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Sample records for architecture seed development

  1. GEm-Related 5 (GER5), an ABA and stress-responsive GRAM domain protein regulating seed development and inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Baron, Kevin N; Schroeder, Dana F; Stasolla, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    We have identified an abscisic acid (ABA) and stress-responsive GRAM (Glucosyltransferases, Rab-like GTPase activators and Myotubularins) domain protein GER5 (GEm-Related 5) closely related to GEM (GLABRA2 Expression Modulator), a novel regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in epidermal cells. A loss-of-function T-DNA line (ger5-2) and transgenic lines silencing (GER5(RNAi)) or overexpressing (GER5(OE)) GER5 displayed several defects in reproductive development affecting seed and embryo development. RNA in situ studies revealed GER5 and related GRAM genes (GEM and GEm-Related 1 (GER1)) have both overlapping and unique expression domains in male and female reproductive organs. Hormone immunolocalization experiments further indicate GER5 transcripts preferentially localize to reproductive tissues which accumulate ABA. Expression analysis revealed members of the GRAM family (GER5, GER1, GEM) display tissue-specific expression patterns and are responsive to phytohormones and abiotic stress, in addition to genetic lesions (aba1, aba2, ctr1) affecting ABA biosynthesis or ethylene signalling. Mature seeds of ger5-2 mutants also exhibit reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination assays. Microarray analysis of aborting and developing seeds isolated from ger5-2 mutants revealed underlying transcriptional changes in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone signalling and catabolic processes (e.g. protein degradation, autophagy). Taken together, our results indicate ABA-responsive GRAM genes play a novel role in regulating the reproductive development of plants, and raise intriguing questions regarding the functional relationship between members of the GRAM gene family.

  2. Seeding a New Kind of Garden: Synthesis of Architecturally Defined Multimetallic Nanostructures by Seed-Mediated Co-Reduction.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rebecca G; Kunz, Meredith R; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2015-10-20

    Bimetallic nanoparticles display unique optical and catalytic properties that depend on crystallite size and shape, composition, and overall architecture. They may serve as multifunctional platforms as well. Unfortunately, many routes toward shape and architecturally controlled bimetallic nanocrystals yield polydisperse samples on account of the challenges associated with homogeneously nucleating a defined bimetallic phase by co-reduction methods. Developed by the Skrabalak laboratory, seed-mediated co-reduction (SMCR) involves the simultaneous co-reduction of two metal precursors to deposit metal onto shape-controlled metal nanocrystalline seeds. The central premise is that seeds will serve as preferential and structurally defined platforms for bimetallic deposition, where the shape of the seeds can be transferred to the shells. With Au-Pd as a model system, a set of design principles has been established for the bottom-up synthesis of shape-controlled bimetallic nanocrystals by SMCR. This strategy is successful at synthesizing symmetrically stellated Au-Pd nanocrystals with a variety of symmetries and core@shell Au@Au-Pd nanocrystals. Achieving nanocrystals with high morphological control via SMCR is governed by the following parameters: seed size, shape, and composition as well as the kinetics of seeded growth (through manipulation of synthetic parameters such as pH and metal precursor ratios). For example, larger seeds yield larger nanocrystals as does increasing the amount of metal deposited relative to the number of seeds. This increase in nanocrystal size leads to red-shifts in their localized surface plasmon resonance. Additionally, seed shape directs the overgrowth process during SMCR so the resultant nanocrystals adopt related symmetries. The ability to tune structure is important due to the size-, shape- and composition-dependent optical properties of bimetallic nanocrystals. Using this toolkit, the light scattering and absorption properties of Au

  3. Maternal Gametophyte Effects on Seed Development in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Chettoor, Antony M.; Phillips, Allison R.; Coker, Clayton T.; Dilkes, Brian; Evans, Matthew M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Flowering plants, like placental mammals, have an extensive maternal contribution toward progeny development. Plants are distinguished from animals by a genetically active haploid phase of growth and development between meiosis and fertilization, called the gametophyte. Flowering plants are further distinguished by the process of double fertilization that produces sister progeny, the endosperm and the embryo, of the seed. Because of this, there is substantial gene expression in the female gametophyte that contributes to the regulation of growth and development of the seed. A primary function of the endosperm is to provide growth support to its sister embryo. Several mutations in Zea mays subsp. mays have been identified that affect the contribution of the mother gametophyte to the seed. The majority affect both the endosperm and the embryo, although some embryo-specific effects have been observed. Many alter the pattern of expression of a marker for the basal endosperm transfer layer, a tissue that transports nutrients from the mother plant to the developing seed. Many of them cause abnormal development of the female gametophyte prior to fertilization, revealing potential cellular mechanisms of maternal control of seed development. These effects include reduced central cell size, abnormal architecture of the central cell, abnormal numbers and morphology of the antipodal cells, and abnormal egg cell morphology. These mutants provide insight into the logic of seed development, including necessary features of the gametes and supporting cells prior to fertilization, and set up future studies on the mechanisms regulating maternal contributions to the seed. PMID:27466227

  4. Maternal Gametophyte Effects on Seed Development in Maize.

    PubMed

    Chettoor, Antony M; Phillips, Allison R; Coker, Clayton T; Dilkes, Brian; Evans, Matthew M S

    2016-09-01

    Flowering plants, like placental mammals, have an extensive maternal contribution toward progeny development. Plants are distinguished from animals by a genetically active haploid phase of growth and development between meiosis and fertilization, called the gametophyte. Flowering plants are further distinguished by the process of double fertilization that produces sister progeny, the endosperm and the embryo, of the seed. Because of this, there is substantial gene expression in the female gametophyte that contributes to the regulation of growth and development of the seed. A primary function of the endosperm is to provide growth support to its sister embryo. Several mutations in Zea mays subsp. mays have been identified that affect the contribution of the mother gametophyte to the seed. The majority affect both the endosperm and the embryo, although some embryo-specific effects have been observed. Many alter the pattern of expression of a marker for the basal endosperm transfer layer, a tissue that transports nutrients from the mother plant to the developing seed. Many of them cause abnormal development of the female gametophyte prior to fertilization, revealing potential cellular mechanisms of maternal control of seed development. These effects include reduced central cell size, abnormal architecture of the central cell, abnormal numbers and morphology of the antipodal cells, and abnormal egg cell morphology. These mutants provide insight into the logic of seed development, including necessary features of the gametes and supporting cells prior to fertilization, and set up future studies on the mechanisms regulating maternal contributions to the seed.

  5. Enterprise Information Architecture for Mission Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept of an information architecture to assist in mission development. The integrate information architecture will create a unified view of the information using metadata and the values (i.e., taxonomy).

  6. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  7. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  8. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  9. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  10. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. PMID:25317938

  11. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves.

  12. The effect of twig architecture and seed number on seed size variation in subtropical woody species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Niklas, Karl J; Yang, Dongmei; Sun, Shucun

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of twig (current year shoot) size on seed size variation and to test whether a seed size vs number tradeoff occurs for the twigs of subtropical broad-leaved species. Fruit-bearing twigs were sampled for 55 woody species (including 33 evergreen and 22 deciduous dicot species) from a southwest Chinese forest. Twig size, fruit size and number, and seed size and number were measured for each species. The relationships among these functional traits were determined both across species and across correlated phyletic divergences. Total fruit mass and total seed mass were positively correlated with twig size. Seed size was positively associated with fruit size, which was, in turn, positively correlated with twig diameter, but negatively correlated with the ratio of twig length to diameter. The effect of twig size on seed size variation was not significant, possibly as a result of the large variation in seed number per fruit. Cross-species and across-phyletic divergence analyses revealed that seed size was negatively and isometrically correlated with seed number per twig mass in both the evergreen and deciduous species groupings, demonstrating the existence of tradeoff between seed size and number. A seed size vs number tradeoff is detectable in the twigs of woody species. Comparatively little of the variance in seed size was attributable to twig size variation.

  13. Distinct cell wall architectures in seed endosperms in representatives of the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kieran J D; Dekkers, Bas J W; Steinbrecher, Tina; Walsh, Cherie T; Bacic, Antony; Bentsink, Leónie; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Knox, J Paul

    2012-11-01

    In some species, a crucial role has been demonstrated for the seed endosperm during germination. The endosperm has been shown to integrate environmental cues with hormonal networks that underpin dormancy and seed germination, a process that involves the action of cell wall remodeling enzymes (CWREs). Here, we examine the cell wall architectures of the endosperms of two related Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the close relative Lepidium (Lepidium sativum), and that of the Solanaceous species, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The Brassicaceae species have a similar cell wall architecture that is rich in pectic homogalacturonan, arabinan, and xyloglucan. Distinctive features of the tobacco endosperm that are absent in the Brassicaceae representatives are major tissue asymmetries in cell wall structural components that reflect the future site of radicle emergence and abundant heteromannan. Cell wall architecture of the micropylar endosperm of tobacco seeds has structural components similar to those seen in Arabidopsis and Lepidium endosperms. In situ and biomechanical analyses were used to study changes in endosperms during seed germination and suggest a role for mannan degradation in tobacco. In the case of the Brassicaceae representatives, the structurally homogeneous cell walls of the endosperm can be acted on by spatially regulated CWRE expression. Genetic manipulations of cell wall components present in the Arabidopsis seed endosperm demonstrate the impact of cell wall architectural changes on germination kinetics.

  14. Genetic architecture and mechanism of seed number per pod in rapeseed: elucidated through linkage and near-isogenic line analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhua; Shi, Jiaqin; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Seed number per pod (SNPP) is one of the major yield components and breeding targets in rapeseed that shows great variation and is invaluable for genetic improvement. To elucidate the genetic architecture and uncover the mechanism of SNPP, we identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using the BnaZNRIL population, which were integrated with those of previous studies by physical map to demonstrate a complex and relatively complete genetic architecture of SNPP. A major QTL, qSN.A6, was successfully fine-mapped from 1910 to 267 kb using near-isogenic line (NIL). In addition, qSN.A6 exhibited an antagonistic pleiotropy on seed weight (SW), which is caused by a physiological interaction in which SNPP acts “upstream” of SW. Because the negative effect of qSN.A6 on SW cannot fully counteract its positive effect on SNPP, it also enhanced the final yield (17.4%), indicating its great potential for utilization in breeding. The following genetic and cytological experiments further confirmed that the different rate of ovule abortion was responsible for the ~5 seed difference between Zhongshuang11 and NIL-qSN.A6. This systematic approach to dissecting the comprehensive genetic architecture of SNPP and characterizing the underlying mechanism has advanced the understanding of SNPP and will facilitate the development of high-yield cultivars. PMID:27067010

  15. Chalazal seed coat development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Millar, Jenna L; Khan, Deirdre; Becker, Michael G; Chan, Ainsley; Dufresne, André; Sumner, Michael; Belmonte, Mark F

    2015-12-01

    The chalazal seed coat (CZSC) is a maternal subregion adjacent to the funiculus which serves as the first point of entry into the developing seed. This subregion is of particular interest in Brassica napus (canola) because of its location within the seed and its putative contribution to seed filling processes. In this study, the CZSC of canola was characterized at an anatomical and molecular level to (i) describe the cellular and subcellular features of the CZSC throughout seed development, (ii) reveal cellular features of the CZSC that relate to transport processes, (iii) study gene activity of transporters and transcriptional regulators in the CZSC subregion over developmental time, and (iv) briefly investigate the contribution of the A and C constituent genomes to B. napus CZSC gene activity. We found that the CZSC contains terminating ends of xylem and phloem as well as a mosaic of endomembrane and plasmodesmatal connections, suggesting that this subregion is likely involved in the transport of material and information from the maternal tissues of the plant to other regions of the seed. Laser microdissection coupled with quantitative RT-PCR identified the relative abundance of sugar, water, auxin and amino acid transporter homologs inherited from the constituent genomes of this complex polyploid. We also studied the expression of three transcription factors that were shown to co-express with these biological processes providing a preliminary framework for the regulatory networks responsible for seed filling in canola and discuss the relationship of the CZSC to other regions and subregions of the seed and its role in seed development.

  16. Developing a taxonomy for mission architecture definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubek, Deborah J.

    1990-01-01

    The Lunar and Mars Exploration Program Office (LMEPO) was tasked to define candidate architectures for the Space Exploration Initiative to submit to NASA senior management and an externally constituted Outreach Synthesis Group. A systematic, structured process for developing, characterizing, and describing the alternate mission architectures, and applying this process to future studies was developed. The work was done in two phases: (1) national needs were identified and categorized into objectives achievable by the Space Exploration Initiative; and (2) a program development process was created which both hierarchically and iteratively describes the program planning process.

  17. Transcript profiling of developing peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate regulatory processes and mechanisms underlying the development of peanut seeds, 8 x 15k microarrays were used to monitor changes in the transcriptome of a runner peanut genotype. Developing peanut pods from six development stages corresponding R2 through R8 stages were profiled. Sever...

  18. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  19. Virtual environment architecture for rapid application development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Southard, David A.; Lee, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the MITRE Virtual Environment Architecture (VEA), a product of nearly two years of investigations and prototypes of virtual environment technology. This paper discusses the requirements for rapid prototyping, and an architecture we are developing to support virtual environment construction. VEA supports rapid application development by providing a variety of pre-built modules that can be reconfigured for each application session. The modules supply interfaces for several types of interactive I/O devices, in addition to large-screen or head-mounted displays.

  20. A Genome-wide Combinatorial Strategy Dissects Complex Genetic Architecture of Seed Coat Color in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ranjan, Rajeev; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C. L. Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    The study identified 9045 high-quality SNPs employing both genome-wide GBS- and candidate gene-based SNP genotyping assays in 172, including 93 cultivated (desi and kabuli) and 79 wild chickpea accessions. The GWAS in a structured population of 93 sequenced accessions detected 15 major genomic loci exhibiting significant association with seed coat color. Five seed color-associated major genomic loci underlying robust QTLs mapped on a high-density intra-specific genetic linkage map were validated by QTL mapping. The integration of association and QTL mapping with gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling identified novel allelic variants (non-synonymous SNPs) and haplotypes in a MATE secondary transporter gene regulating light/yellow brown and beige seed coat color differentiation in chickpea. The down-regulation and decreased transcript expression of beige seed coat color-associated MATE gene haplotype was correlated with reduced proanthocyanidins accumulation in the mature seed coats of beige than light/yellow brown seed colored desi and kabuli accessions for their coloration/pigmentation. This seed color-regulating MATE gene revealed strong purifying selection pressure primarily in LB/YB seed colored desi and wild Cicer reticulatum accessions compared with the BE seed colored kabuli accessions. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to decipher the complex transcriptional regulatory gene function of seed coat coloration and for understanding the selective sweep-based seed color trait evolutionary pattern in cultivated and wild accessions during chickpea domestication. The genome-wide integrated approach employed will expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing cultivars with desirable seed coat color types in chickpea. PMID:26635822

  1. Evolution and development of inflorescence architectures.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Erasmus, Yvette; Lane, Brendan; Harder, Lawrence D; Coen, Enrico

    2007-06-01

    To understand the constraints on biological diversity, we analyzed how selection and development interact to control the evolution of inflorescences, the branching structures that bear flowers. We show that a single developmental model accounts for the restricted range of inflorescence types observed in nature and that this model is supported by molecular genetic studies. The model predicts associations between inflorescence architecture, climate, and life history, which we validated empirically. Paths, or evolutionary wormholes, link different architectures in a multidimensional fitness space, but the rate of evolution along these paths is constrained by genetic and environmental factors, which explains why some evolutionary transitions are rare between closely related plant taxa.

  2. Architecture and Development: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechhoefer, William B.

    1975-01-01

    An American Fulbright lecturer finds lessons learned about the growth of architectural education in Tunisia and Afghanistan relevant for other developing nations. He emphasizes the responsibility that accompanies the imposition of a foreign system: recognition of local variations from the model and evaluation of programs and curriculum responsive…

  3. Jasmonates in flower and seed development.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Forner, Susanne; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived signaling compounds active in plant development and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Upon environmental stimuli jasmonates are formed and accumulate transiently. During flower and seed development, jasmonic acid (JA) and a remarkable number of different metabolites accumulate organ- and tissue specifically. The accumulation is accompanied with expression of jasmonate-inducible genes. Among these genes there are defense genes and developmentally regulated genes. The profile of jasmonate compounds in flowers and seeds covers active signaling molecules such as JA, its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and amino acid conjugates such as JA-Ile, but also inactive signaling molecules occur such as 12-hydroxy-JA and its sulfated derivative. These latter compounds can occur at several orders of magnitude higher level than JA. Metabolic conversion of JA and JA-Ile to hydroxylated compounds seems to inactivate JA signaling, but also specific functions of jasmonates in flower and seed development were detected. In tomato OPDA is involved in embryo development. Occurrence of jasmonates, expression of JA-inducible genes and JA-dependent processes in flower and seed development will be discussed. PMID:22705387

  4. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  5. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  6. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2015-08-01

    Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

  7. Seed size plasticity in response to embryonic lethality conferred by ectopic CYCD activation is dependent on plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Sornay, E; Dewitte, W; Murray, J A H

    2016-07-01

    The size of seeds is the result of cell proliferation and growth in the three seed compartments: the embryo, endosperm and integuments. Targeting expression of the D-type cyclin CYCD7;1 to the central cell and early endosperm (FWA:CYCD7;1) triggered nuclear divisions and partial ovule abortion, reducing seed number in each silique and leading to increased seed size. A similar effect on seed size was observed with other segregating embryo lethal mutations, suggesting caution is needed in interpreting apparent seed size phenotypes. Here, we show that the positive effect of FWA:CYCD7;1 on Arabidopsis seed size is modulated by the architecture of the mother plant. Larger seeds were produced in FWA:CYCD7;1 lines with unmodified inflorescences, and also upon removal of side branches and axillary stems. This phenotype was absent from inflorescences with increased axillary floral stems produced by pruning of the main stem. Given this apparent confounding influence of resource allocation on transgenes effect, we conclude that plant architecture is a further important factor to consider in appraising seed phenotypes.

  8. Seed size plasticity in response to embryonic lethality conferred by ectopic CYCD activation is dependent on plant architecture

    PubMed Central

    Sornay, E.; Dewitte, W.; Murray, J. A. H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The size of seeds is the result of cell proliferation and growth in the three seed compartments: the embryo, endosperm and integuments. Targeting expression of the D-type cyclin CYCD7;1 to the central cell and early endosperm (FWA:CYCD7;1) triggered nuclear divisions and partial ovule abortion, reducing seed number in each silique and leading to increased seed size. A similar effect on seed size was observed with other segregating embryo lethal mutations, suggesting caution is needed in interpreting apparent seed size phenotypes. Here, we show that the positive effect of FWA:CYCD7;1 on Arabidopsis seed size is modulated by the architecture of the mother plant. Larger seeds were produced in FWA:CYCD7;1 lines with unmodified inflorescences, and also upon removal of side branches and axillary stems. This phenotype was absent from inflorescences with increased axillary floral stems produced by pruning of the main stem. Given this apparent confounding influence of resource allocation on transgenes effect, we conclude that plant architecture is a further important factor to consider in appraising seed phenotypes. PMID:27286190

  9. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage.

    PubMed

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V; North, Helen M; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  10. Expressed Sequence Tags from Developing Castor Seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Van De Loo, F. J.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C.

    1995-01-01

    To expand the availability of genes encoding enzymes and structural proteins associated with storage lipid synthesis and deposition, partial nucleotide sequences, or expressed sequence tags (ESTs), were obtained for 743 cDNA clones derived from developing seeds of castor (Ricinus communis L.). Enrichment for seed-specific cDNA clones was obtained by selecting clones that did not detectably hybridize to first-strand cDNA from leaf mRNA. Similarly, clones that hybridized to storage proteins or other highly abundant mRNA species from developing seeds were selected against. To enrich for endomembrane-associated proteins, some clones were selected for sequencing by immunological screening with antibodies prepared against partially purified endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the ESTs with the public data bases resulted in the assignment of putative identities of 49% of the clones selected by differential hybridization and 71% of the clones selected by immunological screening. Open reading frames in 100 of the ESTs exhibited higher homology to 78 different nonplant gene products than to any previously known plant gene product. PMID:12228533

  11. Distinct Cell Wall Architectures in Seed Endosperms in Representatives of the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kieran J.D.; Dekkers, Bas J.W.; Steinbrecher, Tina; Walsh, Cherie T.; Bacic, Antony; Bentsink, Leónie; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Knox, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    In some species, a crucial role has been demonstrated for the seed endosperm during germination. The endosperm has been shown to integrate environmental cues with hormonal networks that underpin dormancy and seed germination, a process that involves the action of cell wall remodeling enzymes (CWREs). Here, we examine the cell wall architectures of the endosperms of two related Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the close relative Lepidium (Lepidium sativum), and that of the Solanaceous species, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The Brassicaceae species have a similar cell wall architecture that is rich in pectic homogalacturonan, arabinan, and xyloglucan. Distinctive features of the tobacco endosperm that are absent in the Brassicaceae representatives are major tissue asymmetries in cell wall structural components that reflect the future site of radicle emergence and abundant heteromannan. Cell wall architecture of the micropylar endosperm of tobacco seeds has structural components similar to those seen in Arabidopsis and Lepidium endosperms. In situ and biomechanical analyses were used to study changes in endosperms during seed germination and suggest a role for mannan degradation in tobacco. In the case of the Brassicaceae representatives, the structurally homogeneous cell walls of the endosperm can be acted on by spatially regulated CWRE expression. Genetic manipulations of cell wall components present in the Arabidopsis seed endosperm demonstrate the impact of cell wall architectural changes on germination kinetics. PMID:22961130

  12. Millimeterwave Space Power Grid architecture development 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Dessanti, Brendan; Shah, Shaan

    This is an update of the Space Power Grid architecture for space-based solar power with an improved design of the collector/converter link, the primary heater and the radiator of the active thermal control system. The Space Power Grid offers an evolutionary approach towards TeraWatt-level Space-based solar power. The use of millimeter wave frequencies (around 220GHz) and Low-Mid Earth Orbits shrinks the size of the space and ground infrastructure to manageable levels. In prior work we showed that using Brayton cycle conversion of solar power allows large economies of scale compared to the linear mass-power relationship of photovoltaic conversion. With high-temperature materials permitting 3600 K temperature in the primary heater, over 80 percent cycle efficiency was shown with a closed helium cycle for the 1GW converter satellite which formed the core element of the architecture. Work done since the last IEEE conference has shown that the use of waveguides incorporated into lighter-than-air antenna platforms, can overcome the difficulties in transmitting millimeter wave power through the moist, dense lower atmosphere. A graphene-based radiator design conservatively meets the mass budget for the waste heat rejection system needed for the compressor inlet temperature. Placing the ultralight Mirasol collectors in lower orbits overcomes the solar beam spot size problem of high-orbit collection. The architecture begins by establishing a power exchange with terrestrial renewable energy plants, creating an early revenue generation approach with low investment. The approach allows for technology development and demonstration of high power millimeter wave technology. A multinational experiment using the International Space Station and another power exchange satellite is proposed to gather required data and experience, thus reducing the technical and policy risks. The full-scale architecture deploys pairs of Mirasol sunlight collectors and Girasol 1 GW converter satellites t

  13. Impact of heat stress during seed development on soybean seed metabolome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed development is a temperature-sensitive process that is much more vulnerable than vegetative tissues to abiotic stresses. Climate change is expected to increase the incidence and severity of summer heatwaves, and the impact of heat stress on seed development is expected to become more widespread...

  14. Architecture and development of olivocerebellar circuit topography

    PubMed Central

    Reeber, Stacey L.; White, Joshua J.; George-Jones, Nicholas A.; Sillitoe, Roy V.

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum has a simple tri-laminar structure that is comprised of relatively few cell types. Yet, its internal micro-circuitry is anatomically, biochemically, and functionally complex. The most striking feature of cerebellar circuit complexity is its compartmentalized topography. Each cell type within the cerebellar cortex is organized into an exquisite map; molecular expression patterns, dendrite projections, and axon terminal fields divide the medial-lateral axis of the cerebellum into topographic sagittal zones. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that establish zones and highlight how gene expression and neural activity contribute to cerebellar pattern formation. We focus on the olivocerebellar system because its developmental mechanisms are becoming clear, its topographic termination patterns are very precise, and its contribution to zonal function is debated. This review deconstructs the architecture and development of the olivocerebellar pathway to provide an update on how brain circuit maps form and function. PMID:23293588

  15. Associative Transcriptomics Study Dissects the Genetic Architecture of Seed Glucosinolate Content in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guangyuan; Harper, Andrea L.; Trick, Martin; Morgan, Colin; Fraser, Fiona; O'Neill, Carmel; Bancroft, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Breeding new varieties with low seed glucosinolate (GS) concentrations has long been a prime target in Brassica napus. In this study, a novel association mapping methodology termed ‘associative transcriptomics’ (AT) was applied to a panel of 101 B. napus lines to define genetic regions and also candidate genes controlling total seed GS contents. Over 100,000 informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene expression markers (GEMs) were developed for AT analysis, which led to the identification of 10 SNP and 7 GEM association peaks. Within these peaks, 26 genes were inferred to be involved in GS biosynthesis. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis provided additional 40 candidate genes. The transcript abundance in leaves of two candidate genes, BnaA.GTR2a located on chromosome A2 and BnaC.HAG3b on C9, was correlated with seed GS content, explaining 18.8 and 16.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Resequencing of genomic regions revealed six new SNPs in BnaA.GTR2a and four insertions or deletions in BnaC.HAG3b. These deletion polymorphisms were then successfully converted into polymerase chain reaction–based diagnostic markers that can, due to high linkage disequilibrium observed in these regions of the genome, be used for marker-assisted breeding for low seed GS lines. PMID:25030463

  16. Associative transcriptomics study dissects the genetic architecture of seed glucosinolate content in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangyuan; Harper, Andrea L; Trick, Martin; Morgan, Colin; Fraser, Fiona; O'Neill, Carmel; Bancroft, Ian

    2014-12-01

    Breeding new varieties with low seed glucosinolate (GS) concentrations has long been a prime target in Brassica napus. In this study, a novel association mapping methodology termed 'associative transcriptomics' (AT) was applied to a panel of 101 B. napus lines to define genetic regions and also candidate genes controlling total seed GS contents. Over 100,000 informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene expression markers (GEMs) were developed for AT analysis, which led to the identification of 10 SNP and 7 GEM association peaks. Within these peaks, 26 genes were inferred to be involved in GS biosynthesis. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis provided additional 40 candidate genes. The transcript abundance in leaves of two candidate genes, BnaA.GTR2a located on chromosome A2 and BnaC.HAG3b on C9, was correlated with seed GS content, explaining 18.8 and 16.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Resequencing of genomic regions revealed six new SNPs in BnaA.GTR2a and four insertions or deletions in BnaC.HAG3b. These deletion polymorphisms were then successfully converted into polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic markers that can, due to high linkage disequilibrium observed in these regions of the genome, be used for marker-assisted breeding for low seed GS lines.

  17. Architectural Drafting. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1779.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Thomas

    This teaching guide is designed to aid high school vocational education teachers in teaching a course in architectural drafting for students who plan to become architects, interior designers and decorators, architectural draftspersons, landscape engineers, building contractors, building estimators, real estate persons or appraisers, and others.…

  18. Effect of GA3 Treatment on Seed Development and Seed-Related Gene Expression in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chenxia; Xu, Xiaozhao; Singer, Stacy D.; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongjing; Gao, Min; Wang, Li; Song, Junyang; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Background The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3) is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. Methodology/Principal Findings In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars (‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’), along with a seedless cultivar (‘Thompson Seedless’), following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF), both ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’ seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. Conclusion Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development. PMID:24224035

  19. Proteome profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed: characterization of functional metabolic pathways operating during seed development.

    PubMed

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2012-12-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are an important source of food and feed due to the presence of various health promoting compounds, making it a nutritionally and economically important plant. An in-depth analysis of the proteome of developing flax seed is expected to provide significant information with respect to the regulation and accumulation of such storage compounds. Therefore, a proteomic analysis of seven seed developmental stages (4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 30, and 48 days after anthesis) in a flax variety, NL-97 was carried out using a combination of 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MSE methods. A total 1716 proteins were identified and their functional annotation revealed that a majority of them were involved in primary metabolism, protein destination, storage and energy. Three carbon assimilatory pathways appeared to operate in flax seeds. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR of selected 19 genes was carried out to understand their roles during seed development. Besides storage proteins, methionine synthase, RuBisCO and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were highly expressed transcripts, highlighting their importance in flax seed development. Further, the identified proteins were mapped onto developmental seed specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of flax to obtain transcriptional evidence and 81% of them had detectable expression at the mRNA level. This study provides new insights into the complex seed developmental processes operating in flax.

  20. High-temperature LDV seed particle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such

  1. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, P. Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  2. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    SciTech Connect

    P Yu

    2011-12-31

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop

  3. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Jo, Yeong-Min; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    The major seed storage proteins (SSPs) in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi), which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi)-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs. PMID:26133242

  4. Endosperm turgor pressure decreases during early Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Beauzamy, Léna; Fourquin, Chloé; Dubrulle, Nelly; Boursiac, Yann; Boudaoud, Arezki; Ingram, Gwyneth

    2016-09-15

    In Arabidopsis, rapid expansion of the coenocytic endosperm after fertilisation has been proposed to drive early seed growth, which is in turn constrained by the seed coat. This hypothesis implies physical heterogeneity between the endosperm and seed coat compartments during early seed development, which to date has not been demonstrated. Here, we combine tissue indentation with modelling to show that the physical properties of the developing seed are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated endosperm-derived turgor pressure drives early seed expansion. We provide evidence that whole-seed turgor is generated by the endosperm at early developmental stages. Furthermore, we show that endosperm cellularisation and seed growth arrest are associated with a drop in endosperm turgor pressure. Finally, we demonstrate that this decrease is perturbed when the function of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 is lost, suggesting that turgor pressure changes could be a target of genomic imprinting. Our results indicate a developmental role for changes in endosperm turgor pressure in the Arabidopsis seed.

  5. Using an Integrated Distributed Test Architecture to Develop an Architecture for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Othon, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The creation of a crew-rated spacecraft architecture capable of sending humans to Mars requires the development and integration of multiple vehicle systems and subsystems. Important new technologies will be identified and matured within each technical discipline to support the mission. Architecture maturity also requires coordination with mission operations elements and ground infrastructure. During early architecture formulation, many of these assets will not be co-located and will required integrated, distributed test to show that the technologies and systems are being developed in a coordinated way. When complete, technologies must be shown to function together to achieve mission goals. In this presentation, an architecture will be described that promotes and advances integration of disparate systems within JSC and across NASA centers.

  6. Flow perfusion improves seeding of tissue engineering scaffolds with different architectures.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Barreto, Jose F; Linehan, Shawna M; Shambaugh, Robert L; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

    2007-03-01

    Engineered bone grafts have been generated in static and dynamic systems by seeding and culturing osteoblastic cells on 3-D scaffolds. Seeding determines initial cellularity and cell spatial distribution throughout the scaffold, and affects cell-matrix interactions. Static seeding often yields low seeding efficiencies and poor cell distributions; thus creating a need for techniques that can improve these parameters. We have evaluated the effect of oscillating flow perfusion on seeding efficiency and spatial distribution of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells in fibrous polystyrene matrices (20, 35 and 50-microm fibers) and foams prepared by salt leaching, using as controls statically seeded scaffolds. An additional control was investigated where static seeding was followed by unidirectional perfusion. Oscillating perfusion resulted in the most efficient technique by yielding higher seeding efficiencies, more homogeneous distribution and stronger cell-matrix interactions. Cell surface density increased with inoculation cell number and then reached a maximum, but significant detachment occurred at greater flow rates. Oxygen plasma treatment of the fibers greatly improved seeding efficiency. Having similar porosity and dimensions, fibrous matrices yielded higher cell surface densities than foams. Fluorescence microscopy and histological analyses in polystyrene and PLLA scaffolds demonstrated that perfusion seeding produced more homogeneous cell distribution, with fibrous matrices presenting greater uniformity than the foams.

  7. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  8. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlan; Gao, Yi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination), respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants. PMID:23189193

  9. A Proteomic Analysis of Seed Development in Brassica campestri L

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlan; Gao, Yi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination), respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants. PMID:23189193

  10. Cytokinin Activity in Avocado Seeds during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, A; Gazit, S

    1970-08-01

    The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds.In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches "horticultural maturity".

  11. Hidden branches: developments in root system architecture.

    PubMed

    Osmont, Karen S; Sibout, Richard; Hardtke, Christian S

    2007-01-01

    The root system is fundamentally important for plant growth and survival because of its role in water and nutrient uptake. Therefore, plants rely on modulation of root system architecture (RSA) to respond to a changing soil environment. Although RSA is a highly plastic trait and varies both between and among species, the basic root system morphology and its plasticity are controlled by inherent genetic factors. These mediate the modification of RSA, mostly at the level of root branching, in response to a suite of biotic and abiotic factors. Recent progress in the understanding of the molecular basis of these responses suggests that they largely feed through hormone homeostasis and signaling pathways. Novel factors implicated in the regulation of RSA in response to the myriad endogenous and exogenous signals are also increasingly isolated through alternative approaches such as quantitative trait locus analysis.

  12. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  13. Global transcriptome analysis of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Seema; Bandhiwal, Nitesh; Shah, Niraj; Kant, Chandra; Gaur, Rashmi; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-01-01

    Understanding developmental processes, especially in non-model crop plants, is extremely important in order to unravel unique mechanisms regulating development. Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds are especially valued for their high carbohydrate and protein content. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying seed development in chickpea, deep sequencing of transcriptomes from four developmental stages was undertaken. In this study, next generation sequencing platform was utilized to sequence the transcriptome of four distinct stages of seed development in chickpea. About 1.3 million reads were generated which were assembled into 51,099 unigenes by merging the de novo and reference assemblies. Functional annotation of the unigenes was carried out using the Uniprot, COG and KEGG databases. RPKM based digital expression analysis revealed specific gene activities at different stages of development which was validated using Real time PCR analysis. More than 90% of the unigenes were found to be expressed in at least one of the four seed tissues. DEGseq was used to determine differentially expressing genes which revealed that only 6.75% of the unigenes were differentially expressed at various stages. Homology based comparison revealed 17.5% of the unigenes to be putatively seed specific. Transcription factors were predicted based on HMM profiles built using TF sequences from five legume plants and analyzed for their differential expression during progression of seed development. Expression analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of important secondary metabolites suggested that chickpea seeds can serve as a good source of antioxidants. Since transcriptomes are a valuable source of molecular markers like simple sequence repeats (SSRs), about 12,000 SSRs were mined in chickpea seed transcriptome and few of them were validated. In conclusion, this study will serve as a valuable resource for improved chickpea breeding. PMID:25566273

  14. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  15. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    PubMed

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA. PMID:23575803

  16. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    PubMed

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  17. Architecture independent environment for developing engineering software on MIMD computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valimohamed, Karim A.; Lopez, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Engineers are constantly faced with solving problems of increasing complexity and detail. Multiple Instruction stream Multiple Data stream (MIMD) computers have been developed to overcome the performance limitations of serial computers. The hardware architectures of MIMD computers vary considerably and are much more sophisticated than serial computers. Developing large scale software for a variety of MIMD computers is difficult and expensive. There is a need to provide tools that facilitate programming these machines. First, the issues that must be considered to develop those tools are examined. The two main areas of concern were architecture independence and data management. Architecture independent software facilitates software portability and improves the longevity and utility of the software product. It provides some form of insurance for the investment of time and effort that goes into developing the software. The management of data is a crucial aspect of solving large engineering problems. It must be considered in light of the new hardware organizations that are available. Second, the functional design and implementation of a software environment that facilitates developing architecture independent software for large engineering applications are described. The topics of discussion include: a description of the model that supports the development of architecture independent software; identifying and exploiting concurrency within the application program; data coherence; engineering data base and memory management.

  18. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  19. Extension of oil biosynthesis during the mid-phase of seed development enhances oil content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Kondo, Maki; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-05-01

    Regulation of oil biosynthesis in plant seeds has been extensively studied, and biotechnological approaches have been designed to increase seed oil content. Oil and protein synthesis is negatively correlated in seeds, but the mechanisms controlling interactions between these two pathways are unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism controlling oil and protein content in seeds. We utilized transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a master transcription factor regulating seed oil biosynthesis, and knockout mutants of major seed storage proteins. Oil and protein biosynthesis in wild-type plants was sequentially activated during early and late seed development, respectively. The negative correlation between oil and protein contents in seeds arises from competition between the pathways. Extension of WRI1 expression during mid-phase of seed development significantly enhanced seed oil content. This study demonstrates that temporal activation of genes involved in oil or storage protein biosynthesis determines the oil/protein ratio in Arabidopsis seeds. These results provide novel insights into potential breeding strategies to generate crops with high oil contents in seeds. PMID:26503031

  20. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V.; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  1. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  2. An open systems architecture for development of a physician's workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Young, C. Y.; Tang, P. C.; Annevelink, J.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a physician's workstation consisting of highly integrated information management tools for use by physicians in patient care. We have designed and implemented an open systems, client/server architecture as a development platform which allows new applications to be easily added to the system. Applications cooperate by exchanging messages via a broadcast message server. PMID:1807649

  3. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  4. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

  5. Microspot target development with seeded and patterned plasma polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S.A.; Miller, D.E.; Corley, R.A.; Tillotson, T.M.; Witt, L.A.

    1984-12-10

    A new class of targets for laser fusion experiments was fabricated using plasma-deposition and etching technology. Plasma polymer coatings seeded with silicon or sulfur were deposited as 300..mu..m diameter microspots inside holes of equal diameter in a pure hydrocarbon polymer film. The target was designed to study large-scale plasma instabilities and measure the temperature and density histories of laser induced plasmas. The microspot target required three new development: freestanding stress-free CH films, technology to define and form holes in CH films, and development of seeded films deposited as 300..mu..m diameter discs, nested tightly in the precision holes. Hydrocarbon films were deposited by plasma polymerization or by solution casting (polystyrene in dichloromethane) onto potassium-chloide-coated glass slides. Holes were defined either by masking with a 300..mu..m diameter disc or by reactive ion etching through a washer mask. Sulfur or silicon seeded CH polymer microspots were deposited through a mask using plasma polymerization. Seeded polymer films were prepared with compositions as high as 12 atomic percent, with most diagnostic targets made with 2 a/o. Silicon seeded polymers, when deposited at 750 mtorr (100 Pa) pressure, wer transparent and colorless.

  6. The development of brain network architecture.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Lara M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Dijk, Sarai; Rijks, Yvonne; de Reus, Marcel A; Durston, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Brain connectivity shows protracted development throughout childhood and adolescence, and, as such, the topology of brain networks changes during this period. The complexity of these changes with development is reflected by regional differences in maturation. This study explored age-related changes in network topology and regional developmental patterns during childhood and adolescence. We acquired two sets of Diffusion Weighted Imaging-scans and anatomical T1-weighted scans. The first dataset included 85 typically developing individuals (53 males; 32 females), aged between 7 and 23 years and was acquired on a Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla scanner. A second dataset (N = 38) was acquired on a different (but identical) 1.5 T scanner and was used for independent replication of our results. We reconstructed whole brain networks using tractography. We operationalized fiber tract development as changes in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity with age. Most fibers showed maturational changes in mean and radial diffusivity values throughout childhood and adolescence, likely reflecting increasing white matter integrity. The largest age-related changes were observed in association fibers within and between the frontal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, there was a simultaneous age-related decrease in average path length (P < 0.0001), increase in node strength (P < 0.0001) as well as network clustering (P = 0.001), which may reflect fine-tuning of topological organization. These results suggest a sequential maturational model where connections between unimodal regions strengthen in childhood, followed by connections from these unimodal regions to association regions, while adolescence is characterized by the strengthening of connections between association regions within the frontal and parietal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 37:717-729, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  8. Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) regulates embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-07-20

    Plant seeds accumulate large amounts of protein and carbohydrate as storage reserves during maturation. Thus, understanding the genetic control of embryo and seed development may provide bioengineering tools for yield improvement. In this study, we report the identification of Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) gene in Arabidopsis, whose two independent T-DNA insertion mutant lines, SALK_085642 (red1-1) and SALK_022583 (red1-2), show a retarded embryo development phenotype. The embryogenesis process ceases at the late heart stage in red1-1 and at the bent-cotyledon stage in red1-2, respectively, resulting in seed abortion in both lines. The retarded embryo development and seed abortion phenotypes reverted to normal when RED1 complementation constructs were introduced into mutant plants. Small red1-2 homozygous plants can be successfully rescued by culturing immature seeds, indicating that seed abortion likely results from compromised tolerance to the desiccation process associated with seed maturation. Consistent with this observation, red1-2 seeds accumulate less protein, and the expression of two late embryo development reporter transgenes, LEA::GUS and β-conglycinin::GUS, was significantly weak and started relatively late in the red1-2 mutant lines compared to the wild type. The RED1 gene encodes a plant specific novel protein that is localized in the nucleus. These results indicate that RED1 plays important roles in embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth. PMID:27477025

  9. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  10. Proteomics of seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination and vigor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan; Møller, Ian Max

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics, the large-scale study of the total complement of proteins in a given sample, has been applied to all aspects of seed biology mainly using model species such as Arabidopsis or important agricultural crops such as corn and rice. Proteins extracted from the sample have typically been separated and quantified by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify the proteins in the gel spots. In this way, qualitative and quantitative changes in the proteome during seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination, dormancy release, vigor alteration and responses to environmental factors have all been studied. Many proteins or biological processes potentially important for each seed process have been highlighted by these studies, which greatly expands our knowledge of seed biology. Proteins that have been identified to be particularly important for at least two of the seed processes are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the cytoskeleton, glycolysis, protein biosynthesis, post-translational modifications, methionine metabolism, and late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins. It will be useful for molecular biologists and molecular plant breeders to identify and study genes encoding particularly interesting target proteins with the aim to improve the yield, stress tolerance or other critical properties of our crop species. PMID:25461695

  11. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  12. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive) models and compatibility (non-additive) models where the strength of selection is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross) in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses of inbred lines, we assayed egg production, egg-to-adult survival, and lifetime offspring production of the outbred F1 daughters (F1 productivity). Results We used the bio model to estimate six components of genetic and environmental variance in fitness. We found sizeable additive and non-additive genetic variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should be inclusive and should include quantifications of offspring reproductive success. We note that our estimate of additive genetic variance in F1 productivity (CVA = 14%) is sufficient to generate indirect selection on female choice. However, our results also show that the major determinant of offspring fitness is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis) for F1 productivity. We

  13. Specialization of Oleosins in Oil Body Dynamics during Seed Development in Arabidopsis Seeds[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miquel, Martine; Trigui, Ghassen; d’Andréa, Sabine; Kelemen, Zsolt; Baud, Sébastien; Berger, Adeline; Deruyffelaere, Carine; Trubuil, Alain; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubreucq, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Oil bodies (OBs) are seed-specific lipid storage organelles that allow the accumulation of neutral lipids that sustain plantlet development after the onset of germination. OBs are covered with specific proteins embedded in a single layer of phospholipids. Using fluorescent dyes and confocal microscopy, we monitored the dynamics of OBs in living Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) embryos at different stages of development. Analyses were carried out with different genotypes: the wild type and three mutants affected in the accumulation of various oleosins (OLE1, OLE2, and OLE4), three major OB proteins. Image acquisition was followed by a detailed statistical analysis of OB size and distribution during seed development in the four dimensions (x, y, z, and t). Our results indicate that OB size increases sharply during seed maturation, in part by OB fusion, and then decreases until the end of the maturation process. In single, double, and triple mutant backgrounds, the size and spatial distribution of OBs are modified, affecting in turn the total lipid content, which suggests that the oleosins studied have specific functions in the dynamics of lipid accumulation. PMID:24515832

  14. Using a cognitive architecture to examine what develops.

    PubMed

    Jones, G; Ritter, F E; Wood, D J

    2000-03-01

    Different theories of development propose alternative mechanisms by which development occurs. Cognitive architectures can be used to examine the influence of each proposed mechanism of development while keeping all other mechanisms constant. An ACT-R computational model that matched adult behavior in solving a 21-block pyramid puzzle was created. The model was modified in three ways that corresponded to mechanisms of development proposed by developmental theories. The results showed that all the modifications (two of capacity and one of strategy choice) could approximate the behavior of 7-year-old children on the task. The strategy-choice modification provided the closest match on the two central measures of task behavior (time taken per layer, r = .99, and construction attempts per layer, r = .73). Modifying cognitive architectures is a fruitful way to compare and test potential developmental mechanisms, and can therefore help in specifying "what develops." PMID:11273427

  15. Sucrose Concentration at the Apoplastic Interface between Seed Coat and Cotyledons of Developing Soybean Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Roger M.; Thorne, John H.

