, somewhat diminished from those observed in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins due to higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. These stromatolites contain kerogen with δ13Corg values of ∼ - 50 ‰. By microsampling different regions and textures within the stromatolites, we determined that the isotopic compositions of the authigenic calcite cements show a low degree of variation and are nearly identical to values estimated for seawater at this time; the lack of low and variable δ13Ccarb values implies that methanotrophy does not explain the low δ13Corg seen in the coeval kerogen. These observations do not support a methanotrophy hypothesis, but instead hint that the Late Archean may constitute an interval wherein autotrophs employed markedly different biochemical processes of energy conservation and carbon fixation.

  19. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  20. Metal spherules in Wabar, Monturaqui, and Henbury impactites. [iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, R. V.; Horz, F.; Thompson, T. D.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    The Fe, Ni, and Co contents of 450 spherules with diameters of 3 to 100 microns in impact glasses from three terrestrial meteorite craters are determined by electron microprobe analysis. The objects investigated include 250 spherules from Wabar (Saudi Arabia) impactite and 100 each from Monturaqui (Chile) and Henbury (Australia) impactites. The specimens and spherules are described, noting that the Wabar and Henbury craters were produced in sandstone while the Monturaqui crater was formed in siliceous igneous rocks and has an enigmatic sulfide abundance. It is found that the spherules are enriched in Ni and Co relative to the original meteorite Fe content and are enriched in Ni relative to Co for Ni contents greater than 50%. The results indicate that, on the average, Henbury spherules are more Ni-enriched than Monturaqui spherules, and Wabar spherules exhibit the least Ni-enrichment. It is suggested that the spherules could have formed without experiencing free flight and that instantaneous dissemination of meteoritic material at the meteorite-target contact was the major fractionation process.

  1. Archean geotherms and supracrustal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Kent C.

    1984-06-01

    Metamorphic mineral assemblages suggest the existence of variable geotherms and lithospheric thicknesses beneath late Archean continental crust. Archean granite-greenstone terranes reflect steep geotherms (50-70°C/km) while high-grade terranes reflect moderate geotherms similar to present continental crust with high heat flow (25-40°C/km). Corresponding lithosphere thicknesses for each terrane during the late Archean are 35-50 km and 50-75 km, respectively. Early Archean (⩾ 3.0 b.y.) greenstones differ from late Archean (˜ 2.7 b.y.) greenstones by the rarity or absence of andesite and graywacke and the relative abundance of pelite, quartzite, and komatiite. Mature clastic sediments in early greenstones reflect shallow-water, stable-basin deposition. Such rocks, together with granite-bearing conglomerate and felsic volcanics imply the existence of still older granitic source terranes. The absence or rarity of andesite in early greenstones reflects the absence of tectonic conditions in which basaltic and tonalitic magmas are modified to produce andesite. A model is presented in which early Archean greenstones form at the interface between tonalite islands and oceanic lithosphere, over convective downcurrents; high-grade supracrustals form on stable continental edges or interiors; and late Archean greenstones form in intracontinental rifts over mantle plumes.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hematite-Rich Spherules: Implications for Diagenesis and Hematite Spherule Formation in Outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.

    2007-01-01

    The Athena science payload onboard the Opportunity rover identified hematite-rich spherules (mean diameter of 4.2 +/- 0.8 mm) embedded in outcrops and occurring as lag deposits at Meridiani Planum. They have formed as diagenetic concretions from the rapid breakdown of pre-existing jarosite and other iron sulfates when chemically distinct groundwater passed through the sediments. Diagenetic, Fe-cemented concretions found in the Jurassic Navajo Formation, Utah and hematite-rich spherules found within sulfate-rich volcanic breccia on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii are possible terrestrial analogues for Meridiani spherules. The Navajo Formation concretions form in porous quartz arenite from the dissolution of iron oxides by reducing fluids and subsequent Fe precipitation to form spherical Fe- and Si-rich concretions. The Mauna Kea spherules form by hydrothermal, acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic tephra. The formation of hematite-rich spherules with similar chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties to the Meridiani spherules is rare on Earth, so little is known about their formation conditions. In this study, we have synthesized in the laboratory hematite-rich spherules that are analogous in nearly all respects to the Meridiani spherules.

  3. The Bombardment of the Earth During the Hadean and Early Archean Eras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, S.; Bottke, W. F.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Morbidelli, A.; Wuennemann, K.; Kring, D. A.; Bierhaus, M.

    2013-12-01

    Our knowledge of the Earth during the Hadean and early Archean eons (ca 4.5-3.5 Ga) is very limited, mainly because few rocks older than 3.8 Ga have been found (e.g. Harrison 2009). Hadean-era zircons have allowed us to glean important insights into this era, but their data has led to considerably different evolution models for the evolution of the early Earth; some predict a hellish world dominated by a molten surface with a sporadic steam atmosphere (e.g. Pollack 1997), while others have predicted a tranquil, cool surface with stable oceans (e.g. Wilde et al 2001; Valley et al 2002). To understand whether either model (or both) could be right, we believe it is useful to quantitatively examine the post Moon-forming impact bombardment of the early Earth. Over the last several years, through a combination of observations (e.g., Marchi et al 2012), theoretical models (e.g., Bottke et al 2012), and geochemical constraints from lunar rock (e.g. highly siderophile elements -HSE- abundances delivered to the Moon by impactors; the global number of lunar basins; the record of Archean-era impact spherule beds on Earth; Walker 2009; Neumann et al 2012), we have constructed a calibrated model of the early lunar impactor flux (Morbidelli et al 2012). Our results have now been extrapolated to the Earth, where they can make predictions about its early bombardment. Using a Monte Carlo code to account for the stochastic nature of major impacts, and constraining our results by the estimated HSE abundances of Earth's mantle (that were presumably delivered by impactors; Walker 2009; Bottke et al. 2010), we find the following trends. In the first ~100-200 Myr after the formation of the Moon, which we assume was created ~4.5 Ga, the Earth was almost entirely resurfaced by impacts. This bombardment, which included numerous D > 1000 km diameter impactors, should have vigorously mixed the crust and upper mantle. Between ~4.1-4.3 Ga, the impactor flux steadily decreased; though an uptick

  4. An Archean Biosphere Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Boyd, E. S.; Buick, R.; Claire, M.; DesMarais, D.; Domagal-Goldman, D.; Eigenbrode, J.; Erwin, D.; Freeman, K.; Hazen, R.; Johnson, C.; Lyons, T.; Meadows, V.; Ohmoto, H.; Ono, S.; Peters, J. W.; Shapiro, B.; Summons, R.; Walter, M.

    2011-01-01

    The search for life on extrasolar planets will necessarily focus on the imprints of biolgy on the composition of planetary atmospheres. The most notable biological imprint on the modern terrestrial atmosphere is the presence of 21 % O2, However, during most of the past 4 billion years, life and the surface environments on Earth were profoundly different than they are today. It is therefore a major goal of the astrobiology community to ascertain how the O2 content of the atmosphere has varied with time. and to understand the causes of these variations. The NAI and NASA Exobiology program have played critical roles in developing our current understanding of the ancient Earth's atmosphere, supporting diverse observational, analytical, and computational research in geoscience, life science, and related fields. In the present incarnation of the NAI, ongoing work is investigating (i) variations in atmospheric O2 in the Archean to the Cambrian, (ii) characterization of the redox state of the oceans shortly before, during and after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), and (iii) unraveling the complex connections between environmental oxygenation, global climate, and the evolution of life.

  5. Oriented crystallographic textures of olivine in quenched silicate melt spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.

    2015-12-01

    Olivine is one of the most common minerals in the planetary materials including solid Earth and chondritic meteorites. Olivine crystals show characteristic textures in chondrules and micrometeorites (MMs) depending on heating and cooling histories, especially in extraordinary quick cooling rates. We have constructed a fine particle free fall apparatus in a high temperature furnace and carried out crystallization experiments of fine particles with quick heating and quenching (Isobe and Gondo, 2013). The falling particles in the furnace can reach 1400 degrees C within 2 seconds, keep above 1400 degrees C more than 1 second, and are quenched within 1 second. Run products from olivine particles show various textures depending on proportions of three kinds of starting materials in the particles. Fayalite particles melt completely and form barred olivine-like spherules with low pyramid structures on the surface. Dendritic olivine crystals with regulated crystallographic orientation are developed in melted particles. Surface texture of melted particles may be affected by the dendritic olivine crystals grown in the spherules. Oriented dendrites of magnetite also occur between olivine crystals. The texture of oriented dendrite of olivine with tiny magnetite is quite similar to natural cosmic spherules (CSs). In the completely melted spherules, barred olivine-like structures can be seen. Due to extraordinary high cooling rate up to 2×10^6 degrees C/hour and degrees of supercooling, olivine bars show chained structure of H-shaped or hourglass shaped units which are distinctive characteristics for quick growth of olivine in quenching. In spite of quite short period of crystal growth processes, chained olivine aligns parallel bars in the almost entire spherule. Nucleation of barred olivine crystals may be initiated at surface of spherules. Starting points of olivine growth can be seen as peaks on surface of the spherules. The crystallographic textures of olivine develop

  6. Proximal ejecta deposits of the K-Pg Chixulub impact: The case for carbonate impact melt spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Alex; Schulte, Peter

    2010-05-01

    When 65.5 million yrs. ago an about ~10 km-sized asteroid hit Earth (Chicxulub impact event), ejecta was distributed world-wide to form the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) event bed. Continuous sections across this K-Pg boundary document unambiguously that the 'K-T' mass extinction was triggered by the Chicxulub event, not only because of the projectile's size but particularly by the specific composition of the target, namely a 3-km- (in the West) to about 4.5-km-thick (in the Gulf area) layer of volatile-rich carbonate and sulfate platform sediments on top of the crystalline basement (Schulte et al., 2010). Modeling, petrographic and geochemical studies on natural samples as well as experimental results show that shock pressure and high post-shock temperatures yield irreversible deformations and transformations on carbonate and sulfate target lithologies which are also expected to occur in the context of the Chicxulub event. Twofold devastating effects on life are predicted (i) dissociation of carbonates and sulfates with nearly instantaneous release of vast quantities of CO2, and of about 100 to 500 Gt sulfur triggering severe climate effects, and (ii) deposition of carbonate and sulfate melts together with silicate melts, causing short-term disruption of the thermal conditions proximal to the crater. Silicate impact glasses with high CaO contents occur, for example, as spherules in the K-Pg event bed at Haiti and in melt lithologies from drill cores (e.g., Yucatan-6, Chicxulub-1, Yaxcopoil-1). Carbonate melt glasses have not been reported so far in K-Pg event beds. Hence, the following question was answered so far: Where are the huge amounts of carbonates that suffered impact metamorphism and were ejected in the Chicxulub event? The Chicxulub ejecta deposits in the Gulf of Mexico area contain up to 80 wt% carbonates which, however, have been interpreted as precipitation product during diagenesis. In consequence, the abundant mm-sized ejecta spherules consisting of a

  7. Earth's Archean Impact Record In The ICDP Drilling "Barberton Mountain Land".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Jörg; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas; Reimold, Uwe; Koeberl, Christian; Mc Donald, Ian; Hofmann, Axel; Luais, Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    The marine meta-sedimentary successions in the "Barberton Mountain Land" are formed by Archean volcanic and sedimentary rocks including the oldest known impact ejecta layers on Earth. The chemical signature (high iridium concentrations, chromium isotopic ratios) of some of these up to tens of cm thick Archean spherule layers advocate that these ejecta deposits represent mainly extraterrestrial material [1]. These ejecta layers contain millimetre sized spherules that are larger and accumulated thicker layers compared to any impact ejecta layer known from Phanerozoic sediments, including the global ejecta layer of the Chicxulub impact catering event terminating the Mesozoic era of Earth's history [2]. The Archean spherule layers are interpreted as products of large impacts by 20 to >100 km diameter objects [3, 4]. Identifying traces of mega-impacts in Earth's ancient history could be of relevance for the evolution of atmosphere, biosphere, and parts of the Earth's crust during that time. In addition, recognizing global stratigraphic marker horizons is highly valuable for inter-correlating sedimentary successions between Archean cratons [5]. However estimates regarding size of the impact event and correlations between the different outcrops in the Barberton mountain land are complicated by post depositional alterations of the tectonically deformed sediments [6, 7]. The relatively fresh samples recovered from below the water table during the 2011-2012 ICDP drilling "Barberton Mountain Land" are promising samples to investigate and to discriminate primary and secondary features of these rare rocks. We plan to conduct 1) petrographic, micro-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the impact ejecta layers, 2) bulk chemical analyses of major and trace elements, and 3) LAICP- MS elemental mapping of platinum group element (PGE) distributions. and elemental analyses of moderately siderophile elements. This aims at 1) characterization of the ejecta layers, 2

  8. Iridium and Spherules in Late Eocene Impact Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, F. T.; Liu, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have been independently examining the Ir (FTK) and spherule (SL) contents of recently discovered late Eocene impact deposits from the south Atlantic and western Indian oceans. These include ODP Sites 1090 [14,15], 709 [lo], and 699 [Liu in prep.]. Iridium abundances at these sites are within the typical range reported for late Eocene deposits, with peak concentrations between 100 and 1000 pg/g. In Table 1 we present estimated net Ir fluences (in ng Ir/cm ) for these and nine other sites. Although there are fewer sites than the K/T boundary, the average of 9 ng Ir/cm2 is probably a good estimate of the late Eocene global flux. This is enough Ir for a 6 km comet (assuming 250 ng/g Ir, p=1.5), is sufficient to produce the Popigai or Chesapeake Bay structures, and is 16% of the flux estimated for the K/T boundary (55 ng/cm2 [ 161). Figure 1 shows the relative abundances of Ir, glassy microtektites and cpx-bearing spherules in sediments from Sites 699 and 1090, which are separated by only 3100 km. Although these two sites have similar Ir anomalies, the abundances of spherules are quite different. Site 1090 has well-defined peaks for both types of spherules, with a peak of 562 cpx spheruledg, while Site 699 contains only a few glassy microtektites and no cpx spherules. While the different abundances of spherules may reflect a heterogeneous distribution of spherules on the Earth s surface, an equally likely cause of this difference may be differential preservation of spherules in the sediment. recovered are only a trace residue of the initial impact deposit. Earlier work found 0.22 ng/g Ir in glassy microtektites from Site 689 [17], an insufficient concentration to support 0.16 ng/g in the bulk sediment at this site. We measured 15 ng/g Ir in a group of 95 cpx spherules from Site 1090 with sizes from 63 to -200 pm, a set typical of the size distribution at this site. Although this is a significant concentration it also cannot support the Ir peak. We presently lack

  9. Archean sedimentary systems and crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Current knowledge of preserved Archean sedimentary rocks suggests that they accumulated in at least three major depositional settings. These are represented generally by sedimentary units: (1) in early Archean, pre-3.0 Ga old greenstone belts, (2) on late Archean sialic cratons, and (3) in late Archean, post-3.0 Ga old greenstone belts. Research suggests that the Archean was characterized by at least two distinctive and largely diachronous styles of crustal evolution. Thick, stable early Archean simatic platforms, perhaps analogous to modern oceanic islands formed over hot spots, underwent a single cycle of cratonization to form stable continental blocks in the early Archean. Later formed Archean continents show a two stage evolution. The initial stage is reflected in the existence of older sialic material, perhaps representing incompletely cratonized areas or microcontinents of as yet unknown origin. During the second stage, late Archean greenstone belts, perhaps analogous to modern magmatic arcs or back arc basins, developed upon or adjacent to these older sialic blocks. The formation of this generation of Archean continents was largely complete by the end of the Archean. These results suggest that Archean greenstone belts may represent a considerable range of sedimentological and tectonic settings.

  10. K/T spherules from Haiti and Wyoming: Origin, diagenesis, and similarity to some microtektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Glass, B. P.; Betterton, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spherules with relict glass cores in the K/T boundary bed of Haiti allow for a comparison of these bodies with hollow goyazite shells in the K/T boundary claystone of Wyoming and with younger microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. Samples of the Haitian beds from undisturbed sections at Beloc, as determined by Jehanno et al., contain both hollow shells and relict glass cores rimmed by palagonite that has been partially converted to smectite. These palagonite rims developed from hydration zones formed when hot, splash-form droplets of andesitic impact glass were deposited into water. Mutual collisions between these droplets in the ejecta curtain may have formed point-source stresses on their surfaces. Initiation of hydration would be facilitated at these surface stress points and propagated radially into the glass. The inner surface of these merged hemispherical fronts appears mammillary, which is reflected as scalloping in Haitian relict glass cores.

  11. Upper Eocene Spherules at ODP Site 1090B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S.; Kyte, F. T.; Glass, B. P.; Gersonde, R.

    2000-01-01

    Our two labs independently discovered upper Eocene microtektites and microkrystites at ODP Site 1090, a new South Atlantic locality near the Agulhus Ridge. This is a significant new data point for the strewn fields of these spherules, which were recently extended into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean when they were reported at ODP Site 689 on the Maude Rise. The microtektites have been regarded as related to North American tektites and the microkrystites as belonging to the clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherule strewn field. Initial reports indicate that Site 1090 contains a complete sequence of upper Eocene sediments composed of diatom and nannofossil oozes. The magneto- and bio-stratigraphy indicate that impact-age sediments should occur in core 30X of Hole 1090B. One of us (FTK) took 2 cc samples at 10 cm intervals over 600 cm of core for Ir analyses and the senior author (SL) took 3 cc samples at 20 cm intervals to search for spherules. Both studies proved successful and additional samples were obtained to confirm initial results and better define the Ir anomaly and spherule abundances. Peak Ir concentrations of 0.97 ng/g were found at 1090B-30X-5, 105-106cm and 0.78 ng/g at 115-116 cm. Anomalous Ir concentrations (greater than 0.1 ng/g) extend over about 100 cm of core. Preliminary results indicate that the excess Ir at this site is about 25 ng per sq cm. About 380 microtektites (>63 pm) and 2492 microkrystites (>63 pm) were recovered over a 1.8 m interval with a peak abundance of microtektites (106/gram) and microkrystites (562/gram) at 1090B-30X- 5, 114-115 cm. The largest microtektite is approximately 960 x 1140 micron in size. About 55 % are spherical, and the rest are disc, cylinder, dumbbell, teardrop, or fragments. Most of the microtektites are transparent colorless, but a few are transparent pale brown or green. Preliminary data indicate that the microtektites at Site 1090 have similar major oxide compositions to those at Site 689. About 50% of

  12. Morphological Diversity of the Rod Spherule: A Study of Serially Reconstructed Electron Micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Mitchell, Joe; Briggs, Deidrie J.; Young, Jaime K.; Long, Samuel S.; Fuerst, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rod spherules are the site of the first synaptic contact in the retina’s rod pathway, linking rods to horizontal and bipolar cells. Rod spherules have been described and characterized through electron micrograph (EM) and other studies, but their morphological diversity related to retinal circuitry and their intracellular structures have not been quantified. Most rod spherules are connected to their soma by an axon, but spherules of rods on the surface of the Mus musculus outer plexiform layer often lack an axon and have a spherule structure that is morphologically distinct from rod spherules connected to their soma by an axon. Retraction of the rod axon and spherule is often observed in disease processes and aging, and the retracted rod spherule superficially resembles rod spherules lacking an axon. We hypothesized that retracted spherules take on an axonless spherule morphology, which may be easier to maintain in a diseased state. To test our hypothesis, we quantified the spatial organization and subcellular structures of rod spherules with and without axons. We then compared them to the retracted spherules in a disease model, mice that overexpress Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), to gain a better understanding of the rod synapse in health and disease. Methods We reconstructed serial EM images of wild type and DscamGoF (gain of function) rod spherules at a resolution of 7 nm in the X-Y axis and 60 nm in the Z axis. Rod spherules with and without axons, and retracted spherules in the DscamGoF retina, were reconstructed. The rod spherule intracellular organelles, the invaginating dendrites of rod bipolar cells and horizontal cell axon tips were also reconstructed for statistical analysis. Results Stereotypical rod (R1) spherules occupy the outer two-thirds of the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where they present as spherical terminals with large mitochondria. This spherule group is highly uniform and composed more than 90% of the rod spherule

  13. Dynamic Mechanochemistry of Seismic Slip -Nano Spherules Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Chen, W.; Chen, Y.; Song, Y.; Ma, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Chelungpu fault, which was activated during 1999Chi-Chi Earthquake, had been drilled (Hole A, B and C) to recover the earthquake slip zone materials. We present here the results of nano-scale observations for identified slip zone materials (Ma, Tanaka et al., 2006) by using HR-TEM and TXM technique. Minimum size of grains observed under HR-TEM is 3 nm. The grain size distribution for grains larger than 100 nm in diameter follows the fractal law and grain shape is highly irregular. Grains smaller than100 nm show some specific characteristics, that is, smaller the grains, more the spherical shapes and more equi-granular. Thus, the grains smaller than 100 nm are no longer described by fractal distribution model. By SAD and EDX analysis under HR-TEM, the nano spherules are mainly composed of crystallized quartz associated with minor amounts of carbonates and amorphous materials. Results of observations lead following three conclusions, (1) nano spherules are not generated just by fracturing based on their shapes and grain size distributions. (2) nano spherules would compose viscous materials enveloping larger fractured grains from SEM observations. (3) Mica clay minerals and feldspars are disappeared in ultra-fine grained layer. This implies that chemical process of dissolution - elements dissipation - SiO2 precipitation occurred associated with mechanical fracturing. Therefore nano spherules would be generated through mechano-chemical process during co-seismic slip. Dynamic shear strength drop by rapid slip experimentsare and formation of gelled materials are recently reported. Large differences of ultra-fine products between previous reports and our observations are existence of nano spherules and their crystallinity. If the nano- spherules are generated during seismic slip, dynamic weakening would be expected because mode of friction turns into rolling friction by huge amounts of equigranular and spherical grains. This may be alternative explanations for dynamic

  14. Role of Mitochondrial Membrane Spherules in Flock House Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Short, James R.; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Gopal, Radhika; Pankratz, Logan M.; Lanman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses that generate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) during replication must overcome host defense systems designed to detect this infection intermediate. All positive-sense RNA viruses studied to date modify host membranes to help facilitate the sequestration of dsRNA from host defenses and concentrate replication factors to enhance RNA production. Flock House virus (FHV) is an attractive model for the study of these processes since it is well characterized and infects Drosophila cells, which are known to have a highly effective RNA silencing system. During infection, FHV modifies the outer membrane of host mitochondria to form numerous membrane invaginations, called spherules, that are ∼50 nm in diameter and known to be the site of viral RNA replication. While previous studies have outlined basic structural features of these invaginations, very little is known about the mechanism underlying their formation. Here we describe the optimization of an experimental system for the analysis of FHV host membrane modifications using crude mitochondrial preparations from infected Drosophila cells. These preparations can be programmed to synthesize both single- and double-stranded FHV RNA. The system was used to demonstrate that dsRNA is protected from nuclease digestion by virus-induced membrane invaginations and that spherules play an important role in stimulating RNA replication. Finally, we show that spherules generated during FHV infection appear to be dynamic as evidenced by their ability to form or disperse based on the presence or absence of RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE It is well established that positive-sense RNA viruses induce significant membrane rearrangements in infected cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these rearrangements, particularly membrane invagination and spherule formation, remain essentially unknown. How the formation of spherules enhances viral RNA synthesis is also not understood, although it is assumed to be partly a result

  15. Measurement of cosmic ray produced Mn-53 in deep sea metallic spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Cosmic ray originated Mn-53 nuclides were measured in deep sea metallic spherules by neutron activation analysis. The spherules may be fused micrometeoroids or ablation droplets from larger objects; the low activities of Mn-53 may indicate its evaporation loss resulting from the heating in the earth's atmosphere or short exposure age. The Mn-53 nuclide is now being measured in chondritic spherules, and Be-10 and Cl-36 concentrations are determined in individual spherules using ion counting methods.

  16. Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J W; Packer, B M

    1987-07-01

    Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia. The cell types detected suggest that cyanobacteria, and therefore oxygen-producing photosynthesis, may have been extant as early as 3.3 billion to 3.5 billion years ago. These fossils are among the oldest now known from the geologic record; their discovery substantiates previous reports of Early Archean microfossils in Warrawoona Group strata.

  17. Synthetic (Hydrothermal) Hematite-Rich Mars-Analog Spherules from Acid-Sulfate Brines: Implications for Formation and Diagenesis of Hematite Spherules in Outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter discovered a large area at Meridiani Planum (MP) covered with the Fe-oxide hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) [1,2]. This discovery and favorable landing site characteristics led to selection of MP as the landing site for the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover (MER) [3]. The Athena science payload onboard the Opportunity rover identified hematite-rich spherules (mean spherule diameter approx.4.2+/-0.8 mm) embedded in S-rich outcrop rock and also as lag deposits of whole and broken spherules [4,5,6,7,8,9]. Although the chemical and mineralogical compositions of spherules are not fully constrained, Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and chemical analyses from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) are consistent with a hematite mineralogical composition and an oxide bulk chemical composition consisting of Fe2O3. MGS-TES, also provides an important constraint that emission from the hematite-rich spherules is dominated by emission along the crystallographic c-axis [1,2,10,11]. The formation of hematite-rich spherules with similar chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and crystallographic properties to the MP spherules is rare on Earth, to date, only two natural analogs have been proposed; one from Utah (Navaho Concretions) and the other from Mauna Kea, Hawaii [12,13]. In this study, we synthesized in the laboratory hematite-rich spherules using conditions that may have existed on Early Mars [14] and compared their properties to those for MP hematite spherules of Mars and the analog spherules from Utah and Mauna Kea in order to assess their relative merit as MP hematite spherule analogs. Such comparisons yield clues to the formation pathway for MP spherules.

  18. Extracellular collagenous spherules in salivary gland tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of laminin and various types of collagen.

    PubMed

    Skalova, A; Leivo, I

    1992-06-01

    Collagenous spherulosis is a benign breast lesion involving lobular acini and ductules and containing eosinophilic spherules measuring up to 100 microns in diameter. We present an immunohistochemical analysis of similar collagen-rich spherules that are also found in salivary gland tumors. These collagenous spherules contain varying amounts of acidic mucins, elastin, basement membrane proteins including type IV collagen and laminin, and considerable amounts of interstitial collagen types I and III. Types II and VI collagen were not detected in collagenous spherules of salivary gland tumors. The cells surrounding these collagenous spherules expressed muscle actin, S100 protein, vimentin, and cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, indicating that these cells have myoepithelial characteristics.

  19. Geochemistry of Cenozoic microtektites and clinopyroxene-bearing spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Billy P.; Huber, Heinz; Koeberl, Christian

    2004-10-01

    We have determined the major and trace element compositions of 176 individual microtektites/spherules from the Australasian, Ivory Coast, and North American microtektite and clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherule layers. Trace element contents for up to 30 trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and major element compositions were determined using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis in combination with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, petrographic data were obtained for the cpx spherules using the SEM and EDX. This is the first trace element study of individual Australasian microtektites, and the data revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized group of Australasian microtektites with high contents of Ni (up to 471 ppm). In previous studies the high-Mg (HMg) Australasian microtektites were thought to be related to the HMg Australasian tektites, but our trace element data suggest that the high-Ni (HNi) Australasian microtektites, rather than the high-Mg microtektites, are related to the high-Mg Australasian tektites. We find that Cenozoic microtektites/spherules from a given layer can be distinguished from microtektites/spherules from other layers as a group, but it is not always possible to determine which layer an individual microtektite/spherule came from based only on trace element compositions. The cpx spherules and most of the microtektites have Cr, Co, and Ni contents that are higher than the average contents of these elements in the upper continental crust, suggesting the presence of a meteoritic component. The highest Cr, Co, and Ni contents are found in the cpx spherules (and low-Si cpx-related microtektites). Unetched to slightly etched cpx spherules have Ni/Cr and Ni/Co ratios that generally lie along mixing curves between the average upper continental crust and chondrites. The best fit appears to be with an LL chondrite. The moderately to heavily etched cpx spherules have values that

  20. Cretaceous-tertiary boundary spherules and Cenozoic microtektites: Similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.; Bohor, Bruce F.; Betterton, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Bohor and Betterton pointed out that the K-T spherules can be divided into three groups. Their Type 1 spherules appear to be found in or adjacent to North America, particularly the Western Interior and in Haiti and Mexico. The Type 1 spherules occur in the lower part of the K-T boundary clay below an Ir anomaly. It is the Type 1 spherules which are most similar to microtektites. The discovery of K-T boundary spherules in Beloc, Haiti, and Mimbral, Mexico, with residual tektite-like glass cores supports the hypothesis that the Type 1 spherules are diagenetically altered microtektites. The similarities and differences of the Type 1 K-T boundary spherules to previously described Cenozoic microtektites are discussed.

  1. New insights from old spherules: Os-W isotope and HSE evidence for Paleoarchean meteorite bombardment of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, T.; Luguet, A. A.; Koeberl, C.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: Although still debated, spherule beds in the Barberton Mountain Land (~3.4 Ga) are suspected to represent remnants of impact-generated and ballistically emplaced silicate melt droplets [e.g. 1]. Such deposits provide the only window into the late stages of the heavy meteorite bombardment on Earth as their source craters have long since been obliterated. In order to identify a possible meteoritic component and, if successful, to discuss potential projectile materials, we are performing a detailed Os-W isotope as well as HSE abundance study on spherule layers from the recently drilled ICDP BARB5 core (grid location 25°30`50.76``S, 31°33`10.08``E). Samples and Methods: Samples were taken from a spherule-containing meta-sedimentary core section discovered between 510 and 512 m depth. About 100 mg of homogenized sample powders were spiked with a mixed 190Os, 185Re, 191Ir and 194Pt tracer and treated in a high pressure asher using inverse aqua regia, followed by conventional extraction schemes for Os and the other HSEs [4]. Chemical and Os isotope measurements (via N-TIMS) were performed in Vienna, whereas HSE measurements were undertaken via ICP MS in Bonn. Results and Discussion: Our preliminary Os isotope data reveal a trend between samples exhibiting high spherule to matrix ratios (187Os/188Os ~0.106 and Os ~0.4 ppm) and samples with lower ones (187Os/188Os up to ~0.304 and Os ~0.008 ppm). Notably, the most unradiogenic samples exhibit carbonaceous-chondrite-like initial 187Os/188Os and HSE ratios, whereas all other samples are clear non-chondritic. These findings support an extraterrestrial contribution in the spherules and can be interpreted compared to conclusions drawn from a Cr isotope study performed on similar samples [3], possibly representing a different impact event and favouring a chondritic projectile. However, further considerations based on precise Os/W ratio determinations and high-precision 182W isotope data, will be presented at the

  2. Meteoritic ablation and fusion spherules in Antarctic ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, K.; Peters, J.; Raisbeck, G. M.; Yiou, F.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of two Antarctic expeditions in 1980/1981 and 1982/1983 approximately 4 metric tons of documented ice samples were collected from the Atka Bay Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and subsequently shipped for cosmic dust studies. After filtration of the melt water, approximately 700 Antarctic spherules (AAS) in the size range of 5 to 500 microns were handpicked from the filter residue under optical microscopes. For the chemical investigation of single dust grains the following techniques were applied: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray analysis (EDAX), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA), and accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS). For more than 95% of the total mass the bulk and trace elements were determined in single grain analyses using EDAX, INAA, and LAMMA. The element pattern of the dust particles was compared with that of typical terrestrial material and meteoritic matter. The majority of the spherules exhibited elemental compositions compatible with meteoritic element patterns.

  3. The Archean Nickel Famine Revisited.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Robbins, Leslie J; Pecoits, Ernesto; Peacock, Caroline; Kappler, Andreas; Lalonde, Stefan V

    2015-10-01

    Iron formations (IF) preserve a history of Precambrian oceanic elemental abundance that can be exploited to examine nutrient limitations on early biological productivity. However, in order for IF to be employed as paleomarine proxies, lumped-process distribution coefficients for the element of interest must be experimentally determined or assumed. This necessitates consideration of bulk ocean chemistry and which authigenic ferric iron minerals controlled the sorption reactions. It also requires an assessment of metal mobilization reactions that might have occurred in the water column during particle descent and during post-depositional burial. Here, we summarize recent developments pertaining to the interpretation and fidelity of the IF record in reconstructions of oceanic trace element evolution. Using an updated compilation, we reexamine and validate temporal trends previously reported for the nickel content in IF (see Konhauser et al., 2009 ). Finally, we reevaluate the consequences of methanogen Ni starvation in the context of evolving views of the Archean ocean-climate system and how the Ni famine may have ultimately facilitated the rise in atmospheric oxygen.

  4. The Archean Nickel Famine Revisited.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Robbins, Leslie J; Pecoits, Ernesto; Peacock, Caroline; Kappler, Andreas; Lalonde, Stefan V

    2015-10-01

    Iron formations (IF) preserve a history of Precambrian oceanic elemental abundance that can be exploited to examine nutrient limitations on early biological productivity. However, in order for IF to be employed as paleomarine proxies, lumped-process distribution coefficients for the element of interest must be experimentally determined or assumed. This necessitates consideration of bulk ocean chemistry and which authigenic ferric iron minerals controlled the sorption reactions. It also requires an assessment of metal mobilization reactions that might have occurred in the water column during particle descent and during post-depositional burial. Here, we summarize recent developments pertaining to the interpretation and fidelity of the IF record in reconstructions of oceanic trace element evolution. Using an updated compilation, we reexamine and validate temporal trends previously reported for the nickel content in IF (see Konhauser et al., 2009 ). Finally, we reevaluate the consequences of methanogen Ni starvation in the context of evolving views of the Archean ocean-climate system and how the Ni famine may have ultimately facilitated the rise in atmospheric oxygen. PMID:26426143

  5. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, J.L.

    1998-10-13

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics. 6 figs.

  6. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  7. Accretion rate of cosmic spherules measured at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Susan; Lever, James H.; Harvey, Ralph P.

    1998-04-01

    Micrometeorites are terrestrially collected, extraterrestrial particles smaller than about 1mm, which account for most of the mass being accreted to the Earth,. Compared with meteorites, micrometeorites more completely represent the Earth-crossing meteoroid complex, and should include fragments of asteroids, comets, Mars and our Moon, as well as pre-solar and interstellar grains,. Previous measurements of the flux of micrometeoroids that survive to the Earth's surface have large uncertainties owing to the destruction of particles by weathering, inefficiencies in magnetic collection or separation techniques, low particle counts,, poor age constraint,, or highly variable concentrating processes,. Here we describe an attempt to circumvent these problems through the collection of thousands of well preserved and dated micrometeorites from the bottom of the South Pole water well, which supplies drinking water for the Scott-Amundsen station. Using this collection, we have determined precise estimates of the flux and mass distribution for 50-700-µm cosmic spherules (melted micrometeorites). Allowing for the expected abundance of unmelted micrometeorites in the samples, our results indicate that about 90% of the incoming mass of submillimetre particles evaporates during atmospheric entry. Our data indicate the loss of glass-rich and small stony spherules from deep-sea deposits,, and they provide constraints for models describing the survival probability of micrometeoroids,.

  8. Origin and diagenesis of K/T impact spherules - from Haiti to Wyoming and beyond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Glass, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    Impact spherules in Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clays and claystones consist of two types; each type is confined to its own separate layer of the boundary couplet in the Western Hemisphere. The form and composition of each of the spherule types result from its own unique mode of origin during the K/T event. Type 1 splash-form spherules occur only in the melt-ejecta (basal) layer of the K/T couplet. This layer was deposited from a ballistic ejecta curtain composed of melt-glass droplets transported mostly within the atmosphere. In contrast, Type 2 spherules are accreted, partially crystalline, spheroidal bodies that formed by condensation of vaporized bolide and target-rock materials in an expanding fireball cloud, from which they settled out of buoyant suspension to form the fireball layer. Dendritic and skeletal Ni-rich spinel crystals are unique to these Type 2 spherules in the fireball layer. -from Authors

  9. Green spherules from Apollo 15 - Inferences about their origin from inert gas measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakatos, S.; Yaniv, A.; Heymann, D.

    1973-01-01

    Green spherules from the 'clod' 15426 and from fines 15421 contain about 100 times less trapped inert gases than normal bulk fines from Apollo 15. These spherules have apparently never been directly exposed to the solar wind. Spherules from other fines contain about 10 times more trapped gas than those from the 'clod.' The gas in the former is surface correlated. However, spherules from fines 15401 are exceptionally gas-poor. The trapped gases can be of solar-wind origin, but this origin requires a two-stage model for the spherules from the clods. Another possibility is that the gases were absorbed from an ambient gas phase. The trapped gases may also be assumed to represent primordial lunar gas. The composition of this gas is then similar to the 'solar' or 'unfractionated' component of gas-rich meteorites, but unlike that in most of the carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. Archean sedimentary styles and early crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The distinctions between and implications of early and late Archean sedimentary styles are presented. Early Archean greenstone belts, such as the Barberton of South Africa and those in the eastern Pilbar Block of Australia are characterized by fresh or slightly reworked pyroclastic debris, orthochemical sediments such as carbonates, evaporites, and silica, and biogenic deposits including cherts and stromatolitic units. Terrigenous deposits are rare, and it is suggested that early Archean sediments were deposited on shallow simatic platforms, with little or no components derived from sialic sources. In contrast, late Archean greenstone belts in the Canadian Shield and the Yilgarn Block of Australia contain coarse terrigenous clastic rocks including conglomerate, sandstone, and shale derived largely from sialic basement. Deposition appears to have taken place in deepwater, tectonically unstable environments. These observations are interpreted to indicate that the early Archean greenstone belts formed as anorogenic, shallow water, simatic platforms, with little or no underlying or adjacent continental crust, an environment similar to modern oceanic islands formed over hot spots.

  11. Iron and nickel isotopic mass fractionation in deep-sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Brownlee, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetite-wuestite spherules collected from deep-sea sediments are thought to have originally been Fe-Ni metal particles at the top of the atmosphere that were oxidized and melted during entry into the earth's atmosphere. Some likely sources for the metal particles are Fe-Ni interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) and metal or sulfide from stony IDP's that separated after melting. Davis et al. reported that four of these spherules are enriched in the heavy isotopes of iron, with enrichments of 8-23%/amu. We have developed a technique for analysis of both iron and nickel isotopes on the same ion microprobe spot and have applied this technique to a number of deep-sea spherules in order to better understand the processes leading to isotopic mass fractionation. Eight spherules show iron and nickel isotopic mass fractionation, with iron and nickel enriched in the heavy isotopes by 10-19%/amu and 4-32%/amu, respectively. If the mass fractionations are due to Rayleigh fractionation during evaporation, these spherules lost 76-94% of their original mass. We have analyzed the four magnetite-wuestite spherules for which iron isotopic data were reported by Davis et al. as well as four new spherules.

  12. Major and trace element geochemistry of S-type cosmic spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.; Vijaya Kumar, T.

    2016-04-01

    Micrometeorites that pass through the Earth's atmosphere undergo changes in their chemical compositions, thereby making it difficult to understand if they are sourced from the matrix, chondrules, or calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). These components have the potential to provide evidence toward the understanding of the early solar nebular evolution. The variations in the major element and trace element compositions of 155 different type (scoriaceous, relict bearing, porphyritic, barred, cryptocrystalline, and glass) of S-type cosmic spherules are investigated with the intent to decipher the parent sources using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The S-type cosmic spherules appear to show a systematic depletion in volatile element contents, but have preserved their refractory trace elements. The trends in their chemical compositions suggest that the S-type spherules comprise of components from similar parent bodies, that is, carbonaceous chondrites. Large fosteritic relict grains observed in this investigation appear to be related to the fragments of chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. Furthermore, four spherules (two of these spherules enclose spinels and one comprised entirely of a Ca-Al-rich plagioclase) show enhanced trace element enrichment patterns that are drastically different from all the other 151 cosmic spherules. The information on the chemical composition and rare earth elements (REEs) on cosmic spherules suggest that the partially to fully melted ones can preserve evidences related to their parent bodies. The Ce, Eu, and Tm anomalies found in the cosmic spherules have similar behavior as that of chondrites. Distinct correlations observed between different REEs and types of cosmic spherules reflect the inherited properties of the precursors.

  13. Siderophile element fractionation in meteor crater impact glasses and metallic spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; See, T. H.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Meteor Crater, Arizona provides an opportunity to study, in detail, elemental fractionation processes occurring during impacts through the study of target rocks, meteorite projectile and several types of impact products. We have performed EMPA and INAA on target rocks, two types of impact glass and metallic spherules from Meteor Crater. Using literature data for the well studied Canyon Diablo iron we can show that different siderophite element fractionations affected the impact glasses than affected the metallic spherules. The impact glasses primarily lost Au, while the metallic spherules lost Fe relative to other siderophile elements.

  14. Siderophile element fractionation in meteor crater impact glasses and metallic spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; See, T. H.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1993-03-01

    Meteor Crater, Arizona provides an opportunity to study, in detail, elemental fractionation processes occurring during impacts through the study of target rocks, meteorite projectile and several types of impact products. We have performed EMPA and INAA on target rocks, two types of impact glass and metallic spherules from Meteor Crater. Using literature data for the well studied Canyon Diablo iron we can show that different siderophite element fractionations affected the impact glasses than affected the metallic spherules. The impact glasses primarily lost Au, while the metallic spherules lost Fe relative to other siderophile elements.

  15. Discovery of coesite and shocked quartz associated with the upper Eocene cpx spherule layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S.; Kyte, T.; Glass, B. P.

    2002-01-01

    At least two major impact ejecta layers have been discovered in upper Eocene strata. The upper layer is the North American microtektite layer. lt consists tektite fragments, microtektites, and shocked mineral grains (e.g., quartz and feldspar with multiple sets of PDFs, coesite and reidite (a high-pressure polymorph of zircon)). The slightly older layer contains clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherules and microtektites associated with an Ir anomaly. The North American tektite layer may be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, and the cpx spherule layer may from the Popigai impact crater. A cpx spherule layer associated with a positive Ir anomaly was recently found at ODP Site 709, western Indian Ocean. A large sample (Hole 709C, core 31, section 4, 145-150 cm), originally used for a study of interstitial water by shipboard scientists, was acquired for the purpose of recovering a large number of spherules for various petrographic and geochemical studies. A split of the sample (50.35 g) was disaggregated and wet-sieved. More than 17,000 cpx spherules and several hundred microtektites (larger than 125 microns) were recovered from the sample. Rare white opaque grains were observed in the 125-250 micron size fraction after removal of the carbonate component using dilute HCI. Seven of the white opaque grains were X-rayed using a Gandolfi camera and six were found to be coesite (probably mixed with lechatelierite). Eighty translucent colorless grains from the 63-125 micron size fraction were studied with a petrographic microscope. Four of the grains exhibit one to two sets of planar deformation features (PDFs). The only other possible known occurrence of shocked minerals associated with the cpx spherule layer is at Massignano, Italy, where pancake-shaped clay spherules (thought to be diagenetically altered cpx spherules are associated with a positive Ir anomaly and Ni- rich spinel crystals. Shocked quartz grains with multiple sets of PDFs also occur at this site

  16. Trace element geochemistry of Archean volcanic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Murthy, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    The K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth-element contents of some Archean volcanic rocks from the Vermilion greenstone belt, northeast Minnesota, were determined by the isotopic dilution method. The characteristics of trace element abundances, supported by the field occurrences and major element chemistry, suggest that these volcanic rocks were formed in an ancient island arc system.

  17. Venus and the Archean Earth: Thermal considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, N. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Archean Era of the Earth is not a direct analog of the present tectonics of Venus. In this regard, it is useful to review the state of the Archean Earth. Most significantly, the temperature of the adiabatic interior of the Earth was 200 to 300 C hotter than the current temperature. Preservation biases limit what can be learned from the Archean record. Archean oceanic crust, most of the planetary surface at any one time, has been nearly all subducted. More speculatively, the core of the Earth has probably cooled more slowly than the mantle. Thus the temperature contrast above the core-mantle boundary and the vigor of mantle plumes has increased with time on the Earth. The most obvious difference between Venus and the present Earth is the high surface temperature and hence a low effective viscosity of the lithosphere. In addition, the temperature contrast between the adiabatic interior and the surface, which drives convection, is less on Venus than on the Earth. It appears that the hot lithosphere enhanced tectonics on the early Venus significantly enough that its interior cooled faster than the Earth's. The best evidence for a cool interior of Venus comes from long wavelength gravity anomalies. The low interior temperatures retard seafloor spreading on Venus. The high surface temperatures on Venus enhance crustal deformation. That is, the lower crust may become ductile enough to permit significant flow between the upper crust and the mantle. There is thus some analogy to modern and ancient areas of high heat flow on the Earth. Archean crustal blocks typically remained stable for long intervals and thus overall are not good analogies to the deformation style on Venus.

  18. Composition of Meridiani Hematite-rich Spherules: A Mass-Balance Mixing-Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Athena Science Team

    2005-03-01

    A mass-balance model using APXS data and microscopic images indicates that the composition of spherules ("blueberries"), found at the Meridiani site by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and thought to be concretions, contain ~45-60 wt% hematite.

  19. Monturaqui Crater (Atacama Desert, Chile) as a Mars Analog: Exploring the Impact Spherule Hypothesis for Meridiani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatek, J. L.; Ukstins Peate, I.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Chong, G.

    2010-03-01

    Monturaqui is a young terrestrial impact in the Atacama Desert. The impact affected volcanic rocks and created a vesicular impactite that contains iron oxide spherules, representing a potential analog for "blueberries" in Meridiani Planum, Mars.

  20. Nickel-iron spherules in tektites - Non-meteoritic in origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Larimer, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The concentrations of several diagnostic trace elements were determined in two comparatively large NiFe spherules extracted from tektites. The purpose of the study was to obtain some clues about the chemistry of the projectile that is presumed responsible for the formation of these tektites. However, the trace element pattern is distinctly terrestrial implying that the spherules are the result of in-situ reduction of the host rock and are not meteoritic in origin.

  1. Spherulitic Growth of Hematite Under Hydrothermal Conditions: Insights into the Growth Mechanism of Hematite Spherules at Meridiani Planum Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Hematite-rich spherules were discovered embedded in sulfate-rich outcrop rock and as lag deposits of whole and broken spherules by the Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planem [1-6]. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), which has a wider spectral range compared to the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES, provided an important constraint that hematite-rich spherules are dominated by emission along the crystallographic c-axis [7-10]. We have previously synthesized hematite spherules whose mineralogic, chemical, and crystallographic properties are strikingly similar to those for the hematite-rich spherules at Meridiani Planum [11]. The spherules were synthesized in the laboratory along with hydronium jarosite and minor hydronium alunite from Fe-Al-Mg-S-Cl acid sulfate solutions under hydrothermal conditions. The reaction sequence was (1) precipitation of hydronium jarosite, (2) jarosite dissolution and precipitation of hematite spherules, and (3) precipitation of hydronium alunite upon depletion of hydronium jarosite. The spherules exhibit a radial growth texture with the crystallographic c-axis aligned along the radial direction, so that thermal emission spectra have no hematite emissivity minimum at approx.390/cm similar to the emission spectra returned by MGS TES. The objective of this paper is to expand on our initial studies [11] to examine the morphological evolution during growth of spherules starting from sub-micrometer crystals to spherules many orders of magnitude in size.

  2. Silicon and Titanium Isotopic Compositions of Interstellar Graphite Spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Amari, S.; Hoppe, P.; Zinner, E.; Lewis, R. S.

    1992-07-01

    Graphite spherules from the Murchison meteorite have been identified as interstellar because they carry Ne-E(L) and Kr-S, extreme ^12C/^13C variations, excess ^26Mg, and large anomalies in ^18O/^16O (Lewis and Amari, 1992; Amari et al., 1990; Hoppe et al., 1992a,b; Nichols et al., 1992). Surprisingly, only a few graphite spherules were found to contain anomalous Si although the uncertainties were large because of low Si concentrations. Here we report Si- isotopic compositions measured to higher precision with the SHRIMP ion microprobe and results of a feasibility study of determining Ti isotopic compositions. For the Si-isotopic measurements the instrumental mass fractionation was corrected by concurrent measurements of terrestrial kaersutite. All graphite grains analyzed are normal within analytical uncertainty (1 sigma errors range from less than 10 per mil to ~30 per mil). However, the grains with anomalous Si analyzed by Hoppe et al. (1992) were not analyzed in this work in order to preserve them for other measurements. Titanium has been found in graphite spherules as TiC at a level of ~10^-5 (Bernatowicz et al., 1991). Ti-isotopic measurements at this level have been obtained on SHRIMP for some SiC particles (Ireland et al., 1991). However, the graphite separate had been treated with chromic acid, which resulted in extreme interference of ^50Cr on ^50Ti. We analyzed only one particle (KFB1-301), a grain with the highest Al/C ratio and therefore an expected high Ti concentration. Even in this grain, the ^50Cr correction is 460 per mil, making a definitive measurement of the ^50Ti abundance difficult. The Ti isotope pattern is shown in the figure after correction for a 15 per mil/amu instrumental mass fractionation. The grain has solar ^46Ti and ^47Ti relative to ^48Ti , but both ^49Ti and ^50Ti are depleted. Normal isotopic ratios for Cr were used for the interference correction since no mass fractionation of Cr was detected in a variety of terrestrial

  3. Neutron activation analysis of stoney spherules from a marine sediment sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, H. T., Jr.; Englert, P.

    1984-01-01

    The identification of extraterrestrial material in samples collected at the surface of the Earth is discussed. Criteria were established for black magnetic spherules which involve the presence of: Fe, Ni, and Co in iron meteoritic ratios, wustite, and Fe-Ni metal while reliable criteria for stoney spherules are not well established. Neutron activation analysis was performed on eight stony spherules separated from the same marine sediment used by Millard and Finkelman. The 22 elements were determined by Compton suppression and triple coincidence gamma counting. It is found that Fe, Mg, Al, Ni, Cr, Co, Ir, and Sc are the best discriminators between chondritic and terrestrial compositions. Three of the spherules have compositions very close to chondrites and of these, two contain 0.5 and 0.25 ppm Ir. The other five spherules contain much less than chondritic concentrations of Ni but this element may be segregated and lost during ablation of the parent meteorite. One of these five low Ni spherules contains 2.9 ppm Ir while the other four contain less than 0.05 ppm Ir.

  4. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R. H.

    2015-09-01

    Most olivine relict grains in cosmic spherules selected for the present study are pristine and have not been disturbed during their atmospheric entry, thereby preserving their chemical, mineralogical and isotopic compositions. In order to understand the origin of the particles, oxygen isotope compositions of relict olivine grains in twelve cosmic spherules collected from deep sea sediments of the Indian Ocean were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most of the data lie close to the CCAM (Carbonaceous Chondrite Anhydrous Mineral) line, with Δ17O ranging from -5‰ to 0‰. The data overlap oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites such as CV, CK, CR and CM, which suggests that chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites are the source of relict grains in cosmic spherules. Chemical compositions of olivine in cosmic spherules are also very similar to chondrule olivine from carbonaceous chondrites. Several olivine relict grains in three cosmic spherules are 16O-rich (Δ17O -21.9‰ to -18.7‰), similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine grains from two cosmic spherules have δ18O values >+20‰, which could be interpreted as mixing with stratospheric oxygen during atmospheric entry.

  5. Possible mechanism for explaining the origin and size distribution of Martian hematite spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2014-03-01

    Mysterious hematite spherules, also known as “blueberries”, observed at Meridiani Planum on Mars have been widely accepted as concretions which are formed by precipitation of aqueous fluids. One of the biggest mysteries is that all observed Martian blueberries are limited in size with maximum diameter of 6.2 mm. In contrast, terrestrial concretions are not size limited. In this article, we discuss significant differences between Martian blueberries and Earth concretion analogs. Puzzling observations from Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Spirit suggest that the spherules may not be concretions but are cosmic spherules formed by ablation of meteorites. The perfect spherical shape of spherules, their observed size limit, and all other physical properties are easily explained by a meteorite ablation model. Evidence that some of these spherules are only few years old strongly constrains concretion and other growth mechanisms related to aqueous processes that require the existence of water on Mars in its recent history. The large number of hematite spherules in Meridiani Planum may be due to a big rare iron meteorite impact event in this region sometime in the past.

  6. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    PubMed

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  7. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    PubMed Central

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  8. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    PubMed

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  9. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-05-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  10. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  11. Was there a late Archean biospheric explosion?

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John F

    2008-08-01

    There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that the evolution of the planet drives the evolution of the biosphere. There have been 2 significant stages in Earth history when atmospheric oxygen levels rose rapidly, and both appear to be associated with supercontinent cycles. The earlier biospheric event, which extends across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary (ca. 3.0-2.2 Ga), has received little attention and is the focus of this study. Recent work on the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia has shown that concretion formed by microbial activity during the diagenesis of these sediments are absent from early Archean sediments but abundant in late Archean and early Paleoproterozoic successions of the Hamersley Basin, appearing abruptly in sedimentary rocks younger than 2.7 Ga. This study suggests that their internal architecture may have been defined by the diffusion of humic acids and the formation of polymer gels during diagenesis. The data imply that the biosphere expanded suddenly shortly after 3.0 Ga and may have begun to raise the oxygen levels of the oceanic water column earlier than thought-possibly as much as 300 my earlier.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Galactosamine Wall from Spores and Spherules of Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, J. Justin; Blomquist, Judith C.; Rusch, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    The myxomycete, Physarum polycephalum, can be induced under laboratory conditions to form two different hard-walled forms, spores and spherules. Characterization of both types of walls revealed only a single sugar, galactosamine. It was identified after acid hydrolysis of the isolated walls by chromatography in three solvent systems, by its positive reaction with ammoniacal silver nitrate, ninhydrin, Galactostat, and the Elson-Morgan test, and by ninhydrin degradation to lyxose. Galactosamine was present as a polymer with solubility characteristics the same as the β1-4–linked glucosamine polymer (chitosan). The walls were also found to contain about 2% protein. Spherule walls revealed a single glycoprotein on gel electrophoresis. Spore walls contained a similar protein component. The phosphate content of isolated spherule walls was 9.8%, and that of spore walls was 1.4%. Spore walls also contained about 15% melanin which was shown to be similar to fungal melanin. A novel method was used to measure the rate of mature spherule formation based on the loss of extractability of P. polycephalum natural pigment. The presence of a rare galactosamine polymer in P. polycephalum spore and spherule walls as the only carbohydrate suggests that the myxomycetes are not closely related to the fungi or the protozoa. PMID:16559084

  13. Impact spherules as a record of an ancient heavy bombardment of Earth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B C; Melosh, H J

    2012-05-01

    Impact craters are the most obvious indication of asteroid impacts, but craters on Earth are quickly obscured or destroyed by surface weathering and tectonic processes. Earth’s impact history is inferred therefore either from estimates of the present-day impactor flux as determined by observations of near-Earth asteroids, or from the Moon’s incomplete impact chronology. Asteroids hitting Earth typically vaporize a mass of target rock comparable to the projectile’s mass. As this vapour expands in a large plume or fireball, it cools and condenses into molten droplets called spherules. For asteroids larger than about ten kilometres in diameter, these spherules are deposited in a global layer. Spherule layers preserved in the geologic record accordingly provide information about an impact even when the source crater cannot be found. Here we report estimates of the sizes and impact velocities of the asteroids that created global spherule layers. The impact chronology from these spherule layers reveals that the impactor flux was significantly higher 3.5 billion years ago than it is now. This conclusion is consistent with a gradual decline of the impactor flux after the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  14. Type I Cosmic Spherules: Key to a Major, But Poorly Sampled, Asteroid Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Larry E.