    1985-01-01

    The apoplastic sucrose concentration at the interface between cotyledons and surrounding seed coats of developing soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Wye) was found by three indirect methods to be in the range of 150 to 200 millimolar. This is an order of magnitude higher than has been reported elsewhere for soybean. It was also higher than the overall sucrose concentrations in the cotyledons and seed coats, each of which was approximately 90 millimolar. By defoliating plants 24 hours before measurement, both the overall sucrose concentration in the cotyledons and the interfacial apoplastic sucrose concentration were reduced by three-fourths. However, there was no day/night difference in overall tissue sucrose concentration of cotyledons or seed coats from intact plants suggesting the existence of a homeostatic mechanism compensating for the diurnal photosynthetic cycle. About 7 hours were required for a tritiated polyethylene glycol-900 solution to fully permeate developing cotyledons (from ∼220 milligram fresh weight embryos), implying high diffusion resistance through the tissue. These results indicate that a high interfacial sucrose concentration may exist in vivo. They suggest that the saturable carrier-mediated component of sucrose uptake may be of little physiological significance in the outermost cell layers of the cotyledons. PMID:16664151

  16. TRANSPARENT TESTA8 Inhibits Seed Fatty Acid Accumulation by Targeting Several Seed Development Regulators in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingxun; Xuan, Lijie; Wang, Zhong; Zhou, Longhua; Li, Zhilan; Du, Xue; Ali, Essa; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Lixi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and FA-derived complex lipids play important roles in plant growth and vegetative development and are a class of prominent metabolites stored in mature seeds. The factors and regulatory networks that control FA accumulation in plant seeds remain largely unknown. The role of TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and the formation of seed coat color is extensively studied; however, its function in affecting seed FA biosynthesis is poorly understood. In this article, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TT8 acts maternally to affect seed FA biosynthesis and inhibits seed FA accumulation by down-regulating a group of genes either critical to embryonic development or important in the FA biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the tt8 mutation resulted in reduced deposition of protein in seeds during maturation. Posttranslational activation of a TT8-GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that TT8 represses the activities of LEAFY COTYLEDON1, LEAFY COTYLEDON2, and FUSCA3, the critical transcriptional factors important for seed development, as well as CYTIDINEDIPHOSPHATE DIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE2, which mediates glycerolipid biosynthesis. These results help us to understand the entire function of TT8 and increase our knowledge of the complicated networks regulating the formation of FA-derived complex lipids in plant seeds. PMID:24722549

  17. Flux of transcript patterns during soybean seed development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To understand gene expression networks leading to functional properties of the soybean seed, we have undertaken a detailed examination of soybean seed development during the stages of major accumulation of oils, proteins, and starches, as well as the desiccating and mature stages, using microarrays consisting of up to 27,000 soybean cDNAs. A subset of these genes on a highly-repetitive 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray was also used to support the results. Results It was discovered that genes related to cell growth and maintenance processes, as well as energy processes like photosynthesis, decreased in expression levels as the cotyledons approached the mature, dry stage. Genes involved with some storage proteins had their highest expression levels at the stage of highest fresh weight. However, genes encoding many transcription factors and DNA binding proteins showed higher expression levels in the desiccating and dry seeds than in most of the green stages. Conclusions Data on 27,000 cDNAs have been obtained over five stages of soybean development, including the stages of major accumulation of agronomically-important products, using two different types of microarrays. Of particular interest are the genes found to peak in expression at the desiccating and dry seed stages, such as those annotated as transcription factors, which may indicate the preparation of pathways that will be needed later in the early stages of imbibition and germination. PMID:20181280

  18. Dryland Wheat Domestication Changed the Development of Aboveground Architecture for a Well-Structured Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu-Fang; Cheng, Zheng-Guo; Ma, Bao-Luo; Palta, Jairo A.; Kong, Hai-Yan; Mo, Fei; Wang, Jian-Yong; Zhu, Ying; Lv, Guang-Chao; Batool, Asfa; Bai, Xue; Li, Feng-Min; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-01-01

    We examined three different-ploidy wheat species to elucidate the development of aboveground architecture and its domesticated mechanism under environment-controlled field conditions. Architecture parameters including leaf, stem, spike and canopy morphology were measured together with biomass allocation, leaf net photosynthetic rate and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi). Canopy biomass density was decreased from diploid to tetraploid wheat, but increased to maximum in hexaploid wheat. Population yield in hexaploid wheat was higher than in diploid wheat, but the population fitness and individual competition ability was higher in diploid wheats. Plant architecture was modified from a compact type in diploid wheats to an incompact type in tetraploid wheats, and then to a more compact type of hexaploid wheats. Biomass accumulation, population yield, harvest index and the seed to leaf ratio increased from diploid to tetraploid and hexaploid, associated with heavier specific internode weight and greater canopy biomass density in hexaploid and tetraploid than in diploid wheat. Leaf photosynthetic rate and WUEi were decreased from diploid to tetraploid and increased from tetraploid to hexaploid due to more compact leaf type in hexaploid and diploid than in tetraploid. Grain yield formation and WUEi were closely associated with spatial stance of leaves and stems. We conclude that the ideotype of dryland wheats could be based on spatial reconstruction of leaf type and further exertion of leaf photosynthetic rate. PMID:25181037

  19. A lipid transfer protein, OsLTPL36, is essential for seed development and seed quality in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Zhanhua; Ouyang, Yidan; O, Chol Su; Yao, Jialing

    2015-10-01

    Storage lipid is a vital component for maintaining structure of seed storage substances and valuable for rice quality and food texture. However, the knowledge of lipid transporting related genes and their function in seed development have not been well elucidated yet. In this study, we identified OsLTPL36, a homolog of putative lipid transport protein, and showed specific expression in rice developing seed. Transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that OsLTPL36 was exclusively expressed in developing seed coat and endosperm aleurone cells. Down-regulated expression of OsLTPL36 led to decreased seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight in transgenic plants. Further studies showed that suppressed expression of OsLTPL36 caused chalky endosperm and resulted in reduced fat acid content in RNAi lines as compared with wild type (WT). Histological analysis showed that the embryo development was delayed after down regulation of OsLTPL36. Moreover, impeded seed germination and puny seedling were also observed in the OsLTPL36 RNAi lines. The data demonstrated that OsLTPL36, a lipid transporter, was critical important not only for seed quality but also for seed development and germination in rice.

  20. Reducing Development and Operations Costs using NASA's "GMSEC" Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan; Bristow, John; Crouse, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the role of Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) in reducing development and operation costs in handling the massive data from NASA missions. The goals of GMSEC systems architecture development are to (1) Simplify integration and development, (2)Facilitate technology infusion over time, (3) Support evolving operational concepts, and (4) All for mix of heritage, COTS and new components. First 3 missions (i.e., Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM), Small Explorer (SMEX) missions - SWAS, TRACE, SAMPEX, and ST5 3-Satellite Constellation System) each selected a different telemetry and command system. These results show that GMSEC's message-bus component-based framework architecture is well proven and provides significant benefits over traditional flight and ground data system designs. The missions benefit through increased set of product options, enhanced automation, lower cost and new mission-enabling operations concept options .

  1. The seed nuclear proteome

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight. PMID:23267364

  2. Lipid profiling of developing Jatropha curcas L. seeds using (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Annarao, Sanjay; Sidhu, O P; Roy, Raja; Tuli, Rakesh; Khetrapal, C L

    2008-12-01

    Seed development in Jatropha curcas L. was studied with respect to phenology, oil content, lipid profile and concentration of sterols. Seeds were collected at various stages of development starting from one week after fertilization and in an interval of five days thereafter till maturity. These were classified as stage I to stage VII. Moisture content of the seeds ranged from 8.8 to 90.3%; the lowest in mature seeds in stage VII and highest in stage I. The seed area increased as the seed grew from stage I to stage VI (0.2-10.2mm(2) per seed), however, the seed area shrunk at stage VII. Increase in seed area corresponded to increase in fresh weight of the seeds. (1)H NMR spectroscopy of hexane extracts made at different stages of seed development revealed the presence of free fatty acids (FFA), methyl esters of fatty acids (FAME) and triglycerol esters (TAG), along with small quantity of sterols. The young seeds synthesized predominantly polar lipids. Lipid synthesis was noticed nearly three weeks after fertilization. From the fourth week the seeds actively synthesized TAG. Stage III is a turning point in seed development since at this stage, the concentration of sterols decreased to negligible, there was very little FAME formation, accumulation of TAG increased substantially, and there was a sudden decrease in FFA concentration. The findings can be helpful in understanding the biosynthesis and in efforts to improve biosynthesis of TAG and reduce FFA content in the mature seeds. PMID:18534845

  3. Integrity Constraint Monitoring in Software Development: Proposed Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.

    1997-01-01

    In the development of complex software systems, designers are required to obtain from many sources and manage vast amounts of knowledge of the system being built and communicate this information to personnel with a variety of backgrounds. Knowledge concerning the properties of the system, including the structure of, relationships between and limitations of the data objects in the system, becomes increasingly more vital as the complexity of the system and the number of knowledge sources increases. Ensuring that violations of these properties do not occur becomes steadily more challenging. One approach toward managing the enforcement or system properties, called context monitoring, uses a centralized repository of integrity constraints and a constraint satisfiability mechanism for dynamic verification of property enforcement during program execution. The focus of this paper is to describe possible software architectures that define a mechanism for dynamically checking the satisfiability of a set of constraints on a program. The next section describes the context monitoring approach in general. Section 3 gives an overview of the work currently being done toward the addition of an integrity constraint satisfiability mechanism to a high-level program language, SequenceL, and demonstrates how this model is being examined to develop a general software architecture. Section 4 describes possible architectures for a general constraint satisfiability mechanism, as well as an alternative approach that, uses embedded database queries in lieu of an external monitor. The paper concludes with a brief summary outlining the, current state of the research and future work.

  4. Development of the network architecture of the Canadian MSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, N. George; Shoamanesh, Alireza; Leung, Victor C. M.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the present concept for the Canadian Mobile Satellite (MSAT) System and the development of the network architecture which will accommodate the planned family of three categories of service: a mobile radio service (MRS), a mobile telephone service (MTS), and a mobile data service (MDS). The MSAT satellite will have cross-strapped L-band and Ku-band transponders to provide communications services between L-band mobile terminals and fixed base stations supporting dispatcher-type MRS, gateway stations supporting MTS interconnections to the public telephone network, data hub stations supporting the MDS, and the network control center. The currently perceived centralized architecture with demand assignment multiple access for the circuit switched MRS, MTS and permanently assigned channels for the packet switched MDS is discussed.

  5. Global gene expression profiles in developing soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Tomiko; Tamura, Tomoko; Terauchi, Kaede; Narikawa, Tomoyo; Yagasaki, Kazuhiro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko

    2012-03-01

    The gene expression profiles in soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds at 4 stages of development, namely, pod, 2-mm bean, 5-mm bean, and full-size bean, were examined by DNA microarray analysis. The total genes of each sample were classified into 4 clusters based on stage of development. Gene expression was strictly controlled by seed size, which coincides with the development stage. First, stage specific gene expression was examined. Many transcription factors were expressed in pod, 2-mm bean and 5-mm bean. In contrast, storage proteins were mainly expressed in full-size bean. Next, we extracted the genes that are differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were extracted using the Rank products method of the Bioconductor software package. These DEGs were sorted into 8 groups using the hclust function according to gene expression patterns. Three of the groups across which the expression levels progressively increased included 100 genes, while 3 groups across which the levels decreased contained 47 genes. Storage proteins, seed-maturation proteins, some protease inhibitors, and the allergen Gly m Bd 28K were classified into the former groups. Lipoxygenase (LOX) family members were present in both the groups, indicating the multi-functionality with different expression patterns. PMID:22245912

  6. Systems Engineering Education Development(SEED)Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Development Program (SEED) was initiated to help Goddard resolve a Systems Engineering skill shortage. The chronology of events and the experiences of the pilot program are outlined to describe the development of the present program. The program goals are included in order to give a focus on what the developers saw as the program drivers. Lessons learned from a pilot program were incorporated into the present program. This program is constantly learning from its past efforts and looks for continuous improvement. We list several future ideas for improvement and change.

  7. The role of photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism in the energy status during seed development.

    PubMed

    Galili, Gad; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are the major organs responsible for the evolutionary upkeep of angiosperm plants. Seeds accumulate significant amounts of storage compounds used as nutrients and energy reserves during the initial stages of seed germination. The accumulation of storage compounds requires significant amounts of energy, the generation of which can be limited due to reduced penetration of oxygen and light particularly into the inner parts of seeds. In this review, we discuss the adjustment of seed metabolism to limited energy production resulting from the suboptimal penetration of oxygen into the seed tissues. We also discuss the role of photosynthesis during seed development and its contribution to the energy status of developing seeds. Finally, we describe the contribution of amino acid metabolism to the seed energy status, focusing on the Asp-family pathway that leads to the synthesis and catabolism of Lys, Thr, Met, and Ile. PMID:25232362

  8. The role of photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism in the energy status during seed development

    PubMed Central

    Galili, Gad; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are the major organs responsible for the evolutionary upkeep of angiosperm plants. Seeds accumulate significant amounts of storage compounds used as nutrients and energy reserves during the initial stages of seed germination. The accumulation of storage compounds requires significant amounts of energy, the generation of which can be limited due to reduced penetration of oxygen and light particularly into the inner parts of seeds. In this review, we discuss the adjustment of seed metabolism to limited energy production resulting from the suboptimal penetration of oxygen into the seed tissues. We also discuss the role of photosynthesis during seed development and its contribution to the energy status of developing seeds. Finally, we describe the contribution of amino acid metabolism to the seed energy status, focusing on the Asp-family pathway that leads to the synthesis and catabolism of Lys, Thr, Met, and Ile. PMID:25232362

  9. SpaceWire model development technology for satellite architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Leemaster, Jacob Edward; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2011-09-01

    Packet switched data communications networks that use distributed processing architectures have the potential to simplify the design and development of new, increasingly more sophisticated satellite payloads. In addition, the use of reconfigurable logic may reduce the amount of redundant hardware required in space-based applications without sacrificing reliability. These concepts were studied using software modeling and simulation, and the results are presented in this report. Models of the commercially available, packet switched data interconnect SpaceWire protocol were developed and used to create network simulations of data networks containing reconfigurable logic with traffic flows for timing system distribution.

  10. Development of an unmanned maritime system reference architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Christiane N.; Cramer, Megan A.; Stack, Jason R.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of operations (CONOPS) for unmanned maritime systems (UMS) continues to envision systems that are multi-mission, re-configurable and capable of acceptable performance over a wide range of environmental and contextual variability. Key enablers for these concepts of operation are an autonomy module which can execute different mission directives and a mission payload consisting of re-configurable sensor or effector suites. This level of modularity in mission payloads enables affordability, flexibility (i.e., more capability with future platforms) and scalability (i.e., force multiplication). The modularity in autonomy facilitates rapid technology integration, prototyping, testing and leveraging of state-of-the-art advances in autonomy research. Capability drivers imply a requirement to maintain an open architecture design for both research and acquisition programs. As the maritime platforms become more stable in their design (e.g. unmanned surface vehicles, unmanned underwater vehicles) future developments are able to focus on more capable sensors and more robust autonomy algorithms. To respond to Fleet needs, given an evolving threat, programs will want to interchange the latest sensor or a new and improved algorithm in a cost effective and efficient manner. In order to make this possible, the programs need a reference architecture that will define for technology providers where their piece fits and how to successfully integrate. With these concerns in mind, the US Navy established the Unmanned Maritime Systems Reference Architecture (UMS-RA) Working Group in August 2011. This group consists of Department of Defense and industry participants working the problem of defining reference architecture for autonomous operations of maritime systems. This paper summarizes its efforts to date.

  11. The Genetic Architecture of Seed Composition in Soybean Is Refined by Genome-Wide Association Scans Across Multiple Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Justin N.; Nelson, Randall L.; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B.; Li, Zenglu

    2014-01-01

    Soybean oil and meal are major contributors to world-wide food production. Consequently, the genetic basis for soybean seed composition has been intensely studied using family-based mapping. Population-based mapping approaches, in the form of genome-wide association (GWA) scans, have been able to resolve loci controlling moderately complex quantitative traits (QTL) in numerous crop species. Yet, it is still unclear how soybean’s unique population history will affect GWA scans. Using one of the populations in this study, we simulated phenotypes resulting from a range of genetic architectures. We found that with a heritability of 0.5, ∼100% and ∼33% of the 4 and 20 simulated QTL can be recovered, respectively, with a false-positive rate of less than ∼6×10−5 per marker tested. Additionally, we demonstrated that combining information from multi-locus mixed models and compressed linear-mixed models improves QTL identification and interpretation. We applied these insights to exploring seed composition in soybean, refining the linkage group I (chromosome 20) protein QTL and identifying additional oil QTL that may allow some decoupling of highly correlated oil and protein phenotypes. Because the value of protein meal is closely related to its essential amino acid profile, we attempted to identify QTL underlying methionine, threonine, cysteine, and lysine content. Multiple QTL were found that have not been observed in family-based mapping studies, and each trait exhibited associations across multiple populations. Chromosomes 1 and 8 contain strong candidate alleles for essential amino acid increases. Overall, we present these and additional data that will be useful in determining breeding strategies for the continued improvement of soybean’s nutrient portfolio. PMID:25246241

  12. Rapid separation of developing Arabidopsis seeds from siliques for RNA or metabolite analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein, starch and oil produced in plant seeds are major renewable sources of food, chemicals and biofuels. Developing Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are commonly utilized as a model for seed crop research. However, due to the very small size of Arabidopsis seeds efficient collection of large amounts of tissue for gene expression or metabolite analysis is very difficult and time consuming. Results/conclusions Here we describe a method that allows very rapid separation and collection of large amounts of developing Arabidopsis seeds from their encapsulating silique tissue after flash freezing whole siliques in liquid nitrogen. The efficient popping open of the frozen siliques on dry ice and filtering the seeds away from the silique tissue with liquid nitrogen cooled funnels and sieves allows large amounts of developing seeds to be quickly isolated while remaining frozen. This method increases the speed of developing seed collection approximately 10 fold over methods which dissect individual siliques one at a time. PMID:23531158

  13. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating.

  14. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating. PMID:22672421

  15. Maternal synthesis of abscisic acid controls seed development and yield in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anne; Godin, Béatrice; Bonnet, Magda; Sotta, Bruno; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2004-04-01

    The role of maternally derived abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development has been studied using ABA-deficient mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viviani. ABA deficiency induced seed abortion, resulting in reduced seed yield, and delayed growth of the remaining embryos. Mutant grafting onto wild-type stocks and reciprocal crosses indicated that maternal ABA, synthesized in maternal vegetative tissues and translocated to the seed, promoted early seed development and growth. Moreover ABA deficiency delayed both seed coat pigmentation and capsule dehiscence. Mutant grafting did not restore these phenotypes, indicating that ABA synthesized in the seed coat and capsule envelope may have a positive effect on capsule and testa maturation. Together these results shed light on the positive role of maternal ABA during N. plumbaginifolia seed development.

  16. Two Additional Phosphorylases in Developing Maize Seeds 12

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. Y.; Nelson, O. E.

    1969-01-01

    Two additional phosphorylases (III and IV) have been detected in developing seeds of maize. Phosphorylase IV is found only in the embryo (with scutellum). It is also present in the embryo of the germinating seed where its activity is 90-fold greater than the activity in the developing embryo 22 days after pollination. Phosphorylase IV is eluted from a DEAE-cellulose column in the same fraction as phosphorylase I of the endosperm, and the 2 enzymes are similar in many respects. Phosphorylase IV is distinguished from phosphorylase I by electrophoretic mobility, by pH optimum, and because its properties are not affected by the shrunken-4 mutation. Phosphorylase III is found both in the endosperms and embryos of developing seeds. Activity for this enzyme is not detected in crude homogenates nor eluates from a DEAE-cellulose column apparently because it complexes with a non-dialyzable, heat-labile inhibitor. High activity is found after protamine sulfate fractionation. Phosphorylase III is bound to protamine sulfate and is then removed by washing with 0.3 m phosphate buffer. Phosphorylase III activity in the endosperm is not detectable 8 days after pollination but is present 12 days after pollination. Phosphorylase III differs from phosphorylases I, II, and IV in several respects—pH optimum, pH-independent ATP inhibition, time of appearance in the endosperm, and because purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are equally inhibitory. In common with phosphorylase II, phosphorylase III apparently does not require a primer to initiate the synthesis of an amylose-like polymer. PMID:5774172

  17. RNA extraction from developing or mature wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grains, as storage tissues of the plant, contain high amounts of starch. Purification of RNA from plant tissue especially from seed tissue can be challenging due to this high starch content. Starch coprecipitates with RNA in the presence of isopropanol or ethanol and can interfere with the extraction process and downstream reactions. Thus the removal of starch by using appropriate methods is necessary for obtaining pure RNA to be processed for functional genomics analysis. We describe a method to isolate large amount of good-quality RNA from developing and mature wheat grain which can also be adapted to other cereal grains.

  18. On-board B-ISDN fast packet switching architectures. Phase 2: Development. Proof-of-concept architecture definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Dong-Jye; Redman, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    For the next-generation packet switched communications satellite system with onboard processing and spot-beam operation, a reliable onboard fast packet switch is essential to route packets from different uplink beams to different downlink beams. The rapid emergence of point-to-point services such as video distribution, and the large demand for video conference, distributed data processing, and network management makes the multicast function essential to a fast packet switch (FPS). The satellite's inherent broadcast features gives the satellite network an advantage over the terrestrial network in providing multicast services. This report evaluates alternate multicast FPS architectures for onboard baseband switching applications and selects a candidate for subsequent breadboard development. Architecture evaluation and selection will be based on the study performed in phase 1, 'Onboard B-ISDN Fast Packet Switching Architectures', and other switch architectures which have become commercially available as large scale integration (LSI) devices.

  19. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  20. Identification of a molecular dialogue between developing seeds of Medicago truncatula and seedborne xanthomonads.

    PubMed

    Terrasson, Emmanuel; Darrasse, Armelle; Righetti, Karima; Buitink, Julia; Lalanne, David; Ly Vu, Benoit; Pelletier, Sandra; Bolingue, William; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Leprince, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria disseminate and survive mainly in association with seeds. This study addresses whether seeds are passive carriers or engage a molecular dialogue with pathogens during their development. We developed two pathosystems using Medicago truncatula with Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. alfalfae (Xaa), the natural Medicago sp. pathogen and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a Brassicaceae pathogen. Three days after flower inoculation, the transcriptome of Xcc-infected pods showed activation of an innate immune response that was strongly limited in Xcc mutated in the type three secretion system, demonstrating an incompatible interaction of Xcc with the reproductive structures. In contrast, the presence of Xaa did not result in an activation of defence genes. Transcriptome profiling during development of infected seeds exhibited time-dependent and differential responses to Xcc and Xaa. Gene network analysis revealed that the transcriptome of Xcc-infected seeds was mainly affected during seed filling whereas that of Xaa-infected seeds responded during late maturation. The Xcc-infected seed transcriptome exhibited an activation of defence response and a repression of targeted seed maturation pathways. Fifty-one percent of putative ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 targets were deregulated by Xcc, including oleosin, cupin, legumin and chlorophyll degradation genes. At maturity, these seeds displayed decreased weight and increased chlorophyll content. In contrast, these traits were not affected by Xaa infection. These findings demonstrate the existence of a complex molecular dialogue between xanthomonads and developing seeds and provides insights into a previously unexplored trade-off between seed development and pathogen defence.

  1. Exclusionary interactions among diverse fungi infecting developing seeds of Centaurea stoebe.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Anil Kumar H; Newcombe, George; Shipunov, Alexey; Baynes, Melissa; Tank, David

    2013-04-01

    Developing seeds are expected to be strongly defended against microbial attack. In keeping with this, only 26% of seeds of Centaurea stoebe from its native and invaded ranges in Eurasia and North America were infected with fungi, and 92.2% of those were infected with a single fungus per seed. Even when developing seeds in flower heads were inoculated under conducive conditions for infection with 14 of these seed-infecting fungi, re-isolation of inoculants was only 16% overall, and again limited to the particular inoculant. Environmental fungi (i.e. those not isolated from seed of C. stoebe) were present in control flower heads under conditions conducive to infection but they were never re-isolated from fully developed seeds in any experiments. When two or three seed isolates were co-inoculated to compete in flower heads, only one inoculant, and always the same one, was re-isolated from all matured seeds, regardless of maternal plant genotype. PCR-based detection methods confirmed that these fungal interactions were exclusionary rather than suppressive. In these strongly defended, developing seeds, we had expected the plant to control not only the overall level of infection but also the outcome of co-inoculations. Consequences for the next plant generation of this exclusionary competition among seed-infecting fungi included effects on seedling emergence, growth and fecundity.

  2. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity. PMID:12223597

  3. Evolving concepts of lunar architecture: The potential of subselene development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daga, Andrew W.; Daga, Meryl A.; Wendel, Wendel R.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the superior environmental and operational conditions that are thought to exist in lava tubes, popular visions of permanent settlements built upon the lunar surface may prove to be entirely romantic. The factors that will ultimately come together to determine the design of a lunar base are complex and interrelated, and they call for a radical architectural solution. Whether lunar surface-deployed superstructures can answer these issues is called into question. One particularly troublesome concern in any lunar base design is the need for vast amounts of space, and the ability of man-made structures to provide such volumes in a reliable pressurized habitat is doubtful. An examination of several key environmental design issues suggests that the alternative mode of subselene development may offer the best opportunity for an enduring and humane settlement.

  4. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. PMID:25142352

  5. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events.

  6. Developing the architecture for the Climate Information Portal for Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Thijsse, Peter; Plieger, Maarten; Pascoe, Stephen; Jukes, Martin; Leadbetter, Adam; Goosen, Hasse; de Vreede, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    environment and society, but will develop an end to end processing chain (indicator toolkit), from comprehensive information on the climate state through to highly aggregated decision relevant products. This processing chain will be demonstrated within three thematic areas: water, rural and urban. Indicators of climate change and climate change impact will be provided, and a toolkit to update and post process the collection of indicators will be integrated into the portal. For the indicators three levels (Tiers) have been loosely defined: Tier 1: field summarising properties of the climate system; e.g. temperature change; Tier 2: expressed in terms of environmental properties outside the climate system; e.g. flooding change; Tier 3: expressed in social and economic impact. For the architecture, CLIPC has two interlocked themes: 1. Harmonised access to climate datasets derived from models, observations and re-analyses 2. A climate impact toolkit to evaluate, rank and aggregate indicators For development of the CLIPC architecture an Agile 'storyline' approach is taken. The storyline is a real world use case and consists of producing a Tier 3 indicator (Urban Heat Vulnerability) and making it available through the CLIPC infrastructure for a user group. In this way architecture concepts can be directly tested and improved. Also, the produced indicator can be shown to users to refine requirements. Main components of the CLIPC architecture are 1) Data discovery and access, 2) Data processing, 3) Data visualization, 4) Knowledge base and 5) User Management. The Data discovery and access component main challenge is to provide harmonized access to various sources of climate data (ngEO, EMODNET/SeaDataNet, ESGF, MyOcean). The discovery service concept will be provided using a CLIPC data and data product catalogue and via a structured data search on selected infrastructures, using NERC vocabulary services and mappings. Data processing will be provided using OGC WPS services, linking

  7. Final results of the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P-0004-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1992-01-01

    Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS), resulted in the distribution of over 132,000 SEED kits in 1990. The kits contained Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) as well as seeds that had been stored in a climate controlled warehouse for the same period of time. Students compared germination and growth rate characteristics of the two seeds groups and returned data to NASA for analysis. The scientific information gained was valuable as students shared the excitement of taking part in a national project. Of greater importance was the subsequent interest generated in science education.

  8. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-dong; Hu, Jin; Huang, Xin-xian; Wang, Xian-ju; Guan, Ya-jing; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2008-01-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index gradually increased along with seed development and reached the highest levels at 38 d after pollination (DAP). The TSR showed that, during 14 to 42 DAP, total soluble sugar content was independent of the vigor parameters determined in present experiment, while the reducing sugar content had a significant effect on seed vigor. TSR equations between seed reducing sugar and seed vigor were also developed. There were negative correlations between the seed reducing sugar content and the germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index, respectively. It is suggested that the seed germination, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index could be predicted by the content of reducing sugar in sweet corn seeds during seed development stages. PMID:19067464

  9. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-dong; Hu, Jin; Huang, Xin-xian; Wang, Xian-ju; Guan, Ya-jing; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2008-12-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index gradually increased along with seed development and reached the highest levels at 38 d after pollination (DAP). The TSR showed that, during 14 to 42 DAP, total soluble sugar content was independent of the vigor parameters determined in present experiment, while the reducing sugar content had a significant effect on seed vigor. TSR equations between seed reducing sugar and seed vigor were also developed. There were negative correlations between the seed reducing sugar content and the germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index, respectively. It is suggested that the seed germination, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index could be predicted by the content of reducing sugar in sweet corn seeds during seed development stages. PMID:19067464

  10. RELAP5-3D Architectural Developments in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L. Mesina

    2004-08-01

    Currently, RELAP5 is undergoing a transformation that will replace much of its coding with equivalent structured Fortran 90 coding. Four efforts are underway to modernize the code architecture of RELAP5-3D. These are parallelization, vectorization, code restructuring, and conversion to Fortran 90. The first two improve code run speed via on computer platforms of certain architectures. These code modifications have little effect on normal code performance on non-vector and non-parallel computers because they are mostly done with compiler directives. The third and fourth efforts involve considerable rewriting of the source code. The third code improvement effort addresses code readability and maintainability. These are being greatly enhanced by application of a Fortran code-restructuring tool. The fourth effort is conversion to Fortran 90. The bulk of the coding is being rewritten in Fortran 90. This is a ground up reworking of the coding that begins with completely reorganizing the underlying database and continues with the source code. It will reach every part of RELAP5-3D. Each of these efforts is discussed in detail in a different section. Section 1 relates background information. Section 2 covers the parallelization effort. Section 3 covers the efforts to vectorize the code. Section 4 covers the code restructuring. Section 5 covers the Fortran 90 effort. Outline Background: longevity, maintenance & development, reliability, speed Parallelization: KAI to OpenMP, previous work & current, domain decomposition, done. Vectorization: Speed - Fed init, vectors in PCs, INL Cray SV1, R5 Phant, EXV, results. Code Restructuring: Reason to restructure, study of restruct, For Study: what it does, Fortran 90: Modernization -

  11. Application developer's tutorial for the CSM testbed architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Phillip; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    This tutorial serves as an illustration of the use of the programmer interface on the CSM Testbed Architecture (NICE). It presents a complete, but simple, introduction to using both the GAL-DBM (Global Access Library-Database Manager) and CLIP (Command Language Interface Program) to write a NICE processor. Familiarity with the CSM Testbed architecture is required.

  12. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  13. Developing the architecture for the Climate Information Portal for Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Thijsse, Peter; Plieger, Maarten; Pascoe, Stephen; Jukes, Martin; Leadbetter, Adam; Goosen, Hasse; de Vreede, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    environment and society, but will develop an end to end processing chain (indicator toolkit), from comprehensive information on the climate state through to highly aggregated decision relevant products. This processing chain will be demonstrated within three thematic areas: water, rural and urban. Indicators of climate change and climate change impact will be provided, and a toolkit to update and post process the collection of indicators will be integrated into the portal. For the indicators three levels (Tiers) have been loosely defined: Tier 1: field summarising properties of the climate system; e.g. temperature change; Tier 2: expressed in terms of environmental properties outside the climate system; e.g. flooding change; Tier 3: expressed in social and economic impact. For the architecture, CLIPC has two interlocked themes: 1. Harmonised access to climate datasets derived from models, observations and re-analyses 2. A climate impact toolkit to evaluate, rank and aggregate indicators For development of the CLIPC architecture an Agile 'storyline' approach is taken. The storyline is a real world use case and consists of producing a Tier 3 indicator (Urban Heat Vulnerability) and making it available through the CLIPC infrastructure for a user group. In this way architecture concepts can be directly tested and improved. Also, the produced indicator can be shown to users to refine requirements. Main components of the CLIPC architecture are 1) Data discovery and access, 2) Data processing, 3) Data visualization, 4) Knowledge base and 5) User Management. The Data discovery and access component main challenge is to provide harmonized access to various sources of climate data (ngEO, EMODNET/SeaDataNet, ESGF, MyOcean). The discovery service concept will be provided using a CLIPC data and data product catalogue and via a structured data search on selected infrastructures, using NERC vocabulary services and mappings. Data processing will be provided using OGC WPS services, linking

  14. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat. PMID:26475192

  15. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat.

  16. Development of 873 nm Raman Seed Pulse for Raman-seeded Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigsby, F.; Peng, D.; Downer, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    By using a Raman-shifted seed pulse coincident with a main driving pulse, laser wakefields can be generated with sub-relativistic intensity, coherent control and high repetition rate in the self-modulated regime. Experimentally, the generation of a chirped Stokes laser pulse by inserting a solid state Raman shifter, Ba(NO3)2, into a CPA system before the compressor (to suppress self-phase modulation) will be described. We will also report on design, modeling and experimental demonstration of a novel compressor for the Stokes pulse that uses a mismatched grating pair to achieve a near transform-limited seed pulse. Finally, we will describe the design, simulation and current status of Raman-seeded LWFA experiments that use this novel source.

  17. The development of juvenile plants of the hybrid orchid Bratonia after seed cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Popov, A S; Popova, E V; Nikishina, T V; Kolomeytseva, G L

    2004-01-01

    The development of juvenile plants of hybrid Bratonia orchid in vitro after seed storage in liquid nitrogen and the effect of nutrient medium composition on protocorm multiplication and plant regeneration were investigated. Cryopreservation did not inhibit the germination rate of seeds. Protocorms derived from cryopreserved seeds developed faster than protocorms from control (unfrozen) seeds during the first 45 days. But during further culturing, this tendency was not retained and finally protocorms from cryopreserved seeds had the same size as control ones. There were no significant differences in leaf number and shoot length between juvenile plants derived from unfrozen and cryopreserved seeds. We found that among four tested media liquid Morel medium was the most preferable for protocorm multiplication, and liquid ?S medium with half-strength macronutrients was the best one for the development of juvenile plants.

  18. Factors to consider in developing variable rate seeding prescriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growing number of variable rate seeding (VRS)-enabled planters and wide-spread on-farm use of GPS technology make it easier than ever to deploy a VRS strategy. However, growers still need reliable methods to identify candidate fields, select appropriate seeding rates and evaluate whether their s...

  19. Developing a scalable modeling architecture for studying survivability technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Syed; Bounker, Paul; Mason, James; Brister, Jason; Shady, Dan; Tucker, David

    2006-05-01

    To facilitate interoperability of models in a scalable environment, and provide a relevant virtual environment in which Survivability technologies can be evaluated, the US Army Research Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Modeling Architecture for Technology Research and Experimentation (MATREX) Science and Technology Objective (STO) program has initiated the Survivability Thread which will seek to address some of the many technical and programmatic challenges associated with the effort. In coordination with different Thread customers, such as the Survivability branches of various Army labs, a collaborative group has been formed to define the requirements for the simulation environment that would in turn provide them a value-added tool for assessing models and gauge system-level performance relevant to Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Survivability requirements of other burgeoning programs. An initial set of customer requirements has been generated in coordination with the RDECOM Survivability IPT lead, through the Survivability Technology Area at RDECOM Tank-automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, Warren, MI). The results of this project are aimed at a culminating experiment and demonstration scheduled for September, 2006, which will include a multitude of components from within RDECOM and provide the framework for future experiments to support Survivability research. This paper details the components with which the MATREX Survivability Thread was created and executed, and provides insight into the capabilities currently demanded by the Survivability faculty within RDECOM.

  20. Adaptation of pancreatic islet cyto-architecture during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegel, Deborah A.; Hara, Manami; Periwal, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    Plasma glucose in mammals is regulated by hormones secreted by the islets of Langerhans embedded in the exocrine pancreas. Islets consist of endocrine cells, primarily α, β, and δ cells, which secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively. β cells form irregular locally connected clusters within islets that act in concert to secrete insulin upon glucose stimulation. Varying demands and available nutrients during development produce changes in the local connectivity of β cells in an islet. We showed in earlier work that graph theory provides a framework for the quantification of the seemingly stochastic cyto-architecture of β cells in an islet. To quantify the dynamics of endocrine connectivity during development requires a framework for characterizing changes in the probability distribution on the space of possible graphs, essentially a Fokker-Planck formalism on graphs. With large-scale imaging data for hundreds of thousands of islets containing millions of cells from human specimens, we show that this dynamics can be determined quantitatively. Requiring that rearrangement and cell addition processes match the observed dynamic developmental changes in quantitative topological graph characteristics strongly constrained possible processes. Our results suggest that there is a transient shift in preferred connectivity for β cells between 1-35 weeks and 12-24 months.

  1. Adaptation of pancreatic islet cyto-architecture during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegel, Deborah A.; Hara, Manami; Periwal, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    Plasma glucose in mammals is regulated by hormones secreted by the islets of Langerhans embedded in the exocrine pancreas. Islets consist of endocrine cells, primarily α, β, and δ cells, which secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively. β cells form irregular locally connected clusters within islets that act in concert to secrete insulin upon glucose stimulation. Varying demands and available nutrients during development produce changes in the local connectivity of β cells in an islet. We showed in earlier work that graph theory provides a framework for the quantification of the seemingly stochastic cyto-architecture of β cells in an islet. To quantify the dynamics of endocrine connectivity during development requires a framework for characterizing changes in the probability distribution on the space of possible graphs, essentially a Fokker-Planck formalism on graphs. With large-scale imaging data for hundreds of thousands of islets containing millions of cells from human specimens, we show that this dynamics can be determined quantitatively. Requiring that rearrangement and cell addition processes match the observed dynamic developmental changes in quantitative topological graph characteristics strongly constrained possible processes. Our results suggest that there is a transient shift in preferred connectivity for β cells between 1–35 weeks and 12–24 months.

  2. Seed development and viviparous germination in one accession of a tomato rin mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Lili; Xu, Xiaochun; Qu, Wei; Li, Jingfu; Xu, Xiangyang; Wang, Aoxue

    2016-06-01

    In an experimental field, seed vivipary occurred in one accession of tomato rin mutant fruit at approximately 45-50 days after pollination (DAP). In this study, the possible contributory factors to this viviparous germination were investigated. Firstly, developing seeds were freshly excised from the fruit tissue every 5 days from 25-60 DAP. Germination occurred when isolated seeds were incubated on water, but was inhibited when they remained ex situ in fruit mucilage gel. The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, separate and together, on germination of developing seeds was investigated. Additionally, ABA content in the seed and mucilage gel, as well as fruit osmolality were measured. The results showed that ABA concentrations in seeds were low during early development and increased later, peaking at about 50 DAP. ABA concentrations in rin accession were similar to those of the control cultivar and thus are not directly associated with the occurrence of vivipary. Developing seeds of rin accession are more sensitive than control seeds to all inhibitory compounds. However, osmolality in rin fruit at later developmental stages becomes less negative that is required to permit germination of developing seeds. Hence, hypo-osmolality in rin fruit may be an important factor in permitting limited viviparous germination. PMID:27436947

  3. Seed development and viviparous germination in one accession of a tomato rin mutant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Lili; Xu, Xiaochun; Qu, Wei; Li, Jingfu; Xu, Xiangyang; Wang, Aoxue

    2016-01-01

    In an experimental field, seed vivipary occurred in one accession of tomato rin mutant fruit at approximately 45–50 days after pollination (DAP). In this study, the possible contributory factors to this viviparous germination were investigated. Firstly, developing seeds were freshly excised from the fruit tissue every 5 days from 25–60 DAP. Germination occurred when isolated seeds were incubated on water, but was inhibited when they remained ex situ in fruit mucilage gel. The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, separate and together, on germination of developing seeds was investigated. Additionally, ABA content in the seed and mucilage gel, as well as fruit osmolality were measured. The results showed that ABA concentrations in seeds were low during early development and increased later, peaking at about 50 DAP. ABA concentrations in rin accession were similar to those of the control cultivar and thus are not directly associated with the occurrence of vivipary. Developing seeds of rin accession are more sensitive than control seeds to all inhibitory compounds. However, osmolality in rin fruit at later developmental stages becomes less negative that is required to permit germination of developing seeds. Hence, hypo-osmolality in rin fruit may be an important factor in permitting limited viviparous germination. PMID:27436947

  4. Seed development and viviparous germination in one accession of a tomato rin mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Lili; Xu, Xiaochun; Qu, Wei; Li, Jingfu; Xu, Xiangyang; Wang, Aoxue

    2016-06-01

    In an experimental field, seed vivipary occurred in one accession of tomato rin mutant fruit at approximately 45-50 days after pollination (DAP). In this study, the possible contributory factors to this viviparous germination were investigated. Firstly, developing seeds were freshly excised from the fruit tissue every 5 days from 25-60 DAP. Germination occurred when isolated seeds were incubated on water, but was inhibited when they remained ex situ in fruit mucilage gel. The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, separate and together, on germination of developing seeds was investigated. Additionally, ABA content in the seed and mucilage gel, as well as fruit osmolality were measured. The results showed that ABA concentrations in seeds were low during early development and increased later, peaking at about 50 DAP. ABA concentrations in rin accession were similar to those of the control cultivar and thus are not directly associated with the occurrence of vivipary. Developing seeds of rin accession are more sensitive than control seeds to all inhibitory compounds. However, osmolality in rin fruit at later developmental stages becomes less negative that is required to permit germination of developing seeds. Hence, hypo-osmolality in rin fruit may be an important factor in permitting limited viviparous germination.

  5. Cytochemical localization of reserves during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Successful development of seeds under spaceflight conditions has been an elusive goal of numerous long-duration experiments with plants on orbital spacecraft. Because carbohydrate metabolism undergoes changes when plants are grown in microgravity, developing seed storage reserves might be detrimentally affected during spaceflight. Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana plants that flowered during 11 d in space on shuttle mission STS-68 has been investigated in this study. Plants were grown to the rosette stage (13 d) on a nutrient agar medium on the ground and loaded into the Plant Growth Unit flight hardware 18 h prior to lift-off. Plants were retrieved 3 h after landing and siliques were immediately removed from plants. Young seeds were fixed and processed for microscopic observation. Seeds in both the ground control and flight plants are similar in their morphology and size. The oldest seeds from these plants contain completely developed embryos and seed coats. These embryos developed radicle, hypocotyl, meristematic apical tissue, and differentiated cotyledons. Protoderm, procambium, and primary ground tissue had differentiated. Reserves such as starch and protein were deposited in the embryos during tissue differentiation. The aleurone layer contains a large quantity of storage protein and starch grains. A seed coat developed from integuments of the ovule with gradual change in cell composition and cell material deposition. Carbohydrates were deposited in outer integument cells especially in the outside cell walls. Starch grains decreased in number per cell in the integument during seed coat development. All these characteristics during seed development represent normal features in the ground control plants and show that the spaceflight environment does not prevent normal development of seeds in Arabidopsis.

  6. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-12-08

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford.

  7. Oil body proteins sequentially accumulate throughout seed development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Pascale; Boulard, Céline; Bellamy, Annick; Valot, Benoît; d'Andréa, Sabine; Zivy, Michel; Nesi, Nathalie; Chardot, Thierry

    2011-11-15

    Despite the importance of seed oil bodies (OBs) as enclosed compartments for oil storage, little is known about lipid and protein accumulation in OBs during seed formation. OBs from rapeseed (Brassica napus) consist of a triacylglycerol (TAG) core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded with integral proteins which confer high stability to OBs in the mature dry seed. In the present study, we investigated lipid and protein accumulation patterns throughout seed development (from 5 to 65 days after pollination [DAP]) both in the whole seed and in purified OBs. Deposition of the major proteins (oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins) into OBs was assessed through (i) gene expression pattern, (ii) proteomics analysis, and (iii) protein immunodetection. For the first time, a sequential deposition of integral OB proteins was established. Accumulation of oleosins and caleosins was observed starting from early stages of seed development (12-17 DAP), while steroleosins accumulated later (~25 DAP) onwards. PMID:21803444

  8. Pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Hano, C; Martin, I; Fliniaux, O; Legrand, B; Gutierrez, L; Arroo, R R J; Mesnard, F; Lamblin, F; Lainé, E

    2006-11-01

    The transcription activity of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) gene of Linum usitatissimum (so-called LuPLR), a key gene in lignan synthesis, was studied by RT-PCR and promoter-reporter transgenesis. The promoter was found to drive transcription of a GUSint reporter gene in the seed coats during the flax seed development. This fitted well with the tissue localization monitored by semi-quantitative RT-PCR of LuPLR expression. Accumulation of the main flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside was coherent with LuPLR expression during seed development. This three-way approach demonstrated that the LuPLR gene is expressed in the seed coat of flax seeds, and that the synthesis of PLR enzyme occurs where flax main lignan is found stored in mature seeds, confirming its involvement in SDG synthesis.

  9. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex

    PubMed Central

    Boyan, George S.; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors.

  10. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex.

    PubMed

    Boyan, George S; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors. PMID:27630548

  11. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex

    PubMed Central

    Boyan, George S.; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors. PMID:27630548

  12. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan; Hamaoui, Ronald; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith; Rustom, Khalid; Stuby, Rick; Kuran, Mohammad; Mark, Evlyn; Amarin, Ruba; Alatrash, Hussam; Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing

  13. The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Ornfelt, Jane H; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Staerfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-03-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family.

  14. Identification of a molecular dialogue between developing seeds of Medicago truncatula and seedborne xanthomonads.

    PubMed

    Terrasson, Emmanuel; Darrasse, Armelle; Righetti, Karima; Buitink, Julia; Lalanne, David; Ly Vu, Benoit; Pelletier, Sandra; Bolingue, William; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Leprince, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria disseminate and survive mainly in association with seeds. This study addresses whether seeds are passive carriers or engage a molecular dialogue with pathogens during their development. We developed two pathosystems using Medicago truncatula with Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. alfalfae (Xaa), the natural Medicago sp. pathogen and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a Brassicaceae pathogen. Three days after flower inoculation, the transcriptome of Xcc-infected pods showed activation of an innate immune response that was strongly limited in Xcc mutated in the type three secretion system, demonstrating an incompatible interaction of Xcc with the reproductive structures. In contrast, the presence of Xaa did not result in an activation of defence genes. Transcriptome profiling during development of infected seeds exhibited time-dependent and differential responses to Xcc and Xaa. Gene network analysis revealed that the transcriptome of Xcc-infected seeds was mainly affected during seed filling whereas that of Xaa-infected seeds responded during late maturation. The Xcc-infected seed transcriptome exhibited an activation of defence response and a repression of targeted seed maturation pathways. Fifty-one percent of putative ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 targets were deregulated by Xcc, including oleosin, cupin, legumin and chlorophyll degradation genes. At maturity, these seeds displayed decreased weight and increased chlorophyll content. In contrast, these traits were not affected by Xaa infection. These findings demonstrate the existence of a complex molecular dialogue between xanthomonads and developing seeds and provides insights into a previously unexplored trade-off between seed development and pathogen defence. PMID:25922487

  15. Ethylene involvement in silique and seed development of canola, Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Walton, Linda J; Kurepin, Leonid V; Yeung, Edward C; Shah, Saleh; Emery, R J Neil; Reid, David M; Pharis, Richard P

    2012-09-01

    A wide range of plant hormones, including gibberellins (GAs) and auxins are known to be involved in regulating seed and fruit growth and development. Changes in ethylene biosynthesis are also associated with seed and fruit development, but ethylene's role in these processes is poorly understood, as is its possible interaction with the other plant hormones. A major complication of investigating ethylene-induced regulation of developmental processes is ethylene's biphasic mode of action. To investigate ethylene's actions and interactions we used a 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase transgenic canola line. This line evolves significantly less ethylene from its siliques and seeds, relative to plants from a wild type (WT) background. Plants of the transgenic line also had smaller siliques which were associated with reductions in both seed size and seed number. Application of ethephon, a compound that produces ethylene, to plants of the transgenic line restored the WT phenotype for both siliques and seeds. Application of the same dose of ethephon to WT plants diminished both silique and seed development, showing ethylene's biphasic effect and effectively producing the ACC deaminase transgenic phenotype. There were significant decreases in endogenous concentrations of GA(1) and GA(4) and also of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), between WT seeds and seedless siliques and seeds and siliques from the transgenic line plants. These differences were emphasized during early stages (10-20 days after pollination) of seed and silique development. The above results strongly suggest that ethylene interacts with other endogenous plant hormones in regulating silique and seed development and growth in WT lines of canola. PMID:22809685

  16. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Vegetable and Grain Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Guwen; Xu, Shengchun; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Gong, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch) and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar) revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding. PMID:26635856

  17. Using RNA-Seq to Profile Soybean Seed Development from Fertilization to Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah I.; Vodkin, Lila O.

    2013-01-01

    To understand gene expression networks leading to functional properties and compositional traits of the soybean seed, we have undertaken a detailed examination of soybean seed development from a few days post-fertilization to the mature seed using Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA was sequenced from seven different stages of seed development, yielding between 12 million and 78 million sequenced transcripts. These have been aligned to the 79,000 gene models predicted from the soybean genome recently sequenced by the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute. Over one hundred gene models were identified with high expression exclusively in young seed stages, starting at just four days after fertilization. These were annotated as being related to many basic components and processes such as histones and proline-rich proteins. Genes encoding storage proteins such as glycinin and beta-conglycinin had their highest expression levels at the stages of largest fresh weight, confirming previous knowledge that these storage products are being rapidly accumulated before the seed begins the desiccation process. Other gene models showed high expression in the dry, mature seeds, perhaps indicating the preparation of pathways needed later, in the early stages of imbibition. Many highly-expressed gene models at the dry seed stage are, as expected, annotated as hydrophilic proteins associated with low water conditions, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and dehydrins, which help preserve the cellular structures and nutrients within the seed during desiccation. More significantly, the power of RNA-Seq to detect genes expressed at low levels revealed hundreds of transcription factors with notable expression in at least one stage of seed development. Results from a second biological replicate demonstrate high reproducibility of these data revealing a comprehensive view of the transciptome of seed development in the cultivar Williams, the

  18. Fabrication of magneto-controlled moveable architecture to develop reusable electrochemical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Feng, Chang; Ye, Zonghuang; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Genxi

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors have been studied intensively for several decades. Numerous sensing concepts and related interface architectures have been developed. However, all such architectures suffer a trade-off: simple architectures favour usability, whereas complex architectures favour better performance. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel concept by introducing a magneto-controlled moveable architecture (MCMA) instead of the conventional surface-fixed architecture. As a model, human breast cancer cells were used in this study. The results showed that a detection range from 100 to 1 × 106 cells could be achieved. Moreover, the whole detection cycle, including the measurement and the regeneration, could be completed in only 2 min. Thus, usability and excellent performance can be achieved in a single biosensor. PMID:24566810

  19. Identifying Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Developing Seeds of Brassica napus Using Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Körbes, Ana Paula; Machado, Ronei Dorneles; Guzman, Frank; Almerão, Mauricio Pereira; de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Cagliari, Alexandro; dos Santos Maraschin, Felipe; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of plant development and seed formation. In Brassica napus, an important edible oil crop, valuable lipids are synthesized and stored in specific seed tissues during embryogenesis. The miRNA transcriptome of B. napus is currently poorly characterized, especially at different seed developmental stages. This work aims to describe the miRNAome of developing seeds of B. napus by identifying plant-conserved and novel miRNAs and comparing miRNA abundance in mature versus developing seeds. Members of 59 miRNA families were detected through a computational analysis of a large number of reads obtained from deep sequencing two small RNA and two RNA-seq libraries of (i) pooled immature developing stages and (ii) mature B. napus seeds. Among these miRNA families, 17 families are currently known to exist in B. napus; additionally 29 families not reported in B. napus but conserved in other plant species were identified by alignment with known plant mature miRNAs. Assembled mRNA-seq contigs allowed for a search of putative new precursors and led to the identification of 13 novel miRNA families. Analysis of miRNA population between libraries reveals that several miRNAs and isomiRNAs have different abundance in developing stages compared to mature seeds. The predicted miRNA target genes encode a broad range of proteins related to seed development and energy storage. This work presents a comparative study of the miRNA transcriptome of mature and developing B. napus seeds and provides a basis for future research on individual miRNAs and their functions in embryogenesis, seed maturation and lipid accumulation in B. napus. PMID:23226347

  20. Optimization of Liver Decellularization Maintains Extracellular Matrix Micro-Architecture and Composition Predisposing to Effective Cell Seeding

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Georgiades, Fanourios; Smith, Holly; Milan, Anna; Shangaris, Panicos; Urbani, Luca; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P.; Lombardi, Benedetta; Mazza, Giuseppe; Hagen, Charlotte; Sebire, Neil J.; Turmaine, Mark; Eaton, Simon; Olivo, Alessandro; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka; Pinzani, Massimo; Gissen, Paul; De Coppi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic tissue engineering using decellularized scaffolds is a potential therapeutic alternative to conventional transplantation. However, scaffolds are usually obtained using decellularization protocols that destroy the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hamper clinical translation. We aim to develop a decellularization technique that reliably maintains hepatic microarchitecture and ECM components. Isolated rat livers were decellularized by detergent-enzymatic technique with (EDTA-DET) or without EDTA (DET). Histology, DNA quantification and proteomics confirmed decellularization with further DNA reduction with the addition of EDTA. Quantification, histology, immunostaining, and proteomics demonstrated preservation of extracellular matrix components in both scaffolds with a higher amount of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the EDTA-DET scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray phase contrast imaging showed microarchitecture preservation, with EDTA-DET scaffolds more tightly packed. DET scaffold seeding with a hepatocellular cell line demonstrated complete repopulation in 14 days, with cells proliferating at that time. Decellularization using DET preserves microarchitecture and extracellular matrix components whilst allowing for cell growth for up to 14 days. Addition of EDTA creates a denser, more compact matrix. Transplantation of the scaffolds and scaling up of the methodology are the next steps for successful hepatic tissue engineering. PMID:27159223

  1. The Lipoxygenases in Developing Soybean Seeds, Their Characterization and Synthesis in Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Max O.; Carroll, Richard T.; Thompson, John F.; Dunham, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of lipoxygenase isoenzymes were identified in developing soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill cv Provar) seeds and two have been partially characterized. In a study of lipoxygenase level in developing soybean seeds, the enzyme content increased markedly during development. Comparisons of the lipoxygenases from mature soybean seeds and immature seeds by isoelectric focusing, chromatofocusing, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mapping identified two categories of isoenzyme. The isoenzymes from immature seeds were found by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to be isolated at least in part as the high spin iron(III) or active form of the enzyme in contrast to lipoxygenases from mature seeds which were isolated as electron paramagnetic resonance silent, high spin iron(II) species. The discovery of increased levels of lipoxygenases during seed development and their isolation in an active form suggests that the enzyme may play a physiological role during the maturation process. The incorporation of iron-59 from the nutrient medium into lipoxygenase during culture of immature seeds was indicative of de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The efficiency of the iron uptake was high, as indicated by the level of radioactivity found in the enzyme (one gram atom of iron per mole of lipoxygenase). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:16665148

  2. Deciphering Transcriptional Programming during Pod and Seed Development Using RNA-Seq in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

    PubMed Central

    Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Agarwal, Gaurav; Bajaj, Prasad; Kumar, Vinay; Kulshreshtha, Akanksha; Saxena, Rachit K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Seed development is an important event in plant life cycle that has interested humankind since ages, especially in crops of economic importance. Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics, used mainly for its protein rich seeds. In order to understand the transcriptional programming during the pod and seed development, RNA-seq data was generated from embryo sac from the day of anthesis (0 DAA), seed and pod wall (5, 10, 20 and 30 DAA) of pigeonpea variety “Asha” (ICPL 87119) using Illumina HiSeq 2500. About 684 million sequencing reads have been generated from nine samples, which resulted in the identification of 27,441 expressed genes after sequence analysis. These genes have been studied for their differentially expression, co-expression, temporal and spatial gene expression. We have also used the RNA-seq data to identify important seed-specific transcription factors, biological processes and associated pathways during seed development process in pigeonpea. The comprehensive gene expression study from flowering to mature pod development in pigeonpea would be crucial in identifying candidate genes involved in seed traits directly or indirectly related to yield and quality. The dataset will serve as an important resource for gene discovery and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying various seed related traits. PMID:27760186

  3. Flux in the coding and small RNA transcriptomes during soybean seed and seedling development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cotyledons undergo major developmental transitions during seed development. Changes in the transcriptome of seed tissues from a few days after flowering through maturation, and in the cotyledons during germination and early seedling growth, have been revealed using cDNA and 70-mer oligonucle...

  4. A Proteomics-Based Platform for Systems Biology Analysis of Soybean Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A system based on fresh weight and color was used to define eight stages of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill, cv. Jack) seed development. Storage protein, oil, and starch were quantified from each stage, and used along with the morphological characteristics to establish a first-stage model of seed...

  5. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  6. Evaluating soybean breeding lines developed from differenct sources of resistance to phomopsis seed decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) causes poor soybean seed quality worldwide. The primary causal agent of PSD is Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). Breeding for PSD-resistance is the most effective long-term strategy to control this disease. To develop soybean lines with resistance to PSD, m...

  7. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  8. Mineral accumulation in vegetative and reproductive tissues during seed development in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Christina B.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient density in legume seeds is one of several strategies being explored to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. In order to develop crop varieties with increased seed mineral concentration, a more detailed understanding of mineral translocation within the plant is required. By studying mineral accumulation in different organs within genetically diverse members of the same species, it may be possible to identify variable traits that modulate seed mineral concentration. We utilized two ecotypes (A17 and DZA315.16) of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, to study dry mass and mineral accumulation in the leaves, pod walls, and seeds during reproductive development. The pod wall dry mass was significantly different between the two ecotypes beginning at 12 days after pollination, whereas there was no significant difference in the average dry mass of individual seeds between the two ecotypes at any time point. There were also no significant differences in leaf dry mass between ecotypes; however, we observed expansion of A17 leaves during the first 21 days of pod development, while DZA315.16 leaves did not display a significant increase in leaf area. Mineral profiling of the leaves, pod walls, and seeds highlighted differences in accumulation patterns among minerals within each tissue as well as genotypic differences with respect to individual minerals. Because there were differences in the average seed number per pod, the total seed mineral content per pod was generally higher in A17 than DZA315.16. In addition, mineral partitioning to the seeds tended to be higher in A17 pods. These data revealed that mineral retention within leaves and/or pod walls might attenuate mineral accumulation within the seeds. As a result, strategies to increase seed mineral content should include approaches that will enhance export from these tissues. PMID:26322063

  9. The Architecture of Professional Development: Materials, Messages and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeson, Paul V.

    2002-01-01

    As an aesthetic form, architecture deals with the creation and definition of space expressed in buildings and other physical structures. The Colosseum in Rome, Notre Dame in Paris, and the United States capital in Washington, through their designs define space, capture our imagination, and communicate important cultural and historical messages.…

  10. Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P-0004-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1991-01-01

    This cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company, resulted in the distribution, by the end of March, 1990, of approximately 132,000 space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) kits to 64,000 teachers representing 40,000 classrooms and 3.3 million kindergarden through university students. Kits were sent to every state, as well as to 30 foreign countries. Preliminary radiation data indicates that layer A received 725 rads, while layer D received 350 rads. Germination rate was reported to be 73.8 percent for space exposed seeds and 70.3 percent for earth based control seeds. Tests conducted within the first six months after retrieval indicated space exposed seeds germinated in an average of 8.0 days, while earth based control seeds' average germination rate was 8.3 days. Some mutations (assumed to be radiation induced) reported by students and Park Seed include plants that added a leaf instead of the usual flower at the end of the flower front and fruit produced from a flower with a variegated calyx bore seeds producing albino plants, while fruit from a flower with a green calyx from the same plant bore seeds produced green plants.

  11. The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

  12. Postdispersal Infection and Disease Development of Pyrenophora semeniperda in Bromus tectorum Seeds.

    PubMed

    Finch-Boekweg, Heather; Gardner, John S; Allen, Phil S; Geary, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The Ascomycete fungus, Pyrenophora semeniperda, attacks a broad range of cool-season grasses. While leaf and predispersal infection of seeds (i.e., florets containing caryopses) have been previously characterized, little is known about the pathogenesis of mature seeds following dispersal. In this study, we examined infection and disease development of P. semeniperda on dormant seeds of Bromus tectorum. Inoculated seeds were hydrated at 20°C for up to 28 days. Disease development was characterized using scanning electron and light microscopy. P. semeniperda conidia germinated on the seed surface within 5 to 8 h. Hyphae grew on the seed surface and produced extracellular mucilage that eventually covered the seed. Appressoria formed on the ends of hyphae and penetrated through the lemma and palea, stomatal openings, and broken trichomes. The fungus then catabolized the endosperm, resulting in a visible cavity by 8 days. Pathogenesis of the embryo was associated with progressive loss of cell integrity and proliferation of mycelium. Beginning at approximately day 11, one to several stromata (approximately 150 μm in diameter and up to 4 mm in length) emerged through the lemma and palea. Degradation of embryo tissue was completed near 14 days. Conidiophores produced conidia between 21 and 28 days and often exhibited "Y-shaped" branching. This characterization of disease development corrects previous reports which concluded that P. semeniperda is only a weak seed pathogen with infection limited to the outermost seed tissues. In addition, the time required for disease development explains why infected dormant or slow-germinating seeds are most likely to experience mortality.

  13. HIGHLY METHYL ESTERIFIED SEEDS Is a Pectin Methyl Esterase Involved in Embryo Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Müller, Kerstin; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Haughn, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Homogalacturonan pectin domains are synthesized in a highly methyl-esterified form that later can be differentially demethyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME) to strengthen or loosen plant cell walls that contain pectin, including seed coat mucilage, a specialized secondary cell wall of seed coat epidermal cells. As a means to identify the active PMEs in seed coat mucilage, we identified seven PMEs expressed during seed coat development. One of these, HIGHLY METHYL ESTERIFIED SEEDS (HMS), is abundant during mucilage secretion, peaking at 7 d postanthesis in both the seed coat and the embryo. We have determined that this gene is required for normal levels of PME activity and homogalacturonan methyl esterification in the seed. The hms-1 mutant displays altered embryo morphology and mucilage extrusion, both of which are a consequence of defects in embryo development. A significant decrease in the size of cells in the embryo suggests that the changes in embryo morphology are a consequence of lack of cell expansion. Progeny from a cross between hms-1 and the previously characterized PME inhibitor5 overexpression line suggest that HMS acts independently from other cell wall-modifying enzymes in the embryo. We propose that HMS is required for cell wall loosening in the embryo to facilitate cell expansion during the accumulation of storage reserves and that its role in the seed coat is masked by redundancy. PMID:25572606

  14. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  15. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  16. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  17. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    PubMed Central

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  19. The genetic architecture of seed composition in soybean is refined by genome-wide association scans across multiple populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil and meal are major contributors to world-wide food production. Consequently, the genetic basis for soybean seed composition has been intensely studied using family-based mapping. Population-based mapping approaches, in the form of genome-wide association (GWA) scans, have been able to re...

  20. Dynamics of storage reserve deposition during Brassica rapa L. pollen and seed development in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kuang, A; Popova, A; McClure, G; Musgrave, M E

    2005-01-01

    Pollen and seeds share a developmental sequence characterized by intense metabolic activity during reserve deposition before drying to a cryptobiotic form. Neither pollen nor seed development has been well studied in the absence of gravity, despite the importance of these structures in supporting future long-duration manned habitation away from Earth. Using immature seeds (3-15 d postpollination) of Brassica rapa L. cv. Astroplants produced on the STS-87 flight of the space shuttle Columbia, we compared the progress of storage reserve deposition in cotyledon cells during early stages of seed development. Brassica pollen development was studied in flowers produced on plants grown entirely in microgravity on the Mir space station and fixed while on orbit. Cytochemical localization of storage reserves showed differences in starch accumulation between spaceflight and ground control plants in interior layers of the developing seed coat as early as 9 d after pollination. At this age, the embryo is in the cotyledon elongation stage, and there are numerous starch grains in the cotyledon cells in both flight and ground control seeds. In the spaceflight seeds, starch was retained after this stage, while starch grains decreased in size in the ground control seeds. Large and well-developed protein bodies were observed in cotyledon cells of ground control seeds at 15 d postpollination, but their development was delayed in the seeds produced during spaceflight. Like the developing cotyledonary tissues, cells of the anther wall and filaments from the spaceflight plants contained numerous large starch grains, while these were rarely seen in the ground controls. The tapetum remained swollen and persisted to a later developmental stage in the spaceflight plants than in the ground controls, even though most pollen grains appeared normal. These developmental markers indicate that Brassica seeds and pollen produced in microgravity were physiologically younger than those produced in 1 g

  1. Dynamics of storage reserve deposition during Brassica rapa L. pollen and seed development in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Pollen and seeds share a developmental sequence characterized by intense metabolic activity during reserve deposition before drying to a cryptobiotic form. Neither pollen nor seed development has been well studied in the absence of gravity, despite the importance of these structures in supporting future long-duration manned habitation away from Earth. Using immature seeds (3-15 d postpollination) of Brassica rapa L. cv. Astroplants produced on the STS-87 flight of the space shuttle Columbia, we compared the progress of storage reserve deposition in cotyledon cells during early stages of seed development. Brassica pollen development was studied in flowers produced on plants grown entirely in microgravity on the Mir space station and fixed while on orbit. Cytochemical localization of storage reserves showed differences in starch accumulation between spaceflight and ground control plants in interior layers of the developing seed coat as early as 9 d after pollination. At this age, the embryo is in the cotyledon elongation stage, and there are numerous starch grains in the cotyledon cells in both flight and ground control seeds. In the spaceflight seeds, starch was retained after this stage, while starch grains decreased in size in the ground control seeds. Large and well-developed protein bodies were observed in cotyledon cells of ground control seeds at 15 d postpollination, but their development was delayed in the seeds produced during spaceflight. Like the developing cotyledonary tissues, cells of the anther wall and filaments from the spaceflight plants contained numerous large starch grains, while these were rarely seen in the ground controls. The tapetum remained swollen and persisted to a later developmental stage in the spaceflight plants than in the ground controls, even though most pollen grains appeared normal. These developmental markers indicate that Brassica seeds and pollen produced in microgravity were physiologically younger than those produced in 1 g

  2. Design and development of desiccant seed dryer with airflow inversion and recirculation.

    PubMed

    Gill, R S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2014-11-01

    A desiccant seed dryer has been developed to dry seed in deep bed at safe temperatures for good shelf life and germination. The dryer consists of two chambers viz., air conditioning control unit and seed drying chamber. It operates in seed drying mode and desiccant regeneration mode. It has provision for recirculation of the drying air to minimise the moisture removal from drying air. Also, it has provision of airflow inversion through deep seed bed for uniform drying. Moisture removal from drying air has been done using silica gel desiccant. Chilly 'Punjab Surakh', Chilly 'Punjab Guchhedaar', Paddy, Coriander, Fenugreek and Radish seeds was dried with hot air at 38 °C from initial moisture content of 26.9 to 5 % (wb) in 2 h, 46.52 to 4.19 % (wb) in 4.25 h, 13.3 to 2.61 % (wb) in 4 h, 13.4 to 10.08 % (wb) in 3 h, 12.4 to 8.22 % (wb) in 4¼ h and 10.6 to 6.08 % (wb) in 4 h respectively. The statistical analysis based on paired t-test showed that seed drying in this dryer has no adverse effect on seed germination. PMID:26396340

  3. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening.

  4. Programmed cell death (PCD): an essential process of cereal seed development and germination

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of cereal seeds can be divided into two phases, development and germination, separated by a quiescent period. Seed development and germination require the growth and differentiation of new tissues, but also the ordered disappearance of cells, which takes place by a process of programmed cell death (PCD). For this reason, cereal seeds have become excellent model systems for the study of developmental PCD in plants. At early stages of seed development, maternal tissues such as the nucellus, the pericarp, and the nucellar projections undergo a progressive degeneration by PCD, which allows the remobilization of their cellular contents for nourishing new filial tissues such as the embryo and the endosperm. At a later stage, during seed maturation, the endosperm undergoes PCD, but these cells remain intact in the mature grain and their contents will not be remobilized until germination. Thus, the only tissues that remain alive when seed development is completed are the embryo axis, the scutellum and the aleurone layer. In germinating seeds, both the scutellum and the aleurone layer play essential roles in producing the hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of the storage compounds of the starchy endosperm, which serve to support early seedling growth. Once this function is completed, scutellum and aleurone cells undergo PCD; their contents being used to support the growth of the germinated embryo. PCD occurs with tightly controlled spatial-temporal patterns allowing coordinated fluxes of nutrients between the different seed tissues. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the tissues undergoing PCD in developing and germinating cereal seeds, focussing on the biochemical features of the process. The effect of hormones and redox regulation on PCD control will be discussed. PMID:25120551

  5. Programmed cell death (PCD): an essential process of cereal seed development and germination.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of cereal seeds can be divided into two phases, development and germination, separated by a quiescent period. Seed development and germination require the growth and differentiation of new tissues, but also the ordered disappearance of cells, which takes place by a process of programmed cell death (PCD). For this reason, cereal seeds have become excellent model systems for the study of developmental PCD in plants. At early stages of seed development, maternal tissues such as the nucellus, the pericarp, and the nucellar projections undergo a progressive degeneration by PCD, which allows the remobilization of their cellular contents for nourishing new filial tissues such as the embryo and the endosperm. At a later stage, during seed maturation, the endosperm undergoes PCD, but these cells remain intact in the mature grain and their contents will not be remobilized until germination. Thus, the only tissues that remain alive when seed development is completed are the embryo axis, the scutellum and the aleurone layer. In germinating seeds, both the scutellum and the aleurone layer play essential roles in producing the hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of the storage compounds of the starchy endosperm, which serve to support early seedling growth. Once this function is completed, scutellum and aleurone cells undergo PCD; their contents being used to support the growth of the germinated embryo. PCD occurs with tightly controlled spatial-temporal patterns allowing coordinated fluxes of nutrients between the different seed tissues. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the tissues undergoing PCD in developing and germinating cereal seeds, focussing on the biochemical features of the process. The effect of hormones and redox regulation on PCD control will be discussed.

  6. Programmed cell death (PCD): an essential process of cereal seed development and germination.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of cereal seeds can be divided into two phases, development and germination, separated by a quiescent period. Seed development and germination require the growth and differentiation of new tissues, but also the ordered disappearance of cells, which takes place by a process of programmed cell death (PCD). For this reason, cereal seeds have become excellent model systems for the study of developmental PCD in plants. At early stages of seed development, maternal tissues such as the nucellus, the pericarp, and the nucellar projections undergo a progressive degeneration by PCD, which allows the remobilization of their cellular contents for nourishing new filial tissues such as the embryo and the endosperm. At a later stage, during seed maturation, the endosperm undergoes PCD, but these cells remain intact in the mature grain and their contents will not be remobilized until germination. Thus, the only tissues that remain alive when seed development is completed are the embryo axis, the scutellum and the aleurone layer. In germinating seeds, both the scutellum and the aleurone layer play essential roles in producing the hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of the storage compounds of the starchy endosperm, which serve to support early seedling growth. Once this function is completed, scutellum and aleurone cells undergo PCD; their contents being used to support the growth of the germinated embryo. PCD occurs with tightly controlled spatial-temporal patterns allowing coordinated fluxes of nutrients between the different seed tissues. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the tissues undergoing PCD in developing and germinating cereal seeds, focussing on the biochemical features of the process. The effect of hormones and redox regulation on PCD control will be discussed. PMID:25120551

  7. EVALUATION OF SOYASAPONIN, ISOFLAVONE, PROTEIN, LIPID, AND FREE SUGAR ACCUMULATION IN DEVELOPING SOYBEAN SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of analytical techniques were used to examine and quantify seed compositional components (protein content, lipid content, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and saponins) during bean development and maturation in two Korean soy cultivars. Protein accumulation was rapid during reproductive st...

  8. Evolution of the Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.; Heller, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center develops systems engineers from existing discipline engineers. The program has evolved significantly since the report to INCOSE in 2003. This paper describes the SEED Program as it is now, outlines the changes over the last year, discusses current status and results, and shows the value of human systems and leadership skills for practicing systems engineers.

  9. D-type cyclins control cell division and developmental rate during Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Collins, Carl; Dewitte, Walter; Murray, James A H

    2012-06-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis is characterized by stereotypical division patterns, suggesting that coordinated control of cell cycle may be required for correct patterning and growth of the embryo and endosperm. D-type cyclins (CYCD) are key cell cycle regulators with roles in developmental processes, but knowledge regarding their involvement in seed development remains limited. Here, a family-wide gene expression, and loss- and gain-of-function approach was adopted to reveal additional functions for CYCDs in the development of seed tissues. CYCD genes have both discrete and overlapping tissue-specific expression patterns in the seed as revealed by GUS reporter gene expression. Analysis of different mutant combinations revealed that correct CYCD levels are required in seed development. The CYCD3 subgroup is specifically required as its loss caused delayed development, whereas overexpression in the embryo and endosperm of CYCD3;1 or a previously uncharacterized gene, CYCD7;1, variously leads to induced proliferation, abnormal phenotypes, and elevated seed abortion. CYCD3;1 overexpression provoked a delay in embryonic developmental progression and abnormalities including additional divisions of the hypophysis and suspensor, regions where CYCD3 genes are normally expressed, but did not affect endosperm development. Overexpression of CYCD7;1, not normally expressed in seed development, promoted overgrowth of both embryo and endosperm through increased division and cell enlargement. In contrast to post-germination growth, where pattern and organ size is not generally related to division, results suggest that a close control of cell division through regulation of CYCD activity is important during seed development in conferring both developmental rate and correct patterning. PMID:22412186

  10. Hardware additions to microprocessor architecture aid software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    An address trap (breakpoint) mechanism and last-in-first-out (LIFO) address stack are suggested as two additions to the basic microprocessor architecture whose functions are solely to aid the programmer. These devices provide the programmer with the ability to specify address breakpoints and to trace program execution back through N instructions, where N is the depth of the stack. Both devices, plus interface logic and buffering, have been designed for an INTEL 8080-based system using approximately 25 integrated-circuit packages.

  11. Development of scaffold architectures and heterotypic cell systems for hepatocyte transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzebdeh, Dalia Abdelrahim

    In vitro assembly of functional liver tissue is needed to enable the transplantation of tissue-engineered livers. In addition, there is an increasing demand for in vitro models that replicate complex events occurring in the liver. However, tissue engineering of sizable implantable liver systems is currently limited by the difficulty of assembling three dimensional hepatocyte cultures of a useful size, while maintaining full cell viability, an issue which is closely related to the high metabolic rate of hepatocytes. In this study, we first compared two designs of highly porous chitosan-heparin scaffolds seeded with hepatocytes in dynamic perfusion bioreactor systems. The aim was to promote cell seeding efficiency by effectively entrapping 100 million hepatocytes at high density. We found that scaffolds with radially tapering pore architecture had highly efficient cell entrapment that maximized donor hepatocyte utilization, compared to alternate pore structures. Hepatocytes showed higher seeding efficiency and metabolic function when seeded as single cell suspensions as opposed to pre-formed, 100microm aggregates. Seeding efficiency was found to increase with flow rate, with single cell and aggregate suspension exhibiting different optimal flow rates. However, metabolic performance results indicated significant shear damage to cells at high efficiency flow rates. To better maintain hepatocyte basement membrane and cell polarity, spheroid co-cultures with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were investigated. Hepatocytes and MSCs were seeded in three different architectures in an effort to optimize the spatial arrangement of the two cell types. MSC co-culture greatly enhanced hepatocyte metabolic function in agitated cultures. Interestingly, the effects of diffusion limitations in spheroid culture, coupled with shear damage and subsequent removal of outer hepatocyte layers produced a defined oscillation of urea production rates in certain co-culture arrangements. A

  12. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  13. Separating parental environment from seed size effects on next generation growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Angela L; Gronwall, David S; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Brooks, Tessa L Durham

    2011-02-01

    Plant growth and development is profoundly influenced by environmental conditions that laboratory experimentation typically attempts to control. However, growth conditions are not uniform between or even within laboratories and the extent to which these differences influence plant growth and development is unknown. Experiments with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana were designed to quantify the influences of parental environment and seed size on growth and development in the next generation. A single lot of seed was planted in six environmental chambers and grown to maturity. The seed produced was mechanically sieved into small and large size classes then grown in a common environment and subjected to a set of assays spanning the life cycle. Analysis of variance demonstrated that seed size effects were particularly significant early in development, affecting primary root growth and gravitropism, but also flowering time. Parental environment affected progeny germination time, flowering and weight of seed the progeny produced. In some cases, the parental environment affected the magnitude of (interacted with) the observed seed size effects. These data indicate that life history circumstances of the parental generation can affect growth and development throughout the life cycle of the next generation to an extent that should be considered when performing genetic studies.

  14. [Modification of Barley Development at Early Stages after Exposure of Seeds to γ-Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Churukin, R S; Kazakova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of barley seeds (Nur and Grace varieties) to γ-irradiation in the dose range of 2-50 Gy was studied. The length and weight of a root, the length of a seedling and germination rate were investigated. The dose range in which we observed stimulation of plant development was evaluated. It was shown that the increase of root and seedling sizes after irradiation of seeds at stimulating doses is associated with the rise in the developmental speed, rather than with their earlier germination. Also the effects of a dose rate, a quality of seeds, humidity and a period of storage on the manifestation of radiation exposure were studied.

  15. Mother-plant-mediated pumping of zinc into the developing seed.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lene Irene; Hansen, Thomas H; Larue, Camille; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Hoffmann, Robert D; Liesche, Johannes; Krämer, Ute; Surblé, Suzy; Cadarsi, Stéphanie; Samson, Vallerie Ann; Grolimund, Daniel; Husted, Søren; Palmgren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of zinc and iron from a cereal-based diet is one of the causes of 'hidden hunger' (micronutrient deficiency), which affects some two billion people(1,2). Identifying a limiting factor in the molecular mechanism of zinc loading into seeds is an important step towards determining the genetic basis for variation of grain micronutrient content and developing breeding strategies to improve this trait(3). Nutrients are translocated to developing seeds at a rate that is regulated by transport processes in source leaves, in the phloem vascular pathway, and at seed sinks. Nutrients are released from a symplasmic maternal seed domain into the seed apoplasm surrounding the endosperm and embryo by poorly understood membrane transport processes(4-6). Plants are unique among eukaryotes in having specific P1B-ATPase pumps for the cellular export of zinc(7). In Arabidopsis, we show that two zinc transporting P1B-ATPases actively export zinc from the mother plant to the filial tissues. Mutant plants that lack both zinc pumps accumulate zinc in the seed coat and consequently have vastly reduced amounts of zinc inside the seed. Blockage of zinc transport was observed at both high and low external zinc supplies. The phenotype was determined by the mother plant and is thus due to a lack of zinc pump activity in the seed coat and not in the filial tissues. The finding that P1B-ATPases are one of the limiting factors controlling the amount of zinc inside a seed is an important step towards combating nutritional zinc deficiency worldwide.

  16. Mother-plant-mediated pumping of zinc into the developing seed.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lene Irene; Hansen, Thomas H; Larue, Camille; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Hoffmann, Robert D; Liesche, Johannes; Krämer, Ute; Surblé, Suzy; Cadarsi, Stéphanie; Samson, Vallerie Ann; Grolimund, Daniel; Husted, Søren; Palmgren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of zinc and iron from a cereal-based diet is one of the causes of 'hidden hunger' (micronutrient deficiency), which affects some two billion people(1,2). Identifying a limiting factor in the molecular mechanism of zinc loading into seeds is an important step towards determining the genetic basis for variation of grain micronutrient content and developing breeding strategies to improve this trait(3). Nutrients are translocated to developing seeds at a rate that is regulated by transport processes in source leaves, in the phloem vascular pathway, and at seed sinks. Nutrients are released from a symplasmic maternal seed domain into the seed apoplasm surrounding the endosperm and embryo by poorly understood membrane transport processes(4-6). Plants are unique among eukaryotes in having specific P1B-ATPase pumps for the cellular export of zinc(7). In Arabidopsis, we show that two zinc transporting P1B-ATPases actively export zinc from the mother plant to the filial tissues. Mutant plants that lack both zinc pumps accumulate zinc in the seed coat and consequently have vastly reduced amounts of zinc inside the seed. Blockage of zinc transport was observed at both high and low external zinc supplies. The phenotype was determined by the mother plant and is thus due to a lack of zinc pump activity in the seed coat and not in the filial tissues. The finding that P1B-ATPases are one of the limiting factors controlling the amount of zinc inside a seed is an important step towards combating nutritional zinc deficiency worldwide. PMID:27243644

  17. Global Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Developing Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29–41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. Conclusions/Significance The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production. PMID:22574177

  18. Software Architecture for Simultaneous Process Control and Software Development/Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Hileman, Michael S; McMillan, David E; Holmes Jr, William; Blankenship, Mark; Wilder, Terry

    2011-01-01

    A software architecture is described that allows modification of some application code sections while the remainder of the application continues executing. This architecture facilitates long term testing and process control because the overall process need not be stopped and restarted to allow modifications or additions to the software. A working implementation using National Instruments LabVIEW{trademark} sub-panel and shared variable features is described as an example. This architecture provides several benefits in both the program development and execution environments. The software is easier to maintain and it is not necessary to recompile the entire program after a modification.

  19. Identification of desiccation tolerance transcripts potentially involved in rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds development and germination.

    PubMed

    Lang, Sirui; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ma, Gang; Lan, QinYing; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    To investigate regulatory processes and protective mechanisms leading to desiccation tolerance (DT) in seeds, cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in conjunction with 128 primer combinations was used to detect differential gene expression in rape seeds in response to DT during seed development and germination. We obtained approximately 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), of which 394 TDFs with differential expression patterns ("sustained expression", "up-regulated", "couple with seed DT", and "down-regulated") were excised from gels and re-amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After sequencing and comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, 176 TDFs presented significant similarity with known genes that could be classified into the following categories: metabolism and energy, stress resistance and defense, storage, signal transduction, and other functional categories. Using semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR approaches, the significance of the differences was further confirmed in fresh seeds and dehydrated seeds. The genes that encode superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin, caleosin, oleosin S3, steroleosin, late embryogenesis abundant protein, glutathione reductase, β-glucosidase, S23 transcriptional repressor, and some heat-shock proteins could be associated with DT. The results of this study will aid in the identification of candidate genes for future experiments that seek to understand seed DT. PMID:25221920

  20. Identification of desiccation tolerance transcripts potentially involved in rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds development and germination.

    PubMed

    Lang, Sirui; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ma, Gang; Lan, QinYing; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    To investigate regulatory processes and protective mechanisms leading to desiccation tolerance (DT) in seeds, cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in conjunction with 128 primer combinations was used to detect differential gene expression in rape seeds in response to DT during seed development and germination. We obtained approximately 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), of which 394 TDFs with differential expression patterns ("sustained expression", "up-regulated", "couple with seed DT", and "down-regulated") were excised from gels and re-amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After sequencing and comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, 176 TDFs presented significant similarity with known genes that could be classified into the following categories: metabolism and energy, stress resistance and defense, storage, signal transduction, and other functional categories. Using semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR approaches, the significance of the differences was further confirmed in fresh seeds and dehydrated seeds. The genes that encode superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin, caleosin, oleosin S3, steroleosin, late embryogenesis abundant protein, glutathione reductase, β-glucosidase, S23 transcriptional repressor, and some heat-shock proteins could be associated with DT. The results of this study will aid in the identification of candidate genes for future experiments that seek to understand seed DT.

  1. Structure of the Developing Pea Seed Coat and the Post‐phloem Transport Pathway of Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    VAN DONGEN, JOOST T.; AMMERLAAN, ANKIE M. H.; WOUTERLOOD, MADELEINE; VAN AELST, ADRIAAN C.; BORSTLAP, ADRIANUS C.

    2003-01-01

    An important function of the seed coat is to deliver nutrients to the embryo. To relate this function to anatomical characteristics, the developing seed coat of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was examined by light‐ and cryo‐scanning electron microscopy (cryo‐SEM) from the late pre‐storage phase until the end of seed filling. During this time the apparently undifferentiated seed coat tissues evolve into the epidermal macrosclereids, the hypodermal hourglass cells, chlorenchyma, ground parenchyma and branched parenchyma. Using the fluorescent symplast tracer 8‐hydroxypyrene‐1,3,6‐trisulfonic acid, it could be demonstrated that solutes imported by the phloem move into the chlorenchyma and ground parenchyma, but not into the branched parenchyma. From a comparison with literature data of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.), it is concluded that in the three species different parenchyma layers, but not the branched parenchyma, may be involved in the post‐phloem symplasmic transport of nutrients in the seed coat. In pea, the branched parenchyma dies during the storage phase, and its cell wall remnants then form the boundary layer between the living seed coat parenchyma cells and the cotyledons. Using cryo‐SEM, clear images were obtained of this boundary layer which showed that many intracellular spaces in the seed coat parenchyma are filled with an aqueous solution. This is suggested to facilitate the diffusion of nutrients from the site of unloading towards the cotyledons. PMID:12714370

  2. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Siegumfeldt, Astrid L; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2010-11-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965 seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod proteins represented enzymes from 85 different metabolic pathways, including storage globulins and a late embryogenesis abundant protein. In contrast to seed maturation, pod maturation was associated with decreasing total protein content, especially proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate metabolism pathway were identified.

  3. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  4. The dynamic behavior of storage organelles in developing cereal seeds and its impact on the production of recombinant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arcalis, Elsa; Ibl, Verena; Peters, Jenny; Melnik, Stanislav; Stoger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Cereal endosperm is a highly differentiated tissue containing specialized organelles for the accumulation of storage proteins, which are ultimately deposited either within protein bodies derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, or in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). During seed maturation endosperm cells undergo a rapid sequence of developmental changes, including extensive reorganization and rearrangement of the endomembrane system and protein transport via several developmentally regulated trafficking routes. Storage organelles have been characterized in great detail by the histochemical analysis of fixed immature tissue samples. More recently, in vivo imaging and the use of tonoplast markers and fluorescent organelle tracers have provided further insight into the dynamic morphology of PSVs in different cell layers of the developing endosperm. This is relevant for biotechnological applications in the area of molecular farming because seed storage organelles in different cereal crops offer alternative subcellular destinations for the deposition of recombinant proteins that can reduce proteolytic degradation, allow control over glycan structures and increase the efficacy of oral delivery. We discuss how the specialized architecture and developmental changes of the endomembrane system in endosperm cells may influence the subcellular fate and post-translational modification of recombinant glycoproteins in different cereal species. PMID:25232360

  5. Dynamic distribution and the role of abscisic acid during seed development of a lady’s slipper orchid, Cypripedium formosanum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung-I; Chung, Mei-Chu; Yeung, Edward C.; Lee, Nean

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Although abscisic acid (ABA) is commonly recognized as a primary cause of seed dormancy, there is a lack of information on the role of ABA during orchid seed development. In order to address this issue, the localization and quantification of ABA were determined in developing seeds of Cypripedium formosanum. Methods The endogenous ABA profile of seeds was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Temporal and spatial distributions of ABA in developing seeds were visualized by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal ABA antibodies. Fluoridone was applied to test the causal relationship between ABA content and seed germinability. Key Results ABA content was low at the proembryo stage, then increased rapidly from 120 to 150 days after pollination (DAP), accompanied by a progressive decrease in water content and seed germination. Immunofluorescence signals indicated an increase in fluorescence over time from the proembryo stage to seed maturation. From immunogold labelling, gold particles could be seen within the cytoplasm of embryo-proper cells during the early stages of seed development. As seeds approached maturity, increased localization of gold particles was observed in the periplasmic space, the plasmalemma between embryo-proper cells, the surface wall of the embryo proper, and the inner walls of inner seed-coat cells. At maturity, gold particles were found mainly in the apoplast, such as the surface wall of the embryo proper, and the shrivelled inner and outer seed coats. Injection of fluoridone into capsules resulted in enhanced germination of mature seeds. Conclusions The results indicate that ABA is the key inhibitor of germination in C. formosanum. The distinct accumulation pattern of ABA suggests that it is synthesized in the cytosol of embryo cells during the early stages of seed development, and then exported to the apoplastic region of the cells for subsequent regulatory processes as seeds approach maturity. PMID

  6. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  7. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed.