    1999-01-01

    Fe, Ni, and Cr abundances in Type I cosmic spherules recovered from the deep sea, and also the isotopic fractionation of these elements during passage of the spherules through the terrestrial atmosphere was determined. Isotopic fractionation for all three elements is typically large, approx. 16%o/amu, corresponding to evaporative mass losses of approx. 80-85%, assuming Rayleigh distillation from an open system. The corrected, pre-atmospheric, Cr/Ni and Fe/Ni ratios are shown, where they are compared to these ratios in bulk chondrites and chondritic metal. Although the calculated pre-atmospheric Fe/Ni ratio for the spherules is relatively constant at 19 plus or minus 4 (sigma (sub mean)), the calculated pre-atmospheric Cr/Ni ratios vary by about two orders of magnitude. The Cr/Ni ratios are thus powerful discriminators for possible modes of origin of the spherules. For example, iron meteorites typically have low Cr contents and low Cr/Ni ratios, less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -4). Thus, Type I spherules do not appear to be ablation products of iron meteorites, in contrast to an earlier suggestion..

  15. Type 1 Cosmic Spherules: Key to a Major, But Poorly Sampled, Asteroid Population?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    2000-01-01

    Herzog et al. have determined Fe, Ni, and Cr abundances in Type I cosmic spherules recovered from the deep sea, and also the isotopic fractionation of these elements during passage of the spherules through the terrestrial atmosphere. Isotopic fractionation for all three elements is typically large, approx.16%(sigma)/amu, corresponding to evaporative mass losses of approx.80-85%, assuming Rayleigh distillation from an open system. The corrected, pre-atmospheric, Cr/Ni and Fe/Ni ratios are shown in Figure 1, where they are compared to these ratios in bulk chondrites and chondritic metal. Although the calculated pre-atmospheric Fe/Ni ratio for the spherules is relatively constant at 19+/-4 (sigma(sub mean), the calculated pre-atmospheric Cr/Ni ratios vary by about two orders of magnitude. The Cr/Ni ratios are thus powerful discriminators for possible modes of origin of the spherules. For example, iron meteorites typically have low Cr contents and low Cr/Ni ratios,:less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -4). Thus, Type I spherules do not appear to be ablation products of iron meteorites, in contrast to an earlier suggestion.

  16. Type I Cosmic Spherules: Key to a Major, But Poorly Sampled, Asteroid Population?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    Herzog et al. have determined Fe, Ni, and Cr abundances in Type I cosmic spherules recovered from the deep sea, and also the isotopic fractionation of these elements during passage of the spherules through the terrestrial atmosphere. Isotopic fractionation for all three elements is typically large, approx. 16%/amu, corresponding to evaporative mass losses of approx. 80 - 85%, assuming Rayleigh distillation from an open system. The corrected, pre-atmospheric, Cr/Ni and Fe/Ni ratios, are compared to ratios in bulk chondrites and chondritic metal. Although the calculated pre-atmospheric Fe/Ni ratio for the spherules is relatively constant at 19 +/- 4 (sigma(sub mean)) the calculated pre-atmospheric Cr/Ni ratios vary by about two orders of magnitude. The Cr/Ni ratios are thus powerful discriminators for possible modes of origin of the spherules. For example, iron meteorites typically have low Cr contents and low Cr/Ni ratios, less or = 3 x 10(exp -4). Thus, Type I spherules do not appear to be ablation products of iron meteorites, in contrast to an earlier suggestion.

  17. Sulphur tales from the early Archean world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montinaro, A.; Strauss, H.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary and magmatic rocks and their distinct sulphur isotopic signatures indicate the sources and processes of sulphur cycling, in particular through the analysis of all four stable sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S). Research over the past 15 years has substantially advanced our understanding of sulphur cycling on the early Earth, most notably through the discovery of mass-independently fractionated sulphur isotopic signatures. A strong atmospheric influence on the early Archean global sulphur cycle is apparent, much in contrast to the modern world. Diverse microbially driven sulphur cycling is clearly discernible, but its importance for Earth surface environments remains to be quantified.

  18. Reconciling atmospheric temperatures in the early Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, E. C.; Rosing, M.; Bird, D. K.; Albarede, F.

    2012-12-01

    Average surface temperatures of Earth in the Archean remain unresolved despite decades of diverse approaches to the problem. As in the present, early Earth climates were complex systems dependent on many variables. With few constraints on such variables, climate models must be relatively simplistic, and consider only one or two factors that drive Archean climate (e.g. a fainter young sun, a low albedo, the extent and effect of cloud cover, or the presence and abundance of a wide array of greenhouse and icehouse gasses). Compounded on the limitations of modeling is the sparse and often ambiguous Archean rock record. The goal of this study is to compile and reconcile Archean geologic and geochemical features that are in some way controlled by surface temperature and/or atmospheric composition, so that at the very least paleoclimate models can be checked by physical limits. Data used to this end include the oxygen isotope record of chemical sediments and ancient ocean crust, chemical equilibria amongst primary phases in banded iron formations (BIFs), sedimentary features indicative of temperate or glacial environments, and paleosol indicators of atmospheric CO2. Further, we explore the extent to which hydrogen isotopes contribute to the geologic record as a signal for glaciations, continental growth and atmospheric methane levels. Oceanic serpentinites and subduction-related volcanic and hydrothermal environments obtain their hydrogen isotope signature from seawater, and thus may be used to calculate secular variation in δDSEAWATER which may fluctuate significantly due to hydrogen escape, continental growth and large-scale glaciation events. Further, ancient records of low-δD meteoric fluids signal both cooler temperatures and the emergence of large continents (increasing the effects of continental weathering on climate). Selective alteration of δD in Isua rocks to values of -130 to -100‰ post-dates ca. 3.55Ga Ameralik dikes, but may be associated with a poorly

  19. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-05-01

    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  20. Biomarker evidence for Archean oxygen fluxes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallmann, C.; Waldbauer, J.; Sherman, L. S.; Summons, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of deep-time organismic diversity may be gained from the study of preserved sedimentary lipids with taxonomic specificity, i.e. biomarker hydrocarbons (e.g. Brocks and Summons, 2003; Waldbauer et al., 2009). As a consequence of long residence times and high thermal maturities however, biomarker concentrations are extremely low in most ancient (Precambrian) sediment samples, making them exceptionally prone to contamination during drilling, sampling and laboratory workup (e.g. Brocks et al., 2008). Outcrop samples most always carry a modern overprint and deep-time biogeochemistry thus relies on drilling operations to retrieve ‘clean’ sediment cores. One such effort was initiated by NASA’s Astrobiology Institute (NAI): the Archean biosphere drilling project (ABDP). We here report on the lipids retrieved from sediment samples in drill hole ABDP-9. Strong heterogeneities of extractable organic matter - both on a spatial scale and in free- vs. mineral-occluded bitumen - provide us with an opportunity to distinguish indigenous lipids from contaminants introduced during drilling. Stratigraphic trends in biomarker data for mineral-occluded bitumens are complementary to previously reported data (e.g. S- and N-isotopes, molybdenum enrichments) from ABDP-9 sediments (Anbar et al., 2007; Kaufman et al., 2007; Garvin et al., 2009) and suggest periodic fluxes of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Anbar et al. A whiff of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Science 317 (2007), 1903-1906. Brocks & Summons. Sedimentary hydrocarbons, biomarkers for early life. In: Schlesinger (Ed.) Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 8 (2003), 63-115. Brocks et al. Assessing biomarker syngeneity using branched alkanes with quaternary carbon (BAQCs) and other plastic contaminants. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72 (2008), 871-888. Garvin et al. Isotopic evidence for a aerobic nitrogen cycle in the latest Archean. Science 323 (2009), 1045-1048. Kaufman et al. Late Archean

  1. Deep-sea spherules from Pacific clay: mass distribution and influx rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murrell, M.T.; Davis, P.A.; Nishiizumi, K.; Millard, H.T.

    1980-01-01

    From 411 kg of Pacific clay, 22 mg of stony spherules and 50 mg of iron spherules larger than 150 ??m were concentrated. The extraterrestrial origin of these particles was evaluated with the aid of both optical and electron microscopy as well as atomic absorption elemental analysis. The integral number (N) of stony particles from this sediment in the mass (M) range 20-300 ??g is given by N( > M(g)) = 5.13 ?? 10-6 ?? M-1.65. The world-wide influx rate of stony particles in the mass range which survive atmospheric heating and ocean sediment storage is calculated to be 90 tons/yr. The relative contributions of ablation debris vs fused interplanetary dust to the influx of stony spherules is discussed, but as yet the question remains unanswered. ?? 1980.

  2. First discovery of the organic materials in deep-sea iron cosmic spherule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanchang, Peng; Peicang, XU

    1993-01-01

    The dust impact mass analyzer (PUMA) carried by the spacecraft Vega 1, Vega 2 and Giotto has provided the first direct measurements of the physical and chemical properties of cometary dust. The results indicate that most of the cometary dust particles are rich in light elements such as H, C, N, and O, suggesting the validity of models that describe the cometary dust as including organic material. Up to now, there were none found with the organic material from the deep-sea cosmic spherules. We have determined this from the deep-sea iron cosmic spherules collected from the North Pacific. An iron cosmic spherule (382 microns in diameter) was determined by the Laser Raman Microprobe.

  3. Size distribution of interplanetary iron and stony particles related with deep-sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Yamakoshi, K.

    1993-01-01

    To study origin and evolution of the interplanetary dust, it is very important to investigate the size distribution. Here the changes of the size distributions of meteoroid particles due to the ablative effects during atmospheric entry were investigated by numerical computer simulation. Using the results, the pre-atmospheric size distributions of the interplanetary dust particles could be estimated from that of ablated spherules taken from deep-sea sediments. We are now analyzing deep-sea spherules from some aspects and examining if we could get any information about the interplanetary dust.

  4. Accretionary lapilli, tektites, or concretions: the ubiquitous spherules of Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, Barry E.

    2004-11-01

    One of the most enigmatic discoveries made by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (MER-B) at the Meridiani Planum landing site are the ubiquitous spherules referred to as "blueberries" by the science team. They cover the entire landing area and can be seen in every direction within view of the rover cameras. Subsequent analysis of a small grouping of the spherules laying on top of a rock outcrop by Mossbauer spectroscopy showed an intense hematite signature not found on the rock or in the surrounding basaltic soils. Spherules were also found attached to and embedded within sedimentary sulfate rock outcrops found at the landing area that have been determined by the MER science team as having been formed in an acidic liquid water environment. The appearance of most of the Meridiani spherules is strikingly similar to the morphology and size of terrestrial accretionary lapilli and show similarities to terrestrial tektites. Accretionary lapilli are spherical balls and fragments with a concentric layered structure that are formed by a variety of mechanisms including hydrovolcanic eruptions, geysers and large meteorite impacts in water. Tektites are glassy impact spherules that form as a result of large meteorite impacts and also seem apparent in some of the rover images. Tektites can be perfectly spherical or have teardrop and dumbbell shapes. A lack of a visible volcanic source capable of producing high volumes of accretionary lapilli as seen in the MER-B images, in combination with the strong spectral signature of hematite, that some of the spherules display, led the MER science team to favor a concretion hypothesis thus far. All of these types of spherules involve interaction of with surface water or ice to form. Problems exist in explaining how the Martian "concretions", if that is indeed what they are, are of such uniform size and have such a wide distribution. Evidence from Martian orbit and on the surface indicate that the Meridiani Planum landing ellipse

  5. Contrasting Aerodynamic Morphology and Geochemistry of Impact Spherules from Lonar Crater, India: Some Insights into Their Cooling History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Misra, S.

    2014-11-01

    The ~50 or 570 ka old Lonar crater, India, was excavated in the Deccan Trap flood basalt of Cretaceous age by the impact of a chondritic asteroid. The impact-spherules known from within the ejecta around this crater are of three types namely aerodynamically shaped sub-mm and mm size spherules, and a sub-mm sized variety of spherule, described as mantled lapilli, having a core consisting of ash-sized grains, shocked basalt and solidified melts surrounded by a rim of ash-sized materials. Although, information is now available on the bulk composition of the sub-mm sized spherules (Misra et al. in Meteorit Planet Sci 7:1001-1018, 2009), almost no idea exists on the latter two varieties. Here, we presented the microprobe data on major oxides and a few trace elements (e.g. Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn) of mm-sized impact spherules in unravelling their petrogenetic evolution. The mm-sized spherules are characterised by homogeneous glassy interior with vesicular margin in contrast to an overall smooth and glassy-texture of the sub-mm sized spherules. Undigested micro-xenocrysts of mainly plagioclase, magnetite and rare clinopyroxene of the target basalt are present only at the marginal parts of the mm-sized spherules. The minor relative enrichment of SiO2 (~3.5 wt% in average) and absence of schlieren structure in these spherules suggest relatively high viscosity of the parent melt droplets of these spherules in comparison to their sub-mm sized counterpart. Chemically homogeneous mm-sized spherule and impact-melt bomb share similar bulk chemical and trace element compositions and show no enrichment in impactor components. The general depletion of Na2O within all the Lonar impactites was resulted due to impact-induced volatilisation effect, and it indicates the solidification temperature of the Lonar impactites close to 1,100 °C. The systematic geochemical variation within the mm-sized spherules (Mg# ~0.38-0.43) could be attributed to various level of mixing between plagioclase

  6. Measurement of Mn-53 in deep-sea iron and stony spherules. [for proof of extraterrestrial origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced Mn-53 (half-life, 3.7 x 10 to the 6th yr) is measured in individual and groups of deep-sea iron and stony spherules by highly sensitive neutron activation analysis. The activities found are less than 20 dpm Mn-53/kg Fe (10 to the -5th-10 to the -6th dpm Mn-53/sample) in iron spherules, with the exception of one iron spherule, whose activity is 241 + or - 73 dpm Mn-53/kg Fe. It is believed that these low activities may indicate evaporative loss of Mn-53 caused by heating in the earth's atmosphere. On the other hand, all the stony spherules are found to contain 200-260 dpm Mn-53/kg Fe, which is similar to chondritic values. It is pointed out that these spherules may be ablation debris from large objects.

  7. Archean collisional tectonics in SW Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Mogk, D.; Rickmond, D.; Salt, K.; Clark, M.; Mueller, P.; Lafrenze, D.; Wooden, J.; Henry, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean continental crust of SW Montana evolved through alternating cycles of stable platform sedimentation followed by crustal thickening through collisional tectonics. The ancient sialic crust in the Beartooth Mountains served as the nucleus for accretion of younger terranes to the west. The oldest orogenic cycle recognized in the Beartooth Mountains involves a 3.4 Ga old supracrustal sequence which was metamorphosed in the granulite facies (T=700-800/sup 0/C, P=6Kb, 35/sup 0/C/Km); deep burial is interpreted as the result of collisional tectonic thickening. The second orogenic cycle is subduction related and has produced 2.8 Ga old andesites, 2.75 Ga old calc-alkaline intrusives, upper amphibolite grade metamorphism, transcurrent faulting (in the North Snowy Block and Yankee Jim canyon at 2.8 Ga) and nappe emplacement. In the central Beartooths post-orogenic granites intrude pelitic schists (T=600/sup 0/C, P=8Kb, 25/sup 0/C/Km). West of the Beartooths the basement consists of 2.75-2.70 Ga old, tectonically telescoped coarse clastics (Gallatin, Madison Ranges) and stable platform sequences (Gravelly, Tobacco Root, Ruby Ranges). Nappe formation and granulite-migmatite (700-750/sup 0/C) associations are common, suggesting deep burial through tectonic thickening. A later-kinematic mesozonal (8Kb) qtz diorite-granodiorite batholithic complex is present in the northern Madison Range. Quartzofeldspathic paragneisses in the westernmost Archean basement are derived from either a continental or island arc source.

  8. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  9. Biomarkers Indigenous to Late Archean Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freeman, K. H.; Summons, R. E.; Love, G. D.; Snape, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Two new lines of evidence support the authenticity of molecular fossils in late Archean rocks of the Hamersley Province, Western Australia. Specifically, they support 1) a syngenetic relationship between the kerogen and extractable biomarkers, and 2) a indigenous relationship between extractable compounds and the host rocks. Carbon skeletons released from kerogen via high-pressure hydropyrolysis match those found in associated extracted bitumen. Biomarker ratios indicate less mature steranes and terpanes (i.e. hopanes and tricyclic terpanes) are embedded in the kerogen matrix as compared to the highly mature steranes and terpanes in the extracts, which is similar to findings in other hydropyrolysis experiments. Lithology-associated variations in biomarker distributions are noteworthy and suggest environmental settings are associated with differing biotic ecosystems. The evidence reported here confirms the 2.7 Ga antiquity of diverse biosynthetic pathways. Molecular data, together with isotopic data, indicate aerobic and anaerobic respiration pathways were fundamental to the complex microbial biogeochemistry of the late Archean. The biomarkers in these rocks support an early radiation of the three domains of life and radiation within the bacteria, such that clades of cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, and proteobacteria had been established.

  10. The origins of I-type spherules and the atmospheric entry of iron micrometeoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genge, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    The Earth's extraterrestrial dust flux includes a wide variety of dust particles that include FeNi metallic grains. During their atmospheric entry iron micrometeoroids melt and oxidize to form cosmic spherules termed I-type spherules. These particles are chemically resistant and readily collected by magnetic separation and are thus the most likely micrometeorites to be recovered from modern and ancient sediments. Understanding their behavior during atmospheric entry is crucial in constraining their abundance relative to other particle types and the nature of the zodiacal dust population at 1 AU. This article presents numerical simulations of the atmospheric entry heating of iron meteoroids to investigate the abundance and nature of these materials. The results indicate that iron micrometeoroids experience peak temperatures 300-800 K higher than silicate particles explaining the rarity of unmelted iron particles which can only be present at sizes of <50 μm. The lower evaporation rates of liquid iron oxide leads to greater survival of iron particles compared with silicates, which enhances their abundance among micrometeorites by a factor of 2. The abundance of I-types is shown to be broadly consistent with the abundance and size of metal in ordinary chondrites and the current day flux of ordinary chondrite-derived MMs arriving at Earth. Furthermore, carbonaceous asteroids and cometary dust are suggested to make negligible contributions to the I-type spherule flux. Events involving such objects, therefore, cannot be recognized from I-type spherule abundances in the geological record.

  11. Composition of Meridiani Hematite-rich Spherules: A Mass-Balance Mixing-Model Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    jOLLIFF, b. l.

    2005-01-01

    One of the great surprises of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission is the discovery at Meridiani Planum that the surface hematite signature observed from orbit is attributable largely to a surface enrichment of hematite-rich spherules, thought to be concretions, that have weathered out of rocks similar to the underlying sulfate-rich rock formation [1]. A strong hematite signature has been observed by the Mini-TES [2] and by in-situ measurements of spherule-rich targets by the Mossbauer spectrometer (MB) [3] and the alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) [4]. The Mini-TES derived spectrum of spherule-rich targets on the plains is consistent with nearly pure coarse-grained hematite, with perhaps as little as 5-10 areal % of other components [2]. The occurrence and abundance of the spherules as the bearer of the widespread hematite signature observed by MGS TES over much of Meridiani Planum is significant for global remote sensing, and their occurrence as concretions in the outcrop lithology is significant for the diagenetic history and role of water in the formation of the sedimentary rock formation [5].

  12. Volatile-Bearing Phases in the Precursors of Iron-Type Cosmic Spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genge, M. J.; Davies, B.; Van Ginneken, M.; Tomkins, A.

    2016-08-01

    We report the presence of re-entrant metal beads in I-type cosmic spherules in which veins of metal are extruded into surrounding wustite. The phase relations of Fe-Ni-O and the mechanism of extrusion suggest the presence of volatile elements.

  13. Beryllium-10 and Aluminum-26 in Individual Cosmic Spherules from Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Brownlee, D. E.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Harvey, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    We present data for the cosmogenic nuclides Be-10 and A-26 in a suite of 24 extraterrestrial spherules, collected from Antarctic moraines and deep sea sediments. All of the 10 large spherules collected in glacial till at Lewis Cliff are extraterrestrial. As in earlier work, the great majority of particles show prominent solar cosmic-ray (SCR) production of Al-26, indicating bombardment ages on the order of 106 years or even longer. These long ages are in direct contradiction to model ages for small particles in the inner Solar System and may require reconsideration of models of small particle lifetimes. A small fraction of the particles so far measured (6/42) possess cosmogenic radionuclide patterns consistent with predictions for meteoroid spall droplets. We believe that most of the spherules were bombarded in space primarily as bodies not much larger than their present size. The content of in situ produced Be-10 and Al-26 in quartz pebbles in the same moraine suggests that these spherules may have on average a significant terrestrial age.

  14. [Collagenous crystalloids and collagenous spherules in salivary gland tumors. A light microscopy and immunohistochemistry study].

    PubMed

    Skálová, A; Michal, M; Leivo, I

    1993-04-01

    In a series of 354 salivary gland tumors, the morphological and immunohistochemical study of two distinctive types of extracellular matrix deposits was carried out. First, collagenous crystalloids, distinct spherical crystalloids composed of radially arranged needle-shaped collagen fibres, were found in twelve cases of benign salivary gland tumors. Second, collagenous spherules, globoid structures often showing concentric lamellar or radial pattern, were found in 46 cases of both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. Immunohistochemically, collagenous crystalloids and collagenous spherules contain varying amounts of type I and III collagens, proteoglycans and elastic fibres but not collagen types II and VI. Strong linear deposition of basement membrane proteins, collagen type IV and laminin, surrounded collagenous spherules. Discontinuous patchy deposits of both proteins were, however, found near collagenous crystalloids. The cells surrounding these collagenous crystalloids and collagenous spherules showed immunohistochemical and morphological features of modified myoepithelial cells. Our observations may improve a terminology of the structures in question. Proposed active role of modified myoepithelial cells in the origin of these extracellular deposits still remains open for discussion.

  15. Hematite Spherules in Basaltic Tephra Altered Under Aqueous, Acid-Sulfate Conditions on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Possible Clues for the Occurrence of Hematite-Rich Spherules in the Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Gruener, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Robinson, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Iron-rich spherules (>90% Fe2O3 from electron microprobe analyses) approx.10-100 microns in diameter are found within sulfate-rich rocks formed by aqueous, acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. Although some spherules are nearly pure Fe, most have two concentric compositional zones, with the core having a higher Fe/Al ratio than the rim. Oxide totals less than 100% (93-99%) suggest structural H2O and/or /OH. The transmission Moessbauer spectrum of a spherule-rich separate is dominated by a hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) sextet whose peaks are skewed toward zero velocity. Skewing is consistent with Al(3+) for Fe(3+) substitution and structural H2O and/or /OH. The grey color of the spherules implies specular hematite. Whole-rock powder X-ray diffraction spectra are dominated by peaks from smectite and the hydroxy sulfate mineral natroalunite as alteration products and plagioclase feldspar that was present in the precursor basaltic tephra. Whether spherule formation proceeded directly from basaltic material in one event (dissolution of basaltic material and precipitation of hematite spherules) or whether spherule formation required more than one event (formation of Fe-bearing sulfate rock and subsequent hydrolysis to hematite) is not currently constrained. By analogy, a formation pathway for the hematite spherules in sulfate-rich outcrops at Meridiani Planum on Mars (the Burns formation) is aqueous alteration of basaltic precursor material under acid-sulfate conditions. Although hydrothermal conditions are present on Mauna Kea, such conditions may not be required for spherule formation on Mars if the time interval for hydrolysis at lower temperatures is sufficiently long.

  16. Large Quantities of Melt-Quenched Impact Spherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon "Muck" Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Firestone, R. B.; West, A.; Weaver, J. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Kimbel, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The so-called "muck" deposits of Alaska and the upper Yukon are wind-transported, silt-dominated, organic-rich sediments, including paleosols, erosional unconformities, and buried forests with in situ stumps, that have accumulated in creek valleys over at least the last 2 million years. Underlying the frozen muck are gold-bearing gravels, and removal of Late Pleistocene muck layers in mining operations has uncovered a remarkable collection of usually broken and disarticulated megafaunal bones and carcasses. Previously, Fe-rich particles have been found embedded in a number of mammoth tusks and a bison skull, and those particles have high-Ni and low-Ti compositions indicative of an extraterrestrial origin. These fossils range in age from ~21 to 37 ka B.P. Additional fossil skulls (bison, rangifer, mammoth) and a mammoth tusk from Alaska and the Yukon Territory have been found in museum and government collections with embedded Fe-rich particles as well, and nine skulls also contain significant quantities of original host sediment within them. This associated sediment was removed and examined for the presence of spherules and other cosmic impact proxies. The additional megafaunal bones are estimated to date from between 13 to 40 ka, and radiocarbon dating of samples from these specimens is currently underway. Magnetic grains were extracted from aliquots of bulk sediment from each of the fossil skulls. The magnetic fractions ranged from ~5 to 44 g/kg, averaging 23.6 g/kg. We then examined each sample fraction for magnetic spherules. Two samples contained rounded detrital magnetite and no spherules, while the other seven samples contained numerous melt-quenched magnetic spherules ranging in abundance from ~1000 to 18,000/kg, averaging ~8000/kg. We performed SEM-EDS analyses on 49 selected spherules and identified two distinct compositional populations. One group from a mammoth skull is predominately aluminosilicate (Al2O3 = 30.7 wt.%, SiO2 = 34.4 wt.%, FeO = 23.4 wt

  17. Middle Archean continent formation by crustal delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, Tanja E.; van Keken, Peter E.

    2001-12-01

    The processes that created the first large cratonic areas such as the Pilbara and the Kaapvaal remain poorly understood. Models based on the uniformitarian extrapolation of present-day arc volcanic processes to a hotter early Earth have not adequately explained the observations in these terranes. Here we propose an alternative mechanism for the formation of the earliest continental crust. The formation of continental crust may be achieved by delamination of the lower eclogitic part of an oceanic plateau like protocrust. Such delamination results in uplift, extension, and the production of tonalite, trondhjemite, and granodiorite (TTG) suites as recorded in Middle Archean cratons. The available geologic and geophysical observations in combination with model calculations permit this scenario as an alternative to subduction-based hypotheses.

  18. Zircon Archean of the Transuralian megazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnobaev, A. A.; Puchkov, V. N.; Puzhakov, B. A.; Busharina, S. V.; Sergeeva, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Il'inka metamorphic complex (IC) is located in the Transuralian megazone at the latitude of the Chelyabinsk granite pluton, east of the Chelyabinsk graben. The petrological, mineralogical, and age data on the IC indicate the presence of Archean complexes during its formation. Taking into account the importance of the age data on IC, zircons were additionally analyzed using a SHRIMP. For the Transuralian megazone, the analytical data allowed us for the first time to establish the presence of the Neoarchean (2715 ± 15 Ma) substance and two stages of metamorphism of gneisses. The early stage was in the Paleoproterozoic (1970-2130 Ma). The metamorphism of 648 ± 18 Ma ends the evolution of IC.

  19. Phosphate microaggregates in Archean sediments. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojzsis, S.; Fan, G. Y.; Arrhenius, G.

    1994-01-01

    Light microscopy conducted on samples of Archean sediments reveals phosphate microaggregates which are suggestive of a biotic origin (Arrhenius et al., 1993). These aggregates, typically 15 micrometers wide and 50 micrometers long, are thought to be the mineral remains of colonies of microorganisms that lived during the late Archean Eon (greater than or equal to 2.5 Ga). Confocal microscopy was used to study the structures of these microaggregates in three dimensions. Samples used in this study are from the lowermost section of drill core taken from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron-Formation (Hamersley Basin) in Western Australia. These sediments are well-preserved and escaped extensive metamorphism typically experienced by older rocks of this type. Two types of samples were prepared for study under the microscope: thin sections (30 micrometers) for transmitted light microscopy to study the general rock texture and to locate the grains of interest, and thick sections (3mm) for confocal microscopy to determine the 3-D structure of the aggregates in situ. The samples have been carefully polished so that they may be directly placed on the oil-immersion lens without the use of a cover slip. No chemical treatments of the surfaces have been performed. The aggregates often form clusters, although isolated aggregates have also been found. The clusters tend to distribute along microbands in the rocks. Electron microprobe analyses show that the phosphate grains and their inclusions, besides calcium and phosphorus, contain no major elements heavier than sodium. The proportions of calcium to phosphorus, the absence of stoichiometric amounts of other cations such as magnesium and iron, as well as optical properties suggest apatite as the mineral form.

  20. Geology and geochronology of granitoid and metamorphic rocks of late Archean age in northwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Zartman, R.E.; Benedict, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Granitoid rocks of the Puritan Quartz Monzonite and associated biotite gneiss and amphibolite in northwestern Wisconsin compose the southwestern part of the Puritan batholith of Late Archean age. They differ from rocks in the Michigan segment of the batholith in having been deformed by brittle-ductile deformation and partly recrystallized during shearing accompanying development of the midcontinent rift system of Keweenawan (Middle Proterozoic) age. Granitoid rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite are dominant in the Wisconsin part of the batholith. To the north of the Mineral Lake fault zone, they are massive to weakly foliated and dominantly of granite composition, whereas south of the fault zone they are more strongly foliated and mainly of tonalite composition. Massive granite, leucogranite, and granite pegmatite cut the dominant granitoid rocks. Intercalated with the granitoid rocks in small to large conformable bodies are biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and local tonalite gneiss. Metagabbro dikes of probable Early Proterozoic age as much as 15 m thick cut the Archean rocks. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock data indicate a Late Archean age for the granitoids and gneisses, but data points are scattered and do not define a single isochron. Zircon from two samples of tonalitic gneiss for uranium-thorium-Iead dating define a single chord on a concordia diagram, establishing an age of 2,735?16 m.y. The lower intercept age of 1,052?70 m.y. is in close agreement with rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon biotite ages from the gneisses. Two episodes of deformation and metamorphism are recorded in the Archean rocks. Deformation during the Late Archean produced a steep west-northwest-oriented foliation and gently plunging fold axes and was accompanied by low amphibolite-facies metamorphism of the bedded rocks. A younger deformation resulting from largely brittle fracture was accompanied by retrogressive metamorphism; this deformation is most evident adjacent

  1. An archean suture zone in the Tobacco Root Mountains? (1984) Evolution of Archean Continental Crust, SW Montana (1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Kain, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Lake Plateau area of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana were mapped and geochemically sampled. The allochthonous nature of the Stillwater Complex was interpreted as a Cordilleran-style continental margin. The metamorphic and tectonic history of the Beartooth Mountains was addressed. The Archean geology of the Spanish Peaks area, northern Madison Range was addressed. A voluminous granulite terrain of supracrustal origin was identified, as well as a heretofore unknown Archean batholithic complex. Mapping, petrologic, and geochemical investigations of the Blacktail Mountains, on the western margin of the Wyoming Province, are completed. Mapping at a scale of 1:24000 in the Archean rocks of the Gravelly Range is near completion. This sequence is dominantly of stable-platform origin. Samples were collected for geothermometric/barometric analysis and for U-Pb zircon age dating. The analyses provide the basis for additional geochemical and geochronologic studies. A model for the tectonic and geochemical evolution of the Archean basement of SW Montana is presented.

  2. Tomographic location of potential melt-bearing phenocrysts in lunar glass spherules

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, D.S.; Fogel, R.A.; Rivers, M.L.

    2005-02-04

    Apollo 17 orange glass spherules contain olivine phenocrysts with melt inclusions from depth. Tomography (<2micron/pxl) of >200 spherules located 1 phenocryst. We will try to find melt inclusions and obtain original magma volatiles and compositions. In 1971, Apollo 17 astronauts collected a 10 cm soil sample (74220) comprised almost entirely of orange glass spherules. Below this, a double drive-tube core sampled a 68 cm thick horizon comprised of orange glass and black beads (crystallized equivalents of orange glass). Primitive lunar glass spherules (e.g.-A17 orange glasses) are thought to represent ejecta from lunar mare fire fountains. The fire-fountains were apparently driven by a combination of C-O gas exsolution from orange glass melt and the oxidation of graphite. Upon eruption, magmas lost their volatiles (e.g., S, CO, CO{sub 2}) to space. Evidence for volatile escape remains as volatile-rich coatings on the exteriors of many spherules. Moreover, it showed that Type I and II Fe-Ni-rich metal particles found within orange glass olivine phenocrysts, or free-floating in the glass itself, are powerful evidence for the volatile driving force for lunar fire fountains. More direct evidence for the volatile mechanism has yet to be uncovered. Issues remaining include: the exact composition of magmatic volatiles; the hypothesized existence of graphite in the magma; the oxygen fugacity of the magma and of the lunar interior. In 1996 reported a single {approx}450 micron, equant olivine phenocryst, containing four glassy melt inclusions (or inclusion cores), the largest {approx}30micron in size, in a thin section of the 74001/2 drill core. The melt is assumed to sample the parent magma of the lunar basalts at depth, evidenced by the S content of the inclusion (600 ppm) which is 400 ppm greater than that of the orange glass host. Such melts potentially contain a full complement of the volatile components of the parent magma, which can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

  3. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates: II. Archean greenstone belts and Archean sea water.

    PubMed

    Veizer, J; Hoefs, J; Lowe, D R; Thurston, P C

    1989-01-01

    Carbonate rocks with geological attributes of marine sediments are a minor component of the Archean greenstone belts. Despite their relative scarcity, these rocks are important because they record chemical and isotopic properties of coeval oceans. The greenstones containing such carbonates appear to cluster at approximately 2.8 +/- 0.2 and approximately 3.5 +/- 0.1 Ga ago. The samples for the younger group are from the Abitibi, Yellowknife, Wabigoon (Steep Rock Lake), Michipicoten and Uchi greenstone belts of Canada and the "Upper Greenstones" of Zimbabwe. The older group includes the Swaziland Supergroup of South Africa, Warrawoona Group of Australia and the Sargur marbles of India. Mineralogically, the carbonates of the younger greenstones are mostly limestones and of the older ones, ferroan dolomites (ankerites); the latter with some affinities to hydrothermal carbonates. In mineralized areas with iron ores, the carbonate minerals are siderite +/- ankerite, irrespective of the age of the greenstones. Iron-poor dolomites represent a later phase of carbonate generation, related to post-depositional tectonic faulting. The original mineralogy of limestone sequences appears to have been an Sr-rich aragonite. The Archean carbonates yield near-mantle Sr isotopic values, with (87Sr/86Sr)o of 0.7025 +/- 0.0015 and 0.7031 +/- 0.0008 for younger and older greenstones, respectively. The best preserved samples give delta 13C of +1.5 +/- 1.5% PDB, comparable to their Phanerozoic counterparts. In contrast, the best estimate for delta 18O is -7% PDB. Archean limestones, compared to Phanerozoic examples, are enriched in 16O as well as in Mn2+ and Fe2+, and these differences are not a consequence of post-depositional alteration phenomena. The mineralogical and chemical attributes of Archean carbonates (hence sea water) are consistent with the proposition that the composition of the coeval oceans may have been buffered by a pervasive interaction with the "mantle", that is, with

  4. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Bunch, Ted E.; Kennett, James P.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Moore, Andrew M. T.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Goodyear, Albert C.; Moore, Christopher R.; Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr.; Ray, Jack H.; Lopinot, Neal H.; Ferraro, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; DeCarli, Paul S.; Hermes, Robert E.; Kloosterman, Johan B.; Revay, Zsolt; Howard, George A.; Kimbel, David R.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Nabelek, Ladislav; Lipo, Carl P.; Sakai, Sachiko; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B.

    2013-06-01

    Airbursts/impacts by a fragmented comet or asteroid have been proposed at the Younger Dryas onset (12.80 ± 0.15 ka) based on identification of an assemblage of impact-related proxies, including microspherules, nanodiamonds, and iridium. Distributed across four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB), spherule peaks have been independently confirmed in eight studies, but unconfirmed in two others, resulting in continued dispute about their occurrence, distribution, and origin. To further address this dispute and better identify YDB spherules, we present results from one of the largest spherule investigations ever undertaken regarding spherule geochemistry, morphologies, origins, and processes of formation. We investigated 18 sites across North America, Europe, and the Middle East, performing nearly 700 analyses on spherules using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for geochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy for surface microstructural characterization. Twelve locations rank among the world's premier end-Pleistocene archaeological sites, where the YDB marks a hiatus in human occupation or major changes in site use. Our results are consistent with melting of sediments to temperatures >2,200 °C by the thermal radiation and air shocks produced by passage of an extraterrestrial object through the atmosphere; they are inconsistent with volcanic, cosmic, anthropogenic, lightning, or authigenic sources. We also produced spherules from wood in the laboratory at >1,730 °C, indicating that impact-related incineration of biomass may have contributed to spherule production. At 12.8 ka, an estimated 10 million tonnes of spherules were distributed across ∼50 million square kilometers, similar to well-known impact strewnfields and consistent with a major cosmic impact event.

  5. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago

    PubMed Central

    Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Bunch, Ted E.; Kennett, James P.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Moore, Andrew M. T.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Goodyear, Albert C.; Moore, Christopher R.; Daniel, I. Randolph; Ray, Jack H.; Lopinot, Neal H.; Ferraro, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; DeCarli, Paul S.; Hermes, Robert E.; Kloosterman, Johan B.; Revay, Zsolt; Howard, George A.; Kimbel, David R.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Nabelek, Ladislav; Lipo, Carl P.; Sakai, Sachiko; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Airbursts/impacts by a fragmented comet or asteroid have been proposed at the Younger Dryas onset (12.80 ± 0.15 ka) based on identification of an assemblage of impact-related proxies, including microspherules, nanodiamonds, and iridium. Distributed across four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB), spherule peaks have been independently confirmed in eight studies, but unconfirmed in two others, resulting in continued dispute about their occurrence, distribution, and origin. To further address this dispute and better identify YDB spherules, we present results from one of the largest spherule investigations ever undertaken regarding spherule geochemistry, morphologies, origins, and processes of formation. We investigated 18 sites across North America, Europe, and the Middle East, performing nearly 700 analyses on spherules using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for geochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy for surface microstructural characterization. Twelve locations rank among the world’s premier end-Pleistocene archaeological sites, where the YDB marks a hiatus in human occupation or major changes in site use. Our results are consistent with melting of sediments to temperatures >2,200 °C by the thermal radiation and air shocks produced by passage of an extraterrestrial object through the atmosphere; they are inconsistent with volcanic, cosmic, anthropogenic, lightning, or authigenic sources. We also produced spherules from wood in the laboratory at >1,730 °C, indicating that impact-related incineration of biomass may have contributed to spherule production. At 12.8 ka, an estimated 10 million tonnes of spherules were distributed across ∼50 million square kilometers, similar to well-known impact strewnfields and consistent with a major cosmic impact event. PMID:23690611

  6. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago.

    PubMed

    Wittke, James H; Weaver, James C; Bunch, Ted E; Kennett, James P; Kennett, Douglas J; Moore, Andrew M T; Hillman, Gordon C; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Goodyear, Albert C; Moore, Christopher R; Daniel, I Randolph; Ray, Jack H; Lopinot, Neal H; Ferraro, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L; DeCarli, Paul S; Hermes, Robert E; Kloosterman, Johan B; Revay, Zsolt; Howard, George A; Kimbel, David R; Kletetschka, Gunther; Nabelek, Ladislav; Lipo, Carl P; Sakai, Sachiko; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B

    2013-06-01

    Airbursts/impacts by a fragmented comet or asteroid have been proposed at the Younger Dryas onset (12.80 ± 0.15 ka) based on identification of an assemblage of impact-related proxies, including microspherules, nanodiamonds, and iridium. Distributed across four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB), spherule peaks have been independently confirmed in eight studies, but unconfirmed in two others, resulting in continued dispute about their occurrence, distribution, and origin. To further address this dispute and better identify YDB spherules, we present results from one of the largest spherule investigations ever undertaken regarding spherule geochemistry, morphologies, origins, and processes of formation. We investigated 18 sites across North America, Europe, and the Middle East, performing nearly 700 analyses on spherules using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for geochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy for surface microstructural characterization. Twelve locations rank among the world's premier end-Pleistocene archaeological sites, where the YDB marks a hiatus in human occupation or major changes in site use. Our results are consistent with melting of sediments to temperatures >2,200 °C by the thermal radiation and air shocks produced by passage of an extraterrestrial object through the atmosphere; they are inconsistent with volcanic, cosmic, anthropogenic, lightning, or authigenic sources. We also produced spherules from wood in the laboratory at >1,730 °C, indicating that impact-related incineration of biomass may have contributed to spherule production. At 12.8 ka, an estimated 10 million tonnes of spherules were distributed across ∼50 million square kilometers, similar to well-known impact strewnfields and consistent with a major cosmic impact event.

  7. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Bunch, Ted E.; Kennett, James P.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Moore, Andrew M.T.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Tankersly, Kenneth B.; Goodyear, Albert C.; Moore, Christopher R.; Daniel, I. Randolph; Ray, Jack H.; Lopinot, Neal H.; Ferraro, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; DeCarli, Paul S.; Hermes, Robert E.; Kloosterman, Johan B.; Revay, Zsolt; Howard, George A.; Kimbel, David R.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Nabelek, Ladislav; Lipo, Carl P.; Sakai, Sachiko; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Airbursts/impacts by a fragmented comet or asteroid have been proposed at the Younger Dryas onset (12.80 ± 0.15 ka) based on identification of an assemblage of impact-related proxies, including microspherules, nanodiamonds, and iridium. Distributed across four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB), spherule peaks have been independently confirmed in eight studies, but unconfirmed in two others, resulting in continued dispute about their occurrence, distribution, and origin. To further address this dispute and better identify YDB spherules, we present results from one of the largest spherule investigations ever undertaken regarding spherule geochemistry, morphologies, origins, and processes of formation. We investigated 18 sites across North America, Europe, and the Middle East, performing nearly 700 analyses on spherules using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for geochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy for surface microstructural characterization. Twelve locations rank among the world’s premier end-Pleistocene archaeological sites, where the YDB marks a hiatus in human occupation or major changes in site use. Our results are consistent with melting of sediments to temperatures >2,200 °C by the thermal radiation and air shocks produced by passage of an extraterrestrial object through the atmosphere; they are inconsistent with volcanic, cosmic, anthropogenic, lightning, or authigenic sources. We also produced spherules from wood in the laboratory at >1,730 °C, indicating that impact-related incineration of biomass may have contributed to spherule production. At 12.8 ka, an estimated 10 million tonnes of spherules were distributed across ∼50 million square kilometers, similar to well-known impact strewnfields and consistent with a major cosmic impact event.

  8. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago.

    PubMed

    Wittke, James H; Weaver, James C; Bunch, Ted E; Kennett, James P; Kennett, Douglas J; Moore, Andrew M T; Hillman, Gordon C; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Goodyear, Albert C; Moore, Christopher R; Daniel, I Randolph; Ray, Jack H; Lopinot, Neal H; Ferraro, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L; DeCarli, Paul S; Hermes, Robert E; Kloosterman, Johan B; Revay, Zsolt; Howard, George A; Kimbel, David R; Kletetschka, Gunther; Nabelek, Ladislav; Lipo, Carl P; Sakai, Sachiko; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B

    2013-06-01

    Airbursts/impacts by a fragmented comet or asteroid have been proposed at the Younger Dryas onset (12.80 ± 0.15 ka) based on identification of an assemblage of impact-related proxies, including microspherules, nanodiamonds, and iridium. Distributed across four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB), spherule peaks have been independently confirmed in eight studies, but unconfirmed in two others, resulting in continued dispute about their occurrence, distribution, and origin. To further address this dispute and better identify YDB spherules, we present results from one of the largest spherule investigations ever undertaken regarding spherule geochemistry, morphologies, origins, and processes of formation. We investigated 18 sites across North America, Europe, and the Middle East, performing nearly 700 analyses on spherules using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for geochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy for surface microstructural characterization. Twelve locations rank among the world's premier end-Pleistocene archaeological sites, where the YDB marks a hiatus in human occupation or major changes in site use. Our results are consistent with melting of sediments to temperatures >2,200 °C by the thermal radiation and air shocks produced by passage of an extraterrestrial object through the atmosphere; they are inconsistent with volcanic, cosmic, anthropogenic, lightning, or authigenic sources. We also produced spherules from wood in the laboratory at >1,730 °C, indicating that impact-related incineration of biomass may have contributed to spherule production. At 12.8 ka, an estimated 10 million tonnes of spherules were distributed across ∼50 million square kilometers, similar to well-known impact strewnfields and consistent with a major cosmic impact event. PMID:23690611

  9. Early Archean (approximately 3.4 Ga) prokaryotic filaments from cherts of the apex basalt, Western Australia: The oldest cellularly preserved microfossils now known

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    In comparison with that known from later geologic time, the Archean fossil record is miniscule: although literally hundreds of Proterozoic formations, containing more that 2800 occurrences of bona fide microfossils are now known, fewer than 30 units containing some 43 categories of putative microfossils (the vast majority of which are of questionable authenticity) have been reported from the Archean. Among the oldest known fossils are Early Archean filaments reported from cherts of the Towers Formation and the Apex Basalt of the 3.3-3.6 Ga-old Warrawoona Group of Western Australia. The paleobiologic significance of the Towers Formation microstructures is open to question: thin aggregated filaments are properly regarded as dubiomicrofossils (perhaps biogenic, but perhaps not); therefore, they cannot be regarded as firm evidence of Archean life. Although authentic, filamentous microfossiles were reported from a second Towers Formation locality, because the precise layer containing the fossiliferous cherts was not relocated, this discovery can neither be reconfirmed by the original collector nor confirmed independently by other investigators. Discovery of microfossils in bedded cherts of the Apex Basalt, the stratigraphic unit immediately overlying the Towers Formation, obviates the difficulties stored above. The cellularly preserved filaments of the Apex Basalt meet all of the criteria required of a bona fide Archean microfossils. Recent studies indicate that the Apex assemblage includes at least six morphotypes of uniseriate filaments, composed of barrel-shaped, discoidal, or quadrate cells and exhibiting rounded or conical terminal cells and medial bifurcated and paired half-cells that reflect the occurrence of prokaryotic binary cell division. Interestingly, the majority of these morphotypes are morphologically more similar to extant cyanobacteria than to modern filamentous bacteria. Prokaryotes seem clearly to have been hypobradytelic, and the evidence suggests

  10. Evidence for a complex archean deformational history; southwestern Michipicoten Greenstone Belt, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.; Shrady, Catherine H.

    1986-01-01

    The Michipicoten Greenstone Belt extends for about 150 km ENE from the northeastern angle of Lake Superior. In common with many other Archean greenstone belts, it is characterized by generally steep bedding dips and a distribution of major lithologic types suggesting a crudely synclinal structure for the belt as a whole. Detailed mapping and determination of structural sequence demonstrates that the structure is much more complex. The Archean history of the belt includes formation of at least three regionally significant cleavages, kilometer-scale overturning, extensive shearing, and diabase intrusion. Most well defined, mappable 'packages' of sedimentary rocks appear to be bounded by faults. These faults were active relatively early in the structural history of the belt, when extensive overturning also occurred. Steepening of dips, NW-SE shortening, development of steep NE cleavage, and pervasive shearing all postdate the early faulting and the regional overturning, obscuring much of the detail needed to define the geometry of the earlier structures. The results obtained so far suggest, however, that the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt underwent an early stage of thrusting and associated isoclinal folding, probably in a convergent tectonic environment.

  11. Tectonic implications of Archean anorthosite occurrences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.; Maczuga, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrences of megacrystic anorthosite and basalt in a variety of geologic settings were reviewed and it was found that these rock types occur in a variety of tectonic settings. Anorthosites and megacrystic basalts are petrogenetically related and are found in oceanic volcanic crust, cratons, and shelf environments. Although megacrystic basalts are most common in Archean terranes, similar occurrences are observed in rocks of early Proterozoic age, and even in young terranes such as the Galapagos hotspot. Based on inferences from experimental petrology, all of the occurrences are apparently associated with similar parental melts that are relatively Fe-rich tholeiites. The megacrystic rocks exhibit a two- (or more)-stage development of plagioclase, with the megacrysts having relatively uniform composition produced under nearly isothermal and isochemical conditions over substantial periods of time. The anorthosites appear to have intruded various crustal levels from very deep to very shallow. The petrogenetic indicators, however, suggest that conditions of formation of the Precambrian examples were different from Phanerozoic occurrences.

  12. Compositional Models of Hematite-Rich Spherules (Blueberries) at Meridiani Planum, Mars and Constraints on Their Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Mittlefehldt, D.

    2006-10-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered hematite-rich spherules (``blueberries'') believed to be diagenetic concretions formed in the bedrock in stagnant or slow-moving groundwater. These spherules likely precipitated from solution, but their origins are poorly understood. Three formation mechanisms are possible: inclusive, replacive and displacive. The first would result in a distinct spherule composition compared to the other two. We propose that chemical clues may help to constrain the nature of blueberry formation. We used Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer data for undisturbed soils that were blueberry-free and with visible blueberries at the surface in Microscopic Imager images. We made plots of the elements versus iron for the spherule-rich soils and compared them to a mixing line representative of a pure hematite end member spherule (called ``the zero model''). This modeled the replacive formation mechanism, in which pure hematite would replace all of the original material. If the spherules grew inclusively, chemical data should reflect a compositional component of the rock grains included during formation. Four models were developed to test for possible compositions of a rock component. These models could not easily explain the APXS data and thus demonstrate that the most plausible rock compositions are not components of blueberries.

  13. Origin and provenance of spherules and magnetic grains at the Younger Dryas boundary

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yingzhe; Sharma, Mukul; LeCompte, Malcolm A.; Demitroff, Mark N.; Landis, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    One or more bolide impacts are hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas cooling at ∼12.9 ka. In support of this hypothesis, varying peak abundances of magnetic grains with iridium and magnetic microspherules have been reported at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB). We show that bulk sediment and/or magnetic grains/microspherules collected from the YDB sites in Arizona, Michigan, New Mexico, New Jersey, and Ohio have 187Os/188Os ratios ≥1.0, similar to average upper continental crust (= 1.3), indicating a terrestrial origin of osmium (Os) in these samples. In contrast, bulk sediments from YDB sites in Belgium and Pennsylvania exhibit 187Os/188Os ratios <<1.0 and at face value suggest mixing with extraterrestrial Os with 187Os/188Os of ∼0.13. However, the Os concentration in bulk sample and magnetic grains from Belgium is 2.8 pg/g and 15 pg/g, respectively, much lower than that in average upper continental crust (=31 pg/g), indicating no meteoritic contribution. The YDB site in Pennsylvania is remarkable in yielding 2- to 5-mm diameter spherules containing minerals such as suessite (Fe-Ni silicide) that form at temperatures in excess of 2000 °C. Gross texture, mineralogy, and age of the spherules appear consistent with their formation as ejecta from an impact 12.9 ka ago. The 187Os/188Os ratios of the spherules and their leachates are often low, but Os in these objects is likely terrestrially derived. The rare earth element patterns and Sr and Nd isotopes of the spherules indicate that their source lies in 1.5-Ga Quebecia terrain in the Grenville Province of northeastern North America. PMID:24009337

  14. Origin and provenance of spherules and magnetic grains at the Younger Dryas boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingzhe; Sharma, Mukul; LeCompte, Malcolm A.; Demitroff, Mark N.; Landis, Joshua D.

    2013-09-01

    One or more bolide impacts are hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas cooling at ∼12.9 ka. In support of this hypothesis, varying peak abundances of magnetic grains with iridium and magnetic microspherules have been reported at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB). We show that bulk sediment and/or magnetic grains/microspherules collected from the YDB sites in Arizona, Michigan, New Mexico, New Jersey, and Ohio have 187Os/188Os ratios ≥1.0, similar to average upper continental crust (= 1.3), indicating a terrestrial origin of osmium (Os) in these samples. In contrast, bulk sediments from YDB sites in Belgium and Pennsylvania exhibit 187Os/188Os ratios <<1.0 and at face value suggest mixing with extraterrestrial Os with 187Os/188Os of ∼0.13. However, the Os concentration in bulk sample and magnetic grains from Belgium is 2.8 pg/g and 15 pg/g, respectively, much lower than that in average upper continental crust (=31 pg/g), indicating no meteoritic contribution. The YDB site in Pennsylvania is remarkable in yielding 2- to 5-mm diameter spherules containing minerals such as suessite (Fe-Ni silicide) that form at temperatures in excess of 2000 °C. Gross texture, mineralogy, and age of the spherules appear consistent with their formation as ejecta from an impact 12.9 ka ago. The 187Os/188Os ratios of the spherules and their leachates are often low, but Os in these objects is likely terrestrially derived. The rare earth element patterns and Sr and Nd isotopes of the spherules indicate that their source lies in 1.5-Ga Quebecia terrain in the Grenville Province of northeastern North America.

  15. Origin and provenance of spherules and magnetic grains at the Younger Dryas boundary.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingzhe; Sharma, Mukul; LeCompte, Malcolm A; Demitroff, Mark N; Landis, Joshua D

    2013-09-17

    One or more bolide impacts are hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas cooling at ∼12.9 ka. In support of this hypothesis, varying peak abundances of magnetic grains with iridium and magnetic microspherules have been reported at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB). We show that bulk sediment and/or magnetic grains/microspherules collected from the YDB sites in Arizona, Michigan, New Mexico, New Jersey, and Ohio have (187)Os/(188)Os ratios ≥1.0, similar to average upper continental crust (= 1.3), indicating a terrestrial origin of osmium (Os) in these samples. In contrast, bulk sediments from YDB sites in Belgium and Pennsylvania exhibit (187)Os/(188)Os ratios <1.0 and at face value suggest mixing with extraterrestrial Os with (187)Os/(188)Os of ∼0.13. However, the Os concentration in bulk sample and magnetic grains from Belgium is 2.8 pg/g and 15 pg/g, respectively, much lower than that in average upper continental crust (=31 pg/g), indicating no meteoritic contribution. The YDB site in Pennsylvania is remarkable in yielding 2- to 5-mm diameter spherules containing minerals such as suessite (Fe-Ni silicide) that form at temperatures in excess of 2000 °C. Gross texture, mineralogy, and age of the spherules appear consistent with their formation as ejecta from an impact 12.9 ka ago. The (187)Os/(188)Os ratios of the spherules and their leachates are often low, but Os in these objects is likely terrestrially derived. The rare earth element patterns and Sr and Nd isotopes of the spherules indicate that their source lies in 1.5-Ga Quebecia terrain in the Grenville Province of northeastern North America. PMID:24009337

  16. Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, D. S.; Fogel, R. A.; Rivers, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    In 1971, Apollo 17 astronauts collected a 10 cm soil sample (74220) comprised almost entirely of orange glass spherules. Below this, a double drive-tube core sampled a 68 cm thick horizon comprised of orange glass and black beads (crystallized equivalents of orange glass). Primitive lunar glass spherules (e.g.-A17 orange glasses) are thought to represent ejecta from lunar mare fire fountains [1, 2]. The fire-fountains were apparently driven by a combination of C-O gas ex-solution from orange glass melt and the oxidation of graphite [3, 4]. Upon eruption, magmas lost their volatiles (e.g., S, CO, CO2) to space. Evidence for volatile escape remains as volatile-rich coatings on the exteriors of many spherules [e.g., 5,6]. Moreover, [7] showed that Type I and II Fe-Ni-rich metal particles found within orange glass olivine phenocrysts, or free-floating in the glass itself, are powerful evidence for the volatile driving force for lunar fire fountains.