  8. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed. PMID:25119487

  9. Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yao Fang; Chai, Ru Shan; Jin, Gu Lei; Wang, Huan; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. Scope This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. Conclusions The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling. PMID:23267006

  10. Expression of 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 Is Essential for Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination but Not for Seed Development or Stress Tolerance[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Heqiang; Dahal, Peetambar; Kunusoth, Keshavulu; McCallum, Claire M.; Bradford, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate at warm temperatures, is common in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars. Using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a lettuce cultivar (Salinas) and thermotolerant Lactuca serriola accession UC96US23 (UC), we previously mapped a quantitative trait locus associated with thermoinhibition of germination to a genomic region containing a gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 (NCED4). NCED4 from either Salinas or UC complements seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana nced6-1 nced9-1 double mutant by restoring germination thermosensitivity, indicating that both NCED4 genes encode functional proteins. Transgenic expression of Salinas NCED4 in UC seeds resulted in thermoinhibition, whereas silencing of NCED4 in Salinas seeds led to loss of thermoinhibition. Mutations in NCED4 also alleviated thermoinhibition. NCED4 expression was elevated during late seed development but was not required for seed maturation. Heat but not water stress elevated NCED4 expression in leaves, while NCED2 and NCED3 exhibited the opposite responses. Silencing of NCED4 altered the expression of genes involved in ABA, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate that NCED4 expression is required for thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds and that it may play additional roles in plant responses to elevated temperature. PMID:23503626

  11. Observations and Model Simulations of Transport and Precipitation Development in a Seeded Cumulus Congestus Cloud.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Michael W.; Detwiler, Andrew G.; Kopp, Fred J.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    1991-10-01

    Observations made by three instrumented aircraft, a Doppler radar, and other data sources were used to follow the initiation and development of precipitation in a small cumulus congestus cloud. The cloud was seeded at its base using an airborne silver iodide solution burner. Sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas was released along with the seeding material. Analyzers on two instrumented aircraft detected the tracer gas during subsequent cloud penetrations as it was carried up into the cloud along with the seeding agent. Ice developed initially in the upper regions of the cloud near the 10°C level 15 min after the commencement of seeding. This is consistent with primary nucleation by the seeding agent. The cloud developed millimeter-size graupel within the following few minutes. A radar echo approaching 40 dBZ subsequently developed. The echo was observed to descend through the cloud as the cloud dissipated.One-dimensional, steady-state and two-dimensional, time-dependent bulk water models were used to simulate this cloud. The one-dimensional model produced realistic values for updraft speeds allowing credible estimates of time required for transport from cloud base to upper regions of the cloud. The development of precipitation in the two-dimensional simulation resembled that in the observed cloud. Precipitation developed through riming of snow to graupel. In both the observed and simulated clouds, precipitation development was limited by cloud lifetime. Both clouds collapsed at a time when they were still generating ample supercooled water in their updrafts. Total precipitation on the ground from the seeded cloud simulations was 5 times the radar estimated rainfall total of 0.5 mm from the observed seeded cloud. This occurred despite the fact that the simulated cloud went through an accelerated life cycle compared to the observed cloud. A comparison between simulations with a natural ice process and with cloud base release of silver iodide shows that seeding accelerated

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Comparison of Lipid Biosynthesis in the Leaves and Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Tan, Ren-Ke; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Fu, Zheng-Li; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Zhi-Yan; Tan, Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is a lipid storage organ containing approximately 40% oil, while its leaves contain many kinds of lipids for many biological roles, but the overall amounts are less than in seeds. Thus, lipid biosynthesis in the developing seeds and the leaves is strictly regulated which results the final difference of lipids. However, there are few reports about the molecular mechanism controlling the difference in lipid biosynthesis between developing seeds and leaves. In this study, we tried to uncover this mechanism by analyzing the transcriptome data for lipid biosynthesis. The transcriptome data were de novo assembled and a total of 47,216 unigenes were obtained, which had an N50 length and median of 1271 and 755 bp, respectively. Among these unigenes, 36,368 (about 77.02%) were annotated and there were 109 up-regulated unigenes and 72 down-regulated unigenes in the developing seeds lipid synthetic pathway after comparing with leaves. In the oleic acid pathway, 23 unigenes were up-regulated and four unigenes were down-regulated. During triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, the key unigenes were all up-regulated, such as phosphatidate phosphatase and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase. During palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid synthesis in leaves, the unigenes were nearly all up-regulated, which indicated that the biosynthesis of these particular fatty acids were more important in leaves. In the developing seeds, almost all the unigenes in the ABI3VP1, RKD, CPP, E2F-DP, GRF, JUMONJI, MYB-related, PHD and REM transcript factor families were up-regulated, which helped us to discern the regulation mechanism underlying lipid biosynthesis. The differential up/down-regulation of the genes and TFs involved in lipid biosynthesis in developing seeds and leaves provided direct evidence that allowed us to map the network that regulates lipid biosynthesis, and the identification of new TFs that are up-regulated in developing seeds

  13. Transcriptome Analysis Comparison of Lipid Biosynthesis in the Leaves and Developing Seeds of Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Tan, Ren-Ke; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Fu, Zheng-Li; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Zhi-Yan; Tan, Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is a lipid storage organ containing approximately 40% oil, while its leaves contain many kinds of lipids for many biological roles, but the overall amounts are less than in seeds. Thus, lipid biosynthesis in the developing seeds and the leaves is strictly regulated which results the final difference of lipids. However, there are few reports about the molecular mechanism controlling the difference in lipid biosynthesis between developing seeds and leaves. In this study, we tried to uncover this mechanism by analyzing the transcriptome data for lipid biosynthesis. The transcriptome data were de novo assembled and a total of 47216 unigenes were obtained, which had an N50 length and median of 1271 and 755 bp, respectively. Among these unigenes, 36368 (about 77.02%) were annotated and there were 109 up-regulated unigenes and 72 down-regulated unigenes in the developing seeds lipid synthetic pathway after comparing with leaves. In the oleic acid pathway, 23 unigenes were up-regulated and four unigenes were down-regulated. During triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, the key unigenes were all up-regulated, such as phosphatidate phosphatase and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase. During palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid synthesis in leaves, the unigenes were nearly all up-regulated, which indicated that the biosynthesis of these particular fatty acids were more important in leaves. In the developing seeds, almost all the unigenes in the ABI3VP1, RKD, CPP, E2F-DP, GRF, JUMONJI, MYB-related, PHD and REM transcript factorfamilies were up-regulated, which helped us to discern the regulation mechanism underlying lipid biosynthesis. The differential up/down-regulation of the genes and TFs involved in lipid biosynthesis in developing seeds and leaves provided direct evidence that allowed us to map the network that regulates lipid biosynthesis, and the identification of new TFs that are up-regulated in developing seeds

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Mutants Defective in Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cell Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Western, Tamara L.; Burn, Joanne; Tan, Wei Ling; Skinner, Debra J.; Martin-McCaffrey, Luke; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Haughn, George W.

    2001-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, fertilization induces the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument to differentiate into a specialized seed coat cell type producing extracellular pectinaceous mucilage and a volcano-shaped secondary cell wall. Differentiation involves a regulated series of cytological events including growth, cytoplasmic rearrangement, mucilage synthesis, and secondary cell wall production. We have tested the potential of Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells as a model system for the genetic analysis of these processes. A screen for mutants defective in seed mucilage identified five novel genes (MUCILAGE-MODIFIED [MUM]1–5). The seed coat development of these mutants, and that of three previously identified ones (TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, GLABRA2, and APETALA2) were characterized. Our results show that the genes identified define several events in seed coat differentiation. Although APETALA2 is needed for differentiation of both outer layers of the seed coat, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, GLABRA2, and MUM4 are required for complete mucilage synthesis and cytoplasmic rearrangement. MUM3 and MUM5 may be involved in the regulation of mucilage composition, whereas MUM1 and MUM2 appear to play novel roles in post-synthesis cell wall modifications necessary for mucilage extrusion. PMID:11706181

  15. Development of hardwood seed zones for Tennessee using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, L.S.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; Van Manen, F.; Cecich, R.A.; Saxton, A.M.; Schneider, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have had no genetic testing to define guidelines for seed collection location and can be distributed to sites that have a very different environment than that of seed origin(s). Poor survival and/or growth may result if seedlings are not adapted to environmental conditions at the planting location. To address this problem, 30 yr of Tennessee county precipitation and minimum temperature data were analyzed and grouped using a centroid hierarchical cluster analysis. The weather data and elevational data were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and separately layered over Bailey's Ecoregions to develop a seed zone system for Tennessee. The seed zones can be used as a practical guideline for collecting seeds to ensure that the resulting seedlings will be adapted to planting environments.

  16. Effect of high pressure on green pea seeds germination and plantlets development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Elisabete M. C.; Carvalho, Andreia M.; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of high pressure (50 MPa, 10 min) on germination of pea seeds with different imbibition times (0, 12 and 36 h). The parameters analysed were the percentage of germinated seeds, length of roots and stems, number of leaves developed and the weight of young plantlets. Peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pectin methylesterase (PME) and total proteolytic activity were analysed in seeds after the pressure treatment and in leaves after the germination period. Results showed that 50 MPa applied during 10 min retarded the germination onset and inhibited seeds to germinate. The pressure treatment increased and decreased the length of roots and stems, respectively. The number of leaves per germinated seed decreased with the pressure treatment. Enzymatic activities of seeds showed that only total proteolytic activity was significantly reduced by pressure and only for 0 h of imbibition. POD and PPO activities determined in leaves of the plantlets increased with the pressure treatment, while PME activity also increased but only for 12 h of imbibition and total proteolytic activity decreased.

  17. Seedling development and evaluation of genetic stability of cryopreserved Dendrobium hybrid mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; de Faria, Ricardo Tadeu; Vendrame, Wagner Aparecido

    2014-03-01

    Vitrification, a simple, fast, and recommended cryopreservation method for orchid germplasm conservation, was evaluated for Dendrobium hybrid "Dong Yai" mature seeds. The genetic stability of regenerated seedlings was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Mature seeds from this hybrid were submitted to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 h at 0 °C. Subsequently, they were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C for 1 h and recovered in half-strength Murashige and Skoog culture medium (1/2 MS), and seed germination was evaluated after 30 days. Seeds directly submitted to LN did not germinate after cryopreservation. Seeds treated with PVS2 between 1 and 3 h presented the best germination (between 51 and 58%), although longer exposure to PVS2 returned moderated germination (39%). Germinated seeds were further subcultured in P-723 culture medium and developed whole seedlings in vitro after 180 days, with no abnormal characteristics, diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Seedlings were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with over 80% survival. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no chromosomal changes on vitrified seedlings, as well as seedlings germinated from the control treatment (direct exposure to LN). These findings indicate that vitrification is a feasible and safe germplasm cryopreservation method for commercial Dendrobium orchid hybrid conservation.

  18. Physiological quality and gene expression during the development of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, H O; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, I V; Dutra, S M F; Andrade, T; Guimarães, R M

    2015-05-12

    Phytohormones have different characteristics and functions, and they may be subject to changes in their gene expression and synthesis during seed development. In this study, we evaluated the physiological qualities of habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) during seed development and the expression of genes involved in germination. Seeds were obtained from fruits harvested at different stages of development [i.e., 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days after anthesis (DAA)]. Immediately after harvesting, the seeds were subjected to various tests to determine moisture content, germination, first count germination, and seedling emergence. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of various genes, including MAN2, NCED, B73, ICL6, and GA3ox. Electrophoresis was used to assess the expression of various enzymes, including α-amylase, isocitrate-lyase, and endo-β-mannanase. Habanero peppers harvested at 70 DAA and subjected to 7 days of rest exhibited higher germination rates and vigor compared to those harvested at all other developmental stages. Peppers harvested at 63 DAA without drying exhibited higher α amylase and AmyB73 gene expression levels. Peppers harvested at 70 DAA with 7 days of rest exhibited higher endo-β-mannanase expression levels. MAN2 gene expression increased during the development of non-dried seeds until 70 DAA. Peppers harvested at 42 DAA exhibited the highest isocitrate-lyase and ICL6 gene activity levels in comparison to those at all other developmental stages.

  19. Embryo development in association with asymbiotic seed germination in vitro of Paphiopedilum armeniacum S. C. Chen et F. Y. Liu.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xia; Deng, Ru-Fang; Duan, Jun; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Huang, Wei-Chang; Zeng, Song-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the key anatomical features during the development of P. armeniacum zygotic embryos and their ability to germinate asymbiotically in vitro. This study also examines the effect of media and seed pretreatments on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. Seeds collected from pods 45 days after pollination (DAP) did not germinate while 95 DAP seeds displayed the highest seed germination percentage (96.2%). Most seedlings (50%) developed to stage 5 from 110 DAP seeds whose compact testa had not yet fully formed. Suspensor cells were vacuolated, which enabled the functional uptake of nutrients. The optimum basal medium for seed germination and subsequent protocorm development was eighth-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/8MS) for 95 DAP seeds and ¼MS for 110 DAP seeds. Poor germination was displayed by 140 DAP seeds with a compact testa. Pretreatment of dry mature seeds (180 DAP) with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite solution for 90 min or 40 kHz of ultrasound for 8 min improved germination percentage from 0 to 29.2% or to 19.7%, respectively. Plantlets that were at least 5 cm in height were transplanted to a Zhijing stone substrate for orchids, and 85.3% of plantlets survived 180 days after transplanting.

  20. Embryo development in association with asymbiotic seed germination in vitro of Paphiopedilum armeniacum S. C. Chen et F. Y. Liu

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xia; Deng, Ru-Fang; Duan, Jun; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Huang, Wei-Chang; Zeng, Song-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the key anatomical features during the development of P. armeniacum zygotic embryos and their ability to germinate asymbiotically in vitro. This study also examines the effect of media and seed pretreatments on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. Seeds collected from pods 45 days after pollination (DAP) did not germinate while 95 DAP seeds displayed the highest seed germination percentage (96.2%). Most seedlings (50%) developed to stage 5 from 110 DAP seeds whose compact testa had not yet fully formed. Suspensor cells were vacuolated, which enabled the functional uptake of nutrients. The optimum basal medium for seed germination and subsequent protocorm development was eighth-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/8MS) for 95 DAP seeds and ¼MS for 110 DAP seeds. Poor germination was displayed by 140 DAP seeds with a compact testa. Pretreatment of dry mature seeds (180 DAP) with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite solution for 90 min or 40 kHz of ultrasound for 8 min improved germination percentage from 0 to 29.2% or to 19.7%, respectively. Plantlets that were at least 5 cm in height were transplanted to a Zhijing stone substrate for orchids, and 85.3% of plantlets survived 180 days after transplanting. PMID:26559888

  1. Embryo development in association with asymbiotic seed germination in vitro of Paphiopedilum armeniacum S. C. Chen et F. Y. Liu.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xia; Deng, Ru-Fang; Duan, Jun; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Huang, Wei-Chang; Zeng, Song-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the key anatomical features during the development of P. armeniacum zygotic embryos and their ability to germinate asymbiotically in vitro. This study also examines the effect of media and seed pretreatments on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. Seeds collected from pods 45 days after pollination (DAP) did not germinate while 95 DAP seeds displayed the highest seed germination percentage (96.2%). Most seedlings (50%) developed to stage 5 from 110 DAP seeds whose compact testa had not yet fully formed. Suspensor cells were vacuolated, which enabled the functional uptake of nutrients. The optimum basal medium for seed germination and subsequent protocorm development was eighth-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/8MS) for 95 DAP seeds and ¼MS for 110 DAP seeds. Poor germination was displayed by 140 DAP seeds with a compact testa. Pretreatment of dry mature seeds (180 DAP) with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite solution for 90 min or 40 kHz of ultrasound for 8 min improved germination percentage from 0 to 29.2% or to 19.7%, respectively. Plantlets that were at least 5 cm in height were transplanted to a Zhijing stone substrate for orchids, and 85.3% of plantlets survived 180 days after transplanting. PMID:26559888

  2. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs) in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones.

  3. Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides metabolism in developing chickpea seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides (RFOs) have anti-nutritional properties where phytic acid chelates minerals and reduces their bioavailability to humans and other animals, and RFOs cause flatulence. Both phytic acid and RFOs cannot be digested by monogastric animals and are released as pollutant-wastes. Efforts are being made to reduce the contents of these factors without affecting the viability of seeds. This will require a thorough understanding of their metabolism in different crops. Biosynthetic pathways of both metabolites though are interlinked but not well described. This study was made on metabolism of these two contents in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L cv GL 769) seeds. In this study, deposition of RFOs was found to occur before deposition of phytic acid. A decline in inorganic phosphorus and increase in phospholipid phosphorus and phytic acid was observed in seeds during development. Acid phosphatase was the major phosphatase in seed as well as podwall and its activity was highest at early stage of development, thereafter it decreased. Partitioning of (14) C label from (14) C-glucose and (14) C-sucrose into RFOs and phytic acid was studied in seeds in presence of inositol, galactose and iositol and galactose, which favored the view that galactinol synthase is not the key enzyme in RFOs synthesis.

  4. Architectural Considerations for an Educational Research Center for Child Development (ERCCD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Ronald

    Architectural considerations and recommendations to facilitate the work of an Educational Research Center for Child Development are presented. The purposes of the center are to demonstrate model programs for children, train student and child development professionals, and facilitate and disseminate research on young children. Program…

  5. Developing a New Framework for Integration and Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) in Nigerian Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwakonye, Obioha; Alagbe, Oluwole; Oluwatayo, Adedapo; Alagbe, Taiye; Alalade, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    As a result of globalization of digital technology, intellectual discourse on what constitutes the basic body of architectural knowledge to be imparted to future professionals has been on the increase. This digital revolution has brought to the fore the need to review the already overloaded architectural education curriculum of Nigerian schools of…

  6. The impact of seed treatment on early crop development and ield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful establishment of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings is critical for early crop development and productivity. Past research has shown that an application of the plant growth regulator, ethylene, to seed or seedlings can improve root development, increase hypocotyl diameters and ...

  7. Evidence that the hexose-to-sucrose ratio does not control the switch to storage product accumulation in oilseeds: analysis of tobacco seed development and effects of overexpressing apoplastic invertase.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Kim L; McHugh, Sylvia; Labbe, Helene; Grainger, John L; James, Lisa E; Pomeroy, Keith M; Mullin, John W; Miller, Shea S; Dennis, David T; Miki, Brian L A

    2004-10-01

    Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seed development was characterized with respect to architecture and carbohydrate metabolism. Tobacco seeds accumulate oil and protein in the embryo, cellular endosperm and inner layer of the seed coat. They have high cell wall invertase (INV) and hexoses in early development which is typical of seeds. INV and the ratio of hexose to sucrose decline during development, switching from high hex to high suc, but not until most oil and all protein accumulation has occurred. The oil synthesis which coincides with the switch is mostly within the embryo. INV activity is greater than sucrose synthase activity throughout development, and both activities exceed the demand for carbohydrate for dry matter accumulation. To investigate the role of INV-mediated suc metabolism in oilseeds, genes for yeast INV and/or hexokinase (HK) were expressed under a seed-specific napin promoter, targeting activity to the apoplast and cytosol, respectively. Manipulating the INV pathway in an oilseed could either increase oil accumulation and sink strength, or disrupt carbohydrate metabolism, possibly through sugar-sensing, and decrease the storage function. Neither effect was found: transgenics with INV and/or HK increased 30-fold and 10-fold above wild-type levels had normal seed size and composition. This contrasted with dramatic effects on sugar contents in the INV lines.

  8. Peptide and amino acid transporters are differentially regulated during seed development and germination in faba bean.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Manoela; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Tewes, Annegret; Dietrich, Daniela; Rentsch, Doris; Weber, Hans; Wobus, Ulrich

    2003-08-01

    Two peptide transporter (PTR) homologs have been isolated from developing seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba). VfPTR1 was shown to be a functional peptide transporter through complementation of a yeast mutant. Expression patterns of VfPTR1 and VfPTR2 as well as of the amino acid permease VfAAP1 (Miranda et al., 2001) were compared throughout seed development and germination. In developing seeds, the highest levels of VfPTR1 transcripts were reached during midcotyledon development, whereas VfAAP1 transcripts were most abundant during early cotyledon development, before the appearance of storage protein gene transcripts, and were detectable until late cotyledon development. During early germination, VfPTR1 mRNA appeared first in cotyledons and later, during seedling growth, also in axes and roots. Expression of VfPTR2 and VfAAP1 was delayed compared with VfPTR1, and was restricted to the nascent organs of the seedlings. Localization of VfPTR1 transcripts showed that this PTR is temporally and spatially regulated during cotyledon development. In germinating seeds, VfPTR1 mRNA was localized in root hairs and root epidermal cells, suggesting a role in nutrient uptake from the soil. In seedling roots, VfPTR1 was repressed by a dipeptide and by an amino acid, whereas nitrate was without influence.

  9. Development of Network-based Communications Architectures for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywczak, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announcement, NASA has been developing a communications infrastructure that combines existing terrestrial techniques with newer concepts and capabilities. The overall goal is to develop a flexible, modular, and extensible architecture that leverages and enhances terrestrial networking technologies that can either be directly applied or modified for the space regime. In addition, where existing technologies leaves gaps, new technologies must be developed. An example includes dynamic routing that accounts for constrained power and bandwidth environments. Using these enhanced technologies, NASA can develop nodes that provide characteristics, such as routing, store and forward, and access-on-demand capabilities. But with the development of the new infrastructure, challenges and obstacles will arise. The current communications infrastructure has been developed on a mission-by-mission basis rather than an end-to-end approach; this has led to a greater ground infrastructure, but has not encouraged communications between space-based assets. This alone provides one of the key challenges that NASA must encounter. With the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), NASA has the opportunity to provide an integration path for the new vehicles and provide standards for their development. Some of the newer capabilities these vehicles could include are routing, security, and Software Defined Radios (SDRs). To meet these needs, the NASA/Glenn Research Center s (GRC) Network Emulation Laboratory (NEL) has been using both simulation and emulation to study and evaluate these architectures. These techniques provide options to NASA that directly impact architecture development. This paper identifies components of the infrastructure that play a pivotal role in the new NASA architecture, develops a scheme using simulation and emulation for testing these architectures and demonstrates how NASA can strengthen the new infrastructure by

  10. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylation in developing seeds and germinating seedlings of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Uridine- and thymidine-phosphorylating enzymes were measured in developing and germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum v. Arthur and T. aestivum v. Lemhi. Because crude extracts were to be used in the developmental study, characteristics of unpurified nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPTase) were examined. In the developmental study with two varieties of wheat, NPTase activity was found to be very low in all of the true seed tissues during seed maturation. Uridine-phosphorylating activity was due to primarily to uridine kinase. Thymidine phosphorylation was very low in all tissues throughout seed maturation, with a brief appearance by thymidine kinase in the developing embryo. In germinating seeds, uridine-phosphorylating activity was present from earliest stages of germination but showed a decrease in activity followed by a recovery after 48 hours inbibition. Experiments using ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicated that uridine kinase was present during early germination but had disappeared by 96 hours. Uridine phosphorylation at later stages of germination was accomplished by NTPase. Thymidine phosphorylation did not begin until after 36 hours of germination and was the result of NPTase activity.

  11. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  12. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars1 left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper addresses the space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations, and describes how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  13. Seed development in Malpighiaceae species with an emphasis on the relationships between nutritive tissues.

    PubMed

    Souto, Letícia Silva; Oliveira, Denise Maria Trombert

    2014-01-01

    Malpighiaceae ovules have a well-developed nucellus; previous observations indicate that during seed development, the endosperm does not proliferate, thus, remaining scarce. This study aimed at identifying the nutritive tissues during seed development in Malpighiaceae, focusing especially on the endosperm. We analysed the seed development of Janusia mediterranea, J. occhionii, Mascagnia cordifolia, and Tetrapterys chamaecerasifolia, which were collected and processed by traditional methods for light microscopy. Ovules are subcampylotropous, crassinucellate and unitegmic in Janusia and bitegmic in M. cordifolia and T. chamaecerasifolia. The nucellus is well developed and protrudes through the micropyle, touching the funicular obturator. During development, a pachychalaza is formed, and the integuments coalesce in bitegmic species. Through a series of nucellar cell divisions, the perisperm is formed. In Janusia species, the endosperm is not produced. In M. cordifolia and T. chamaecerasifolia, the endosperm is nuclear, but it is scarce and ephemeral. The mature seed is exalbuminous, and the perisperm is consumed, and thus, the mature embryo is total. The absence of endosperm in Janusia is newly observed for the family and indicates functional transfer for the abundant perisperm.

  14. Current perspectives on the hormonal control of seed development in Arabidopsis and maize: a focus on auxin

    PubMed Central

    Locascio, Antonella; Roig-Villanova, Irma; Bernardi, Jamila; Varotto, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The seed represents the unit of reproduction of flowering plants, capable of developing into another plant, and to ensure the survival of the species under unfavorable environmental conditions. It is composed of three compartments: seed coat, endosperm and embryo. Proper seed development depends on the coordination of the processes that lead to seed compartments differentiation, development and maturation. The coordination of these processes is based on the constant transmission/perception of signals by the three compartments. Phytohormones constitute one of these signals; gradients of hormones are generated in the different seed compartments, and their ratios comprise the signals that induce/inhibit particular processes in seed development. Among the hormones, auxin seems to exert a central role, as it is the only one in maintaining high levels of accumulation from fertilization to seed maturation. The gradient of auxin generated by its PIN carriers affects several processes of seed development, including pattern formation, cell division and expansion. Despite the high degree of conservation in the regulatory mechanisms that lead to seed development within the Spermatophytes, remarkable differences exist during seed maturation between Monocots and Eudicots species. For instance, in Monocots the endosperm persists until maturation, and constitutes an important compartment for nutrients storage, while in Eudicots it is reduced to a single cell layer, as the expanding embryo gradually replaces it during the maturation. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on hormonal control of seed development, by considering the data available in two model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, for Eudicots and Zea mays L., for Monocots. We will emphasize the control exerted by auxin on the correct progress of seed development comparing, when possible, the two species. PMID:25202316

  15. Development of the seeding system used for laser velocimeter surveys of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, Charles A.; Hathaway, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    An atomizer-based system for distributing high-volume rates of seed material was developed to support laser velocimeter investigations of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor flow field. The seeding system and the major concerns that were addressed during its development are described. Of primary importance were that the seed material be dispersed as single particles and that the liquid carrier used be completely evaporated before entering the compressor.

  16. Current perspectives on the hormonal control of seed development in Arabidopsis and maize: a focus on auxin.

    PubMed

    Locascio, Antonella; Roig-Villanova, Irma; Bernardi, Jamila; Varotto, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The seed represents the unit of reproduction of flowering plants, capable of developing into another plant, and to ensure the survival of the species under unfavorable environmental conditions. It is composed of three compartments: seed coat, endosperm and embryo. Proper seed development depends on the coordination of the processes that lead to seed compartments differentiation, development and maturation. The coordination of these processes is based on the constant transmission/perception of signals by the three compartments. Phytohormones constitute one of these signals; gradients of hormones are generated in the different seed compartments, and their ratios comprise the signals that induce/inhibit particular processes in seed development. Among the hormones, auxin seems to exert a central role, as it is the only one in maintaining high levels of accumulation from fertilization to seed maturation. The gradient of auxin generated by its PIN carriers affects several processes of seed development, including pattern formation, cell division and expansion. Despite the high degree of conservation in the regulatory mechanisms that lead to seed development within the Spermatophytes, remarkable differences exist during seed maturation between Monocots and Eudicots species. For instance, in Monocots the endosperm persists until maturation, and constitutes an important compartment for nutrients storage, while in Eudicots it is reduced to a single cell layer, as the expanding embryo gradually replaces it during the maturation. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on hormonal control of seed development, by considering the data available in two model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, for Eudicots and Zea mays L., for Monocots. We will emphasize the control exerted by auxin on the correct progress of seed development comparing, when possible, the two species.

  17. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The technology development of the space station is examined as it relates to space station growth and equipment requirements for future missions. Future mission topics are refined and used to establish a systems data base. Technology for human factors engineering, space maintenance, satellite design, and laser communications and tracking is discussed.

  18. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Korona, F. Adam; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars [1] left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will address the space suit system architecture and technologies required based upon human exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) destinations, and describe how they should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program.1, 2, 3 In looking forward to future US space exploration to a space suit architecture with maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, a series of exercises and analyses have provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program (CxP) space suit architecture is postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions4. The destination environmental analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit (LEO). Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important the farther away from Earth humans venture. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, independent of any particular program, and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of need dates for any particular crewed flight program in the future. The approach to space suit design and interface definition discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  19. Grass meristems II: inflorescence architecture, flower development and meristem fate.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Wakana; Pautler, Michael; Jackson, David; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2013-03-01

    Plant development depends on the activity of various types of meristems that generate organs such as leaves and floral organs throughout the life cycle. Grass species produce complex inflorescences and unique flowers. The grass inflorescence is composed of different types of branches, including a specialized branch called a spikelet. The spikelet is a special unit of the inflorescence and forms one to several florets, depending on the species. In the floret, floral organs such as perianth organs, carpels and stamens are formed. In Arabidopsis, because the inflorescence meristem (IM) forms the floral meristems (FMs) directly on its flanks, the change of meristem fate is relatively simple. In contrast, in grasses, different types of meristem, such as the IM, the branch meristem (BM), the spikelet pair meristem (SPM) in some grasses, the spikelet meristem (SM) and the FM, are responsible for the elaboration of their complex inflorescences and flowers. Therefore, sequential changes of meristem fate are required, and a number of genes involved in the specification of the fate of each meristem have been identified. In this review, we focus on the following issues concerning the fate of the reproductive meristems in two grass species, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa): (i) meristem regulation during inflorescence development; (ii) specification and fate change of the BM and the SM; (iii) determinacy of the FM; and (iv) communication between the meristem and lateral organs.

  20. Symbiotic seed germination and protocorm development of Aa achalensis Schltr., a terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Fracchia; Vanesa, Silvani; Eduardo, Flachsland; Graciela, Terada; Silvana, Sede

    2014-01-01

    Aa achalensis is an endangered terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina. In vitro symbiotic seed germination was evaluated for its propagation. Five different fungal strains were isolated from this species: two Rhizoctonia-like related to Thanatephorus cucumeris and three ascomicetaceous fungi belonging to Phialophora graminicola and one to an uncultured Pezizaceae. All five isolates promoted seed germination being one T. cucumeris strain the most effective. After 16 weeks of growth, 30% of A. achalensis protocorms developed until seedlings with two/four leaves in this treatment. These findings open an opportunity to the knowledge and preservation of this species.

  1. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  2. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms among children enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED).

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Levy, Susan E; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and social functioning and the presence of parent-reported conditions. Children with ASD and DD with ASD symptoms had mild to severe ASD risk on several measures compared to children with other DD and POP who had little ASD risk across measures. We conclude that children in SEED have varying degrees of ASD impairment and associated deficits. SEED thus provides a valuable sample to explore ASD phenotypes and inform risk factor analyses. PMID:26048040

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30–68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and social functioning and the presence of parent-reported conditions. Children with ASD and DD with ASD symptoms had mild to severe ASD risk on several measures compared to children with other DD and POP who had little ASD risk across measures. We conclude that children in SEED have varying degrees of ASD impairment and associated deficits. SEED thus provides a valuable sample to explore ASD phenotypes and inform risk factor analyses. PMID:26048040

  4. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A., III.

    2010-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this study a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets "under the skin." The study begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain…

  5. Directed Assembly and Development of Material-Free Tissues with Complex Architectures.

    PubMed

    Vrij, Erik; Rouwkema, Jeroen; LaPointe, Vanessa; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Truckenmüller, Roman; Rivron, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Material-free tissues are assembled using solely cells. Microstructured hydrogel templates and high content screening allow the formation of centimeter-scale tissues with precise architectures. Similar to developing tissues, these contract autonomously, controllably shift shape, self-scaffold by secreting extracellular matrix, and undergo morphogenesis.

  6. Architecture, Design, and Development of an HTML/JavaScript Web-Based Group Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need for virtual workspaces and describes the architecture, design, and development of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (GSWeb), an HTML/JavaScript Web-based Group Support System (GSS). GSWeb, an application interface similar to a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is currently used by teams around the world and relies on user…

  7. Business Architecture Development at Public Administration - Insights from Government EA Method Engineering Project in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, Katariina; Leppänen, Mauri

    Governments worldwide are concerned for efficient production of services to customers. To improve quality of services and to make service production more efficient, information and communication technology (ICT) is largely exploited in public administration (PA). Succeeding in this exploitation calls for large-scale planning which embraces issues from strategic to technological level. In this planning the notion of enterprise architecture (EA) is commonly applied. One of the sub-architectures of EA is business architecture (BA). BA planning is challenging in PA due to a large number of stakeholders, a wide set of customers, and solid and hierarchical structures of organizations. To support EA planning in Finland, a project to engineer a government EA (GEA) method was launched. In this chapter, we analyze the discussions and outputs of the project workshops and reflect emerged issues on current e-government literature. We bring forth insights into and suggestions for government BA and its development.

  8. CAPTAN: A hardware architecture for integrated data acquisition, control, and analysis for detector development

    SciTech Connect

    Turqueti, Marcos; Rivera, Ryan A.; Prosser, Alan; Andresen, Jeffry; Chramowicz, John; /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a data acquisition system flexible and powerful enough to meet the needs of a variety of high energy physics applications. The system described in this paper is called CAPTAN (Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node) and its architecture and capabilities are presented in detail here. The three most important characteristics of this system are flexibility, versatility and scalability. These three main features are supported by key architectural features; a vertical bus that permits the user to stack multiple boards, a gigabit Ethernet link that permits high speed communications to the system and the core group of boards that provide specific capabilities for the system. In this paper, we describe the system architecture, give an overview of its capabilities and point out possible applications.

  9. Advanced quantum cascade laser transmitter architectures and infrared photonics development

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2004-08-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security and civilian applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors. This paper reports on the current development in infrared photonics that provides a pathway for QCL transmitter miniaturization. This research has produced infrared waveguide-based optical components in chalcogenide glass using both direct-laser writing and holographic exposure techniques. We discuss here the design and fabrication concepts and capabilities required to produce integrated waveguides, waveguide couplers, and other photonic devices.

  10. Development of "Naked-Tufted" Seed Coat Mutants for Potential Use in Cotton Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of chemical mutagenesis has been highly successful in most major crops but has only recently been used in improving cotton. The objective of this research was to develop ‘naked-tufted’ seed mutants and to incorporate this genetic trait into cotton to enhance crop quality and reduce processing co...

  11. Vitamin E homologs and ¿-oryzanol levels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during seed development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E homologs (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol have gained significant attention due to their proposed health benefits and ability to increase vegetable oil stability. Changes in the levels of these phytochemicals were examined during seed development. Rapid accumulation of toc...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive,…

  13. Competition between meiotic and apomictic pathways during ovule and seed development results in clonality.

    PubMed

    Hojsgaard, Diego H; Martínez, Eric J; Quarin, Camilo L

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic and apomictic reproductive pathways develop simultaneously in facultative aposporous species, and compete to form a seed as a final goal. This developmental competition was evaluated in tetraploid genotypes of Paspalum malacophyllum in order to understand the low level of sexuality in facultative apomictic populations. Cyto-embryology on ovules, flow cytometry on seeds and progeny tests by DNA fingerprinting were used to measure the relative incidence of each meiotic or apomictic pathway along four different stages of the plant's life cycle, namely the beginning and end of gametogenesis, seed formation and adult offspring. A high variation in the frequencies of sexual and apomictic pathways occurred at the first two stages. A trend of radical decline in realized sexuality was then observed. Sexual and apomictic seeds were produced, but the efficiency of the sexual pathway dropped drastically, and exclusively clonal offspring remained. Both reproductive pathways are unstable at the beginning of development, and only the apomictic one remains functional. Key factors reducing sexuality are the faster growth and parthenogenetic development in the aposporous pathway, and an (epi)genetically negative background related to the extensive gene de-regulation pattern responsible for apomixis. The effects of inbreeding depression during post-fertilization development may further decrease the frequency of effective sexuality.

  14. Effects of temperature during soybean seed development on defense-related gene expression and fungal pathogen accumulation.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Robert G; Ramirez, Martha E

    2011-12-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] plants were exposed to three temperature regimens during seed development to investigate the effect of temperature on the expression of eight defense-related genes and the accumulation of two fungal pathogens in inoculated seeds. In seeds prior to inoculation, either a day/night warm (34/26 °C) or a cool temperature (22/18 °C) relative to normal (26/22 °C) resulted in altered patterns of gene expression including substantially lower expression of PR1, PR3 and PR10. After seed inoculation with Cercospora kikuchii, pathogen accumulation was lowest in seeds produced at 22/18 °C in which of all defense genes, MMP2 was uniquely most highly induced. For seeds inoculated with Diaporthe phaseolorum, pathogen accumulation was lowest in seeds produced at 34/26 °C in which of all defense genes, PR10 was uniquely most highly induced. Our detached seed assays clearly demonstrated that the temperature regimens we applied during seed development produced significant changes in seed defense-related gene expression both pre- and post inoculation and our findings support the hypothesis that global climate change may alter plant-pathogen interactions and thereby potentially crop productivity.

  15. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot

  16. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  17. SAMS--a systems architecture for developing intelligent health information systems.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Özgün; Erdur, Rıza Cenk; Türksever, Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, SAMS, a novel health information system architecture for developing intelligent health information systems is proposed and also some strategies for developing such systems are discussed. The systems fulfilling this architecture will be able to store electronic health records of the patients using OWL ontologies, share patient records among different hospitals and provide physicians expertise to assist them in making decisions. The system is intelligent because it is rule-based, makes use of rule-based reasoning and has the ability to learn and evolve itself. The learning capability is provided by extracting rules from previously given decisions by the physicians and then adding the extracted rules to the system. The proposed system is novel and original in all of these aspects. As a case study, a system is implemented conforming to SAMS architecture for use by dentists in the dental domain. The use of the developed system is described with a scenario. For evaluation, the developed dental information system will be used and tried by a group of dentists. The development of this system proves the applicability of SAMS architecture. By getting decision support from a system derived from this architecture, the cognitive gap between experienced and inexperienced physicians can be compensated. Thus, patient satisfaction can be achieved, inexperienced physicians are supported in decision making and the personnel can improve their knowledge. A physician can diagnose a case, which he/she has never diagnosed before, using this system. With the help of this system, it will be possible to store general domain knowledge in this system and the personnel's need to medical guideline documents will be reduced.

  18. Developing Architectures and Technologies for an Evolvable NASA Space Communication Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Space communications architecture concepts play a key role in the development and deployment of NASA's future exploration and science missions. Once a mission is deployed, the communication link to the user needs to provide maximum information delivery and flexibility to handle the expected large and complex data sets and to enable direct interaction with the spacecraft and experiments. In human and robotic missions, communication systems need to offer maximum reliability with robust two-way links for software uploads and virtual interactions. Identifying the capabilities to cost effectively meet the demanding space communication needs of 21st century missions, proper formulation of the requirements for these missions, and identifying the early technology developments that will be needed can only be resolved with architecture design. This paper will describe the development of evolvable space communication architecture models and the technologies needed to support Earth sensor web and collaborative observation formation missions; robotic scientific missions for detailed investigation of planets, moons, and small bodies in the solar system; human missions for exploration of the Moon, Mars, Ganymede, Callisto, and asteroids; human settlements in space, on the Moon, and on Mars; and great in-space observatories for observing other star systems and the universe. The resulting architectures will enable the reliable, multipoint, high data rate capabilities needed on demand to provide continuous, maximum coverage of areas of concentrated activities, such as in the vicinity of outposts in-space, on the Moon or on Mars.

  19. Amino Acid Export in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds Depends on UmamiT Facilitators.

    PubMed

    Müller, Benedikt; Fastner, Astrid; Karmann, Julia; Mansch, Verena; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Suter-Grotemeyer, Marianne; Rentsch, Doris; Truernit, Elisabeth; Ladwig, Friederike; Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Hammes, Ulrich Z

    2015-12-01

    Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by humans and animals. They often are limiting in plant-derived foods and determine the nutritional value of a given diet. Seeds and fruits often represent the harvestable portion of plants. In order to improve the amino acid composition of these tissues, it is indispensable to understand how these substrates are transported within the plant. Amino acids result from nitrogen assimilation, which often occurs in leaves, the source tissue. They are transported via the vasculature, the xylem, and the phloem into the seeds, the so-called sink tissue, where they are stored or consumed. In seeds, several tissues are symplasmically isolated, i.e., not connected by plasmodesmata, channels in the cell walls that enable a cytoplasmic continuum in plants. Consequently, amino acids must be exported from cells into the apoplast and re-imported many times to support seed development. Several amino acid importers are known, but exporters remained elusive. Here, we characterize four members of the plant-specific UmamiT transporter family from Arabidopsis, related to the amino acid facilitator SIAR1 and the vacuolar auxin transporter WAT1. We show that the proteins transport amino acids along their (electro)chemical potential across the plasma membrane. In seeds, they are found in tissues from which amino acids are exported. Loss-of-function mutants accumulate high levels of free amino acids in fruits and produce smaller seeds. Our results strongly suggest a crucial role for the UmamiTs in amino acid export and possibly a means to improve yield quality.

  20. Differential proteomic analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum from developing and germinating seeds of castor (Ricinus communis) identifies seed protein precursors as significant components of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Daniel J; Gadd, Stephen M; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2007-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of storage protein and lipid biosynthesis. Maximal synthesis of these storage compounds occurs during seed development with breakdown occurring during germination. In this study, we have isolated four independent preparations of ER from both developing and germinating seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis) and used 2-D DIGE, and a combination of PMF and MS/MS sequencing, to quantify and identify differences in protein complement at both stages. Ninety protein spots in the developing seeds are up-regulated and 19 individual proteins were identified, the majority of these are intermediates of seed storage synthesis and protein folding. The detection of these transitory storage proteins in the ER is discussed in terms of protein trafficking and processing. In germinating seed ER 15 spots are elevated, 5 of which were identified, amongst them was malate synthetase which is a component of the glyoxysome which is believed to originate from the ER. Notably no proteins involved in complex lipid biosynthesis were identified in the urea soluble ER fraction indicating that they are probably all integral membrane proteins.

  1. Impacts of Greening Materials and Seed Pretreatment on Vegetation Development at an initial stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Slope protection using greening measures as an integral part of soil-bioengineering is characterized by an increasing demand in research and practice. However, successful greening is a very complex issue due to the vast variety in specific slope characteristics such as morphology, soil properties and environmental factors. Because of practical experience in the greening of slopes and the results of further investigations in small-scale tests, it can be stated that the use of appropriate planting techniques, the quality of the materials used and the proper implementation of potential needed auxiliary materials at difficult locations are seen as key success criteria for sustainable vegetation development. Within this framework small-scale testing series were conducted regarding the influence of specific soil-properties, the use of auxiliary greening materials (fertilizer, mycorrhiza fungi, Bonded fiber matrix (BFM)…), application of different seed-pretreatment methods and influences of specific environmental factors (inclination, seeding depth) on vegetational development in an early phase. The aim of the series is to quantitatively and thus economically optimize the use of different greening-components and seed mixtures for practical application, while ensuring optimal development of vegetation. To quantify the influence of the treatment systems, vegetation cover ratio, biomass production (aboveground and belowground) and the germination of plant seeds served as main criteria for assessing the development in an initial stage. Selected findings for instance show that the admixture of mycorrhiza fungi can increase the cover ratio up to 23 % compared to untreated plots. In addition, pretreatment of seeds showed distinct effects too by shortening germination phase and increasing the capability of producing a higher amount of healthy sprouts. From a bioengineering perspective the results will serve as potential decisive advantage for successful implementation of

  2. In vitro germination, protocorm formation and plantlet development of mature versus immature seeds from several Ophrys species (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Kitsaki, C K; Zygouraki, S; Ziobora, M; Kintzios, S

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of genotype, seed maturity and culture medium on the in vitro germination and development of protocorms and plantlets from seeds of 13 different Ophrys species (O. apifera, O. attica, O. cornuta, O. delfinensis, O. ferrum-equinum, O. lutea, O. mammosa, O. speculum, O. spruneri, O. umbilicata, O. argolica, O. irricolor and O. tenthredinifera) collected in Greece, some of which are endemic to this country. Mature seeds (10 months after collection) and immature seeds (2 months after anthesis) were cultured in a coconut milk-enriched or a pineapple-enriched medium (CEM or PEM, respectively). The highest percentage of callogenesis (96%) was observed in immature seeds of O. delphinensis in the CEM, while the highest percentage of protocorm formation (52%) was observed in mature seeds of O. spuneri in the CEM. Protocorm formation was significantly lower in immature seeds than in mature seeds in both culture media. Eventually almost all of the transferred protocorms developed to plantlets, which later formed minitubers. PEM appeared to be the most suitable for the development of minitubers from plantlets. All of the factors investigated--as well as their interactions--significantly affected callogenesis and protocorm formation. The results are discussed with the perspective of applying an improved protocol for in vitro seed germination and plantlet formation in several under-utilized Ophrys species. PMID:15517276

  3. Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramonell, K. M.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol-1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. 'Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol-1) with 0.35 mmol mol-1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol-1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis.

  4. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs) in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones. PMID:26635847

  5. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs) in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones. PMID:26635847

  6. Radioactive Chernobyl environment has produced high-oil flax seeds that show proteome alterations related to carbon metabolism during seed development.

    PubMed

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Starting in 2007, we have grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. variety Soniachna) and flax (Linum usitatissimum, L. variety Kyivskyi) in the radio-contaminated Chernobyl area and analyzed the seed proteomes. In the second-generation flax seeds, we detected a 12% increase in oil content. To characterize the bases for this increase, seed development has been studied. Flax seeds were harvested in biological triplicate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity from plants grown in nonradioactive and radio-contaminated plots in the Chernobyl area for two generations. Quantitative proteomic analyses based on 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed us to establish developmental profiles for 199 2-DE spots in both plots, out of which 79 were reliably identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The data suggest a statistically significant increased abundance of proteins associated with pyruvate biosynthesis via cytoplasmic glycolysis, L-malate decarboxylation, isocitrate dehydrogenation, and ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in early stages of seed development. This was followed by statistically significant increased abundance of ketoacyl-[acylcarrier protein] synthase I related to condensation of malonyl-ACP with elongating fatty acid chains. On the basis of these and previous data, we propose a preliminary model for plant adaptation to growth in a radio-contaminated environment. One aspect of the model suggests that changes in carbon assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis are an integral part of plant adaptation. PMID:24111740

  7. Radioactive Chernobyl environment has produced high-oil flax seeds that show proteome alterations related to carbon metabolism during seed development.

    PubMed

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Starting in 2007, we have grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. variety Soniachna) and flax (Linum usitatissimum, L. variety Kyivskyi) in the radio-contaminated Chernobyl area and analyzed the seed proteomes. In the second-generation flax seeds, we detected a 12% increase in oil content. To characterize the bases for this increase, seed development has been studied. Flax seeds were harvested in biological triplicate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity from plants grown in nonradioactive and radio-contaminated plots in the Chernobyl area for two generations. Quantitative proteomic analyses based on 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed us to establish developmental profiles for 199 2-DE spots in both plots, out of which 79 were reliably identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The data suggest a statistically significant increased abundance of proteins associated with pyruvate biosynthesis via cytoplasmic glycolysis, L-malate decarboxylation, isocitrate dehydrogenation, and ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in early stages of seed development. This was followed by statistically significant increased abundance of ketoacyl-[acylcarrier protein] synthase I related to condensation of malonyl-ACP with elongating fatty acid chains. On the basis of these and previous data, we propose a preliminary model for plant adaptation to growth in a radio-contaminated environment. One aspect of the model suggests that changes in carbon assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis are an integral part of plant adaptation.

  8. Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle–water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The ‘hinged valve gap’ has been previously identified as the initial site of water entry (i.e. water gap) in physically dormant (PY) seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae). However, neither the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap nor acquisition of PY by seeds of Geraniaceae has been studied previously. The aims of the present study were to investigate the physiological events related to acquisition of PY and the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap and seed coat of G. carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were studied from the ovule stage until dispersal. The developmental stages of acquisition of germinability, physiological maturity and PY were determined by seed measurement, germination and imbibition experiments using intact seeds and isolated embryos of both fresh and slow-dried seeds. Ontogeny of the seed coat and water gap was studied using light microscopy. Key Results Developing seeds achieved germinability, physiological maturity and PY on days 9, 14 and 20 after pollination (DAP), respectively. The critical moisture content of seeds on acquisition of PY was 11 %. Slow-drying caused the stage of acquisition of PY to shift from 20 to 13 DAP. Greater extent of cell division and differentiation at the micropyle, water gap and chalaza than at the rest of the seed coat resulted in particular anatomical features. Palisade and subpalisade cells of varying forms developed in these sites. A clear demarcation between the water gap and micropyle is not evident due to their close proximity. Conclusions Acquisition of PY in seeds of G. carolinianum occurs after physiological maturity and is triggered by maturation drying. The micropyle and water gap cannot be considered as two separate entities, and thus it is more appropriate to consider them together as a ‘micropyle–water-gap complex’. PMID:21546433

  9. Flavonoid and Isoflavonoid Distribution in Developing Soybean Seedling Tissues and in Seed and Root Exudates 1

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Terrence L.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and their conjugates in developing soybean (Glycine max L.) seedling organs and in root and seed exudates has been examined. Conjugates of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein are major metabolites in all embryonic organs within the dry seed and in seedling roots, hypocotyl, and cotyledon tissues at all times after germination. Primary leaf tissues undergo a programmed shift from isoflavonoid to flavonoid metabolism 3 days after germination and become largely predominated by glycosides of the flavonols kampferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin by 5 days. Cotyledons contain relatively constant and very high levels of conjugates of both daidzein and genistein. Hypocotyl tissues contain a third unidentified compound, P19.3, also present in multiple conjugated forms. Conjugates of daidzein, genistein, and P19.3 are at their highest levels in the hypocotyl hook and fall off progressively down the hypocotyl. These isoflavones also undergo a programmed and dramatic decrease between 2 and 4 days in the hypocotyl hook. All root sections are predominated by daidzein and its conjugates, particularly in the root tip, where they reach the highest levels in the seedling. Light has a pronounced effect on the distribution of the isoflavones; in the dark, isoflavone levels in the root tips are greatly reduced, while those in the cotyledons are higher. Finally, the conjugates of daidzein and genistein and several unidentified aromatic metabolites are selectively excreted into root and seed exudates. Analysis of seed exudates suggests that this is a continuous, but saturable event. PMID:16668024

  10. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    SciTech Connect

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, ({sup 35}S) methionine labelling shows no {und de novo} synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Lysine Biosynthesis Pathway Network during Maize Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuwei; Xie, Shaojun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Lysine is one of the most limiting essential amino acids for humans and livestock. The nutritional value of maize (Zea mays L.) is reduced by its poor lysine content. To better understand the lysine biosynthesis pathway in maize seed, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the genes involved in lysine biosynthesis. We identified lysine biosynthesis pathway genes (LBPGs) and investigated whether a diaminopimelate pathway variant exists in maize. We analyzed two genes encoding the key enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase, and determined that they contribute differently to lysine synthesis during maize seed development. A coexpression network of LBPGs was constructed using RNA-sequencing data from 21 developmental stages of B73 maize seed. We found a large set of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, elongation factors and zein proteins that were coexpressed with LBPGs. The coexpressed genes were enriched in cellular metabolism terms and protein related terms. A phylogenetic analysis of the LBPGs from different plant species revealed different relationships. Additionally, six transcription factor (TF) families containing 13 TFs were identified as the Hub TFs of the LBPGs modules. Several expression quantitative trait loci of LBPGs were also identified. Our results should help to elucidate the lysine biosynthesis pathway network in maize seed. PMID:26829553

  12. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development. PMID:27375629

  13. High-throughput sequencing-based genome-wide identification of microRNAs expressed in developing cotton seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, YanMei; Ding, Yan; Yu, DingWei; Xue, Wei; Liu, JinYuan

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in gene expression in cotton. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified in cotton fibers, the functions of miRNAs in seed development remain unexplored. In this study, a small RNA library was constructed from cotton seeds sampled at 15 days post-anthesis (DPA) and was subjected to high-throughput sequencing. A total of 95 known miRNAs were detected to be expressed in cotton seeds. The expression pattern of these identified miRNAs was profiled and 48 known miRNAs were differentially expressed between cotton seeds and fibers at 15 DPA. In addition, 23 novel miRNA candidates were identified in 15-DPA seeds. Putative targets for 21 novel and 87 known miRNAs were successfully predicted and 900 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were proposed to be candidate target genes, which are involved in various metabolic and biological processes, suggesting a complex regulatory network in developing cotton seeds. Furthermore, miRNA-mediated cleavage of three important transcripts in vivo was validated by RLM-5' RACE. This study is the first to show the regulatory network of miRNAs that are involved in developing cotton seeds and provides a foundation for future studies on the specific functions of these miRNAs in seed development.

  14. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  15. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development. PMID:27375629

  16. Rapid development of adaptive, climate-driven clinal variation in seed mass in the invasive annual Forb Echium plantagineum L.

    PubMed

    Konarzewski, Tara K; Murray, Brad R; Godfree, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    We examined adaptive clinal variation in seed mass among populations of an invasive annual species, Echium plantagineum, in response to climatic selection. We collected seeds from 34 field populations from a 1,000 km long temperature and rainfall gradient across the species' introduced range in south-eastern Australia. Seeds were germinated, grown to reproductive age under common glasshouse conditions, and progeny seeds were harvested and weighed. Analyses showed that seed mass was significantly related to climatic factors, with populations sourced from hotter, more arid sites producing heavier seeds than populations from cooler and wetter sites. Seed mass was not related to edaphic factors. We also found that seed mass was significantly related to both longitude and latitude with each degree of longitude west and latitude north increasing seed mass by around 2.5% and 4% on average. There was little evidence that within-population or between-population variation in seed mass varied in a systematic manner across the study region. Our findings provide compelling evidence for development of a strong cline in seed mass across the geographic range of a widespread and highly successful invasive annual forb. Since large seed mass is known to provide reproductive assurance for plants in arid environments, our results support the hypothesis that the fitness and range potential of invasive species can increase as a result of genetic divergence of populations along broad climatic gradients. In E. plantagineum population-level differentiation has occurred in 150 years or less, indicating that the adaptation process can be rapid.

  17. Research and development of the evolving architecture for beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Kim, Jangho; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-12-01

    The Standard Model (SM) has been successfully validated with the discovery of Higgs boson. However, the model is not yet fully regarded as a complete description. There are efforts to develop phenomenological models that are collectively termed beyond the standard model (BSM). The BSM requires several orders of magnitude more simulations compared with those required for the Higgs boson events. On the other hand, particle physics research involves major investments in hardware coupled with large-scale theoretical and computational efforts along with experiments. These fields include simulation toolkits based on an evolving computing architecture. Using the simulation toolkits, we study particle physics beyond the standard model. Here, we describe the state of this research and development effort for evolving computing architecture of high throughput computing (HTC) and graphic processing units (GPUs) for searching beyond the standard model.

  18. Sympathetic innervation during development is necessary for pancreatic islet architecture and functional maturation

    PubMed Central

    Borden, Philip; Houtz, Jessica; Leach, Steven D.; Kuruvilla, Rejji

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sympathetic neurons depend on target-derived neurotrophic cues to control their survival and growth. However, whether sympathetic innervation contributes reciprocally to the development of target tissues is less clear. Here, we report that sympathetic innervation is necessary for the formation of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and for their functional maturation. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of sympathetic innervation during development resulted in altered islet architecture, reduced insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Similar defects were observed with pharmacological blockade of β-adrenergic signaling. Conversely, the administration of a β-adrenergic agonist restored islet morphology and glucose tolerance in de-innervated animals. Furthermore, in neuron-islet co-cultures, sympathetic neurons promoted islet cell migration in a β-adrenergic dependent manner. This study reveals that islet architecture requires extrinsic inductive cues from neighboring tissues such as sympathetic nerves, and suggests that early perturbations in sympathetic innervation might underlie metabolic disorders. PMID:23850289

  19. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality.

  20. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  1. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  2. Judicious use of custom development in an open source component architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.; Latysh, N.; Long, D.; Tekell, S.; Allen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern software engineering is not as much programming from scratch as innovative assembly of existing components. Seamlessly integrating disparate components into scalable, performant architecture requires sound engineering craftsmanship and can often result in increased cost efficiency and accelerated capabilities if software teams focus their creativity on the edges of the problem space. ScienceBase is part of the U.S. Geological Survey scientific cyberinfrastructure, providing data and information management, distribution services, and analysis capabilities in a way that strives to follow this pattern. ScienceBase leverages open source NoSQL and relational databases, search indexing technology, spatial service engines, numerous libraries, and one proprietary but necessary software component in its architecture. The primary engineering focus is cohesive component interaction, including construction of a seamless Application Programming Interface (API) across all elements. The API allows researchers and software developers alike to leverage the infrastructure in unique, creative ways. Scaling the ScienceBase architecture and core API with increasing data volume (more databases) and complexity (integrated science problems) is a primary challenge addressed by judicious use of custom development in the component architecture. Other data management and informatics activities in the earth sciences have independently resolved to a similar design of reusing and building upon established technology and are working through similar issues for managing and developing information (e.g., U.S. Geoscience Information Network; NASA's Earth Observing System Clearing House; GSToRE at the University of New Mexico). Recent discussions facilitated through the Earth Science Information Partners are exploring potential avenues to exploit the implicit relationships between similar projects for explicit gains in our ability to more rapidly advance global scientific cyberinfrastructure.

  3. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Soybean MADS Genes Showing Potential Function in the Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Jian-Xin; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD) events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKCC subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKCC subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKCC genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKCC genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS. PMID:23638026

  4. A role for sugar transporters during seed development: molecular characterization of a hexose and a sucrose carrier in fava bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Sauer, N; Wobus, U

    1997-06-01

    To analyze sugar transport processes during seed development of fava bean, we cloned cDNAs encoding one sucrose and one hexose transporter, designated VfSUT1 and VfSTP1, respectively. sugar uptake activity was confirmed after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene expression was studied in relation to seed development. Transcripts were detected in both vegetative and seed tissues. In the embryo, VfSUT1 and VfSTP1 mRNAs were detected only in epidermal cells, but in a different temporal and spatial pattern. VfSTP1 mRNA accumulates during the midcotyledon stage in epidermal cells covering the mitotically active parenchyma, whereas the VfSUT1 transcript was specific to outer epidermal cells showing transfer cell morphology and covering the storage parenchyma. Transfer cells developed at the contact area of the cotyledonary epidermis and the seed coat, starting first at the early cotyledon stage and subsequently spreading to the abaxial region at the late cotyledon stage. Feeding high concentrations of sugars suppressed both VfSUT1 expression and transfer cell differentiation in vitro, suggesting a control by carbohydrate availability.

  5. A role for sugar transporters during seed development: molecular characterization of a hexose and a sucrose carrier in fava bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Sauer, N; Wobus, U

    1997-06-01

    To analyze sugar transport processes during seed development of fava bean, we cloned cDNAs encoding one sucrose and one hexose transporter, designated VfSUT1 and VfSTP1, respectively. sugar uptake activity was confirmed after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene expression was studied in relation to seed development. Transcripts were detected in both vegetative and seed tissues. In the embryo, VfSUT1 and VfSTP1 mRNAs were detected only in epidermal cells, but in a different temporal and spatial pattern. VfSTP1 mRNA accumulates during the midcotyledon stage in epidermal cells covering the mitotically active parenchyma, whereas the VfSUT1 transcript was specific to outer epidermal cells showing transfer cell morphology and covering the storage parenchyma. Transfer cells developed at the contact area of the cotyledonary epidermis and the seed coat, starting first at the early cotyledon stage and subsequently spreading to the abaxial region at the late cotyledon stage. Feeding high concentrations of sugars suppressed both VfSUT1 expression and transfer cell differentiation in vitro, suggesting a control by carbohydrate availability. PMID:9212465

  6. Galactinol synthase enzyme activity influences raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulation in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gangola, Manu P; Jaiswal, Sarita; Kannan, Udhaya; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2016-05-01

    To understand raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) metabolism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO accumulation and corresponding biosynthetic enzymes activities were determined during seed development of chickpea genotypes with contrasting RFO concentrations. RFO concentration in mature seeds was found as a facilitator rather than a regulating step of seed germination. In mature seeds, raffinose concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 0.68 and 0.75 to 0.99 g/100 g, whereas stachyose concentrations varied from 0.79 to 1.26 and 1.70 to 1.87 g/100 g indicating significant differences between low and high RFO genotypes, respectively. Chickpea genotypes with high RFO concentration accumulated higher concentrations of myo-inositol and sucrose during early seed developmental stages suggesting that initial substrate concentrations may influence RFO concentration in mature seeds. High RFO genotypes showed about two to three-fold higher activity for all RFO biosynthetic enzymes compared to those with low RFO concentrations. RFO biosynthetic enzymes activities correspond with accumulation of individual RFO during seed development.

  7. Galactinol synthase enzyme activity influences raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulation in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gangola, Manu P; Jaiswal, Sarita; Kannan, Udhaya; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2016-05-01

    To understand raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) metabolism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO accumulation and corresponding biosynthetic enzymes activities were determined during seed development of chickpea genotypes with contrasting RFO concentrations. RFO concentration in mature seeds was found as a facilitator rather than a regulating step of seed germination. In mature seeds, raffinose concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 0.68 and 0.75 to 0.99 g/100 g, whereas stachyose concentrations varied from 0.79 to 1.26 and 1.70 to 1.87 g/100 g indicating significant differences between low and high RFO genotypes, respectively. Chickpea genotypes with high RFO concentration accumulated higher concentrations of myo-inositol and sucrose during early seed developmental stages suggesting that initial substrate concentrations may influence RFO concentration in mature seeds. High RFO genotypes showed about two to three-fold higher activity for all RFO biosynthetic enzymes compared to those with low RFO concentrations. RFO biosynthetic enzymes activities correspond with accumulation of individual RFO during seed development. PMID:26953100

  8. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line. PMID:26654767

  9. Development and Application of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Kroo, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    Collaborative optimization is a design architecture applicable in any multidisciplinary analysis environment but specifically intended for large-scale distributed analysis applications. In this approach, a complex problem is hierarchically de- composed along disciplinary boundaries into a number of subproblems which are brought into multidisciplinary agreement by a system-level coordination process. When applied to problems in a multidisciplinary design environment, this scheme has several advantages over traditional solution strategies. These advantageous features include reducing the amount of information transferred between disciplines, the removal of large iteration-loops, allowing the use of different subspace optimizers among the various analysis groups, an analysis framework which is easily parallelized and can operate on heterogenous equipment, and a structural framework that is well-suited for conventional disciplinary organizations. In this article, the collaborative architecture is developed and its mathematical foundation is presented. An example application is also presented which highlights the potential of this method for use in large-scale design applications.

  10. A development architecture for serious games using BCI (brain computer interface) sensors.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yunsick; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun

    2012-11-12

    Games that use brainwaves via brain-computer interface (BCI) devices, to improve brain functions are known as BCI serious games. Due to the difficulty of developing BCI serious games, various BCI engines and authoring tools are required, and these reduce the development time and cost. However, it is desirable to reduce the amount of technical knowledge of brain functions and BCI devices needed by game developers. Moreover, a systematic BCI serious game development process is required. In this paper, we present a methodology for the development of BCI serious games. We describe an architecture, authoring tools, and development process of the proposed methodology, and apply it to a game development approach for patients with mild cognitive impairment as an example. This application demonstrates that BCI serious games can be developed on the basis of expert-verified theories.

  11. A Development Architecture for Serious Games Using BCI (Brain Computer Interface) Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yunsick; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun

    2012-01-01

    Games that use brainwaves via brain–computer interface (BCI) devices, to improve brain functions are known as BCI serious games. Due to the difficulty of developing BCI serious games, various BCI engines and authoring tools are required, and these reduce the development time and cost. However, it is desirable to reduce the amount of technical knowledge of brain functions and BCI devices needed by game developers. Moreover, a systematic BCI serious game development process is required. In this paper, we present a methodology for the development of BCI serious games. We describe an architecture, authoring tools, and development process of the proposed methodology, and apply it to a game development approach for patients with mild cognitive impairment as an example. This application demonstrates that BCI serious games can be developed on the basis of expert-verified theories. PMID:23202227

  12. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  13. Development of an Automated Seed Sowing and Induced Germination System for Space Flight Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Kliss, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The successful utilization of higher plants in space flight is likely to require the effective transition of plants through all phases of growth and development. A particularly sensitive and critical stage in this cycle is seed germination. The present inflight capability to manipulate seed from a state of dormancy to germination and the performance of such activity under aseptic conditions is extremely limited. An Automated Sowing Mechanism (ASM) has been designed to address this area of science and technology. The self-contained system is readily compatible with the existing Shuttle middeck locker Plant Growth Unit (PGU) and planned Plant Growth Facility (PGF), presenting an opportunity to extend the experimental capability of these systems. The ASM design encompasses the controlled transition of seed from a dry to hydrated state utilizing solid media substrate as the source of water and nutrient support. System activation has been achieved with both photo and timing mechanisms. Controlled induced germination and development of various plant species has been achieved in ground-based trials. The system is presently being prepared for a KC-135 flight test.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a cowpea seed lipid transfer protein cDNA: expression analysis during seed development and under fungal and cold stresses in seedlings' tissues.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A O; Souza-Filho, G A; Ferreira, B S; Branco, A T; Araújo, I S; Fernandes, K V S; Retamal, C A; Gomes, V M

    2006-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) involved in the defense of plants against pathogens. Our group has previously characterized and purified a LTP from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seeds which caused the inhibition of growth of fungal pathogens in vitro. The aim of this work was to obtain the cDNA encoding the cowpea LTP and after cloning, to use the cDNA as a probe for studying its expression profile during the development of cowpea seeds. In this work, the N-terminal sequence of the mature LTP peptide from cowpea was used to produce a degenerated oligonucleotide. This primer allowed the amplification of the LTP cDNA by RT-PCR from mRNA of cowpea seeds. The sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA, named VULTP, showed 494 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 91 amino acids. The deduced peptide presented high homology of similarity to plant LTPs of Vigna radiata var. radiate (94%), Prunus domestica (82%) and Zea mays (72%). The expression profile of the VULTP gene in cowpea was analyzed by Northern blot and revealed that the transcript is not accumulated in adult tissues. Conversely, VULTP mRNA is early and strongly accumulated during seed development. The results obtained to seedling of cowpea demonstrate that the VULTP gene presents differential expression in response to different stress. Further studies will be conducted to try to gain better understanding about the physiological role of this gene in cowpea.

  15. Coordinated changes in storage proteins during development and germination of elite seeds of Pongamia pinnata, a versatile biodiesel legume

    PubMed Central

    Kesari, Vigya; Rangan, Latha

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims The oleaginous legume Pongamia pinnata is a rapidly growing and economically important tree. The seeds are used increasingly as feedstock for biodiesel production, with the protein-rich residue providing valuable supplement to farm animal diets. However, little is known about seed development and the characteristics of germination. We therefore studied morphological, protein and ultrastructural changes during seed maturation and germination using seeds from a tree selected for superior morphological and reproductive characters (candidate plus tree). Methodology Phenology, sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate seed development from 90 to 350 days after flowering (DAF), and germination and seedling development from 0 to 45 days after the start of imbibition (DAI) (Stages 0–VII). Principal results Seven distinct developmental stages were identified during seed development. Fresh weight, length, breadth and thickness increased from Stage I (90 DAF) to V (270 DAF) and decreased at Stages VI (315 DAF) and VII (350 DAF), when the seeds were fully ripe. Marked changes in total soluble protein content and SDS–PAGE profile were observed in vegetative and reproductive tissues and in the cotyledons of germinating seedlings. Polypeptide fragments of 150–14 kDa were observed during seed maturation and germination. In SDS–PAGE the expression of three main polypeptide bands (50, 18 and 14 kDa) increased from Stage I to Stage V and then almost became the same until Stage VII during seed maturation. During germination the expression of 50 kDa polypeptide decreased and that of 18 and 14 kDa increased from Stage 0 (ungerminated seed) to Stage VI (30 DAI), respectively; however, all three polypeptides (50, 18 and 14 kDa) completely disappeared at Stage VII (45 DAI). Ultrastructural changes during four stages of seed maturation (early immature, 90

  16. Temperature and Oxygen Effects on 14C-Photosynthate Unloading and Accumulation in Developing Soybean Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, John H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental sensitivity of the processes associated with the import of photosynthate by developing soybean seeds was investigated within intact fruit and with excised, immature embryos. Intact pods of field-grown (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) Amsoy 71 soybeans were subjected to localized regimes of 0, 21, or 100% O2 and 15, 25, or 35°C during pulsechase translocation experiments and, 2.5 hours later, the uptake and distribution of 14C-photosynthate among dissected fruit tissues determined. In other experiments, excised embryos were incubated in [14C]sucrose solutions under various experimental conditions to separate the effects of these treatments on accumulation by the embryos from those which may operate on phloem unloading in the maternal seedcoat. Import of 14C-photosynthate by intact soybean fruit was both temperature- and O2-dependent. This dependency was shown to occur only within the seeds; import by the pod walls was essentially insensitive to fruit temperature or O2 treatments. The embryos of anaerobic fruit were completely unlabeled, regardless of fruit temperature. But under anaerobic in vitro incubation conditions, uptake of [14C]sucrose in excised embryos was only 30% less than that in aerobic in vitro conditions. The data suggest that, within intact fruit, anoxia prevented sucrose efflux from the seed coat phloem and any subsequent uptake by the embryo. The demonstrated energy dependence of phloem unloading may reflect requirements for membrane integrity or energy metabolism in the companion cell-sieve element complex, consistent with a facilitated unloading process. Collectively, these data characterize the environmental sensitivity of photosynthate import in developing soybean fruit. They imply that environmental regulation of import may occur at both the embryo level and at the phloem terminals within the seed coat. PMID:16662182

  17. Considerations for developing technologies for an integrated person-borne IED countermeasure architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Nicholas J.; Knudson, Christa K.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Pattison, Kerrie J.; Stratton, Rex C.; Wiborg, James C.

    2010-04-01

    Developing an integrated person-borne improvised explosive device (IED) countermeasure to protect unstructured crowds at large public venues is the goal of the Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program (STIDP), sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The architecture being developed includes countermeasure technologies deployed as a layered defense and enabling technologies for operating the countermeasures as an integrated system. In the architecture, early recognition of potentially higher-risk individuals is crucial. Sensors must be able to detect, with high accuracy, explosives' threat signatures in varying environmental conditions, from a variety of approaches and with dense crowds and limited dwell time. Command-and-control technologies are needed to automate sensor operation, reduce staffing requirements, improve situational awareness, and automate/facilitate operator decisions. STIDP is developing technical and operational requirements for standoff and remotely operated sensors and is working with federal agencies and foreign governments to implement these requirements into their research and development programs. STIDP also is developing requirements for a software platform to rapidly integrate and control various sensors; acquire, analyze, and record their data; and present the data in an operationally relevant manner. Requirements also are being developed for spatial analysis, tracking and assessing threats with available screening resources, and data fusion for operator decision-making.

  18. Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Robert

    2012-03-21

    Robert Goldberg of UCLA presents "Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  19. Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Goldberg, Robert [UCLA

    2016-07-12

    Robert Goldberg of UCLA presents "Using Genomics to Dissect Seed Development" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  20. SAL: a language for developing an agent-based architecture for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.; Verzulli, Joe

    1993-05-01

    SAL (the SmartyCat Agent Language) is a language being developed for programming SmartyCat, our mobile robot. SmartyCat's underlying software architecture is agent-based. At the lowest level, the robot sensors and actuators are controlled by agents (viz., the sensing and acting agents, respectively). SAL provides the constructs for organizing these agents into many structures. In particular, SAL supports the subsumption architecture approach. At higher levels of abstraction, SAL can be used for writing programs based on Minsky's Society of Mind paradigm. Structurally, a SAL program is a graph, where the nodes are software modules called agents, and the arcs represent abstract communication links between agents. In SAL, an agent is a CLOS object with input and output ports. Input ports are used for presenting data from the outside world (i.e., other agents) to the agent. Data are presented to the outside world by the agent through its output ports. The main body of the SAL code for the agent specifies the computation or the action performed by the agent. This paper describes how SAL is being used for implementing the agent-based SmartyCat software architecture on a Cybermotion K2A platform.

  1. Architecture of the marrow vasculature in three amphibian species and its significance in hematopoietic development.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y

    1976-04-01

    Architecture of the bone marrow vasculature, particularly that of the femur, was analyzed in three amphibian species in relation to the early phylogeny of marrow hematopoiesis. A dye-injection method and histological techniques, including both serial sectioning and reconstruction methods, were used for this purpose. From these observations the following conclusions may be drawn. (1) Marrow hematopoiesis is absent from the femur of the urodelan (Triturus pyrrhogaster) and appears first in the femur of the primitive anuran (Xenopus laevis) (2) The site of primitive hematopoiesis (granulopoiesis) is the subendosteal region where the venous vascular net develops. (3) The primitive vascular architecture observed in the femur of Xenopus is characterized by the absence of a central vein. Subendosteal veins drain the blood from the bone marrow. A vein collateral to the primary artery appears in the femur of Rana catesbeiana, an advanced anuran, in which further development of both the subendosteal venous plexus and hematopoietic activity are noted. In both anura examined, the primitive blood sinuses form near the mid-shaft of the femur. The proliferation of mesenchymal elements containing dark pigment, presumably melanin, was also noted in this area. (4) The architecture of marrow vessels in Rana approaches the structure noted in mammalian bone marrow. (5) Fat tissue is observed in the urodelan bone marrow prior to the appearance of hematopoietic activity. This indicates that the formation of marrow fat is phylogenetically unrelated to the development of hematopoiesis. The present investigation on primitive hematopoiesis suggests that the development of hematopoietic activity is intimately related to the development of the marrow vasculature, particularly that of the subendosteal venous plexus. A favorable vascular arrangement may be necessary to allow active hematopoiesis.

  2. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria

    PubMed Central

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture. PMID:26985990

  3. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    PubMed

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture. PMID:26985990

  4. Development Of A Three-Dimensional Circuit Integration Technology And Computer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchells, R. D.; Grinberg, J.; Nudd, G. R.

    1981-12-01

    This paper is the first of a series 1,2,3 describing a range of efforts at Hughes Research Laboratories, which are collectively referred to as "Three-Dimensional Microelectronics." The technology being developed is a combination of a unique circuit fabrication/packaging technology and a novel processing architecture. The packaging technology greatly reduces the parasitic impedances associated with signal-routing in complex VLSI structures, while simultaneously allowing circuit densities orders of magnitude higher than the current state-of-the-art. When combined with the 3-D processor architecture, the resulting machine exhibits a one- to two-order of magnitude simultaneous improvement over current state-of-the-art machines in the three areas of processing speed, power consumption, and physical volume. The 3-D architecture is essentially that commonly referred to as a "cellular array", with the ultimate implementation having as many as 512 x 512 processors working in parallel. The three-dimensional nature of the assembled machine arises from the fact that the chips containing the active circuitry of the processor are stacked on top of each other. In this structure, electrical signals are passed vertically through the chips via thermomigrated aluminum feedthroughs. Signals are passed between adjacent chips by micro-interconnects. This discussion presents a broad view of the total effort, as well as a more detailed treatment of the fabrication and packaging technologies themselves. The results of performance simulations of the completed 3-D processor executing a variety of algorithms are also presented. Of particular pertinence to the interests of the focal-plane array community is the simulation of the UNICORNS nonuniformity correction algorithms as executed by the 3-D architecture.

  5. Deciphering transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine metabolism during Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Fait, Aaron; Zhu, Xiaohong; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Feldmesser, Ester; Fernie, Alisdair R; Galili, Gad

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine (Lys) metabolism, we utilized developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds as a system in which Lys synthesis could be stimulated developmentally without application of chemicals and coupled this to a T-DNA insertion knockout mutation impaired in Lys catabolism. This seed-specific metabolic perturbation stimulated Lys accumulation starting from the initiation of storage reserve accumulation. Our results revealed that the response of seed metabolism to the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was relatively minor; however, that which was observable operated in a modular manner. They also demonstrated that Lys metabolism is strongly associated with the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle while largely disconnected from other metabolic networks. In contrast, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was strongly associated with gene networks, stimulating the expression of hundreds of genes controlling anabolic processes that are associated with plant performance and vigor while suppressing a small number of genes associated with plant stress interactions. The most pronounced effect of the developmentally inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was an induction of expression of a large set of genes encoding ribosomal proteins as well as genes encoding translation initiation and elongation factors, all of which are associated with protein synthesis. With respect to metabolic regulation, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was primarily associated with altered expression of genes belonging to networks of amino acids and sugar metabolism. The combined data are discussed within the context of network interactions both between and within metabolic and transcriptional control systems.

  6. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  7. Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in developing seeds of borage (Borago officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Galle, A M; Joseph, M; Demandre, C; Guerche, P; Dubacq, J P; Oursel, A; Mazliak, P; Pelletier, G; Kader, J C

    1993-08-20

    delta 6-desaturation of [14C]linoleoyl-CoA or [14C]oleoyl-CoA leading to the synthesis of gamma-linolenic acid was studied in vitro with microsomal fractions from developing seeds of Borago officinalis. Time course of the reaction, effects of protein and precursor concentrations and nucleotide requirements were examined. These parameters allowed us to improve the in vitro delta 6-desaturation assay. We observed that the precursors were acylated mainly in phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol, and then desaturated. NADH was absolutely required when [14C]oleoyl-CoA was the precursor, but not when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was the precursor although it stimulated the reaction. The in vitro delta 6-desaturase activity was found mainly in phosphatidylcholine, associated with enriched endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER) from embryos. No activity was observed in ER from seed coat or seedling. During maturation of the seeds, delta 6-desaturase reached its highest activity 14 to 16 days after pollination.

  8. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  9. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-12-01

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development.

  10. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Helin; Xie, Qingjun; Xiang, Xiaoe; Li, Jianqiao; Zheng, Suning; Xu, Xinying; Guo, Haolun; Ye, Wenxue

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld), phloem-peeling (Pe), and selective silique darkening (Sd). Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA), organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of the oil

  11. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianqiao; Zheng, Suning; Xu, Xinying; Guo, Haolun; Ye, Wenxue

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld), phloem-peeling (Pe), and selective silique darkening (Sd). Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA), organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of the oil

  12. The effects of smoke derivatives on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana.

    PubMed

    Papenfus, H B; Naidoo, D; Pošta, M; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-03-01

    Plant-derived smoke and smoke-isolated compounds stimulate germination in seeds from over 80 genera. It has also been reported that smoke affects overall plant vigour and has a stimulatory effect on pollen growth. The effect of smoke on orchid seeds, however, has not been assessed. In South Africa, orchid seeds from several genera may be exposed to smoke when they are released from their seedpods. It is therefore possible that smoke may affect their germination and growth. Therefore, the effects of smoke [applied as smoke-water (SW)] and two smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB), were investigated on the germination and growth of orchid seeds in vitro. The effect of SW, KAR1 and TMB were investigated on the endangered epiphytic orchid, Ansellia africana, which is indigenous to tropical areas of Africa. Smoke-water, KAR1 and TMB were infused in half-strength MS medium. The number of germinated seeds and number of seeds and protocorm bodies to reach predetermined developmental stages were recorded on a weekly basis using a dissecting microscope for a 13-week period. Infusing SW 1:250 (v:v) into half-strength MS medium significantly increased the germination rate index (GRI) and the development rate index (DRI) of the A. africana seeds. All the SW treatments significantly increased the number of large protocorm bodies at the final stage of development. Infusing KAR1 into the growing medium had no significant effect on germination or development of the seeds. The TMB treatment, however, significantly reduced the GRI and DRI of A. africana seeds.

  13. A microarray approach to identify genes involved in seed-pericarp cross-talk and development in peach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Field observations and a few physiological studies have demonstrated that peach embryogenesis and fruit development are tightly coupled. In fact, attempts to stimulate parthenocarpic fruit development by means of external tools have failed. Moreover, physiological disturbances during early embryo development lead to seed abortion and fruitlet abscission. Later in embryo development, the interactions between seed and fruit development become less strict. As there is limited genetic and molecular information about seed-pericarp cross-talk and development in peach, a massive gene approach based on the use of the μPEACH 1.0 array platform and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to study this process. Results A comparative analysis of the transcription profiles conducted in seed and mesocarp (cv Fantasia) throughout different developmental stages (S1, S2, S3 and S4) evidenced that 455 genes are differentially expressed in seed and fruit. Among differentially expressed genes some were validated as markers in two subsequent years and in three different genotypes. Seed markers were a LTP1 (lipid transfer protein), a PR (pathogenesis-related) protein, a prunin and LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) protein, for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. Mesocarp markers were a RD22-like protein, a serin-carboxypeptidase, a senescence related protein and an Aux/IAA, for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. The microarray data, analyzed by using the HORMONOMETER platform, allowed the identification of hormone-responsive genes, some of them putatively involved in seed-pericarp crosstalk. Results indicated that auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins are good candidates, acting either directly (auxin) or indirectly as signals during early development, when the cross-talk is more active and vital for fruit set, whereas abscisic acid and ethylene may be involved later on. Conclusions In this research, genes were identified marking different phases of seed and mesocarp

  14. Development of Groundwater Modeling Support System Based on Service-Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Y.; Tsai, J. P.; Hsiao, C. T.; Chang, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater simulation has become an essential step on the groundwater resources management and assessment. There are many stand-alone pre and post processing software packages to alleviate the model simulation loading, but the stand-alone software do not consider centralized management of data and simulation results neither do they provide network sharing function. The model buildings are still implemented independently case to case when using these packages. Hence, it is difficult to share and reuse the data and knowledge (simulation cases) systematically within or across companies. Therefore, this study develops a centralized and network based groundwater model developing system to assist model simulation. The system is based on service-oriented architecture and allows remote user to develop their modeling cases on internet. The data and cases (knowledge) are thus easy to manage centralized. MODFLOW is the modeling engine of the system, which is the most popular groundwater model in the world. Other functions include the database management and variety of model developing assisted web services including auto digitalizing of geology profile map、groundwater missing data recovery assisting、graphic data demonstration and auto generation of MODFLOW input files from database that is the most important function of the system. Since the system architecture is service-oriented, it is scalable and flexible. The system can be easily extended to include the scenarios analysis and knowledge management to facilitate the reuse of groundwater modeling knowledge.

  15. Control of storage-protein synthesis during seed development in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Gatehouse, J A; Evans, I M; Bown, D; Croy, R R; Boulter, D

    1982-01-01

    The tissue-specific syntheses of seed storage proteins in the cotyledons of developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have been demonstrated by estimates of their qualitative and quantitative accumulation by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. Vicilin-fraction proteins initially accumulated faster than legumin, but whereas legumin was accumulated throughout development, different components of the vicilin fraction had their predominant periods of synthesis at different stages of development. The translation products in vitro of polysomes isolated from cotyledons at different stages of development reflected the synthesis in vivo of storage-protein polypeptides at corresponding times. The levels of storage-protein mRNA species during development were estimated by 'Northern' hybridization using cloned complementary-DNA probes. This technique showed that the levels of legumin and vicilin (47000-Mr precursors) mRNA species increased and decreased in agreement with estimated rates of synthesis of the respective polypeptides. The relative amounts of these messages, estimated by kinetic hybridization were also consistent. Legumin mRNA was present in leaf poly(A)+ RNA at less than one-thousandth of the level in cotyledon poly(A)+ (polyadenylated) RNA, demonstrating tissue-specific expression. Evidence is presented that storage-protein mRNA species are relatively long-lived, and it is suggested that storage-protein synthesis is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6897609

  16. Metabolism of Sugars in the Endosperm of Developing Seeds of Oilseed Rape1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Lionel M.; Morley-Smith, Edward R.; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The sugars in the endosperm of a developing seed have many potential roles, including the supply of carbon to the developing embryo and controlling gene expression in it. Our understanding of their metabolism is, however, fragmentary and is confined to a very few species (especially Vicia spp.). To develop a quantitative understanding of the regulation of sugars in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we measured relevant enzyme activities, the sizes of the pools of sugars in the liquid endosperm, and the flux of sugars from the endosperm into the embryo. The concentrations of hexose sugars in the liquid endosperm decreased, and sucrose (Suc) increased through development. The overall osmotic potential also fell. The timing of the changes was not precise enough to determine whether they signaled the onset of rapid accumulation of storage products. Changes in endosperm invertase activity were complex and quantitatively do not explain the changes in sugars. The embryo can metabolize hexose sugars in addition to Suc, and possibly at higher rates. Therefore, in addition to invertase, the growing embryo itself has a potential to influence the balance of sugars in the endosperm. The activity of Suc synthase in the embryo was greater than that of invertase during development. This observation and a higher activity of fructokinase than glucokinase in the embryo are both consistent with the embryo using Suc as a carbon source. PMID:12529530

  17. Development of an ease-of-use remote healthcare system architecture using RFID and networking technologies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Sung; Hung, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Chang-Lung; Chou, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The study aims to provide an ease-of-use approach for senior patients to utilize remote healthcare systems. An ease-of-use remote healthcare system (RHS) architecture using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and networking technologies is developed. Specifically, the codes in RFID tags are used for authenticating the patients' ID to secure and ease the login process. The patient needs only to take one action, i.e. placing a RFID tag onto the reader, to automatically login and start the RHS and then acquire automatic medical services. An ease-of-use emergency monitoring and reporting mechanism is developed as well to monitor and protect the safety of the senior patients who have to be left alone at home. By just pressing a single button, the RHS can automatically report the patient's emergency information to the clinic side so that the responsible medical personnel can take proper urgent actions for the patient. Besides, Web services technology is used to build the Internet communication scheme of the RHS so that the interoperability and data transmission security between the home server and the clinical server can be enhanced. A prototype RHS is constructed to validate the effectiveness of our designs. Testing results show that the proposed RHS architecture possesses the characteristics of ease to use, simplicity to operate, promptness in login, and no need to preserve identity information. The proposed RHS architecture can effectively increase the willingness of senior patients who act slowly or are unfamiliar with computer operations to use the RHS. The research results can be used as an add-on for developing future remote healthcare systems.

  18. Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Renouard, Sullivan; Corbin, Cyrielle; Lopez, Tatiana; Montguillon, Josiane; Gutierrez, Laurent; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.

  19. SEEDSTICK is a Master Regulator of Development and Metabolism in the Arabidopsis Seed Coat

    PubMed Central

    Paolo, Dario; Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Guerra, Rosalinda Fiorella; Battaglia, Raffaella; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kater, Martin M.; Caporali, Elisabetta; Colombo, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    The role of secondary metabolites in the determination of cell identity has been an area of particular interest over recent years, and studies strongly indicate a connection between cell fate and the regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the maternally derived seed coat plays pivotal roles in both the protection of the developing embryo and the first steps of germination. In this regard, a characteristic feature of seed coat development is the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs - a class of phenylpropanoid metabolites) in the innermost layer of the seed coat. Our genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggests that the ovule identity factor SEEDSTICK (STK) is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes, providing a strong basis for a connection between cell fate determination, development and metabolism. Using phenotypic, genetic, biochemical and transcriptomic approaches, we have focused specifically on the role of STK in PA biosynthesis. Our results indicate that STK exerts its effect by direct regulation of the gene encoding BANYULS/ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE (BAN/ANR), which converts anthocyanidins into their corresponding 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols. Our study also demonstrates that the levels of H3K9ac chromatin modification directly correlate with the active state of BAN in an STK-dependent way. This is consistent with the idea that MADS-domain proteins control the expression of their target genes through the modification of chromatin states. STK might thus recruit or regulate histone modifying factors to control their activity. In addition, we show that STK is able to regulate other BAN regulators. Our study demonstrates for the first time how a floral homeotic gene controls tissue identity through the regulation of a wide range of processes including the accumulation of secondary metabolites. PMID:25521508

  20. Proteome analysis of plastids from developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Camila B; Shah, Mohibullah; Soares, Emanoella L; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Carvalho, Paulo C; Junqueira, Magno; Araújo, Gabriel D T; Soares, Arlete A; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of plastids isolated from the endosperm of developing Jatropha curcas seeds that were in the initial stage of deposition of protein and lipid reserves. Proteins extracted from the plastids were digested with trypsin, and the peptides were applied to an EASY-nano LC system coupled inline to an ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer, and this led to the identification of 1103 proteins representing 804 protein groups, of which 923 proteins were considered as true identifications, and this considerably expands the repertoire of J. curcas proteins identified so far. Of the identified proteins, only five are encoded in the plastid genome, and none of them are involved in photosynthesis, evidentiating the nonphotosynthetic nature of the isolated plastids. Homologues for 824 out of 923 identified proteins were present in PPDB, SUBA, or PlProt databases while homologues for 13 proteins were not found in any of the three plastid proteins databases but were marked as plastidial by at least one of the three prediction programs used. Functional classification showed that proteins belonging to amino acids metabolism comprise the main functional class, followed by carbohydrate, energy, and lipid metabolisms. The small and large subunits of Rubisco were identified, and their presence in the plastids is considered to be an adaptive feature counterbalancing for the loss of one-third of the carbon as CO2 as a result of the conversion of carbohydrate to oil through glycolysis. While several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of several precursors of diterpenoids were identified, we were unable to identify any terpene synthase/cyclase, which suggests that the plastids isolated from the endosperm of developing seeds do not synthesize phorbol esters. In conclusion, our study provides insights into the major biosynthetic pathways and certain unique features of the plastids from the endosperm of developing seeds at the whole proteome

  1. Architectural approach for semantic EHR systems development based on Detailed Clinical Models.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan G; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The integrative approach to health information in general and the development of pHealth systems in particular, require an integrated approach of formally modeled system architectures. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) is one of the most promising modeling efforts for clinical concept representation in EHR system architectures. Although the feasibility of DCM modeling methodology has been demonstrated through examples, there is no formal, generic and automatic modeling transformation technique to ensure a semantic lossless transformation of clinical concepts expressed in DCM to either clinical concept representations based on ISO 13606/openEHR Archetypes or HL7 Templates. The objective of this paper is to propose a generic model transformation method and tooling for transforming DCM Clinical Concepts into ISO/EN 13606/openEHR Archetypes or HL7 Template models. The automation of the transformation process is supported by Model Driven-Development (MDD) transformation mechanisms and tools. The availability of processes, techniques and tooling for automatic DCM transformation would enable the development of intelligent, adaptive information systems as demanded for pHealth solutions. PMID:22942049

  2. Shanghai RAPESEED Database: a resource for functional genomics studies of seed development and fatty acid metabolism of Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Zhang; Shi, Qiu-Ming; Niu, Ya; Xing, Mei-Qing; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai RAPESEED Database (RAPESEED, http://rapeseed.plantsignal.cn/) was created to provide the solid platform for functional genomics studies of oilseed crops with the emphasis on seed development and fatty acid metabolism. The RAPESEED includes the resource of 8462 unique ESTs, of which 3526 clones are with full length cDNA; the expression profiles of 8095 genes and the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, 23,895 unique tags) and tag-to-gene data during seed development. In addition, a total of approximately 14,700 M3 mutant populations were generated by ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and related seed quality information was determined using the Foss NIR System. Further, the TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) platform was established based on the generated EMS mutant population. The relevant information was collected in RAPESEED database, which can be searched through keywords, nucleotide or protein sequences, or seed quality parameters, and downloaded.