  17. Archean Subduction or Not? The Archean Volcanic Record Re-assessed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Julian; Peate, David; Smithies, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Methods of identification of volcanic arc lavas may utilize: (1) the selective enrichment of the mantle wedge by 'subduction-mobile' elements; (2) the distinctive preconditioning of mantle along its flow path to the arc front; (3) the distinctive combination of fluid-flux and decompression melting; and (4) the effects of fluids on crystallization of the resulting magma. It should then be a simple matter uniquely to recognise volcanic arc lavas in the Geological Record and so document past subduction zones. Essentially, this is generally true in the oceans, but generally not on the continents. Even in recent, fresh lavas and with a full battery of element and isotope tools at our disposal, there can be debate over whether an arc-like geochemical signature results from active subduction, an older, inherited subduction component in the lithosphere, or crustal contamination. In the Archean, metamorphism, deformation, a different thermal regime and potential non-uniformitarian tectonic scenarios make the fingerprinting of arc lavas particularly problematic. Not least, the complicating factor of crustal contamination is likely to be much greater given the higher magma and crustal temperatures and higher magma fluxes prevailing. Here, we apply new, high-resolution immobile element fingerprinting methods, based primarily on Th-Nb fractionation, to Archean lavas. In the Pilbara, for example, where there is a volcanic record extending for over >500 m.y., we note that lavas with high Th/Nb (negative Nb anomalies) are common throughout the lava sequence. Many older formations also follow a basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite (BADR) sequence resembling present-day arcs. However, back-extrapolation of their compositions to their primitive magmas demonstrates that these were almost certainly crustally-contaminated plume-derived lavas. By contrast, this is not the case in the uppermst part of the sequence where even the most primitive magmas have significant Nb anomalies. The

  18. Magnetic Properties through the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Transition from the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Bio-environmental Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isambert, A.; Carlut, J. H.; Bouquerel, H.; Pecoits, E.; Philippot, P.; Vennin, E.; Ader, M.; Thomazo, C.; Buoncristiani, J. F.; Baton, F.; Le Huen, A. L.; Muller, E.; Deldicque, D.; Sforna, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of iron oxides in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Banded Iron Formations is still a matter of debate. We report here low and high temperature magnetic properties, susceptibility and saturation magnetization results coupled with scanning microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Raman observations and microprobe analyses along a 60 meters section, which encompasses the uppermost Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation and its transition into the lower Paleoproterozoic Kungarra Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. With the exception of two volcanoclastic intervals characterized by low susceptibility and magnetization, nearly pure magnetite is identified as the main magnetic carrier in all iron-rich layers including hematite-bearing jasper beds. The relative magnetic contribution of magnetite and hematite throughout the section is evidenced by IRM acquisition curves. We observed a sharp decrease in magnetization at the Archean-Proterozoic transition and a general trend in the Verwey temperature. Two populations of magnetically distinct magnetites are reported from a 2 meter-thick interval lying within the late Archean section of the core. Each population shows a specific Verwey transition temperature: one around 120-124K and the other in the range of 105-110K. The two Verwey transitions are interpreted to reflect two distinct stoichiometry and likely two stages of magnetite crystallization. The 120-124K transition is attributed to nearly pure stoichiometric magnetite, whereas SEM, TEM and microprobe observations suggest that the lower temperature transition is related to chemically impure silician magnetite. Microbial-induced partial substitution of iron by silicon is suggested here. This is supported by an increase in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the same interval and Raman spectroscopy data showing a close association of organic carbon with magnetite.

  19. Some examples of deep structure of the Archean from geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithson, S. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Pierson, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Archean crust remains as one of the significant problems in earth science, and a major unknown concerning Archean terrains is the nature of the deep crust. The character of crust beneath granulite terrains is especially fascinating because granulites are generally interpreted to represent a deep crustal section. Magnetic data from this area can be best modeled with a magnetized wedge of older Archean rocks (granulitic gneisses) underlying the younger Archean greenstone terrain. The dip of the boundary based on magnetic modeling is the same as the dip of the postulated thrust-fault reflection. Thus several lines of evidence indicate that the younger Archean greenstone belt terrain is thrust above the ancient Minnesota Valley gneiss terrain, presumably as the greenstone belt was accreted to the gneiss terrain, so that the dipping reflection represents a suture zone. Seismic data from underneath the granulite-facies Minnesota gneiss terrain shows abundant reflections between 3 and 6 s, or about 9 to 20 km. These are arcuate or dipping multicyclic events indicative of layering.

  20. Paleomagnetic measurements of Archean and Hadean zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Bono, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term history of the geodynamo can provide important constraints on core and mantle evolution. The oldest paleointensity records on extant rocks suggest a relatively strong magnetic field at 3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Examining an even older magnetic field, however, must rely on igneous components (e.g. zircons hosting magnetic inclusions) now found in younger sedimentary rocks. Here we focus on methods developed to address the challenges posed by the paleointensity measurement of crystals having weak natural remanent magnetizations (NRMs). We use a small bore (6.3 mm) 2G SQUID magnetometer that currently has the highest 3-component moment resolution for measurements, and CO2 laser heating for demagnetization. Use of this 3-component system allows for the direct measurement of full vector natural remanent magnetizations and avoids the non-uniqueness inherent in scanning magnetometer approaches. To reduce sample blank size, we use 0.5 mm fused quartz sample holders. We find that some Archean to Hadean zircons of the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) have NRMs of ca. 1-3 x 10-9 emu, within the resolution of the ultra-high moment resolution SQUID magnetometer. Thermal demagnetization data indicate most the magnetization unblocks between 550 and 580 °C, consistent with a magnetite carrier. Magnetic force microscopy suggests the presence of sub-micron single domain-like magnetic inclusions in the zircon. Thellier-Coe paleointensity data suggest the presence of a magnetic field at 3.55 Ga. We will discuss measurements and criteria to evaluate the presence/absence of an even older Paleoarchean and Hadean magnetic field, and opportunities provided by further increases in moment resolution provided by a new spin exchange relaxation-free magnetometer.

  1. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  2. Partition coefficients for calcic plagioclase - Implications for Archean anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    In most Archean cratons, cumulates of equant plagioclase megacrysts form anorthositic complexes, including those at Bad Vermilion Lake (Ontario). In this paper, partition coefficients (Ds) of REEs between natural high-Ca plagioclase megacrysts and their basaltic matrices were determined, using a multiple aliquot techique, and megacrystic plagioclases occurring in anorthosites were analyzed for the same components which, in conjunction with their Ds, were applied to calculations of melts in equilibrium with anorthosites. The REE's Ds were found to agree well with experimentally determined values and to predict equilibrium melts for Archean anorthosites that agree well with coeval basaltic flows and dikes. The Ds also appear to be valid for both the tholeiitic and alkali basalts over a wide range of mg numbers and REE concentrations. It is suggested that the moderately Fe-rich tholeiites that are hosts to plagioclase megacrysts in greenstone belts form the parental melts for megacrysts which make up the Bad Vermilion Lake Archean anorthositic complex.

  3. Nitrogen isotopic composition and density of the Archean atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Marty, Bernard; Zimmermann, Laurent; Pujol, Magali; Burgess, Ray; Philippot, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the atmosphere's composition during the Archean eon is fundamental to unraveling ancient environmental conditions. We show from the analysis of nitrogen and argon isotopes in fluid inclusions trapped in 3.0- to 3.5-billion-year-old hydrothermal quartz that the partial pressure of N2 of the Archean atmosphere was lower than 1.1 bar, possibly as low as 0.5 bar, and had a nitrogen isotopic composition comparable to the present-day one. These results imply that dinitrogen did not play a significant role in the thermal budget of the ancient Earth and that the Archean partial pressure of CO2 was probably lower than 0.7 bar.

  4. An investigation of the Archean climate using the NCAR CCm

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Archean (2.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) is of interest climatically, because of the 'Faint-Young Sun Paradox', which can be characterized by the Sun's reduced energy output. This lower energy output leads to a frozen planet if the climate existed as it does today. But, the geologic record shows that water was flowing at the earth's surface 3.8 billion years ago. Energy Balance Models (EBMs) and one-dimensional radiative-convective (1DRC) models predict a frozen planet for this time period, unless large carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations exist in the Archean atmosphere. The goal is to explore the Archean climate with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Community Climate Model (CCM). The search for negative feedbacks to explain the 'Faint-Young Sun Paradox' is the thrust of this study. This study undertakes a series of sensitivity simulations which first explores individual factors that may be important for the Archean. They include rotation rate, lower solar luminosity, and land fraction. Then, these climatic factors along with higher CO2 concentrations are combined into a set of experiments. A faster rotation rate may have existed in the Archean. The faster rotation rate simulations show warmer globally averaged surface temperatures that are caused by a 20 percent decrease in the total cloud fraction. The smaller cloud fraction is brought about by dynamical changes. A global ocean is a possibility for the Archean. A global ocean simulation predicts 4 K increase in global mean surface temperatures compared to the present-day climate control.

  5. The character of the Moho and lower crust within Archean cratons and the tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Dallas H.; Mooney, Walter D.; VanTongeren, Jill A.

    2013-12-01

    Undisturbed mid Archean crust (stabilized by 3.0-2.9 Ga) has several characteristics that distinguish it from post Archean crust. Undisturbed mid-Archean crust has a low proportion of internal seismic boundaries (as evidenced by converted phases in seismic receiver functions), lacks high seismic velocities in the lower crust and has a sharp, flat Moho. Most of the seismic data on mid-Archean crust comes from the undisturbed portions of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe (Tokwe segment) cratons. Around 67-74% of younger Archean crust (stabilized by 2.8-2.5 Ga) has a sharp, flat Moho. Much of the crust with a sharp, flat Moho also lacks strong internal seismic boundaries, but there is not a one to one correspondence. In cases where its age is known, basaltic lower crust in Archean terranes is often but not always the result of post Archean underplating. Undisturbed mid-Archean cratons are also characterized by lower crustal thicknesses (Archean median range = 32-39 km vs. post-Archean average = 41 km) and lower crustal seismic velocities. These observations are shown to be distinct from those observed in any modern-day tectonic environment. The data presented here are most consistent with a model in which Archean crust undergoes delamination of dense lithologies at the garnet-in isograd resulting in a flat, sharp Moho reflector and a thinner and more felsic-intermediate crust. We discuss the implications of this model for several outstanding paradoxes of Archean geology.

  6. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  7. Mineral artefacts mimicking microfossils in Archean rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepot, K.; Philippot, P.; Benzerara, K.

    2009-04-01

    Because prokaryotes populating the early Earth were structurally and morphologically very simple, it is difficult to obtain taxonomic information from microfossils, and even more problematic, to distinguish true fossils from abiotic objects. For example, many self-assembly processes associated with the precipitation of nanoscale minerals in the presence of organic compounds generate cell-like structures. Based on high resolution microscopy observations on natural samples, we describe three types of features common to Archean rocks and suggest that they represent microfossil-like artefacts. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we have observed carbon-free silica inclusions in carbonate sediments that are very similar in size and shape (rods and spheres) to microorganisms. The common distribution of organic carbon at grain boundaries in those rocks indicate that such cell-like minerals, when coated by secondarily-migrated carbonaceous mater, could easily be mistaken for microfossils. The organisation and the micro- to nano-structure of bacteriomorphs might be even more confusing. We have observed chains of spheres that match in size and arrangement with some coccoid bacteria such as streptococci. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) sections cut through these spheres shows that they are composed of TiO2nanocrystallites partly rimmed or linked by nanoscale chlorite films. This assemblage creates smooth cell-like structures at the micron-scale. However, the absence of organic carbon in those structures as well as the observation of many similar TiO2 chains of spheres dispersed in volcanic glass shards argue against a biologic origin. Ambient inclusions trails also generate filamentous structures that can be mistaken for microfossils. (Knoll and Barghoorn, 1974) suggested that such pseudofossils could have formed by the displacement of a crystal (e.g. pyrite) in its mineral matrix owing to pressure solution processes linked to gas

  8. Chromium-Isotope and iridium-Abundance Measurements for Late Eocene Impact-Derived Spherule Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyte, F. T.; Shukolyukov, A.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Lugmair, G. W.; Hanova, J.

    2004-05-01

    The late Eocene (approx. 35 Ma) was a time of multiple large body impacts superimposed within an interval of dust accretion. At least two spherule layers are preserved in deep sea sediments: North American microtektites and the slightly older cpx spherules. The two largest impact structures in the Cenozoic, the 45 km Chesapeake Bay structure and the 100 km Popigai structure, are indicated as the respective spherule sources. Enhanced 3He concentrations extending across a 3 m.y. duration in upper Eocene sediments from the Massignano quarry in Italy indicate accretion of <50 micron dust over this time interval. To characterize one of the impactors we have analyzed splits from the 125-250 micron cpx spherules from ODP 709C, and two fractions from the Massignano layer. Splits of each sample were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental activation analysis (INAA) including Ir, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Co. Additional splits were analyzed for their Cr-isotopic composition, using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Significant concentrations of Ir were found in all samples, with the highest levels in the Massignano coarse sample and the lowest in the 709C sample. In all cases, element/Ir ratios are much higher than in chondritic meteorites; this may reflect elemental fractionation due to preferential concentration of Cr in spinel growing in the impact fireball. The Cr-isotopic compositions of the 709C and Massignano coarse samples are both non-terrestrial with a positive epsilon 53, indicating a 53Cr/52Cr ratio higher than in terrestrial materials. Microprobe surveys showed that the Massignano samples had significant fine grained oxide grains (mixed with the spherules in the coarse sample) that were not Ni- or Cr-rich, including Ti-rich spinels (likely terrestrial contaminants). In contrast, the ODP 709C sample is a pure extract of generally well-preserved cpx spherules composed of clinopyroxene in a glass matrix. Both the Massignano coarse and the 709C cpx samples

  9. Elemental depletions in Antarctic micrometeorites and Arctic cosmic spherules: Comparison and relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presper, T.; Kurat, G.; Koeberl, C.; Palme, H.; Maurette, Michel

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic micrometeorites (MM's) and Arctic cosmic spherules (CS's) have bulk compositions comparable to those of chondritic meteorites. However, abundance of Na, Ca, Mn, Ni, Co, and S are commonly lower in MM's and CS's as compared to chondrites. Our SEM, EMP, and INAA studies suggest that these elemental depletions in unmelted MM's are likely to be due to leaching of soluble components from the MM's in the upper atmosphere and the melt ice water. Depletions in CS's appear to be mainly due to volatilization during melting in the atmosphere or to sampling bias during aggregate formation or parent rock break-up.

  10. A revised, hazy methane greenhouse for the Archean Earth.

    PubMed

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob D; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Kasting, Patrick J; Kasting, James F

    2008-12-01

    Geological and biological evidence suggests that Earth was warm during most of its early history, despite the fainter young Sun. Upper bounds on the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Late Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.8-2.2 Ga) from paleosol data suggest that additional greenhouse gases must have been present. Methanogenic bacteria, which were arguably extant at that time, may have contributed to a high concentration of atmospheric CH4, and previous calculations had indicated that a CH4-CO2-H2O greenhouse could have produced warm Late Archean surface temperatures while still satisfying the paleosol constraints on pCO2. Here, we revisit this conclusion. Correction of an error in the CH4 absorption coefficients, combined with the predicted early onset of climatically cooling organic haze, suggest that the amount of greenhouse warming by CH4 was more limited and that pCO2 must therefore have been 0.03 bar, at or above the upper bound of the value obtained from paleosols. Enough warming from CH4 remained in the Archean, however, to explain why Earth's climate cooled and became glacial when atmospheric O2 levels rose in the Paleoproterozoic. Our new model also shows that greenhouse warming by higher hydrocarbon gases, especially ethane (C2H6), may have helped to keep the Late Archean Earth warm.

  11. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  12. Petrogenesis of calcic plagioclase megacrysts in Archean rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Anorthositic complexes with large equidimensional plagioclase grains of highly calcic composition occur in nearly all Archean cratons. Similar plagioclase occur as megacrysts in many Archean sills, dikes, and volcanic flows. In the Canadian Shield these units occur throughout the Archean portions of the entire shield and are particularly common as dikes over an area of a few 100,000 sq km in Ontario and Manitoba during a period of at least 100 m.y. in many different rock types and metamorphic grades. The plagioclase generally occurs in three modes: as inclusions in mafic intrusions at various stages of fractionation, as crystal segregations in anorthosite complexes, or as megacrysts in fractionated sills, dikes, and flows. Most occurrences suggest that the plagioclase was formed elsewhere before being transported to its present location. The evidence seems to be quite clear that occurrences of these types of calcic plagioclase require: (1) ponding of a relatively undifferentiated Archean tholeiitic melt at some depth; (2) isothermal crystallization of large, equidimensional homogeneous plagioclase crystals; (3) separation of the plagioclase crystals from any other crystalline phases; (4) further fractionation of melt; (5)transport of various combinations of individual plagioclase crystals and clusters of crystals by variously fractionated melts; and (6) emplacement as various types of igneous intrusions or flows.

  13. A Revised, Hazy Methane Greenhouse for the Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob D.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Kasting, Patrick J.; Kasting, James F.

    2008-12-01

    Geological and biological evidence suggests that Earth was warm during most of its early history, despite the fainter young Sun. Upper bounds on the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Late Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.8 2.2 Ga) from paleosol data suggest that additional greenhouse gases must have been present. Methanogenic bacteria, which were arguably extant at that time, may have contributed to a high concentration of atmospheric CH4, and previous calculations had indicated that a CH4- CO2-H2O greenhouse could have produced warm Late Archean surface temperatures while still satisfying the paleosol constraints on pCO2. Here, we revisit this conclusion. Correction of an error in the CH4 absorption coefficients, combined with the predicted early onset of climatically cooling organic haze, suggest that the amount of greenhouse warming by CH4 was more limited and that pCO2 must therefore have been ≥0.03 bar, at or above the upper bound of the value obtained from paleosols. Enough warming from CH4 remained in the Archean, however, to explain why Earth's climate cooled and became glacial when atmospheric O2 levels rose in the Paleoproterozoic. Our new model also shows that greenhouse warming by higher hydrocarbon gases, especially ethane (C2H6), may have helped to keep the Late Archean Earth warm.

  14. Archean metamorphic sequence and surfaces, Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord, East Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kays, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of Archean metamorphic surfaces and fabrics of a mapped sequence of rocks older than about 3000 Ma provide information basic to an understanding of the structural evolution and metamorphic history in Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord, east Greenland. This information and the additional results of petrologic and geochemical studies have culminated in an extended chronology of Archean plutonic, metamorphic, and tectonic events. The basis for the chronology is considered, especially the nature of the metamorphic fabrics and surfaces in the Archean sequence. The surfaces, which are planar mineral parageneses, may prove to be mappable outside Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord, and if so, will be helpful in extending the events that they represent to other Archean sequences in east Greenland. The surfaces will become especially important reference planes if the absolute ages of their metamorphic assemblages can be determined in at least one location where strain was low subsequent to their recrystallization. Once an isochron is obtained, the dynamothermal age of the regionally identifiable metamorphic surface is determined everywhere it can be mapped.

  15. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits.

  16. A Investigation of the Archean Climate Using the Ncar Ccm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Gregory Stephen

    The Archean (2.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) is of interest climatically, because of the "Faint-Young Sun Paradox", which can be characterized by the Sun's reduced energy output. This lower energy output leads to a frozen planet if the climate existed as it does today but, the geologic record shows that water was flowing at the earth's surface 3.8 billion years ago. Energy Balance Models (EBMs) and one-dimensional radiative-convective (1DRC) models predict a frozen planet for this time period, unless large carbon dioxide concentrations (CO_2) exist in the Archean atmosphere. The goal of this thesis is to explore the Archean climate with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Community Climate Model (CCM). The search for negative feedbacks to explain the "Faint-Young Sun Paradox" is the thrust of this study. This study undertakes a series of sensitivity simulations which first explores individual factors that may be important for the Archean. They include rotation rate, lower solar luminosity, and land fraction. Then, these climatic factors along with higher (CO_2) concentrations are combined into a set of experiments. A faster rotation rate may have existed in the Archean. The faster rotation rate simulations show warmer globally averaged surface temperatures that are caused by a 20% decrease in the total cloud fraction. The smaller cloud fraction is brought about by dynamical changes. A global ocean is a possibility for the Archean. A global ocean simulation predicts 4 K increase in global mean surface temperatures compared to the present-day climate control. Experiments with the following conditions are then combined: rotation rate corresponding to a 14-hr day, 8 times CO_2, zero land fraction and decreased solar luminosities of 10, 15, and 20%. The results show that a very equitable climate exist up to a 15% decrease in the solar luminosity. As the solar constant is reduced by 20% the simulated climate becomes unstable with sea ice existing near the

  17. Deep-sea spherules from Pacific clay - Mass distribution and influx rate. [extraterrestrial origins from optical and electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Davis, P. A., Jr.; Nishiizumi, K.; Millard, H. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    From 411 kg of Pacific clay, 22 mg of stony spherules and 50 mg of iron spherules larger than 150 microns were concentrated. The extraterrestrial origin of these particles was evaluated with the aid of optical and electron microscopy and atomic absorption elemental analysis. An expression for the integral number of stony particles from this sediment in the mass range 20-300 micrograms was derived. The world-wide influx rate of stony particles in the mass range which survive atmospheric heating and ocean sediment storage is calculated to be 90 tons/yr. The relative contributions of ablation debris vs fused interplanetary dust to the influx of stony spherules is discussed, but no conclusions could be made.

  18. Hydrothermal hexahydrite spherules erupted during the 2008-2010 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hon, Ken; Orr, Tim R.

    2011-01-01

    Small (1-3 mm), hollow spherules of hexahydrite have been collected falling out of the magmatic gas plume downwind of Kīlauea’s summit vent. The spherules were observed on eight separate occasions during 2009-2010 when a lake of actively spattering lava was present ~150-200 m below the rim of the vent. The shells of the spherules have a fine bubbly foam structure less than 0.1 mm thick, composed almost entirely of hexahydrite [MgSO4·6H2O] Small microspherules of lava (4-saturated meteoric water in the walls of the conduit above the surface of the lava lake. Solfataric sulfates may thus be recycled and reinjected into the plume, creating particulates of sulfate minerals that can be distributed far from their original source.

  19. Late Archean Surface Ocean Oxygenation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, B.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T. W.; Kaufman, A. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis must have evolved by 2.45-2.32 Ga, when atmospheric oxygen abundances first rose above 0.001% present atmospheric level (Great Oxidation Event; GOE). Biomarker evidence for a time lag between the evolution of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis and the GOE continues to be debated. Geochemical signatures from sedimentary rocks (redox-sensitive trace metal abundances, sedimentary Fe geochemistry, and S isotopes) represent an alternative tool for tracing the history of Earth surface oxygenation. Integrated high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles through the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia) suggest a ‘whiff’ of oxygen in the surface environment at least 50 M.y. prior to the GOE. However, the geochemical data from the Mt. McRae Shale does not uniquely constrain the presence or extent of Late Archean ocean oxygenation. Here, we present high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles from 2.6-2.5 Ga black shales (upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa) that provide the earliest direct evidence for an oxygenated ocean water column. On the slope beneath the Campbellrand - Malmani carbonate platform (Nauga Formation), a mildly oxygenated water column (highly reactive iron to total iron ratios [FeHR/FeT] ≤ 0.4) was underlain by oxidizing sediments (low Re and Mo abundances) or mildly reducing sediments (high Re but low Mo abundances). After drowning of the carbonate platform (Klein Naute Formation), the local bottom waters became anoxic (FeHR/FeT > 0.4) and intermittently sulphidic (pyrite iron to highly reactive iron ratios [FePY/FeHR] > 0.8), conducive to enrichment of both Re and Mo in sediments, followed by anoxic and Fe2+-rich (ferruginous) conditions (high FeT, FePY/FeHR near 0). Widespread surface ocean oxygenation is suggested by Re enrichment in the broadly correlative Klein Naute Formation and Mt. McRae Shale, deposited ~1000 km apart in the Griqualand West and Hamersley basins

  20. Dating Carbonaceous Matter in Archean Cherts by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Bourbin, M.; Derenne, S.; Binet, L.; Le Du, Y.; Westall, F.; Kremer, B.; Gautret, P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ancient geological materials are likely to be contaminated through geological times. Thus, establishing the syngeneity of the organic matter embedded in a mineral matrix is a crucial step in the study of very ancient rocks. This is particularly the case for Archean siliceous sedimentary rocks (cherts), which record the earliest traces of life. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for assessing the syngeneity of organic matter in cherts that have a metamorphic grade no higher than greenschist. A correlation between the age of Precambrian samples and the shape of their EPR signal was established and statistically tested. As thermal treatments impact organic matter maturity, the effect of temperature on this syngeneity proxy was studied; cyanobacteria were submitted to cumulative short thermal treatment at high temperatures followed by an analysis of their EPR parameters. The resulting carbonaceous matter showed an evolution similar to that of a thermally treated young chert. Furthermore, the possible effect of metamorphism, which is a longer thermal event at lower temperatures, was ruled out for cherts older than 2 Gyr, based on the study of Silurian cherts of the same age and same precursors but various metamorphic grades. We determined that even the most metamorphosed sample did not exhibit the lineshape of an Archean sample. In the hope of detecting organic contamination in Archean cherts, a “contamination-like” mixture was prepared and studied by EPR. It resulted that the lineshape analysis alone does not allow contamination detection and that it must be performed along with cumulative thermal treatments. Such treatments were applied to three Archean chert samples, making dating of their carbonaceous matter possible. We concluded that EPR is a powerful tool to study primitive organic matter and could be used in further exobiology studies on low-metamorphic grade samples (from Mars for example). Key Words: Kerogen—Sedimentary rocks—Contamination—Spectroscopy—Archean

  1. Moderate velocity oblique impact sliding: Production of shocked meteorite textures and palaeomagnetically important metallic spherules in planetary regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, David K.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    We detail the production of metallic spherules in laboratory oblique shock impact experiments, and their applicability (1) to textures in a partly shock-melted chondritic meteorite and (2) to the occurrence of palaeomagnetically important fine iron or iron alloy particles in the lunar regolith. Samples recovered from 29-44 GPa, 800 ns, experiments revealed melting and textures reminiscent of metallic spherules in the Yanzhuang H-chondrite, including "dumbbell" forms and other more complex morphologies. Our experiments demonstrate that metallic spherules can be produced via oblique impact sliding at lower velocities (1.85 km s-1) than are generally assumed in previous work associated with bulk-shock melting, and that oblique impact sliding is a viable mechanism for producing spherules in shock-induced veins in moderately shocked meteorites. Significantly, our experiments also produced fine metallic (iron alloy) spherules within the theoretical narrow size range (a few tens of nanometers for slightly ellipsoidal particles) for stable single-domain (SSD) particles, which are the most important palaeomagnetically, since they can record lunar and planetary magnetic fields over geological time periods. The experiments also produced spherules consistent with superparamagnetic (SP) and multidomain (MD) particle sizes. The fine SSD and SP particles on the lunar surface are currently thought to have been formed predominantly by space weathering processes. Our experiments suggest that oblique shock impact sliding may be a further means of producing the SSD and SP iron or iron alloy particles observed in the lunar regolith, and which are likely to occur in the regoliths of Mercury and other planetary bodies.

  2. Identification of hydroxyapatite spherules provides new insight into subretinal pigment epithelial deposit formation in the aging eye.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard B; Reffatto, Valentina; Bundy, Jacob G; Kortvely, Elod; Flinn, Jane M; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Jones, Emrys A; McPhail, David S; Fearn, Sarah; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius; Ratu, Savanjeet Guy Singh; Pauleikhoff, Laurenz; Bird, Alan C; Lengyel, Imre

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of protein- and lipid-containing deposits external to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is common in the aging eye, and has long been viewed as the hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The cause for the accumulation and retention of molecules in the sub-RPE space, however, remains an enigma. Here, we present fluorescence microscopy and X-ray diffraction evidence for the formation of small (0.5-20 μm in diameter), hollow, hydroxyapatite (HAP) spherules in Bruch's membrane in human eyes. These spherules are distinct in form, placement, and staining from the well-known calcification of the elastin layer of the aging Bruch's membrane. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging confirmed the presence of calcium phosphate in the spherules and identified cholesterol enrichment in their core. Using HAP-selective fluorescent dyes, we show that all types of sub-RPE deposits in the macula, as well as in the periphery, contain numerous HAP spherules. Immunohistochemical labeling for proteins characteristic of sub-RPE deposits, such as complement factor H, vitronectin, and amyloid beta, revealed that HAP spherules were coated with these proteins. HAP spherules were also found outside the sub-RPE deposits, ready to bind proteins at the RPE/choroid interface. Based on these results, we propose a novel mechanism for the growth, and possibly even the formation, of sub-RPE deposits, namely, that the deposit growth and formation begin with the deposition of insoluble HAP shells around naturally occurring, cholesterol-containing extracellular lipid droplets at the RPE/choroid interface; proteins and lipids then attach to these shells, initiating or supporting the growth of sub-RPE deposits.

  3. Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and

  4. Mechanism of formation of concentrically laminated spherules: Implication to Randall’s plaque and stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Fairland F.; Dai, Lijun; Kumar, Rajendra; Khan, Saeed R.; Gower, Laurie B.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the formation of calcium phosphate multi-laminated spherules via a polymer-induced liquid-like precursor (PILP) process. In this non-classical crystallization route, the precipitation of liquid-like amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) particles is promoted using anionic polypeptide additives, and these droplets coalesce to form globules that later crystallize into spherulites. During crystallization of the amorphous globules, the polymer additive, as well as the waters of hydration, is excluded ahead of the crystallization front, but some polymer becomes entrapped within diffusion-limited zones. This results in the formation of concentric laminations with layers of variable density from organic-rich inclusions. The striking resemblance of these spherules with the crystals of the Randall’s plaque and other laminated stones suggests that such biological structures may form via an amorphous precursor process as well. Given the organic-rich environment present in the urinary tract, one might expect a large amount of organic materials to become entrapped within the stratified zones of a forming stone during this type of solidification and transformation process. PMID:19066874

  5. Spherulization as a process for the exudation of chemical cues by the encrusting sponge C. crambe.

    PubMed

    Ternon, Eva; Zarate, Lina; Chenesseau, Sandrine; Croué, Julie; Dumollard, Rémi; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Thomas, Olivier P

    2016-07-06

    Ecological interactions in the marine environment are now recognized to be partly held by chemical cues produced by marine organisms. In particular, sponges are sessile animals thought to rely on the bioactive substances they synthesize to ensure their development and defense. However, the mechanisms leading the sponges to use their specialized metabolites as chemical cues remain unknown. Here we report the constant release of bioactive polycyclic guanidinic alkaloids by the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe into the dissolved and the particulate phases using a targeted metabolomics study. These compounds were proven to be stored into already described specialized (spherulous) sponge cells and dispersed into the water column after release through the sponge exhaling channels (oscula), leading to a chemical shield surrounding the sponge. Low concentrations of these compounds were demonstrated to have teratogenic effects on embryos of a common sea squirt (ascidian). This mechanism of action called spherulization may therefore contribute to the ecological success of encrusting sponges that need to extend their substrate cover to expand.

  6. Spherulization as a process for the exudation of chemical cues by the encrusting sponge C. crambe.

    PubMed

    Ternon, Eva; Zarate, Lina; Chenesseau, Sandrine; Croué, Julie; Dumollard, Rémi; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Thomas, Olivier P

    2016-01-01

    Ecological interactions in the marine environment are now recognized to be partly held by chemical cues produced by marine organisms. In particular, sponges are sessile animals thought to rely on the bioactive substances they synthesize to ensure their development and defense. However, the mechanisms leading the sponges to use their specialized metabolites as chemical cues remain unknown. Here we report the constant release of bioactive polycyclic guanidinic alkaloids by the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe into the dissolved and the particulate phases using a targeted metabolomics study. These compounds were proven to be stored into already described specialized (spherulous) sponge cells and dispersed into the water column after release through the sponge exhaling channels (oscula), leading to a chemical shield surrounding the sponge. Low concentrations of these compounds were demonstrated to have teratogenic effects on embryos of a common sea squirt (ascidian). This mechanism of action called spherulization may therefore contribute to the ecological success of encrusting sponges that need to extend their substrate cover to expand. PMID:27381941

  7. Spherules from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay at Gubbio, Italy: the problem of outcrop contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, A.

    1986-12-01

    Surficial outcrop contamination has occurred in some well-known stratigraphic sections of carbonate rocks in the northern Apennines. A critical case involves several contaminated clay partings, including the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay in the classic Bottaccione section near Gubbio, Italy. These clay layers contain shiny spherules which, in several recent studies, have been said to consist of volcanic glass and have been used to support the hypothesis that the terminal Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by widespread volcanism. Laboratory tests, however, indicate that these shiny spherules are made of HF-insoluble and combustible material and are therefore of recent biological origin. These objects were introduced into the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and other clay layers from the surrounding soil along with abundant detrital contaminants derived from erosion of the middle Miocene flysch exposed at the head of the Bottaccione Gorge. They are completely different from the altered and flattened microtektitelike spheroids that are found only in the iridium-rich Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and that provide strong evidence for a large impact.

  8. Spherulization as a process for the exudation of chemical cues by the encrusting sponge C. crambe

    PubMed Central

    Ternon, Eva; Zarate, Lina; Chenesseau, Sandrine; Croué, Julie; Dumollard, Rémi; Suzuki, Marcelino T.; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological interactions in the marine environment are now recognized to be partly held by chemical cues produced by marine organisms. In particular, sponges are sessile animals thought to rely on the bioactive substances they synthesize to ensure their development and defense. However, the mechanisms leading the sponges to use their specialized metabolites as chemical cues remain unknown. Here we report the constant release of bioactive polycyclic guanidinic alkaloids by the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe into the dissolved and the particulate phases using a targeted metabolomics study. These compounds were proven to be stored into already described specialized (spherulous) sponge cells and dispersed into the water column after release through the sponge exhaling channels (oscula), leading to a chemical shield surrounding the sponge. Low concentrations of these compounds were demonstrated to have teratogenic effects on embryos of a common sea squirt (ascidian). This mechanism of action called spherulization may therefore contribute to the ecological success of encrusting sponges that need to extend their substrate cover to expand. PMID:27381941

  9. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem. PMID:25577850

  10. Deformation history of Archean metasedimentary rocks of the Beartooth mountains in the vicinity of the Mineral Hill mine, Jardine, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Jablinski, J.D.; Holst, T.B. )

    1992-09-01

    Archean metasedimentary rocks of the South Snowy Block of the Beartooth Mountains, in the vicinity of Jardine, Montana, consist predominantly of schistose rocks with rare iron formation. These rocks are intruded by Precambrian granitic stocks and minor mafic dikes and sills. Evidence for three phases of folding and late-stage kinking is found within the metasedimentary rocks, whereas rocks of the Crevice Mountain stock (2,700 Ma) are unaffected by any of these events. The first folding event involved the development of isoclinal, recumbent folds of varying scale. F[sub 1] fold hinges are rare, most commonly observed underground in Mineral Hill. An S[sub 1] schistosity has developed axial planar to these folds. This schistosity, which is subparallel to bedding, is very well developed and ubiquitous in the metasedimentary rocks of the Jardine region. Two later phases of folding are also recognized. F[sub 2] folds are nearly upright with gently to moderately plunging fold hinges. Temperature and pressure conditions during deformation, as revealed by calculations from microprobe analyses, suggest that the peak of metamorphism occurred at a temperature of about 560 C and a pressure of 2.9 kb. Thin section observations indicate that the metamorphic peak accompanied the formation of S[sub 1] schistosity. Structural, metamorphic, and geochemical data are consistent with the hypothesis that the metasedimentary rock of the Jardine region are allochthonous and constitute one of a number of tectonostratigrphic terranes in the western Beartooth Mountains that were juxtaposed tectonically against the western margin of an Archean continent during a Late Archean collisional event.

  11. Development of Archean crust in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, C. D.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Wind River Mountains are a NW-SE trending range composed almost entirely of high-grade Archean gneiss and granites which were thrust to the west over Phanerozoic sediments during the Laramide orogeny. Late Archean granites make up over 50% of the exposed crust and dominates the southern half of the range, while older orthogneisses and magnatites form most of the northen half of the range. Locally these gneisses contain enclaves of supracrustal rocks, which appear to be the oldest preserved rocks in the range. Detailed work in the Medina Mountain area of the central Wind River Mountains and reconnaissance work throughout much of the northern part of the range has allowed definition of the sequence of events which marked crustal development in this area. The sequence of events are described.

  12. Dating carbonaceous matter in archean cherts by electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Bourbin, M; Gourier, D; Derenne, S; Binet, L; Le Du, Y; Westall, F; Kremer, B; Gautret, P

    2013-02-01

    Ancient geological materials are likely to be contaminated through geological times. Thus, establishing the syngeneity of the organic matter embedded in a mineral matrix is a crucial step in the study of very ancient rocks. This is particularly the case for Archean siliceous sedimentary rocks (cherts), which record the earliest traces of life. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for assessing the syngeneity of organic matter in cherts that have a metamorphic grade no higher than greenschist. A correlation between the age of Precambrian samples and the shape of their EPR signal was established and statistically tested. As thermal treatments impact organic matter maturity, the effect of temperature on this syngeneity proxy was studied; cyanobacteria were submitted to cumulative short thermal treatment at high temperatures followed by an analysis of their EPR parameters. The resulting carbonaceous matter showed an evolution similar to that of a thermally treated young chert. Furthermore, the possible effect of metamorphism, which is a longer thermal event at lower temperatures, was ruled out for cherts older than 2 Gyr, based on the study of Silurian cherts of the same age and same precursors but various metamorphic grades. We determined that even the most metamorphosed sample did not exhibit the lineshape of an Archean sample. In the hope of detecting organic contamination in Archean cherts, a "contamination-like" mixture was prepared and studied by EPR. It resulted that the lineshape analysis alone does not allow contamination detection and that it must be performed along with cumulative thermal treatments. Such treatments were applied to three Archean chert samples, making dating of their carbonaceous matter possible. We concluded that EPR is a powerful tool to study primitive organic matter and could be used in further exobiology studies on low-metamorphic grade samples (from Mars for example).

  13. Hospitable archean climates simulated by a general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2013-07-01

    Evidence from ancient sediments indicates that liquid water and primitive life were present during the Archean despite the faint young Sun. To date, studies of Archean climate typically utilize simplified one-dimensional models that ignore clouds and ice. Here, we use an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model to simulate the climate circa 2.8 billion years ago when the Sun was 20% dimmer than it is today. Surface properties are assumed to be equal to those of the present day, while ocean heat transport varies as a function of sea ice extent. Present climate is duplicated with 0.06 bar of CO2 or alternatively with 0.02 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. Hot Archean climates, as implied by some isotopic reconstructions of ancient marine cherts, are unattainable even in our warmest simulation having 0.2 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. However, cooler climates with significant polar ice, but still dominated by open ocean, can be maintained with modest greenhouse gas amounts, posing no contradiction with CO2 constraints deduced from paleosols or with practical limitations on CH4 due to the formation of optically thick organic hazes. Our results indicate that a weak version of the faint young Sun paradox, requiring only that some portion of the planet's surface maintain liquid water, may be resolved with moderate greenhouse gas inventories. Thus, hospitable late Archean climates are easily obtained in our climate model.

  14. Hospitable archean climates simulated by a general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2013-07-01

    Evidence from ancient sediments indicates that liquid water and primitive life were present during the Archean despite the faint young Sun. To date, studies of Archean climate typically utilize simplified one-dimensional models that ignore clouds and ice. Here, we use an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model to simulate the climate circa 2.8 billion years ago when the Sun was 20% dimmer than it is today. Surface properties are assumed to be equal to those of the present day, while ocean heat transport varies as a function of sea ice extent. Present climate is duplicated with 0.06 bar of CO2 or alternatively with 0.02 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. Hot Archean climates, as implied by some isotopic reconstructions of ancient marine cherts, are unattainable even in our warmest simulation having 0.2 bar of CO2 and 0.001 bar of CH4. However, cooler climates with significant polar ice, but still dominated by open ocean, can be maintained with modest greenhouse gas amounts, posing no contradiction with CO2 constraints deduced from paleosols or with practical limitations on CH4 due to the formation of optically thick organic hazes. Our results indicate that a weak version of the faint young Sun paradox, requiring only that some portion of the planet's surface maintain liquid water, may be resolved with moderate greenhouse gas inventories. Thus, hospitable late Archean climates are easily obtained in our climate model. PMID:23808659

  15. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D. (Editor); Card, K. D. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various topics relevant to crustal genesis, especially the relationship between Archean low - and high-grade terrains, were discussed. The central Superior Province of the Canadian Shield was studied. Here a 120 km-wide transition from subgreenschist facies rocks of the Michipicoten greenstone belt to granulite facies rocks of the Kapuskasing structural zone represents an oblique cross section through some 20 km of crust, uplifted along a northwest-dipping thrust fault.

  16. Dating carbonaceous matter in archean cherts by electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Bourbin, M; Gourier, D; Derenne, S; Binet, L; Le Du, Y; Westall, F; Kremer, B; Gautret, P

    2013-02-01

    Ancient geological materials are likely to be contaminated through geological times. Thus, establishing the syngeneity of the organic matter embedded in a mineral matrix is a crucial step in the study of very ancient rocks. This is particularly the case for Archean siliceous sedimentary rocks (cherts), which record the earliest traces of life. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for assessing the syngeneity of organic matter in cherts that have a metamorphic grade no higher than greenschist. A correlation between the age of Precambrian samples and the shape of their EPR signal was established and statistically tested. As thermal treatments impact organic matter maturity, the effect of temperature on this syngeneity proxy was studied; cyanobacteria were submitted to cumulative short thermal treatment at high temperatures followed by an analysis of their EPR parameters. The resulting carbonaceous matter showed an evolution similar to that of a thermally treated young chert. Furthermore, the possible effect of metamorphism, which is a longer thermal event at lower temperatures, was ruled out for cherts older than 2 Gyr, based on the study of Silurian cherts of the same age and same precursors but various metamorphic grades. We determined that even the most metamorphosed sample did not exhibit the lineshape of an Archean sample. In the hope of detecting organic contamination in Archean cherts, a "contamination-like" mixture was prepared and studied by EPR. It resulted that the lineshape analysis alone does not allow contamination detection and that it must be performed along with cumulative thermal treatments. Such treatments were applied to three Archean chert samples, making dating of their carbonaceous matter possible. We concluded that EPR is a powerful tool to study primitive organic matter and could be used in further exobiology studies on low-metamorphic grade samples (from Mars for example). PMID:23397956

  17. Iron isotope composition of some Archean and Proterozoic iron formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planavsky, Noah; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Bekker, Andrey; Hofmann, Axel; Little, Crispin T. S.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2012-03-01

    Fe isotopes can provide new insight into redox-dependent biogeochemical processes. Precambrian iron formations (IF) are deserving targets for Fe isotope studies because they are composed predominantly of authigenic Fe phases and record a period of unprecedented iron deposition in Earth's history. We present Fe isotope data for bulk samples from 24 Archean and Proterozoic IF and eight Phanerozoic Fe oxide-rich deposits. These data reveal that many Archean and early Paleoproterozoic iron formations were a sink for isotopically heavy Fe, in contrast to later Proterozoic and Phanerozoic Fe oxide-rich rocks. The positive δ56Fe values in IF are best explained by delivery of particulate ferric oxides formed in the water column to the sediment-water interface. Because IF are a net sink for isotopically heavy Fe, there must be a corresponding pool of isotopically light Fe in the sedimentary record. Earlier work suggested that Archean pyritic black shales were an important part of this light sink before 2.35 billion years ago (Ga). It is therefore likely that the persistently and anomalously low δ56Fe values in shales are linked with the deposition of isotopically heavy Fe in IF in the deeper parts of basins. IF deposition produced a residual isotopically light dissolved Fe pool that was captured by pyritic Fe in shales. Local dissimilatory Fe reduction in porewater and associated diagenetic reactions resulting in pyrite and carbonate precipitation may have further enhanced Fe isotope heterogeneity in marine sediments, and an 'iron shuttle' may have transported isotopically light Fe from shelf sediments to the basin. Nevertheless, water-column processing of hydrothermally delivered Fe likely had the strongest influence on the bulk iron isotope composition of Archean and Paleoproterozoic iron formations and other marine sediments.

  18. Bridging Two Worlds: From the Archean to the Proterozoic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. William

    2000-01-01

    As now known, the Archean and Proterozoic appear to have been different worlds: the geology (tectonic style, basinal distribution, dominant rock types), atmospheric composition (O2, CO21, CH4), and surface environment (day-length, solar luminosity, ambient temperature) all appear to have changed over time. And virtually all paleobiologic indicators can be interpreted as suggesting there were significant biotic differences as well: (1) Stromatolites older than 2.5 Ga are rare relative to those of the Proterozoic; their biotic components are largely unknown; and the biogenicity of those older than approx. 3.2 Ga has been questioned. (2) Bona fide microfossils older than approx. 2.4 Ga are rare, poorly preserved, and of uncertain biological relations. Gaps of hundreds of millions of years in the known record make it impossible to show that Archean microorganisms are definitely part of the 2.4 Ga-to-present evolutionary continuum. and (3) In rocks older than approx. 2.2 Ga, the sulfur isotopic record is subject to controversy; phylogenetically distinctive bio-markers are unknown; and nearly a score of geologic units contain organic carbon anomalously light isotopically (relative to that of the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) that may reflect the presence of Archaeans ("Archaebacteria of earlier classifications) but may not (since cellularly preserved Archean-age Archaeans have never been identified).

  19. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents

    PubMed Central

    Mole, David R.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F.; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Romano, Sandra S.; Doublier, Michael P.; Belousova, Elena A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Miller, John

    2014-01-01

    The generation and evolution of Earth’s continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50–30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean–Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  20. How widely is the Andean type of continental margin represented in the Archean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Application of the principle of uniformitarianism to the Archean was discussed in a search for evidence of Archean-type continental margins in Archean rocks. The author cautioned that Archean rocks represent only 2 percent of the current exposure of the continents, half of which is in the North American Superior Province. Care must be taken in interpreting the global tectonic significance of relatively small exposures of Archean rocks, such as South India. Andean margins were characterized by their elongate shape, magmatic associations, and isotopic signatures. Although the compositional evidence alone will always be ambiguous, it was suggested that supporting structural evidence may aid in the identification of Archean Andean margins. Andean margin remains have been recognized in the Superior Province of Canada by these criteria, and the author suggested that the Closepet granite of South India may represent another example.

  1. Petrographic, mineralogic, and x-ray fluorescence analysis of lunar igneous-type rocks and spherules.

    PubMed

    Brown, G M; Emeleus, C H; Holland, J G; Phillips, R

    1970-01-30

    Three lunar rocks show almost identical mineralogy but grain sizes that vary from basaltic to gabbroic. Clinopyroxene is zoned from augite to subcalcic ferroaugite compositions and is accompanied by decrease in Cr, Al, and Ti. Plagioclase is zoned from 93 to 78 percent anorthite. Olivine (68 percent forsterite) is present in one rock and apatite is rare. Cristobalite, ilmenite with Ti-rich lamellae, ulvöspinel (often Cr-rich), troilite, and kamacite are low in trace elements. Glassy spherules are of basaltic or feldspathic (92 percent anorthite) composition but contain abundant iron spheres of taenite composition (13 percent Ni). Four rock analyses by x-ray fluorescence show affinity with terrestrial basalts but with anomalous amounts of Ti, Na, Cr, Zr, Y, Rb, Nb, Ni, Cu, and Zn.

  2. Constraining Archean Earth's Atmosphere with the Geological Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, A. M.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    A warm, water-bearing Archean Earth, when the Sun was young and faint, remains a paradox to the scientific world. Abundant geological data suggests that Archean Earth had standing water at the surface, despite the fainter Sun. An explanation of this paradox is vital to the understanding of Earth's history and coevolution with life. If the surface of the planet was not being kept warm by the Sun, which was 25% less luminous than now, it must have been kept warm a different way—by an atmospheric composition high in greenhouse gases. Constraints on these gases come from the geological record, which have provided proxies for the redox state of the atmosphere (limiting H2 and O2), the total atmospheric pressure, and the partial pressure of certain gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Previous attempts at solutions to the paradox are consistent with some, but not all, of the geological proxies. The constraints are used as inputs for a 1-D photochemical code, which calculates atmospheric composition and predicts the abundances of atmospheric gases that affect climate, particularly methane (CH4) and gaseous hydrogen (H2). A coupled 1-D radiative-convective climate code is then used to calculate the corresponding surface temperature. Critically, the improved photochemical code maintains strict redox boundary conditions, and is being further updated to ensure that the redox fluxes from volcanoes and mid-ocean ridge vents are consistent with both each other and the redox state of the mantle. These code improvements will lead to changes in both the inputs to the atmosphere from volcanoes and the sink for oxidants at mid-ocean ridges, in turn affecting the abundance of redox-sensitive greenhouse gases such as CH4 and H2. The main purpose of this project is to extend simulations of the Archean surface environment down into the mantle, and to search for a solution to the faint young sun paradox that is consistent with the geological proxies. Beyond having

  3. Low Temperature Magnetic Properties of the Late Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation (Hamersley Group, Western Australia): Environmental Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlut, Julie; Isambert, Aude; Bouquerel, Hélène; Pecoits, Ernesto; Philippot, Pascal; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Ader, Magali; Thomazo, Christophe; Buoncristiani, Jean-François; Baton, Franck; Muller, Elodie; Deldicque, Damien

    2015-05-01

    The origin of the iron oxides in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Banded Iron Formations is still a debated question. We report low and high temperature magnetic properties, susceptibility and saturation magnetization results joined with scanning microscope observations within a 35 meters section of the Late Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia. With the exception of two volcanoclastic intervals characterized by low susceptibility and magnetization, nearly pure magnetite is identified as the main magnetic carrier in all iron-rich layers including hematite-rich jasper beds. Two populations of magnetically distinct magnetites are reported from a 2 meter-thick interval within the section. Each population shows a specific Verwey transition temperature: one around 120-124 K and the other in the range of 105-110 K. This temperature difference is interpreted to reflect two distinct stoichiometry and likely two episodes of crystallization. The 120-124K transition is attributed to nearly pure stoichiometric magnetite, SEM and microprobe observations suggest that the lower temperature transition is related to chemically impure silician magnetite. Microbial-induced partial substitution of iron by silicon is suggested here. This is supported by an increase in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the same interval.

  4. Complex Zoning in Hibonite in Spinel-Hibonite Spherules from Murchison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    1995-09-01

    Spinel-hibonite-rich (SH) spherules are a major type of refractory inclusion in the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite. They typically consist of radially oriented, intersecting hibonite laths 5-10 micrometers wide and 10-30 micrometers long, partially enclosed in Mg-Al spinel +/- perovskite (pv), and are thought to have been at least partially molten [e.g.,1]. Among a suite of ~ 20 SH spherule fragments recovered by freeze-thaw disaggregation of Murchison, we have discovered several in which the hibonite exhibits wider ranges in composition than previously observed within single inclusions and has complex zoning patterns not consistent with crystallization from a melt in a single-stage cooling event. For example, in H2-3, a spherule fragment with ~ 1 % pv, most of which is enclosed in spinel, hibonite has from 0.8 to 7.4 wt % TiO2, and one crystal with ~ 2 wt % TiO2 has thin, linear zones, mostly parallel to cleavage, with ~ 7 wt % TiO2. In H2-18, an SH inclusion with a trace of pv, small, contiguous grains of hibonite with ~1.3 wt % TiO2 are completely rimmed with relatively Ti-rich (~ 6.5 wt % TiO2) hibonite, so that the latter appears to define angular, Ti-poor islands in backscattered electron images (BEI). This inclusion also contains a hibonite crystal that is nearly TiO2-free (< 0.3 wt %) in which Mg (up to 1 wt % MgO) is largely balanced by Si (up to 1.4 wt % SiO2) instead of Ti. This grain has an ~ 1 micrometers-wide rim of Ti-bearing (~ 3 wt % TiO2) hibonite, which is possibly related to the other Ti-rich overgrowths. We also found several SH spherule fragments in which the hibonite has patchy zoning, with, for example, regions with ~ 7 and 0.7 wt % TiO2 separated by diffuse and irregular contacts within a single crystal. Aureoles of Ti-rich hibonite around perovskite inclusions are not apparent in BEIs. Virtually Ti-free hibonite is clearly not in equilibrium with overgrowths of Ti-rich hibonite, and in these inclusions the Ti-rich material is

  5. Triple sulfur isotope composition of Late Archean seawater sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, G.; Fischer, W. W.; Sessions, A. L.; Adkins, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sulfur isotope ratios in Archean sedimentary rocks have provided powerful insights into the behavior of the ancient sulfur cycle, the redox state of fluid Earth, and the timing of the rise of atmospheric oxygen [1]. Most processes fractionate sulfur isotopes in proportion to their mass differences, but the Archean sulfur isotope record is marked by pronounced mass-independent fractionation (MIF, Δ33S≠0). The origin of these signatures has been traditionally interpreted as the result of photolysis of SO2 from short wavelength UV light, with positive Δ33S values recorded in pyrite and negative Δ33S values in sulfate-bearing phases [2]. This long-held hypothesis rests on observations of negative Δ33S from enigmatic barite occurrences from mixed volcanic sedimentary strata in Mesoarchean greenstone terrains. Despite forming the framework for understanding Archean sulfur cycle processes [3], it is largely untested [3]. It is largely untested. Consequently, the biggest challenge to our current understanding of the early sulfur cycle is a poor understanding of the isotopic composition of seawater sulfate. Sulfate evaporite minerals are absent from Archean strata and the sulfur isotope record is written entirely by measurements of pyrite. Carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) provides an important archive for assaying the isotopic composition of ancient seawater sulfate It has been exploited in many studies of Phanerozoic and Proterozoic sulfate but have been only marginally used thus far for Archean samples because of the extremely low concentration of CAS in limestones and dolomites from this era. We have developed a novel MC-ICP-MS approach to solve this problem [4]. This new method lowers the detection limit by up to three orders of magnitude for δ34S and Δ33S measurements, enabling to work on a few nmols of sulfate which represent only tens of mg of sample powders micromilled from specific carbonate textures. Two stratigraphic sections from the 2

  6. Relationship between high- and low-grade Archean terranes: Implications for early Earth paleogeography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, K. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Western Gneiss Terrain (WGT) of the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia was studied. The WGT forms an arcuate belt of Archean gneisses that flank the western margin of the Yilgarn Block. In general the WGT is composed of high-grade orthogneisses and paragneisses which contain supracrustal belts composed largely of siliciclastic metasediments and subordinate iron formation. The platformal nature of the metasedimentary belts and lack of obvious metavolcanic lithologies contrasts with the composition of typical Yilgarn greenstones to the east. Radiometric data from WGT rocks indicates that these rocks are significantly older than Yilgarn rocks to the east (less than 3.3 Ga) and this has led to the suggestion that the WGT represents sialic basement to Yilgarn granite-greenstone belts. The Mount Narryer region exposes the northernmost occurrence of high-grade metasediments within the WGT and consists of quartz-rich clastic metasediments at upper amphibolite to granulite grade. Most occurrences of supracrustal rocks in this region comprise isolated lenses within the gneissic basement. However, at Mount Narryer a unique sequence of metaclastics with preserved bedding provide an unusual window into the parentage of similar supracrustal bodies in this region.

  7. Accretionary origin for the late Archean Ashuanipi Complex of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Ashuanipi complex is one of the largest massif granulite terrains of the Canadian Shield. It makes up the eastern end of the 2000 km long, lower-grade, east-west belts of the Archean Superior Province, permitting lithological, age and tectonic correlation. Numerous lithological, geochemical and metamorphic similarities to south Indian granulites suggest common processes and invite comparison of tectonic evolution. The Ashuanipi granulite terrain of the Cannadian Superior Province was studied in detail, and an origin through self-melting of a 55 km thick accretionary wedge seems possible.

  8. Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Brocks, J J; Logan, G A; Buick, R; Summons, R E

    1999-08-13

    Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Sequential extraction of adjacent samples shows that these hydrocarbon biomarkers are indigenous and syngenetic to the Archean shales, greatly extending the known geological range of such molecules. The presence of abundant 2alpha-methylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose.

  9. Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Hurwitz,D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2008-01-01

    The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Elsewhere we have addressed the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. Here we present the major goals of the Venus-Archean comparison and show how preliminary mapping of the geology of the V-2 Fortuna Tessera quadrangle is providing insight on these problems. We have identified five key themes and questions common to both the Archean and Venus, the assessment of which could provide important new insights into the history and processes of both planets.

  10. Altered spherules of impact melt and associated relic glass from the K/T boundary sediments in Haiti

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, D.A.; Boynton, W.V. )

    1991-06-01

    Partially to wholly altered glass spherules produced by impact-induced shock melting have been found in the K/T boundary sediments of Haiti which also contain grains of shocked quartz. The relic glass has an approximately dacitic composition, and although grossly similar in composition to most previously described tektite glasses, it is slightly enriched in Ca and slightly depleted in Si, suggesting the Haitian glass was produced either from a target with a greater fraction of carbonate and anhydrite lithologies and fewer silicate units than the targets from which most other tektites were produced, and/or from one with a significant mafic component. The composition of the glass can best be reconciled with a continental margin terrane, consistent with studies of shocked mineral phases reported elsewhere. The thickness of the deposit in which the impact spherules occur indicates the source of the ejecta was in the proto-Caribbean region.