  3. Development and Flight Testing of an Adaptive Vehicle Health-Monitoring Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Coffey, Neil C.; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Brett, Rube R.; Woodman, Keith L.; Weathered, Brenton W.; Rollins, Courtney H.

    2002-01-01

    On going development and testing of an adaptable vehicle health-monitoring architecture is presented. The architecture is being developed for a fleet of vehicles. It has three operational levels: one or more remote data acquisition units located throughout the vehicle; a command and control unit located within the vehicle, and, a terminal collection unit to collect analysis results from all vehicles. Each level is capable of performing autonomous analysis with a trained expert system. The expert system is parameterized, which makes it adaptable to be trained to both a user's subject reasoning and existing quantitative analytic tools. Communication between all levels is done with wireless radio frequency interfaces. The remote data acquisition unit has an eight channel programmable digital interface that allows the user discretion for choosing type of sensors; number of sensors, sensor sampling rate and sampling duration for each sensor. The architecture provides framework for a tributary analysis. All measurements at the lowest operational level are reduced to provide analysis results necessary to gauge changes from established baselines. These are then collected at the next level to identify any global trends or common features from the prior level. This process is repeated until the results are reduced at the highest operational level. In the framework, only analysis results are forwarded to the next level to reduce telemetry congestion. The system's remote data acquisition hardware and non-analysis software have been flight tested on the NASA Langley B757's main landing gear. The flight tests were performed to validate the following: the wireless radio frequency communication capabilities of the system, the hardware design, command and control; software operation and, data acquisition, storage and retrieval.

  4. The Development and Testing of a New Method to Evaluate the Operational Cloud-Seeding Programs in Texas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, William L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    A method for the objective evaluation of short-term, nonrandomized operational convective cloud-seeding projects on a floating-target-area basis has been developed and tested in the context of the operational cloud-seeding projects of Texas. The computer-based method makes use of the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) mosaic radar data to define fields of circular (25-km radius) floating-target analysis units with lifetimes from the first echo to the disappearance of all echoes and then superimposes the track and seeding actions of the project seeder aircraft onto the unit fields to define seeded (S) and nonseeded (NS) analysis units. Objective criteria (quantified herein) are used to identify “control” (C) matches for each of the seed units from the archive of NS units. To minimize potential contamination by seeding, no matching is allowed for any control unit if its perimeter came within 25 km of the perimeter of a seed unit during its lifetime. The methodology was used to evaluate seeding effects in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HP) and Edwards Aquifer Authority (EA) programs during the 1999, 2000, and 2001 (EA only) seasons. Objective unit matches were selected from within and outside each operational target within 12, 6, 3, and 2 h of the time on a given day that seeding of a particular unit took place. These were done to determine whether selection biases and the diurnal convective cycle confounded the results. Matches were also drawn from within and outside each target using the entire archive of days on which seeding was done. Although the results of all analyses are subjected to statistical testing, the resulting probability (P) values were used solely to determine the relative strength of the various findings. In the absence of treatment, randomization P values cannot be used as proof of seeding efficacy. The apparent effect of seeding in both programs was large—even after determining the effect of selection biases and the

  5. Development of Advanced Seed Laser Modules for Lidar and Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rosiewicz, Alex; Coleman, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent progress made in the development of highly compact, single mode, distributed feedback laser (DFB) seed laser modules for lidar and spectroscopy applications from space based platforms. One of the intended application of this technology is in the NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The DFB laser modules operating at 1571 nm and 1262 nm have advanced current and temperature drivers built into them. A combination of temperature and current tuning allows coarse and fine adjustment of the diode wavelengths.

  6. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Kuang, A; Smith, P J; Crispi, M L; Musgrave, M E

    1999-10-01

    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

  7. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, Åsa; Hayden, Daniel M.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development. PMID:19036843

  8. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Asa; Hayden, Daniel M; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development.

  9. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

  10. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from ({sup 35}S)methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root.

  11. Traits and QTLs for development of dry direct-seeded rainfed rice varieties

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Nitika; Torres, Rolando O.; Sta Cruz, Ma. Teresa; Maturan, Paul Cornelio; Jain, Rajinder; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The development of rice varieties for dry direct-seeded conditions can be accelerated by selecting suitable traits. In the present investigation, traits hypothesized to be important for direct-seeded conditions in rainfed systems, including seedling emergence, early vegetative vigour, nutrient uptake, nodal root number, and root hair length and density, were characterized to study the genetic control of these traits and their relationship with grain yield under seedling- and reproductive-stage drought stress. Two BC2F4 mapping populations derived from crosses of Aus276, a drought-tolerant aus variety, with MTU1010 and IR64, high-yielding indica mega-varieties, were developed and studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that showed large and consistent effects. A total of 26 QTLs associated with 23 traits and 20 QTLs associated with 13 traits were mapped in the Aus276/3*IR64 and Aus276/3*MTU1010 populations, respectively. qGY6.1, qGY10.1, qGY1.1, and qEVV9.1 were found to be effective in both populations under a wide range of conditions. QTLs for several seedling-stage traits co-located with QTLs for grain yield, including early vegetative vigour and root hair length. On chromosome 5, several QTLs for nutrient uptake co-located with QTLs for root hair density and nematode gall rating. Six lines were selected from both populations based on grain yield and the presence of QTLs, and these lines typically showed improved seedling-stage traits (nodal root number, dry shoot weight, and root hair length and density). The co-located QTLs identified here can be used in research aimed at increasing the yield and adaptability of rainfed rice to direct-seeded conditions. PMID:25336682

  12. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    DOE PAGES

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In addition, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinarymore » team of engineers and computer scientists.« less

  13. Wasatch: An architecture-proof multiphysics development environment using a Domain Specific Language and graph theory

    DOE PAGES

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-05-04

    To address the coding and software challenges of modern hybrid architectures, we propose an approach to multiphysics code development for high-performance computing. This approach is based on using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) in tandem with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem to be solved that allows runtime algorithm generation. When coupled with a large-scale parallel framework, the result is a portable development framework capable of executing on hybrid platforms and handling the challenges of multiphysics applications. In conclusion, we share our experience developing a code in such an environment – an effort that spans an interdisciplinarymore » team of engineers and computer scientists.« less

  14. The plastidic DEAD-box RNA helicase 22, HS3, is essential for plastid functions both in seed development and in seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masatake; Hayashi, Makoto; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-09-01

    Plants accumulate large amounts of storage products in seeds to provide an energy reserve and to supply nutrients for germination and post-germinative growth. Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the Brassica family, and oil is the main storage product in Arabidopsis seeds. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of oil biosynthesis in seeds, we screened for high density seeds (heavy seed) that have a low oil content. HS3 (heavy seed 3) encodes the DEAD-box RNA helicase 22 that is localized to plastids. The triacylglycerol (TAG) content of hs3-1 seeds was 10% lower than that of wild-type (WT) seeds, while the protein content was unchanged. The hs3-1 plants displayed a pale-green phenotype in developing seeds and seedlings, but not in adult leaves. The HS3 expression level was high in developing seeds and seedlings, but was low in stems, rosette leaves and flowers. The plastid gene expression profile of WT developing seeds and seedlings differed from that of hs3-1 developing seeds and seedlings. The expression of several genes was reduced in developing hs3-1 seeds, including accD, a gene that encodes the β subunit of carboxyltransferase, which is one component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in plastids. In contrast, no differences were observed between the expression profiles of WT and hs3-1 rosette leaves. These results show that HS3 is essential for proper mRNA accumulation of plastid genes during seed development and seedling growth, and suggest that HS3 ensures seed oil biosynthesis by maintaining plastid mRNA levels.

  15. An attempt to bridge muscle architecture dynamics and its instantaneous rate of force development using ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jizhou; Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Li, Guanglin

    2015-08-01

    Muscle force output is an essential index in rehabilitation assessment or physical exams, and could provide considerable insights for various applications such as load monitoring and muscle assessment in sports science or rehabilitation therapy. Besides direct measurement of force output using a dynamometer, electromyography has earlier been used in several studies to quantify muscle force as an indirect means. However, its spatial resolution is easily compromised as a summation of the action potentials from neighboring motor units of electrode site. To explore an alternative method to indirectly estimate the muscle force output, and with better muscle specificity, we started with an investigation on the relationship between architecture dynamics and force output of triceps surae. The muscular architecture dynamics is captured in ultrasonography sequences and estimated using a previously reported motion estimation method. Then an indicator named as the dorsoventrally averaged motion profile (DAMP) is employed. The performance of force output is represented by an instantaneous version of the rate of force development (RFD), namely I-RFD. From experimental results on ten normal subjects, there were significant correlations between the I-RFD and DAMP for triceps surae, both normalized between 0 and 1, with the sum of squares error at 0.0516±0.0224, R-square at 0.7929±0.0931 and root mean squared error at 0.0159±0.0033. The statistical significance results were less than 0.01. The present study suggested that muscle architecture dynamics extracted from ultrasonography during contraction is well correlated to the I-RFD and it can be a promising option for indirect estimation of muscle force output.

  16. Development of methodologies for virus detection in soybean and wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Stephanie R A; Martins, Thais P; Duarte, Macária F; Barbosa, Andreza V; Lau, Douglas; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Sanches, Marcio M

    2016-01-01

    Seeds that contain large amounts of oil, starch, fibers and phenols are the most difficult tissues for RNA extraction. Currently, there are some reports of virus detection in seeds using commercial kits for RNA extraction. However, individual seeds were used, which may not be always suitable for analyses that deal with large amounts of seeds. Sangha [1] described a simple, quick and efficient protocol for RNA extraction and downstream applications in a group of seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas), mustard (Brassica sp.) and rice (Oryza sativa). We tested this protocol for soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and triticale (×Triticosecale) seeds and further reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)/quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to have a faster and more practical method for virus detection from seeds than the traditional scheme of seed planting and subsequent Elisa/RT-PCR from leaves. The essential points in the method are:•Some modifications in the protocol [1] were done in order to increase performance: Wheat and triticale seeds are incubated with water prior to maceration. An amount of 1.2 g of dry soybean seeds is used to maceration.•RT-PCR is used for detection of Wheat streak mosaic virus from wheat seeds and RT-qPCR for detection of Soybean mosaic virus from soybean seeds.•The method may be tested for other viruses, however, pre-validation will be needed.

  17. Development of methodologies for virus detection in soybean and wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Stephanie R A; Martins, Thais P; Duarte, Macária F; Barbosa, Andreza V; Lau, Douglas; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Sanches, Marcio M

    2016-01-01

    Seeds that contain large amounts of oil, starch, fibers and phenols are the most difficult tissues for RNA extraction. Currently, there are some reports of virus detection in seeds using commercial kits for RNA extraction. However, individual seeds were used, which may not be always suitable for analyses that deal with large amounts of seeds. Sangha [1] described a simple, quick and efficient protocol for RNA extraction and downstream applications in a group of seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas), mustard (Brassica sp.) and rice (Oryza sativa). We tested this protocol for soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and triticale (×Triticosecale) seeds and further reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)/quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to have a faster and more practical method for virus detection from seeds than the traditional scheme of seed planting and subsequent Elisa/RT-PCR from leaves. The essential points in the method are:•Some modifications in the protocol [1] were done in order to increase performance: Wheat and triticale seeds are incubated with water prior to maceration. An amount of 1.2 g of dry soybean seeds is used to maceration.•RT-PCR is used for detection of Wheat streak mosaic virus from wheat seeds and RT-qPCR for detection of Soybean mosaic virus from soybean seeds.•The method may be tested for other viruses, however, pre-validation will be needed. PMID:27408831

  18. Architecture and data processing alternatives for Tse computer. Volume 1: Tse logic design concepts and the development of image processing machine architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, D. A.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Golay transform processors are presented with emphasis on the skeletonizing algorithm. Conventional logic control units developed for the Golay transform processors are described. One is a unique microprogrammable control unit that uses a microprocessor to control the Tse computer. The remaining control units are based on programmable logic arrays. Performance criteria are established and utilized to compare the various Golay transform machines developed. A critique of Tse logic is presented, and recommendations for additional research are included.

  19. Disruption of Germination and Seedling Development in Brassica napus by Mutations Causing Severe Seed Hormonal Imbalance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung C T; Obermeier, Christian; Friedt, Wolfgang; Abrams, Suzanne R; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    The Brassica napus (oilseed rape) accession 1012-98 shows a disturbed germination phenotype that was thought to be associated with its lack of testa pigmentation and thin seed coat. Here, we demonstrate that the disturbed germination and seedling development are actually due to independent mutations that disrupt the balance of hormone metabolites and their regulators in the seeds. High-throughput UPLC-MS/MS hormone profiling of seeds and seedlings before and after germination revealed that 1012-98 has a severely disturbed hormone balance with extremely atypical, excessive quantities of auxin and ABA metabolites. The resulting hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and a corresponding increase in dormancy often results in death of the embryo after imbibition or high frequencies of disturbed, often lethal developmental phenotypes, resembling Arabidopsis mutants for the auxin regulatory factor gene ARF10 or the auxin-overproducing transgenic line iaaM-OX. Molecular cloning of Brassica ARF10 orthologs revealed four loci in normal B. napus, two derived from the Brassica A genome and two from the C genome. On the other hand, the phenotypic mutant 1012-98 exhibited amplification of C-genome BnaC.ARF10 copy number along with a chimeric allele originating from recombination between homeologous A and C genome loci which lead to minor increase of Bna.ARF10 transcription on the critical timepoint for seed germination, the indirect regulator of ABI3, the germinative inhibitor. Bna.GH3.5 expression was upregulated to conjugate free auxin to IAA-asp between 2 and 6 DAS. Functional amino acid changes were also found in important DNA binding domains of one BnaC.ARF10 locus, suggesting that regulatory changes in Bna.ARF10 are collectively responsible for the observed phenotpyes in 1012-98. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus caused by the crosstalk of auxin-ABA and the corresponding regulators Bna

  20. Disruption of Germination and Seedling Development in Brassica napus by Mutations Causing Severe Seed Hormonal Imbalance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung C T; Obermeier, Christian; Friedt, Wolfgang; Abrams, Suzanne R; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    The Brassica napus (oilseed rape) accession 1012-98 shows a disturbed germination phenotype that was thought to be associated with its lack of testa pigmentation and thin seed coat. Here, we demonstrate that the disturbed germination and seedling development are actually due to independent mutations that disrupt the balance of hormone metabolites and their regulators in the seeds. High-throughput UPLC-MS/MS hormone profiling of seeds and seedlings before and after germination revealed that 1012-98 has a severely disturbed hormone balance with extremely atypical, excessive quantities of auxin and ABA metabolites. The resulting hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and a corresponding increase in dormancy often results in death of the embryo after imbibition or high frequencies of disturbed, often lethal developmental phenotypes, resembling Arabidopsis mutants for the auxin regulatory factor gene ARF10 or the auxin-overproducing transgenic line iaaM-OX. Molecular cloning of Brassica ARF10 orthologs revealed four loci in normal B. napus, two derived from the Brassica A genome and two from the C genome. On the other hand, the phenotypic mutant 1012-98 exhibited amplification of C-genome BnaC.ARF10 copy number along with a chimeric allele originating from recombination between homeologous A and C genome loci which lead to minor increase of Bna.ARF10 transcription on the critical timepoint for seed germination, the indirect regulator of ABI3, the germinative inhibitor. Bna.GH3.5 expression was upregulated to conjugate free auxin to IAA-asp between 2 and 6 DAS. Functional amino acid changes were also found in important DNA binding domains of one BnaC.ARF10 locus, suggesting that regulatory changes in Bna.ARF10 are collectively responsible for the observed phenotpyes in 1012-98. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus caused by the crosstalk of auxin-ABA and the corresponding regulators Bna

  1. Disruption of Germination and Seedling Development in Brassica napus by Mutations Causing Severe Seed Hormonal Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung C. T.; Obermeier, Christian; Friedt, Wolfgang; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2016-01-01

    The Brassica napus (oilseed rape) accession 1012-98 shows a disturbed germination phenotype that was thought to be associated with its lack of testa pigmentation and thin seed coat. Here, we demonstrate that the disturbed germination and seedling development are actually due to independent mutations that disrupt the balance of hormone metabolites and their regulators in the seeds. High-throughput UPLC-MS/MS hormone profiling of seeds and seedlings before and after germination revealed that 1012-98 has a severely disturbed hormone balance with extremely atypical, excessive quantities of auxin and ABA metabolites. The resulting hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and a corresponding increase in dormancy often results in death of the embryo after imbibition or high frequencies of disturbed, often lethal developmental phenotypes, resembling Arabidopsis mutants for the auxin regulatory factor gene ARF10 or the auxin-overproducing transgenic line iaaM-OX. Molecular cloning of Brassica ARF10 orthologs revealed four loci in normal B. napus, two derived from the Brassica A genome and two from the C genome. On the other hand, the phenotypic mutant 1012-98 exhibited amplification of C-genome BnaC.ARF10 copy number along with a chimeric allele originating from recombination between homeologous A and C genome loci which lead to minor increase of Bna.ARF10 transcription on the critical timepoint for seed germination, the indirect regulator of ABI3, the germinative inhibitor. Bna.GH3.5 expression was upregulated to conjugate free auxin to IAA-asp between 2 and 6 DAS. Functional amino acid changes were also found in important DNA binding domains of one BnaC.ARF10 locus, suggesting that regulatory changes in Bna.ARF10 are collectively responsible for the observed phenotpyes in 1012-98. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus caused by the crosstalk of auxin-ABA and the corresponding regulators Bna

  2. Arabidopsis CPR5 Independently Regulates Seed Germination and Postgermination Arrest of Development through LOX Pathway and ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang; Wang, Yaqin; Su, Xiaojun; Du, Jinju; Yang, Chengwei

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the lipoxygenases (LOXs) pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently. PMID:21556325

  3. Development of the Seeding System Used for Laser Velocimeter Surveys of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Flow Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, C. A.; Hathaway, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Consideration is given to an atomizer-based system for distributing high-volume rates of polystyrene latex (PSL) seed material developed to support laser velocimeter investigations of the NASA Low-Speed Compressor flow field. Complete evaporation of the liquid carrier before the flow entering the compressor was of primary concern for the seeder system design. It is argued that the seed nozzle should incorporate a needle valve that can mechanically dislodge accumulated PSL seed material when the nozzle is turned off. Water is less expensive as the liquid carrier and should be used whenever adequate residence times are available to ensure complete evaporation. PSL agglomerates over time and needs to be mixed or blended before use. Arrangement of the spray nozzles needs to be adjustable to provide maximum seeding at the laser probe volume.

  4. The Differential Expression of Sucrose Synthase in Relation to Diverse Patterns of Carbon Partitioning in Developing Cotton Seed.

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Y. L.; Chourey, P. S.; Delmer, D. P.; Perez-Grau, L.

    1997-01-01

    Developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seed exhibits complex patterns of carbon allocation in which incoming sucrose (Suc) is partitioned to three major sinks: the fibers, seed coat, and cotyledons, which synthesize cellulose, starch, and storage proteins or oils, respectively. In this study we investigated the role of Suc synthase (SuSy) in the mobilization of Suc into such sinks. Assessments of SuSy gene expression at various levels led to the surprising conclusion that, in contrast to that found for other plants, SuSy does not appear to play a role in starch synthesis in the cotton seed. However, our demonstration of functional symplastic connections between the phloem-unloading area and the fiber cells, as well as the SuSy expression pattern in fibers, indicates a major role of SuSy in partitioning carbon to fiber cellulose synthesis. SuSy expression is also high in transfer cells of the seed coat facing the cotyledons. Such high levels of SuSy could contribute to the synthesis of the thickened cell walls and to the energy generation for Suc efflux to the seed apoplast. The expression of SuSy in cotyledons also suggests a role in protein and lipid synthesis. In summary, the developing cotton seed provides an excellent example of the diverse roles played by SuSy in carbon metabolism. PMID:12223814

  5. Open architectures for formal reasoning and deductive technologies for software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, John; Manna, Zohar; Mason, Ian; Pnueli, Amir; Talcott, Carolyn; Waldinger, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an open architecture for formal reasoning systems. One goal is to provide a framework with a clear semantic basis for specification and instantiation of generic components; construction of complex systems by interconnecting components; and for making incremental improvements and tailoring to specific applications. Another goal is to develop methods for specifying component interfaces and interactions to facilitate use of existing and newly built systems as 'off the shelf' components, thus helping bridge the gap between producers and consumers of reasoning systems. In this report we summarize results in several areas: our data base of reasoning systems; a theory of binding structures; a theory of components of open systems; a framework for specifying components of open reasoning system; and an analysis of the integration of rewriting and linear arithmetic modules in Boyer-Moore using the above framework.

  6. Development and Flight Testing of an Adaptable Vehicle Health-Monitoring Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Coffey, Neil C.; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Woodman, Keith L.; Weathered, Brenton W.; Rollins, Courtney H.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Brett, Rube R.

    2003-01-01

    Development and testing of an adaptable wireless health-monitoring architecture for a vehicle fleet is presented. It has three operational levels: one or more remote data acquisition units located throughout the vehicle; a command and control unit located within the vehicle; and a terminal collection unit to collect analysis results from all vehicles. Each level is capable of performing autonomous analysis with a trained adaptable expert system. The remote data acquisition unit has an eight channel programmable digital interface that allows the user discretion for choosing type of sensors; number of sensors, sensor sampling rate, and sampling duration for each sensor. The architecture provides framework for a tributary analysis. All measurements at the lowest operational level are reduced to provide analysis results necessary to gauge changes from established baselines. These are then collected at the next level to identify any global trends or common features from the prior level. This process is repeated until the results are reduced at the highest operational level. In the framework, only analysis results are forwarded to the next level to reduce telemetry congestion. The system's remote data acquisition hardware and non-analysis software have been flight tested on the NASA Langley B757's main landing gear.

  7. Model-Driven Development of Reliable Avionics Architectures for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas; Claypool, Ian; Clark, David; West, John; Somervill, Kevin; Odegard, Ryan; Suzuki, Nantel

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a method used for the systematic improvement of NASA s Lunar Surface Systems avionics architectures in the area of reliability and fault-tolerance. This approach utilizes an integrated system model to determine the effects of component failure on the system s ability to provide critical functions. A Markov model of the potential degraded system modes is created to characterize the probability of these degraded modes, and the system model is run for each Markov state to determine its status (operational or system loss). The probabilistic results from the Markov model are first produced from state transition rates based on NASA data for heritage failure rate data of similar components. An additional set of probabilistic results are created from a representative set of failure rates developed for this study, for a variety of component quality grades (space-rated, mil-spec, ruggedized, and commercial). The results show that careful application of redundancy and selected component improvement should result in Lunar Surface Systems architectures that exhibit an appropriate degree of fault-tolerance, reliability, performance, and affordability.

  8. Historical development of administration architecture in Malaysia (15th-21st century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohidin, H. H. B.; Ismail, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to document the development of the state administration building in Malaysia before and after the independence era, in relation to the evolutionary period of Malaysia's political, social and economic history. Multiple case study approach [19] is applied by referring to six prominent case studies to represent state administrative buildings from various phases of Malaysian history beginning from 14th century to 21st century as exemplar. Since this paper formulates new ways to approach and describes state administrative building design and factors that influence them, it uses interpretivism paradigm and (semiotics) as methodological approach to study the relationship between the building design and contextual elements. This paper, therefore, offers new insights, which not only add to knowledge in this field by widening and strengthening the understanding of state administrative architecture in Malaysia, but also are valuable for range of associated fields including architectural semiotics and non verbal communication. This is because this paper reveals deep understandings of the built form and material environment operating as a sign in a cultural and social context.

  9. Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) (P0004-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.; Ehrlich, Nelson J.

    1992-01-01

    SEEDS, a cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company, resulted in the distribution of approximately 132,000 SEEDS kits to 3.3 million students. Kits contained Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), as well as seeds that had been stored in a climate controlled warehouse for the same time period. Preliminary data indicates the germination rate for space exposed seeds was 73.8 percent while Earth based seeds germinated at a rate of 70.3 percent. Tests conducted within the first six months after retrieval indicated space exposed seeds germinated in an average of 8.0 days, while Earth based seeds' average germination time was 8.3 days. Some mutations (assumed to be radiation induced) include plants that added a leaf instead of the usual flower at the end of the flower frond. Also, fruit produced from a flower with a variegated calyx bore seeds producing albino plants, while fruit from a flower with a green calyx from the same plant bore seeds producing green plants.

  10. Control of mannose/galactose ratio during galactomannan formation in developing legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Scott, C; Gidley, M J; Reid, J S

    1992-04-01

    Galactomannan deposition was investigated in developing endosperms of three leguminous species representative of taxonomic groups which have galactomannans with high, medium and low galactose content. These were fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.; mannose/galactose (Man/Gal) = 1.1), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.; Man/Gal = 1.6) and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. (Man/Gal = 3.3), respectively. Endosperms were analysed at different stages of seed development for galactomannan content and the levels, in cell-free extracts, of a mannosyltransferase and a galactosyltransferase which have been shown to catalyse galactomannan biosynthesis in vitro (M. Edwards et al., 1989, Planta 178, 41-51). There was a close correlation in each case between the levels of the biosynthetic mannosyl- and galactosyltransferases and the deposition of galactomannan. The relative in vitro activities of the mannosyl- and galactosyltransferases in fenugreek and guar were similar, and almost constant throughout the period of galactomannan deposition. In Senna the ratio mannosyltransferase/galactosyltransferase was always higher than in the other two species, and it increased substantially throughout the period of galactomannan deposition. In fenugreek and guar the galactomannans present in the endosperms of seeds at different stages of development had the Man/Gal ratios characteristic of the mature seeds. By contrast the galactomannan present in Senna endosperms at the earliest stages of deposition had a Man/Gal ratio of about 2.3. During late deposition this ratio increased rapidly, stabilising at about 3.3, the ratio characteristic of the mature seed. The levels of α-galactosidase in the developing endosperms of fenugreek and guar were low and remained fairly constant throughout the deposition of the galactomannan. In Senna, α-galactosidase activity in the endosperm was low during early galactomannan deposition, but increased subsequently, peaking during late galactomannan

  11. OsSRT1 is involved in rice seed development through regulation of starch metabolism gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Lu, Yue; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2016-07-01

    OsSRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, closely related to the human SIRT6 that plays key roles in genome stability and metabolic homeostasis. In this work, we investigated the role of OsSRT1 in rice seed development. Down-regulation of OsSRT1 induced higher expression of Rice Starch Regulator1 (RSR1) and amylases genes in developing seeds, which resulted in a decrease of starch synthesis and an increase of starch degradation, leading to abnormal seed development. ChIP assay showed that OsSRT1 was required to reduce histone H3K9 acetylation on starch metabolism genes and transposons in developing seeds. In addition, OsSRT1 was detected to directly bind to starch metabolism genes such as OsAmy3B, OsAmy3E, OsBmy4, and OsBmy9. Our results suggested that OsSRT1-mediated histone deacetylation is involved in starch accumulation and transposon repression to regulate normal seed development. PMID:27181944

  12. Seed development and maturation in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus continues post-shedding with little evidence of maturation in planta

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Rosemary J.; Hay, Fiona R.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Seeds of the moist temperate woodland species Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus, dispersed during spring or early summer, germinated poorly in laboratory tests. Seed development and maturation were studied to better understand the progression from developmental to germinable mode in order to improve seed collection and germination practices in these and similar species. Methods Phenology, seed mass, moisture content and ability to germinate and tolerate desiccation were monitored during seed development until shedding. Embryo elongation within seeds was investigated during seed development and under several temperature regimes after shedding. Key Results Seeds were shed at high moisture content (>59 %) with little evidence that dry mass accumulation or embryo elongation were complete. Ability to germinate developed prior to the ability of some seeds to tolerate enforced desiccation. Germination was sporadic and slow. Embryo elongation occurred post-shedding in moist environments, most rapidly at 20 °C in G. nivalis and 15 °C in N. pseudonarcissus. The greatest germination also occurred in these regimes, 78 and 48 %, respectively, after 700 d. Conclusions Seeds of G. nivalis and N. pseudonarcissus were comparatively immature at shedding and substantial embryo elongation occurred post-shedding. Seeds showed limited desiccation tolerance at dispersal. PMID:23478943

  13. [Ecotoxicological effects of oxytetracycline on wheat (Triticum aestivum) based on seed germination and seedling development].

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Wei-tao

    2009-10-15

    The ecotoxicological effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds and the early development of wheat seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the elongation of wheat shoots and roots was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by OTC, and there was a good dose-response relationship between the OTC concentration and inhibition rates. According to the linear regression equation, EC50 of OTC for inhibiting wheat shoot and root elongation was 65.5 mg/L and 34.7 mg/L, respectively. However, the germination of wheat seeds was not inhibited by OTC. Moreover, after a 21-day exposure to 0.15-2.40 mg/L OTC, the content of chlorophyll (CHL) decreased by 35.6%-47.3%, and the content of soluble protein (SP) in the leaves and roots of wheat plants decreased significantly. After a 7-day exposure, the activity of SOD and POD in wheat was not changed significantly. With the prolongation of exposure time, the activity of SOD and POD in wheat leaves and roots decreased significantly, the inhibition rate of SOD activity in roots increased up to 72.3% after a 21-day exposure to 2.4 mg/L OTC, which indicated that the antioxidant defense systems were damaged. The results above suggested that the low concentration OTC had ecotoxicological effects on wheat seedlings after chronic exposure.

  14. Rubisco without the Calvin cycle improves the carbon efficiency of developing green seeds.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Jörg; Goffman, Fernando; Ohlrogge, John B; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2004-12-01

    Efficient storage of carbon in seeds is crucial to plant fitness and to agricultural productivity. Oil is a major reserve material in most seeds, and these oils provide the largest source of renewable reduced carbon chains available from nature. However, the conversion of carbohydrate to oil through glycolysis results in the loss of one-third of the carbon as CO2. Here we show that, in developing embryos of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) acts without the Calvin cycle and in a previously undescribed metabolic context to increase the efficiency of carbon use during the formation of oil. In comparison with glycolysis, the metabolic conversion we describe provides 20% more acetyl-CoA for fatty-acid synthesis and results in 40% less loss of carbon as CO2. Our conclusions are based on measurements of mass balance, enzyme activity and stable isotope labelling, as well as an analysis of elementary flux modes.

  15. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate. PMID:23121942

  16. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to detect mustard protein in mustard seed oil.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Vlooswijk, Riek; Bottger, Gina; Van Duijn, Gert; Van der Schaft, Peter; Dekker, Jacco; Van Bergen, Hans

    2007-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mustard protein was developed. The assay is based on a polyclonal antiserum directed against a mixture of mustard proteins raised in rabbits. The assay has a detection limit of 1.5 ppm (milligrams per kilogram) and is suitable for the detection of traces of mustard protein in mustard seed-derived flavoring ingredients. Limited cross-reactivity testing showed that no other plant proteins reacted significantly. From the animal proteins tested, only milk showed some cross-reactivity. With this sensitive assay, it was shown that refined mustard seed oil produced by steam distillation does not contain detectable amounts of mustard protein. Mustard seed oil is used as a flavoring in very low quantities, typically between 40 and 200 mg/kg. Thus, 100 g of a food product flavored with 200 mg of mustard seed oil per kg containing < 1.5 mg of protein per kg would represent an amount of mustard seed protein of <30 ng. Taking into account the published literature on allergic reactions to the unintended ingestion of mustard, this conservatively low calculated level indicates that it is unlikely that food products containing mustard seed oil as a flavoring ingredient will elicit an allergic reaction in mustard-allergic individuals. PMID:17265878

  17. Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay to detect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seed.

    PubMed

    Robène, Isabelle; Perret, Marion; Jouen, Emmanuel; Escalon, Aline; Maillot, Marie-Véronique; Chabirand, Aude; Moreau, Aurélie; Laurent, Annie; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Pruvost, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial blight of onion is an emerging disease threatening world onion production. The causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii is seed transmitted and a reliable and sensitive tool is needed to monitor seed exchanges. A triplex quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed targeting two X. axonopodis pv. allii-specific markers and an internal control chosen in 5.8S rRNA gene from Alliaceae. Amplification of at least one marker indicates the presence of the bacterium in seed extracts. This real-time PCR assay detected all the 79 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested and excluded 85.2% of the 135 non-target strains and particularly all 39 saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria associated with onion. Cross-reactions were mainly obtained for strains assigned to nine phylogenetically related X. axonopodis pathovars. The cycle cut-off was estimated statistically at 36.3 considering a risk of false positive of 1%. The limit of detection obtained in at least 95% of the time (LOD 95%) was 5×10(3) CFU/g (colony forming unit/g). The sensitivity threshold was found to be 1 infected seed in 32,790 seeds. This real-time PCR assay should be useful for preventing the long-distance spread of X. axonopodis pv. allii via contaminated seed lots and determining the epidemiology of the bacterium.

  18. Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay to detect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seed.

    PubMed

    Robène, Isabelle; Perret, Marion; Jouen, Emmanuel; Escalon, Aline; Maillot, Marie-Véronique; Chabirand, Aude; Moreau, Aurélie; Laurent, Annie; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Pruvost, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial blight of onion is an emerging disease threatening world onion production. The causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii is seed transmitted and a reliable and sensitive tool is needed to monitor seed exchanges. A triplex quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed targeting two X. axonopodis pv. allii-specific markers and an internal control chosen in 5.8S rRNA gene from Alliaceae. Amplification of at least one marker indicates the presence of the bacterium in seed extracts. This real-time PCR assay detected all the 79 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested and excluded 85.2% of the 135 non-target strains and particularly all 39 saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria associated with onion. Cross-reactions were mainly obtained for strains assigned to nine phylogenetically related X. axonopodis pathovars. The cycle cut-off was estimated statistically at 36.3 considering a risk of false positive of 1%. The limit of detection obtained in at least 95% of the time (LOD 95%) was 5×10(3) CFU/g (colony forming unit/g). The sensitivity threshold was found to be 1 infected seed in 32,790 seeds. This real-time PCR assay should be useful for preventing the long-distance spread of X. axonopodis pv. allii via contaminated seed lots and determining the epidemiology of the bacterium. PMID:25940928

  19. Breeding response of transcript profiling in developing seeds of Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaping; Wu, Gang; Cao, Yinglong; Wu, Yuhua; Xiao, Ling; Li, Xiaodan; Lu, Changming

    2009-01-01

    Background The upgrading of rapeseed cultivars has resulted in a substantial improvement in yield and quality in China over the past 30 years. With the selective pressure against fatty acid composition and oil content, high erucic acid- and low oil-content cultivars have been replaced by low erucic acid- and high oil-content cultivars. The high erucic acid cultivar Zhongyou 821 and its descendent, low erucic acid cultivar Zhongshuang 9, are representatives of two generations of the most outstanding Chinese rapeseed cultivars (B. napus) developed the past 2 decades. This paper compares the transcriptional profiles of Zhongshuang 9 and Zhongyou 821 for 32 genes that are principally involved in lipid biosynthesis during seed development in order to elucidate how the transcriptional profiles of these genes responded to quality improvement over the past 20 years. Results Comparison of the cultivar Zhongyou 821 with its descendent, Zhongshuang 9, shows that the transcriptional levels of seven of the 32 genes were upregulated by 30% to 109%, including FAD3, ACCase, FAE1, GKTP, Caleosin, GAPDH, and PEPC. Of the 32 genes, 10 (KAS3, β-CT, BcRK6, P450, FatA, Oleosin, FAD6, FatB, α-CT and SUC1) were downregulated by at least 20% and most by 50%. The Napin gene alone accounted for over 75% of total transcription from all 32 genes assessed in both cultivars. Most of the genes showed significant correlation with fatty acid accumulation, but the correlation in ZS9 was significantly different from that in ZY821. Higher KCR2 activity is associated with higher C16:0, C18:0, and C18:2 in both cultivars, lower C22:1 and total fatty acid content in ZY821, and lower 18:1 in ZS9. Conclusion This paper illustrates the response of the transcription levels of 32 genes to breeding in developing rapeseed seeds. Both cultivars showed similar transcription profiles, with the Napin gene predominantly transcribed. Selective pressure for zero erucic acid, low glucosinolate, high oleic acid and

  20. The plastid outer envelope protein OEP16 affects metabolic fluxes during ABA-controlled seed development and germination

    PubMed Central

    Pudelski, Birgit; Schock, Annette; Hoth, Stefan; Radchuk, Ruslana; Weber, Hans; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Previously, the OEP16.1 channel pore in the outer envelope membrane of mature pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts in vitro has been characterized to be selective for amino acids. Isolation of OEP16.2, a second OEP16 isoform from pea, in the current study allowed membrane localization and gene expression of OEP16 to be followed throughout seed development and germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and P. sativum. Thereby it can be shown on the transcript and protein level that the isoforms OEP16.1 and OEP16.2 in both plant species are alternating: whereas OEP16.1 is prominent in early embryo development and first leaves of the growing plantlet, OEP16.2 dominates in late seed development stages, which are associated with dormancy and desiccation, as well as early germination events. Further, OEP16.2 expression in seeds is under control of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), leading to an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of germinating oep16 knockout mutants. In consequence, the loss of OEP16 causes metabolic imbalance, in particular that of amino acids during seed development and early germination. It is thus concluded that in vivo OEP16 most probably functions in shuttling amino acids across the outer envelope of seed plastids. PMID:22155670

  1. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions. PMID:23843965

  2. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  3. The Distribution of Fruit and Seed Toxicity during Development for Eleven Neotropical Trees and Vines in Central Panama

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Noelle G.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions. PMID:23843965

  4. Novel Molecular Architectures Developed for Improved Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

    2002-01-01

    Lithium-based polymer batteries for aerospace applications need the ability to operate in temperatures ranging from -70 to 70 C. Current state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes (based on amorphous polyethylene oxide, PEO) have acceptable ionic conductivities (10-4 to 10-3 S/cm) only above 60 C. Higher conductivity can be achieved in the current systems by adding solvent or plasticizers to the solid polymer to improve ion transport. However, this can compromise the dimensional and thermal stability of the electrolyte, as well as compatibility with electrode materials. One of NASA Glenn Research Center's objectives in the PERS program is to develop new electrolytes having unique molecular architectures and/or novel ion transport mechanisms, leading to good ionic conductivity at room temperature and below without solvents or plasticizers.

  5. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the flag leaf and developing seed of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes in plants. Considerable data are available on miRNAs involved in the development of rice, maize and barley. In contrast, little is known about miRNAs and their functions in the development of wheat. In this study, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries from wheat seedlings, flag leaves, and developing seeds were developed and sequenced to identify miRNAs and understand their functions in wheat development. Results Twenty-four known miRNAs belonging to 15 miRNA families were identified from 18 MIRNA loci in wheat in the present study, including 15 miRNAs (9 MIRNA loci) first identified in wheat, 13 miRNA families (16 MIRNA loci) being highly conserved and 2 (2 MIRNA loci) moderately conserved. In addition, fifty-five novel miRNAs were also identified. The potential target genes for 15 known miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were predicted using strict criteria, and these target genes are involved in a wide range of biological functions. Four of the 15 known miRNA families and 22 of the 55 novel miRNAs were preferentially expressed in the developing seeds with logarithm (log2) of the fold change of 1.0 ~ 7.6, and half of them were seed-specific, suggesting that they participate in regulating wheat seed development and metabolism. From 5 days post-anthesis to 20 days post-anthesis, miR164 and miR160 increased in abundance in the developing seeds, whereas miR169 decreased, suggesting their coordinating functions in the different developmental stages of wheat seed. Moreover, 8 known miRNA families and 28 novel miRNAs exhibited tissue-biased expression in wheat flag leaves, with the logarithm of the fold changes of 0.1 ~ 5.2. The putative targets of these tissue-preferential miRNAs were involved in various metabolism and biological processes, suggesting complexity of the regulatory networks in different tissues. Our data also suggested that wheat flag leaves have more complicated regulatory networks of miRNAs than

  6. Development of BBD Adding-Delay Architecture for Ultrasonic Micro Array Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tsunehisa; Mo, Yaowu; Tsuchitani, Akira; Inoue, Koji; Arita, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Yamashita, Kaoru; Okuyama, Masanori

    Bucket Brigade Device (BBD) adding-delay architecture was proposed as the analog beamformer for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic sensor phased array. BBD adding-delay architecture were used both as delay and adding elements, and the input signals were distributed adding in the process of delay. This architecture was useful to reduce chip area, simplify system design, and realize on-chip integration. Combining piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic array sensors and the analog delay-sum circuits successfully performed two-dimensional object detection.

  7. Developing a European grid infrastructure for cancer research: vision, architecture and services

    PubMed Central

    Tsiknakis, M; Rueping, S; Martin, L; Sfakianakis, S; Bucur, A; Sengstag, T; Brochhausen, M; Pucaski, J; Graf, N

    2007-01-01

    Life sciences are currently at the centre of an information revolution. The nature and amount of information now available opens up areas of research that were once in the realm of science fiction. During this information revolution, the data-gathering capabilities have greatly surpassed the data-analysis techniques. Data integration across heterogeneous data sources and data aggregation across different aspects of the biomedical spectrum, therefore, is at the centre of current biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. This paper reports on original results from the ACGT integrated project, focusing on the design and development of a European Biomedical Grid infrastructure in support of multi-centric, post-genomic clinical trials (CTs) on cancer. Post-genomic CTs use multi-level clinical and genomic data and advanced computational analysis and visualization tools to test hypotheses in trying to identify the molecular reasons for a disease and the stratification of patients in terms of treatment. The paper provides a presentation of the needs of users involved in post-genomic CTs and presents indicative scenarios, which drive the requirements of the engineering phase of the project. Subsequently, the initial architecture specified by the project is presented, and its services are classified and discussed. A range of such key services, including the Master Ontology on sCancer, which lie at the heart of the integration architecture of the project, is presented. Special efforts have been taken to describe the methodological and technological framework of the project, enabling the creation of a legally compliant and trustworthy infrastructure. Finally, a short discussion of the forthcoming work is included, and the potential involvement of the cancer research community in further development or utilization of the infrastructure is described. PMID:22275955

  8. Role of Tec1 in the development, architecture, and integrity of sexual biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Karla J; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude; Park, Yang-Nim; Soll, David R

    2015-03-01

    MTL-homozygous ( A: / A: or α/α) white cells form a complex sexual biofilm that exhibits the same architecture as that of MTL-heterozygous ( A: /α) pathogenic biofilms. However, the former is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, while the latter is regulated by the Ras1/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway. We previously demonstrated that in the formation of an MTL-homozygous, mature (48 h) sexual biofilm in RPMI 1640 medium, the MAP kinase pathway targets Tec1 rather than Cph1, the latter of which is the target of the same pathway, but for the opaque cell mating response. Here we continued our analysis of the role of Tec1 by comparing the effects of deleting TEC1 on initial adhesion to silicone elastomer, high-resolution confocal microscopy assessments of the stages and cellular phenotypes during the 48 h of biofilm development, human white cell penetration, and biofilm fragility. We show that although Tec1 plays only a minor role in initial adhesion to the silicone elastomer, it does play a major role in the growth of the basal yeast cell polylayer, vertical extension of hyphae and matrix deposition in the upper portion of the biofilm, final biofilm thickness, penetrability of human white blood cells, and final biofilm integrity (i.e., resistance to fluid flow). These results provide a more detailed description of normal biofilm development and architecture and confirm the central role played by the transcription factor Tec1 in the biofilm model employed here. PMID:25556183

  9. Developing a European grid infrastructure for cancer research: vision, architecture and services.

    PubMed

    Tsiknakis, M; Rueping, S; Martin, L; Sfakianakis, S; Bucur, A; Sengstag, T; Brochhausen, M; Pucaski, J; Graf, N

    2007-01-01

    Life sciences are currently at the centre of an information revolution. The nature and amount of information now available opens up areas of research that were once in the realm of science fiction. During this information revolution, the data-gathering capabilities have greatly surpassed the data-analysis techniques. Data integration across heterogeneous data sources and data aggregation across different aspects of the biomedical spectrum, therefore, is at the centre of current biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D.This paper reports on original results from the ACGT integrated project, focusing on the design and development of a European Biomedical Grid infrastructure in support of multi-centric, post-genomic clinical trials (CTs) on cancer. Post-genomic CTs use multi-level clinical and genomic data and advanced computational analysis and visualization tools to test hypotheses in trying to identify the molecular reasons for a disease and the stratification of patients in terms of treatment.The paper provides a presentation of the needs of users involved in post-genomic CTs and presents indicative scenarios, which drive the requirements of the engineering phase of the project. Subsequently, the initial architecture specified by the project is presented, and its services are classified and discussed. A range of such key services, including the Master Ontology on sCancer, which lie at the heart of the integration architecture of the project, is presented. Special efforts have been taken to describe the methodological and technological framework of the project, enabling the creation of a legally compliant and trustworthy infrastructure. Finally, a short discussion of the forthcoming work is included, and the potential involvement of the cancer research community in further development or utilization of the infrastructure is described.

  10. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Shen, Qi; Li, Bo Wen; Song, Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus) miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR) to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS) and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA) composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1), BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3). Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  11. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Shen, Qi; Li, Bo Wen; Song, Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus) miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR) to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS) and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA) composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1), BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3). Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development. PMID:25978066

  12. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Over-Expressing MicroRNA394

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Shen, Qi; Li, Bo Wen; Song, Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus) miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS (BnLCR) to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS) and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA) composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (BnLEC1), BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3). Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development. PMID:25978066

  13. Influence of laser radiation on the growth and development of seeds of agricultural plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Polyakov, Vadim; Kascheev, Sergey; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The experimental results presented in this study focused on the study of biological processes caused by exposure to the coating layers of the laser green light seed (λ = 532 nm) range for the larch, violet (λ = 405 nm) and red (λ = 640 nm) for spruce. Spend a series of experiments to study the dependence of crop seed quality (spruce and larch from the pine family) from exposure to laser radiation under different conditions. In all the analyzed groups studied seed germination and growth of seedlings exposed to laser exposure, compared with the control group. The results showed that the higher percentage of germination than seeds of the control group.

  14. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    PubMed

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  15. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    PubMed

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  16. cis-Isomers of Cytokinins Predominate in Chickpea Seeds throughout Their Development1

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Robert Joseph Neil; Leport, Laurent; Barton, Joanne Edith; Turner, Neil Clifford; Atkins, Craig Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Trans-isomers of cytokinins (CK) are thought to predominate and have greater biological activity than corresponding cis-isomers in higher plants. However, this study demonstrates a system within which the predominant CK are cis-isomers. CK were measured at four developmental stages in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivar Kaniva) seeds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations were highest at an early endospermic fluid stage and fell considerably when the cotyledons expanded. The cis-isomers of zeatin nucleotide ([9R-MP]Z), zeatin riboside ([9R]Z), and zeatin (Z) were present in greater concentrations than those of corresponding trans-isomers: (trans)[9R-MP]Z, (trans)[9R]Z, (trans)Z, or dihydrozeatin riboside. Dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin nucleotide, and the isopentenyl-type CK concentrations were either low or not detectable. Root xylem exudates also contained predominantly cis-isomers of [9R-MP]Z and [9R]Z. Identities of (cis)[9R]Z and (cis)Z were confirmed by comparison of ion ratios and retention indices, and a full spectrum was obtained for (cis)[9R]Z. Tissues were extracted under conditions that minimized the possibility of RNase hydrolysis of tRNA following tissue disruption, being a significant source of the cis-CK. Since no isomerization of (trans)[2H]CK internal standards occurred, it is unlikely that the cis-CK resulted from enzymic or nonenzymic isomerization during extraction. Although quantities of total CK varied, similar CK profiles were found among three different chickpea cultivars and between adequately watered and water-stressed plants. Developing chickpea seeds will be a useful system for investigating the activity of cis-CK or determining the origin and metabolism of free CK. PMID:9701607

  17. The development of microbatteries based on three-dimensional architectures for autonomous micro devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hong-Seok

    2007-12-01

    The goal of fabricating three-dimensional (3D) microbatteries is to improve upon the performance of 2D microbatteries or thin-film batteries by reconfiguring existing materials in a more advanced architecture. 3D battery architectures offer a new approach for miniaturized power sources. These batteries are designed to have a small areal foot print and yet provide sufficient power and energy density to operate autonomous MEMS devices. The more convenient approaches for fabricating such batteries are based on micromachining techniques such as electrodeposition of high aspect ratio metal rods in an array configuration. Three types of three-dimensional microbatteries were fabricated and characterized: Ni-Zn, zinc-air, and Ag-Zn. These different types of microbatteries use different chemistries but all have the common feature of an out-of-plane array of micro-post electrodes. A 3D Ni-Zn microbattery was fabricated and demonstrated proper charge-discharge behavior for the first few cycles. The development of 3D zinc-air microbattery showed high discharge capability under various discharge conditions. Furthermore, performance of 3D zinc-air microbattery was demonstrated by successfully powering an electronic device. During discharge, the 3D zinc-air microbattery exhibited an electrode reaction which formed hollow ZnO electrodes by the Kirkendall effect. This electrode reaction strongly supports the functionality of the 3D microbattery. The fabrication of the Ag-Zn microbattery was accomplished by Ag electrode formation, separator coating, and Zn sedimentation. Due to imperfections in the separator coating, the 3D Ag-Zn microbattery had electrical shorts.

  18. The interplay between inflorescence development and function as the crucible of architectural diversity

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Lawrence D.; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Most angiosperms present flowers in inflorescences, which play roles in reproduction, primarily related to pollination, beyond those served by individual flowers alone. An inflorescence's overall reproductive contribution depends primarily on the three-dimensional arrangement of the floral canopy and its dynamics during its flowering period. These features depend in turn on characteristics of the underlying branching structure (scaffold) that supports and supplies water and nutrients to the floral canopy. This scaffold is produced by developmental algorithms that are genetically specified and hormonally mediated. Thus, the extensive inflorescence diversity evident among angiosperms evolves through changes in the developmental programmes that specify scaffold characteristics, which in turn modify canopy features that promote reproductive performance in a particular pollination and mating environment. Nevertheless, developmental and ecological aspects of inflorescences have typically been studied independently, limiting comprehensive understanding of the relations between inflorescence form, reproductive function, and evolution. Scope This review fosters an integrated perspective on inflorescences by summarizing aspects of their development and pollination function that enable and guide inflorescence evolution and diversification. Conclusions The architecture of flowering inflorescences comprises three related components: topology (branching patterns, flower number), geometry (phyllotaxis, internode and pedicel lengths, three-dimensional flower arrangement) and phenology (flower opening rate and longevity, dichogamy). Genetic and developmental evidence reveals that these components are largely subject to quantitative control. Consequently, inflorescence evolution proceeds along a multidimensional continuum. Nevertheless, some combinations of topology, geometry and phenology are represented more commonly than others, because they serve reproductive function

  19. Development of SRAP, SNP and multiplexed SCAR molecular markers for the major seed coat color gene in Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mukhlesur; McVetty, Peter B E; Li, Genyi

    2007-11-01

    Seed coat color inheritance in B. rapa was studied in F(1), F(2), F(3), and BC(1) progenies from a cross of a Canadian brown-seeded variety 'SPAN' and a Bangladeshi yellow sarson variety 'BARI-6'. A pollen effect was found when the yellow sarson line was used as the maternal parent. Seed coat color segregated into brown, yellow-brown and bright yellow classes. Segregation was under digenic control where the brown or yellow-brown color was dominant over bright yellow seed coat color. A sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker linked closely to a major seed coat color gene (Br1/br1) was developed. This dominant SRAP molecular marker was successfully converted into single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR) markers after the extended flanking sequence of the SRAP was obtained with chromosome walking. In total, 24 SNPs were identified with more than 2-kb sequence. A 12-bp deletion allowed the development of a SCAR marker linked closely to the Br1 gene. Using the five-fluorescence dye set supplied by ABI, four labeled M13 primers were integrated with different SCAR primers to increase the throughput of SCAR marker detection. Using multiplexed SCAR markers targeting insertions and deletions in a genome shows great potential for marker assisted selection in plant breeding.

  20. Brassica GLABRA2 genes: analysis of function related to seed oil content and development of functional markers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Guohua; Bai, Zetao; Wei, Fang; King, Graham J; Wang, Chenggang; Shi, Lei; Dong, Caihua; Chen, Hong; Liu, Shengyi

    2010-05-01

    Regulation of seed oil accumulation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has important economic significance. However, few genes have been characterized that affect final seed oil content. Through a mutant identification, the class IV homeodomain-ZIP transcription factor GLABRA2 (GL2) has been found to regulate seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis, in addition to its role in trichome development. In this study, we isolated four distinct orthologues of GL2 from B. napus (AC-genome), B. rapa (A) and B. oleracea (C), using an overlapping-PCR strategy. The four GL2 orthologues were very similar, with 96.10-99.69% identity in exon regions, 75.45-93.84% in intron regions, 97.34-99.87% in amino acid sequences. Alignments of the four genes revealed that the A-genome sequences of BnaA.GL2.a from B. napus and BraA.GL2.a from B. rapa are more similar than the others, and likewise the C-genome sequences of BnaC.GL2.b from B. napus and BolC.GL2.a from B. oleracea are more similar. BnaA.GL2.a and BraA.GL2.a from the A-genome are highly expressed in roots, whilst BnaC.GL2.b and BolC.GL2.a from the C-genome are preferentially expressed in seeds. Transgenic ectopic overexpression and suppression of BnaC.GL2.b in Arabidopsis allowed further investigation of the effect on seed oil content. Overexpression generated two phenotypes: the wild-type-like and the gl2-mutant-like (an Arabidopsis glabrous mutant of gl2-2), with increases in seed oil content of 3.5-5.0% in the gl2-mutant-like transgenic plants. Suppression resulted in increases of 2.5-6.1% in seed oil content, and reduced trichome number at the leaf margins. These results suggest that BnaC.GL2.b can negatively regulate oil accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds. As a result of comparing the four GL2 genes, three A/C-genome-specific primer sets were developed and a C-genome-specific EcoRV cleavage site was identified, which can be used as functional markers to distinguish these orthologues within Brassica species. The genes identified

  1. Synthesis of multimetallic nanoparticles by seeded methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Rebecca Gayle

    This dissertation focuses on the synthesis of metal nanocrystals (NCs) by seeded methods, in which preformed seeds serve as platforms for growth. Metal NCs are of interest due to their tunable optical and catalytic properties, which arise from their composition and crystallite size and shape. Moreover, multimetallic NCs are potentially multifunctional due to the integration of the properties of each metal within one structure. However, such structures are difficult to synthesize with structural definition due to differences in precursor reduction rates and the size-dependent solubility of bimetallic phases. Seed-mediated co-reduction (SMCR) is a method developed in the Skrabalak Laboratory that couples the advantages of a seeded method with co-reduction methods to achieve multimetallic nanomaterials with defined shape and architecture. This approach was originally demonstrated in a model Au-Pd system in which Au and Pd precursors were simultaneously reduced to deposit metal onto shape-controlled Au or Pd NC seeds. Using SMCR, uniformly branched core shell Au Au-Pd and Pd Au-Pd NCs were synthesized, with the shape of the seeds directing the symmetry of the final structures. By varying the seed shape and the temperature at which metal deposition occurs, the roles of adatom diffusion and seed shape on final NC morphology were decoupled. Moreover, by selecting seeds of a composition (Ag) different than the depositing metals (Au and Pd), trimetallic nanostructures are possible, including shape-controlled Ag Au-Pd NCs and hollow Au-Pd-Ag nanoparticles (NPs). The latter architecture arises through galvanic replacement. Shape-controlled core shell NCs with trimetallic shells are also possible by co-reducing three metal precursors (Ag, Au, and Pd) with shape-controlled Au seeds; for example, convex octopods, concave cubes, and truncated octahedra were achieved in this initial demonstration and was enabled by varying the ratio of Ag to Au/Pd in the overgrowth step as well as

  2. Development of carotenoid storage cells in Bixa orellana L. seed arils.

    PubMed

    Louro, Ricardo P; Santiago, Laura J M

    2016-01-01

    The arils of Bixa orellana L. seeds contain carotenoid storage cells (CSCs). The main compounds in these cells include bixin and norbixin, which are important pigments in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Although many studies have been conducted on these chemical constituents, the cellular events that occur during the development of the carotenoid-accumulating cells in the arils and their relationship with the final carotenoid accumulation in the vacuoles remain unknown. In this study, the development of the CSCs in B. orellana arils was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoids formed in specialized cells, whose number and size increased during aril development. At various stages of development, the cytoplasm of the CSCs contained chromoplasts that held an extensive network of tubules and plastoglobules. Next to the chromoplasts, lipid droplets may fuse one another to form osmiophilic bodies. In addition, vesicles were observed next to the tonoplast. At the final stages of development, both the osmiophilic bodies and vesicles, which became quadrangular or rectangular, were stored in the vacuoles of the CSCs. This study reported for the first time the occurrence of different storage unit types within the vacuole of carotenoid storage cells.

  3. Development of carotenoid storage cells in Bixa orellana L. seed arils.

    PubMed

    Louro, Ricardo P; Santiago, Laura J M

    2016-01-01

    The arils of Bixa orellana L. seeds contain carotenoid storage cells (CSCs). The main compounds in these cells include bixin and norbixin, which are important pigments in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Although many studies have been conducted on these chemical constituents, the cellular events that occur during the development of the carotenoid-accumulating cells in the arils and their relationship with the final carotenoid accumulation in the vacuoles remain unknown. In this study, the development of the CSCs in B. orellana arils was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoids formed in specialized cells, whose number and size increased during aril development. At various stages of development, the cytoplasm of the CSCs contained chromoplasts that held an extensive network of tubules and plastoglobules. Next to the chromoplasts, lipid droplets may fuse one another to form osmiophilic bodies. In addition, vesicles were observed next to the tonoplast. At the final stages of development, both the osmiophilic bodies and vesicles, which became quadrangular or rectangular, were stored in the vacuoles of the CSCs. This study reported for the first time the occurrence of different storage unit types within the vacuole of carotenoid storage cells. PMID:25786349

  4. DAsHER CD: Developing a Data-Oriented Human-Centric Enterprise Architecture for EarthCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. P.; Yu, M.; Sun, M.; Qin, H.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges that face Earth scientists is the resource discovery, access, and sharing in a desired fashion. EarthCube is targeted to enable geoscientists to address the challenges by fostering community-governed efforts that develop a common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of collecting, accessing, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources, through the use of advanced technological and computational capabilities. Here we design an Enterprise Architecture (EA) for EarthCube to facilitate the knowledge management, communication and human collaboration in pursuit of the unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. The design results will provide EarthCube a reference framework for developing geoscience cyberinfrastructure collaborated by different stakeholders, and identifying topics which should invoke high interest in the community. The development of this EarthCube EA framework leverages popular frameworks, such as Zachman, Gartner, DoDAF, and FEAF. The science driver of this design is the needs from EarthCube community, including the analyzed user requirements from EarthCube End User Workshop reports and EarthCube working group roadmaps, and feedbacks or comments from scientists obtained by organizing workshops. The final product of this Enterprise Architecture is a four-volume reference document: 1) Volume one is this document and comprises an executive summary of the EarthCube architecture, serving as an overview in the initial phases of architecture development; 2) Volume two is the major body of the design product. It outlines all the architectural design components or viewpoints; 3) Volume three provides taxonomy of the EarthCube enterprise augmented with semantics relations; 4) Volume four describes an example of utilizing this architecture for a geoscience project.

  5. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  6. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms controlling seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehens...

  7. Control of Arabidopsis flower and seed development by the homeotic gene APETALA2.

    PubMed Central

    Jofuku, K D; den Boer, B G; Van Montagu, M; Okamuro, J K

    1994-01-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) plays a central role in the establishment of the floral meristem, the specification of floral organ identity, and the regulation of floral homeotic gene expression in Arabidopsis. We show here that in addition to its functions during flower development, AP2 activity is also required during seed development. We isolated the AP2 gene and found that it encodes a putative nuclear protein that is distinguished by an essential 68-amino acid repeated motif, the AP2 domain. Consistent with its genetic functions, we determined that AP2 is expressed at the RNA level in all four types of floral organs--sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels--and in developing ovules. Thus, AP2 gene transcription does not appear to be spatially restricted by the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS as predicted by previous studies. We also found that AP2 is expressed at the RNA level in the inflorescence meristem and in nonfloral organs, including leaf and stem. Taken together, our results suggest that AP2 represents a new class of plant regulatory proteins that may play a general role in the control of Arabidopsis development. PMID:7919989

  8. Profiles of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids during the development of seeds of Theobroma cacao cv. Trinitario.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; Nagai, Chifumi; Jackson, Mel C; Yokota, Takao; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-16

    Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario, were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. Extracts of seeds with a fresh weight of 125, 700, 1550, and 2050 mg (stages 1-4, respectively) were analyzed. The phenolic compounds present in highest concentrations in developing and mature seeds (stages 3 and 4) were flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ols existed as monomers of epicatechin and catechin and as procyanidins. Type B procyanidins were major components and varied from dimers to pentadecamer. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, along with the N-phenylpropernoyl-l-amino acids, N-caffeoyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-3-hydroxytyrosine (clovamide), and N-coumaroyltyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, were present in stage 3 and 4 seeds. Other purine alkaloids, such as theophylline and additional methylxanthines, did not occur in detectable quantities. Flavan-3-ols were the only components to accumulate in detectable quantities in young seeds at developmental stages 1 and 2.

  9. Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Sramala, Issara; Pinket, Wichchunee; Pongwan, Pawinee; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Kasemwong, Kittiwut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera) seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span(®)80 and Tween(®)80). The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF), the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS. PMID:27136528

  10. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts.

  11. The in vivo synthesis and accumulation of lectin in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Suseelan, K N; Mitra, R; Bhatia, C R; Gopalakrishna, T

    2004-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) seed contains two D-galactose-specific lectin species, BGL-I and BGL-II, identified on the basis of elution from ion exchange column and immunochemical cross-reactivity. BGL-I consisted of two monomeric lectins, BGL-I-1 and BGL-1-2, of relative molecular weights 94 and 89 kDa, respectively. BGL-II is another monomeric lectin with a molecular weight of 83 kDa. The in vivo synthesis studies using pulse-chase experiment showed that BGL-II lectin was synthesized as early as 14 days after flowering (DAF). The 94-kDa BGL-I-1 lectin was synthesized around 17 DAF. There was no cotranslational or posttranslational modification of the lectin proteins. The amount of lectin in developing seeds was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay technique. The maximum amount of lectin per seed was found at 28 DAF.

  12. A Step Towards Developing Adaptive Robot-Mediated Intervention Architecture (ARIA) for Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Esubalew T; Lahiri, Uttama; Swanson, Amy R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Warren, Zachary E.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technology, especially robotic technology, has been shown to be appealing to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Such interest may be leveraged to provide repeatable, accurate and individualized intervention services to young children with ASD based on quantitative metrics. However, existing robot-mediated systems tend to have limited adaptive capability that may impact individualization. Our current work seeks to bridge this gap by developing an adaptive and individualized robot-mediated technology for children with ASD. The system is composed of a humanoid robot with its vision augmented by a network of cameras for real-time head tracking using a distributed architecture. Based on the cues from the child’s head movement, the robot intelligently adapts itself in an individualized manner to generate prompts and reinforcements with potential to promote skills in the ASD core deficit area of early social orienting. The system was validated for feasibility, accuracy, and performance. Results from a pilot usability study involving six children with ASD and a control group of six typically developing (TD) children are presented. PMID:23221831

  13. Exploring Diverse Data Sets and Developing New Theories and Ideas With Project Integration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.; Jones, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new ideas is the essence of scientific research. This is frequently done by developing models of physical processes and comparing model predictions with results from experiments. With models becoming ever more complex and data acquisition systems becoming more powerful, the researcher is burdened with wading through data ranging in volume up to a level of many terabytes and beyond. These data often come from multiple, heterogeneous sources and usually the methods for searching through it are at or near the manual level. In addition, current documentation methods are generally limited to researchers pen-and-paper style notebooks. Researchers may want to form constraint-based queries on a body of existing knowledge that is, itself, distributed over many different machines and environments and from the results of such queries then spawn additional queries, simulations, and data analyses in order to discover new insights into the problem being investigated. Currently, researchers are restricted to working within the boundaries of tools that are inefficient at probing current and legacy data to extend the knowledge of the problem at hand and reveal innovative and efficient solutions. A framework called the Project Integration Architecture is discussed that can address these desired functionalities.

  14. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 Associates with MINISEED3 and HAIKU2 Promoters in Vivo to Regulate Arabidopsis Seed Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Kang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhang, Xiansheng; Ni, Min

    2009-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes an initial phase of endosperm proliferation followed by a second phase in which the embryo grows at the expense of the endosperm. As mature seed size is largely attained during the initial phase, seed size is coordinately determined by the growth of the maternal ovule, endosperm, and embryo. Here, we identify SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) as a positive regulator of Arabidopsis seed development that affects both cell size and cell number. shb1-D, a gain-of-function overexpression allele, increases seed size, and shb1, a loss-of-function allele, reduces seed size. SHB1 is transmitted zygotically. The increase in shb1-D seed size is associated with endosperm cellurization, chalazal endosperm enlargement, and embryo development. SHB1 is required for the proper expression of two other genes that affect endosperm development, MINISEED3 (MINI3) and HAIKU2 (IKU2), a WRKY transcription factor gene and a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase gene. SHB1 associates with both MINI3 and IKU2 promoters in vivo. SHB1 may act with other proteins that bind to MINI3 and IKU2 promoters to promote a large seed cavity and endosperm growth in the early phase of seed development. In the second phase, SHB1 enhances embryo cell proliferation and expansion through a yet unknown IKU2-independent pathway. PMID:19141706

  15. A comparative study of cytokinins in caryopsis development in the maize miniature 1 seed mutant and its wild type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here a comparative developmental profile of cytokinins, both total quantity and diversity of various forms, in relation to cell size, cell number and endoreduplication in developing caryopses of a cell wall invertase-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and its wild type, Mn1, genotype. ...

  16. Development and Practical Use of RT-PCR for Seed-transmitted Prune dwarf virus in Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siwon; Shin, Yong-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Among imported plants, seeds are the items that have many latent pathogens and are difficult to inspect. Also, they are the import and export items whose market is expected to expand. The biggest problem with seeds is viruses. Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is the virus that is commonly inspected in Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. mandshurica, P. cerasus, P. avium or P. serotina seeds. In this study, two RT-PCR primer sets, which can promptly and specifically diagnose plant quarantine seed-transmitted PDV, were developed; and nested PCR primers, where products amplify 739 and 673 nucleotides (nt), and an nested PCR-product, 305 nt, can be obtained as these products are amplified again, were developed. Also, a modified-positive control plasmid was developed, where the restriction enzyme XhoI, which can identify the contamination of samples from the control, was inserted. The method developed in this study has detected PDV in 18 cases since 2007, and is expected to continuously contribute to the plant quarantine in Korea. PMID:25289000

  17. Development and Practical Use of RT-PCR for Seed-transmitted Prune dwarf virus in Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siwon; Shin, Yong-Gil

    2014-06-01

    Among imported plants, seeds are the items that have many latent pathogens and are difficult to inspect. Also, they are the import and export items whose market is expected to expand. The biggest problem with seeds is viruses. Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is the virus that is commonly inspected in Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. mandshurica, P. cerasus, P. avium or P. serotina seeds. In this study, two RT-PCR primer sets, which can promptly and specifically diagnose plant quarantine seed-transmitted PDV, were developed; and nested PCR primers, where products amplify 739 and 673 nucleotides (nt), and an nested PCR-product, 305 nt, can be obtained as these products are amplified again, were developed. Also, a modified-positive control plasmid was developed, where the restriction enzyme XhoI, which can identify the contamination of samples from the control, was inserted. The method developed in this study has detected PDV in 18 cases since 2007, and is expected to continuously contribute to the plant quarantine in Korea. PMID:25289000

  18. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. PMID:25754973

  19. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop.

  20. Pollination-, development-, and auxin-specific regulation of gibberellin 3beta-hydroxylase gene expression in pea fruit and seeds.

    PubMed

    Ozga, Jocelyn A; Yu, Jody; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2003-03-01

    To understand further how pollination, seeds, auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid [4-Cl-IAA]), and gibberellins (GAs) regulate GA biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) fruit, we studied expression of the gene PsGA3ox1 that codes for the enzyme that converts GA(20) to biologically active GA(1) using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels were minimally detectable in prepollinated pericarps and ovules (-2 d after anthesis [DAA]), increased dramatically after pollination (0 DAA), then decreased by 1 DAA. Seed PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels increased at 4 DAA and again 8 to 12 DAA, when seed development was rapid. Pericarp PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels peaked coincidentally with rapid pod diameter expansion (6-10 DAA) to accommodate the growing seeds. The effects of seeds and hormones on the expression of pericarp PsGA3ox1 were investigated over a 24-h treatment period. Pericarp PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels gradually increased from 2 to 3 DAA when seeds were present; however, when the seeds were removed, the pericarp transcript levels dramatically declined. When 2-DAA deseeded pericarps were treated with 4-Cl-IAA, PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels peaked 4 h after hormone treatment (270-fold increase), then decreased. PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels in deseeded pericarps treated with indole-3-acetic acid or GA(3) were the same or lower than deseeded controls. These data show that PsGA3ox1 is expressed and developmentally regulated in pea pericarps and seeds. These data also show that pericarp PsGA3ox1 expression is hormonally regulated and suggest that the conversion of GA(20) to GA(1) occurs in the pericarp and is regulated by the presence of seeds and 4-Cl-IAA for fruit growth.

  1. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 kinase roles in seed germination and plant development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Merchant, Azim; Rockett, Kristin S; McCormack, Maggie; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an essential role in modulating amino acid metabolism in response to nutrient deprivation. A wide spectrum of GCN2 functions in yeast and mammals has been characterized that spans from responses to amino acid deficiency, development, differentiation and proper functions of mammalian organs to organism's life span, tumor cell survival and immune responses. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 (AtGCN2) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development. We present evidence that AtGCN2 negatively regulates seed germination under diverse environmental conditions. Our genetic data supported the notion that AtGCN2 is required for leaf morphology and normal cellular physiology by controlling chlorophyll contents. Our gene expression analyses revealed that AtGCN2 negatively regulates several transcription factor genes that play important roles in plant gibberellic acid-related crosstalk. We concluded that AtGCN2 plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes essential for normal growth and development, hence expanding the functions of this general regulator beyond being merely a stress player.

  2. A Bsister MADS-box gene involved in ovule and seed development in petunia and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna V; Franken, John; Busscher, Marco; Baskar, Ramamurthy; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2006-09-01

    MADS-domain transcription factors are essential for proper flower and seed development in angiosperms and their role in determination of floral organ identity can be described by the 'ABC model' of flower development. Recently, close relatives of the B-type genes were identified by phylogenetic studies, which are referred to as B(sister) (B(s)) genes. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a MADS-box B(s) member from petunia, designated FBP24. An fbp24 knock-down line appeared to closely resemble the Arabidopsis B(s) mutant abs and a detailed and comparative analysis led to the conclusion that both FBP24 and ABS are necessary to determine the identity of the endothelial layer within the ovule. Protein interaction studies revealed the formation of higher-order complexes between B(s)-C-E and B(s)-D-E type MADS-box proteins, suggesting involvement of these specific complexes in determination of endothelium identity. However, although there are many similarities between the two genes and their products and functions, interestingly FBP24 cannot replace ABS in Arabidopsis. The results presented here demonstrate the importance of the comparative analysis of key regulatory genes in various model systems to fully understand all aspects of plant development. PMID:16925602

  3. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 kinase roles in seed germination and plant development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Merchant, Azim; Rockett, Kristin S; McCormack, Maggie; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an essential role in modulating amino acid metabolism in response to nutrient deprivation. A wide spectrum of GCN2 functions in yeast and mammals has been characterized that spans from responses to amino acid deficiency, development, differentiation and proper functions of mammalian organs to organism's life span, tumor cell survival and immune responses. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana GCN2 (AtGCN2) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development. We present evidence that AtGCN2 negatively regulates seed germination under diverse environmental conditions. Our genetic data supported the notion that AtGCN2 is required for leaf morphology and normal cellular physiology by controlling chlorophyll contents. Our gene expression analyses revealed that AtGCN2 negatively regulates several transcription factor genes that play important roles in plant gibberellic acid-related crosstalk. We concluded that AtGCN2 plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes essential for normal growth and development, hence expanding the functions of this general regulator beyond being merely a stress player. PMID:25912940

  4. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baozhu; Chen, Xiaoping; Dang, Phat; Scully, Brian T; Liang, Xuanqiang; Holbrook, C Corley; Yu, Jiujiang; Culbreath, Albert K

    2008-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7) from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV) and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV). The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs) and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were differences in overall expression

  5. Architecture and System Engineering Development Study of Space-Based Satellite Networks for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional NASA missions, both near Earth and deep space, have been stovepipe in nature and point-to-point in architecture. Recently, NASA and others have conceptualized missions that required space-based networking. The notion of networks in space is a drastic shift in thinking and requires entirely new architectures, radio systems (antennas, modems, and media access), and possibly even new protocols. A full system engineering approach for some key mission architectures will occur that considers issues such as the science being performed, stationkeeping, antenna size, contact time, data rates, radio-link power requirements, media access techniques, and appropriate networking and transport protocols. This report highlights preliminary architecture concepts and key technologies that will be investigated.

  6. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis.

  7. Unraveling new genes associated with seed development and metabolism in Bixa orellana L. by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Virgínia L F; Rodrigues, Simone M; de Oliveira, Tahise M; de Queiroz, Talisson O; Lima, Lívia S; Hora-Júnior, Braz T; Gramacho, Karina P; Micheli, Fabienne; Cascardo, Júlio C M; Otoni, Wagner C; Gesteira, Abelmon S; Costa, Marcio G C

    2011-02-01

    The tropical tree Bixa orellana L. produces a range of secondary metabolites which biochemical and molecular biosynthesis basis are not well understood. In this work we have characterized a set of ESTs from a non-normalized cDNA library of B. orellana seeds to obtain information about the main developmental and metabolic processes taking place in developing seeds and their associated genes. After sequencing a set of randomly selected clones, most of the sequences were assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains. The most abundant transcripts encoded proteins associated with cell wall (prolyl 4-hydroxylase), fatty acid (acyl carrier protein), and hormone/flavonoid (2OG-Fe oxygenase) synthesis, germination (MADS FLC-like protein) and embryo development (AP2/ERF transcription factor) regulation, photosynthesis (chlorophyll a-b binding protein), cell elongation (MAP65-1a), and stress responses (metallothionein- and thaumatin-like proteins). Enzymes were assigned to 16 different metabolic pathways related to both primary and secondary metabolisms. Characterization of two candidate genes of the bixin biosynthetic pathway, BoCCD and BoOMT, showed that they belong, respectively, to the carotenoid-cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) families, and are up-regulated during seed development. It indicates their involvement in the synthesis of this commercially important carotenoid pigment in seeds of B. orellana. Most of the genes identified here are the first representatives of their gene families in B. orellana. PMID:20563648

  8. Simulation-based development and characterization of a CCD architecture for 1 million frames per second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggemann, Dirk; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Etoh, Takeharu G.; Theuwissen, Albert J. P.; Bosiers, Jan T.; Mutoh, Hideki; Kondo, Yasushi

    2003-05-01

    A new high-speed CCD-sensor, capable of capturing 103 consecutive images at a speed of 1 million frames per second, was developed by the authors. To reach this high frame-rate, 103 CCD-storage-cells are placed next to each image-pixel. Sensors utilizing this on-chip-memory-concept can be called In-situ Storage Image Sensor or ISIS. The ISIS is build in standard CCD-technology. To check if this technology could be used for an ISIS, a test sensor called ISIS V1 was designed first. The ISIS V1 is just a simple modification of an existing standard CCD-sensor and it is capable of taking 17 consecutive images. The new sensor called ISIS V2 is a dedicated design in the existing technology. It is equipped with storage CCD-cells that are also used in the standard CCD-sensor, large light-sensitive pixels, an overwriting mechanism to drain old image information and a CCD-switch to use a part of the storage cells also as vertical read-out registers. Nevertheless, the new parts in the architecture had to be simulated by a 3-D device simulator. Simulation results and characteristic parameters of the ISIS-CCD as well as applications of the camera are given.

  9. Development of a low-latency scalar communication routine on message-passing architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, R.

    1994-01-11

    One of the most significant advances in computer systems over the past decade is parallel processing. To be scalable to a large number of processing nodes and to be able to support multiple levels and forms of parallelism and its flexible use, new parallel machines have to be multicomputer architectures that have general networking support and extremely low internode communication latencies. The performance of a program when ported to a parallel machine is limited mainly by the internode communication latencies of the machine. Therefore, the best parallel applications are those that seldom require communications which must be routed through the nodes. Thus the ratio of computation time to that of communication time is what determines, to a large extent, the performance metrics of an algorithm. The cost of synchronization and load imbalance appear secondary to that of the time required for internode communication and I/O, for communication intensive applications. This thesis is organized in chapters. The first chapter deals with the communication strategies in various message-passing computers. A taxonomy of inter-node communication strategies is presented in the second chapter and a comparison of the strategies in some existing machines is done. The implementation of communication in nCUBE Vertex O.S is explained in the third chapter. The fourth chapter deals with the communication routines in the Vertex O.S, and the last chapter explains the development and implementation of the scalar communication call. Finally some conclusions are presented.

  10. Independent SCPS-TP development for fault-tolerant, end-to-end communication architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E.; Lamorie, J.; Younghusband, D.; Brunet, C.; Hartman, L.

    2002-07-01

    A fully networked architecture provides for the distribution of computing elements, of all mission components, through the spacecraft. Each node is individually addressable through the network, and behaves as an independent entity. This level of communication also supports individualized Command and Data Handling (C&DH), as well as one-to-one transactions between spacecraft nodes and individual ground segment users. To be effective, fault-tolerance must be applied at the network data transport level, as well as the supporting layers below it. If the network provides fail-safe characteristics independent of the mission applications being executed, then developers need not build in their own systems to ensure network reliability. The Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) were developed to provide robust communications in a space environment, while retaining compatibility with Internet data transport at the ground segment. Although SCPS is a standard of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), the adoption of SCPS was initially delayed by US export regulations that prevented the distribution of reference code. This paper describes the development and test of a fully independent implementation of the SCSP Transport Protocol, SCPS-TP, which has been derived directly from the CCSDS specification. The performance of the protocol is described for a set of geostationary satellite tests, and these results will be compared with those derived from network simulation and laboratory emulation. The work is placed in the context of a comprehensive, fault-tolerant network that potentially surpasses the failsafe performance of a traditional spacecraft control system under similar circumstances.

  11. Exploring Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathway in Developing Seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): A Transcriptomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rupwate, Sunny D.; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was “Metabolism” (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was ‘carbohydrate metabolism and transport’ (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by ‘secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism’ (5.34%) and ‘lipid metabolism’ (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome

  12. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: II. Seed imbibition.

    PubMed

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Oksel, A; Gursoy, M; Kocak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easily caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA) known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009) and (2009/2010) in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol) and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = 1/2 Tap Water + 1/2 Humic acid (HA), A3 = Full HA, as w/w) and seven yield components Plant Height (PH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP), First Pod Height (NFP), Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP), Seed Weight per Plant (SWP) and 100-Seed weight (HSW) were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system's development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions.

  13. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers' sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  14. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  15. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers’ sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  16. A probable crosstalk between Ca⁺², reactive oxygen species accumulation and scavenging mechanisms and modulation of protein kinase C activity during seed development in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2014-01-01

    Seed development in sunflower involves a gradual dehydration and accumulation of oil bodies in the cells of developing cotyledons during transition from 30 to 40 DAA stage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) content decreased with seed maturation. NO content and NO contributed by putative nitric oxide synthase, however, did not change markedly. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity exhibited a peak at 30 DAA stage, indicating its scavenging role at the mid-stage of seed development. H₂O₂ produced as a result of SOD action is subsequently scavenged primarily by elevation of GR activity. Significant temporal differences were evident in GR and POD activity during seed development. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity also showed modulation during early stages of embryo and seed development. Use of PKC-specific fluorescent probe, Fim-1, and PKC inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindoylmaleamide) provided evidence for increase in PKC activity at 40 DAA stage with an increase in protein concentration (50 to 200 µg). Endogenous calcium content also increased with seed maturation. Tissue homogenates from 40 DAA stage showed enhanced fluorescence due to Fim-1-PKC binding in presence of calcium ions and its lowering due to calcium chelating agent (BAPTA). Western blot analysis revealed an increase in the intensity of 2 bands representing PKC with the advancement of seed maturation and their further upregulation by calcium. Present findings, thus, provide new information on the biochemical regulation of seed development in sunflower, with evidence for a possible correlation between calcium, ROS, their scavenging enzymes and "conventional" PKC activity.

  17. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  18. Confocal analysis of nervous system architecture in direct-developing juveniles of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida, Nereididae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of Family Nereididae have complex neural morphology exemplary of errant polychaetes and are leading research models in the investigation of annelid nervous systems. However, few studies focus on the development of their nervous system morphology. Such data are particularly relevant today, as nereidids are the subjects of a growing body of "evo-devo" work concerning bilaterian nervous systems, and detailed knowledge of their developing neuroanatomy facilitates the interpretation of gene expression analyses. In addition, new data are needed to resolve discrepancies between classic studies of nereidid neuroanatomy. We present a neuroanatomical overview based on acetylated α-tubulin labeling and confocal microscopy for post-embryonic stages of Neanthes arenaceodentata, a direct-developing nereidid. Results At hatching (2-3 chaetigers), the nervous system has developed much of the complexity of the adult (large brain, circumesophageal connectives, nerve cords, segmental nerves), and the stomatogastric nervous system is partially formed. By the 5-chaetiger stage, the cephalic appendages and anal cirri are well innervated and have clear connections to the central nervous system. Within one week of hatching (9-chaetigers), cephalic sensory structures (e.g., nuchal organs, Langdon's organs) and brain substructures (e.g., corpora pedunculata, stomatogastric ganglia) are clearly differentiated. Additionally, the segmental-nerve architecture (including interconnections) matches descriptions of other, adult nereidids, and the pharynx has developed longitudinal nerves, nerve rings, and ganglia. All central roots of the stomatogastric nervous system are distinguishable in 12-chaetiger juveniles. Evidence was also found for two previously undescribed peripheral nerve interconnections and aspects of parapodial muscle innervation. Conclusions N. arenaceodentata has apparently lost all essential trochophore characteristics typical of nereidids. Relative to the

  19. Design and development of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seed separator machine.

    PubMed

    Math, R G; Ramesh, G; Nagender, A; Satyanarayana, A

    2016-01-01

    A small, continuous power operated machine with a capacity of 132 kg/h was designed, fabricated and evaluated its performance for separation of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seeds from freshly harvested pods. Physical and engineering parameters of annatto pods and seeds were evaluated to design a machine. The densities of pod, seed, and husk are 134.7 to 186.0 kg/m(3), 1206 to 1253.9 kg/m(3), 317 to 381.4 kg/m(3) respectively. The moisture content of seeds were in the range 18.83 - 20.1 % (db) and pod 8 to 10 % (db). Bixin content of seed was in the range 1.34 to 1.765 %. The friction angle for pod, seed, and husk lies between angle 30.15° to 35.76°. Breaking force was 98 N at a span of 14.5 mm. The machine consisted of concentric cylinders and beaters with different pitch of 40, 45 and 50 mm and a length of shaft is 800 mm. The actual machine output was observed to be 132.5 kg/h. Maximum bixin content was found to be retained at 300 rpm.

  20. Design and development of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seed separator machine.

    PubMed

    Math, R G; Ramesh, G; Nagender, A; Satyanarayana, A

    2016-01-01

    A small, continuous power operated machine with a capacity of 132 kg/h was designed, fabricated and evaluated its performance for separation of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seeds from freshly harvested pods. Physical and engineering parameters of annatto pods and seeds were evaluated to design a machine. The densities of pod, seed, and husk are 134.7 to 186.0 kg/m(3), 1206 to 1253.9 kg/m(3), 317 to 381.4 kg/m(3) respectively. The moisture content of seeds were in the range 18.83 - 20.1 % (db) and pod 8 to 10 % (db). Bixin content of seed was in the range 1.34 to 1.765 %. The friction angle for pod, seed, and husk lies between angle 30.15° to 35.76°. Breaking force was 98 N at a span of 14.5 mm. The machine consisted of concentric cylinders and beaters with different pitch of 40, 45 and 50 mm and a length of shaft is 800 mm. The actual machine output was observed to be 132.5 kg/h. Maximum bixin content was found to be retained at 300 rpm. PMID:26787990

  1. Development and Seed Number in Indeterminate Soybean as Affected by Timing and Duration of Exposure to Long Photoperiods after Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Kantolic, Adriana G.; Slafer, Gustavo A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Long photoperiods from flowering to maturity have been found to delay reproductive development in soybean (Glycine max) and to increase the number of seeds per unit land area. This study was aimed to evaluate whether sensitivity to photoperiod after flowering (a) is quantitatively related to the length of exposure to long days and (b) persists throughout the whole pod-setting period. It was also evaluated whether seed number was related to changes in the duration of post-flowering phenophases. Methods Two field experiments were conducted with an indeterminate cultivar of soybean of maturity group V. In expt 1, photoperiods 2 h longer than natural daylength were applied during different numbers of days from the beginning pod stage (R3) onwards, while in expt 2 these photoperiod extensions were imposed during 9 consecutive days starting at different times between R3 and R6 (full seed) stages. Key Results There was a quantitative response of development to the number of cycles with a long photoperiod. The exposure to long photoperiods from R3 to R5 (beginning of seed growth) increased the duration of R3–R6 regardless of the timing of exposure. The stages of development comprised in the R3–R6 phase were delayed by current as well as by previous exposure to long days. A positive relationship was found between seed number and the duration of R3–R6, irrespective of the timing and length of exposure to the long photoperiod. Conclusions Sensitivity to photoperiod remained high during the reproductive period and was highly and positively coupled with the processes of generation of yield. PMID:17452381

  2. Federal Data Repository Research: Recent Developments in Mercury Search System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    New data intensive project initiatives needs new generation data system architecture. This presentation will discuss the recent developments in Mercury System [1] including adoption, challenges, and future efforts to handle such data intensive projects. Mercury is a combination of three main tools (i) Data/Metadata registration Tool (Online Metadata Editor): The new Online Metadata Editor (OME) is a web-based tool to help document the scientific data in a well-structured, popular scientific metadata formats. (ii) Search and Visualization Tool: Provides a single portal to information contained in disparate data management systems. It facilitates distributed metadata management, data discovery, and various visuzalization capabilities. (iii) Data Citation Tool: In collaboration with Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS and DOE), established a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) service. Mercury is a open source system, developed and managed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is currently being funded by three federal agencies, including NASA, USGS and DOE. It provides access to millions of bio-geo-chemical and ecological data; 30,000 scientists use it each month. Some recent data intensive projects that are using Mercury tool: USGS Science Data Catalog (http://data.usgs.gov/), Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (http://ngee-arctic.ornl.gov/), Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/), Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Distributed Active Archive Center (http://daac.ornl.gov), SoilSCAPE (http://mercury.ornl.gov/soilscape). References: [1] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, et al. "Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery and access system." Earth Science Informatics 3.1-2 (2010): 87-94.

  3. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P < 0.01) although this preference appeared earlier in the trial for sheep than for cattle. For the sheep, mean daily intake of water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P < 0.05). Ingestion of water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials

  4. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  5. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. PMID:24832986

  6. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications.

  7. Blends of jackfruit seed starch-pectin in the development of mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-11-01

    In this work, calcium pectinate-jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seed starch (JFSS) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of pectin and JFSS amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 94.11 ± 3.92%, R10 h of 48.88 ± 2.02%, and mean diameter of 2.06 ± 0.20 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The pH of test mediums was found critical for swelling and mucoadhesion of these beads. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  8. Blends of jackfruit seed starch-pectin in the development of mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-11-01

    In this work, calcium pectinate-jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seed starch (JFSS) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of pectin and JFSS amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 94.11 ± 3.92%, R10 h of 48.88 ± 2.02%, and mean diameter of 2.06 ± 0.20 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The pH of test mediums was found critical for swelling and mucoadhesion of these beads. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:23994792

  9. Abnormal etioplast development in barley seedlings infected with BSMV by seed transmission.

    PubMed

    Harsányi, Anett; Böddi, Béla; Bóka, Károly; Almási, Asztéria; Gáborjányi, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus (BSMV) was studied on the ultrastructure of etioplasts, protochlorophyllide forms and the greening process of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Pannónia) plants infected by seed transmission. The leaves of 7- to 11-day-old etiolated seedlings were examined by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The etioplasts of infected seedlings contained smaller prolamellar bodies with less regular membrane structure, while prothylakoid content was higher than in the control. The protochlorophyllide content of virus-infected seedlings was reduced to 74% of the control. In the 77 K fluorescence spectra the relative amount of 655 nm emitting photoactive protochlorophyllide form decreased, and the amount of the 645 and 633 nm emitting forms increased in the infected leaves. A characteristic effect was observed in the process of the Shibata-shift: 40 min delay was observed in the infected leaves. The results of this work proved that BSMV infection delays or inhibits plastid development and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:11982946

  10. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:24299768

  11. Using an Architecture-Centric Model-Driven Approach for Developing Service-Oriented Solutions: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sanz, Marcos; Acuña, César J.; de Castro, Valeria; Marcos, Esperanza; Cuesta, Carlos E.

    As services continue achieving more importance in the development of software solutions for the Internet, software developers and researchers turn their attention to strategies based on the SOC (Service-Oriented Computing) paradigm. One of these development approaches is SOD-M specifically designed for building service-oriented solutions. In this article we present the results of redesigning a real-world Web-based Information System, called MEDiWIS, using SOD-M. The main goal of the redesigned MEDiWIS system is to support the storage and management of digital medical images and related information by presenting its functionalities as software services. We analyze in detail the main challenges we have found using an ACMDA (Architecture-Centric Model-Driven Architecture) approach to achieve this goal.