  11. A novel porous bioceramics scaffold by accumulating hydroxyapatite spherules for large bone tissue engineering in vivo. I. Preparation and characterization of scaffold.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Jiang, Faxing; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Shaobing; Weng, Jie; Bao, Chongyun; Zhang, Cong; Yu, Haiyang

    2010-06-01

    A novel scaffold with large dimension of 3-4 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter was designed and fabricated for engineering large bone tissue in vivo. The scaffold was constructed by filling hydroxyapatite (HA) spherules into a porous HA tube. The HA spherules were prepared by chitin sol emulsification in oil and gelation in situ, and their sizes can be controlled by parameters such as stirring rate and oil temperature. Accumulation of the HA spherules formed the interconnected pores in the scaffold, and the porosity and microstructure of the scaffold can be controlled by varying the size and miroporous structure of the HA spherules. Porous HA tube coated with a thin layer of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) held the HA spherules together and provided the initial strength of scaffolds. HA spherules can be easily compounded with biological substance, such as comminuted bone granules, before being filled into the HA tubes. A pilot study is underway to use the hybrid scaffolds at different sites such as muscle, peritoneum, and bone side. PMID:19708076

  12. Carbonaceous cherts in the Barberton greenstone belt and their significance for the study of early life in the Archean record.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Axel; Bolhar, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The 3.5-3.2 Ga old volcano-sedimentary succession of the Barberton greenstone belt (South Africa) is characterized by lithological units that are repeated in a regular manner. Komatiitic, basaltic, and dacitic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences are capped by zones of silica enrichment, followed by bedded carbonaceous cherts. Stratiform and crosscutting carbonaceous chert veins are common in silica alteration zones and bedded cherts. A detailed field study of several chert horizons and chert veins that range in age from 3.47 to 3.30 Ga revealed the importance of syndepositional hydrothermal activity for their origin. Bedded cherts consist of silicified detrital and tuffaceous sediments that were deposited on the seafloor. Silicification took place at the sediment-water interface as a result of diffuse upflow of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids, which gave rise to the formation of impermeable chert caps. Fluid overpressure resulted in the breaching of the cap rocks at times. Chert veins contain angular host rock fragments, replace wall rocks, and show evidence of multiple vein fillings and in situ brecciation of earlier generations of vein fillings. They represent hydraulic fractures that were initiated by overpressuring of the hydrothermal system. The vein networks were infilled, partly by hydrothermal chert precipitates, and partly by still unconsolidated (not yet silicified) sedimentary material derived from overlying sedimentary horizons. Field, petrographic, isotopic, and trace element evidence indicate that most carbonaceous matter represents sedimentary material that originated by biogenic processes in the Archean oceans and not by hydrothermal processes in the subsurface.

  13. Hematite Spherules of Meridiani Planum: Implications for Aqueous History at the Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.

    2004-12-01

    The thermal infrared spectral signature of bulk, grey hematite was the chemical "beacon" that focused the selection of Meridiani Planum as the landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, and aqueous processes were favored for its formation. Orbital data suggesting more bound water in accessory minerals at this location also supported this interpretation. After landing January 24, 2004, the Mini-TES instrument rapidly confirmed the thermal spectral signature of bulk hematite in soils on the plains surrounding Eagle crater and unevenly distributed within the crater. Observations within Eagle crater soon uncovered unusual spherical grains in abundance surrounding the outcrop and Microscopic Imager (MI) showed these grains eroding from within these rocks. They were dubbed "blueberries" by the team due to their spherical nature and their grey or blue appearance compared to their surroundings in various color composites of Pancam images. Extensive observations with the Mössbauer, Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Mini-TES instruments, especially of the "Berry Bowl" (i.e. with berries and adjacent berry-free rock), confirmed that these spherules are dominantly composed of hematite. Pancam spectra of individual spheres also match laboratory spectra of hematite. These spheres are found within and around outcrop rocks, across the plains of Meridiani, and rolling into the interior of Endurance crater. They are ubiquitous and remarkably even in size and tone. Grains are spherical to subspherical typically 2 to 6 mm in diameter. Opportunity has performed numerous operations with the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT), and has sliced through individual spherules. The appearance after ratting shows limited or no interior structure and they remain uniformly grey in color. They can preserve scratches from the grinding wheel or become dislodged by ratting, indicating they are harder than the host rock. Several lines of evidence suggest the spheres are post

  14. Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Suganuma, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are one of the best preserved Archean hydrothermal sedimentary sequence in the world, to recognized detail stratigraphy and restored deep ocean environment. We did scientific drilling, which is called ‘DXCL drilling project’, at 2007 summer. This drilling project had been selected two coastal sites; CL site at lower part of the Cleaverville Formation, and another is DX site at the upper Dixon Island Formation. A systematic combinations of geological, sedimentological, geochemical, and geobiological approaches will be applied to the fresh samples. Here we will show the recent result of this sequence, which will be key evidence to understand the nature of the middle Archean (3.2 Ga) marine environment influenced by hydrothermal activity. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island -Cleaverville formations composed of volcanic rock units and chemical-volcanosedimentary sequence which are identified by accreted immature island arc setting. The ~350m-thick Dixon Island Formation which is overlie by pillow basalt consists mainly of highly silicified volcanic-siliceous sequences that contain apparent microbial mats and bacterial fossil-like structure within black chert and also includes a komatiite-rhyolite sequences bearing hydrothermal veins. The >300m-thick Cleaverville Formation, which conformably overlay pillow basalt, contains a thick unit of reddish shale, bedded red-white chert and banded iron formation. It partly contains chert fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds. In detail lithology from the drill cores, the CL and DX contain different type of organic rocks. The CL 1 and CL2 core samples

  15. Stored mafic/ultramafic crust and early Archean mantle depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Clement G.; Patchett, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Both early and late Archean rocks from greenstone belts and felsic gneiss complexes exhibit positive epsilon(Nd) values of +1 to +5 by 3.5 Ga, demonstrating that a depleted mantle reservoir existed very early. The amount of preserved pre-3.0 Ga continental crust cannot explain such high epsilon values in the depleted residue unless the volume of residual mantle was very small: a layer less than 70 km thick by 3.0 Ga. Repeated and exclusive sampling of such a thin layer, especially in forming the felsic gneiss complexes, is implausible. Extraction of enough continental crust to deplete the early mantle and its destructive recycling before 3.0 Ga ago requires another implausibility, that the sites of crustal generation of recycling were substantially distinct. In contrast, formation of mafic or ultramafic crust analogous to present-day oceanic crust was continuous from very early times. Recycled subducted oceanic lithosphere is a likely contributor to present-day hotspot magmas, and forms a reservoir at least comparable in volume to continental crust. Subduction of an early mafic/ultramafic oceanic crust and temporary storage rather than immediate mixing back into undifferentiated mantle may be responsible for the depletion and high epsilon(Nd) values of the Archean upper mantle.

  16. Dismembered Archean ophiolite in the SE. Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ophiolitic rocks occur as wall rocks of the 2.7 Ga Louis Lake batholith near Atlantic City, Wyoming. All of the Archean rocks are strongly deformed and metamorphosed to a greenschist and amphibolite facies, but relict structures and textures are commonly preserved. These include the following, from west to east: (1) metadiabase with rare coarse-grained metagabbro; (2) ultramafic rocks and metagabbro; (3) amphibolite, locally pillowed, overlain(.) by pelitic schist, banded iron formation, and quartzite; and (4) pillow lavas, massive sills or flows, and minor metasedimentary rocks. Slice 1 locally contains parallel dike margins and rare metagabbro screens; these features suggest that it may represent a sheeted dike complex. Slice 2 locally contains ultramafic rocks having relict cumulus textures and igneous layering, corresponding to the cumulus portion of an ophiolite. The pillow lavas of slice 4 and possibly slice 3 are interpreted as comprising the extrusive portion of the ophiolite. The immobile trace element chemistry (Ti, V, Zr, Y, Cr, Ni) of slice 1 and 4 is very similar and supports a cogenetic origin, whereas pillow lavas of slice 3 are somewhat distinct. The metadiabases and lavas of slices 1 and 4 are similar to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, whereas lavas of slice 3 are more similar to island-arc tholeiites. Rare high-Ti basaltic komatiites occur in slices 1 and 4, but have very distinct trace element chemistry and probably represent later off-axis dikes. The ophiolitic rocks are interpreted to represent the remains of Archean oceanic crust.

  17. Mineralogy and composition of Archean Crust, Greenland: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Curtiss, Brian

    1989-01-01

    The Portable Instant Display and Analysis Spectrometer (PIDAS) was taken to southwestern Greenland to investigate in situ the potential application of AVIRIS to estimate the mineralogy and composition of rocks exposed in Archean terranes. The goal was to determine the feasibility of using a high spectral resolution scanner to find and study pristine rocks, those that have not been altered by subsequent deformation and metamorphism. The application of AVIRIS data to the problems in Greenland is logical. However, before a costly deployment of the U-2 aircraft to Greenland is proposed, this study was undertaken to acquire the spectral data necessary to verify that mineralogical mapping in the environmental conditions found there is possible. Although field conditions were far from favorable, all of the major objectives of the study were addressed. One of the major concerns was that lichens would obscure the rock surfaces. It was found that the spectral signature of the lichens was distinct from the underlying rocks. Thus, a spectrum of a rock outcrop, with its partial cover of lichens, can be un-mixed into rock and lichen components. The data acquired during the course of this study supports the conclusion that areas of pristine Archean crust can be differentiated from that which has experienced low grade alteration associated with Proterizoic faulting.

  18. Early Archean tonalite gneiss in the upper peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterman, Z. E.; Zartman, R. E.; Sims, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Geochronological results on tonalite gneiss of northern Michigan that is 3.56 Ga or slightly older is presented. Tonalitic augen gneiss and structurally overlying biotite gneiss and schist are exposed in a dome near Watersmeet. They are part of an extensive gneiss terrane of southern Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan that includes rocks of early to late Archean ages and lies south of the Wawa volcanic subprovince. Two samples of the augen gneiss and one of the biotite gneiss show zircon grains of similar shape, zoning, color, and development of crystal faces. These zircons give Pb/U isotopic ratios that plot on a chord of 3,560 + or - 40 m.y. upper intersect and of 1,250 + or m.y. lower intersect. The 3,560 m.y. number is believed to be a minimum age because analysis of one of the least discordant zircon fractions by ion microprobe that gave a nearly concordant age of 3,650 m.y. The 1,250 m.y. lower intersect is without geological significance: it is interpreted to be a result of multiple lead loss at 2.7, 1.8, and 0.5 Ga by U/Pb in zircon. Archean rocks 10 to 25 km northwest of the Watersmeet dome give a 2.75 Ga age on zircons. Quartz monzonite here is dated at 2.65 Ga.

  19. THE COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY NEAR THE ARCHEAN EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Kota, J.

    2012-11-20

    We employ three-dimensional state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamic models of the early solar wind and heliosphere and a two-dimensional model for cosmic-ray transport to investigate the cosmic-ray spectrum and flux near the Archean Earth. We assess how sensitive the cosmic-ray spectrum is to changes in the sunspot placement and magnetic field strength, the large-scale dipole magnetic field strength, the wind ram pressure, and the Sun's rotation period. Overall, our results confirm earlier work that suggested the Archean Earth would have experienced a greatly reduced cosmic-ray flux than is the case today. The cosmic-ray reduction for the early Sun is mainly due to the shorter solar rotation period and tighter winding of the Parker spiral, and to the different surface distribution of the more active solar magnetic field. These effects lead to a global reduction of the cosmic-ray flux at 1 AU by up to two orders of magnitude or more. Variations in the sunspot magnetic field have more effect on the flux than variations in the dipole field component. The wind ram pressure affects the cosmic-ray flux through its influence on the size of the heliosphere via the pressure balance with the ambient interstellar medium. Variations in the interstellar medium pressure experienced by the solar system in orbit through the Galaxy could lead to order of magnitude changes in the cosmic-ray flux at Earth on timescales of a few million years.

  20. Post-orogenic thermal evolution of newborn Archean continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C.; Mareschal, J.-C.

    2015-12-01

    The post-orogenic thermal evolution of newborn cratons in the Archean is marked by high-temperature metamorphism and plutonic activity that lag accretion by several tens of million years. The source of the heat that is required remains controversial. Here, we show that such late activity is consistent with the thermal evolution of new continental crust that adjusts to heat released by radioactive decay. Quantitative results depend on the total amount of radioactive elements in the newborn crust. Using heat flow and heat production data from the Archean Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, we show that temperatures ≈800-900 °C were reached in the lower crust a few tens of million years after the final accretion event. The timing of post-orogenic metamorphism is sensitive to the thermal structure acquired at the end of accretion. For the Superior Province, the relatively short time-lag between the end of accretion and metamorphism suggests that the lithosphere was thin or had been heated up by sustained magma percolation.

  1. Manganese carbonates as possible biogenic relics in Archean settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón-Tomás, Blanca; Khonsari, Bahar; Mühlen, Dominik; Wickbold, Christian; Schäfer, Nadine; Hause-Reitner, Dorothea; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate minerals such as dolomite, kutnahorite or rhodochrosite are frequently, but not exclusively generated by microbial processes. In recent anoxic sediments, Mn(II)carbonate minerals (e.g. rhodochrosite, kutnahorite) derive mainly from the reduction of Mn(IV) compounds by anaerobic respiration. The formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling in an oxygenated atmosphere. However, putative anaerobic pathways such as microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation, anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxidation in ultraviolet light may facilitate manganese cycling even in an early Archean environment, without the availability of oxygen. In addition, manganese carbonates precipitate by microbially induced processes without change of the oxidation state, e.g. by pH shift. Hence, there are several ways how these minerals could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. We will summarize microbially induced manganese carbonate deposition in the presence and absence of atmospheric oxygen and we will make some considerations about the biogenic deposition of manganese carbonates in early Archean settings.

  2. Archean Pb Isotope Evolution: Implications for the Early Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Thorpe, R.; Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2008-12-01

    The U-Pb isotope system provides us with a powerful tool for understanding the chemical evolution of the Earth. Pb isotopes in Archean rocks, however, have not been widely utilized because U mobility makes initial Pb isotope ratios from old silicate rocks difficult, if not impossible, to determine. Galenas in syngenetic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, however, provide snapshots of initial Pb ratios because their Pb isotopic composition is time invariant at their formation (U/Pb=0). The Pb isotopic record from galenas from rocks of all age have been utilized for over 70 years to answer a wide range of scientific problems beginning with Al Nier's pioneering work analyzing Pb isotopes in the 1930's but are no longer widely used by the isotopic community because they have been produced by older TIMS techniques. We have begun a re-examination of Archean Pb by an extensive analysis of over 100 galena samples from Archean VMS deposits throughout the Superior and Slave Provinces in Canada as well as from other VMS deposits in Finland, South Africa and Western Australia. The goal of this work is to provide modern, high precision measurements and update an old, but venerable, Pb isotopic data set. We feel these data provide important constraints on not only the Pb isotopic evolution of the Earth, but planetary differentiation and recycling processes operating in the first 2 b.y. of Earth's history. Our analytical techniques include dissolving the Pb sulfide minerals, purifying them with ion chromatography, and analyzing them using MC-ICPMS at both Washington State University (Neptune) and Ecole Normale Superieure in Lyon, France (Nu). All Pb solutions are doped with Tl in order to correct for mass fractionation. In this abstract we report preliminary galena Pb isotope data from 6 VMS deposits in the Abitibi greenstone belt: Chibougamu, Matagami, Noranda, Normetal, Timmins, and Val d"Or. These deposits are all approximately 2.7 Ga in age but in detail vary from 2

  3. Early Archean Osmium in Chromitites from the Beartooth Range, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarik, W. G.; Henry, D.

    2004-05-01

    Metamorphosed chromitites from the Hellroaring Plateau (Beartooth Mountains, Montana, USA) were analyzed for osmium isotopes and Re and Os contents. The chromitites are exposed at the surface in pit mines above Quad Creek. Euhedral spinels (Mg# 43-44, Cr# 74-76) are set in a matrix of phlogopite and talc. Chromites are free of ferrichromite rims and have only minor exsolution lamellae. Samples were dissolved in carius tubes using aqua regia and analyzed using MC-NTIMS (Os) and MC-ICPMS (Re). Zircons from the Hellroaring Plateau give average Lu-Hf ages of 3.5 Ga (Stevenson and Patchett, 1990). Quartzites (3.1-2.7 Ga depositional age) from this area contain detrital zircons with U-Pb ages up to 4.0 Ga. The main zircon population dates a major crust-forming event at 3.2-3.4 Ga (Mueller et al. 1998). The Main Beartooth Massif area has seen several generations of amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism before the area was uplift during the Laramide orogeny. Sample QC81-19 contains 43 ppb Os with a 187Os/188Os of 0.1048 (±0.0001, 2σ ). Low Re/Os makes correction for 187Os production since the Archean minimal. Assuming an igneous age of 3.2 Ga, the sample formed with an initial 187Os/188Os of 0.1046, close to the chondritic Re/Os evolution line. A sample aggressively acid leached with still contained considerable osmium of nearly the same 187Os/188Os as the unleached sample. This suggests that the Os is not hosted by grain boundary sulfides, and that fluid influx and recrystallization was not accompanied by either Re or Os mobility. The present-day 187Os/188Os of this sample (0.1048) is one of the least radiogenic bulk sample Os ratios reported to date, slightly more radiogenic than the ratios reported (0.1026) for the 3.8 Ga peridotites of SW Greenland (Bennett et al., 2002). Both suggest the upper mantle source had a chondritic Re/Os in the early Archean. Mantle xenoliths from the Highwood mountains on the northern margin of the Wyoming Craton give minimum model

  4. Microtektite spherules from proximal K-Pg sections: alteration patterns and clues to precursor melt lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belza, J.; Goderis, S.; Smit, J.; Vanhaecke, F. F.; Baert, K.; Terryn, H.; Claeys, P. F.

    2013-05-01

    In the proximal K-Pg ejecta deposits all around the Gulf of Mexico, impact melt from the Chicxulub crater occurs predominantly in the form of glassy spherules or 'microtektites', which are considered droplets of melt that travelled ballistically from the point of impact and quenched rapidly during flight. In most localities, spherules are severely altered. Pristine, unaltered glass is very scarce and is rarely found in the center of a smectite/chlorite shell. Although the micro-tektite glass has been shown to be heterogeneous even on the μm-scale, geochemical data have solely been reported from bulk samples. Simple binary mixing between the sedimentary carbonate and the currently described underlying crystalline basement does not fully account for the variety of tektite impact melt products, which severely complicates their interpretation. Using LA-ICP-MS, we have conducted spatially resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh, unaltered microtektite glasses and their surrounding alteration phase. This approach is unique amongst previous studies, in that it offers the opportunity to study in situ and with high spatial resolution the mixing of different target lithologies and the variation of the trace element budget during alteration. We present data from three groups of microtektite glasses at the Mimbral (NE Mexico) and Beloc (Haiti) locality: high-SiO2 green and red glasses, high-Ca yellow glass, and black glasses. All green and red glasses exhibit low oxides totals (85-90 wt%) as determined by Electron Microprobe analyses, suggesting the presence of H2O or hydrous alteration products. Raman spectroscopy clearly shows the spectrum of a hydrated glass, not an alteration phase. Their relatively high Raman index of polymerization (compared to black glass) is consistent with a normalized (water-free basis) major element composition high in SiO2 and low in network modifiers (Mg, Ca and Fe). Black and yellow glasses are not hydrated but are surrounded by a double

  5. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Archean Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2002-12-01

    Climate and life are coupled today through the biogeochemical carbon cycle, but they may have been even more tightly coupled in the distant past when atmospheric O2 levels were lower. The finding of mass-independently fractionated S isotopes in Archean rocks confirms that pO2 was very low, probably <10-13 times the present level, prior to 2.3 Ga (1). The Sun was also some 20 percent less luminous at this time (2). High CO2 levels were initially proposed to solve this `faint young Sun problem' (3); however, these levels are in conflict in data from paleosols (4). CH4 is an alternative greenhouse gas which could have kept the Archean climate warm if present at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 percent by volume (5). The primary source of methane is biological. CH4 is produced by methanogenic bacteria that today live in anaerobic environments such as the intestines of ruminants and the water-logged soils underlying rice paddies. During the Archean, however, methanogens should have been widespread, and the methane they produced would have had a long photochemical lifetimes, around 10,000 years (6). Most methanogens are thermophiles or hyperthermophiles, and those which are more thermophilic have shorter doubling times than those that prefer cooler temperatures. This suggests that a positive feedback loop may have existed, whereby methanogens warmed the climate by releasing CH4, which in turn promoted the proliferation of faster-growing methanogens. This positive feedback would have been halted, however, once the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in the atmosphere exceeded unity. At this point, polymerization of CH4 by solar UV radiation would have caused the formation of an organic haze layer similar to that observed today on Titan. Such a haze layer would have cooled the climate by creating an `anti-greenhouse effect.' This creates an overall negative feedback loop that may have been responsible for maintaining a stable Archean climate. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga disrupted this equilibrium

  6. Coccidioides Endospores and Spherules Draw Strong Chemotactic, Adhesive, and Phagocytic Responses by Individual Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Yuk; Thompson III, George R.; Hastey, Christine J.; Hodge, Gregory C.; Lunetta, Jennine M.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinrich, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic pathogenic fungi whose parasitic forms cause coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in mammalian hosts. We use an innovative interdisciplinary approach to analyze one-on-one encounters between human neutrophils and two forms of Coccidioides posadasii. To examine the mechanisms by which the innate immune system coordinates different stages of the host response to fungal pathogens, we dissect the immune-cell response into chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Our single-cell technique reveals a surprisingly strong response by initially quiescent neutrophils to close encounters with C. posadasii, both from a distance (by complement-mediated chemotaxis) as well as upon contact (by serum-dependent adhesion and phagocytosis). This response closely resembles neutrophil interactions with Candida albicans and zymosan particles, and is significantly stronger than the neutrophil responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Rhizopus oryzae under identical conditions. The vigorous in vitro neutrophil response suggests that C. posadasii evades in vivo recognition by neutrophils through suppression of long-range mobilization and recruitment of the immune cells. This observation elucidates an important paradigm of the recognition of microbes, i.e., that intact immunotaxis comprises an intricate spatiotemporal hierarchy of distinct chemotactic processes. Moreover, in contrast to earlier reports, human neutrophils exhibit vigorous chemotaxis toward, and frustrated phagocytosis of, the large spherules of C. posadasii under physiological-like conditions. Finally, neutrophils from healthy donors and patients with chronic coccidioidomycosis display subtle differences in their responses to antibody-coated beads, even though the patient cells appear to interact normally with C. posadasii endospores. PMID:26070210

  7. Late Archean mafic volcanism in the Rainy Lake area, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Late Archean greenstone-granite terrane of the Rainy Lake area of Minnesota contains a bimodal suite of mafic and felsic volcanic and coeval intrusive rocks. New geochemical data show that the mafic rocks occur in three distinct suites: (1) low-Ti olivine- and quartz-tholeiite, (2) high-Ti quartz-tholeiite and basaltic andesite, and (3) calc-alkaline lamprophyric monzodiorite and quartz diorite. The low-Ti tholeiites have only slightly evolved Mg-numbers from 53-63, Ni=125-300 ppm, and MORB-like REE. In contrast, the high-Ti tholeiites are more evolved, with Mg*=26-48, Ni=43-135 ppm, and higher total REE. Compared to the tholeiitic suites, the monzodiorite suite has more primitive Mg-numbers, with Mg*=70-78, Ni<410 ppm, and anomalously high LREE. The two tholeiitic suites cannot be genetically related by simple fractionation from a single parent magma; however, lower degrees of partial melting (<8 percent) of a mantle source (spinel periodotite) with REE=2-4 times chondrites could have produced the high-Ti tholeiites, and higher degrees of melting (20-30 percent) of a similar source could have generated the low-Ti tholeiites. In contrast, the monzodiorite suite must have been generated from either a LREE-rich or (and) a garnet-bearing source (garnet periodotite). The authors conclude that shallow melting (<40-50 km) within the Archean mantle in the Rainy Lake area produced the tholeiitic rocks, and that deep melting (>40-50 km) generated the lamprophyric monzodiorites.

  8. Rare earth element patterns in Archean high-grade metasediments and their tectonic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Mclennan, Scott M.; Eriksson, Kenneth A.

    1986-01-01

    REE data on metasedimentary rocks from two different types of high-grade Archean terrains are presented and analyzed. The value of REEs as indicators of crustal evolution is explained; the three geologic settings (in North America, Southern Africa, and Australia) from which the samples were obtained are described; and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in terms of metamorphic effects, the role of accessory phases, provenance, and tectonic implications (recycling, the previous extent of high-grade terrains, and a model of Archean crustal growth). The diversity of REE patterns in shallow-shelf metasediments is attributed to local provenance, while the Eu-depleted post-Archean patterns are associated with K-rich plutons from small, stable early Archean terrains.

  9. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Kang; Rudnick, Roberta L

    2016-01-22

    The Archean Eon witnessed the production of early continental crust, the emergence of life, and fundamental changes to the atmosphere. The nature of the first continental crust, which was the interface between the surface and deep Earth, has been obscured by the weathering, erosion, and tectonism that followed its formation. We used Ni/Co and Cr/Zn ratios in Archean terrigenous sedimentary rocks and Archean igneous/metaigneous rocks to track the bulk MgO composition of the Archean upper continental crust. This crust evolved from a highly mafic bulk composition before 3.0 billion years ago to a felsic bulk composition by 2.5 billion years ago. This compositional change was attended by a fivefold increase in the mass of the upper continental crust due to addition of granitic rocks, suggesting the onset of global plate tectonics at ~3.0 billion years ago. PMID:26798012

  10. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Kang; Rudnick, Roberta L

    2016-01-22

    The Archean Eon witnessed the production of early continental crust, the emergence of life, and fundamental changes to the atmosphere. The nature of the first continental crust, which was the interface between the surface and deep Earth, has been obscured by the weathering, erosion, and tectonism that followed its formation. We used Ni/Co and Cr/Zn ratios in Archean terrigenous sedimentary rocks and Archean igneous/metaigneous rocks to track the bulk MgO composition of the Archean upper continental crust. This crust evolved from a highly mafic bulk composition before 3.0 billion years ago to a felsic bulk composition by 2.5 billion years ago. This compositional change was attended by a fivefold increase in the mass of the upper continental crust due to addition of granitic rocks, suggesting the onset of global plate tectonics at ~3.0 billion years ago.

  11. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Kang; Rudnick, Roberta L.

    2016-01-01

    The Archean Eon witnessed the production of early continental crust, the emergence of life, and fundamental changes to the atmosphere. The nature of the first continental crust, which was the interface between the surface and deep Earth, has been obscured by the weathering, erosion, and tectonism that followed its formation. We used Ni/Co and Cr/Zn ratios in Archean terrigenous sedimentary rocks and Archean igneous/metaigneous rocks to track the bulk MgO composition of the Archean upper continental crust. This crust evolved from a highly mafic bulk composition before 3.0 billion years ago to a felsic bulk composition by 2.5 billion years ago. This compositional change was attended by a fivefold increase in the mass of the upper continental crust due to addition of granitic rocks, suggesting the onset of global plate tectonics at ~3.0 billion years ago.

  12. Magnetic Fe, Si, Al-Rich Impact Spherules from the P-T Boundary Layer at Graphite Peak, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Basu, A. R.; Becker, L.

    2004-01-01

    The geological boundary between Triassic and Permian strata coincides with the greatest life extinction in the Earth's history. Although the cause of the extinction is still the subject of intense debates, recent discoveries in the P-T boundary layer of shocked quartz grains, fullerenes with the extraterrestrial noble gases, Fe metal nuggets, and chondritic meteorite fragments all point to a powerful collision of Earth with a celestial body in the late Permian. Here we report the discovery of magnetic Fe, Si, Al-rich impact spherules which accompany the chondritic meteorite fragments in some samples from the P-T boundary layer at Graphite Peak, Antarctica.

  13. A Glass Spherule of Questionable Impact Origin from the Apollo 15 Landing Site: Unique Target Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Delano, John W.; Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 microns-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basaits. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 +/- 11 Ma (2 sigma); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the Ar-38 released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; Ar-38 cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50 C/s is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile

  14. Nature of the Coast Batholith, Southeastern Alaska: Are there Archean analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Fred; Arth, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of Phanerozoic Andean margins and their possible Archean analogs was made. Geochemical and isotopic data was presented for the episodic intrusion of the elongate, continental margin Coast batholith of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia. The batholith was characterized as having been formed in direct response to subduction in accreted terranes of oceanic or slope origin. It was concluded that there were good analogs of the Coast batholith in Archean plutonic suites.

  15. New Discoveries From The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedachi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP), an international scientific drilling project involving scientists from the USA, Australia and Japan, was initiated in Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The scientific objectives of the ABDP are the identification of microfossils and biomarkers, the clarification of geochemical environment of the early Earth, and the understanding of geophysical contribution to the co-evolution of life and environment. Through 2003 and 2004 activities, we have drilled 150 _| 300 m deep holes to recover _gfresh_h (modern weathering-free) geologic formations that range from 3.5 to 2.7 Ga in age. The drilling targets were: (1) 3.46 Ga Towers Formation, (2) mid-Archean Mosquito Formation, (3) 2.77 Ga Mt Roe Basalt, (4) 2.76 Ga Tumbiana Formation, (5) 2.74 Ga Hardey Formation. The initial investigations on the ABDP drill cores by Japanese members have already produced many exciting and interesting data and observations. 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Jasper could provide clues to the argument about the early photosynthetic cyanobacteria that have produced free oxygen and have evolved the oxygen level on the earth. There have been many ideas how the hematite in jasper was formed. Our most important discoveries are the confirmations that hematite, magnetite and siderite precipitated separately as primary minerals, and that there is a remaining texture which resembles microfossil using FE-SEM, ESCA, Laser-Raman and cathodoluminescence. Taking into account the carbon isotopic ratios of remains from _|25 to _|40 permil, these iron oxides might be biogenic. We need to identify the iron bacteria in detail to deduce the early earth_fs surface environment. In addition, the black shale of Apex Basalt overlying Marble Bar Jasper contains organic carbon from 0.7 to 5.2 percent, and the carbon isotopic ratio of which is from -26 to -30 per mil, suggesting that various microbes inhabited in the early Archean ocean. 2.77 Ga Mt Roe Basalt, which is composed of

  16. Geostable molecules and the Late Archean 'Whiff of Oxygen'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Illing, C. J.; Oduro, H. D.; French, K. L.; Ono, S.; Hallmann, C.; Strauss, H.

    2012-12-01

    exhibits a 'MIF' signal that is significantly amplified compared to co-occurring pyrite sulfur. Limited isotopic exchange between the organic and inorganic sulfur pools suggests Archean origin of these organic sulfur compounds. We also report new results from the 2012 Agouron Pilbara drilling project. Anbar A.D. et al. A whiff of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Science 317, 1903-1906. (2007). Bosak T. et al., Morphological record of oxygenic photosynthesis in conical stromatolites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:10939-10943 (2009). Kopp, R.E. et al.,The Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 11131-11136 (2005). Waldbauer J.R. et al., Late Archean molecular fossils from the Transvaal Supergroup record the antiquity of microbial diversity and aerobiosis. Precambrian Research 169, 28-47 (2008). Waldbauer J.R. et al., 2011. Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular fossil record of Archean life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 108, 13409-13414

  17. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Bed Bugs FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  18. Archean foreland basin tectonics from the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Kusky, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These and other features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a foreland basin. A regional geologic synthesis suggests that his basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. We suggest that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Striking similarities are seen between this phase of Witwatersrand Basin evolution and active basins located north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence is not so compatible with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben.

  19. Archean foreland basin tectonics in the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Kusky, T.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata may have been deposited in a foreland basin and a regional geologic synthesis suggests that this basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. It is suggested that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Similarities are seen between this Phase of Witywatersrand Basin evolution and that of active basins north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence does not agree with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben. 64 references.

  20. Archean foreland basin tectonics in the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata may have been deposited in a foreland basin and a regional geologic synthesis suggests that this basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. It is suggested that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Similarities are seen between this Phase of Witywatersrand Basin evolution and that of active basins north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence does not agree with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben.

  1. Archean foreland basin tectonics in the Witwatersrand, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa is the best-known of Archean sedimentary basins and contains some of the largest gold reserves in the world. Sediments in the basin include a lower flysch-type sequence and an upper molassic facies, both of which contain abundant silicic volcanic detritus. The strata are thicker and more proximal on the northwestern side of the basin which is, at least locally, bound by thrust faults. These features indicate that the Witwatersrand strata may have been deposited in a foreland basin and a regional geologic synthesis suggests that this basin developed initially on the cratonward side of an Andean-type arc. Remarkably similar Phanerozoic basins may be found in the southern Andes above zones of shallow subduction. It is suggested that the continental collision between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons at about 2.7 Ga caused further subsidence and deposition in the Witwatersrand Basin. Regional uplift during this later phase of development placed the basin on the cratonward edge of a collision-related plateau, now represented by the Limpopo Province. Similarities are seen between this phase of Witwatersrand Basin evolution and that of active basins north of the Tibetan Plateau. The geologic evidence does not agree with earlier suggestions that the Witwatersrand strata were deposited in a rift or half-graben.

  2. The Archean crust in the Wawa-Chapleau-Timmins region. A field guidebook prepared for the 1983 Archean Geochemistry-Early Crustal Genesis Field Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.; Card, K. D.; Sage, R. P.; Jensen, L. S.; Luhta, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    This guidebook describes the characteristics and interrelationships of Archean greenstone-granite and high-grade gneiss terrains of the Superior Province. A 300-km long west to east transect between Wawa and Timmins, Ontario will be used to illustrate regional-scale relationships. The major geological features of the Superior Province are described.

  3. Explosive subaqueous pyroclastic deposits associated with a mafic summit caldera: an Archean analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, W. U.; Dingwell, D. B.; Pilote, C.; Castillo-Guimond, L.

    2009-12-01

    The 2706-2696 Ma Blake River megacaldera complex of the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt is composed of (1) the E-W, 40x80 km, ellipsoid, Misema caldera (MC) of predominantly tholeiitic basaltic composition, and (2) the NW-striking, 14x35 km, New Senator caldera (NSC) of both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline composition, and (3) the felsic, ENE-striking, 15x20k km, Noranda caldera (NC). The subaqueous Misema caldera, the size of Toba, hosts the two nested graben calderas NSC and NC. This megacaldera complex represents a world class gold-massive sulfide mining camp with abundant rock-Archean seawater interaction, km-scale hydrothermal alteration, and a recently discovered site of inferred early life in basalts. Between the inner and outer ring faults of the MC are circular to ellipsoid 2-12 km-scale gabbro to quartz diorite ring dyke complexes that represent the roots of summit calderas. The studied mafic summit calderas, comparable to the present day Axial Seamount, are centres of extensive subaqueous pyroclastic deposits and their reworked counterparts. The Montsabrais and Reneault volcanic centres (RVC) have 200-1000 m-thick volcaniclastic units in the core of the ring dyke complexes, and extensive km-long outflow facies. The 80-100 m-thick Jevis South Tuff and the Kino North Tuff are related to the RVC. The pyroclastic density current deposits are traceable on outcrop 500 metres along strike. Pyroclastic deposits are interstratified with pillowed mafic flows and black shale suggesting a calm, deep-water, subaqueous environment. Individual flow units are 5-50 m-thick and display fining-upward. Internal deposit geometry shows 3 main divisions: A) massive, matrix or clast supported, lapilli tuff breccia (2 - 25 m-thick); B) lapilli tuff with normal or inverse grading (1 - 10 m-thick); C-1) coarse- to fine-grained tuff with parallel to wavy stratification and low-angle crossbeds with erosive bases (0.5 - 15 m-thick), or C-2) beds of fine- to very fine-grained tuff with

  4. Geological framework of the Archean and Paleoproterozoic Tanami Region, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispe, A. J.; Vandenberg, L. C.; Scrimgeour, I. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Tanami Region, a poorly exposed, mostly Paleoproterozoic province within the North Australian Craton, hosts a number of significant gold deposits in diverse settings. Rare exposures of 2,520-2,500 Ma amphibolite facies Archean gneiss and metasedimentary rocks form basement to the thick overlying metasedimentary succession of the 1,880-1,830 Ma Tanami Group. The basal unit of the Tanami Group is the Dead Bullock Formation, a fining-upward deep-water succession dominated by siltstone, carbonaceous siltstone, iron-rich siltstone and mafic sills. Carbonaceous- and iron-rich lithologies in the upper Dead Bullock Formation represent important hosts for gold mineralization. The conformably overlying Killi Killi Formation represents turbiditic sedimentary rocks that are correlated with the widespread Lander Rock beds of the Arunta Region. Sedimentation of the Tanami Group was terminated by regional deformation and greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism during the Tanami Event (D1/M1), at around 1,830 Ma. The Tanami Group is unconformably overlain by rhyolite, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, and felsic ignimbrite of the Ware Group that were deposited at about 1,825-1,810 Ma. Subsequent ESE-WNW to SE-NW directed shortening (D2), followed by NE-SW to E-W directed shortening (D3), has resulted in open NE F2- and NW F3-trending folds in both the Tanami and Ware Groups. Voluminous granitoids, dominated by I-type, biotite granodiorite, and monzogranite were intruded in the interval 1,825-1,790 Ma and have been subdivided using geochemical criteria into the Birthday, Frederick, and Grimwade Suites. Basalt and immature sedimentary rocks of the Mount Charles Formation are restricted in extent to the Tanami mine corridor, and are interpreted to reflect a continental rift succession that was deposited around 1,800 Ma, with an early Archean sedimentary provenance. Steep S to SE dipping F4-fold structures of Tanami and Ware Group metasedimentary rocks, many spatially

  5. Germanium Elemental and Isotopic Tracing of ca 3.2 Ga Impact Spherule Layers from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luais, B.; Fritz, J.; Hofmann, A.; Mohr-Westheide, T.; Reimold, W. U.; Koeberl, C.

    2016-08-01

    The 3.23 Ga spherule layers in BARB5 drill core from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (ICDP 2012-2013, South Africa) have high Ge contents and light Ge isotopic signature that agree with an evaporation-condensation mechanism following the impact.

  6. Ferrous Silicate Spherules with Euhedral Fe,Ni-Metal Grains in CH Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for Condensation Under Highly Oxidizing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krot, A. N.; Meibom, A.; Petaev, M. I.; Keil, K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Saito, A.; Mukai, M.; Ohsumi, K.

    2000-01-01

    A population of ferrous silicate spherules composed of cryptocrystalline ol-px-normative material, +/-SiO2-rich glass and rounded-to-euhedral Fe,Ni-metal grains preserved a condensation signature of the precursors formed under oxidizing conditions.

  7. Magnetotelluric survey to locate the Archean/Proterozoic suture zone north of Wells, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    It is important to know whether major mining districts in the Northern Nevada Gold Province are underlain by rocks of the Archean Wyoming craton, which are known to contain orogenic gold deposits, or by accreted rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. It is also important to know the location and orientation of the Archean/Proterozoic suture zone between these provinces as well as major basement structures within these terranes because they may influence subsequent patterns of sedimentation, deformation, magmatism, and hydrothermal activity. The Archean was the main gold-mineralization period, and Archean lode-gold deposits were formed at mid-crustal depths along major shear zones. The nature of the crystalline basement below the Northern Nevada Gold Province and the location of major faults within it are relevant to Rodinian reconstructions, crustal development, and ore deposit models (e.g., Hofstra and Cline, 2000; Grauch and others, 2003). According to Whitmeyer and Karlstrom (2004), the Archean cratons of the northwestern United States and Canada had stabilized as continental lithosphere by 2.5 Ga, and were rifted and assembled into a large continental mass by 1.8 Ga, to which the 1.73-1.68 Ga Mohave province was accreted by 1.65 Ga. The Archean/Proterozoic suture zone has a west-southwest strike where it is exposed (Reed, 1993) at the eastern Utah and southwestern Wyoming border (Cheyenne Belt) where it is characterized by an up to 7-km-thick mylonite zone (Smithson and Boyd, 1998). In the Great Basin, the strike of the Archean/Proterozoic suture zone is poorly constrained because it is largely concealed below a Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic miogeocline and basin fill. East-west and southwest-northeast strikes for the Archean/Proterozoic suture zone have been inferred based on Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of granitoid intrusions (Tosdal and others, 2000). To better constrain the location and strike of the Archean/Proterozoic suture zone below cover

  8. The Raman-Derived Carbonization Continuum: A Tool to Select the Best Preserved Molecular Structures in Archean Kerogens

    PubMed Central

    Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Derenne, Sylvie; Bourbin, Mathilde; Westall, Frances; Kremer, Barbara; Sugitani, Kenichiro; Deldicque, Damien; Robert, François

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The search for indisputable traces of life in Archean cherts is of prime importance. However, their great age and metamorphic history pose constraints on the study of molecular biomarkers. We propose a quantitative criterion to document the thermal maturity of organic matter in rocks in general, and Archean rocks in particular. This is definitively required to select the best candidates for seeking non-altered sample remnants of life. Analysis of chemical (Raman spectroscopy, 13C NMR, elemental analysis) and structural (HRTEM) features of Archean and non-Archean carbonaceous matter (CM) that was submitted to metamorphic grades lower than, or equal to, that of greenschist facies showed that these features had all undergone carbonization but not graphitization. Raman-derived quantitative parameters from the present study and from literature spectra, namely, R1 ratio and FWHM-D1, were used to draw a carbonization continuum diagram showing two carbonization stages. While non-Archean samples can be seen to dominate the first stage, the second stage mostly consists of the Archean samples. In this diagram, some Archean samples fall at the boundary with non-Archean samples, which thus demonstrates a low degree of carbonization when compared to most Archean CM. As a result, these samples constitute candidates that may contain preserved molecular signatures of Archean CM. Therefore, with regard to the search for the oldest molecular traces of life on Earth, we propose the use of this carbonization continuum diagram to select the Archean CM samples. Key Words: Archean—Early life—Kerogen—Raman spectroscopy—Carbonization. Astrobiology 16, 407–417. PMID:27186810

  9. A glass spherule of questionable impact origin from the Apollo 15 landing site: Unique target mare basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, G.; Delano, J.W.; Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 ??m-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 ?? 11 Ma (2 ??); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the 39Ar released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; 38Ar cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50??C s-1 is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile abundances, and

  10. LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in glass spherules of the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Leonie; Deutsch, Alex

    2010-05-01

    The 3.58±0.04 Ma old El'gygytgyn impact structure (Central Chukotka, NE Siberia) with a diameter of 18 km (Gurov and Gurova 1979, Layer 2000) is one of only two terrestrial craters with a volcanic target; therefore, analysis of its target and impact lithologies is of basic interest for comparative planetology. Lake El'gygytgyn is a very valuable climate archive in the Arctic as it was neither covered by glaciers (Melles et al. 2007) nor has the lake ever fallen dry. Climate and impact research were the rationale for the ICDP drilling project that finished successfully in spring 2009. Impactites like melt rocks and breccias are rarely found in outcrops yet are present in the 80 m terrace of Lake El'gygytgyn (Gurov and Gurova 1979). Numerous investigations on petrography, shock metamorphism, and geochemistry of impactites from El'gygytgyn have been published so far (e.g. Gurov et al. 2007). We report the first trace element data for seven 30- to 760-μm-sized impact glass spherules that have been collected about10 km off the crater center from a terrace deposit of the Enmyvaam River outside the crater rim. The spherules are translucent with colors ranging from amber, dark brown to nearly black; they contain a few circular bubbles, schlieren, and very rarely mineral clasts and breccia fragments. Major elements were measured with the JEOL JXA 8600 MX Superprobe, 31 trace elements were analyzed with the Finnigan Element2 LA-ICP-MS with 5 Hz, 8-9 J/cm2 at with Si as internal, and NIST612 as external standard (Institut f. Mineralogie, WWU Münster). The spot size was 60 μm. All spherules show a very homogeneous major and trace element distribution yet clear differences exist between the samples in the SiO2 content (in weight percent) 53-68: four of the glasses are dacitic, two andesitic, and one basaltic-andesitic in composition. In addition, MgO (2.1-9.2), K2O (0.6-3.3), and (in ppm) Ni (317-1096), Co (25-79), Zr (100-169), Rb (18-107), and Ba (459-1092) display wide

  11. A comparison of the chemistry of pseudotachylyte breccias in the Archean Levack Gneisses of the Sudbury structure, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Lucy M.; Spray, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The Archean Levack Gneisses of the North Range host millimeter-thick veins and centimeter-thick lenses of pseudotachylyte, as well as substantially larger meter-wide, dykelike bodies of pseudotachylytic 'breccia'. The 'breccia' occurs up to several tens of kilometers away from the Sudbury Igneous Complex and is commonly sited within or near joints and other natural weaknesses such as bedding, dyke contacts, and lithological boundaries. The larger 'breccia' dykes comprise a generally dark matrix containing rounded to subrounded and occasionally angular rock fragments derived predominantly from Levack Gneiss. Selected samples of bulk Sudbury Breccia and Sudbury Breccia matrices were chemically analyzed and compared to existing data on the Levack Gneisses and Sudbury Breccia. The matrices are apparently enriched in Fe and, to a lesser extent, Mg, Ti, and Ca compared to the wallrocks and the majority of clasts. This enrichment can be partly explained by the preferential cataclasis and/or frictional melting of hydrous ferromagnesian wallrock minerals, but also appear to require contamination by more basic exotic lithologies. This suggests that certain components of pseudotachylitic Sudbury Breccia have undergone significant transport during their formation.

  12. The nature of Archean terrane boundaries: an example from the northern Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mogk, D.W.; Mueller, P.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Archean northern Wyoming Province can be subdivided into two geologically distinct terranes, the Beartooth-Bighorn magmatic terrane (BBMT) and the Montana metasedimentary terrane (MMT). The BBMT is characterized by voluminous Late Archean (2.90-2.74 Ga) magmatic rocks (primarily tonalite, trondhjemite, and granite); metasedimentary rocks are preserved only as small, rare enclaves in this magmatic terrane. The magmatic rocks typically have geochemical and isotopic signatures that suggest petrogenesis in a continental magmatic arc environment. The MMT, as exposed in the northern Gallatin and Madison Ranges, is dominated by Middle Archean trondhjemitic gneisses (3.2-3.0 Ga); metasedimentary rocks, however, are significantly more abundant than in the BBMT. Each terrane has experienced a separate and distinct geologic history since at least 3.6 Ga ago based on differences in metamorphic and structural styles, composition of magmatic and metasupracrustal rocks, and isotopic ages; consequently, these may be described as discrete terranes in the Cordilleran sense. Nonetheless, highly radiogenic and distinctive Pb-Pb isotopic signatures in rocks of all ages in both terranes indicate that the two terranes share a significant aspect of their history. This suggests that these two Early to Middle Archean crustal blocks, that initially evolved as part of a larger crustal province, experienced different geologic histories from at least 3.6 Ga until their juxtaposition in the Late Archean (between 2.75 to 2.55 Ga ago). Consequently, the boundary between the BBMT and MMT appears to separate terranes that are not likely to be exotic in the sense of their Phanerozoic counterparts. Other Archean provinces do appear to contain crustal blocks with different isotopic signatures (e.g. West Greenland, India, South Africa). The use of the term exotic, therefore, must be cautious in situations where geographic indicators such as paleontologic and/or paleomagnetic data are not available

  13. Variations in the magnitude of non mass dependent sulfur fractionation in the Archean atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claire, M.; Kasting, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent experimental data have enabled quantitatively meaningful computations of the non-mass dependent fractionation of sulfur’s isotopes (Δ33S) that exemplify the Archean rock record. The Δ33S signal originates as a result of fine structure in the absorption cross-section of SO2 isotopologues [1], which only undergo significant photolysis in reducing atmospheres [2]. The Δ33S signal produced by SO2 photolysis varies significantly between 190 and 220 nm, and thus is strongly dependent on any other atmospheric gases which absorb photons in this range [3], as well as the height at which photolysis occurs. A model that is capable of resolving the altitude-dependent radiative transfer through a realistic self-consistent reducing atmosphere is therefore essential when making direct comparisons between atmospheric Δ33S production and the rock record. In this work, we investigate how the magnitude of Δ33S might vary as function of atmospheric composition, which in turn allows the rock record to constrain the Archean atmosphere. Other recent work on this topic using simplied atmospheric models has implicated large concentrations of SO2 [5], OCS [3], and CO2 [6] as being responsible for the variations in Archean Δ33S. We present results from an altitude-dependent photochemical model of Archean photochemistry [4] of necessary complexity to resolve the complicated redox structure of the Archean atmosphere. We show that while increased concentrations of these gases all affect Δ33S in an unconstrained model, the atmospheric conditions required for OCS or SO2 shielding are unlikely to occur in an Archean atmosphere constrained by reasonable expectations of volcanic and biogenic fluxes. Within the context of plausible Archean atmospheres, we investigate how shielding due to changing amounts of CO2, biogenic sulfur gases, and fractal organic haze [7] affect the magnitude of Δ33S produced by the Archean atmosphere, and show why simplified atmospheric modeling may lead to

  14. Sm-Nd isotope study of early Archean rocks, Qianan, Hebei Province, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, X.; Bi, Z.; Depaolo, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The geochronology of amphibolitic and gneiss rocks in the Qianan region in China is examined. Sm-Nd isotopic measurements were performed to determine if the rocks existed in the early Archean age. The average age for the amphibolite samples is 3.50 + or - 0.08 billion years with an initial epsilon(Nd) value of 3.3 + or - 0.3, and for the gneiss samples the average age is also 3.5 billion years. The high initial epsilon(Nd) value indicates that the mantle magma source is depleted of magmaphile elements and the geochemistry of the early Archean mantle is similar to the modern upper mantle.

  15. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  16. Texture-specific Si isotope variations in Barberton Greenstone Belt cherts record low temperature fractionations in early Archean seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefurak, Elizabeth J. T.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lowe, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Sedimentary cherts are unusually abundant in early Archean (pre-3.0 Ga) sequences, suggesting a silica cycle that was profoundly different than the modern system. Previously applied for the purpose of paleothermometry, Si isotopes in ancient cherts can offer broader insight into mass fluxes and mechanisms associated with silica concentration, precipitation, diagenesis, and metamorphism. Early Archean cherts contain a rich suite of sedimentological and petrographic textures that document a history of silica deposition, cementation, silicification, and recrystallization. To add a new layer of insight into the chemistry of early cherts, we have used wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy and then secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to produce elemental and Si and O isotope ratio data from banded black-and-white cherts from the Onverwacht Group of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. This geochemical data is then interpreted in the framework of depositional and diagenetic timing of silica precipitation provided by geological observations. SIMS allows the comparison of Si and O isotope ratios of distinct silica phases, including black carbonaceous chert beds and bands (many including well-defined sedimentary grains), white relatively pure chert bands including primary silica granules, early cavity-filling cements, and later quartz-filled veins. Including all chert types and textures analyzed, the δ30Si dataset spans a range from -4.78‰ to +3.74‰, with overall mean 0.20‰, median 0.51‰, and standard deviation 1.30‰ (n = 1087). Most samples have broadly similar δ30Si distributions, but systematic texture-specific δ30Si differences are observed between white chert bands (mean +0.60‰, n = 750), which contain textures that represent primary and earliest diagenetic silica phases, and later cavity-filling cements (mean -1.41‰, n = 198). We observed variations at a ∼100 μm scale indicating a lack of Si isotope homogenization at this scale during

  17. Non-enzymatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway-like reactions in a plausible Archean ocean.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus A; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Ralser, Markus

    2014-04-25

    The reaction sequences of central metabolism, glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway provide essential precursors for nucleic acids, amino acids and lipids. However, their evolutionary origins are not yet understood. Here, we provide evidence that their structure could have been fundamentally shaped by the general chemical environments in earth's earliest oceans. We reconstructed potential scenarios for oceans of the prebiotic Archean based on the composition of early sediments. We report that the resultant reaction milieu catalyses the interconversion of metabolites that in modern organisms constitute glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. The 29 observed reactions include the formation and/or interconversion of glucose, pyruvate, the nucleic acid precursor ribose-5-phosphate and the amino acid precursor erythrose-4-phosphate, antedating reactions sequences similar to that used by the metabolic pathways. Moreover, the Archean ocean mimetic increased the stability of the phosphorylated intermediates and accelerated the rate of intermediate reactions and pyruvate production. The catalytic capacity of the reconstructed ocean milieu was attributable to its metal content. The reactions were particularly sensitive to ferrous iron Fe(II), which is understood to have had high concentrations in the Archean oceans. These observations reveal that reaction sequences that constitute central carbon metabolism could have been constrained by the iron-rich oceanic environment of the early Archean. The origin of metabolism could thus date back to the prebiotic world.

  18. Molecular evidence of Late Archean archaea and the presence of a subsurface hydrothermal biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Gregory T; Kenig, Fabien; Reddy, Christopher M; Schieber, Juergen; Frysinger, Glenn S; Nelson, Robert K; Dinel, Etienne; Gaines, Richard B; Schaeffer, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Highly cracked and isomerized archaeal lipids and bacterial lipids, structurally changed by thermal stress, are present in solvent extracts of 2,707- to 2,685-million-year-old (Ma) metasedimentary rocks from Timmins, ON, Canada. These lipids appear in conventional gas chromatograms as unresolved complex mixtures and include cyclic and acyclic biphytanes, C36-C39 derivatives of the biphytanes, and C31-C35 extended hopanes. Biphytane and extended hopanes are also found in high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation products released from solvent-extracted sediments, indicating that archaea and bacteria were present in Late Archean sedimentary environments. Postdepositional, hydrothermal gold mineralization and graphite precipitation occurred before metamorphism (approximately 2,665 Ma). Late Archean metamorphism significantly reduced the kerogen's adsorptive capacity and severely restricted sediment porosity, limiting the potential for post-Archean additions of organic matter to the samples. Argillites exposed to hydrothermal gold mineralization have disproportionately high concentrations of extractable archaeal and bacterial lipids relative to what is releasable from their respective high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation product and what is observed for argillites deposited away from these hydrothermal settings. The addition of these lipids to the sediments likely results from a Late Archean subsurface hydrothermal biosphere of archaea and bacteria.

  19. Molecular evidence of Late Archean archaea and the presence of a subsurface hydrothermal biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Gregory T.; Kenig, Fabien; Reddy, Christopher M.; Schieber, Juergen; Frysinger, Glenn S.; Nelson, Robert K.; Dinel, Etienne; Gaines, Richard B.; Schaeffer, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Highly cracked and isomerized archaeal lipids and bacterial lipids, structurally changed by thermal stress, are present in solvent extracts of 2,707- to 2,685-million-year-old (Ma) metasedimentary rocks from Timmins, ON, Canada. These lipids appear in conventional gas chromatograms as unresolved complex mixtures and include cyclic and acyclic biphytanes, C36–C39 derivatives of the biphytanes, and C31–C35 extended hopanes. Biphytane and extended hopanes are also found in high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation products released from solvent-extracted sediments, indicating that archaea and bacteria were present in Late Archean sedimentary environments. Postdepositional, hydrothermal gold mineralization and graphite precipitation occurred before metamorphism (≈2,665 Ma). Late Archean metamorphism significantly reduced the kerogen's adsorptive capacity and severely restricted sediment porosity, limiting the potential for post-Archean additions of organic matter to the samples. Argillites exposed to hydrothermal gold mineralization have disproportionately high concentrations of extractable archaeal and bacterial lipids relative to what is releasable from their respective high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation product and what is observed for argillites deposited away from these hydrothermal settings. The addition of these lipids to the sediments likely results from a Late Archean subsurface hydrothermal biosphere of archaea and bacteria. PMID:17726114

  20. Geological sulfur isotopes indicate elevated OCS in the Archean atmosphere, solving faint young sun paradox

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew S.; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Eskebjerg, Carsten; Pandey, Antra; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological record. The calculated isotopic fractionation factors for SO2 photolysis give mass independent distributions that are highly sensitive to the atmospheric concentrations of O2, O3, CO2, H2O, CS2, NH3, N2O, H2S, OCS, and SO2 itself. Various UV-shielding scenarios are considered and we conclude that the negative Δ33S observed in the Archean sulfate deposits can only be explained by OCS shielding. Of relevant Archean gases, OCS has the unique ability to prevent SO2 photolysis by sunlight at λ >202 nm. Scenarios run using a photochemical box model show that ppm levels of OCS will accumulate in a CO-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation. PMID:19706450

  1. Molecular evidence of Late Archean archaea and the presence of a subsurface hydrothermal biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Gregory T; Kenig, Fabien; Reddy, Christopher M; Schieber, Juergen; Frysinger, Glenn S; Nelson, Robert K; Dinel, Etienne; Gaines, Richard B; Schaeffer, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Highly cracked and isomerized archaeal lipids and bacterial lipids, structurally changed by thermal stress, are present in solvent extracts of 2,707- to 2,685-million-year-old (Ma) metasedimentary rocks from Timmins, ON, Canada. These lipids appear in conventional gas chromatograms as unresolved complex mixtures and include cyclic and acyclic biphytanes, C36-C39 derivatives of the biphytanes, and C31-C35 extended hopanes. Biphytane and extended hopanes are also found in high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation products released from solvent-extracted sediments, indicating that archaea and bacteria were present in Late Archean sedimentary environments. Postdepositional, hydrothermal gold mineralization and graphite precipitation occurred before metamorphism (approximately 2,665 Ma). Late Archean metamorphism significantly reduced the kerogen's adsorptive capacity and severely restricted sediment porosity, limiting the potential for post-Archean additions of organic matter to the samples. Argillites exposed to hydrothermal gold mineralization have disproportionately high concentrations of extractable archaeal and bacterial lipids relative to what is releasable from their respective high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation product and what is observed for argillites deposited away from these hydrothermal settings. The addition of these lipids to the sediments likely results from a Late Archean subsurface hydrothermal biosphere of archaea and bacteria. PMID:17726114

  2. Constraining the location of the Archean--Proterozoic suture in the Great Basin based on magnetotelluric soundings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand whether major mining districts in north-central Nevada are underlain by Archean crust, known to contain major orogenic gold deposits, or, alternatively, by accreted crust of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Determining the location and orientation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone between the Archean crust and Mojave province is also critical because it may influence subsequent patterns of sedimentation, deformation, magmatism, and hydrothermal activity. In the Great Basin, the attitude of the suture zone is unknown because it is concealed below cover. A regional magnetotelluric sounding profile along the Utah-Nevada State line reveals a deeply penetrating, broad electrical conductor that may be the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the northwest corner of Utah. This major crustal conductor's strike direction is northwest, where it broadens to about 80 km wide below about 3-km depth. These results suggest that the southwestern limit of intact Archean crust in this part of the Great Basin is farther north than previously reported. These results also suggest that the major gold belts in north-central Nevada are located over the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province, and the Archean terrain lies northeast in the northwest corner of Utah. Rifted Archean crust segments south and west of the suture suggest that future mineral exploration northeast of current mineral trends may yield additional gold deposits.

  3. Comparative assessment of the contents of magnetic spherules, 137Cs, and 210Pb in soils as applied for the estimation of soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiyev, A. N.; Golosov, V. N.; Chernyanskii, S. S.; Markelov, M. V.; Kovach, R. G.; Belyaev, V. R.; Ivanova, N. N.

    2006-10-01

    The contents of magnetic spherules and 137Cs and 210Pb isotopes were determined in gray forest soils of the Novosil Agroforest Experimental Station in Orel oblast (central part of European Russia). The spatial variability in the contents of these substances was studied, and their distribution in the soil profiles and along soil transects within the afforested and cultivated slopes was analyzed. Factors and processes favoring the accumulation of magnetic spherules and 137Cs and 210Pb isotopes in the soils, as well as their removal from the soils, were revealed. Similarities and distinctions in the patterns of their behavior were interpreted. Prospects for the combined use of these three tracers to estimate the rates of soil erosion and sediment deposition on the soil surface were tested.

  4. The formation and deposition of primary silica granules - A new model of early Archean silica deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefurak, E. J.; Lowe, D. R.; Zentner, D.; Fischer, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    In the modern silica cycle, biologically-mediated silica precipitation provides the dominant sink for dissolved silica in seawater, with additional smaller sinks in the form of authigenic phyllosilicates and silica cements. Fundamental questions remain about the mechanics of the processes responsible for removing silica from seawater prior to the evolution of silica biomineralization in late Proterozoic time, with important implications for the chemistry of seawater on the early Earth, including alkalinity budgets and the efficiency of the silicate weathering feedback. The degree to which dissolved silica leaves seawater as authigenic phyllosilicates instead of amorphous silica is important because these 'reverse weathering' reactions do not consume CO2. The abundant presence of siliceous sedimentary rocks in Archean sequences, mainly in the form of chert, reinforces the inference that abiotic silica precipitation played a more significant role during Archean time. Previous authors hypothesized that these cherts formed as primary marine precipitates, but were unable to identify a specific mode of sedimentation. Here we present sedimentologic, petrographic, and geochemical evidence that some and perhaps many Archean cherts were deposited exclusively or in large part as primary, sub-spherical, structureless, sand-sized silica grains, here termed silica granules, which precipitated within marine waters. This mode of silica deposition appears to be unique to Archean time and provides evidence that primary abiotic silica precipitation indeed occurred in Archean oceans. Furthermore, the apparent early cementation of some granules indicates that the rate of silica precipitation was rapid under certain environmental conditions, which could provide insight into microfossil preservation via early silicification.

  5. The Archean geology of the Godthabsfjord Region, southern west Greenland (includes excursion guide)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, V. R.; Nutman, A. P.; Friend, C. R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The part of the West Greenland Archean gneiss complex centered around Godthabsfjord and extending from Isukasia in the north to south Faeringehavn is studied. Extensive outcrops of 3800 to 3400 Ma rocks can provide some direct evidence of conditions and processes that operated on the Earth in the early Archean. However, the ways in which primary characteristics have been modified by later deformation, metamorphism, and chemical changes are first taken into account. The rocks exposed are the products of two major phases of accretion of continental crust, at 3800 to 3700 Ma and 3100 to 29 Ma. The main features of these two accretion phases are similar, but careful study of the least modified rocks may reveal differences related to changes in the Earth in the intervening period. The combination of excellent exposure over an extensive area, relatively detailed geological mapping of much of the region, and a considerable volume of isotopic and other geochemical data gives special insights into processes that operated at moderately deep levels of the crust in the Archean. Of particular interest is the effect of late Archean granulite facies metamorphism on early Archean rocks, especially the extent to which isotope systems were disturbed. Similar processes may well have partly or wholly destroyed evidence of more ancient components of other high grade terrains. This account does not attempt to be an exhaustive review of all work carried out on the geology of the region. Rather, it attempts to summarize aspects of the geology and some interest in the context of early crustal genesis.

  6. Exploring Archean seawater sulfate via triple S isotopes in carbonate associated sulfate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, G.; Fischer, W. W.; Sessions, A. L.; Adkins, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sulfur isotope ratios in Archean sedimentary rocks provide powerful insights into the behavior of the ancient sulfur cycle, the redox state of fluid Earth, and the timing of the rise of atmospheric oxygen [1]. The Archean sulfur isotope record is marked by pronounced mass-independent fractionation (Δ33S≠0)—signatures widely interpreted as the result of SO2 photolysis from "short-wavelength" UV light resulting in a reduced phase carrying positive Δ33S values (ultimately recorded in pyrite) and an oxidized phase carrying negative Δ33S values carried by sulfate [2]. Support for this hypothesis rests on early laboratory experiments and observations of negative Δ33S from barite occurrences in mixed volcanic sedimentary strata in Mesoarchean greenstone terrains. Despite forming the framework for understanding Archean sulfur cycle processes, this hypothesis is still largely untested, notably due to the lack of sulfate minerals in Archean strata. Using a new MC-ICP-MS approach combined with petrography and X-ray spectroscopy we have generated a growing S isotope dataset from CAS extracted from Archean carbonates from a range of sedimentary successions, including: the 2.6 to 2.521 Ga Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa), 2.7 Ga Cheshire Formation (Zimbabwe), and 2.9 Ga Steep Rock Formation (Canada). Importantly, we observe positive δ34S and Δ33S values across a range of different lithologies and depositional environments. These results demonstrate that dissolved sulfate in seawater was characterized by positive Δ33S values—a result that receives additional support from recent laboratory and theoretical experiments [e.g. 4, 5]. [1] Farquhar et al., 2000, Science [2] Farquhar et al., 2001, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets [3] Paris et al., 2014, Science. [4] Whitehill et al., 2013, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [5] Claire et al., 2014 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

  7. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that group of woven cloth products used as coverings on a bed. Bedding includes products such as...

  8. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  9. Archean deep-water depositional system: interbedded and banded iron formation and clastic turbidites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentner, Danielle; Lowe, Donald

    2013-04-01

    The 3.23 billion year old sediments in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa include some of the world's oldest known deep-water deposits. Unique to this locality are turbidites interbedded with banded iron formation (BIF) and banded ferruginous chert (BFC). This unusual association may provide clues for reconstructing Archean deep-water depositional settings. For our study we examined freshly drilled core in addition to measuring ~500 m of outcrop exposures along road cuts. The stacking pattern follows an overall BIF to BFC to amalgamated turbidite succession, although isolated turbidites do occur throughout the sequence. The turbidites are predominately massive, and capped with thin, normally graded tops that include mud rip-ups, chert plates, and ripples. The lack of internal stratification and the amalgamated character suggests emplacement by surging high-density turbidity currents. Large scours and channels are absent and bedding is tabular: the flows were collapsing with little turbulence reaching the bed. In contrast, field evidence indicates the BIF and BFC most likely precipitated directly out of the water column. Preliminary interpretations indicate the deposits may be related to a pro-deltaic setting. (1) Deltaic systems can generate long-lived, high volume turbidity currents. (2) The contacts between the BIF, BFC, and turbidite successions are gradual and inter-fingered, possibly representing lateral facies relationships similar to modern pro-delta environments. (3) Putative fan delta facies, including amalgamated sandstone and conglomerate, exist stratigraphically updip of the basinal sediments.

  10. Petrology of Archean greenstone in Wyoming Province - Part 1: Thermal effects of Louis Lake batholith on Archean greenstones at South Pass, in southern Wind River Range-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Yuasa, T.; Adachi, T.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2005-12-01

    South Pass Area is one of the greenstone belts in Wyoming Province. This area is famous for sequence of greenstones and iron mine ``Atlantic Mine". BIFs form a part of the sequence. Archean greenstones occur along the later Archean batholith (Louis Lake batholith). This greenstone belt locates to the east of the batholith and extends south and north direction. This is composed of four units from west to east; ultramafic to mafic rock unit, BIF-bearing pelitic rock unit, mafic rock unit, and metavolcanic - metagraywacke unit. These units are parallel to a contact between this greenstone belt and Louis Lake batholith. BIFs also lie along the contact about 0.3 km east. Several previous studies suggested that these greenstones were metamorphosed under conditions of amphibolite, and locally greenschist. However we discovered a lot of ``actinolite-facies" rocks that exposed in vicinity to high- grade garnet-bearing schists within 1 km. Therefore, it is necessary to clear the metamorphic grade and metamorphic history of the Archean greenstones in the South Pass Area. Actinolite is dominant constituent mineral in greenstones in far side (more than 1 km) of the Louis Lake batholith. We called these rocks ``actinolite-facies" rocks. Actinolite-facies rocks have a mineral assemblage of Act + Ab. Albite grains were mostly replaced by epidote. Actinolite grains have thin bluish-green hornblende rims like corona texture. Evidence for volcanic textures was observed. Pillow lava structure occurs about 3 km away from the Louis Lake batholith. A unit of pillow lava structure (7.5 cm _~ 20 cm, rim 0.5 cm width) is composed of pale green core and thin dark gray rim (chilled margin of pillow structure). The core assemblage is Ep + Chl + Qtz + Carb. The thin rim is composed of euhedral epidote, very fine-grained chlorite, and quartz. A volcanic texture was confirmed in this pillow lava structure. Albite grains preserve a relic intergranular texture in the part of these rocks. Relic

  11. Chemistry of sands from the modern Indus River and the Archean Witwatersrand basin: Implications for the composition of the Archean atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, J.B.; Ritger, S.D. ); Sutton, S.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Both the Indus River and the Witwatersrand basin contain sand with grains of detrital uraninite. Because this mineral is easily oxidized, its presence in Archean strata as a detrital particle has been used as evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere before 2.5 Ga. However, its presence in modern sand from the Indus River system has been used to argue that detrital uraninite does not provide information about the oxygen concentration of Earth's early atmosphere. Petrographic and chemical study of sand from these two sources reveals differences that suggest the modern Indus sand cannot be used as an analog for the Archean Witwatersrand occurrences. The Witwatersrand quartzites are depleted in Ca, Mg, and Na, indicating that the original sand from which they formed had been subjected to intense weathering. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), a commonly used indicator of degree of weathering, yields an average value of about 0.80 for Witwatersrand quartzites, comparable to modern tropical streams such as the Orinoco that drain deeply weathered terrains under tropical conditions (CIA=0.75). In contrast, the CIA for Indus sand is 0.45, indicating virtually no chemical weathering. The significance of Archean quartz-pebble conglomerates is not just that they contain unstable detrital phases like uraninite and pyrite, but that these particles are associated with rocks whose compositions suggest intense weathering. These conglomerates must have been subjected to intense weathering under tropical conditions, either in their source area or at the site of deposition, and the preservation of minerals like uraninite such conditions is indeed strong evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere.

  12. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  13. Role of Viral RNA and Co-opted Cellular ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III Factors in Formation of Tombusvirus Spherules Harboring the Tombusvirus Replicase

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Pogany, Judit; Barajas, Daniel; Pathak, Kunj; Risco, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plus-stranded RNA viruses induce membrane deformations in infected cells in order to build viral replication complexes (VRCs). Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) co-opts cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins to induce the formation of vesicle (spherule)-like structures in the peroxisomal membrane with tight openings toward the cytosol. In this study, using a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) vps23Δ bro1Δ double-deletion mutant, we showed that the Vps23p ESCRT-I protein (Tsg101 in mammals) and Bro1p (ALIX) ESCRT-associated protein, both of which bind to the viral p33 replication protein, play partially complementary roles in TBSV replication in cells and in cell extracts. Dual expression of dominant-negative versions of Arabidopsis homologs of Vps23p and Bro1p inhibited tombusvirus replication to greater extent than individual expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We also demonstrated the critical role of Snf7p (CHMP4), Vps20p, and Vps24p ESCRT-III proteins in tombusvirus replication in yeast and in vitro. Electron microscopic imaging of vps23Δ yeast revealed the lack of tombusvirus-induced spherule-like structures, while crescent-like structures are formed in ESCRT-III deletion yeasts replicating TBSV RNA. In addition, we also showed that the length of the viral RNA affects the sizes of spherules formed in N. benthamiana cells. The 4.8-kb genomic RNA is needed for the formation of spherules 66 nm in diameter, while spherules formed during the replication of the ∼600-nucleotide (nt)-long defective interfering RNA in the presence of p33 and p92 replication proteins are 42 nm. We propose that the viral RNA serves as a “measuring string” during VRC assembly and spherule formation. IMPORTANCE Plant positive-strand RNA viruses, similarly to animal positive-strand RNA viruses, replicate in membrane-bound viral replicase complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Identification of cellular and viral factors

  14. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed? Todd says that there is no standard definition for hospital beds, a fact that consumers shopping ... in retail stores that don’t meet the definition of medical devices under the law, but which ...

  15. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  16. The rock components and structures of Archean greenstone belts: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the character and evolution of the Earth's early crust is derived from the studies of the rocks and structures in Archean greenstone belts. Ability to resolve the petrologic, sedimentological and structural histories of greenstone belts, however, hinges first on an ability to apply the concepts and procedures of classical stratigraphy. Unfortunately, early Precambrian greenstone terrains present particular problems to stratigraphic analysis. Many current controversies of greenstone belt petrogenesis, sedimentology, tectonics and evolution arise more from an inability to develop a clear stratigraphic picture of the belts than from ambiguities in interpretation. Four particular stratigraphic problems that afflict studies of Archean greenstone belts are considered: determination of facing directions, correlation of lithologic units, identification of primary lithologies and discrimination of stratigraphic versus structural contacts.

  17. Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex: Stable isotope evidence for shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.H.; Valley, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios indicate that unusual rocks at the upper contact of the Archean Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex at Fiskenaesset Harbor (southwest Greenland) are the products of hydrothermal alteration by seawater at the time of anorthosite intrusion. Subsequent granulite-facies metamorphism of these Ca-poor and Al- and Mg-rich rocks produced sapphirine- and kornerupine-bearing assemblages. Because large amounts of surface waters cannot penetrate to depths of 30 km during granulite-facies metamorphism, the isotopic signature of the contact rocks must have been obtained prior to regional metamorphism. The stable isotope and geochemical characteristics of the contact rocks support a model of shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust for the Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Clues from Fe isotope variations on the origin of early Archean BIFs from Greenland.

    PubMed

    Dauphas, Nicolas; van Zuilen, Mark; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Davis, Andrew M; Marty, Bernard; Janney, Philip E

    2004-12-17

    Archean rocks may provide a record of early Earth environments. However, such rocks have often been metamorphosed by high pressure and temperature, which can overprint the signatures of their original formation. Here, we show that the early Archean banded rocks from Isua, Akilia, and Innersuartuut, Greenland, are enriched in heavy iron isotopes by 0.1 to 0.5 per mil per atomic mass unit relative to igneous rocks worldwide. The observed enrichments are compatible with the transport, oxidation, and subsequent precipitation of ferrous iron emanating from hydrothermal vents and thus suggest that the original rocks were banded iron formations (BIFs). These variations therefore support a sedimentary origin for the Akilia banded rocks, which represent one of the oldest known occurrences of water-laid deposits on Earth. PMID:15604404

  19. Clues from Fe isotope variations on the origin of early Archean BIFs from Greenland.

    PubMed

    Dauphas, Nicolas; van Zuilen, Mark; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Davis, Andrew M; Marty, Bernard; Janney, Philip E

    2004-12-17

    Archean rocks may provide a record of early Earth environments. However, such rocks have often been metamorphosed by high pressure and temperature, which can overprint the signatures of their original formation. Here, we show that the early Archean banded rocks from Isua, Akilia, and Innersuartuut, Greenland, are enriched in heavy iron isotopes by 0.1 to 0.5 per mil per atomic mass unit relative to igneous rocks worldwide. The observed enrichments are compatible with the transport, oxidation, and subsequent precipitation of ferrous iron emanating from hydrothermal vents and thus suggest that the original rocks were banded iron formations (BIFs). These variations therefore support a sedimentary origin for the Akilia banded rocks, which represent one of the oldest known occurrences of water-laid deposits on Earth.

  20. Archean diamond-bearing mantle in the expanding-earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanovskii, E. E.; Malkov, B. A.

    It is suggested that the Archean diamond-bearing mantle and its diamond-bearing parageneses experience in time a chain of retrograde transformations, making it possible to decide whether or not isobars were really submerged in the paleolithosphere from the Archean to the present age and to calculate the rate of this submergence. Kimberlite volcanism, transporting diamond-bearing matter from the upper mantle to the earth's surface, lends support to the global pulsational character of tectonic-magmatic processes. The regularities revealed in the analysis of diamond-bearing parageneses and the regularities in the features of the Precambrian diamond-bearing mantle agree well with a model of moderate pulsational expansion of the earth with a total increment of the earth's radius of the order of 10-15 percent from its initial value.

  1. The transition from an Archean granite-greenstone terrain into a charnockite terrain in southern India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condie, K. C.; Allen, P.

    1983-01-01

    In southern India, it is possible to study the transition from an Archean granite-greenstone terrain (the Karnataka province) into high grade charnockites. The transition occurs over an outcrop width of 20-35 km and appears to represent burial depths ranging from 15 to 20 km. Field and geochemical studies indicate that the charnockites developed at the expense of tonalites, granites, and greenstones. South of the transition zone, geobarometer studies indicate burial depths of 7-9 kb.

  2. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  3. Evaluation of early Archean volcaniclastic and volcanic flow rocks as possible sites for carbonaceous fossil microbes.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Maud M

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks have traditionally been the focus of the search for Archean microfossils; the Earth's oldest fossil bacteria are associated with carbonaceous matter in sedimentary cherts in greenstone belts in the eastern Pilbara block of Western Australia and Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa. Reports of possible fossils in a martian meteorite composed of igneous rock and the discovery of modern bacteria associated with basalts have stimulated a new look at Archean volcanic rocks as possible sites for fossil microbes. This study examines silicified volcaniclastic rocks, near-surface altered volcanic flow rocks, and associated stromatolite- like structures from the Archean Barberton greenstone belt to evaluate their potential for the preservation of carbonaceous fossils. Detrital carbonaceous particles are widely admixed with current-deposited debris. Carbonaceous matter is also present in altered volcanic flow rocks as sparse particles in silica veins that appear to be fed by overlying carbonaceous chert layers. Neither microfossils nor mat-like material was identified in the altered volcanic rocks or adjacent stromatolite-like structures. Ancient volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks are not promising sites for carbonaceous fossil preservation.

  4. Comparison of Archean and Phanerozoic granulites: Southern India and North American Appalachians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Kittleson, Roger C.

    1988-01-01

    Archean granulites at the southern end of the Dharwar craton of India and Phanerozoic granulites in the southern Appalachians of North America share an important characteristic: both show continuous transitions from amphibolite facies rocks to higher grade. This property is highly unusual for granulite terranes, which commonly are bounded by major shears or thrusts. These two terranes thus offer an ideal opportunity to compare petrogenetic models for deep crustal rocks formed in different time periods, which conventional wisdom suggests may have had different thermal profiles. The salient features of the Archean amphibolite-to-granulite transition in southern India have been recently summarized. The observed metamorphic progression reflects increasing temperature and pressure. Conditions for the Phanerozoic amphibolite-to-granulite transition in the southern Appalachians were documented. The following sequence of prograde reactions was observed: kyanite = sillimanite, muscovite = sillimanite + K-feldspar, partial melting of pelites, and hornblende = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. The mineral compositions of low-variance assemblages in mafic and intermediate rocks are almost identical for the two granulite facies assemblages. In light of their different fluid regimes and possible mechanisms for heat flow augmentation, it seems surprising that these Archean and Phanerozoic granulite terranes were apparently metamorphosed under such similar conditions of pressure and temperature. Comparison with other terrains containing continuous amphibolite-to-granulite facies transitions will be necessary before this problem can be addressed.

  5. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred.

  6. Evaluation of early Archean volcaniclastic and volcanic flow rocks as possible sites for carbonaceous fossil microbes.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Maud M

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks have traditionally been the focus of the search for Archean microfossils; the Earth's oldest fossil bacteria are associated with carbonaceous matter in sedimentary cherts in greenstone belts in the eastern Pilbara block of Western Australia and Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa. Reports of possible fossils in a martian meteorite composed of igneous rock and the discovery of modern bacteria associated with basalts have stimulated a new look at Archean volcanic rocks as possible sites for fossil microbes. This study examines silicified volcaniclastic rocks, near-surface altered volcanic flow rocks, and associated stromatolite- like structures from the Archean Barberton greenstone belt to evaluate their potential for the preservation of carbonaceous fossils. Detrital carbonaceous particles are widely admixed with current-deposited debris. Carbonaceous matter is also present in altered volcanic flow rocks as sparse particles in silica veins that appear to be fed by overlying carbonaceous chert layers. Neither microfossils nor mat-like material was identified in the altered volcanic rocks or adjacent stromatolite-like structures. Ancient volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks are not promising sites for carbonaceous fossil preservation. PMID:15684724

  7. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates: 3-shelf seas and non-marine environments of the Archean

    SciTech Connect

    Veizer, J. Ruhr Universitaet, Bochum ); Clayton, R.N. ); Hinton, R.W. Grant Institute of Geology, Edinburgh ); von Brunn, V. ); Mason, T.R. ); Buck, S.G. ); Hoefs, J. )

    1990-10-01

    A comprehensive whole-rock study of mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic attributes of Archean carbonates suggests that their lithologies and facies have been controlled by tectonic setting. In the first two papers of this series they have shown that the dominant lithology of sedimentary carbonates in greenstone belt settings is limestone. In this paper the authors suggest that the Archean shelf sequences are mostly dolostone, and the contemporaneous lacustrine playa lakes are characterized by limestone facies. The present study is of the shelf environments of the Archean, represented by the Pongola Supergroup of South Africa and the Hamersley Group of Australia. The lacustrine playa examples have been sampled from the Ventersdorp Supergroup of South Africa and the Fortescue Group of Australia. Geological, trace element, and oxygen isotope considerations of the shelf carbonates suggest that their original mineralogy may have been aragonite and that the Pongola dolostones probably represent a direct dolomitization product of this precursor. In contrast, the stabilization of the Hamersley carbonates may have involved an additional step of transformation of a metastable precursor into limestone prior to dolomitization.

  8. Earth's early atmosphere as seen from carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of Archean sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Carr, L. P.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Earth's early atmosphere has long been a topic of great interest but determination of actual compositions over geologic time is a difficult problem. However, recent systematic studies of stromatolite deposits (Precambrian Paleobiology Research Group) has extended our knowledge of Archean ecosystems. It has been shown that many stromatolite deposits have undergone negligible alteration since their time of formation. The discovery of primary fluid inclusions within unaltered 3.5 b.y. old Archiean sediments and the observation that the 3.3 b.y. old Barberton cherts have remained closed to argon loss and have not been subjected to thermal metamorphism suggests that an opportunity exists for the direct measurement of the volatile constituents present at their time of formation. Of primary interest to this study was the possibility that the stromatolites and other Archean sediments might retain a vestige of the atmosphere and thus afford an indication of the variations in carbon dioxide and nitrogen isotopic compositions with time. A suite of essentially unaltered Archean stromatolites and the cherts of different ages and geologic sites have been analyzed for their trapped carbon dioxide and nitrogen compositions by the stepped combustion extraction tech nique utilizing static mass spectrometers for the isotope measurements.

  9. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred. PMID:24621308

  10. Mantle redox evolution and the oxidation state of the Archean atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Eggler, D. H.; Raeburn, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    Current models predict that the early atmosphere consisted mostly of CO2, N2, and H2O, along with traces of H2 and CO. Such models are based on the assumption that the redox state of the upper mantle has not changed, so that volcanic gas composition has remained approximately constant with time. We argue here that this assumption is probably incorrect: the upper mantle was originally more reduced than today, although not as reduced as the metal arrest level, and has become progressively more oxidized as a consequence of the release of reduced volcanic gases and the subduction of hydrated, oxidized seafloor. Data on the redox state of sulfide and chromite inclusions in diamonds imply that the process of mantle oxidation was slow, so that reduced conditions could have prevailed for as much as half of the earth's history. To be sure, other oxybarometers of ancient rocks give different results, so the question of when the mantle redox state has changed remains unresolved. Mantle redox evolution is intimately linked to the oxidation state of the primitive atmosphere: A reduced Archean atmosphere would have had a high hydrogen escape rate and should correspond to a changing mantle redox state; an oxidized Archean atmosphere should be associated with a constant mantle redox state. The converses of these statements are also true. Finally, our theory of mantle redox evolution may explain why the Archean atmosphere remained oxygen-deficient until approximately 2.0 billion years ago (Ga) despite a probable early origin for photosynthesis.

  11. Dome and Keel dynamics in the hot Archean lithosphere: a numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclaux, G.; Thebaud, N.; Gessner, K.; Doublier, M.

    2012-12-01

    The long-term interactions between greenstone belts and adjacent granitoids domes is key for understanding hot lithosphere rheology, crustal evolution and major ore deposits formation in Archean terrains. Some few tectonic processes have been proposed to explain both local and regional granite/greenstone finite deformation patterns observed in Archean terrains such as the West Australian Pilbara or Yilgarn cratons, including crustal extension following gravitational collapse, metamorphic core complex formation, folding interferences, and gravity driven deformation associated with exhumation of granitoids relative to a supracrustal cover. We propose to assess gravity driven deformation processes from simplified 2-D and 3-D thermo-mechanical numerical experiments using Underworld. A series of visco-plastic experiments under controlled boundary conditions have allowed us to identify three distinct stages in the hot lithosphere tectonic evolution: (1) an internal heating phase, (2) an inversion phase where dense mafic materials fall toward the lower crust while mid-crustal granitoids raise toward the surface, and (3) a freezing phase where the system stops. The relative duration of these phases is dependent on models initial geometries and inherited structures, materials thermal properties and rheologies, and the rheological contrast between granitoids and greenstones. We compare our experimental results with field observations and geophysical data from the Yilgarn craton in order to validate the gravity driven tectonic model, and eventually constrain the range of thermal and mechanical parameters that best capture Archean crustal dynamics.

  12. Morphology, distribution, and estimated eruption volumes for intracaldera tuffs associated with volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits in the Archean Sturgeon Lake Caldera Complex, Northwestern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, George J.; Morton, Ronald L.; Franklin, James M.; Peterson, Dean M.

    The Archean Sturgeon Lake Caldera Complex (SLCC) comprises a well-preserved, north-facing homoclinal sequence of greenschist facies metamorphosed intrusive, volcanic, and sedimentary strata. This piecemeal caldera complex is at least 25 km in strike length and contains nearly 3000 meters of dominantly subaqueously deposited intracaldera fill. Episodes of subaerial and subaqueous explosive felsic volcanism produced rhyodacitic to rhyolitic tuffs and lapilli tuffs. Progressing stratigraphically upward, the most voluminous are: a) the High Level Lake Tuff (˜16km3 b) the Mattabi Tuff (˜27km3) and c) the Middle L Tuff (˜7km3). The subaerially erupted, subaerially and locally subaqueously deposited High Level Lake Tuff comprises an 80-300 meter-thick unit composed of basal, poorly sorted, massive to normal graded, quartz-phyric, locally spherulitic tuffs and lapilli tuffs (30—150m thick) that are overlain by thin-bedded tuffs (<1-5m thick). The subaqueously erupted and deposited Mattabi Tuff contains up to thirteen individual flow units, each comprising two distinct depositional facies: a) lower, quartz-phyric, poorly sorted, ungraded, massive tuffs and lapilli tuffs (20-250 meters thick; and b) upper, laminated to medium bedded, typically normal graded tuffs (1-13 meters thick). The subaqueously erupted and deposited Middle L Tuff is also characterized by two distinct lithofacies: a) lower graded, quartz- and, rarely, potassium feldspar-phyric tuffs and lapilli tuffs (5-120m thick); and b) overlying, well-sorted, laminated to thickly bedded, normal graded tuffs (

  13. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed Bugs — Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control — Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse ... Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems ...

  14. 2.9-1.9 Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of the Franceville basin (Gabon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; El Albani, Abderrazak; Meunier, Alain; Boulvais, Philippe; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Martin, Hervé; Cuney, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The Archean granitoids in the Kiéné area, Gabon, are overlained by the Paleoproterozoic sediments of the Franceville basin (2.1 Ga). The basin is known for its high-grade uranium deposits among which some have been forming natural nuclear fission reactors. Most of the studies were dedicated to the FA-FB Paleoproterozoic sediments hosting these uranium deposits. Little is known on the Archean basement itself and specifically on the hydrous alteration events it experienced before and after the sediment deposition. The present work is focused on their petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Dating the successive alteration events has been attempted on altered monazite crystals. Rocks in different alteration states have been sampled from eight drill cores crosscutting the Archean - Paleoproterozoic unconformity. The Archean granitoids observed in the deepest levels exhibit typical petrographical features of a propylitic alteration while they are intensely illitized up to the unconformity. The propylitic alteration is mainly pervasive but the original texture of the granitoïds is conserved in spite of the formation of new minerals: Mg-chlorite, allanite and epidote forming a typical paragenesis. The illitic alteration is much more invasive near the unconformity. The illitization process leads to the replacement of feldspars and the corrosion of quartz crysals by an illitic matrix while the ferromagnesian minerals are pseudomorphosed by a Fe-chlorite + phengite + hematite assemblage. The final fluid-rock interaction step is marked by fissural deposits of calcite and anhydrite. The δ13C isotopic data show that the fissural carbonates precipitated from diagenetic fluids enriched carbon products deriving from the maturation of organic matter. The U-Pb isotopic analyzes performed on monazite crystals have dated three distinct events: 3.0-2.9 Ga (magmatic), 2.6 Ga (propylitic alteration) and 1.9 Ga (diagenetic illitization). The calculation of

  15. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Reported are findings of Neoarchean benthic colonial coccoid cyanobacteria preserved as abundant remnants of mineralized capsules and sheaths visible in SEM images as characteristic patterns after etching highly polished carbonate rock platelets. The samples described herein were collected from the Nauga Formation at Prieska (Kaapvaal craton, South Africa). The stratigraphic position of the sampling horizon (Fig. 1) is bracketed by single zircon ages from intercalated tuffs, of 2588±6 Ma and 2549±7Ma [1]. The cyanobacteria-bearing samples are located within sedimentary sequence which begins with Peritidal Member displaying increasingly transgressive character, passing upward into the Chert Member and followed by the Proto-BIF Member and by the Naute Shale Member of the Nauga Formation successively. All three latter members were deposited below the fair weather wave base. As in our previous report [2], the samples are taken from lenses of massive micritic flat pebble conglomerate occurring in otherwise finely laminated siliceous shales intercalating with thin bedded platy limestone. This part of the Nauga Formation is about 30 m thick. The calcareous, cyanobacteria-bearing flat pebble conglomerate and thin intercalations of fine-grained detrital limestones embedded in the clayey sapropel-rich deposits are interpreted as carbonate sediments winnowed during stormy weather from the nearby located peritidal carbonate platform. The mass occurrence and exceptional preservation of mineralised cyanobacterial remains in the micritic carbonate (Mg-calcite) of the redeposited flat pebbles can be explained by their sudden burial in deeper, probably anoxic clay- and sapropel-rich sediments. When examined with standard petrographic optical microscopic technique, the micritic carbonates show rather obscure structure (Fig. 2a), whereas under the SEM, polished and slightly etched platelets of the same samples reveal surprisingly well preserved patterns (Fig. 2b

  16. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  17. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  18. Strontium and neodymium isotopic variations in early Archean gneisses affected by middle to late Archean high-grade metamorphic processes: West Greenland and Labrador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collerson, K. D.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Bridgwater, D.; Mcgregor, V. R.; Nutman, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Relicts of continental crust formed more than 3400 Ma ago are preserved fortuitously in most cratons. The cratons provide the most direct information about crust and mantle evolutionary processes during the first billion years of Earth history. In view of their polymetamorphic character, these terrains are commonly affected by subsequent tectonothermal events. Hence, their isotope systematics may be severely disturbed as a result of bulk chemical change or local isotopic homogenization. This leads to equivocal age and source information for different components within these terrains. The Sr and Nd isotopic data are presented for early Archean gneisses from the North Atlantic Craton in west Greenland and northern Labrador which were affected by younger metamorphic events.

  19. Crystal-bearing lunar spherules: Impact-melting of the Moon's crust and implications for the origin of meteoritic chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Crystal-bearing lunar spherules (CLSs) in lunar breccia (14313, 14315, 14318), soil (68001, 24105), and impact-melt-rock (62295) samples can be classified into two types: feldspathic and olivine-rich. Feldspathic CLSs contain equant, tabular, or acicular plagioclase grains set in glass or a pyroxene-olivine mesostasis; the less common olivine-rich CLSs contain euhedral or skeletal olivine set in glass, or possess a barred-olivine texture. Bulk-chemical and mineral-chemical data strongly suggest that feldspathic CLSs formed by impact-melting of mixtures of ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks that compose the feldspathic crust of the Moon. It is probable that olivine-rich CLSs also formed by impact-melting, but some appear to have been derived from distinctively magnesian lunar materials, atypical of the Moon's crust. Some CLSs contain reversely-zoned "relict" plagioclase grains that were not entirely melted during CLS formation, thin (?5 ?m thick) rims of troilite or phosphate, and chemical gradients in glassy mesostases attributed to metasomatism in a volatile-rich (Na-K-P-rich) environment. CLSs were rimmed and metasomatized prior to brecciation. Compound CLS objects are also present; these formed by low-velocity collisions in an environment, probably an ejecta plume, that contained numerous melt droplets. Factors other than composition were responsible for producing the crystallinity of the CLSs. We agree with previous workers that relatively slow cooling rates and long ballistic travel times were critical features that enabled these impact-melt droplets to partially or completely crystallize in free-flight. Moreover, incomplete melting of precursor materials formed nucleation sites that aided subsequent crystallization. Clearly, CLSs do not resemble meteoritic chondrules in all ways. The two types of objects had different precursors and did not experience identical rimming processes, and vapor-fractionation appears to have played a less important role in

  20. A review of tectonic aspects of the Limpopo belt and other Archean high-grade gneissic terranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, W. S. F.

    1985-01-01

    Published information on the Archean high grade terrains varies a great deal in the detail available. Such information as exists indicates marked differences in the lithic types and proportions present in the central Limpopo belt compared with the better studies of the other Archean high grade terrains. These differences may be important because they are expressed by the presence in the Limpopo belt of subordinate, but significant quantities (about 5% each) of two rock suites likely to have formed on a shallow marine platform of significant size (Eriksson and Kidd, in prep.). These suites consist of thick sections dominantly consisting of either carbonate and calc-silicate, or of pure metaquartzites, often fuchsite bearing, whose lithic characters are unlike those expected for metacherts but are very like those expected for platform arenites. Isotopic ages suggest these sediments are probably older than 3.3 Ga and younger than 3.5 Ga. Studies lead to the conclusions that (1) continental fragments large enough to provide a substrate for significant platform arenite and carbonate sedimentation existed by 3.3 to 3.5 Ga ago; (2) Wilson cycle tectonics seems to adequately explain most major features of the Archean gneissic terranes; and (3) Tibetan-Himalayan style collisional tectonics 2.6 Ga and older accounts for the large scale relationships between the Limpopo belt and the adjacent Archean greenstone granitoid terrane cratons. By inference, other more fragmentary Archean gneissic terranes may have once been part of such collisional zones.

  1. EPR study of thermally treated Archean microbial mats analogues and comparison with Archean cherts: towards a possible marker of oxygenic photosynthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbin, M.; Derenne, S.; Westall, F.; Gourier, D.; Gautret, P.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Robert, F.

    2012-04-01

    The datation of photosynthesis apparition remains an open question nowadays: did oxygenic photosynthesis appear just before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) of the atmosphere, 2.3 to 2.4 Gyr ago, or does it originate much earlier? It is therefore of uttermost interest to find markers of oxygenic photosynthesis, applicable to samples of archean age. In order to handle this problem, Microcoleus Chtonoplastes cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, were studied using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, a high sensitivity technique for the study of organic radicals in mature geological samples (coals, cherts, meteorites...). M. chtonoplastes and Chloroflexus-like bacteria were sampled in mats from the hypersaline lake "La Salada de Chiprana" (Spain), an analogue to an Archean environment, and were submitted to accelerated ageing through cumulative thermal treatments. For thermal treatment temperatures higher than 620° C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (M. chtonoplastes) occurred, as compared with the anoxygenic photosynthetic one (Chloroflexus-like). The EPR study of a thermally treated mixture of the two bacteria evidences that this linewidth increase is driven by catalytic reaction at high temperatures on an element selectively fixed by M. chtonoplastes. Based on comparative EDS analyses, Mg is a potential candidate for this catalytic activity but its precise role and the nature of the reaction are still to be determined. The EPR study of organic radicals in chert rocks of ages ranging from 0.42 to 3.5 Gyr, from various localities and that underwent various metamorphisms, revealed a dispersion of the signal width for the most mature samples. This comparative approach between modern bacterial samples and Precambrian cherts leads to propose the EPR linewidth of mature organic matter in cherts as a potential marker of oxygenic photosynthesis. If confirmed, this marker

  2. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Reported are findings of Neoarchean benthic colonial coccoid cyanobacteria preserved as abundant remnants of mineralized capsules and sheaths visible in SEM images as characteristic patterns after etching highly polished carbonate rock platelets. The samples described herein were collected from the Nauga Formation at Prieska (Kaapvaal craton, South Africa). The stratigraphic position of the sampling horizon (Fig. 1) is bracketed by single zircon ages from intercalated tuffs, of 2588±6 Ma and 2549±7Ma [1]. The cyanobacteria-bearing samples are located within sedimentary sequence which begins with Peritidal Member displaying increasingly transgressive character, passing upward into the Chert Member and followed by the Proto-BIF Member and by the Naute Shale Member of the Nauga Formation successively. All three latter members were deposited below the fair weather wave base. As in our previous report [2], the samples are taken from lenses of massive micritic flat pebble conglomerate occurring in otherwise finely laminated siliceous shales intercalating with thin bedded platy limestone. This part of the Nauga Formation is about 30 m thick. The calcareous, cyanobacteria-bearing flat pebble conglomerate and thin intercalations of fine-grained detrital limestones embedded in the clayey sapropel-rich deposits are interpreted as carbonate sediments winnowed during stormy weather from the nearby located peritidal carbonate platform. The mass occurrence and exceptional preservation of mineralised cyanobacterial remains in the micritic carbonate (Mg-calcite) of the redeposited flat pebbles can be explained by their sudden burial in deeper, probably anoxic clay- and sapropel-rich sediments. When examined with standard petrographic optical microscopic technique, the micritic carbonates show rather obscure structure (Fig. 2a), whereas under the SEM, polished and slightly etched platelets of the same samples reveal surprisingly well preserved patterns (Fig. 2b

  3. Bed rest in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Catherine; Stone, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The use of bed rest in medicine dates back to Hippocrates, who first recommended bed rest as a restorative measure for pain. With the formalization of prenatal care in the early 1900s, maternal bed rest became a standard of care, especially toward the end of pregnancy. Antepartum bed rest is a common obstetric management tool, with up to 95% of obstetricians utilizing maternal activity restriction in some way in their practice. Bed rest is prescribed for a variety of complications of pregnancy, from threatened abortion and multiple gestations to preeclampsia and preterm labor. Although the use of bed rest is pervasive, there is a paucity of data to support its use. Additionally, many well-documented adverse physical, psychological, familial, societal, and financial effects have been discussed in the literature. There have been no complications of pregnancy for which the literature consistently demonstrates a benefit to antepartum bed rest. Given the well-documented adverse effects of bed rest, disruption of social relationships, and financial implications of this intervention, there is a real need for scientific investigation to establish whether this is an appropriate therapeutic modality. Well-designed randomized, controlled trials of bed rest versus normal activity for various complications of pregnancy are required to lay this debate to rest once and for all. PMID:21425272

  4. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated coacervation of tropoelastin abolishes the critical concentration, accelerates coacervate formation, and facilitates spherule fusion: implications for tropoelastin microassembly.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yidong; Weiss, Anthony S

    2008-07-01

    Elastogenesis and elastin repair depend on the secretion of tropoelastin from the cell, yet cellular production is low in the many biological systems that have been studied. To address the apparent paradox of a paucity of tropoelastin for cell surface microassembly, we examined the effects of the glycosaminoglycans heparin, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate B, on tropoelastin aggregate formation through coacervation. We found a significant effect, particularly of heparin, on the minimum or critical concentration of tropoelastin, which was required for microassembly, lowering critical concentration to a point that it was no longer detectable. The assemblies resulted in protein droplet formation that was visually indistinguishable from the spherules that typify coacervation. The spherules readily coalesced in the presence of heparin and higher concentrations of tropoelastin, resulting in an almost continuous layer of coacervated tropoelastin. Four stages of droplet behavior were observed: early droplet formation, approximately 6 mum droplet formation, and fusion of droplets followed by the formation of a coalesced layer. We conclude that glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix have the capacity to promote coacervation at low concentrations of tropoelastin.

  5. Geochronology of the deep profile through archean basement at Vredefort, with implications for early crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, R. J.; Welke, H. J.; Nicolaysen, L. O.

    1981-11-01

    The presence of Archean granite forming the core of an updomed and overturned sequence of strata at Vredefort, South Africa, has been known for over 70 years. Recent geophysical, geochemical, and geological evidence has given rise to the proposal that the basement granite core has also been overturned, presenting a section of the earth's granitic crust to view and that radial traverses in the Vredefort basement penetrate through a ˜15 km thick section of the Archean crust, when moving from the contact of collar strata to the center of the dome. The upper levels of the Vredefort crust are dominated by a relatively homogeneous outer granite gneiss (OGG) displaying marked gradients in large ion lithophile elements. These rocks grade inward into the deeper levels which occur in granulite facies metamorphism. The deeper levels of the Vredefort crust exposed in the central parts of the dome consist predominantly of felsic Inlandsee Leucogranofels (ILG) which occurs interleaved with inclusions of mafic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks termed Steynskraal Metamorphic Zone (SMZ). A comprehensive isotopic study using four decay schemes (87Rb, 232Th, 238U, and 235U) on this crustal section is now reported. The results permit unique and direct tests on the theories of Archean crust forming processes. In the upper Vredefort crust, whole rock isochron ages of ˜3050 m.y. are obtained from the four decay schemes, and almost all evidence of an extended crustal history prior to ˜3050 m.y. has been obliterated. Establishment of strong vertical gradients in Rb/Sr ratio, shortly before `setting' of Rb-Sr whole rock systems, has wide implications for the interpretation of Sr initial ratios. Although the Vredefort upper levels of the crust has a low 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio of 0.7019 ± 0.0002, it probably participated in a crustal prehistory for at least 500 m.y. In the deeper levels of the Vredefort basement the geochronology is much more complex. Rb-Sr and Th-Pb isochrons of

  6. SQUID–SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Fike, David A.; Johnson, Jena E.; Raub, Timothy D.; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Eiler, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of Earth’s early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood—in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, and 34S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6–2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ33S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ34S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments—even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry. PMID:24706767

  7. Leucogranites of the Teton Range, Wyoming: A record of Archean collisional orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Carol D.; Swapp, Susan M.; Frost, B. Ronald; Finley-Blasi, Lee; Fitz-Gerald, D. Braden

    2016-07-01

    Leucogranitic rocks formed by crustal melting are a prominent feature of collisional orogens of all ages. This study describes leucogranitic gneisses associated with an Archean collisional orogeny preserved in the Teton Range of northwestern Wyoming, USA. These leucogneisses formed at 2.68 Ga, and initial Nd isotopic compositions suggest they are derived from relatively juvenile sources. Two distinct groups of leucogneisses, both trondhjemitic, are identified on the basis of field relations, petrology, and geochemistry. The Webb Canyon gneiss forms large, sheet-like bodies of hornblende biotite trondhjemite and granodiorite. This gneiss is silica-rich (SiO2 = 70-80%), strongly ferroan, comparatively low in alumina, and is characterized by high Zr and Y, low Sr, and high REE contents that define "seagull"-shaped REE patterns. The Bitch Creek gneiss forms small sills, dikes, and plutons of biotite trondhjemite. Silica, Zr, Y, and REE are lower and alumina and Sr are higher than in the Webb Canyon gneiss. These differences reflect different melting conditions: the Webb Canyon gneiss formed by dehydration melting in which amphibole and quartz breaks down, accounting for the low alumina, high FeO, high silica content and observed trace element characteristics. The Bitch Creek gneiss formed by H2O-excess melting in which plagioclase breaks down leaving an amphibole-rich restite, producing magmas higher in alumina and Sr and lower in FeO and HREE. Both melt mechanisms are expected in collisional environments: dehydration melting accompanies gravitational collapse and tectonic extension of dramatically thickened crust, and water-excess melting may occur when collision places a relatively cool, hydrous lower plate beneath a hotter upper plate. The Archean leucogranitic gneisses of the Teton Range are calcic trondhjemites and granodiorites whereas younger collisional leucogranites typically are true granites. The difference in leucogranite composition reflects the

  8. SQUID-SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Woodward W; Fike, David A; Johnson, Jena E; Raub, Timothy D; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Eiler, John M

    2014-04-15

    Many aspects of Earth's early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood--in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, and (34)S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6-2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ(33)S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ(34)S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments--even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry.

  9. SQUID-SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Woodward W; Fike, David A; Johnson, Jena E; Raub, Timothy D; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Eiler, John M

    2014-04-15

    Many aspects of Earth's early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood--in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, and (34)S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (∼2.6-2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in Δ(33)S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial δ(34)S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments--even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry. PMID:24706767

  10. Hafnium isotope evidence from Archean granitic rocks for deep-mantle origin of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitreau, Martin; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Martin, Hervé; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Combined whole-rock and zircon MC-ICP-MS Lu-Hf isotope data are reported for a large collection of Archean granitoids belonging to typical tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites. Our data demonstrate that the time-integrated Lu/Hf of the mantle source of TTGs has not significantly changed over the last 4 Gy. Continents therefore most likely grew from nearly primordial unfractionated material extracted from the deep mantle via rising plumes that left a depleted melt residue in the upper mantle. The deep mantle could retain its primitive relative element abundances over time because sinking plates are largely stripped barren of their oceanic and continental crust components at subduction zones; this process results in only small proportions (<15-25%) of present-day continental mass getting recycled to great depths. Zircon populations extracted from the analyzed TTGs have Hf isotopic compositions broadly consistent with those of their host whole-rocks, whereas the U-Pb system in the same grains is often disturbed, causing a discrepancy that creates spurious initial ɛHf values. This problem is endemic to the Archean detrital zircon record and consistent with experimental results bearing on the relative retentivity of Hf vs. U and Pb in zircon. We argue that this behavior biases the Archean zircon record toward negative ɛHf values, which are at odds with the present TTG data set. If Hadean Jack Hills zircons are considered in light of these results, the mantle source of continents has remained unchanged for the last 4.3 Gy.

  11. A Multi-Technique Approach to Understanding Camp-Wide Mineralization Processes in Archean VMS Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, E. R.; Wing, B.; Taylor, B.; Jonasson, I.; Farquhar, J.; Dubé, B.

    2009-05-01

    Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide (VMS) deposits form on or below the seafloor, in association with submarine extrusive volcanism, and reflect the hydrothermal concentration of ore-forming components originating from various reservoirs within the submarine environment. A defining question about VMS deposits is the relative contributions of different sulfur sources to mineralization. Standard models for VMS formation include contributions from reduction of seawater sulfate, remobilization of sedimentary sulfur, and volcanic sources (e.g., direct magmatic degassing, hydrothermal dissolution of sulfides in volcanic wall rocks). We are using an array of geochemical techniques to assess a suite of sulphide mineral separates collected from numerous VMS deposits within the Archean Noranda camp of the Abitibi Belt, Superior Province, Canada. These techniques include ICP-MS analyses of dissolved sulphide separates, microprobe analysis, and multiple sulphur isotope analyses. Multiple sulphur isotope analysis provides a new and powerful tool for interpreting Archean ore deposits. In pre-2.45 Ga rocks, multiple sulphur isotope analyses (δ33S, δ34S, and δ36S) document mass-independent sulphur isotope fractionation (δ33S≠0.515×δ34S, δ36S≠1.9×δ34S), likely expressed because of the lack of an oxygenated atmosphere. Ore-forming processes in VMS deposits cannot create mass-independent fractionation; they can only dilute it away. Trace element geochemistry of sulphides has been used to identify where in a VMS system these minerals form, with contributions from sources such as sea-water, or from a plume having different geochemical 'footprints'. Coupled with multiple sulphur isotope measurements, trace element geochemistry can be used to help identify sulphur sources within Archean VMS deposits and can be used to interpret camp-wide ore-forming processes and controls on mineralization. This will in turn allow for a more comprehensive understanding of VMS mineralization

  12. Geophysical detection of relict metasomatism from an Archean (approximately 3.5 Ga) subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Rondenay, Stéphane; Evans, Rob L; Snyder, David B

    2009-11-20

    When plate tectonics started on Earth has been uncertain, and its role in the assembly of early continents is not well understood. By synthesizing coincident seismic and electrical profiles, we show that subduction processes formed the Archean Slave craton in Canada. The spatial overlap between a seismic discontinuity and a conductive anomaly at approximately 100 kilometers depth, in conjunction with the occurrence of mantle xenoliths rich in secondary minerals representative of a metasomatic front, supports cratonic assembly by subduction and accretion of lithospheric fragments. Although evidence of cratonic assembly is rarely preserved, these results suggest that plate tectonics was operating as early as Paleoarchean times, approximately 3.5 billion years ago (Ga).

  13. The Preservation of Meso- Archean Refractory Lithospheric Mantle Underneath the Eastern Margin of the Tanzania Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Q.; Liu, J.; Pearson, G. D.; Gibson, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies on the petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths from the Tanzanian Craton and its rifted margins have investigated the origin, chemical change and thermal state of the cratonic roots from its core area (Nzega and Mwadui), its Northern (Marsabit) and Eastern margin Labait and Lashaine area (e.g. Dawson, 1964; Henjes-Kunst and Altherr, 1991; Lee & Rudnick, 1999; Chesley et al., 1999; Gibson et al., 2013). These studies suggest that the Tanzanian cratonic mantle formed via high degrees of melt extraction in the Archean (oldest Re-depletion age TRD = 3.4 Ga, Burton et al., 2000) and sev­eral episodes of refertilization. In order to gain further temporal and chemical understanding on the effects of tectonic processes on cratonic roots, we carried out a Re-Os isotopic study on peridotites (n = 11) from Lashaine, which will be followed by Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd and Sr isotope investigations of the constituent minerals of the same samples. The preliminary whole-rock Os isotope data from Lashaine peridotites show a large range of 187Os/188Os (0.1061 - 0.1261), with TRD ages from Meso-Archean to very young (3.1 Ga to 0.3 Ga). There is a negative correlation between TRD and bulk alumina contents. One sample with the lowest Al2O3 yields the oldest age of 3.1 Ga. Five samples range from 2.5 to 2.8 Ga, three give ages close to 2 Ga, and one sample with a high Al2O3 has a TRD at 0.3 Ga. The positive Al2O3-187Os/188Os correlation trend passes above the PM composition may reflect ancient metasomatism by high Re/Os melts or recent metasomatism by very radiogenic Os plume-derived melts. These processes could be related to the evolution of the peripheral Proterozoic mobile belts, or Cenozoic rifting on the Eastern margin. Collectively, our new Os isotope data demonstrate that Meso-Archean (at least 3.1 Ga old) mantle portions are still retained underneath the rifted Eastern margin of the Craton. This is in line with previous results indicating that Archean cratonic

  14. Isotopic Constraints on Processes of Mantle Recycling (Subduction?) in the Hadean and Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Basu, A. R.; Kamber, B.; Mueller, P. A.; Whitehouse, M.

    2006-12-01

    The earliest evidence for subduction and its effects on the Hadean and Archean Earth can be found in the isotopic signatures of recycling in Archean igneous and metasedimentary rocks. The separation of an early terrestrial reservoir from the upper mantle shown by ^{142}Nd isotope data (Boyet & Carlson, Science, 2005) obviates the need for massive extraction and recycling of early continental crust (Armstrong, Phil Trans A, 1981) to explain the depleted mantle. Without extensive continents, an intra-oceanic-arc type of recycling process dominated the evolution of the early mantle. When continental crustal recycling did occur, it appears limited to the margins of emergent and juvenile continental nuclei. Intra-oceanic arc recycling has long been supported by geochemical studies of present mantle heterogeneity that show it represents ancient (>3 Ga) recycled components and geodynamic studies of mantle convection that show the mantle can remain poorly mixed at these time scales. Such studies cannot readily distinguish Hadean to Eoarchean foundering from true plate subduction. However, ^{142}Nd excesses (Caro et al, GCA 2006) and Pb isotopic variability in Eoarchean rocks (Kamber et al, CMP 2003), Hf isotopic variability in Hadean zircon (Harrison et al, Science 2005) and a solar component in mantle rare gases (Tolsthikin and Hofmann, PEPI 2005) require long term isolation of a mafic Hadean crust incompatible with a dynamic process of plate destruction accompanied by efficient return. In contrast to this oldest record, minerals and rocks from <3.6 Ga no longer show extreme heterogeneity in Hf and Pb isotopes and the ^{142}Nd excess in highly depleted mantle had apparently disappeared. Subduction can be strongly inferred from surficial isotopic signatures in crustal and mantle rocks and minerals preserved in the Paleo- to Meso-Archean portions of various continents and their lithospheric mantle keels: 3.5 Ga old diamonds from the Slave craton mantle lithosphere that

  15. Isotope composition of neodymium in neo-Archean banded iron formations of Karelia and Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felitsyn, S. B.; Bogomolov, E. S.; Alfimova, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of three deposits of neo-Archean banded iron formations from the West Karelian domain (the Kostomuksha deposit) and from the Central Kola block (the Olenegorsk and Kirovogorsk deposits) showed a pronounced difference in the isotope compositions of Nd from quartz and magnetite-hematite interlayers. The less radiogenic Nd of iron-containing layers compared to that of the quartz component may be considered as an indication of the formation mechanism of the treated banded iron formations. Thus, silicon-containing layers are related to submarine volcanism and iron was supplied to the sedimentation zone from other sources.

  16. The western Wabigoon Subprovince, Superior Province, Canada: Archean greenstone succession in rifted basement complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. R.; Davis, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Wabigoon Subprovince, interposed between the predominantly metasedimentary-plutonic and gneissic English River and Quetico Subprovinces to the north and south respectively, exposed Archean greenstone and granitoid rocks for a strike length of greater than 700 km. Based on predominating rock types, the western part of the subprovince is divided into two terrains: the northern Wabigoon volcano-sedimentary and pluonic terrain (NWW) and the Wabigoon Diapiric Axis terrain (WDA). Both the NWW and WDA are described according to volcanic sequence, geological faults, chemical composition and evolutionary history.

  17. Oxidative Weathering of Archean Sulfides: Implications for the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Reinhard, C.; Garcia-Robledo, E.; Revsbech, N. P.; Canfield, D. E.; Lyons, T. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The first widely accepted evidence for oxidation of Earth's atmosphere and oceans occurs ~2.45 Ga immediately prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). A major line of evidence for this transition includes the abundances and isotopic variations of redox-sensitive transition metals in marine sediments (e.g., Fe, Mo, Re, Cr, and U). It is often assumed that oxidative weathering is required to liberate these redox-sensitive elements from sulfide minerals in the crust, and hence that their presence in early Archean marine sediments signifies that oxidative weathering was stimulated by small and/or transient "whiffs" of O2 in the environment.1 However, studies of crustal sulfide reactivity have not been conducted at O2 concentrations as low as those that would have prevailed when O2 began its rise during the late Archean (estimated at <10-5 present atmospheric O2).2 As a result, it is difficult to quantify O2 concentrations implied by observed trace metal variations. As a first step toward providing more quantitative constraints on late Archean pO2, we conducted laboratory studies of pyrite and molybdenite oxidation kinetics at the nanomolar O2 concentrations that are relevant to late Archean environments. These measurements were made using recently developed, highly sensitive optical O2 sensors to monitor the rates at which the powdered minerals consumed dissolved O2 in a range of pH-buffered solutions.3Our data extend the range of experimental pyrite oxidation rates in the literature by three orders of magnitude from ~10-3 present atmospheric O2 to ~10-6. We find that molybdenite and pyrite oxidation continues to <1 nM O2 (4 x 10-6 present atmospheric O2). This implies that oxidative weathering of sulfides could occur under conditions which preserve MIF S fractionation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the rate law and reaction order of pyrite oxidation kinetics change significantly at nanomolar concentrations of O2 when compared to previous compilations.2 Our

  18. Pale Orange Dots: Hazy Archean Earth as an Analog for Hazy Earthlike Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark; Schwieterman, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Of the four terrestrial worlds with significant atmospheres in our solar system - Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan - two of these worlds are presently enshrouded by hazes, and observations suggest that hazy exoplanets are also common (Bean et al. 2010, Sing et al. 2011, Kreidberg et al 2014, Knutson et al. 2014). The early (Archean) Earth may have had a photochemical hydrocarbon haze similar to Titan's (Zerkle et al. 2012), with important climactic effects (Pavlov et al. 2001, Trainer et al. 2006, Haqq-Misra et al. 2008, Domagal-Goldman et al. 2008, Wolf and Toon 2012). Here, we considered Archean Earth as an analog for hazy Earthlike exoplanets and used a modified version of the 1-D photochemical code developed originally by Kasting et al. (1979) to generate model Archean atmospheres with fractal hydrocarbon haze particles. A 1-D line-by-line fully multiple scattering radiative transfer model (Meadows and Crisp 1996) was then used to generate synthetic spectra of early Earth with haze. We have used the resulting synthetic spectra to examine the effect of haze on the detectability of putative biosignatures and the Rayleigh scattering slope, which has been suggested as a means for constraining atmospheric pressure (Benneke and Seager 2012). We also examined haze's impact on the spectral energy distribution reaching the planetary surface. Because the atmospheric pressure and haze particle composition of the Archean Earth are poorly constrained, and because exoplanets will occupy a range of parameter space, we tested the influence of atmospheric pressure and particle density on haze formation, and explored how various particle size distributions affect the spectrum. We find that haze strongly affects the spectral region of the Rayleigh slope, a change detectable at low spectral resolution that impacts the ability to constrain pressure with Rayleigh scattering. The spectral energy distribution at the surface is modulated by haze thickness and the assumed particle size

  19. Exploring the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3D GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.; Leconte, J.; Millour, E.; Codron, F.

    2012-12-01

    The climate of the early Earth and the faint young Sun paradox have been hitherto essentially studied with 1D models. Different hypothesis have been suggest to solve the faint young Sun paradox as: a higher greenhouse effect by CO2 and CH4 [1], a reduced planetary albedo by a reduced continental area and thinner archean clouds [2] or a higher atmospheric pressure [3]. The problem of 1D models is that they do not simulate the oceanic ice and cloud feedback well. A new global climate model has been developped by our team to study the climates of exoplanets [4] and primitive atmospheres [5]. A correlated-k radiative transfert model is use to simulate atmospheres of N2, CO2 and CH4. Oceanic transport and oceanic ice formation is computed through a slab-ocean module [6], cloud formation and precipitations are based on physical and robust parametrizations. First, we validate our model by simulating the modern Earth. Then we apply it to simulate the climates during the Archean and to test different hypothesis supposed to solve the faint young Sun paradox. We quantify the effect of the lack of ozone, the faster rotation rate and the reduced continental area of the early Earth on the climate. We simulate climates for low, moderate and high CO2/CH4 concentration. We test the effect the radius of cloud droplets and the effect of a higher atmospheric pressure. In particular, by fixing the radius of cloud droplets or the amount of CCN, we show that thinner clouds with a low CO2 and CH4 partial pressure [2] is not a solution over all the Archean, higher greenhouse gas concentrations are required. References [1] Haqq-Misra et al.: A revised, hazy methane greenhouse for the Archean Earth, Astrobiology,8,1127-1137 (2008) [2] Rosing et al.: No climate paradox under the faint early Sun, Nature, 464, 744-747 (2010) [3] Goldblatt et al.: Nitrogen-enhanced greenhouse warming on early Earth, Nature Geoscience, 2, 891-896 (2009) [4] Wordsworth et al.: Gliese 581d is the First Discovered

  20. Controls on Atmospheric O2: The Anoxic Archean and the Suboxic Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemists have now reached consensus that the Archean atmosphere was mostly anoxic, that a Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred at around 2.5 Ga, and that the ensuing Proterozoic atmosphere was consistently oxidized [1,2]. Evidence for this broad-scale change in atmospheric composition comes from a variety of sources, most importantly from multiple sulfur isotopes [3,4]. The details of both the Archean and Proterozoic environments remain controversial, however, as does the underlying cause of the GOE. Evidence of 'whiffs' of oxygen during the Archean [5] now extend back as far as 3.0 Ga, based on Cr isotopes [6]. This suggests that O2 was being produced by cyanobacteria well before the GOE and that the timing of this event may have been determined by secular changes in O2 sinks. Catling et al. [7] emphasized escape of hydrogen to space, coupled with progressive oxidation of the continents and a concomitant decrease in the flux of reduced gases from metamorphism. But hydrogen produced by serpentinization of seafloor could also have been a controlling factor [8]. Higher mantle temperatures during the Archean should have resulted in thicker, more mafic seafloor and higher H2 production; decreasing mantle temperatures during the Proterozoic should have led to seafloor more like that of today and a corresponding decrease in H2 production, perhaps by enough to trigger the GOE. Once the atmosphere became generally oxidizing, it apparently remained that way during the rest of Earth's history. But O2 levels in the mid-Proterozoic could have been as low at 10-3 times the Present Atmospheric Level (PAL) [9]. The evidence, once again, is based on Cr isotopes. Possible mechanisms for maintaining such a 'suboxic' Proterozoic atmosphere will be discussed. Refs: 1. H. D. Holland, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3811 (2002). 2. H. D. Holland, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 361, 903 (Jun 29, 2006). 3. J. Farquhar, H. Bao, M. Thiemans, Science

  1. An Archean Geomagnetic Reversal in the Kaap Valley Pluton, South Africa

    PubMed

    Layer; Kroner; McWilliams

    1996-08-16

    The Kaap Valley pluton in South Africa is a tonalite intrusion associated with the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt. Antipodal paleomagnetic directions determined from the central and marginal parts of the pluton record a geomagnetic reversal that occurred as the pluton cooled. The age of the reversal is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age from hornblende at 3214 +/- 4 million years, making it the oldest known reversal. The data presented here suggest that Earth has had a reversing, perhaps dipolar, magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years ago. PMID:8688075

  2. Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

    1987-01-01

    In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

  3. Did the character of subduction change at the end of the Archean? Constraints from convergent-margin granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Kent C.

    2008-08-01

    Large ion lithophile and high field strength element distributionsin juvenile upper continental crust are controlled chiefly bythe abundance of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) inthe Archean shifting to a combination of TTG, calc-alkalinegranitoid, and graywacke control thereafter. Geochemical differencesbetween TTG and high-silica adakites do not require productionof most TTG magmas in descending slabs. Changes in the ratioof TTG to calc-alkaline granitoids after 2.5 Ga indicate thatArchean subduction zones must have differed from younger subductionzones in two very important ways: (1) a deep mafic crust servedas a TTG magma source (either as thickened crust or in descendingslabs), and (2) they did not give rise to significant volumesof calc-alkaline magma. Thickened mafic crust in the Late Archeanmay have resulted from plate jams in subduction zones causedby thicker oceanic crust and oceanic plateaus produced duringLate Archean mantle thermal events.

  4. Niobium-enriched basalts from the Wabigoon subprovince, Canada: evidence for adakitic metasomatism above an Archean subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, D. A.; Ayer, J. A.; Devaney, J. R.

    2000-06-01

    Late Archean niobium-enriched basalts from the Central Sturgeon Lake assemblage and Neepawa group of the western Wabigoon subprovince have mantle-normalized Nb/La between 0.8 and 1.3 and Zr/Y between 4 and 7. They are compositionally similar to basalts attributed to adakite metasomatism of mantle wedge regions in Cenozoic subduction zones [Sajona et al., J. Petrol. 37 (1996) 693-726]. In detail, their Sc-REE systematics suggest the Archean basalts were generated above the garnet stability field. An association with adakite-like volcanic rocks, an absence of komatiites and the arc-like attributes of their host sequences suggest a subduction-related origin for the basalts. If current models of adakite and Niobium-enriched basalt genesis are valid, then additional examples of these rocks should be relatively common in other Archean greenstone belts.

  5. New Constraints on the Extent of Paleoproterozoic and Archean Basement in the Northwest U.S. Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, R. A.; Vervoort, J.; Lewis, R. S.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Hart, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Laurentian basement west of the Wyoming craton in southwest Montana and northern Idaho has been interpreted as a collage of Archean and Proterozoic terranes which accreted to the North American craton and incorporated into Laurentia at ~ 1.86 Ga [1]. This basement and the geometry of the Archean and Proterozoic crust are poorly understood due to coverage by metasediments of the Belt-Purcell Supergroup and are further obscured by Mesozoic magmatism (Idaho Batholith, sensu lato). Exposures of the basement are rare but have been documented in a few regions including the Priest River Complex in northern Idaho and the Sevier fold and thrust belt just northwest of the Wyoming craton in the Great Falls tectonic zone (Foster et al. 2006). New ages and isotopic data from orthogneisses in north-central Idaho provide evidence for previously undocumented exposures of both Paleoproterozoic and Archean basement that may place important constraints on the reconstruction of Laurentia and its tectonic setting. The orthogneisses analyzed in this study (all previously mapped as deformed Cretaceous plutons) fall into two distinct age groups of 1.86 Ga and 2.67 Ga. The zircons from both the Archean and Proterozoic rocks have simple systematics. The zircons from three Archean samples have ɛHf(i) values of 2.4 ± 2.1, 3.8 ± 1.8, and 5.2 ± 3.5 (average values based on 6 individual zircon Hf analyses per sample). Zircons from the Paleoproterozoic gneisses have different but internally consistent ɛHf(i) values of -8.0 ± 0.9 and -0.6 ± 1.4. In contrast, both Hf and Nd whole rock data are highly scattered in these samples especially in the Archean samples in which ɛHf(i) varies from -25 to +21 and ɛNd(i) varies from -8 to +11. These extreme values are implausible for initial compositions and indicate open system behavior in both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd in the whole rocks. The zircons, in contrast, appear to be closed to significant Hf mobility on the scale of the laser analyses. The data

  6. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  7. Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the crystalline-rock aquifers of Archean and Proterozoic age, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    Five aquifers in crystalline rocks of Archean and Proterozoic age in Minnesota include in descending order the North Shore Volcanic, Sioux Quartzite, Proterozoic metasedimentary, Biwabik Iron formation and undifferentiated Precambrian aquifers. The North Shore Volcanic aquifer generally yields < 15 gal/min to wells from interflow sediments and fractures in the basaltic lava flows along the northern shore of Lake Superior and along the upper St. Croix River. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 91 to 74,300 mg/L, and the water is of several chemical types. The Sioux Quartzite aquifer yields from 1 to 450 gal/min to wells open to joints and fractures and loose sand zones in the predominantly pink orthoquartzite in southwestern Minnesota. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 237 mg/L in water from wells in outcrop areas to 2,300 mg/L from wells where the Sioux Quartzite aquifer underlies Cretaceous rocks or thick Des Moines drift. The water generally is a calcium sulfate type. The Proterozoic metasedimentary aquifer generally yields < 20 gal/min to wells in weathered regolith and fractures in thin-bedded gray to black argillite in north-central Minnesota. Dissolved solids concentrations generally range from 126 to 340 mg/L, and the water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. The Biwabik Iron formation aquifer yields 1,000 gal/min to wells in leached zones in the ferruginous chert and interbedded hematite and magnitite iron ore in north-central Minnesota. Dissolved solids range from 157 to 388 mg/L in water that is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. The undifferentiated Precambrian aquifer generally yields < 25 gal/min to wells from fractures and the weathered regolith developed on a variety of crystalline-rock types. Wells have been developed in parts of the aquifer throughout the State except in the southeast where it is too deeply buried. Dissolved solids concentrations average < 400 mg/L in central and northeastern Minnesota, but average about 700

  8. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  9. The Archean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This

  10. Bathing a patient in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Bed bath; Sponge bath ... Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For these people, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, and increase comfort. If moving the ...

  11. Transient episodes of mild environmental oxygenation and oxidative continental weathering during the late Archean.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Brian; Creaser, Robert A; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W; Anbar, Ariel D

    2015-11-01

    It is not known whether environmental O2 levels increased in a linear fashion or fluctuated dynamically between the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and the later Great Oxidation Event. New rhenium-osmium isotope data from the late Archean Mount McRae Shale, Western Australia, reveal a transient episode of oxidative continental weathering more than 50 million years before the onset of the Great Oxidation Event. A depositional age of 2495 ± 14 million years and an initial (187)Os/(188)Os of 0.34 ± 0.19 were obtained for rhenium- and molybdenum-rich black shales. The initial (187)Os/(188)Os is higher than the mantle/extraterrestrial value of 0.11, pointing to mild environmental oxygenation and oxidative mobilization of rhenium, molybdenum, and radiogenic osmium from the upper continental crust and to contemporaneous transport of these metals to seawater. By contrast, stratigraphically overlying black shales are rhenium- and molybdenum-poor and have a mantle-like initial (187)Os/(188)Os of 0.06 ± 0.09, indicating a reduced continental flux of rhenium, molybdenum, and osmium to seawater because of a drop in environmental O2 levels. Transient oxygenation events, like the one captured by the Mount McRae Shale, probably separated intervals of less oxygenated conditions during the late Archean. PMID:26702438

  12. Cyanobacterial Inhabitation on Archean Rock Surfaces in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yosuke; George, Simon C

    2015-07-01

    High abundances of 7- and 6-monomethylalkanes as well as C17 n-alkane, indicative of cyanobacteria, have been discovered near the surfaces of Archean carbonate rocks of the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The presence of cyanobacterial biomarkers is mostly limited to the surface layer (<1 cm thickness) of the rocks, indicating that the cyanobacteria are an endolithic species. Biomarkers are found in bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and also in bitumen II (solvent-extracted decarbonated rock). The abundance of biomarkers is generally the same between both bitumen fractions in the surface layer, which suggests that the cyanobacteria penetrated into the carbonate minerals. Trace amounts of the biomarkers have also diffused into a deeper part of the rocks, but this influence is only seen in bitumen I. This implies that hydrocarbons moved toward the inside of the rock through pores and fissures in the rock fabric. In contrast, hydrocarbons in bitumen II, which mainly come from within the carbonate minerals, are isolated from the hydrocarbon migration from the outside of the rock and may be ancient indigenous organic matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the past or modern inhabitation of cyanobacteria on Archean rocks in the Pilbara region for which hydrocarbon biomarker analyses was used. PMID:26153724

  13. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T.; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81–3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100–300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  14. Transient episodes of mild environmental oxygenation and oxidative continental weathering during the late Archean.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Brian; Creaser, Robert A; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W; Anbar, Ariel D

    2015-11-01

    It is not known whether environmental O2 levels increased in a linear fashion or fluctuated dynamically between the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and the later Great Oxidation Event. New rhenium-osmium isotope data from the late Archean Mount McRae Shale, Western Australia, reveal a transient episode of oxidative continental weathering more than 50 million years before the onset of the Great Oxidation Event. A depositional age of 2495 ± 14 million years and an initial (187)Os/(188)Os of 0.34 ± 0.19 were obtained for rhenium- and molybdenum-rich black shales. The initial (187)Os/(188)Os is higher than the mantle/extraterrestrial value of 0.11, pointing to mild environmental oxygenation and oxidative mobilization of rhenium, molybdenum, and radiogenic osmium from the upper continental crust and to contemporaneous transport of these metals to seawater. By contrast, stratigraphically overlying black shales are rhenium- and molybdenum-poor and have a mantle-like initial (187)Os/(188)Os of 0.06 ± 0.09, indicating a reduced continental flux of rhenium, molybdenum, and osmium to seawater because of a drop in environmental O2 levels. Transient oxygenation events, like the one captured by the Mount McRae Shale, probably separated intervals of less oxygenated conditions during the late Archean.

  15. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  16. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John F; McKay, David S; Allen, Carlton C

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  17. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, John F.; McKay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  18. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John F; McKay, David S; Allen, Carlton C

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets. PMID:14987479

  19. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  20. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat and Comparison with Archean Cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbin, M.; Derenne, S.; Gourier, D.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Gautret, P.; Westall, F.

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts.

  1. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids.

  2. Transient episodes of mild environmental oxygenation and oxidative continental weathering during the late Archean

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Brian; Creaser, Robert A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether environmental O2 levels increased in a linear fashion or fluctuated dynamically between the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and the later Great Oxidation Event. New rhenium-osmium isotope data from the late Archean Mount McRae Shale, Western Australia, reveal a transient episode of oxidative continental weathering more than 50 million years before the onset of the Great Oxidation Event. A depositional age of 2495 ± 14 million years and an initial 187Os/188Os of 0.34 ± 0.19 were obtained for rhenium- and molybdenum-rich black shales. The initial 187Os/188Os is higher than the mantle/extraterrestrial value of 0.11, pointing to mild environmental oxygenation and oxidative mobilization of rhenium, molybdenum, and radiogenic osmium from the upper continental crust and to contemporaneous transport of these metals to seawater. By contrast, stratigraphically overlying black shales are rhenium- and molybdenum-poor and have a mantle-like initial 187Os/188Os of 0.06 ± 0.09, indicating a reduced continental flux of rhenium, molybdenum, and osmium to seawater because of a drop in environmental O2 levels. Transient oxygenation events, like the one captured by the Mount McRae Shale, probably separated intervals of less oxygenated conditions during the late Archean. PMID:26702438

  3. Evidence for reactive reduced phosphorus species in the early Archean ocean

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Buick, Roger; Gull, Maheen; Atlas, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that before the emergence of modern DNA–RNA–protein life, biology evolved from an “RNA world.” However, synthesizing RNA and other organophosphates under plausible early Earth conditions has proved difficult, with the incorporation of phosphorus (P) causing a particular problem because phosphate, where most environmental P resides, is relatively insoluble and unreactive. Recently, it has been proposed that during the Hadean–Archean heavy bombardment by extraterrestrial impactors, meteorites would have provided reactive P in the form of the iron–nickel phosphide mineral schreibersite. This reacts in water, releasing soluble and reactive reduced P species, such as phosphite, that could then be readily incorporated into prebiotic molecules. Here, we report the occurrence of phosphite in early Archean marine carbonates at levels indicating that this was an abundant dissolved species in the ocean before 3.5 Ga. Additionally, we show that schreibersite readily reacts with an aqueous solution of glycerol to generate phosphite and the membrane biomolecule glycerol–phosphate under mild thermal conditions, with this synthesis using a mineral source of P. Phosphite derived from schreibersite was, hence, a plausible reagent in the prebiotic synthesis of phosphorylated biomolecules and was also present on the early Earth in quantities large enough to have affected the redox state of P in the ocean. Phosphorylated biomolecules like RNA may, thus, have first formed from the reaction of reduced P species with the prebiotic organic milieu on the early Earth. PMID:23733935

  4. Archean gold mineralization and metamorphism: timing constraints from precise U-Pb dating

    SciTech Connect

    Colvine, A.C.; Corfu, F.; Davis, D.W.; Stott, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gold mineralization is tightly constrained to an event closely following establishment of peak metamorphic condition, in all areas of the Superior Province of Canada where precise dating has been applied to defined field relationships. In the Abitibi and Wabigoon Subprovinces of the Southern Superior Domain, peak metamorphism caused by major batholith emplacement is consistently >2685 Ma and affects Archean supracrustal units of all ages (mainly >2700 Ma). Gold is commonly hosted by felsic stocks, dated at a specific age in the Abitibi Belt (2688-2684 Ma), and is therefore close to or younger than peak metamorphism. Dateable units crosscutting mineralization are extremely rare, but at Shebandowan and Mine Centre dated field relationships bracket the maximum and minimum age of mineralization between 2689 - 2684 and 2692 - 2686 Ma, respectively. While the metamorphic event in the Northern Superior Domain is approximately 20 my older, relative timing of gold mineralization is identical. At Red Lake, gold is hosted by units ranging in age from 2990-2718 Ma, all metamorphosed at >2704 Ma. Peak metamorphic minerals are retrograded by alteration during gold localization and mineralization is cut by a 2704 Ma dyke. These data show that gold mineralization was the product of a tectonic event during the latest Archean which involved major plutonism, deformation and metamorphism.

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of a photosynthetic microbial mat and comparison with Archean cherts.

    PubMed

    Bourbin, M; Derenne, S; Gourier, D; Rouzaud, J-N; Gautret, P; Westall, F

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts.

  6. Very early Archean crustal-accretion complexes preserved in the North Atlantic craton

    SciTech Connect

    Nutman, A.P. ); Collerson, K.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The North Atlantic craton contains very early Archean supracrustal rocks, orthogneisses, and massive ultramafic rocks. Most units of supracrustal rocks are dominated by mafic volcanic rocks, layered gabbros, and banded iron formations, bust some also contain abundant felsic volcanic-sedimentary rocks, quartzites, and marbles. Some quartzites contain detrital zircons derived from rocks identical in age to felsic volcanic-sedimentary rocks in these sequences (ca. 3800 Ma) and also from older (ca. 3850 Ma) sources. The presence of the ca. 3850 Ma detrital zircons suggests that the supracrustal units containing them were deposited on, or close to, ca. 3850 Ma sialic crust. The massive ultramafic rocks have chemical affinities to upper mantle rocks. The voluminous suites of tonalitic gneisses are dominated by 3700-3730 Ma bodies that intrude the supracrustal sequences, but they also locally contain components with ages between 3820 and 3920 Ma. The diverse supracrustal units, upper mantle rocks, and {ge} 3820 Ma components in the gneisses were tectonically interleaved in very early Archean convergent plate boundaries, giving rise to accretion complexes. In the period 3700-3730 Ma, voluminous tonalitic magmas produced by partial melting of predominantly mafic rocks in the base of the accretion complexes were emplaced at higher levels, forming juvenile continental crust and leaving behind a refractory lower crustal to upper mantle substrate.

  7. Chondritic-like xenon trapped in Archean rocks: A possible signature of the ancient atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray

    2011-08-01

    Ancient sedimentary rocks may have retained a record of the past atmospheric composition. We present evidence for the geological preservation of remnants of the Archean atmosphere. Hydrothermal quartz containing fluid inclusions from a core drilled in 3.5 Ga-old terrains at North Pole, (Western Australia), has a Ar-Ar plateau age of 3.0 ± 0.2 Ga. An Archean age is confirmed independently by 130Ba- 130Xe dating of fluid inclusions. Xenon trapped in the present sample and in 3.5 Ga-old barite from the same locality (Pujol et al., 2009; Srinivasan, 1976) presents an isotopic composition intermediate between the atmospheric composition and that of chondritic, or solar, xenon. In contrast, the stable isotopes of neon and krypton are isotopically atmospheric. This observation suggests that the well known but unexplained enrichment of heavy Xe isotopes in the atmosphere relative to cosmochemical (chondritic or solar) end-members was progressive, and not complete ≥ 3 Ga ago. This Xe isotopic fractionation might have taken place during prolongated irradiation of the atmosphere by the ancient Sun.

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of a photosynthetic microbial mat and comparison with Archean cherts.

    PubMed

    Bourbin, M; Derenne, S; Gourier, D; Rouzaud, J-N; Gautret, P; Westall, F

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts. PMID:23254854

  9. Evidence for reactive reduced phosphorus species in the early Archean ocean.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Buick, Roger; Gull, Maheen; Atlas, Zachary

    2013-06-18

    It has been hypothesized that before the emergence of modern DNA-RNA-protein life, biology evolved from an "RNA world." However, synthesizing RNA and other organophosphates under plausible early Earth conditions has proved difficult, with the incorporation of phosphorus (P) causing a particular problem because phosphate, where most environmental P resides, is relatively insoluble and unreactive. Recently, it has been proposed that during the Hadean-Archean heavy bombardment by extraterrestrial impactors, meteorites would have provided reactive P in the form of the iron-nickel phosphide mineral schreibersite. This reacts in water, releasing soluble and reactive reduced P species, such as phosphite, that could then be readily incorporated into prebiotic molecules. Here, we report the occurrence of phosphite in early Archean marine carbonates at levels indicating that this was an abundant dissolved species in the ocean before 3.5 Ga. Additionally, we show that schreibersite readily reacts with an aqueous solution of glycerol to generate phosphite and the membrane biomolecule glycerol-phosphate under mild thermal conditions, with this synthesis using a mineral source of P. Phosphite derived from schreibersite was, hence, a plausible reagent in the prebiotic synthesis of phosphorylated biomolecules and was also present on the early Earth in quantities large enough to have affected the redox state of P in the ocean. Phosphorylated biomolecules like RNA may, thus, have first formed from the reaction of reduced P species with the prebiotic organic milieu on the early Earth. PMID:23733935

  10. Evidence for reactive reduced phosphorus species in the early Archean ocean.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Buick, Roger; Gull, Maheen; Atlas, Zachary

    2013-06-18

    It has been hypothesized that before the emergence of modern DNA-RNA-protein life, biology evolved from an "RNA world." However, synthesizing RNA and other organophosphates under plausible early Earth conditions has proved difficult, with the incorporation of phosphorus (P) causing a particular problem because phosphate, where most environmental P resides, is relatively insoluble and unreactive. Recently, it has been proposed that during the Hadean-Archean heavy bombardment by extraterrestrial impactors, meteorites would have provided reactive P in the form of the iron-nickel phosphide mineral schreibersite. This reacts in water, releasing soluble and reactive reduced P species, such as phosphite, that could then be readily incorporated into prebiotic molecules. Here, we report the occurrence of phosphite in early Archean marine carbonates at levels indicating that this was an abundant dissolved species in the ocean before 3.5 Ga. Additionally, we show that schreibersite readily reacts with an aqueous solution of glycerol to generate phosphite and the membrane biomolecule glycerol-phosphate under mild thermal conditions, with this synthesis using a mineral source of P. Phosphite derived from schreibersite was, hence, a plausible reagent in the prebiotic synthesis of phosphorylated biomolecules and was also present on the early Earth in quantities large enough to have affected the redox state of P in the ocean. Phosphorylated biomolecules like RNA may, thus, have first formed from the reaction of reduced P species with the prebiotic organic milieu on the early Earth.

  11. Evidence for reactive reduced phosphorus species in the early Archean ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Buick, Roger; Gull, Maheen; Atlas, Zachary

    2013-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that before the emergence of modern DNA-RNA-protein life, biology evolved from an "RNA world." However, synthesizing RNA and other organophosphates under plausible early Earth conditions has proved difficult, with the incorporation of phosphorus (P) causing a particular problem because phosphate, where most environmental P resides, is relatively insoluble and unreactive. Recently, it has been proposed that during the Hadean-Archean heavy bombardment by extraterrestrial impactors, meteorites would have provided reactive P in the form of the iron-nickel phosphide mineral schreibersite. This reacts in water, releasing soluble and reactive reduced P species, such as phosphite, that could then be readily incorporated into prebiotic molecules. Here, we report the occurrence of phosphite in early Archean marine carbonates at levels indicating that this was an abundant dissolved species in the ocean before 3.5 Ga. Additionally, we show that schreibersite readily reacts with an aqueous solution of glycerol to generate phosphite and the membrane biomolecule glycerol-phosphate under mild thermal conditions, with this synthesis using a mineral source of P. Phosphite derived from schreibersite was, hence, a plausible reagent in the prebiotic synthesis of phosphorylated biomolecules and was also present on the early Earth in quantities large enough to have affected the redox state of P in the ocean. Phosphorylated biomolecules like RNA may, thus, have first formed from the reaction of reduced P species with the prebiotic organic milieu on the early Earth.

  12. Late Archean-Early Proterozoic timing for an Andean-style porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Malanjkhand, Central Indian Tectonic Zone: implications for a Late Archean supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, H. J.; Zimmerman, A.; Hannah, J. L.; Markey, R. J.

    2003-04-01

    Eight Re-Os ages from six molybdenite samples representative of Cu-Mo mineralization in a highly deformed quartz reef and granite host rock comprising the large Malanjkhand deposit were obtained using ID-NTIMS. These data provide a clear Late Archean-Early Proterozoic age for this recently discovered deposit and by implication a minimum age for its hosting terrane, the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), a continental scale structure separating peninsular India from northern India. The CITZ was previously inferred to be Middle Proterozoic or younger. Molybdenite dating indicates that stringer mineralization in the quartz reef and disseminated mineralization in the granite were contemporaneous at 2493 ± 8 Ma (2493.1 ± 1.4 Ma based on regression without uncertainty in the 187Re decay constant, MSWD = 0.5, n = 5). Additional molybdenite was precipitated during at least two pulses of reworking (ěrb1 12480 and ěrb1 12450 Ma) that we suggest configured the elongate quartz reef as the CITZ developed in response to NW-directed oblique convergence of a landmass from the south. Previously unrecognized petrographic evidence coupled with high Re concentrations for molybdenites (400-650 ppm) suggest that Malanjkhand is a porphyry Cu-Mo deposit of classic Andean-type, forming in a subduction-accretionary setting that includes involvement of mantle. We suggest that the CITZ may provide a median segment of an extensive and continuous Late Archean-Early Proterozoic orogenic belt that may include portions of the Moyar, Bhavani, Palghat, and Cauvery shear zones in southern India, the Eastern Ghats orogenic belt along the eastern side of India, and connecting to the Aravalli-Delhi belt extending through northwest India. This now folded orogenic belt could be related to the assembly of a Late Archean supercontinent whose eastward margin included East Antartica (Napier complex) at 2.5 Ga. In addition, we suggest that the Vestfold Hills complex (East Antartica) was part of this

  13. Emerged Oceanic Plateaux and Their Role in Regulating Archean Ocean and Atmosphere Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamber, B. S.

    2009-05-01

    A geologist associates the Earth's surface division into land and oceans instinctively with continents and oceanic plates. Here I propose that for the Archean eon, we need to break with this concept. As an alternative I propose a three-fold division. Continental land, relatively thin oceanic plates covered by water and also much thicker oceanic plateaux that were at least episodically emerged and contributed ca. 50% of the total land mass. The rationale for this proposal is a long-standing conundrum locked up in ancient hydrogenous sediments precipitated from seawater. They contain elemental and isotopic records with mutually exclusive conclusions regarding the supply of elements. Namely, isotopic data, particularly Sr, are interpreted to imply a preponderance of hydrothermal flux to the ocean. The elemental abundance of Eu, however, apparently requires a much greater flux from land. Yet a higher flux from continental land mass would be visible in the Sr- isotope record. I will present additional evidence from the origin of the marine rare earth element (REE) pattern that deepens the conundrum, which can be solved if the Archean landmass included emerged oceanic plateaux in addition to the continents. The appeal of the idea is that the marine REE inventory, including Eu, is only influenced by relative fluxes from hydrothermal vents and land, regardless of the nature of the land. Strontium isotopes, on the other hand, cannot discriminate between hydrothermal flux and riverine input draining juvenile oceanic plateaux. Using this concept, I will present a simple quantitative model that explains the evidence with a landmass at the end of the Archean that was comparable in area to that of today but made up to ca. 60% by oceanic plateaux. My proposal has implications far beyond the REE and Sr fluxes to the ocean. In particular, it requires the Archean upper mantle to have been relatively cool, potentially allowing for subduction of the thin oceanic lithosphere along

  14. Evaluating the earliest traces of Archean sub-seafloor life by NanoSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcloughlin, N.; Grosch, E. G.; Kilburn, M.; Wacey, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleoarchean sub-seafloor has been proposed as an environment for the emergence of life with titanite microtextures in pillow lavas argued to be the earliest traces of microbial micro-tunneling (Furnes et al. 2004). Here we use a nano-scale ion microprobe (NanoSIMS) to evaluate possible geochemical traces of life in 3.45 Ga pillow lavas of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We investigated both surface and drill core samples from the original "Biomarker" outcrop in the Hooggenoeg Fm. Pillow lava metavolcanic glass contain clusters of segmented microcrystalline titanite filaments, ~4μm across and <200μm in length. Their size, shape and distribution have been directly compared to those found in recent oceanic crust. Thus it has been argued that they are the mineralized remains of tunnels formed by microbes that etched volcanic glass in the Archean sub-seafloor (Furnes et al 2004; Banerjee et al. 2006). Elemental mapping by NanoSIMS was undertaken to investigate reports of enrichments in carbon (possibly also nitrogen) along the margins of the microtextures previously interpreted as decayed cellular remains. We mapped for 12C-, 26CN-, 32S- along with 16O-, 28Si-, 24Mg+,27Al+, 40Ca+, 48Ti+ and 56Fe+ in chlorite and quartz hosted examples. The 12C- or 26CN- linings were not found along the margins of the microtextures in neither the original, nor the drill core samples, despite NanoSIMS being a more sensitive and higher-spatial-resolution technique than earlier microprobe X-ray maps. The absence of organic linings in these samples excludes a key line of evidence previously used to support the biogenicity of the microtextures. Sulfur isotopes 32S and 34S were measured by NanoSIMS on two types of sulfide: i) small sulfides (1-15μm) intimately associated with the microtextures and; ii) larger sulfides (10-60μm) that cross-cut the microtextures and are disseminated near a quartz-carbonate vein. The sulfide inclusions in the microtextures have strongly

  15. Mafic-ultramafic magmatism of the Early Precambrian (from the Archean to Paleoproterozoic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Bogina, M. M.

    2009-04-01

    Compositional evolution of the Archean mafic-ultramafic volcanics is considered in comparison with evolution of the Paleoproterozoic volcanism using available data on the Baltic shield, Pilbara (Australia) and Superior (Canada) cratons, and the Isua greenstone belt (Greenland). The Archean volcanics of mantle origin are of two major types, represented (a) by komatiite-basaltic complexes (komatiites, komatiitic and tholeiitic basalts) and (b) by geochemical analogs of boninites (GAB) and siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS) of volcanic rocks. As is established, the komatiitic and GAB volcanism ceased in the terminal Archean, whereas the SHMS rocks prevailed in the Paleoproterozoic to become extinct about 2 Ga ago in connection with transition to the Phanerozoic type of tectonomagmatic activity. Geochemical trends of mafic-ultramafic associations occurring in the considered cratons are not uniform, being of particular character to certain extent. With transition from the Paleo- to Neoarchean, rock associations of both types reveal a minor increase in Ti and Fe contents. Comparatively high Fe2O3tot TiO2, and P2O5 concentrations (maximal ones in the Archean), which are characteristic of the Neoarchean (2.75-2.70 Ga) basalts from the Superior and Pilbara cratons or the Baltic shield, represent a result of relatively high-Ti intracratonic magmatic activity that commenced in that period practically for the first time in the Earth history. This magmatic activity of the Neoarchean was not as intense as the high-Mg basaltic volcanism, and the absolute maximum in concentrations of the above components was attained only 2.2-1.9 Ga ago, at the time of appearance in abundance of Fe-Ti picrites and basalts typical of the Phanerozoic intraplate magmatism. The Archean volcanic complexes demonstrate gradual secular increase in concentrations of incompatible elements (LREE inclusive) and growth of Nb/Th ratio that apparently reflected the progressing influence of mantle plumes. In the

  16. Weathering in the late Archean and perturbations by oxygenic photosynthesis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverjensky, D. A.; Lee, N.; Hazen, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Low values for logfO2 in the near-surface late Archean environment have long been suggested based on upper limits deduced from the preservation of detrital siderite, pyrite and uraninite, paleosols, atmospheric models, and models of sulfur isotope data. Reducing conditions could presumably be maintained by an adequate supply of reductants such as H2 and CO supplied from volcanic sources, although these must have reacted with exposed rocks via aqueous solutions during weathering processes. In addition, once oxygenic photosynthesis arose, there would probably be a period of time during which weathering and atmospheric reductants would compete with the O2 released by photosynthesis. What has not been sufficiently explored quantitatively are the implications of such processes for the evolution of the aqueous solution chemistry and weathering products. In the present study, irreversible chemical mass transfer models were used to investigate the chemical reaction of rainwater from an Archean atmosphere with volcanic gases and continental crust to gain insight into the types of minerals that may result, and the evolution of the water chemistry and oxidation state of the near-surface environment. The minerals enstatite, ferrosilite, diopside, anorthite and albite were permitted to react irreversibly with a model rainwater with a starting composition similar to that of the present-day, but with logfO2 = -70 and logfCO2 = -1.5. Simultaneously, the rainwater was reacted with a model mixture of volcanic gases including H2, H2S, SO2, CO2 and CO. The reactions produced a Na-Mg-Ca-HCO3 water and minerals such as pyrite, kaolinite, chalcedony, siderite and calcite. Dissolved ferrous iron reached a maximum of about 3 ppm indicating that ferrous iron could be transported in Archean riverine systems to the oceans. The oxidation state of the system stayed roughly constant (about ±2 units of logfO2) in or near the pyrite and siderite stability fields consistent with the preservation

  17. Archean to Paleoproterozoic polymetamorphic history of the Salma eclogite in Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imayama, Takeshi; Oh, Chang-Whan; Park, Chan-Soo; Yi, Keewook; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important questions in the Earth Science is when and how plate tectonics operate in the Precambrian time. The tectonic and thermal evolution of the Precambrian eclogite is significant key for understanding the Precambrian geodynamic mechanisms. Eclogites in Kola Peninsula, Russia are some of the oldest eclogites of the world, but there has been much debate about the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism: Archean (e.g. Volodichev et al. 2004; Mints et al., 2010) or Paleoproterozoic (e.g. Skublob et al., 2011, 2012). The controversy is mainly because of the lack of zircon dating coupled with the formation of garnet and omphacite. In this study, we present geochronological, petrographic, and geochemical data from the Salma eclogites in the Kola Peninsula, Russia to characterize subduction and collision processes in the Precambrian. Microstructural observations, P-T analyses, zircon inclusion analyses, and U-Pb zircon dating revealed multiple metamorphic stages that the Salma eclogite underwent. The amphibolite facies metamorphic event firstly occurred at 2.73-2.72 Ga during Archean. In the Paleoproterozoic period, the Salma eclogites underwent prograde stage of epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. The eclogite facies metamorphic event took place under the P-T condition of 16-18 kbar and 740-770 °C at 1.89-1.88 Ga, with a subsequent granulite facies metamorphism during decompression stage from 18 kbar to 9-12 kbar. Finally, later amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 8-10 kbar and 590-610 °C on cooling. The Archean metamorphic zircons that contain inclusions of Grt + Am + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt are unzoned grains with dark CL, and they are relatively enriched in HREE. In contrast, the 1.89-1.88 Ga sector or concentric zoned zircons with pale-grey CL include inclusions of Grt + Omp + Ca-Cpx + Am + Bt + Qtz + Rt, and they have the flat pattern of HREE due to the amounts of abundant garnet during the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Whole rock

  18. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  19. Fractionation products of basaltic komatiite magmas at lower crustal pressures: implications for genesis of silicic magmas in the Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandler, B. E.; Grove, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hypotheses for the origin of crustal silicic magmas include both partial melting of basalts and fractional crystallization of mantle-derived melts[1]. Both are recognized as important processes in modern environments. When it comes to Archean rocks, however, partial melting hypotheses dominate the literature. Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG)-type silicic magmas, ubiquitous in the Archean, are widely thought to be produced by partial melting of subducted, delaminated or otherwise deeply buried hydrated basalts[2]. The potential for a fractional crystallization origin for TTG-type magmas remains largely unexplored. To rectify this asymmetry in approaches to modern vs. ancient rocks, we have performed experiments at high pressures and temperatures to closely simulate fractional crystallization of a basaltic komatiite magma in the lowermost crust. These represent the first experimental determinations of the fractionation products of komatiite-type magmas at elevated pressures. The aim is to test the possibility of a genetic link between basaltic komatiites and TTGs, which are both magmas found predominantly in Archean terranes and less so in modern environments. We will present the 12-kbar fractionation paths of both Al-depleted and Al-undepleted basaltic komatiite magmas, and discuss their implications for the relative importance of magmatic fractionation vs. partial melting in producing more evolved, silicic magmas in the Archean. [1] Annen et al., J. Petrol., 47, 505-539, 2006. [2] Moyen J-F. & Martin H., Lithos, 148, 312-336, 2012.

  20. Diversification in the Archean Biosphere: Insight from NanoSIMS of Microstructures in the Farrel Quartzite of Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Robert, F.; Walter, M. R.; Sugitani, K.; Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of early life on Earth is difficult to assess because potential Early Archean biosignatures are commonly poorly preserved. Interpretations of such materials have been contested, and abiotic or epigenetic derivations have been proposed (summarized in [1]). Yet, an understanding of Archean life is of astrobiological importance, as knowledge of early evolutionary processes on Earth could provide insight to development of life on other planets. A recently-discovered assemblage of organic microstructures in approx.3 Ga charts of the Farrel Quartzite (FQ) of Australia [2-4] includes unusual spindle-like forms and a variety of spheroids. If biogenicity and syngeneity of these forms could be substantiated, the FQ assemblage would provide a new view of Archean life. Our work uses NanoSIMS to further assess the biogenicity and syngeneity of FQ microstructures. In prior NanoSIMS studies [5-6], we gained an understanding of nano-scale elemental distributions in undisputed microfossils from the Neoproterozoic Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. Those results provide a new tool with which to evaluate poorly preserved materials that we might find in Archean sediments and possibly in extraterrestrial materials. We have applied this tool to the FQ forms.

  1. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  2. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  3. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  4. Ophiolitic Chromitites from the Andriamena Greenstone Belt, Madagascar: Possible Evidence for mid-Archean Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisberg, L. C.; Ohnenstetter, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Ratefiarimino, A.; Levy, D.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the time of the onset of plate tectonics is critical to understanding the geodynamic processes that controlled the evolution of the early Earth. The near absence of Archean ophiolites, as defined by the presence of a residual ultramafic section, has been considered to be one of the primary arguments against Archean plate tectonics. The Andriamena greenstone belt of Madagascar contains massive chromitite bodies consisting of about 90% chromite and about 10% gangue minerals, mostly secondary (talc, green amphibole, orthopyroxene, Ca and Mg carbonate). Numerous observations argue in favor of an ophiolitic origin for these chromitites, including the high Cr# (0.67-0.74), coupled with relatively high Mg# (0.6-0.78) of the constituent chromite. In addition, these phases display extremely low TiO2 contents (<0.25%), which are also characteristic of ophiolites and possibly suggestive of an arc environment. Though in many places the chromitite is in tectonic contact with a variety of unrelated igneous lithologies, remnants of apparently cogenetic ultramafic rock types, including dunites, harzburgites, and some pyroxenites are sometimes immediately juxtaposed with the chromitite. The very high Fo content of the olivine in the associated dunite, as high as 0.95, also attests to an ophiolitic provenance. Platinum group element (PGE) and 187Os/188Os analyses were performed on several chromitite samples. Chondrite normalized PGE spectra display marked depletions in PPGE relative to IPGE, with (Pt/Ir)N ranging from ~0 to 0.09, though Pd contents are somewhat less depleted than those of Pt. The observed PPGE depletion is another feature characteristic of ophiolitic chromitites. The IPGE enrichment is consistent with the presence of laurite microinclusions in the chromite revealed by SEM. Os isotopic compositions are tightly clustered, with 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1057 to 0.1059, corresponding to TRD model ages of ~ 3.2 Ga, assuming primitive upper mantle parameters

  5. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  6. Isotopic evidence for an aerobic nitrogen cycle in the latest Archean.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Jessica; Buick, Roger; Anbar, Ariel D; Arnold, Gail L; Kaufman, Alan J

    2009-02-20

    The nitrogen cycle provides essential nutrients to the biosphere, but its antiquity in modern form is unclear. In a drill core though homogeneous organic-rich shale in the 2.5-billion-year-old Mount McRae Shale, Australia, nitrogen isotope values vary from +1.0 to +7.5 per mil (per thousand) and back to +2.5 per thousand over approximately 30 meters. These changes evidently record a transient departure from a largely anaerobic to an aerobic nitrogen cycle complete with nitrification and denitrification. Complementary molybdenum abundance and sulfur isotopic values suggest that nitrification occurred in response to a small increase in surface-ocean oxygenation. These data imply that nitrifying and denitrifying microbes had already evolved by the late Archean and were present before oxygen first began to accumulate in the atmosphere.

  7. A major Archean, gold- and crust-forming event in the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jason; Ruiz, Joaquin; Chesley, John; Walshe, John; England, Gavin

    2002-09-13

    The 2.89- to 2.76-gigayear-old conglomerates of the Central Rand Group of South Africa host an immense concentration of gold. The gold and rounded pyrites from the conglomerates yield a rhenium-osmium isochron age of 3.03 +/- 0.02 gigayears and an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1079 +/- 0.0001. This age is older than that of the conglomerates. Thus, the gold is detrital and was not deposited by later hydrothermal fluids. This Middle Archean gold mineralization event corresponds to a period of rapid crustal growth in which much of the Kaapvaal craton was formed and is evidence for a significant noble metal flux from the mantle. PMID:12228713

  8. Accretionary history of the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt (3.55-3.22 Ga), southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lowe, D R

    1994-12-01

    The 3.55-3.22 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa and Swaziland, and surrounding coeval plutons can be divided into four tectono-stratigraphic blocks that become younger toward the northwest. Each block formed through early mafic to ultramafic volcanism (Onverwacht Group), probably in oceanic extensional, island, or plateau settings. Volcanism was followed by magmatic quiescence and deposition of fine-grained sediments, possibly in an intraplate setting. Late evolution involved underplating of the mafic crust by tonalitic intrusions along a subduction-related magmatic arc, yielding a thickened, buoyant protocontinental block. The growth of larger continental domains occurred both through magmatic accretion, as new protocontinental blocks developed along the margins of older blocks, and when previously separate blocks were amalgamated through tectonic accretion. Evolution of the Barberton Belt may reflect an Early Archean plate tectonic cycle that characterized a world with few or no large, stabilized blocks of sialic crust.

  9. Evidence for crustal recycling during the Archean: The parental magmas of the stillwater complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1988-01-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of the Stillwater Complex, an Archean (2.7 Ga) layered mafic intrusion in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana is discussed. Efforts to reconstruct the compositions of possible parental magmas and thereby place some constraints on the composition and history of their mantle source regions was studied. A high-Mg andesite or boninite magma best matches the crystallization sequences and mineral compositions of Stillwater cumulates, and represents either a primary magma composition or a secondary magma formed, for example, by assimilation of crustal material by a very Mg-rich melt such as komatiite. Isotopic data do not support the extensive amounts of assimilation required by the komatiite parent hypothesis, and it is argued that the Stillwater magma was generated from a mantle source that had been enriched by recycling and homogenization of older crustal material over a large area.

  10. Microfossils and possible microfossils from the Early Archean Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, M. M.; Lowe, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    There is widespread textural evidence for microbial activity in the cherts of the Early Archean Onverwacht Group. Layers with fine carbonaceous laminations resembling fossil microbial mats are abundant in the cherty metasediments of the predominantly basaltic Hooggenoeg and Kromberg Formations. In rare cases, filamentous microfossils are associated with the laminae. The morphologies of the fossils, as well as the texture of the encompassing laminae suggest an affinity to modern mat-dwelling cyanobacteria or bacteria. A variety of spheroidal and ellipsoidal structures present in cherts of the Hooggenoeg and Kromberg Formations resemble modern coccoidal bacteria and bacterial structures, including spores. The development of spores may have enabled early microorganisms to survive the relatively harsh surficial conditions, including the effects of very large meteorite impacts on the young Earth.

  11. Microfossils and possible microfossils from the Early Archean Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M M

    1992-01-01

    There is widespread textural evidence for microbial activity in the cherts of the Early Archean Onverwacht Group. Layers with fine carbonaceous laminations resembling fossil microbial mats are abundant in the cherty metasediments of the predominantly basaltic Hooggenoeg and Kromberg Formations. In rare cases, filamentous microfossils are associated with the laminae. The morphologies of the fossils, as well as the texture of the encompassing laminae suggest an affinity to modern mat-dwelling cyanobacteria or bacteria. A variety of spheroidal and ellipsoidal structures present in cherts of the Hooggenoeg and Kromberg Formations resemble modern coccoidal bacteria and bacterial structures, including spores. The development of spores may have enabled early microorganisms to survive the relatively harsh surficial conditions, including the effects of very large meteorite impacts on the young Earth. PMID:11540926

  12. Fluid-deposited graphite and its geobiological implications in early Archean gneiss from Akilia, Greenland.

    PubMed

    Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A; Philippot, P

    2011-01-01

    Graphite, interpreted as altered bioorganic matter in an early Archean, ca. 3.83-Ga-old quartz-amphibole-pyroxene gneiss on Akilia Island, Greenland, has previously been claimed to be the earliest trace of life on Earth. Our petrographic and Raman spectroscopy data from this gneiss reveal the occurrence of graphitic material with the structure of nano-crystalline to crystalline graphite in trails and clusters of CO₂, CH₄ and H₂O bearing fluid inclusions. Irregular particles of graphitic material without a fluid phase, representing decrepitated fluid inclusions are common in such trails too, but occur also as dispersed individual or clustered particles. The occurrence of graphitic material associated with carbonic fluid inclusions is consistent with an abiologic, fluid deposited origin during a poly-metamorphic history. The evidence for fluid-deposited graphitic material greatly complicates any claim about remnants of early life in the Akilia rock. PMID:21070588

  13. Seismic anisotropy of the Archean crust in the Minnesota River Valley, Superior Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Eric C.; Gébelin, Aude; Conder, James A.; Christensen, Nik; Wood, Justin D.; Teyssier, Christian

    2014-03-01

    The Minnesota River Valley (MRV) subprovince is a well-exposed example of late Archean lithosphere. Its high-grade gneisses display a subhorizontal layering, most likely extending down to the crust-mantle boundary. The strong linear fabric of the gneisses results from high-temperature plastic flow during collage-related contraction. Seismic anisotropies measured up to 1 GPa in the laboratory, and seismic anisotropies calculated through forward-modeling indicate ΔVP ~5-6% and ΔVS ~3%. The MRV crust exhibits a strong macroscopic layering and foliation, and relatively strong seismic anisotropies at the hand specimen scale. Yet the horizontal attitude of these structures precludes any substantial contribution of the MRV crust to shear wave splitting for vertically propagating shear waves such as SKS. The origin of the regionally low seismic anisotropy must lie in the upper mantle. A horizontally layered mantle underneath the United States interior could provide an explanation for the observed low SWS.

  14. Fluid-deposited graphite and its geobiological implications in early Archean gneiss from Akilia, Greenland.

    PubMed

    Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A; Philippot, P

    2011-01-01

    Graphite, interpreted as altered bioorganic matter in an early Archean, ca. 3.83-Ga-old quartz-amphibole-pyroxene gneiss on Akilia Island, Greenland, has previously been claimed to be the earliest trace of life on Earth. Our petrographic and Raman spectroscopy data from this gneiss reveal the occurrence of graphitic material with the structure of nano-crystalline to crystalline graphite in trails and clusters of CO₂, CH₄ and H₂O bearing fluid inclusions. Irregular particles of graphitic material without a fluid phase, representing decrepitated fluid inclusions are common in such trails too, but occur also as dispersed individual or clustered particles. The occurrence of graphitic material associated with carbonic fluid inclusions is consistent with an abiologic, fluid deposited origin during a poly-metamorphic history. The evidence for fluid-deposited graphitic material greatly complicates any claim about remnants of early life in the Akilia rock.

  15. Archean plate tectonics geodynamics: example from the Belomorian province, Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabunov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    A fragment of the Archean collisional Belomorian orogen has been identified as the Belomorian province (BP) of the Fennoscandian Shield (Slabunov, 2008; Holtta et al., 2014). The province consists dominantly of Archean rocks, Early Paleoproterozoic rocks being less abundant. Rock of BP exhumed from middle crustal depths in Paleoproterozoic time (1.94-1.8 Ga). Seismic (CDP) profiling data (Sharov et al., 2010) show that the internal structure of BP reflects nappe tectonics: in Archean time, a collage of numerous slides was formed, and in Paleoproterozoic time the BP was thrusted on the Karelian craton and, in turn, was thrusted by rocks of the Kola province. The BP consists dominantly of Meso- and Neoarchean rock association (Slabunov et al. 2006). Neoarchean granitoids predominate, but eclogite-bearing metam?lange (Volodichev et al., 2004; Mints et al., 2010; Shchipansky et al., 2012), island-arc volcanics, front-arc basin sediments, ophiolite-type oceanic plateau-type rocks, collisional S-granites, kyanite-facies metamorphic rocks, molassa-type rocks, subalkaline granitoids and leucogabbro have been revealed among supracrustal rock associations. Rocks of the Belomorian province were subjected to multiple metamorphism in Archean and Paleoproterozoic time at moderately high to high pressures and were considerably deformed. High-grade supracrustal complexes make up not more than 20 % of the BP, but as they probably host ore and are crucial for the understanding of the formation and evolution of the structure, they are given close attention. Five generations of greenstone complexes of different ages: 2.88-2.82 Ga, 2.8-2.78 Ga, ca. 2.75 Ga , ca. 2.72 Ga and not later than 2.66 Ga, and two paragneiss complex in which sediments were formed 2.89-2.82 and 2.78 Ga ago, are distinguished. The main stages of crustal evolution in the BP: ca 2.88-2.82 Ga - the first subduction-accretion event marked by the following complexes: island-arc volcanics of the Keret GB; metagraywacke

  16. Geophysical detection of relict metasomatism from an Archean (approximately 3.5 Ga) subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Rondenay, Stéphane; Evans, Rob L; Snyder, David B

    2009-11-20

    When plate tectonics started on Earth has been uncertain, and its role in the assembly of early continents is not well understood. By synthesizing coincident seismic and electrical profiles, we show that subduction processes formed the Archean Slave craton in Canada. The spatial overlap between a seismic discontinuity and a conductive anomaly at approximately 100 kilometers depth, in conjunction with the occurrence of mantle xenoliths rich in secondary minerals representative of a metasomatic front, supports cratonic assembly by subduction and accretion of lithospheric fragments. Although evidence of cratonic assembly is rarely preserved, these results suggest that plate tectonics was operating as early as Paleoarchean times, approximately 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). PMID:19965424

  17. A major Archean, gold- and crust-forming event in the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jason; Ruiz, Joaquin; Chesley, John; Walshe, John; England, Gavin

    2002-09-13

    The 2.89- to 2.76-gigayear-old conglomerates of the Central Rand Group of South Africa host an immense concentration of gold. The gold and rounded pyrites from the conglomerates yield a rhenium-osmium isochron age of 3.03 +/- 0.02 gigayears and an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1079 +/- 0.0001. This age is older than that of the conglomerates. Thus, the gold is detrital and was not deposited by later hydrothermal fluids. This Middle Archean gold mineralization event corresponds to a period of rapid crustal growth in which much of the Kaapvaal craton was formed and is evidence for a significant noble metal flux from the mantle.

  18. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  19. Origin of Archean anorthosites - Evidence from the Bad Vermilion Lake anorthosite complex, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morrison, D. A.; Phinney, W. C.; Wood, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the petrology and geochemistry of the anorthosite complex at Bad Vermillion Lake, Canada, based on 400 samples collected in summer, 1979, are presented. Petrographic, microprobe, X-ray-fluorescence, and instrumental-neutron-activation analyses were performed. Major and trace-element abundances of the anorthositic rocks and surrounding mafic and felsic rocks are reported in tables, chondrite-normalized rare-earth-element patterns are shown, and the anorthositic, intrusive, and metavolcanic formations are characterized in detail. The anothrositic plagioclases are found to have a coarse porphyritic texture and calcic composition (80 normative mol percent An) similar to those of other Archean anorthosite complexes. Chemical similarities indicate that the gabbro and mafic to felsic metavolcanic formations associated with the anorthosite complex may be comagmatic with it, while the absence of ultramafic material and the bulk composition of the comagmatic basalt (about 20 wt percent Al2O3) suggest that much of the original comagmatic material has been separated.

  20. Early Proterozoic activity on Archean faults in the western Superior province - evidence from pseudotachylite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Day, W.

    1989-01-01

    Major transcurrent faults in the Superior province developed in the Late Archean at the close of the Kenoran orogeny. Reactivation of some of these faults late in the Early Proterozoic is indicated by Rb-Sr analyses of pseudotachylite from the Rainy Lake-Seine River and Quetico faults in the Rainy Lake region of Minnesota and Ontario. Fault veins of pseudotachylite and immediately adjacent country rock at two localities yielded subparallel isochrons that are pooled for an age of 1947??23 Ma. K-Ar and Rb-Sr biotite ages register earlier regional cooling of the terrane at about 2500 Ma with no evidence of younger thermal overprinting at temperatures exceeding 300??C. Accordingly, the 1947??23 Ma age is interpreted as dating the formation of the pseudotachylite. Reactivation of existing faults at this time was caused by stresses transmitted from margins of the Superior province where compressional tectonic events were occurring. -Authors

  1. Geochemistry of the Archean Kam Group, Yellowknife Greenstone Belt, Slave Province, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cousens

    2000-03-01

    The geochemistry and isotope systematics of Archean greenstone belts provide important constraints on the origin of the volcanic rocks and tectonic models for the evolution of Archean cratons. The Kam Group is a approximately 10-km-thick pile of submarine, tholeiitic mafic, and subordinate felsic volcanic rocks erupted between 2712 and 2701 Ma that forms the bulk of the Yellowknife greenstone belt in the dominantly granite-metasedimentary Slave Province. Mafic rocks range from Normal-mid-ocean range basalt-like basalts to slightly light-rare-earth-element-enriched (LREE-enriched) but Nb-depleted basaltic andesites and andesites, whereas dacitic to rhyodacitic felsic rocks are strongly LREE-enriched and highly depleted in Nb. The varepsilonTNd range from +5 to -3 in the mafic to intermediate rocks and from 0 to -5.5 in the felsic rocks. The varepsilonTNd decreases with increasing La/Sm, SiO2 and decreasing Nb/La, suggesting that as the mafic magmas evolved they were contaminated by older basement rocks. Gneissic granitoids >2.9 Ga in age, found at the base of the Kam Group, have varepsilonTNd between -6 and -9 and are excellent candidates for the contaminant. The geochemical and isotopic data, combined with the submarine eruptive setting and field evidence for existing continental basement, support a continental margin rift model for the Kam Group. Similar geochemical-isotopic studies are required on other Slave greenstone belts in order to test evolutionary models for the Slave Province.

  2. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    DOE PAGES

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist largemore » or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.« less

  3. Empirical Records of Environmental Change across the Archean-Proterozoic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series geochemical analyses of scientific drill cores intersecting the Archean-Proterozoic transition suggest a coupling of environmental and biological change that culminated in the pervasive oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Elemental and multiple isotope measurements of sedimentary archives, including carbonate, shale, and banded iron-formation from Western Australia, South Africa, Brazil, and southern Canada, indicate important changes in the carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles that monitor the redox state of the oceans and the cyanobacterial buildup of atmospheric oxygen and ozone. In response, continental weathering would have increased, resulting in the enhanced delivery of sulfate and nutrients to seawater, further stimulating photoautotrophic fluxes of oxygen to surface environments. The positive feedback may additionally be responsible for the decline of atmospheric methane and surface refrigeration, represented by a series of discrete ice ages beginning around 2.4 billion years ago, due to the loss of greenhouse capacity during a time of lower solar luminosity. While speculative, the linkage of surface oxidation with enhanced nutrient supply and development of stratospheric sunscreen soon after the Archean-Proterozoic boundary suggests that the earliest perturbation in the carbon cycle may be associated with the rapid expansion of single-celled eukaryotes. Both sterol synthesis in eukaryotes and aerobic respiration require significant levels of oxygen in the ambient environment. Hence, Earth's earliest ice age(s) and onset of a modern and far more energetic carbon cycle may have been directly related to the global expansion of cyanobacteria that released oxygen to the environment, and of eukaryotes that respired it.

  4. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779-1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50-1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist large or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.

  5. Modeling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth: The purple planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, E.; Sanroma, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutierrez-Navarro, A. M.; Lopez, R.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet were purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and bacteria concentration/ distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  6. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the Globally Integrated Spectral Variability of the Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  7. The Photochemical Oxidation of Siderite That Drove Hydrogen Based Microbial Redox Reactions in The Archean Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. D.; Yee, N.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and molecular hydrogen (H2) is a rich source of electron in a mildly reducing environment for microbial redox reactions, such as anoxygenic photosynthesis and methanogenesis. Subaerial volcanoes, ocean crust serpentinization and mid-ocean ridge volcanoes have been believed to be the major source of the hydrogen flux to the atmosphere. Although ferrous ion (Fe2+) photooxidation has been proposed as an alternative mechanism by which hydrogen gas was produced, ferruginous water in contact with a CO2-bearing atmosphere is supersaturated with respect to FeCO3 (siderite), thus the precipitation of siderite would have been thermodynamically favored in the Archean environment. Siderite is the critical mineral component of the oldest fossilized microbial mat. It has also been inferred as a component of chemical sedimentary protolith in the >3750 Ma Nuvvuagittuq supracrustal belt, Canada and the presence of siderite in the protolith suggests the occurrence of siderite extends to Hadean time. Analyses of photooxidation of siderite suggest a significant flux of hydrogen in the early atmosphere. Our estimate of the hydrogen production rate under Archean solar flux is approximately 50 times greater than the estimated hydrogen production rate by the volcanic activity based on a previous report (Tian et al. Science 2005). Our analyses on siderite photooxidation also suggest a mechanism by which banded iron formation (BIF) was formed. The photooxidation transforms siderite to magnetite/maghemite (spinnel iron oxide), while oxygenic oxidation of siderite leads to goethite, and subsequently to hematite (Fe3+2O3) upon dehydration. We will discuss the photochemical reaction, which was once one of the most ubiquitous photochemical reactions before the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere. Photooxidation of siderite over time by UV light From left to right: UV oxidized siderite, pristine siderite, oxidized siderite by oxygen

  8. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  9. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hedge, C.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 {plus minus} 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized in nature as evidence by unaffected rubidium-strontium mineral ages in the Owl Creek Mountains area. Furthermore, the event probably involved a small volume of fluid relative to the volume of rock because whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values of altered rocks are not distinct from those of unaltered rocks. In contrast to the rubidium-strontium whole-rock system, zircons from the granite have been so severely affected by the alteration event, and possibly by a late-Precambrian uplift event, that the zircon system yields little usable age information. The average initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7033 {plus minus} 0.0042) calculated from the isochron intercept varies significantly. Calculated initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios for nine apparently unaltered samples yield a range of 0.7025 to 0.7047. These calculated initial ratios correlate positively with whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values; and, therefore, the granite was probably derived from an isotopically heterogeneous source. The highest initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio is lower than the lowest reported for the metamorphic rocks intruded by the granite as it would have existed at 2640 Ma. Thus, the metamorphic sequence, at its current level of exposure, can represent no more than a part of the protolith for the granite.

  10. Cooling of debris beds

    SciTech Connect

    Barleon, L.; Thomauske, K.; Werie, H.

    1984-04-01

    The dependence of the dryout heat flux for volume-heated particulate beds on bed height (less than or equal to40 cm), particle diameter (0.06 to 16 mm), stratification and boundary conditions (saturated and subcooled liquid, adiabatic and cooled bottom and sidewalls) has been determined for water and Freon-113. Channel penetration through subcooled layers and ''downward boiling'' due to capillarity effects have been observed. Different types of bed disturbances have been identified, and their effect on dryout has been studied. Using existing theoretical models, which have been verified by the experiments, the upper limit of the thermal load on support structures has been calculated as a function of the particle size and bottom temperature for reactor accident conditions (Pu/U-oxide particles in sodium).

  11. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  12. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  13. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  14. Isotopic geochronological evidence for the Paleoproterozoic age of gold mineralization in Archean greenstone belts of Karelia, the Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionova, Yu. O.; Samsonov, A. V.; Shatagin, K. N.; Nosova, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    The Rb-Sr age of metasomatic rocks from four gold deposits and occurrences localized in Archean granite-greenstone belts of the western, central, and southern Karelian Craton of the Baltic Shield has been determined. At the Pedrolampi deposit in central Karelia, the dated Au-bearing beresite and quartz-carbonate veins are located in the shear zone and replace Mesoarchean (˜2.9 Ga) mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Koikar-Kobozero greenstone belt. At the Taloveis ore occurrence in the Kostomuksha greenstone belt of western Karelia, the dated beresite replaces Neoarchean (˜2.7 Ga) granitoids and is conjugated with quartz veins in the shear zone. At the Faddeinkelja occurrence of southern Karelia, Aubearing beresite in the large tectonic zone, which transects Archean granite and Paleoproterozoic mafic dikes, has been studied. At the Hatunoja occurrence in the Jalonvaara greenstone belt of southwestern Karelia, the studied quartz veins and related gold mineralization are localized in Archean granitoids. The Rb-Sr isochrons based on whole-rock samples and minerals from ore-bearing and metasomatic wall rocks and veins yielded ˜1.7 Ga for all studied objects. This age is interpreted as the time of development of ore-bearing tectonic zones and ore-forming hydrothermal metasomatic alteration. New isotopic data in combination with the results obtained by our precursors allow us to recognize the Paleoproterozoic stage of gold mineralization in the Karelian Craton. This stage was unrelated to the Archean crust formation in the Karelian Block and is a repercussion of the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.7 Ga) crust-forming tectonic cycle, which gave rise to the formation of the Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola foldbelts in the framework of the Karelain Craton. The oreforming capability of Paleoproterozoic tectonics in the Archean complexes of the Karelian Craton was probably not great, and its main role consisted in reworking of the Archean gold mineralization of various

  15. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  16. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  17. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  18. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  19. Technology test bed review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, H. V.

    1992-07-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) technology test bed (TTB) history; (2) TTB objectives; (3) TTB major accomplishments; (4) TTB contributions to SSME; (5) major impacts of 3001 testing; (6) some challenges to computational fluid dynamics (CFD); (7) the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP); and (8) 3001 lessons learned in design and operations.

  20. Technology test bed review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) technology test bed (TTB) history; (2) TTB objectives; (3) TTB major accomplishments; (4) TTB contributions to SSME; (5) major impacts of 3001 testing; (6) some challenges to computational fluid dynamics (CFD); (7) the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP); and (8) 3001 lessons learned in design and operations.

  1. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for support groups, bulletin boards, and chat rooms online for moms-to-be who are also on bed rest. Expect emotional ups and downs. Share your hopes and worries with your partner. Let each other vent if needed. If sex is not allowed, look for other ways to ...

  2. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting.

  3. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  4. Spatially Resolved, In Situ Carbon Isotope Analysis of Archean Organic Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williford, Kenneth H.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Lepot, Kevin; Hallmann, Christian; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Summons, Roger E.; Valley, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to micron). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 micron using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 micron spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4 %, and 0.8 % for analyses using 1 micron and 3 micron spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for C-12) and an electron multiplier (for C-13). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for micron-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (delta C-13 = -23.56 +/- 0.1 %, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a C-13H/C-13 measurement included in every analysis. Matrix effects of variable C/SiO2 were evaluated by measuring mm to sub-micron graphite domains in quartzite from Bogala mine, Sri Lanka. Apparent instrumental bias and C-12 count rate are correlated in this case, but this may be related to a crystal orientation effect in graphite. Analyses of amorphous

  5. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  6. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  7. Multiple sulfur-isotope signatures in Archean sulfates and their implications for the chemistry and dynamics of the early atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Muller, Élodie; Philippot, Pascal; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Cartigny, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur isotopic anomalies (∆(33)S and ∆(36)S) have been used to trace the redox evolution of the Precambrian atmosphere and to document the photochemistry and transport properties of the modern atmosphere. Recently, it was shown that modern sulfate aerosols formed in an oxidizing atmosphere can display important isotopic anomalies, thus questioning the significance of Archean sulfate deposits. Here, we performed in situ 4S-isotope measurements of 3.2- and 3.5-billion-year (Ga)-old sulfates. This in situ approach allows us to investigate the diversity of Archean sulfate texture and mineralogy with unprecedented resolution and from then on to deconvolute the ocean and atmosphere Archean sulfur cycle. A striking feature of our data is a bimodal distribution of δ(34)S values at ∼+5‰ and +9‰, which is matched by modern sulfate aerosols. The peak at +5‰ represents barite of different ages and host-rock lithology showing a wide range of ∆(33)S between -1.77‰ and +0.24‰. These barites are interpreted as primary volcanic emissions formed by SO2 photochemical processes with variable contribution of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) shielding in an evolving volcanic plume. The δ(34)S peak at +9‰ is associated with non-(33)S-anomalous barites displaying negative ∆(36)S values, which are best interpreted as volcanic sulfate aerosols formed from OCS photolysis. Our findings confirm the occurrence of a volcanic photochemical pathway specific to the early reduced atmosphere but identify variability within the Archean sulfate isotope record that suggests persistence throughout Earth history of photochemical reactions characteristic of the present-day stratosphere.

  8. Multiple sulfur-isotope signatures in Archean sulfates and their implications for the chemistry and dynamics of the early atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Muller, Élodie; Philippot, Pascal; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Cartigny, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur isotopic anomalies (∆(33)S and ∆(36)S) have been used to trace the redox evolution of the Precambrian atmosphere and to document the photochemistry and transport properties of the modern atmosphere. Recently, it was shown that modern sulfate aerosols formed in an oxidizing atmosphere can display important isotopic anomalies, thus questioning the significance of Archean sulfate deposits. Here, we performed in situ 4S-isotope measurements of 3.2- and 3.5-billion-year (Ga)-old sulfates. This in situ approach allows us to investigate the diversity of Archean sulfate texture and mineralogy with unprecedented resolution and from then on to deconvolute the ocean and atmosphere Archean sulfur cycle. A striking feature of our data is a bimodal distribution of δ(34)S values at ∼+5‰ and +9‰, which is matched by modern sulfate aerosols. The peak at +5‰ represents barite of different ages and host-rock lithology showing a wide range of ∆(33)S between -1.77‰ and +0.24‰. These barites are interpreted as primary volcanic emissions formed by SO2 photochemical processes with variable contribution of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) shielding in an evolving volcanic plume. The δ(34)S peak at +9‰ is associated with non-(33)S-anomalous barites displaying negative ∆(36)S values, which are best interpreted as volcanic sulfate aerosols formed from OCS photolysis. Our findings confirm the occurrence of a volcanic photochemical pathway specific to the early reduced atmosphere but identify variability within the Archean sulfate isotope record that suggests persistence throughout Earth history of photochemical reactions characteristic of the present-day stratosphere. PMID:27330111

  9. Evolution of the Archean Mohorovičić discontinuity from a synaccretionary 4.5 Ga protocrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Warren B.

    2013-12-01

    This review evaluates and rejects the currently dominant dogmas of geodynamics and geochemistry, which are based on 1950s-1970s assumptions of a slowly differentiating Earth. Evidence is presented for evolution of mantle, crust, and early Moho that began with fractionation of most crustal components, synchronously with planetary accretion, into mafic protocrust by ~ 4.5 Ga. We know little about Hadean crustal geology (> 3.9 Ga) except that felsic rocks were then forming, but analogy with Venus, and dating from the Moon, indicate great shallow disruption by large and small impact structures, including huge fractionated impact-melt constructs, throughout that era. The mantle sample and Archean (< 3.9 Ga) crustal geology integrate well. The shallow mantle was extremely depleted by early removal of thick mafic protocrust, which was the primary source of the tonalite, trondhjemite, and granodiorite (TTG) that dominate preserved Archean crust to its base, and of the thick mafic volcanic rocks erupted on that crust. Lower TTG crust, kept mobile by its high radioactivity and by insulating upper crust, rose diapirically into the upper crust as dense volcanic rocks sagged synformally. The mobile lower crust simultaneously flowed laterally to maintain subhorizontal base and surface, and dragged overlying brittler granite-and-greenstone upper crust. Petrologically required garnet-rich residual protocrust incrementally delaminated, sank through low-density high-mantle magnesian dunite, and progressively re-enriched upper mantle, mostly metasomatically. Archean and earliest Proterozoic craton stabilization and development of final Mohos followed regionally complete early delamination of residual protocrust, variously between ~ 2.9 and 2.2 Ga. Where some protocrust remained, Proterozoic basins, filled thickly by sedimentary and volcanic rocks, developed on Archean crust, beneath which delamination of later residual protocrust continued top-down enrichment of upper mantle. That

  10. Geochemistry of Archean metasedimentary rocks of the Aravalli craton, NW India: Implications for provenance, paleoweathering and supercontinent reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mondal, M. E. A.; Satyanarayanan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Basement complex of the Aravalli craton (NW India) known as the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) is classified into two domains viz. Archean BGC-I and Proterozoic BGC-II. We present first comprehensive geochemical study of the Archean metasedimentary rocks occurring within the BGC-I. These rocks occur associated with intrusive amphibolites in a linear belt within the basement gneisses. The association is only concentrated on the western margin of the BGC-I. The samples are highly mature (MSm) to very immature (MSi), along with highly variable geochemistry. Their major (SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/K2O and Al2O3/TiO2) and trace (Th/Sc, Cr/Th, Th/Co, La/Sc, Zr/Sc) element ratios, and rare earth element (REE) patterns are consistent with derivation of detritus from the basement gneisses and its mafic enclaves, with major contribution from the former. Variable mixing between the two end members and closed system recycling (cannibalism) resulted in the compositional heterogeneity. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) of the samples indicate low to moderate weathering of the source terrain in a sub-tropical environment. In A-CN-K ternary diagram, some samples deceptively appear to have undergone post-depositional K-metasomatism. Nevertheless, their petrography and geochemistry (low K2O and Rb) preclude the post-depositional alteration. We propose non-preferential leaching of elements during cannibalism as the cause of the deceptive K-metasomatism as well as enigmatic low CIA values of some highly mature samples. The Archean metasedimentary rocks were deposited on stable basement gneisses, making the BGC-I a plausible participant in the Archean Ur supercontinent.

  11. Multiple sulfur-isotope signatures in Archean sulfates and their implications for the chemistry and dynamics of the early atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Élodie; Philippot, Pascal; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Cartigny, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur isotopic anomalies (∆33S and ∆36S) have been used to trace the redox evolution of the Precambrian atmosphere and to document the photochemistry and transport properties of the modern atmosphere. Recently, it was shown that modern sulfate aerosols formed in an oxidizing atmosphere can display important isotopic anomalies, thus questioning the significance of Archean sulfate deposits. Here, we performed in situ 4S-isotope measurements of 3.2- and 3.5-billion-year (Ga)-old sulfates. This in situ approach allows us to investigate the diversity of Archean sulfate texture and mineralogy with unprecedented resolution and from then on to deconvolute the ocean and atmosphere Archean sulfur cycle. A striking feature of our data is a bimodal distribution of δ34S values at ˜+5‰ and +9‰, which is matched by modern sulfate aerosols. The peak at +5‰ represents barite of different ages and host-rock lithology showing a wide range of ∆33S between -1.77‰ and +0.24‰. These barites are interpreted as primary volcanic emissions formed by SO2 photochemical processes with variable contribution of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) shielding in an evolving volcanic plume. The δ34S peak at +9‰ is associated with non-33S-anomalous barites displaying negative ∆36S values, which are best interpreted as volcanic sulfate aerosols formed from OCS photolysis. Our findings confirm the occurrence of a volcanic photochemical pathway specific to the early reduced atmosphere but identify variability within the Archean sulfate isotope record that suggests persistence throughout Earth history of photochemical reactions characteristic of the present-day stratosphere.

  12. Multiple sulfur-isotope signatures in Archean sulfates and their implications for the chemistry and dynamics of the early atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Élodie; Philippot, Pascal; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Cartigny, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur isotopic anomalies (∆33S and ∆36S) have been used to trace the redox evolution of the Precambrian atmosphere and to document the photochemistry and transport properties of the modern atmosphere. Recently, it was shown that modern sulfate aerosols formed in an oxidizing atmosphere can display important isotopic anomalies, thus questioning the significance of Archean sulfate deposits. Here, we performed in situ 4S-isotope measurements of 3.2- and 3.5-billion-year (Ga)-old sulfates. This in situ approach allows us to investigate the diversity of Archean sulfate texture and mineralogy with unprecedented resolution and from then on to deconvolute the ocean and atmosphere Archean sulfur cycle. A striking feature of our data is a bimodal distribution of δ34S values at ˜+5‰ and +9‰, which is matched by modern sulfate aerosols. The peak at +5‰ represents barite of different ages and host-rock lithology showing a wide range of ∆33S between ‑1.77‰ and +0.24‰. These barites are interpreted as primary volcanic emissions formed by SO2 photochemical processes with variable contribution of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) shielding in an evolving volcanic plume. The δ34S peak at +9‰ is associated with non–33S-anomalous barites displaying negative ∆36S values, which are best interpreted as volcanic sulfate aerosols formed from OCS photolysis. Our findings confirm the occurrence of a volcanic photochemical pathway specific to the early reduced atmosphere but identify variability within the Archean sulfate isotope record that suggests persistence throughout Earth history of photochemical reactions characteristic of the present-day stratosphere.

  13. The Hardwood Gneiss: Evidence for high P-T Archean metamorphism in the southern province of the Lake Superior region

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.W. ); Geiger, C.A. )

    1990-03-01

    The Hardwood Gneiss is an areally small unit of Precambrian granulite-grade rocks exposed in the Archean gneiss terrane of the southern Lake Superior region. The rocks are located in the southwestern portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and consist of a structurally conformable package of quartzitic, metapelitic, amphibolitic, and metabasic units. Three texturally distinct garnet types are present in the metabasites and are interpreted to represent two metamorphic events. Geothermobarometry indicates conditions of {approximately}8.2-11.6 kbar and {approximately}770C for M1, and conditions of {approximately}6.0-10.1 kbar and {approximately}610-740C for M2. It is proposed that M1 was Archean and contemporaneous with a high-grade metamorphic event recorded in the Minnesota River Valley. The M2 event was probably Early Proterozoic and pre-Penokean, with metamorphic conditions more intense than those generally ascribed to the Penokean Orogeny in Michigan, but similar to the conditions reported for the Kapuskasing zone of Ontario. The high paleopressures and temperatures of the M1 event make the Hardwood Gneiss distinct from any rocks previously described in the southern Lake Superior region, and suggest intense tectonic activity during the Archean.

  14. How to draw down CO2 from severe Hadean to habitable Archean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelezinskaia, I.; Ding, S.; Mulyukova, E.; Martirosyan, N.; Johnson, A.; West, J. D.; Kolesnichenko, M.; Saloor, N.; Moucha, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that as the magma ocean crystallized in the Hadean, volatiles such as CO2 and H2O were released to the surface culminating with the formation of a liquid ocean by about 4.4 Ga [1] and hot CO2-rich atmosphere [2]. The resulting late Hadean atmospheric pCO2 may have been as high as 100 bars [3] with corresponding surface temperatures ~500 K [4]. Geological evidence suggests that by the early-to-mid Archean, atmospheric pCO2 became less than 1 bar [5]. However, the mechanisms responsible for the great amount of CO2 drawdown in a relatively short period of time remain enigmatic. To identify these possible mechanisms, we have developed a box model during the CIDER 2015 Summer Program that takes into account geological constraints on basalt alteration [6, 7] and possible rate of new oceanic crust formation [8] for the Archean. Our model integrates geodynamic and geochemical approaches of interaction between the Hadean atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceanic crust, and mantle to drawdown CO2. Our primary assumption for the Hadean is the absence of the continental crust and thus continental weathering. Therefore in the model we present, the level of CO2 in the atmosphere is regulated by the formation of oceanic crust (OC), rate of the interaction between the ocean and OC, and carbonate subduction/CO2 degassing. Preliminary results suggest that it would take about 1 billion years for the atmospheric CO2 to decrease to 1 bar if the production of oceanic crust was 10 times more than today and the pH of the ocean was less than 7, making the basalt alteration more efficient. However, there is evidence that some continental crust began to form as early as 4.4 Ga [9] and therefore the role of continental weathering and its rate of CO2 drawdown will need to be further explored. References: [1] Wilde et al. (2001). Nature 409(6817), 175-178. [2] Walker (1985). Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 16(2), 117-127. [3] Elkins-Tanton (2008). EPSL, 271, 181

  15. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  16. In search of early life: Carbonate veins in Archean metamorphic rocks as potential hosts of biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Carl A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Webb, Gregory E.; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; George, Simon C.

    2016-11-01

    The detection of early life signatures using hydrocarbon biomarkers in Precambrian rocks struggles with contamination issues, unspecific biomarkers and the lack of suitable sedimentary rocks due to extensive thermal overprints. Importantly, host rocks must not have been exposed to temperatures above 250 °C as at these temperatures biomarkers are destroyed. Here we show that Archean sedimentary rocks from the Jeerinah Formation (2.63 billion yrs) and Carawine Dolomite (2.55 billion yrs) of the Pilbara Craton (Western Australia) drilled by the Agouron Institute in 2012, which previously were suggested to be suitable for biomarker studies, were metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. This is higher than previously reported. Both the mineral assemblages (carbonate, quartz, Fe-chlorite, muscovite, microcline, rutile, and pyrite with absence of illite) and chlorite geothermometry suggest that the rocks were exposed to temperatures higher than 300 °C and probably ∼400 °C, consistent with greenschist-facies metamorphism. This facies leads to the destruction of any biomarkers and explains why the extraction of hydrocarbon biomarkers from pristine drill cores has not been successful. However, we show that the rocks are cut by younger formation-specific carbonate veins containing primary oil-bearing fluid inclusions and solid bitumens. Type 1 veins in the Carawine Dolomite consist of dolomite, quartz and solid bitumen, whereas type 2 veins in the Jeerinah Formation consist of calcite. Within the veins fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures and calcite twinning geothermometry indicate maximum temperatures of ∼200 °C for type 1 veins and ∼180 °C for type 2 veins. Type 1 veins have typical isotopic values for reprecipitated Archean sea-water carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 3 ‰ to 0‰ and δ18OVPDB ranging from - 13 ‰ to - 7 ‰, while type 2 veins have isotopic values that are similar to hydrothermal carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 18

  17. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist large or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.

  18. Design method for adsorption beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, R. L.; Jackson, J. K.

    1970-01-01

    Regenerable adsorption beds for long-term life support systems include synthetic geolite to remove carbon dioxide and silica gel to dehumidify the atmospheric gas prior to its passage through the geolite beds. Bed performance is evaluated from adsorption characteristics, heat and mass transfer, and pressure drop.

  19. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Invisible gold within sulfides from the Archean Hutti Maski schist belt, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, I.; Venkatesh, A. S.

    2002-06-01

    The Hutti-Maski schist belt is an important gold producing Archean greenstone belt in India. Mesothermal gold mineralization occurs within smoky quartz-sulfide veins occupying brittle-ductile shear zones. Principal ore minerals observed are arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, loellingite and gold. Although most of the gold occurs in native form, a substantial amount of gold is also present in the sulfides, especially within arsenopyrite in invisible form. Two stages of gold deposition occur in this area: (1) lattice bound invisible gold within sulfides, restricted to the shear fractures, a part of the primary gold depositional history; (2) native gold within sulfides as inclusions and as separate grains which may belong to another phase of hydrothermal fluid influx. Remobilization, reconstitution and concentration of the early phase might have formed the later phase. The substitution of Fe by Au within the sulfidic sites, adsorption-reduction and fluid rock interaction/phase immiscibility may be the plausible mechanisms for the invisible gold, microscopic substrates and visible gold respectively.

  1. Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

    1994-01-01

    The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

  2. Metasomatic alteration of an early Archean komatiite sequence into chert: field and petrographic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Duchac, K.C.; Hanor, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Stratiform units of pervasively silicified ultramafic rock occur near the top of the Onverwacht group, Barberton Mountian Land, South Africa. The origin of these units has been variously ascribed to early Archean subaerial weathering, submarine weathering, cataclastic metamorphism, and the alteration of silicic tuffs at the top of mafic to felsic volcanic sequences. The authors have studied a 40 m thick stratigraphic sequence that is exceptionally well-exposed for 1.5 km within the Skokohla River valley. Well-preserved ghosts of spinifex- and cumulate-olivines and pyroxenes establish the komatiitic ancestry of these rocks. The entire sequence has been pervasively altered, however, to cherts dominated by quartz and Cr-rich muscovite and containing lesser and variable amounts of chlorite, dolomite, rutile, and chrome spinel. The present Skokohla rocks can be divided into five distinct correlatable facies of laterally variable thickness which probably represent different flow units. Alteration apparently occurred early, prior to any significant tectonic deformation. The observed pervasive sericitization is inconsistent with an origin by subaerial weathering. It is most likely that the sequence was altered by large volumes of ascending hydrothermal fluids.

  3. EAG Eminent Speaker: Two types of Archean continental crust: plume and plate tectonics on early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Over 4.5 billion years, Earth has evolved from a molten ball to a cooler planet with large continental plates, but how and when continents grew and plate tectonics started remain poorly understood. In this paper, I review the evidence that 3.5-3.2 Ga continental nuclei of the Pilbara (Australia) and Kaapvaal (southern Africa) cratons formed as thick volcanic plateaux over hot, upwelling mantle and survived due to contemporaneous development of highly depleted, buoyant, unsubductable mantle roots. This type of crust is distinct from, but complimentary to, high-grade gneiss terranes, as exemplified by the North Atlantic Craton of West Greenland, which formed through subduction-accretion tectonics on what is envisaged as a vigorously convecting early Earth with small plates. Thus, it is proposed that two types of crust formed on early Earth, in much the same way as in modern Earth, but with distinct differences resulting from a hotter Archean mantle. Volcanic plateaux provided a variety of stable habitats for early life, including chemical nutrient rich, shallow-water hydrothermal systems and shallow marine carbonate platforms.

  4. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  5. Gas bubble dimensions in Archean lava flows indicate low air pressure at 2.7 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, S. M.; Buick, R.; Hagadorn, J.; Blake, T.; Perreault, J.; Harnmeijer, J.; Catling, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pressure constrains atmospheric composition, which, in turn, is linked to the Earth system through biogeochemical cycles and fluxes of volatiles from and to the Earth's interior. Previous studies have only placed maximum levels on surface air pressure for the early Earth [1]. Here, we calculate an absolute value for Archean barometric pressure using gas bubble size (vesicle) distributions in uninflated basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level 2.7 billion years ago in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These vesicles have been filled in by secondary minerals deposited during metasomatism and so are now amydules, but thin sections show that infilling did not change vesicle dimensions. Amygdule dimensions are measured using high-resolution X-ray tomography from core samples obtained from the top and bottom of the lava flows. The modal size expressed at the top and at the bottom of an uninflated flow can be linked to atmospheric pressure using the ideal gas law. Such a technique has been verified as a paleoaltimeter using Hawaiian Quaternary lava flows [2]. We use statistical methods to estimate the mean and standard deviation of the volumetric size of the amygdules by applying 'bootstrap'resampling and the Central Limit Theorem. Our data indicate a surprisingly low atmospheric pressure. Greater nitrogen burial under anaerobic conditions likely explains lower pressure. Refs: [1] Som et al. (2012) Nature 484, 359-262. D. L. Sahagian et al. (2002) J. Geol., 110, 671-685.

  6. Large sulfur-isotope anomaly in nonvolcanic sulfate aerosol and its implications for the Archean atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Robina; Abaunza, Mariana M.; Jackson, Teresa L.; McCabe, Justin; Savarino, Joël; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur-isotopic anomalies have been used to trace the evolution of oxygen in the Precambrian atmosphere and to document past volcanic eruptions. High-precision sulfur quadruple isotope measurements of sulfate aerosols extracted from a snow pit at the South Pole (1984–2001) showed the highest S-isotopic anomalies (Δ33S = +1.66‰ and Δ36S = +2‰) in a nonvolcanic (1998–1999) period, similar in magnitude to Pinatubo and Agung, the largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century. The highest isotopic anomaly may be produced from a combination of different stratospheric sources (sulfur dioxide and carbonyl sulfide) via SOx photochemistry, including photoexcitation and photodissociation. The source of anomaly is linked to super El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (1997–1998)-induced changes in troposphere–stratosphere chemistry and dynamics. The data possess recurring negative S-isotope anomalies (Δ36S = −0.6 ± 0.2‰) in nonvolcanic and non-ENSO years, thus requiring a second source that may be tropospheric. The generation of nonvolcanic S-isotopic anomalies in an oxidizing atmosphere has implications for interpreting Archean sulfur deposits used to determine the redox state of the paleoatmosphere. PMID:25092338

  7. New Constraints on Archean-Paleoproterozoic Carbonate Chemistry and pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blättler, C. L.; Higgins, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Very few constraints exist on Archean and Proterozoic seawater chemistry, leaving huge uncertainties on the boundary conditions for the evolution of life and a habitable environment. Ancient carbonate chemistry, which is intimately related to oceanic pH and atmospheric pCO2, remains particularly uncertain, despite its importance for understanding environments and temperatures on early Earth. Using a new application of high-precision calcium isotope measurements, we present data from the Tumbiana Formation (2.7 Ga, Western Australia), the Campbellrand Platform (2.6 Ga, South Africa) and the Pethei Group (1.9 Ga, Northwest Territories, Canada) that allow us to place constraints on carbonate chemistry both before and after the Great Oxidation Event. By analogy with calcium isotope behavior in sulfate minerals (Blättler and Higgins, 2014) and Mono Lake (Nielsen and DePaolo, 2013), we infer a lower limit on the ratio of calcium ions to carbonate alkalinity during deposition of these three sedimentary sequences. These data rule out the soda ocean hypothesis (Kempe and Degens, 1985) and make further predictions about the role of CO2 in solving the faint young Sun problem.

  8. Large sulfur-isotope anomaly in nonvolcanic sulfate aerosol and its implications for the Archean atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Robina; Abaunza, Mariana M; Jackson, Teresa L; McCabe, Justin; Savarino, Joël; Thiemens, Mark H

    2014-08-19

    Sulfur-isotopic anomalies have been used to trace the evolution of oxygen in the Precambrian atmosphere and to document past volcanic eruptions. High-precision sulfur quadruple isotope measurements of sulfate aerosols extracted from a snow pit at the South Pole (1984-2001) showed the highest S-isotopic anomalies (Δ(33)S = +1.66‰ and Δ(36)S = +2‰) in a nonvolcanic (1998-1999) period, similar in magnitude to Pinatubo and Agung, the largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century. The highest isotopic anomaly may be produced from a combination of different stratospheric sources (sulfur dioxide and carbonyl sulfide) via SOx photochemistry, including photoexcitation and photodissociation. The source of anomaly is linked to super El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (1997-1998)-induced changes in troposphere-stratosphere chemistry and dynamics. The data possess recurring negative S-isotope anomalies (Δ(36)S = -0.6 ± 0.2‰) in nonvolcanic and non-ENSO years, thus requiring a second source that may be tropospheric. The generation of nonvolcanic S-isotopic anomalies in an oxidizing atmosphere has implications for interpreting Archean sulfur deposits used to determine the redox state of the paleoatmosphere.

  9. Large sulfur-isotope anomaly in nonvolcanic sulfate aerosol and its implications for the Archean atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Robina; Abaunza, Mariana M; Jackson, Teresa L; McCabe, Justin; Savarino, Joël; Thiemens, Mark H

    2014-08-19

    Sulfur-isotopic anomalies have been used to trace the evolution of oxygen in the Precambrian atmosphere and to document past volcanic eruptions. High-precision sulfur quadruple isotope measurements of sulfate aerosols extracted from a snow pit at the South Pole (1984-2001) showed the highest S-isotopic anomalies (Δ(33)S = +1.66‰ and Δ(36)S = +2‰) in a nonvolcanic (1998-1999) period, similar in magnitude to Pinatubo and Agung, the largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century. The highest isotopic anomaly may be produced from a combination of different stratospheric sources (sulfur dioxide and carbonyl sulfide) via SOx photochemistry, including photoexcitation and photodissociation. The source of anomaly is linked to super El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (1997-1998)-induced changes in troposphere-stratosphere chemistry and dynamics. The data possess recurring negative S-isotope anomalies (Δ(36)S = -0.6 ± 0.2‰) in nonvolcanic and non-ENSO years, thus requiring a second source that may be tropospheric. The generation of nonvolcanic S-isotopic anomalies in an oxidizing atmosphere has implications for interpreting Archean sulfur deposits used to determine the redox state of the paleoatmosphere. PMID:25092338

  10. Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular fossil record of Archean life.

    PubMed

    Waldbauer, Jacob R; Newman, Dianne K; Summons, Roger E

    2011-08-16

    The power of molecular oxygen to drive many crucial biogeochemical processes, from cellular respiration to rock weathering, makes reconstructing the history of its production and accumulation a first-order question for understanding Earth's evolution. Among the various geochemical proxies for the presence of O(2) in the environment, molecular fossils offer a unique record of O(2) where it was first produced and consumed by biology: in sunlit aquatic habitats. As steroid biosynthesis requires molecular oxygen, fossil steranes have been used to draw inferences about aerobiosis in the early Precambrian. However, better quantitative constraints on the O(2) requirement of this biochemistry would clarify the implications of these molecular fossils for environmental conditions at the time of their production. Here we demonstrate that steroid biosynthesis is a microaerobic process, enabled by dissolved O(2) concentrations in the nanomolar range. We present evidence that microaerobic marine environments (where steroid biosynthesis was possible) could have been widespread and persistent for long periods of time prior to the earliest geologic and isotopic evidence for atmospheric O(2). In the late Archean, molecular oxygen likely cycled as a biogenic trace gas, much as compounds such as dimethylsulfide do today. PMID:21825157

  11. Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular fossil record of Archean life

    PubMed Central

    Waldbauer, Jacob R.; Newman, Dianne K.; Summons, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    The power of molecular oxygen to drive many crucial biogeochemical processes, from cellular respiration to rock weathering, makes reconstructing the history of its production and accumulation a first-order question for understanding Earth’s evolution. Among the various geochemical proxies for the presence of O2 in the environment, molecular fossils offer a unique record of O2 where it was first produced and consumed by biology: in sunlit aquatic habitats. As steroid biosynthesis requires molecular oxygen, fossil steranes have been used to draw inferences about aerobiosis in the early Precambrian. However, better quantitative constraints on the O2 requirement of this biochemistry would clarify the implications of these molecular fossils for environmental conditions at the time of their production. Here we demonstrate that steroid biosynthesis is a microaerobic process, enabled by dissolved O2 concentrations in the nanomolar range. We present evidence that microaerobic marine environments (where steroid biosynthesis was possible) could have been widespread and persistent for long periods of time prior to the earliest geologic and isotopic evidence for atmospheric O2. In the late Archean, molecular oxygen likely cycled as a biogenic trace gas, much as compounds such as dimethylsulfide do today. PMID:21825157

  12. A Detailed Record of Archean Biogochemical Cycles and Seawater Chemistry Preserved in Black Shales of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C.; Planavsky, N. J.; Bates, S. M.; Wing, B. A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Geological and biological evolution are intimately linked within the Earth System through the medium of seawater. Thus, in order to track the co-evolution of Life and Earth during the Archean Eon we must determine how biogeochemical cycles responded to and initiated changes in the composition of Archean seawater. Among our best records of biogeochemical cycles and seawater chemistry are organic carbon-rich black shales. Here we present a detailed multi-proxy study of 2.7 Ga black shales from the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada. Abitibi shales demonstrate extreme enrichments in total organic carbon (up to 15 wt. %) and total sulfur (up to 6 wt. %) reflecting vigorous biogeochemical cycling in the basin, likely driven by cyanobacteria. The speciation of reactive Fe minerals indicates that pyrite formed in a sulfidic water column (euxinia) and that dissolved Fe was the limiting reactant. The deposition of more than 50 m of euxinic black shales suggests that the Fe-rich conditions reflected by Archean BIF deposition were not necessarily ubiquitous. Biologically significant trace metals fall into two categories. Metals that can be delivered to seawater in large quantities from hydrothermal sources (e.g., Cu and Zn) are enriched in the shales, reflecting their relative abundance in seawater. Conversely, metals that are primarily delivered to the ocean during oxidative weathering of the continents (e. g., Mo and V) are largely absent from the shales, reflecting depleted seawater inventories. Thus, trace metal supply at 2.7 Ga was still dominated by geological processes. Biological forcing of trace metal inventories, through oxidative weathering of the continents, was not initiated until 2.5 Ga, when Mo enrichments are first observed in the Mt. McRae Shale, Hamersley Basin. Multiple sulfur isotope analysis (32S, 33S, 34S) of disseminated pyrite displays large mass independent fractionations (Δ33S up to 6 %) reflecting a sulfur cycle dominated by atmospheric processes

  13. Archean high δ18O Mg-diorite: crustal-derived melt hybridized with enriched mafic accumulated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Guo, Jing-Hui

    2016-04-01

    The genesis of Mg-diorite or sanukitoids has significances to understand the crustal growth and tectonic style in Archean. The chemical compositions of minerals and rocks, whole-rock Sm-Nd isotope, zircon SIMS U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes of Zhulagou (ZLG) Mg-diorite and their mafic enclaves (Yinshan Block, North China Craton) were studied to place constraints on their sources and genesis, and therefore provide information about dynamic processes. The ~2520 Ma ZLG diorites have intermediate SiO2 (59.4-65.5 wt.%), high Mg# (49-52), Cr (90.4-438 ppm), Ni (15.0-95.9 ppm), Sr (436-882 ppm) and Ba (237-1206 ppm) contents with fractionated rare earth elements (REE, LaN/YbN = 9.1-40.5) and depleted high field-strength element (HFSE, e.g. Nb, Ta and Ti). These geochemical signatures are similar to those Archean high-Mg diorites and sanukitoids. However, they are sodic with low K2O/Na2O (0.14-0.49) ratios, exhibiting an affinity with Archean trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG). Abundant coeval amphibole-bearing mafic enclaves (~2525 Ma) are enclosed within the ZLG diorites. They display low SiO2 (46.5-50.3 wt.%) contents but high concentrations of MgO (9.0-14.5 wt.%), Cr (647-1946 ppm) and Ni (197-280 ppm). They are enriched in K2O (0.64-3.43 wt.%) and large ion lithophile element (LILE), depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. Combined with their concave REE patterns and prominent negative Eu anomaly, we suggest that they are cumulates of the melt which probably derived from subduction-related Archean metasomatized mantle source. Mineral trace element modelling results, similar ɛNd(t) (+0.6 to +2.3) and δ18O(Zrc) values (~8.6-9.0 ‰) of the diorites and mafic enclaves, strongly reflect that they had experienced intense interaction and hybridization. Evolved whole-rock Nd isotopes (TDM = 2.80-2.70 Ga), variable zircon ɛHf (t) (-1.6 to +6.0) and high δ18O (~9.0 ‰) values of the diorites indicate that they most likely originated from melting of an older continental crust (≥ 2

  14. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of a suite of Late Archean, igneous rocks, eastern Beartooth Mountains: implications for crust-mantle evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wooden, J.L.; Mueller, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of compositionally diverse, Late Archean rocks (2.74-2.79 Ga old) from the eastern Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming, U.S.A., have the same initial Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios. Lead and Sr initial ratios are higher and Nd initial ratios lower than would be expected for rocks derived from model mantle sources and strongly indicate the involvement of an older crustal reservoir in the genesis of these rocks. Crustal contamination during emplacement can be ruled out for a variety of reasons. Instead a model involving subduction of continental detritus and contamination of the overlying mantle as is often proposed for modern subduction environments is preferred. This contaminated mantle would have all the isotopic characteristics of mantle enriched by internal mantle metasomatism but would require no long-term growth or changes in parent to daughter element ratios. This contaminated mantle would make a good source for some of the Cenozoic mafic volcanics of the Columbia River, Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone volcanic fields that are proposed to come from ancient, enriched lithospheric mantle. The isotopic characteristics of the 2.70 Ga old Stillwater Complex are a perfect match for the proposed contaminated mantle which provides an alternative to crustal contamination during emplacement. The Pb isotopic characteristics of the Late Archean rocks of the eastern Beartooth Mountains are similar to those of other Late Archean rocks of the Wyoming Province and suggest that Early Archean, upper crustal rocks were common in this terrane. The isotopic signatures of Late Archean rocks in the Wyoming Province are distinctive from those of other Archean cratons in North America which are dominated by a MORB-like, Archean mantle source (Superior Province) and/or a long-term depleted crustal source (Greenland). ?? 1988.

  15. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  16. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  17. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  18. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  19. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  20. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  1. Fluidized-bed sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc oxide-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor. In this program, regenerable ZnO-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents are being developed and tested. These include zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-SORB sorbents. The Z-SORB sorbent is a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company (PPCo).

  2. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  3. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  4. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  5. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  6. Archean granulite gneisses from eastern Hebei Province, China: rare earth geochemistry and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Bor-Ming; Zhang, Zong-Qing

    1984-03-01

    The granulite gneisses and their retrograded products of the Qianxi Group from eastern Hebei Province, China, have been investigated for their isotope and trace element geochemistry. A consistent age of about 2.5 AE has been obtained by the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron methods, in agreement with the zircon U-Pb data (Pidgeon 1980; D.Y. Liu, unpubl.). Geochemical arguments from initial isotopic ratios (ISr and INd) and elemental distribution patterns have led us to conclude that this age of about 2.5 AE represents the time of granulite facies metamorphism, which must have followed closely the primary emplacement of their protoliths. Previous claims for early Archean ages (>3.5 AE) of these granulites are not substantiated. The mineral isotope systematics register an important thermal event at about 1.7 AE, roughly corresponding to the time of the widespread Luliang Orogeny (Ma and Wu 1981) or Chungtiao Movement (Huang 1978). The granulites of the Qianxi Group have diverse compositions ranging from ultrabasic through basic-intermediate to acid. Discriminant function calculations suggest that most analyzed samples have igneous parentage. Only a few show characteristics of metasedimentary rocks. The igneous protoliths apparently belong to two series — tholeiitic and calc-alkaline, with the latter dominating in abundance. The majority of the acid granulites have compositions corresponding to tonalite-granodiorite. Except for ultrabasic and metasedimentary rocks, all REE patterns are significantly fractionated with LREE enrichment. The degree of fractionation, as measured by the (La/Yb)N ratios, is most important in the acid granulites. These rocks often show positive Eu anomalies and HREE depletions that are typical of Archean TTG rocks (tonalitetrondhjemite-granodiorite). The existence of komatiites has been previously reported in this region. Although a few rocks have a major element chemistry similar to that for peridotitic komatiites, the lack of associated

  7. Magmatism and Tectonics in the Meso-Archean Pongola Supergroup, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The Pongola Supergroup is one of the most extensive and well preserved volcano-sedimentary successions emplaced in a continental setting in the Meso-Archean (c. 2.95 Ga). It contrasts with both the older (Barberton type c.3.5 Ga) and younger (Belingwe type c.2.7 Ga) greenstone belts in southern Africa in that the sequence has not undergone the strong horizontal compressional tectonics typically related to greenstone belt-TTG environments. However, it is appropriate to compare this sequence with rocks of the Barberton greenstone belt by which the final phase of deposition preceded that of the juxtaposed Pongola basin with a relatively small time interval. The Pongola succession, which commenced with the first major magmatic event after the Barberton greenstone belt, overlies granitoids and remnants of greenstone belts in SE South Africa and in SW Swaziland. Formation was not in a continental rift environment but most likely in a marginal epicontinental basin with syn-depositional subsidence in a half-graben fault system in the type area. The Pongola rocks occur in two domains related to a NW-trending central basement high in the Kaapvaal Craton and achieving a maximum thickness of 8 km in the northern areas. The lower section (Nsuze group 3.7 km thick) is made up mainly of lavas and pyroclastic rocks and the upper section (Mozaan Group 4.3 km thick) is aranaceous sediments and argillites with a thick volcanic unit observed in the south-eastern facies. Chemical affinities of the lavas include tholeiite and calc-alkaline over the compositional range of basalt to rhyolite. There is a preponderance of andesites in the compositional array. The preservation of these rocks gives insight into the range of volcanic processes that took place at this stage of Earth history and in some areas it is possible to identify eruptions from a single source over several kilometres, as well as feeder-dyke systems to the lava flows. Simultaneous eruption of contrasting magmas from several

  8. Mesoproterozoic suturing of Archean crustal blocks in western peninsular India: Implications for India-Madagascar correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishwar-Kumar, C.; Santosh, M.; Wilde, S. A.; Tsunogae, T.; Itaya, T.; Windley, B. F.; Sajeev, K.

    2016-10-01

    The Kumta and Mercara suture zones welding together Archean crustal blocks in western peninsular India offer critical insights into Precambrian continental juxtapositions and the crustal evolution of eastern Gondwana. Here we present the results from an integrated study of the structure, geology, petrology, mineral chemistry, metamorphic P-T conditions, zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes of metasedimentary rocks from the two sutures. The dominant rocks in the Kumta suture are greenschist- to amphibolite-facies quartz-phengite schist, garnet-biotite schist, chlorite schist, fuchsite schist and marble. The textural relations, mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modelling of garnet-biotite schist from the Kumta suture indicate peak metamorphic P-T conditions of ca. 11 kbar at 790 °C, with detrital SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages ranging from 3420 to 2547 Ma, εHf (t) values from - 9.2 to 5.6, and TDMc model ages from 3747 to 2792 Ma. The K-Ar age of phengite from quartz-phengite schist is ca. 1326 Ma and that of biotite from garnet-biotite schist is ca. 1385 Ma, which are interpreted to broadly constrain the timing of metamorphism related to the suturing event. The Mercara suture contains amphibolite- to granulite-facies mylonitic quartzo-feldspathic gneiss, garnet-kyanite-sillimanite gneiss, garnet-biotite-kyanite-gedrite-cordierite gneiss, garnet-biotite-hornblende gneiss, calc-silicate granulite and metagabbro. The textural relations, mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modelling of garnet-biotite-kyanite-gedrite-cordierite gneiss from the Mercara suture indicate peak metamorphic P-T conditions of ca. 13 kbar at 825 °C, followed by isothermal decompression and cooling. For pelitic gneisses from the Mercara suture, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages vary from 3249 to 3045 Ma, εHf (t) values range from - 18.9 to 4.2, and TDMc model ages vary from 4094 to 3314 Ma. The lower intercept age of detrital zircons in the pelitic gneisses from the Mercara suture ranges from 1464 to 1106

  9. Micro-scale (1.5 microm) sulphur isotope analysis of contemporary and early Archean pyrite.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Manabu; Maruyama, Shigenori; Urabe, Tetsuro; Takahata, Naoto; Sano, Yuji

    2010-05-30

    We present a method for in situ sulphur (S) isotopic analysis of significantly small areas (1.5 microm in diameter) in pyrite using secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to interpret microbial sulphur metabolism in the early earth. We evaluated the precision and accuracy of S isotopic ratios obtained by this method using hydrothermal pyrite samples with homogeneous S isotopic ratios. The internal precision of the delta(34)S value was 1.5 per thousand at the level of 1 sigma of standard error (named 1SE) for a single spot, while the external reproducibility was estimated to be 1.6 per thousand at the level of 1 sigma of standard deviation (named 1SD, n = 25). For each separate sample, the average delta(34)S value was comparable with that measured by a conventional method, and the accuracy was better than 2.3 per thousand. Consequently, the in situ method is sufficiently accurate and precise to detect the S isotopic variations of small sample of the pyrite (less than 20 microm) that occurs ubiquitously in ancient sedimentary rocks. This method was applied to measure the S isotopic distribution of pyrite within black chert fragments in early Archean sandstone. The pyrite had isotopic zoning with a (34)S-depleted core and (34)S-enriched rim, suggesting isotopic evolution of the source H(2)S from -15 to -5 per thousand. Production of H(2)S by microbial sulphate reduction (MSR) in a closed system provides a possible explanation for both the (34)S-depleted initial H(2)S and the progressive increase in the delta(34)S(H2S) value. Although more extensive data are necessary to strengthen the explanation for the origin of the MSR, the results show that the S isotopic distribution within pyrite crystals may be a key tracer for MSR activity in the early earth.

  10. Geochemistry of archean shales from the Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa: source-area weathering and provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Condie, K.C.

    1987-09-01

    With a few exceptions, shales from the Archean Witwatersrand Supergroup in South Africa are depleted in Na, Ca, Large ion lithophile elements (LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and half field strength elements ((HFSE) compared to Phanerozoic shales. Cr, Co and Ni are enriched in all Witwatersrand shales and Fe and Mg are high in shales from the West Rand Groups (WRG) and lower Central Rand Group (CRG). Shales from the CRG and uppermost WRG are enriched in Na, Al, LILE, REE, HFSE and transition metals relative to shales from the lower WRG. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for all Witwatersrand shales are enriched in light-REE and exhibit small to moderate negative Eu anomalies. Relative to shales from the CRG, shales from the WRG exhibit depletions of Na, Ca and Sr, a feature probably reflecting intense chemical weathering of their source rocks. CIA indices in Witwatersrand shales are variable, even within the same shale unit. Such variations reflect chiefly variable climatic zones or rates of tectonic uplift in source areas with perhaps some contribution from provenance and element remobilization during metamorphism. Compared to present-day upper continental crust, all but the Orange Grove, Roodepoort, and K8 shales appear to have been derived from continental sources depleted in LILE, REE, and HFSE and enriched in transition metals. Computer mixing models abased on six relatively immobile elements (Th, Hf, Yb, La, Sc, Co) and four source rocks indicate that the relative proportions of granite, basalt and komatiite increased with time in sediment source areas at the expense of tonalite.

  11. Cenozoic uplift on the West Greenland margin: active sedimentary basins in quiet Archean terranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Scott; Stephenson, Randell; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic is believed by some authors to have experienced tectonically induced uplift within the Cenozoic. Examination of evidence, onshore and offshore, has been interpreted to imply the presence of kilometre scale uplift across the margins of the Barents Sea, North Sea, Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea. Development of topography on the West Greenland margin (Baffin Bay), in particular, has been subject to much discussion and dispute. A series of low temperature thermochronological (AFT and AHe) studies onshore and interpretation of seismic architecture offshore have suggested uplift of the entire margin totalling ~3km. However, challenges to this work and recent analysis on the opposing margin (Baffin Island) have raised questions about the validity of this interpretation. The present work reviews and remodels the thermochronological data from onshore West Greenland with the aim of re-evaluating our understanding of the margin's history. New concepts within the discipline, such as effect of radiation damage on Helium diffusivity, contemporary modelling approaches and denudational mapping are all utilised to investigate alternative interpretations to this margins complex post rift evolution. In contrast to earlier studies our new approach indicates slow protracted cooling across much of the region; however, reworked sedimentary samples taken from the Cretaceous Nuussuaq Basin display periods of rapid reheating and cooling. These new models suggest the Nuussuaq Basin experienced a tectonically active Cenozoic, while the surrounding Archean basement remained quiet. Faults located within the basin appear to have been reactivated during the Palaeocene and Eocene, a period of well-documented inversion events throughout the North Atlantic, and may have resulted in subaerial kilometre scale uplift. This interpretation of the margin's evolution has wider implications for the treatment of low temperature thermochronological data and the geological history of the North

  12. Geological Setting of Diamond Drilling for the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) is a collaborative international research project conducting systematic (bio)geochemical investigations to improve our understanding of the biosphere of the early Earth. The Pilbara Craton of Western Australia, which includes exceptionally well preserved 3.52 to 2.70 Ga sedimentary sequences, was selected for an innovative sampling program commencing in 2003. To avoid near-surface alteration and contamination effects, sampling was by diamond drilling to depths of between 150 and 300 m, and was located at sites where the target lithologies were least deformed and had lowest metamorphic grade (below 300°C). The first of five successful drilling sites (Jasper Deposit) targeted red, white and black chert in the 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member. This chert marks the top of a thick mafic-felsic volcanic cycle, the third of four such cycles formed by mantle plumes between 3.52 and 3.43 Ga. The geological setting was a volcanic plateau founded on 3.72 to 3.60 Ga sialic crust (isotopic evidence). The second hole (Salgash) was sited on the basal section of the fourth cycle, and sampled sulfidic (Cu-Zn-Fe), carbon-rich shale and sandstone units separated by flows of peridotite. The third hole (Eastern Creek) was sited on the margin of a moderately deep-water rift basin, the 2.95 to 2.91 Ga Mosquito Creek Basin. This is dominated by turbidites, but the sandstones and carbon-rich shales intersected at the drilling site were deposited in shallower water. The fourth and fifth holes, located 300 km apart, sampled 2.77 to 2.76 Ga continental formations of the Fortescue Group; both holes included black shales.

  13. Origin of late Archean granite: geochemical evidence from the Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Warren C.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1986-07-01

    The 2,700-Ma Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota is a granite-migmatite terrane composed of supracrustal metasedimentary rocks, mafic rocks, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks, and granite. The metasedimentary rocks are predominantly graywacke, which has been regionally metamorphosed to garnet-sillimanite-muscovite-bearing biotite schist, and has locally undergone anatexis. The mafic rocks form early phases within the complex and are of two types: (1) basaltic amphibolite, and (2) monzodiorite and essexite rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The members of the early plutonic suite form small bodies that intrude the metasedimentary rocks and mafic rocks, producing an early migmatite. The granite is of two distinct varieties: (1) white garnet-muscovite-biotite leucogranite ( S-type; Chappell and White 1974) and (2) grayish-pink biotite-magnetite Lac La Croix Granite ( I-type). The leucogranite occurs in the early migmatite and in paragneissic portions of the complex, whereas the Lac La Croix Granite is a late-stage intrusive phase that invades the early migmatite and metasediment (producing a late migmatite) and forms a batholith. This study focuses specifically on the origin of granite in the Vermilion Granitic Complex. Chemical mass-balance calculations suggest that the S-type two-mica leucogranite had a metagraywacke source, and that the I-type Lac La Croix Granite formed via partial fusion of calc-alkaline tonalitic material, which may have been similar to rocks of the early plutonic suite. This model is satisfactory for petrogenesis of similar Late Archean post-kinematic granites throughout the Canadian Shield.

  14. Micro-scale (1.5 microm) sulphur isotope analysis of contemporary and early Archean pyrite.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Manabu; Maruyama, Shigenori; Urabe, Tetsuro; Takahata, Naoto; Sano, Yuji

    2010-05-30

    We present a method for in situ sulphur (S) isotopic analysis of significantly small areas (1.5 microm in diameter) in pyrite using secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to interpret microbial sulphur metabolism in the early earth. We evaluated the precision and accuracy of S isotopic ratios obtained by this method using hydrothermal pyrite samples with homogeneous S isotopic ratios. The internal precision of the delta(34)S value was 1.5 per thousand at the level of 1 sigma of standard error (named 1SE) for a single spot, while the external reproducibility was estimated to be 1.6 per thousand at the level of 1 sigma of standard deviation (named 1SD, n = 25). For each separate sample, the average delta(34)S value was comparable with that measured by a conventional method, and the accuracy was better than 2.3 per thousand. Consequently, the in situ method is sufficiently accurate and precise to detect the S isotopic variations of small sample of the pyrite (less than 20 microm) that occurs ubiquitously in ancient sedimentary rocks. This method was applied to measure the S isotopic distribution of pyrite within black chert fragments in early Archean sandstone. The pyrite had isotopic zoning with a (34)S-depleted core and (34)S-enriched rim, suggesting isotopic evolution of the source H(2)S from -15 to -5 per thousand. Production of H(2)S by microbial sulphate reduction (MSR) in a closed system provides a possible explanation for both the (34)S-depleted initial H(2)S and the progressive increase in the delta(34)S(H2S) value. Although more extensive data are necessary to strengthen the explanation for the origin of the MSR, the results show that the S isotopic distribution within pyrite crystals may be a key tracer for MSR activity in the early earth. PMID:20411578

  15. Origin of late Archean granite: geochemical evidence from the Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, W.C.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The 2,700-Ma Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota is a granite-migmatite terrane composed of supracrustal metasedimentary rocks, mafic rocks, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks, and granite. The metasedimentary rocks are predominantly graywacke, which has been regionally metamorphosed to garnet-sillimanite-muscovite-bearing biotite schist, and has locally undergone anatexis. The mafic rocks form early phases within the complex and are of two types: (1) basaltic amphibolite, and (2) monzodiorite and essexite rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The members of the early plutonic suite form small bodies that intrude the metasedimentary rocks and mafic rocks, producing an early migmatite. The granite is of two distinct varieties: (1) white garnet-muscovite-biotite leucogranite (S-type; Chappell and White 1974) and (2) grayish-pink biotite-magnetite Lac La Croix Granite (I-type). The leucogranite occurs in the early migmatite and in paragneissic portions of the complex, whereas the Lac La Croix Granite is a late-stage intrusive phase that invades the early migmatite and metasediment (producing a late migmatite) and forms a batholith. This study focuses specifically on the origin of granite in the Vermilion Granitic Complex. Chemical mass-balance calculations suggest that the S-type two-mica leucogranite had a metagraywacke source, and that the I-type Lac La Croix Granite formed via partial fusion of calc-alkaline tonalitic material, which may have been similar to rocks of the early plutonic suite. This model is satisfactory for petrogenesis of similar Late Archean post-kinematic granites throughout the Canadian Shield. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Coupled Fe and S isotope variations in pyrite nodules from Archean shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Carbonne, Johanna; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier; Agangi, Andrea; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Hofmann, Axel; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2014-04-01

    Iron and sulfur isotope compositions recorded in ancient rocks and minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) have been widely used as a proxy for early microbial metabolisms and redox evolution of the oceans. However, most previous studies focused on only one of these isotopic systems. Herein, we illustrate the importance of in-situ and coupled study of Fe and S isotopes on two pyrite nodules in a c. 2.7 Ga shale from the Bubi Greenstone Belt (Zimbabwe). Fe and S isotope compositions were measured both by bulk-sample mass spectrometry techniques and by ion microprobe in-situ methods (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS). Spatially-resolved analysis across the nodules shows a large range of variations at micrometer-scale for both Fe and S isotope compositions, with δ56Fe and δ34S values from -2.1 to +0.7‰ and from -0.5 to +8.2‰, respectively, and Δ33S values from -1.6 to +2.9‰. The Fe and S isotope variations in these nodules cannot be explained by tandem operation of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction (DIR) and Bacterial Sulfate Reduction (BSR) as was previously proposed, but rather they reflect the contributions of different Fe and S sources during a complex diagenetic history. Pyrite formed from two different mineral precursors: (1) mackinawite precipitated in the water column, and (2) greigite formed in the sediment during early diagenesis. The in-situ analytical approach reveals a complex history of the pyrite nodule growth and allows us to better constrain environmental conditions during the Archean.

  17. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  18. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  19. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  20. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  1. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  3. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOEpatents

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  4. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  5. Block and shear-zone architecture of the Minnesota River Valley subprovince: Implications for late Archean accretionary tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southwick, D.L.; Chandler, V.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Minnesota River Valley subprovince of the Superior Province is an Archean gneiss terrane composed internally of four crustal blocks bounded by three zones of east-northeast-trending linear geophysical anomalies. Two of the block-bounding zones are verified regional-scale shears. The geological nature of the third boundary has not been established. Potential-field geophysical models portray the boundary zones as moderately north-dipping surfaces or thin slabs similar in strike and dip to the Morris fault segment of the Great Lakes tectonic zone at the north margin of the subprovince. The central two blocks of the subprovince (Morton and Montevideo) are predominantly high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneiss, some as old as 3.6 Ga, and late-tectonic granite. The northern and southern blocks (Benson and Jeffers, respectively) are judged to contain less gneiss than the central blocks and a larger diversity of syntectonic and late-tectonic plutons. A belt of moderately metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks having some attributes of a dismembered ophiolite is partly within the boundary zone between the Morton and Montevideo blocks. This and the other block boundaries are interpreted as late Archean structures that were reactivated in the Early Proterozoic. The Minnesota River Valley subprovince is interpreted as a late accretionary addition to the Superior Province. Because it was continental crust, it was not subductible when it impinged on the convergent southern margin of the Superior Craton in late Archean time, and it may have accommodated to convergent-margin stresses by dividing into blocks and shear zones capable of independent movement.

  6. The Khida terrane - Geochronological and isotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic and Archean crust in the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehouse, M.J.; Stoeser, D.B.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Khida terrane of the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia has been proposed as being underlain by Paleoproterozoic to Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). Detailed geological aspects of the Khida terrane, particularly resulting from new fieldwork during 1999, are discussed in a companion abstract (Stoeser et al., this volume). We present conventional and ion- microprobe U-Pb zircon geoenronology, Nd whole-rock, and feldspar Pb isotopic data that further elucidate the pre-Pan-African evolution of the Khida terrane. Locations for the Muhayil samples described below are shown in figure 2 of Stoeser et al. (this volume). 

  7. The longevity of Archean mantle residues in the convecting upper mantle and their role in young continent formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingao; Scott, James M.; Martin, Candace E.; Pearson, D. Graham

    2015-08-01

    The role played by ancient melt-depleted lithospheric mantle in preserving continental crust through time is critical in understanding how continents are built, disrupted and recycled. While it has become clear that much of the extant Archean crust is underpinned by Archean mantle roots, reports of Proterozoic melt depletion ages for peridotites erupted through Phanerozoic terranes raise the possibility that ancient buoyant lithospheric mantle acts as a "life-raft" for much of the Earth's continental crust. Here we report the largest crust-lithospheric mantle age decoupling (∼2.4 Ga) so far observed on Earth and examine the potential cause for such extreme age decoupling. The Phanerozoic (<300 Ma) continental crust of West Otago, New Zealand, is intruded by Cenozoic diatremes that have erupted cratonic mantle-like highly depleted harzburgites and dunites. These peridotites have rhenium depletion Os model ages that vary from 0.5 to 2.7 Ga, firmly establishing the record of an Archean depletion event. However, the vast range in depletion ages does not correlate with melt depletion or metasomatic tracer indices, providing little support for the presence of a significant volume of ancient mantle root beneath this region. Instead, the chemical and isotopic data are best explained by mixing of relict components of Archean depleted peridotitic mantle residues that have cycled through the asthenosphere over Ga timescales along with more fertile convecting mantle. Extensive melt depletion associated with the "docking" of these melt residues beneath the young continental crust of the Zealandia continent explains the decoupled age relationship that we observe today. Hence, the newly formed lithospheric root incorporates a mixture of ancient and modern mantle derived from the convecting mantle, cooled and accreted in recent times. We argue that in this case, the ancient components played no earlier role in continent stabilization, but their highly depleted nature along with

  8. Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2008-01-01

    The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by perspectives from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into both. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. We have problems on which progress might be made through comparison. Here we present the major goals of the geological mapping of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle, and themes that could provide important insights into both planets:

  9. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  10. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, K.E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

  11. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  12. A Nd isotopic study of the Hamersley and Michipicoten banded iron formations - The source of REE and Fe in Archean oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.; Pimentel-Klose, Mario R.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed Nd isotopic study of the large and well-dated Hamersley and Michipicoten banded iron formations (BIFs) has been conducted. The Hamersley BIFs (Lake Superior type) are located in the Pilbara craton of Western Australia and the Michipicoten BIFs (Algoma type) are located in the northeastern corner of Lake Superior in Ontario, Canada. Their initial epsilon(Nd) values are variable and in the range of 0 to +4. The Fe/Nd ratio in present-day hydrothermal waters and BIFs are both 100,000, suggesting that the source of much of the Fe in BIFs (and Archean seawater) was hydrothermal water circulating through Archean midocean ridge systems.

  13. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  14. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  15. Accretion, modification and erosion of Archean lithosphere: evidence from the Superior Province and adjacent regions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, A. W.; Olaleye, M.; Toni, D. A.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Eaton, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lithosphere beneath shield regions is generally believed to be thick, cold, high in seismic velocity, and convectively stable. If formation of the shield lithosphere was approximately contemporaneous with the overlying crust, then the lithosphere has undergone a history as complex as the crust; however, this history will be fundamentally different due to potential influences on the lithosphere from both plate-tectonic (top-down) and mantle convective (bottom-up) processes. The Superior Province in eastern and central Canada is the largest Archean craton in the world; recent seismological investigations have shown that it has a complex internal structure. Through a combination of tomography, shear-wave splitting, and receiver-function analysis, we have found evidence of anomalous mantle which we believe to date back to the accretion of the lithosphere: a high-velocity, strongly and consistently anisotropic region in the western Superior which is truncated by the Trans-Hudson Orogen at its western edge. This feature was then eroded by Trans-Hudson orogenic activity, as the anomaly now ends ca. 200 km east of the boundary. Subsequent rifting along the Mid-Continent Rift truncated the anomalous region to the south; the enigmatic Nipigon Embayment, which is associated with the rift but may be something other than a failed arm, contains a tightly-focused region of anomalous mantle. In the easter Superior, the lithosphere is lower in velocity and more weakly anisotropic, with more directional variation. Some of this difference may be due to different formation mechanisms, but there is also evidence of later modification by the Great Meteor hotspot. The Great Meteor track continues into the Grenville Province and shows possible evidence of later deformation. Complicating this large-scale picture is the strong evidence for internal layering seen in receiver function gathers. An anisotropic layer immediately below the Moho is ubiquitous underneath the western Superior

  16. The geochemical nature of the Archean Ancient Gneiss Complex and Granodiorite Suite, Swaziland: a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, D.R.; Barker, F.; Millard, H.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Ancient Gneiss Complex (AGC) of Swaziland, an Archean gray gneiss complex, lies southeast and south of the Barberton greenstone belt and includes the most structurally complex and highly metamorphosed portions of the eastern Kaapvaal craton. The AGC is not precisely dated but apparently is older than 3.4 Ga. The AGC consists of three major units: (a) a bimodal suite of closely interlayered siliceous, low-K gneisses and metabasalt; (b) homogeneous tonalite gneiss; and (c) interlayered siliceous microcline gneiss, metabasalt, and minor metasedimentary rocks - termed the metamorphite suite. A geologically younger gabbro-diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite, the Granodiorite Suite, is spatially associated with the AGC and intrusive into it. The bimodal suite consists largely of two types of low-K siliceous gneiss: one has SiO2 14%, low Rb/Sr ratios, and depleted heavy rare earth elements (REE's); the other has SiO2 > 75%, Al2O3 < 13%, high Rb/Sr ratios, and relatively abundant REE's except for negative Eu anomalies. The interlayered metabasalt ranges from komatiitic to tholeiitic compositions. Lenses of quartz monzonitic gneiss of K2O/Na2O close to 1 form a minor part of the bimodal suite. Tonalitic to trondhjemitic migmatite locally is abundant and has major-element abundances similar to those of non-migmatitic varieties. The siliceous gneisses of the metamorphic suite show low Al2O, K2O/Na2O ratios of about 1, high Rb/Sr ratios, moderate REE abundances and negative Eu anomalies. K/Rb ratios of siliceous gneisses of the bimodal suite are very low (???130); of the tonalitic gneiss, low (???225); of the siliceous gneiss of the metamorphite suite, moderate (???300); and of the Granodiorite Suite, high (???400). Rocks of the AGC differ geochemically in several ways from the siliceous volcanic and hypabyssal rocks of the Upper Onverwacht Group and from the diapirs of tonalite and trondhjemite that intrude the Swaziland Group. ?? 1978.

  17. Role of Plumes and Plates in the Construction and Preservation of Hadean-Archean Continental Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Henry, D.; Wooden, J.

    2014-12-01

    Crust and lithosphere formed in modern island arc and plume environments exhibit strong contrasts in both structure and composition compared to present day continents. The limited inventory of Hadean and Eoarchean material available for study, the possibility that the preserved record is biased, and the lack of continental crust on other terrestrial planets, make it difficult to determine the nature of the first continental nuclei. Nonetheless, certain first order similarities in preserved Archean continental crust suggest that these continental nuclei (microcontinents or protocontinents) allow us to establish limits on processes of early crustal genesis Based on geochemical (elemental and isotopic), geochronologic, and petrologic data from Paleo- to Mesoarchean rocks preserved in the northern Wyoming Province, we propose a multi-stage evolution of a continental nucleus that reflects a secular change from plume- to plate-related processes. 1) 4.0-4.1 Ga: mafic and ultramafic magmas formed a section of thickened lithosphere over a zone of upwelling primitive mantle; 2) 3.6-4.0 Ga: continuity of magmatism recorded in detrital zircons does not favor growth by episodic subduction; Hf isotopes in zircon suggest extensive crustal recycling with some juvenile additions; 3) 3.6-3.2 Ga: a major crust-forming interval with infusion of new crust derived from more depleted sources, including a hydrous, garnet-bearing source; 4) intervening granulite facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks and orthogneisses, clockwise PTt path, coupled with ductile deformation (~ 750-800oC and 6-8 Kbar); 5) ~2.8-2-9 Ga: a second period of major magmatism resulted from subduction and a volcanic arc was built on the older 3.2-3.5 Ga crust. This geochemical record indicates that the earliest crust formed through diapiric upwelling and anhydrous melting of primitive mantle in a plume setting, followed by recycling of this crust with only limited juvenile additions in the Paleoarchean; in the

  18. Coupled Iron and Sulfur Isotope Constraints on the Archean and Paleoproterozoic Ocean Redox State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouxel, O. J.; Bekker, A.

    2009-05-01

    The rise of atmospheric oxygen level by ca. 2.3 Ga have led to dramatic shifts in the iron and sulfur oceanic cycles. Past studies of non-mass dependent and mass dependent sulfur isotope record in sedimentary sulfides over geological time have placed important constraints on biogeochemical cycle of sulfur and evolution of Precambrian ocean chemistry. Recently, we applied a similar time-record approach to explore potential changes in Fe isotope composition of pyrite in black shales. Although the underlying mechanisms for Fe isotope fractionation in organic-rich sediments are debated, we identified direct link between the rise of atmospheric oxygen and changes in the Fe ocean cycle suggesting that Fe isotopes are useful proxies to the past ocean redox state. Since biogeochemical cycles of Fe and S are closely coupled in marine systems, Fe-limitation and S-limitation for pyrite formation in black shales should leave imprint on the isotopic record of both elements. Coupled Fe and S isotope systematics of Devonian pyrite display a range of 50‰ in δ34S values whereas δ56Fe values vary between - 1.0 and +0.1‰ consistent with Fe isotope variations in modern marine sediments. Similarly, pyrite in the 1.88 Ga Gunflint Formation has δ34S values ranging from - 32‰ to +10‰ and displays a range of δ56Fe values between 0 to - 0.4‰. In contrast, Archean black shales (e.g. Manjeri Fm., Belingwe Belt and Jeerinah Fm., Hamersley Basin) display a smaller range of δ34S values between together with ubiquitous non-mass dependent S-isotope fractionation but a larger range of δ56Fe values from - 3.5 to +0.2‰. A transitional period between ca. 2.3 and ca. 1.8 Ga is marked by a larger spread of δ34S values from - 34 to +28‰, disappearance of MIF and a larger range of δ56Fe values from - 1.7 to +1.1‰. These results confirm that after the rise of atmospheric oxygen by ca. 2.3 Ga, Paleoproterozoic ocean became stratified and gradually affected by an increase of seawater

  19. The Building of Continental Crust in the Archean Superior Province, Canada, Deduced from Heat Flow Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J.

    2013-12-01

    Making continental crust can be achieved in several different ways, including extraction of melts from a mantle plume or from a subducting slab. Cratonization, i.e. the formation of mature stable continental crust, requires two additional steps, horizontal accretion of a number of terranes and belts and vertical internal differentiation leading to separation of an enriched upper crust from a depleted lower crust. Heat flow and heat production data provide constraints on the bulk crustal composition as well as on the degree of internal differentiation, and hence bring key constraints on crust-building processes. Together with older data, new measurements from the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield, are used to document how and with what material this large piece of continental crust was built. The southern Superior Province was assembled out of an old nucleus made of gneisses and tonalite-granodiorite plutons called the North Caribou Super Terrane, and a number of belts and terranes that were sequentially docked to its southern margin. The North Caribou area was subjected to magmatic and metamorphic activity spanning about 1.1 Gy from 3.8 to 2.7 Gy. Alternating belts of metasedimentary and volcanic rocks on the one hand and greenstone and plutonic rocks on the other hand made the craton grow to about twice its initial size in ≈100 My. The average heat flow is much lower in the North Caribou core region than in the younger volcanic/plutonic belts (Wabigoon and Wawa-Abitibi) to the South, 30 versus 44 mW/m2. The heat flux is also slightly higher (48mW/m2) in the metasedimentary (English River and Quetico) than in the plutonic belts. The two volcanic/plutonic belts share the same characteristics, testifying to a remarquable uniformity of crust-building mechanisms on a large-scale. The marked difference between the older craton nucleus and the younger belts requires the operation of two very different processes. The very shape and geological structure of the

  20. Investigation of Archean microfossil preservation for defining science objectives for Mars sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorber, K.; Czaja, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that Mars contains more potentially life-supporting habitats (either in the present or past), than once thought. The key to finding life on Mars, whether extinct or extant, is to first understand which biomarkers and biosignatures are strictly biogenic in origin. Studying ancient habitats and fossil organisms of the early Earth can help to characterize potential Martian habitats and preserved life. This study, which focuses on the preservation of fossil microorganisms from the Archean Eon, aims to help define in part the science methods needed for a Mars sample return mission, of which, the Mars 2020 rover mission is the first step.Here is reported variations in the geochemical and morphological preservation of filamentous fossil microorganisms (microfossils) collected from the 2.5-billion-year-old Gamohaan Formation of the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. Samples of carbonaceous chert were collected from outcrop and drill core within ~1 km of each other. Specimens from each location were located within thin sections and their biologic morphologies were confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Raman spectroscopic analyses documented the carbonaceous nature of the specimens and also revealed variations in the level of geochemical preservation of the kerogen that comprises the fossils. The geochemical preservation of kerogen is principally thought to be a function of thermal alteration, but the regional geology indicates all of the specimens experienced the same thermal history. It is hypothesized that the fossils contained within the outcrop samples were altered by surface weathering, whereas the drill core samples, buried to a depth of ~250 m, were not. This differential weathering is unusual for cherts that have extremely low porosities. Through morphological and geochemical characterization of the earliest known forms of fossilized life on the earth, a greater understanding of the origin of evolution of life on Earth is gained

  1. Structural development of high-temperature mylonites in the Archean Wyoming province, northwestern Madison Range, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Mogk, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Crooked Creek mylonite, in the northwestern Madison Range, southwestern Montana, is defined by several curved lenses of high non-coaxial strain exposed over a 7-km-wide, northeast-trending strip. The country rocks, part of the Archean Wyoming province, are dominantly trondhjemitic to granitic orthogneiss with subordinate amphibolite, quartzite, aluminous gneiss, and sills of metabasite (mafic granulite). Data presented here support an interpretation that the mylonite formed during a period of rapid, heterogeneous strain at near-peak metamorphic conditions during an early deformational event (D1) caused by northwest–southeast-directed transpression. The mylonite has a well-developed L-S tectonite fabric and a fine-grained, recrystallized (granoblastic) texture. The strong linear fabric, interpreted as the stretching direction, is defined by elongate compositional “fish,” fold axes, aligned elongate minerals, and mullion axes. The margins of the mylonitic zones are concordant with and grade into regions of unmylonitized gneiss. A second deformational event (D2) has folded the mylonite surface to produce meter- to kilometer-scale, tight-to-isoclinal, gently plunging folds in both the mylonite and country rock, and represents a northwest–southeast shortening event. Planar or linear fabrics associated with D2 are remarkably absent. A third regional deformational event (D3) produced open, kilometer-scale folds generally with gently north-plunging fold axes. Thermobarometric measurements presented here indicate that metamorphic conditions during D1 were the same in both the mylonite and the country gneiss, reaching upper amphibolite- to lower granulite-facies conditions: 700 ± 50° C and 8.5 ± 0.5 kb. Previous geochronological studies of mylonitic and cross-cutting rocks in the Jerome Rock Lake area, east of the Crooked Creek mylonite, bracket the timing of this high-grade metamorphism and mylonitization between 2.78 and 2.56 Ga, nearly a billion years

  2. Thermotectonic Evolution of the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Insights into Gondwana Amalgmation and Breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S.; Phillips, D.; Kohn, B. P.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Matchan, E.; Li, G.

    2015-12-01

    The post-cratonisation history of the Yilgarn craton is somewhat fragmentary due to the paucity or absence of a stratigraphic record. Previously reported Rb-Sr biotite cooling ages suggest that the western craton margin was subjected to late 'Pan-African' tectonism (~400-600 Ma) and E-W compression, resulting in tectonic sedimentary loading. We report 40Ar/39Ar results on muscovite and single biotite grains from well-documented sample sites broadly comparable to those sampled for Rb-Sr biotite analysis. Muscovites record consistent ages between ~2400 and 2200 Ma. Coexisting single-grain biotite results, however, reveal significant age variations, showing similar ages of ~2500 Ma across much of the craton but decreasing abruptly to ~620-1000 Ma over a ~50-100 km wide belt at the western margin. Petrographic and chemical studies indicate that biotites are distinctly different in origin, i.e. magmatic to the east versus hydrothermal to the west. The more scattered biotite ages along the western margin are therefore unlikely to represent cooling ages, but rather indicate probable fluid-induced partial or complete biotite recrystallization at ~620 Ma. This age is in agreement with palaeomagnetic reconstructions suggesting oblique collision between Great India and Australian during Gondwana amalgamation. Complementary zircon He data from low radiation damage grains ([eU] <900 ppm), yield consistent ages 256 ±13 Ma, whereas those with [eU] values of 900-2000 ppm are negatively correlated with younger ages (~ 40-200 Ma). Coexisting apatite fission track ages are similar in range to zircon He ages, whereas apatite He ages are younger (227 ±18 Ma). These data confirm that much of the Yilgarn craton experienced extremely slow cooling (<0.1 ºC/Myr) from the Late Archean to Permian times. However, during the Late Permian to Triassic, the craton apparently experienced accelerated cooling (>4 ºC/Myr), possibly related to earliest rifting between Great India and Western

  3. Stratigraphy of the Archean western Superior Province from P- and S-wave receiver functions: Further evidence for tectonic accretion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, D. A.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wilson, D. C.; White, D. J.; Sol, S.; Thomson, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Archean western Superior Province in Canada represents the nucleus of the North American continent whose origin has been speculated to be the result of widespread crustal accretion some 2.7 Ga ago. In this paper, crustal and upper-mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the western Superior Province of the Canadian shield are imaged with teleseismic P-to-S and S-to-P converted phases using the receiver function method. Three crustal discontinuities are observed: the Moho, ranging in depth between 38 and 47 km and dipping to the south; and two intra-crustal discontinuities having depths of approximately 15 and 30 km. The crustal discontinuities undulate laterally and often lose continuity, possibly indicating an imbricated structure and/or regions of velocity gradients. In the shallow lithosphere, a positive discontinuity is imaged at approximately 65 km depth and is consistent with earlier refraction and wide-angle reflection results. Additionally, two zones of negative receiver function amplitudes at 55 km depth are observed and are coincident with a region of anomalous tomographic low P- and S-wave velocities as well as a zone of high electrical conductivity. The images for the crust and shallow upper-mantle, when integrated with previous geophysical studies, are consistent with ideas of continental root formation due to imbrication of Archean subducted material and accretion of island arcs observed in surface geology.

  4. Metamorphism and deformation of Archean gold deposits: the importance of structural documentation in the evaluation of gold mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    MacGeehan, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Archean gold deposits are comparable in almost all respects to their Phanerozoic counterparts, but differ in the extent of superimposed metamorphism-deformation. In many instances this has obscured the original mode of emplacement of the gold mineralization, in that (1) the primary structural-stratigraphic setting of the mineralization is disguised by later deformation, and (2) the deposits are almost invariably metamorphosed, and blocking temperatures established on the basis of current equilibrium ore-mineral assemblages or even fluid inclusion filling-temperatures are either suspect, or represent the P-T of subsequent metamorphic events. The effects of this overprint are particularly important when evaluating mineralization emplaced pre-peak metamorphism, in consequence of which there has been little support for the presence of Archean epithermal (unconformity - related) mineralization, or of epigenetic and/or exhalative mineralization emplaced contemporaneous with volcanism. This problem is examined in some major currently-producing West Australian gold mining camps, including Norseman (3.8 M.Oz), Kambalda (1.3 M.Oz) and the Kalgoorlie Golden Mile (36 M.Oz). The solution lies in detailed structural documentation and a reconstruction of the original environment of deposition of the gold mineralization, viewed through the larger-scale perspective of greenstone-belt evolution.

  5. Geochemistry and radiogenic isotope characteristics of xenoliths in Archean diamondiferous lamprophyres: Implications for the Superior Province cratonic keel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, D. A.; Hollings, P.; Conceição, R. V.

    2015-09-01

    Xenoliths retrieved from lamprophyric hosts in the Michipicoten belt fall into four groups defined by Al-Mg contents but do not include mantle peridotite. Based on immobile trace element abundances, the xenoliths are derived from magmas associated with the main phase of arc volcanism between 2.75 and 2.70 Ga or are co-genetic with the orogenic shoshonite suite. Trace elements distinguish two styles of metasomatism characterized either by LILE enrichment or both LILE and Zr-Hf (± Nb-Ta). The first is likely associated with a hydrous fluid while the second is related to melts that permeated underplated shoshonitic mafic magmas and cumulates or the older sub-arc mantle. The Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of the xenoliths indicate that an aged, highly depleted, source was tapped during the orogenic event. The formation depths of the lamprophyric magmas, and the xenoliths they contain, contrast with the calculated depths to the base of the depleted lithosphere based on xenoliths retrieved from post-Archean kimberlites. The differences imply a late docking of the ~ 150-160 km deep Archean keel beneath the Abitibi-Wawa terrane following the emplacement of major orogenic gold deposits.

  6. Roberts Victor Eclogites: The MacGregor Legacy of Archean Oceanic Lithosphere Subduction and its Role in Craton Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Schmitz, M. D.; Wiechert, U.; Carlson, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Eclogite xenoliths from the 125 Ma old, Group II, Roberts Victor kimberlite have long been of interest (MacGregor et al, 1968) because of their diversity, abundance, large size, occurrence with peridotite and their high carbon/diamond content. Coesite, corundum, kyanite, Ca-, Mg-, and Fe- rich eclogites are available but those classified as Group I, Group II (as defined by MacGregor, 1970) or diamondiferous were selected with the goal to better understand eclogite petrogenesis, Kaapvaal cratonic keel evolution, diamond formation, and eclogite metasomatism. Recent laser fluorination oxygen isotope data (δ18O) on gt (GI = 5.8 to 6.9; GII = 2.1 to 5.1) match earlier data (Garlick et al, 1971; MacGregor and Manton, 1986), while ion-probe trace element contents of gt (e.g. chondrite normalized Ce G1 = 0.2 to 0.5; GII = 0.002 to 0.07) and cpx (G1 = 7 to 20; GII = 0.2 to 2) and whole-rock Re-Os (G1 Re = 0.19 to 3.41 ppb; GII Re = 0.006 to 0.38 ppb) highlight even more distinct differences between Groups I and II. These differences must be a pre-metamorphic signature of their original protoliths and not just due to pressure differences or partial melting during emplacement. Using ophiolites and composites of oceanic crust as a guide (e.g. MacGregor and Manton, 1986), Group I eclogites could represent the volcanic rocks of Layer 2 of Archean oceanic crust whereas Group II might represent the cumulate, intrusive rocks of Layer 3. Group II eclogites have positive Eu anomalies and lower REE and Re contents which support this idea. The Re-Os systematics of the oceanic lithosphere is poorly known, especially in the Archean, but Roberts Victor eclogite Re-Os and trace element abundances and major element compositions suggest a basaltic komatiitic protolith as might typify slightly hotter ocean ridges in the Archean. A U-Pb age of 3.061±0.006 Ga on zircon grains separated from a Group I Roberts Victor eclogite and a same-age but scattered whole-rock Re-Os isotope array

  7. Pulling a patient up in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Moving a patient in bed ... You must move or pull someone up in bed the right way to avoid injuring the patient's ... people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can scrape or tear the ...

  8. Particle pressures in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Hu, X.; Jin, C.; Potapov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This is an experimental project to make detailed measurements of the particle pressures generated in fluidized beds. The focus lies in two principle areas: (1) the particle pressure distribution around single bubbles rising in a two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed and (2) the particle pressures measured in liquid-fluidized beds. This first year has largely been to constructing the experiments The design of the particle pressure probe has been improved and tested. A two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed has been constructed in order to measure the particle pressure generated around injected bubbles. The probe is also being adapted to work in a liquid fluidized bed. Finally, a two-dimensional liquid fluidized bed is also under construction. Preliminary measurements show that the majority of the particle pressures are generated in the wake of a bubble. However, the particle pressures generated in the liquid bed appear to be extremely small. Finally, while not directly associated with the particle pressure studies, some NERSC supercomputer time was granted alongside this project. This is being used to make large scale computer simulation of the flow of granular materials in hoppers.

  9. Avionics test bed development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.; Parks, J. M.; Murdock, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A development plan for a proposed avionics test bed facility for the early investigation and evaluation of new concepts for the control of large space structures, orbiter attached flex body experiments, and orbiter enhancements is presented. A distributed data processing facility that utilizes the current laboratory resources for the test bed development is outlined. Future studies required for implementation, the management system for project control, and the baseline system configuration are defined. A background analysis of the specific hardware system for the preliminary baseline avionics test bed system is included.

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: Implications for apparent polar wander path for Pilbara craton during Archean time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Yusuke; Hamano, Yozo; Niitsuma, Sachiko; Hoashi, Masamichi; Hisamitsu, Toshio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Kodama, Kazuto; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2006-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1-3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component yields seven different mean paleomagnetic directions clustered as MB1 to MB7. These, together with the published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton, draw a continuous paleomagnetic pole path, which likely to be regarded as the early to late Archean apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Pilbara craton. The APWP implies that the Pilbara craton underwent a latitudinal drift of about 21° during the interval when the magnetization of the Marble Bar Chert Member was acquired. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 12-112 cm/yr (120-1120 km/Myr), which is large compared with current plate motion velocities, suggesting that continents might have moved during the Archean faster than in the Phanerozoic.

  11. Granitic rocks and metasediments in Archean crust, Rainy Lake area, Ontario: ND isotope evidence for mantle-like SM/ND sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Hanson, G. N.

    1983-01-01

    Granitoids, felsic volcanic rocks and clastic metasediments are typical rocks in Archean granite-greenstone belts that could have formed from preexisting continentasl crust. The petrogenesis of such rocks is assessed to determine the relative roles of new crust formation or old crust formation or old crust recycling in the formation of granite-greenstone belts.

  12. Late Archean greenstone tectonics: Evidence for thermal and thrust-loading lithospheric subsidence from stratigraphic sections in the Slave Province, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, W. S. F.; Kusky, T. M.; Bradley, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    How late Archean tectonics could be seen to have operated in the Slave Province is illustrated. Lithospheric thinning and stretching, with the formation of rifted margins (to continental or island arc fragments), and lithospheric flexural loading of the kind familiar in arcs and mountain belts could be discerned.

  13. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: Is this really archean crust?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Premo, Wayne R.; Castineiras, Pedro; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    New SHRIMP-RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) data confirm the existence of Archean components within zircon grains of a sample from the orthogneiss of Angel Lake, Nevada, United States, previously interpreted as a nappe of Archean crust. However, the combined evidence strongly suggests that this orthogneiss is a highly deformed, Late Cretaceous monzogranite derived from melting of a sedimentary source dominated by Archean detritus. Zircon grains from the same sample used previously for isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) isotopic work were analyzed using the SHRIMP-RG to better define the age and origin of the orthogneiss. Prior to analysis, imaging revealed a morphological variability and intragrain, polyphase nature of the zircon population. The SHRIMP-RG yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 2430 and 2580 Ma (a best-fit mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2531 ± 19 Ma; 95% confidence) from mostly rounded to subrounded zircons and zircon components (cores). In addition, several analyses from rounded to subrounded cores or grains yielded discordant 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 1460 and ca. 2170 Ma, consistent with known regional magmatic events. All cores of Proterozoic to latest Archean age were encased within clear, typically low Th/U (206Pb/238U ages between 72 and 91 Ma, consistent with magmatic ages from Lamoille Canyon to the south. An age of ca. 90 Ma is suggested, the younger 206Pb/238U ages resulting from Pb loss. The Cretaceous and Precambrian zircon components also have distinct trace element characteristics, indicating that these age groups are not related to the same igneous source. These results support recent geophysical interpretations and negate the contention that the Archean-Proterozoic boundary extends into the central Great Basin area. They further suggest that the world-class gold deposits along the Carlin Trend are not underlain by Archean cratonal crust, but rather by the Proterozoic Mojave

  14. Decreasing µ142Nd Variation in the Archean Convecting Mantle from 4.0 to 2.5 Ga: Heterogeneous Domain Mixing or Crustal Recycling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Debaille, V.

    2014-12-01

    The 146Sm-142Nd (t1/2=68 Ma) chronometer can be used to examine silicate differentiation in the first 400 Ma of Earth history. Early fractionation between Sm and Nd is recorded in cratonic Archean rocks in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios that that deviate up to ±20 ppm, or μ142Nd - ppm deviation relative to the present-day convecting mantle at 0. These values likely record early extraction of incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched material with -μ142Nd, either as crust or late stage residual melt from a magma ocean, and resulting in a complimentary ITE depleted residual mantle with +μ142Nd. If this early-formed ITE-enriched material was re-incorporated rapidly back into the convecting mantle, both ITE-enriched and ITE-depleted mantle domains would have been established in the Hadean. Alternatively, if it was early-formed crust that remained stable it could have slowly eroded and progressively remixed into the convecting mantle as subducted sediment during the Archean. Each of these scenarios could potentially explain the decrease in the maximum variation in µ142Nd from ±20 at 4.0 Ga to 0 at 2.5 Ga [1,2,3]. In the scenario where these variations reflect mixing of mantle domains, this implies long mantle mixing times of greater than 1 Ga in the Archean in order to preserve the early-formed heterogeneities. This can be achieved in a stagnant lid tectonic regime in the Archean with sporadic and short subduction cycles [2]. This scenario would also indicate that mixing times in the convecting mantle were much slower than the previously proposed 100 Ma in the Hadean and Archean. In the alternative scenario, sediment with -µ142Nd was progressively mixed into the mantle via subduction in the Archean [3]. This scenario doesn't require slow mantle mixing times or a stagnant-lid regime. It requires crustal resident times of up to 750 Ma to maintain a steady supply of ancient sediment recycling over the Archean. Each of these scenarios evoke very contrasting conditions for

  15. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Stephen L; Orton, Christopher J; Lilly, David G; Russell, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard 'A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia' that defines and promotes 'best practice' in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in 'best practice' while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  16. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  17. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  18. Fluid bed oligomerization of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owens, H.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a continuous process for upgrading lower olefins to increase gasoline yield and ease of LPG recovery. It comprises separating a C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} cracked olefinic gas into a primary overhead stream containing C{sub 2} hydrocarbons having at least about 10% ethene and a secondary stream comprising a major amount of C{sub 3}-c{sub 4} olefinic hydrocarbons; adding the primary stream containing C{sub 2} hydrocarbons to a primary fluidized reaction zone comprising solid crystalline zeolite catalyst particles in a reactor bed operating under high severity conditions; adding the secondary stream comprising C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} olefinic hydrocarbons to a secondary fluidized bed reaction zone comprising solid crystalline zeolite catalyst particles in a reactor bed operating under turbulent regime low severity conditions; and withdrawing a portion of partially deactivated catalyst particles from the primary high severity fluidized bed reaction zone.

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Astrobiology Drilling Project 8 drill core, Pilbara, Western Australia: implications for the early geodynamo and Archean tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, K.; Weiss, B.; Carporzen, L.; Anbar, A.; Buick, R.

    2008-12-01

    Paleomagnetic measurements from the Archean Pilbara craton have recently been used to argue for the presence of a substantial magnetic field at 3.2 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2007), as well as for extremely fast plate motions or true polar wander (Strik et al., 2003, Suganuma et al., 2006). Paleomagnetic records in the Archean are fundamentally limited by the scarcity of well-preserved, low metamorphic grade Archean rocks. Where such rocks are exposed, paleomagnetic sampling is often difficult or impossible due to pervasive lightning remagnetization and deep weathering of the cratonic surface. More pristine samples can potentially be obtained from shallow drill cores like those obtained by the Astrobiology Drilling Project (ABDP). We present a paleomagnetic analysis of the ~350 m deep ABDP-8 drill core, which was drilled in the East Strelley greenstone belt and which penetrated the Double Bar Formation of the Warrawoona Group, as well as the unconformably overlying Euro Basalt and Strelley Pool Chert units of the Kelly Group. Full sample orientation (declination and inclination) was achieved through the use of a Ballmark orientation system. A strong drilling overprint was removed for most samples by alternating field demagnetization to 20 mT. Subsequent thermal demagnetization revealed single-polarity magnetic directions within the Euro Basalt and Double Bar Formation carried by magnetite. The directions from these two Formations are statistically different to >95% confidence, which constitutes a positive unconformity test and indicates that the Euro Basalt direction is primary. Upon tilt correction, the ~3.34-3.37 Ga Euro Basalt direction is indistinguishable from the tilt-corrected direction found previously in the ~3.46 Ga Duffer Formation of the Warrawoona Group (McElhinny and Senanayake, 1980). The Euro Basalt direction, if taken at face value, implies small relative motion of the Pilbara Craton from ~3.46 Ga to ~3.34 Ga. This is inconsistent with the apparent polar

  20. Kyanite/corundum eclogites from the Kaapvaal Craton: subducted troctolites and layered gabbros from the Mid- to Early Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Qiao; Brey, Gerhard P.; Hoefer, Heidi E.; Zhao, Zhidan; Pearson, D. Graham

    2016-02-01

    An oceanic crustal origin is the commonly accepted paradigm for mantle-derived eclogites. However, the significance of the aluminous members of the eclogite suite, containing kyanite and corundum, has long been underrated and their role neglected in genetic models of cratonic evolution. Here, we present a geochemical and petrological study of a suite of kyanite- and corundum-bearing eclogites from the Bellsbank kimberlite, S. Africa, which originate from depths between 150 and 200 km. Although clearly of high-pressure provenance, these rocks had a low-pressure cumulative origin with plagioclase and olivine as major cumulate phases. This is shown by the very pronounced positive Eu anomalies, low REE abundances, and δ 18O values lower than the Earth's mantle. Many chemical features are identical to modern-day troctolitic cumulates including a light REE depletion akin to MORB, but there are also distinguishing features in that the eclogites are richer in Na, Fe, and Ni. Two of the eclogites have a minimum age of ~3.2 Ga, defined by the extremely unradiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (0.7007) in clinopyroxene. Phase equilibria indicate that the parent melts were formed by partial melting below an Archean volcanic center that generated (alkali-)picritic to high-alumina tholeiitic melts from a mantle whose oxygen fugacity was lower than today. Fractional crystallization produced troctolites with immiscible sulfide melt droplets within the mafic crust. Instability of the mafic crust led to deep subduction and re-equilibration at 4-6 GPa. Phase relationships plus the presence of a sample with appreciable modal corundum but no Eu anomaly suggest that kyanite- and corundum-bearing eclogites may also originate as plagioclase-free, higher pressure cumulates of highly aluminous clinopyroxene, spinel, and olivine. This is consistent with the crystallizing phase assemblage from an olivine tholeiitic to picritic magma deeper in the Archean oceanic crust or uppermost mantle. We postulate that

  1. Millimeter-scale concentration gradients of hydrocarbons in Archean shales: Live-oil escape or fingerprint of contamination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    2011-06-01

    Archean shales from the Pilbara in Western Australia contain biomarkers that have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotes 2.7 billion years (Ga) ago, with far reaching implications for the evolution of Earth's early biosphere. To re-evaluate the provenance of the biomarkers, this study determined the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons in the original drill core material. Rock samples were cut into millimeter-thick slices, and the molecular content of each slice was analyzed. In core from the Hamersley Group (˜2.5 Ga), C <13 alkanes had gradually increasing concentrations from the surfaces to the center of the rock while the abundance of steranes, hopanes and C 15+ alkanes decreased with distance from the outer surfaces. In samples from the Fortescue Group (˜2.7 Ga), hydrocarbons were overwhelmingly concentrated on rock surfaces. Two mechanisms are proposed that may have caused the inhomogeneous distribution: diffusion of petroleum products into the rock (contamination model), and leaching of indigenous hydrocarbons out of host shales driven by pressure release after drilling ('live-oil' effect). To test these models, the hydrocarbon distributions in the Archean shales are compared with artificially contaminated rocks as well as younger mudstones where leaching of live-oil had been observed. The results show that chromatographic phenomena associated with live-oil escape and contaminant diffusion have strong effects on molecular ratios and maturity parameters, potentially with broad implications for oil-source rock correlation studies and paleoenvironmental interpretations. For the Archean shales, the live-oil effect is consistent with some of the observed patterns, but only the contamination model fully explains the complex chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the biomarkers in the Pilbara samples have an anthropogenic origin, and previous conclusions about the origin of eukaryotes and oxygenic photosynthesis based on

  2. The origin of jarosite associated with a gossan on Archean gneiss in Southwest Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Pratt, L. M.; Young, S. A.; Cadieux, S. B.; White, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The mineral Jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] since its discovery, by Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum on Mars, has been the subject of intense geochemical and environmental study over the last 5-10 years. Jarosite requires highly acidic, K-enriched, and oxidizing aqueous conditions for formation. Stable isotopes of O, H, and S of jarosite have the ability to record the temperatures of formation, environments of deposition, fluids, and fluid/atmospheric interactions. Therefore, the origin of jarosite is important for understanding present and past environmental conditions on Mars. Unfortunately, the origin of jarosite on Mars remains unclear. Jarosite is commonly found on Earth in the weathering zones of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, near-surface playa sediments in acid-saline lakes, or epithermal environments and hot springs. Here, we report the occurrence of jarosite in association with a gossan overlying weathered Archean gneiss and Paleoproterozoic mafic dikes at the ice-free margin of southwestern Greenland. In our 2012 field campaign, we excavated soil pits to a depth of 40 cm with a high vertical sampling resolution. No visible pyrite was found in the nearby outcroppings of gneiss in the field. XRD data show that all samples were composed of anorthite, quartz, albite, jarosite, muscovite, and microcline. Jarosite was the only sulfur-bearing mineral identified by XRD, with abundance of jarosite increasing with depth (up to 8.4 wt. %) in the soil pits. Water soluble and acid soluble sulfate were sequentially extracted using 10% NaCl and 2N HCl solutions, respectively. Pyrite was then subsequently extracted from insoluble residues by a chromium reduction method. The average abundance of water soluble sulfate, acid soluble sulfate, and pyrite were 100 ppm, 7 wt. %, and 10 ppm, respectively. The δ34S values of water soluble sulfate, acid soluble sulfate, and pyrite range from -0.7‰ to 3.1‰ (average= 1.5‰), -1.2 to 1.5‰ (average= 0.7‰), and 0.3‰ to 6.7

  3. Returning from the deep: Archean atmospheric fingerprints in modern hotspot lavas (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.; Cabral, R. A.; Rose-Koga, E. F.; Koga, K. T.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Antonelli, M. A.; Farquhar, J.; Day, J. M.; Hauri, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean plates transport surface materials, including oceanic crust and sediment, into the mantle at subduction zones. However, the fate of the subducted package--oceanic crust and sediment--in the mantle is poorly understood. A long-standing hypothesis maintains that subducted materials reside in the mantle for an extended, but unknown, period of time and are then recycled back to the Earth's surface in regions of buoyantly upwelling mantle and melted beneath hotspots. Sulfur isotopes provide an important new tool to evaluate the presence of ancient recycled materials in hotspot lavas. Widespread terrestrial mass independently fractionated sulfur (MIF-S) isotope signatures were generated exclusively through atmospheric photochemical reactions until ~2.45 Ga. In fact, the only significant reservoirs of MIF-S containing rocks documented so far are sediments and hydrothermal rocks older than ~2.45 Ga. Armed with this insight, we examined sulfur isotopes in olivine phenocrysts and olivine-hosted sulfides in lavas from the island of Mangaia, Cook Islands. Lavas from this location host unusually radiogenic Pb-isotopic compositions--referred to as a HIMU (high U/Pb) component--and this has been attributed to ancient recycled oceanic crust in the mantle source. In Cabral et al. (2013), we report MIF-S in olivine phenocrysts and olivine-hosted sulfides. The discovery of MIF-S isotopic signatures in young hotspot lavas appears to provide a "timestamp" and "signature" for preservation of subducted Archean surface materials in the mantle sourcing Mangaia lavas. We report new sulfur isotope data on olivine-hosted sulfides from the Mangaia lavas that reinforce our discovery of MIF-S anomalies reported in Cabral et al. (2013). We also report new sulfur isotopic data on Mangaia whole rock powders, and we find no evidence of MIF-S signatures. It is not yet clear why the individual Mangaia sulfides and the olivine separates have more extreme MIF-S than the whole rocks. We consider it

  4. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km2 body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An60-70) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo70-80. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. Ten samples, including both igneous and deformed lithologies give a Pb-Pb whole-rock isochron of 2560??155Ma, which is our best estimate of the time of primary crystallization. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet reported from the Grenville Province, but is more calcic and augitic than typical massifs, and lacks their characteristic Fe-Ti oxide ore deposits. The River Valley body may be more akin to similar gabbro-anorthosite bodies situated at the boundary between the Archean Superior Province and Huronian supracrustal belt of the Southern Province west of the Grenville Front. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2377 ?? 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2185 ?? 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2165 ?? 130 Ma and 2100 ?? 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. It is uncertain whether these ages correspond to a discrete event at this time or represent a partial resetting of the Rb-Sr and Pb

  5. Archean Arctic continental crust fingerprints revealing by zircons from Alpha Ridge bottom rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Presnyakov, Sergey; Antonov, Anton; Belyatsky, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Whereas thick Cenozoic sedimentary cover overlapping bedrock of the Arctic Ocean, some tectonic windows were sampled by scientific submarine manipulator, as well as by grabbing, dredging and drilling during «Arctic-2012» Russian High-Arctic expedition (21 thousands samples in total, from 400-km profile along Alpha-Mendeleev Ridges). Among others, on the western slope of Alpha Ridge one 10x10 cm fragment without any tracks of glacial transportation of fine-layered migmatitic-gneiss with prominent quartz veinlets was studied. Its mineral (47.5 vol.% plagioclase + 29.6% quartz + 16.6% biotite + 6.1% orthoclase) and chemical composition (SiO2:68.2, Al2O3:14.9, Fe2O3:4.44, TiO2:0.54, MgO:2.03, CaO:3.13, Na2O:3.23, K2O:2.16%) corresponds to trachydacite vulcanite, deformed and metamorphozed under amphibolite facies. Most zircon grains (>80%) from this sample has an concordant U-Pb age 3450 Ma with Th/U 0.8-1.4 and U content of 100-400 ppm, epsilon Hf from -4 up to 0, and ca 20% - ca 3.3 Ga with Th/U 0.7-1.4 and 90-190 ppm U, epsilon Hf -6.5 to -4.5, while only 2% of the grains show Proterozoic age of ca 1.9 Ga (Th/U: 0.02-0.07, U~500 ppm, epsilon Hf about 0). No younger zircons were revealed at all. We suppose that magmatic zircon crystallized as early as 3450 Ma ago during acid volcanism, the second phase zircon crystallization from partial melt (or by volcanics remelting) under amphibolite facies metamorphism was at 3.3 Ga ago with formation of migmatitie gneisses. Last zircon formation from crustal fluids under low-grade metamorphic conditions was 1.9 Ga ago. There are two principal possibilities for the provenance of this metavolcanic rock. The first one - this is ice-rafted debris deposited by melted glacial iceberg. However, presently there are no temporal and compositional analogues of such rocks in basement geology of peri-oceanic regions, including Archean Itsaq Gneiss Complex, Lewisian Complex and Baltic Shield but these regions are far from the places of

  6. Crustal Anisotropy of the Archean Continental Lithosphere in the Minnesota River Valley Subprovince

    NASA Astrophysics Data Sy