  12. Applied Nuclear Accountability Systems: A Case Study in the System Architecture and Development of NuMAC

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Andrea Beth

    2004-07-01

    This is a case study of the NuMAC nuclear accountability system developed at a private fuel fabrication facility. This paper investigates nuclear material accountability and safeguards by researching expert knowledge applied in the system design and development. Presented is a system developed to detect and deter the theft of weapons grade nuclear material. Examined is the system architecture that includes: issues for the design and development of the system; stakeholder issues; how the system was built and evolved; software design, database design, and development tool considerations; security and computing ethics. (author)

  13. Accumulation of long-lived mRNAs associated with germination in embryos during seed development of rice.

    PubMed

    Sano, Naoto; Ono, Hanako; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki

    2015-07-01

    Mature dry seeds contain translatable mRNAs called long-lived mRNAs. Early studies have shown that protein synthesis during the initial phase of seed germination occurs from long-lived mRNAs, without de novo transcription. However, the gene expression systems that generate long-lived mRNAs in seeds are not well understood. To examine the accumulation of long-lived mRNAs in developing rice embryos, germination tests using the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D) were performed with the Japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Although over 70% of embryos at 10 days after flowering (DAF) germinated in the absence of the inhibitor, germination was remarkably impaired in embryos treated with Act D. In contrast, more than 70% of embryos at 20, 25, 30 and 40 DAF germinated in the presence of Act D. The same results were obtained when another cultivar, Koshihikari, was used, indicating that the long-lived mRNAs required for germination predominantly accumulate in embryos between 10 and 20 DAF during seed development. RNA-Seq identified 529 long-lived mRNA candidates, encoding proteins such as ABA, calcium ion and phospholipid signalling-related proteins, and HSP DNA J, increased from 10 to 20 DAF and were highly abundant in 40 DAF embryos of Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We also revealed that these long-lived mRNA candidates are clearly up-regulated in 10 DAF germinating embryos after imbibition, suggesting that the accumulation of these mRNAs in embryos is indispensable for the induction of germination. The findings presented here may facilitate in overcoming irregular seed germination or producing more vigorous seedlings.

  14. Accumulation of long-lived mRNAs associated with germination in embryos during seed development of rice

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Naoto; Ono, Hanako; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Mature dry seeds contain translatable mRNAs called long-lived mRNAs. Early studies have shown that protein synthesis during the initial phase of seed germination occurs from long-lived mRNAs, without de novo transcription. However, the gene expression systems that generate long-lived mRNAs in seeds are not well understood. To examine the accumulation of long-lived mRNAs in developing rice embryos, germination tests using the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D) were performed with the Japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Although over 70% of embryos at 10 days after flowering (DAF) germinated in the absence of the inhibitor, germination was remarkably impaired in embryos treated with Act D. In contrast, more than 70% of embryos at 20, 25, 30 and 40 DAF germinated in the presence of Act D. The same results were obtained when another cultivar, Koshihikari, was used, indicating that the long-lived mRNAs required for germination predominantly accumulate in embryos between 10 and 20 DAF during seed development. RNA-Seq identified 529 long-lived mRNA candidates, encoding proteins such as ABA, calcium ion and phospholipid signalling-related proteins, and HSP DNA J, increased from 10 to 20 DAF and were highly abundant in 40 DAF embryos of Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We also revealed that these long-lived mRNA candidates are clearly up-regulated in 10 DAF germinating embryos after imbibition, suggesting that the accumulation of these mRNAs in embryos is indispensable for the induction of germination. The findings presented here may facilitate in overcoming irregular seed germination or producing more vigorous seedlings. PMID:25941326

  15. Stage-Specific Fatty Acid Fluxes Play a Regulatory Role in Glycerolipid Metabolism during Seed Development in Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, Bharatula Sri Krishna; Kumar, Sumit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Sastry, Pidaparty Seshadri; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2015-12-23

    The present study describes the changes in lipid profile as well as fatty acid fluxes during seed development in Jatropha curcas L. Endosperm from 34, 37, and 40 days after anthesis (DAA), incubated with [(14)C]acetate, showed significant synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) at seed maturation. The fatty acid methyl ester profile showed PC from 34 DAA was rich in palmitic acid (16:0), whereas PC from 37 and 40 DAA was rich in oleic acid (18:1n-9). Molecular species analysis of diacylglycerol (DAG) indicated DAG (16:0/18:2n-6) was in abundance at 34 DAA, whereas DAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6) was significantly high at 40 DAA. Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis revealed TAG (16:0/18:2n-6/16:0) was abundant at 34 DAA, whereas TAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6/18:1n-9) formed the majority at 40 DAA. Expression of two types of diacylglycerol acyltransferases varied with seed maturation. These data demonstrate stage-specific distinct pools of PC and DAG synthesis during storage TAG accumulation in Jatropha seed. PMID:26628196

  16. Cytology, RAPD, and seed colour of progeny plants from Brassica rapa-alboglabra aneuploids and development of monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Heneen, W K; Jørgensen, R B

    2001-12-01

    Progeny plants from Brassica rapa-alboglabra aneuploids were characterized genetically by scoring random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and seed colour and cytologically as to chromosome number and pairing. Sets of RAPD markers specific for each of the encountered eight alien Brassica alboglabra chromosomes were defined. The finding of subsets of markers associated with the presence or absence of alien chromosomes inferred the frequent occurrence of intergenomic genetic recombination and introgression. The chromosome numbers were in the range 2n = 20-28, with a maximum of seven alien B. alboglabra chromosomes and one trisomic B. rapa chromosome. Five types of monosomic addition lines were obtained, two of which have not been developed before. Differences in chromatin condensation patterns made it possible to differentiate between the B. rapa and B. alboglabra chromosomes at diakinesis, and to detect intergenomic homoeological pairing. In addition to the frequent formation of trivalents by homoeologous pairing of an alien B. alboglabra chromosome and a background B. rapa pair, occasional heteromorphic intergenomic bivalents and B. rapa univalents were encountered. Homoeological intergenomic pairing occurred between chromosomes with similar centromeric and karyotypic positions. Plants with structurally changed alien chromosomes were found. The RAPD and cytological data substantiated each other. Observations of the colour of sown and harvested seeds indicated that B. alboglabra chromosome 4 carries a gene for brown seed colour. It exerts its control embryonically, and thus it differs from chromosome 1 which controls seed colour maternally.

  17. Evaluating belinjau (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed flour quality as a base for development of novel food products and food formulations.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; binti Yahya, Nabilah

    2014-08-01

    Belinjau (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed flour was evaluated for nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and functional properties. Seed flour was found to be rich in protein (19.0g/100g), crude fibre (8.66g/100g), carbohydrates (64.1%), total dietary fibre (14.5%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. Antioxidant compounds such as total phenols (15.1 and 12.6mgGAE/100g), tannins (35.6 and 16.1mgCE/100g) and flavonoids (709 and 81.6mgCEQ/100g) were higher in ethanolic extracts over aqueous extracts, respectively. Inhibition of DPPH was high in ethanol extracts (48.9%) compared to aqueous extracts (19.7%), whereas aqueous extracts showed a higher FRAP value compared to ethanol extracts (0.98 and 0.61mmolFe(II)/100g, respectively). Results on functional properties revealed acceptable water and oil absorption capacities (5.51 and 1.98g/g, respectively), emulsion capacity and stability (15.3% and 6.90%, respectively), and foaming capacity (5.78%). FTIR spectral analysis showed seed flour to encompass major functional groups such as: amines, amides, amino acids, polysaccharides, carboxylic acids, esters and lipids. As belinjau seed flour possesses a rich nutraceutical value, it has high potential to be used as a basic raw material to develop new low cost nutritious functional foods.

  18. Neighborhoods have little effect on fungal attack or insect predation of developing seeds in a grassland biodiversity experiment.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Noelle G; Dybzinski, Ray; Tilman, G David

    2014-02-01

    Numerous observational studies have documented conspecific negative density-dependence that is consistent with the Janzen-Connell Hypothesis (JCH) of diversity maintenance. However, there have been few experimental tests of a central prediction of the JCH: that removing host-specific enemies should lead to greater increases in per capita recruitment in areas of higher host density or lower relative phylogenetic diversity. Using spatially randomized plots of high and low host biomass in a temperate grassland biodiversity experiment, we treated developing seedheads of six prairie perennials to factorial applications of fungicide and insecticide. We measured predispersal seed production, seed viability, and seedling biomass. Results were highly species-specific and idiosyncratic. Effects of insect seed predators and fungal pathogens on predispersal responses varied with neither conspecific biomass nor phylogenetic diversity, suggesting that-at least at the predispersal stage and for the insect and fungal seed predators we were able to exclude-the JCH is not sufficient to contribute to negative conspecific density-dependence for these dominant prairie species.

  19. Stage-Specific Fatty Acid Fluxes Play a Regulatory Role in Glycerolipid Metabolism during Seed Development in Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, Bharatula Sri Krishna; Kumar, Sumit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Sastry, Pidaparty Seshadri; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2015-12-23

    The present study describes the changes in lipid profile as well as fatty acid fluxes during seed development in Jatropha curcas L. Endosperm from 34, 37, and 40 days after anthesis (DAA), incubated with [(14)C]acetate, showed significant synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) at seed maturation. The fatty acid methyl ester profile showed PC from 34 DAA was rich in palmitic acid (16:0), whereas PC from 37 and 40 DAA was rich in oleic acid (18:1n-9). Molecular species analysis of diacylglycerol (DAG) indicated DAG (16:0/18:2n-6) was in abundance at 34 DAA, whereas DAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6) was significantly high at 40 DAA. Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis revealed TAG (16:0/18:2n-6/16:0) was abundant at 34 DAA, whereas TAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6/18:1n-9) formed the majority at 40 DAA. Expression of two types of diacylglycerol acyltransferases varied with seed maturation. These data demonstrate stage-specific distinct pools of PC and DAG synthesis during storage TAG accumulation in Jatropha seed.

  20. The Swedish strategy and method for development of a national healthcare information architecture.

    PubMed

    Rosenälv, Jessica; Lundell, Karl-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    "We need a precise framework of regulations in order to maintain appropriate and structured health care documentation that ensures that the information maintains a sufficient level of quality to be used in treatment, in research and by the actual patient. The users shall be aided by clearly and uniformly defined terms and concepts, and there should be an information structure that clarifies what to document and how to make the information more useful. Most of all, we need to standardize the information, not just the technical systems." (eHälsa - nytta och näring, Riksdag report 2011/12:RFR5, p. 37). In 2010, the Swedish Government adopted the National e-Health - the national strategy for accessible and secure information in healthcare. The strategy is a revision and extension of the previous strategy from 2006, which was used as input for the most recent efforts to develop a national information structure utilizing business-oriented generic models. A national decision on healthcare informatics standards was made by the Swedish County Councils, which decided to follow and use EN/ISO 13606 as a standard for the development of a universally applicable information structure, including archetypes and templates. The overall aim of the Swedish strategy for development of National Healthcare Information Architecture is to achieve high level semantic interoperability for clinical content and clinical contexts. High level semantic interoperability requires consistently structured clinical data and other types of data with coherent traceability to be mapped to reference clinical models. Archetypes that are formal definitions of the clinical and demographic concepts and some administrative data were developed. Each archetype describes the information structure and content of overarching core clinical concepts. Information that is defined in archetypes should be used for different purposes. Generic clinical process model was made concrete and analyzed. For each decision

  1. Hybrid optical TDM/WDM network technology and architecture: Component and subsystem development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deyu

    The ever-growing Internet has driven high demands on bandwidth. The supply of the transmission and networking bandwidth is not catching up with the insatiable demands on capacity at a satisfactory level quality of service with an affordable price. In the past ten to fifteen years, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) has revolutionized communications research and development. WDM technologies relieve the much-needed bandwidth at its fastest pace and at an affordable price. However wavelengths themselves are scare resource due to the limited bandwidth of optical amplifiers. With fixed wavelength spacing between adjacent optical signal channels, there is a limited number of channels available for WDM networks with moderately high bit rate at which the electronics multiplexing/demultiplexing are possible. As the industry tries to continually push narrow the channel spacing, they meet ever increasing challenges due to linear and nonlinear interactions within each individual signal channel and among different signal channels. There is a limit in how small the inter-channel spacing can be. Without increasing the bit rate of each individual channel, eventually, the bandwidth will reach its limits. Researchers throughout the world are now actively looking an alternative: combination of aggregating WDM channels and increasing the bit rate of each channel by optical time division multiplexing (OTDM), that is, seeking hybrid OTDM/WDM networks and architectures to increase the supply of bandwidth. With the development of an all optical switch: terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) at Princeton and its variations in different configurations, it is now possible to extract a single bit from a single wavelength data stream at bit rate as high as 750Gbps with a 1.3ps switching window. Therefore, it is possible to bit interleave many smaller users into a single wavelength in OTDM. With hybrid OTDM/WDM networks becoming more desirable and more practical for supplying

  2. The Swedish strategy and method for development of a national healthcare information architecture.

    PubMed

    Rosenälv, Jessica; Lundell, Karl-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    "We need a precise framework of regulations in order to maintain appropriate and structured health care documentation that ensures that the information maintains a sufficient level of quality to be used in treatment, in research and by the actual patient. The users shall be aided by clearly and uniformly defined terms and concepts, and there should be an information structure that clarifies what to document and how to make the information more useful. Most of all, we need to standardize the information, not just the technical systems." (eHälsa - nytta och näring, Riksdag report 2011/12:RFR5, p. 37). In 2010, the Swedish Government adopted the National e-Health - the national strategy for accessible and secure information in healthcare. The strategy is a revision and extension of the previous strategy from 2006, which was used as input for the most recent efforts to develop a national information structure utilizing business-oriented generic models. A national decision on healthcare informatics standards was made by the Swedish County Councils, which decided to follow and use EN/ISO 13606 as a standard for the development of a universally applicable information structure, including archetypes and templates. The overall aim of the Swedish strategy for development of National Healthcare Information Architecture is to achieve high level semantic interoperability for clinical content and clinical contexts. High level semantic interoperability requires consistently structured clinical data and other types of data with coherent traceability to be mapped to reference clinical models. Archetypes that are formal definitions of the clinical and demographic concepts and some administrative data were developed. Each archetype describes the information structure and content of overarching core clinical concepts. Information that is defined in archetypes should be used for different purposes. Generic clinical process model was made concrete and analyzed. For each decision

  3. Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

  4. Evaluation of Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading: Effective Tools for Developing Literacy through Science in the Early Grades-Light Energy Unit. CRESST Report 781

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Pete; Jung, Hyekyung

    2011-01-01

    This evaluation focuses on the Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading: Effective Tools for Developing Literacy through Science in the Early Grades ("Seeds/Roots") model of science-literacy integration. The evaluation is based on a cluster randomized design of 100 teachers, half of which were in the treatment group. Multi-level models are employed to…

  5. Development of Single-Seed Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Predictions of Corn and Soybeans Constituents Using Bulk Teference Values and Mean Spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-Infrared reflectance spectroscopic prediction models were developed for common constituents of corn and soybeans using bulk reference values and mean spectra from single-seeds. The bulk reference model and a true single-seed model for soybean protein were compared to determine how well the bul...

  6. Development of a Thermal Control Architecture for the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Keith S.; Phillips, Charles J.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Sunada, Eric T.; Pauken, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    In May and June of 2003, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch two roving science vehicles on their way to Mars. They will land on Mars in January and February of 2004 and carry out 90-Sol missions. This paper addresses the thermal design architecture of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) developed for Mars surface operations. The surface atmosphere temperature on Mars can vary from 0°C in the heat of the day to -100°C in the early morning, prior to sunrise. Heater usage at night must be minimized in order to conserve battery energy. The desire to minimize nighttime heater energy led to a design in which all temperature sensitive electronics and the battery were placed inside a well-insulated (carbon-opacified aerogel lined) Warm Electronics Box (WEB). In addition, radioisotope heater units (RHU's, non-electric heat sources) were mounted on the battery and electronics inside the WEB. During the Martian day, the electronics inside the WEB dissipate a large amount of energy (over 710 W*hrs). This heat energy raises the internal temperatures inside the WEB. Hardware items that have similar temperature limits were conductively coupled together to share heat and concentrate thermal mass. Thermal mass helped to minimize temperature increases in the hot case (with maximum internal dissipation) and minimize temperature decreases in the cold case (with minimum internal dissipation). In order to prevent the battery from exceeding its maximum allowable flight temperature, wax-actuated passive thermal switches were placed between the battery and an external radiator. This paper discusses the design philosophies and system requirements that resulted in a successful Mars rover thermal design.

  7. "Development of an interactive crop growth web service architecture to review and forecast agricultural sustainability"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Walden, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    As climate change and weather variability raise issues regarding agricultural production, agricultural sustainability has become an increasingly important component for farmland management (Fisher, 2005, Akinci, 2013). Yet with changes in soil quality, agricultural practices, weather, topography, land use, and hydrology - accurately modeling such agricultural outcomes has proven difficult (Gassman et al, 2007, Williams et al, 1995). This study examined agricultural sustainability and soil health over a heterogeneous multi-watershed area within the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States (IPNW) - as part of a five year, USDA funded effort to explore the sustainability of cereal production systems (Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture - award #2011-68002-30191). In particular, crop growth and soil erosion were simulated across a spectrum of variables and time periods - using the CropSyst crop growth model (Stockle et al, 2002) and the Water Erosion Protection Project Model (WEPP - Flanagan and Livingston, 1995), respectively. A preliminary range of historical scenarios were run, using a high-resolution, 4km gridded dataset of surface meteorological variables from 1979-2010 (Abatzoglou, 2012). In addition, Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) global climate model (GCM) outputs were used as input to run crop growth model and erosion future scenarios (Abatzoglou and Brown, 2011). To facilitate our integrated data analysis efforts, an agricultural sustainability web service architecture (THREDDS/Java/Python based) is under development, to allow for the programmatic uploading, sharing and processing of variable input data, running model simulations, as well as downloading and visualizing output results. The results of this study will assist in better understanding agricultural sustainability and erosion relationships in the IPNW, as well as provide a tangible server-based tool for use by researchers and farmers - for both

  8. Effect of cultural conditions on the seed-to-seed growth of Arabidopsis and Cardamine - A study of growth rates and reproductive development as affected by test tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of test tube seals on the growth, flowering, and seed pod formation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., mouse ear cress, and Cardamine oligosperma Nutt, bitter cress, are studied in order to assess the conditions used in weightlessness experiments. Among other results, it is found that the growth (height) and flowering (date of bud appearance) were suppressed in mouse ear cress in tubes sealed with Saran. Seed pod formation which occurred by day 45 in open-to-air controls, was still lacking in the sealed plants even up to day 124. The growth and flowering of bitter cress were also suppressed by the Saran seal, although up to day 55 the Saran-sealed plants were taller. It is suggested that atmospheric composition was the cause of the suppression of growth, flowering, and seed pod development in these plants, since the mouse ear cress renewed their growth and then set seed pods after the Saran seal was ruptured.

  9. Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

    2011-01-01

    The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

  10. Proteomic analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum from developing and germinating seed of castor (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Maltman, Daniel J; Simon, William J; Wheeler, Colin H; Dunn, Michael J; Wait, Robin; Slabas, Antoni R

    2002-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been prepared and analysed from germinating and developing castor bean endosperm. A combination of one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) gel electrophoresis was used to study the complexity of sample and protein differences between the two stages. The ER of the developing oilseed is central to the synthesis, sorting and storage of protein and lipid reserves while the germinating seed is concerned with their degradation. Sample complexity has been reduced by separation of ER proteins into lumenal, peripheral membrane and integral membrane subfractions. Membrane proteins pose specific problems in aggregation and binding to passive surfaces. We have overcome this by collection of membranes at density gradient interfaces and by silanization of plastic ware. Several major components have been identified from 1-D gels by N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) peptide mass fingerprints. These include protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), calreticulin and developing-ER-specific oleate-12-hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid. In excess of 300 spots are detectable in each developmental fraction by high sensitivity 2-D gels. This is the first 2-D electrophoretic analysis of plant ER. These gels reveal significant differences between germinating and developing ER. Preparative loading 2-D gels of germinating ER have been run and 14 selected spots characterized by quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). Ten of these proteins were assigned function on the basis of identity with existing castor database entries, or by homology with other species. Two proteins, aspartate proteinase precursor and N-carbamyl-L-aminohydrolase-like protein, appear to be absent from developing profiles. Most of the proteins identified are concerned with roles in protein processing and storage, and lipid metabolism which occur in the ER. Data from three of the assigned spots included

  11. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Flemish, Joseph; Soer, Wouter

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed for highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.

  12. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20-30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20-30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development.

  13. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20-30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20-30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  14. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20–30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20–30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  15. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development, DR-5. Volume 3: Programmatic options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Task 2 in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make design/programmatic decisions. This volume identifies the preferred options in the programmatic category and characterizes these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, costs, and risks. The programmatic category includes methods used to administrate/manage the development, operation and maintenance of the SSDS. The specific areas discussed include standardization/commonality; systems management; and systems development, including hardware procurement, software development and system integration, test and verification.

  16. Dosimetric and thermal properties of a newly developed thermobrachytherapy seed with ferromagnetic core for treatment of solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, Bhoj; Parsai, E. Ishmael; Shvydka, Diana; Feldmeier, John; Subramanian, Manny

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Studies of the curative effects of hyperthermia and radiation therapy on treatment of cancer show a strong evidence of a synergistic enhancement when both radiation and hyperthermia modalities are applied simultaneously. Varieties of tissue heating approaches developed up to date still fail to overcome such essential limitations as an inadequate temperature control, temperature nonuniformity, and prolonged time delay between hyperthermia and radiation treatments. The authors propose a new self-regulating thermobrachytherapy seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent administration of brachytherapy and hyperthermia. Methods: The proposed seed is based on the BEST Medical, Inc., Seed Model 2301-I{sup 125}, where tungsten marker core and the air gap are replaced with a ferromagnetic material. The ferromagnetic core produces heat when subjected to alternating electromagnetic (EM) field and effectively shuts off after reaching the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of the ferromagnetic material thus realizing the temperature self-regulation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study of the dose rate constant and other TG-43 factors for the proposed seed. For the thermal characteristics, the authors studied a model consisting of 16 seeds placed in the central region of a cylindrical water phantom using a finite-element partial differential equation solver package ''COMSOL Multiphysics.''Results: The modification of the internal structure of the seed slightly changes dose rate and other TG-43 factors characterizing radiation distribution. The thermal modeling results show that the temperature of the thermoseed surface rises rapidly and stays constant around T{sub C} of the ferromagnetic material. The amount of heat produced by the ferromagnetic core is sufficient to raise the temperature of the surrounding phantom to the therapeutic range. The phantom volume reaching the therapeutic temperature range increases with increase in frequency or

  17. Transcriptome profiling identifies ABA mediated regulatory changes towards storage filling in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biodiesel plant castor bean (Ricinus communis) has been in the limelight for bioenergy research due to the availability of its genome which raises the bar for genome-wide studies claiming advances that impact the “genome-phenome challenge”. Here we report the application of phytohormone ABA as an exogenous factor for the improvement of storage reserve accumulation with a focus on the complex interaction of pathways associated with seed filling. Results After the application of exogenous ABA treatments, we measured an increased ABA levels in the developing seeds cultured in vitro using the ELISA technique and quantified the content of major biomolecules (including total lipids, sugars and protein) in treated seeds. Exogenous ABA (10 μM) enhanced the accumulation of soluble sugar content (6.3%) followed by deposition of total lipid content (4.9 %). To elucidate the possible ABA signal transduction pathways towards overall seed filling, we studied the differential gene expression analysis using Illumina RNA-Sequencing technology, resulting in 2568 (1507-up/1061-down regulated) differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were involved in sugar metabolism (such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose 1,6 bis-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, pyruvate kinase), lipid biosynthesis (such as ACS, ACBP, GPAT2, GPAT3, FAD2, FAD3, SAD1 and DGAT1), storage proteins synthesis (such as SGP1, zinc finger protein, RING H2 protein, nodulin 55 and cytochrome P450), and ABA biosynthesis (such as NCED1, NCED3 and beta carotene). Further, we confirmed the validation of RNA-Sequencing data by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Taken together, metabolite measurements supported by genes and pathway expression results indicated in this study provide new insights to understand the ABA signaling mechanism towards seed storage filling and also contribute useful information for facilitating oilseed crop functional genomics on an aim for utilizing

  18. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  19. Water Relations of Seed Development and Germination in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Welbaum, Gregory E.; Bradford, Kent J.

    1990-01-01

    The initiation of radicle growth during seed germination may be driven by solute accumulation and increased turgor pressure, by cell wall relaxation, or by weakening of tissues surrounding the embryo. To investigate these possibilities, imbibition kinetics, water contents, and water (Ψ) and solute (ψs) potentials of intact muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds, decoated seeds (testa removed, but a thin perisperm/endosperm envelope remains around the embryo), and isolated cotyledons and embryonic axes were measured. Cotyledons and embryonic axes excised and imbibed as isolated tissues attained water contents 25 and 50% greater, respectively, than the same tissues hydrated within intact seeds. The effect of the testa and perisperm on embryo water content was due to mechanical restriction of embryo swelling and not to impermeability to water. The Ψ and ψs of embryo tissues were measured by psychrometry after excision from imbibed intact seeds. For intact or decoated seeds and excised cotyledons, Ψ values were >−0.2 MPa just prior to radicle emergence. The Ψ of excised embryonic axes, however, averaged only −0.6 MPa over the same period. The embryonic axis apparently is mechanically constrained within the testa/perisperm, increasing its total pressure potential until axis Ψ is in equilibrium with cotyledon Ψ, but reducing its water content and resulting in a low Ψ when the constraint is removed. There was no evidence of decreasing ψs or increasing turgor pressure (Ψ-ψs) prior to radicle growth for either intact seeds or excised tissues. Given the low relative water content of the axes within intact seeds, cell wall relaxation would be ineffective in creating a Ψ gradient for water uptake. Rather, axis growth may be initiated by weakening of the perisperm, thus releasing the external pressure and creating a Ψ gradient for water uptake into the axis. The perisperm envelope contains a cap of small, thin-walled endosperm cells adjacent to the radicle tip. We

  20. Nucleoporin MOS7/Nup88 is required for mitosis in gametogenesis and seed development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Park, Guen Tae; Frost, Jennifer M; Park, Jin-Sup; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Jong Seob; Oh, Sung Aeong; Twell, David; Brooks, Janie Sue; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee

    2014-12-23

    Angiosperm reproduction is characterized by alternate diploid sporophytic and haploid gametophytic generations. Gametogenesis shares similarities with that of animals except for the formation of the gametophyte, whereby haploid cells undergo several rounds of postmeiotic mitosis to form gametes and the accessory cells required for successful reproduction. The mechanisms regulating gametophyte development in angiosperms are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the nucleoporin Nup88-homolog MOS7 (Modifier of Snc1,7) plays a crucial role in mitosis during both male and female gametophyte formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using a mutagenesis screen, we identify the mos7-5 mutant allele, which causes ovule and pollen abortion in MOS7/mos7-5 heterozygous plants, and preglobular stage embryonic lethality in homozygous mos7-5 seeds. During interphase, we show that MOS7 is localized to the nuclear membrane but, like many nucleoporins, is associated with the spindle apparatus during mitosis. We detect interactions between MOS7 and several nucleoporins known to control spindle dynamics, and find that in pollen from MOS7/mos7-5 heterozygotes, abortion is accompanied by a failure of spindle formation, cell fate specification, and phragmoplast activity. Most intriguingly, we show that following gamete formation by MOS7/mos7-5 heterozygous spores, inheritance of either the MOS7 or the mos7-5 allele by a given gamete does not correlate with its respective survival or abortion. Instead, we suggest a model whereby MOS7, which is highly expressed in the Pollen- and Megaspore Mother Cells, enacts a dosage-limiting effect on the gametes to enable their progression through subsequent mitoses.

  1. Temporal and spatial expression pattern of the OSVP1 and OSEM genes during seed development in rice.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Kazumaru; Kagaya, Yasuaki; Ogawa, Yuichirou; Nagato, Yasuo; Hattori, Tsukaho

    2002-03-01

    The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the rice VP1 (OSVP1) gene, as well as the OSEM gene which it controls, were studied during seed development by in situ hybridization and immuno-localization techniques. The expression of OSVP1 could be detected in embryos as early as 2-3 d after pollination (DAP) and thereafter became preferentially localized to shoot, radicle and vascular tissues during the embryo development at both the mRNA and protein levels. In the aleurone layers, OSVP1 mRNA and protein were detected after 6 DAP. OSEM mRNA was detectable after 6 DAP in the embryo and aleurone tissue. The spatial distribution within the embryo of OSEM mRNA and OSVP1 mRNA/protein was very similar after 6 DAP. Transgenic rice carrying a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene transcribed from a chimeric promoter consisting of the CaMV 35S minimal promoter (-46) and the 55-bp promoter fragment of OSEM, minimally required for ABA and VP1 regulation, also exhibited a spatial pattern of GUS expression similar to that of OSEM and OSVP1. These results suggest that (OS)VP1 is a major determinant not only of the seed specificity but also of the spatial pattern of OSEM expression in the developing seed.

  2. Study of Dosimetric and Thermal Properties of a Newly Developed Thermo-brachytherapy Seed for Treatment of Solid Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Bhoj R.

    Studies on the curative effects of hyperthermia and radiation therapy on treatment of cancer show strong evidence of synergistic enhancement when both radiation and hyperthermia treatment modalities are applied simultaneously. A variety of tissue heating approaches developed to date still fail to overcome essential limitations such as inadequate temperature control, temperature non-uniformity, and prolonged time delay between hyperthermia and radiation treatments. We propose a new self-regulating Thermo-brachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent administration of brachytherapy and hyperthermia. The proposed seed is based on the BestRTM Iodine-125 seed model 2301, where the tungsten marker core and the air gap are replaced with ferromagnetic material. The ferromagnetic core produces heat when subjected to an alternating electromagnetic (EM) field and effectively shuts off after reaching the Curie temperature (TC) of the ferromagnetic material, thus establishing temperature self-regulation. The seed has a ferromagnetic Ni-Cu alloy core having a Curie transition at a temperature of 52 °C. This study summarizes the design and development of the self regulating ferromagnetic core TB seed for the concurrent hyperthermia and brachytherapy treatments. An experimental study of the magnetic properties of the Ni1-xCu x (0.28≤ x ≤0.3) alloys, and the simulation studies of radiation and thermal distribution properties of the seed have been performed. A preliminary experiment for the ferromagnetic induction heating of Ni-Cu needles has been carried out to ensure the practical feasibility of the induction heating. Radiation dose characterizing parameters (dose rate constant and other TG-43 factors) were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. For the thermal characteristics, we studied a model consisting of single or multiple seeds placed in the central region of a cylindrical phantom using a finite-element analysis method

  3. Perturbing the metabolic dynamics of myo-inositol in developing Brassica napus seeds through in vivo methylation impacts its utilization as phytate precursor and affects downstream metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background myo-Inositol (Ins) metabolism during early stages of seed development plays an important role in determining the distributional relationships of some seed storage components such as the antinutritional factors, sucrose galactosides (also known as raffinose oligosaccharides) and phytic acid (PhA) (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate). The former is a group of oligosaccharides, which plays a role in desiccation at seed maturation. They are not easily digested by monogastric animals, hence their flatulence-causing properties. Phytic acid is highly negatively charged, which chelates positive ions of essential minerals and decreases their bioavailability. It is also a major cause of phosphate-related water pollution. Our aim was to investigate the influence of competitive diversion of Ins as common substrate on the biosynthesis of phytate and sucrose galactosides. Results We have studied the initial metabolic patterns of Ins in developing seeds of Brassica napus and determined that early stages of seed development are marked by rapid deployment of Ins into a variety of pathways, dominated by interconversion of polar (Ins phosphates) and non-polar (phospholipids) species. In a time course experiment at early stages of seed development, we show Ins to be a highly significant constituent of the endosperm and seed coat, but with no phytate biosynthesis occurring in either tissue. Phytate accumulation appears to be confined mainly within the embryo throughout seed development and maturation. In our approach, the gene for myo-inositol methyltransferase (IMT), isolated from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant), was transferred to B. napus under the control of the seed-specific promoters, napin and phaseolin. Introduction of this new metabolic step during seed development prompted Ins conversion to the corresponding monomethyl ether, ononitol, and affected phytate accumulation. We were able to produce homozygous transgenic lines with 19% - 35% average

  4. Glycolytic enzymatic activities in developing seeds involved in the differences between standard and low oil content sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Ponce, M Adrián; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    As opposed to other oilseeds, developing sunflower seeds do not accumulate starch initially. They rely on the sucrose that comes from the mother plant to synthesise lipid precursors. Glycolysis is the principal source of carbon skeletons and reducing power for lipid biosynthesis. In this work, glycolytic initial metabolites and enzyme activities from developing seed of two different sunflower lines, of high and low oil content, were compared during storage lipid synthesis. These two lines showed different kinetic lipid accumulation in the developing embryos. Fatty acids levels during the initial and final stage of lipid synthesis were higher in CAS-6 than in ZEN-8. The analysis of the photosynthate and sugars content suggests that, although the hexoses levels were quite similar in both lines, the amount of sucrose produced by the mother plant and available for lipid synthesis was higher in CAS-6. Although, a smaller amount of sucrose is available in the ZEN-8 line, its seeds maintain the levels of intermediate sugars in the initial steps of glycolysis due to an increase in the levels of the invertase, hexokinase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities in ZEN-8, with respect to CAS-6. Also, a readjustment in the final part of this metabolic route took place, with the activities of phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase in CAS-6 being higher, allowing increased synthesis of phosphoenolpiruvate, the intermediate carbon donor for fatty acid synthesis. In addition, recently, it has been shown that Arabidopsis mutants with a lower fat content in their seeds have a higher amount of sucrose. These data together point to these last two enzymatic activities, phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase, as being responsible for the lower fat content in the ZEN-8 line.

  5. Development of sunflower oil and composition with respect to seed moisture and physiological maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. The current recommendation is to apply a desiccant (e.g., glyphosate and paraquat) at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Desiccating as early as possible without sacrificing yield may be a des...

  6. Development of an air knife to remove seed coat fragments during lint cleaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An air knife is a tool commonly used to blow off debris in a manufacturing line. The knife may also be used to break the attachment force between a lint cleaner saw and a seed coat fragment (SCF) with attached fiber, and remove them. Work continued on evaluating an auxiliary air knife mounted on t...

  7. Characterization of glycolytic pathway genes using RNA-Seq in developing seeds of Eucommia ulmoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver, the only member of the Eucommiaceae family, is a rare and valuable tree used to produce a highly valued traditional Chinese medicine and contains a-linolenic acid up to 60% of the total fatty acids in the seeds. Glycolysis provides both cellular energy and the intermediate...

  8. Chemical characterization of chars developed from thermochemical treatment of Kentucky bluegrass seed screenings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Char produced from the gasification of post-seed harvest Kentucky bluegrass residues could be recycled to a cropping system as a soil amendment if chemical characterization determined that the gasification process had not produced or concentrated deleterious chemical or physical factors that might h...

  9. Arabidopsis SAG protein containing the MDN1 domain participates in seed germination and seedling development by negatively regulating ABI3 and ABI5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changtian; Wu, Changai; Miao, Jiaming; Lei, Yunxue; Zhao, Dongxiao; Sun, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2014-01-01

    Three proteins containing a midasin homologue 1 (MDN1) domain from the yeast Solanum chacoense and Arabidopsis thaliana have important functions in yeast survival, seed development, and female gametogenesis. In this study, a novel protein containing the MDN1 domain from Arabidopsis negatively regulated abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during seed germination. Seeds of a T-DNA insertion line of this gene exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling development (named sag). By contrast, seeds with overexpressed AtSAG (OX2) were less sensitive to ABA. The seeds of the sag mutant showed similar sensitivity to high concentrations of mannitol and NaCl during these stages. AtSAG was also highly expressed in germinating seeds. However, ABA-induced AtSAG expression remained almost unchanged. ABA-responsive marker genes, including ABI3, ABI5, Em1, Em6, RD29A, and RAB18, were upregulated in sag mutants but were downregulated in OX2. Genetic analyses indicated that the function of AtSAG in ABA signalling depended on ABI3 and ABI5. The expression of some target genes of ABI3 and ABI5, such as seed storage protein and oleosin genes, was induced higher by ABA in sag mutants than in wild-type germinated seeds, even higher than in abi5 mutants. This finding indicated that other regulators similar to ABI3 or ABI5 played a role during these stages. Taken together, these results indicate that AtSAG is an important negative regulator of ABA signalling during seed germination and seedling development.

  10. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development DR-5. Volume 1: Technology options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The second task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This volume identifies the preferred options in the technology category and characterizes these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost, and risk. The technology category includes advanced materials, processes, and techniques that can be used to enhance the implementation of SSDS design structures. The specific areas discussed are mass storage, including space and round on-line storage and off-line storage; man/machine interface; data processing hardware, including flight computers and advanced/fault tolerant computer architectures; and software, including data compression algorithms, on-board high level languages, and software tools. Also discussed are artificial intelligence applications and hard-wire communications.

  11. Three-Dimensional Imaging of the Developing Vasculature within Stem Cell-Seeded Scaffolds Cultured in ovo

    PubMed Central

    Woloszyk, Anna; Liccardo, Davide; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2016-01-01

    Successful tissue engineering requires functional vascularization of the three-dimensional constructs with the aim to serve as implants for tissue replacement and regeneration. The survival of the implant is only possible if the supply of oxygen and nutrients by developing capillaries from the host is established. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is a valuable tool to study the ingrowth and distribution of vessels into scaffolds composed by appropriate biomaterials and stem cell populations that are used in cell-based regenerative approaches. The developing vasculature of chicken embryos within cell-seeded scaffolds can be visualized with microcomputed tomography after intravenous injection of MicroFil®, which is a radiopaque contrast agent. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for the seeding of stem cells into silk fibroin scaffolds, the CAM culture conditions, the procedure of MicroFil® perfusion, and finally the microcomputed tomography scanning. Three-dimensional imaging of the vascularized tissue engineered constructs provides an important analytical tool for studying the potential of cell seeded scaffolds to attract vessels and form vascular networks, as well as for analyzing the number, density, length, branching, and diameter of vessels. This in ovo method can greatly help to screen implants that will be used for tissue regeneration purposes before their in vivo testing, thereby reducing the amount of animals needed for pre-clinical studies. PMID:27148081

  12. Review of architecture and interior designs in Italian kindergartens and their relationship with motor development.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Silvia; Clavica, Fulgenzio; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The construction of a school is the first pedagogical act. Its form, the relationship with nature, light, materials and colours provides important educational inputs for children. Different social, philosophical, pedagogical and architectural theories on the spaces built for and around the child have led to the construction of different kindergartens based on fantasy, over-design, sobriety, philosophical theories, and so on. Kindergartens with a surplus of architecture and furniture may reduce the child's imagination, because they are perceived as a too elaborate toy that gets boring. Furniture should provide children with metamorphic forms which adapt to their needs and preferences. The planning and design of buildings and spaces dedicated to children should consider the child at the center of the space built. The aim that architects should have in planning a kindergarten is the well being of the child, because his/her childhood will be the basis of the maturity as adult of tomorrow. PMID:21923290

  13. Review of architecture and interior designs in Italian kindergartens and their relationship with motor development.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Silvia; Clavica, Fulgenzio; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The construction of a school is the first pedagogical act. Its form, the relationship with nature, light, materials and colours provides important educational inputs for children. Different social, philosophical, pedagogical and architectural theories on the spaces built for and around the child have led to the construction of different kindergartens based on fantasy, over-design, sobriety, philosophical theories, and so on. Kindergartens with a surplus of architecture and furniture may reduce the child's imagination, because they are perceived as a too elaborate toy that gets boring. Furniture should provide children with metamorphic forms which adapt to their needs and preferences. The planning and design of buildings and spaces dedicated to children should consider the child at the center of the space built. The aim that architects should have in planning a kindergarten is the well being of the child, because his/her childhood will be the basis of the maturity as adult of tomorrow.

  14. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Hay, Jordan O.; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-12-19

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) modelmore » and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). In conclusion, using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch

  15. Development of controlled release formulations of thiram employing amphiphilic polymers and their bioefficacy evaluation in seed quality enhancement studies.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Parshant; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Controlled release formulations of Thiram (Dimethylcarbamothioylsulfanyl-N,N-dimethylcarbamodithioate), a contact fungicide, have been prepared using laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based functionalized amphiphilic copolymers. The kinetics of thiram from developed controlled release (CR) formulations were studied in comparison with that of the commercially available 75 WS. Release from the commercial formulation was faster than with the developed CR formulations. Maximum amount of thiram was released on 35th day for PEG-2000 4d, 28th day for PEG-1500 4c, 21st day for PEG-1000 4b and 15th day for PEG-600 4a in comparison to commercial formulation (7th day). The diffusion exponent (n) of thiram in water ranged from 0.356 to 0.545 in the tested formulations. The half-release (t(1/2)) values ranged between 14.78 to 22.1 days, and the Period of Optimum Availability (POA) of thiram ranged from 7.79 to 25.15 days. An effort has also been made to identify the suitable polymers that could reduce the seed deterioration during storage and also act as an effective carrier of fungicide thiram. The results demonstrate that the seeds coated with the different formulations deteriorated at a slower pace as manifested in high germination percentage over control. Apart from the fungicidal effect of thiram, the polymers acted as barriers to moisture reducing the rate of seed deterioration and checked the degradation of thiram. The CR formulation 4d, with PEG 2000, was found to be most effective as seed coat.

  16. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jordan O.; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch and oil content. PMID

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Developing Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berry and the Transcriptome of the Mature Seed

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Tahira; Snyder, Crystal L.; Schroeder, William R.; Cram, Dustin; Datla, Raju; Wishart, David; Weselake, Randall J.; Krishna, Priti

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a hardy, fruit-producing plant known historically for its medicinal and nutraceutical properties. The most recognized product of sea buckthorn is its fruit oil, composed of seed oil that is rich in essential fatty acids, linoleic (18∶2ω-6) and α-linolenic (18∶3ω-3) acids, and pulp oil that contains high levels of monounsaturated palmitoleic acid (16∶1ω-7). Sea buckthorn is fast gaining popularity as a source of functional food and nutraceuticals, but currently has few genomic resources; therefore, we explored the fatty acid composition of Canadian-grown cultivars (ssp. mongolica) and the sea buckthorn seed transcriptome using the 454 GS FLX sequencing technology. Results GC-MS profiling of fatty acids in seeds and pulp of berries indicated that the seed oil contained linoleic and α-linolenic acids at 33–36% and 30–36%, respectively, while the pulp oil contained palmitoleic acid at 32–42%. 454 sequencing of sea buckthorn cDNA collections from mature seeds yielded 500,392 sequence reads, which identified 89,141 putative unigenes represented by 37,482 contigs and 51,659 singletons. Functional annotation by Gene Ontology and computational prediction of metabolic pathways indicated that primary metabolism (protein>nucleic acid>carbohydrate>lipid) and fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis pathways were highly represented categories. Sea buckthorn sequences related to fatty acid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis were identified, and a subset of these was examined for transcript expression at four developing stages of the berry. Conclusion This study provides the first comprehensive genomic resources represented by expressed sequences for sea buckthorn, and demonstrates that the seed oil of Canadian-grown sea buckthorn cultivars contains high levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in a close to 1∶1 ratio, which is beneficial for human health. These data provide the foundation for further studies on

  18. Spatiotemporal Seed Development Analysis Provides Insight into Primary Dormancy Induction and Evolution of the Lepidium DELAY OF GERMINATION1 Genes1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Graeber, Kai; Voegele, Antje; Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Sperber, Katja; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Seed dormancy is a block to the completion of germination of an intact viable seed under favorable conditions and is an adaptive and agronomically important trait. Thus, elucidating conserved features of dormancy mechanisms is of great interest. The worldwide-distributed genus Lepidium (Brassicaceae) is well suited for cross-species comparisons investigating the origin of common or specific early-life-history traits. We show here that homologs of the seed dormancy-specific gene DELAY OF GERMINATION1 (DOG1) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are widespread in the genus Lepidium. The highly dormant Lepidium papillosum is a polyploid species and possesses multiple structurally diversified DOG1 genes (LepaDOG1), some being expressed in seeds. We used the largely elongated and well-structured infructescence of L. papillosum for studying primary dormancy induction during seed development and maturation with high temporal resolution. Using simultaneous germination assays and marker protein expression detection, we show that LepaDOG1 proteins are expressed in seeds during maturation prior to dormancy induction. Accumulation of LepaDOG1 takes place in seeds that gain premature germinability before and during the seed-filling stage and declines during the late maturation and desiccation phase when dormancy is induced. These analyses of the Lepidium DOG1 genes and their protein expression patterns highlight similarities and species-specific differences of primary dormancy induction mechanism(s) in the Brassicaceae. PMID:23426197

  19. The last step of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway in turnip tops (Brassica rapa) seeds: Alterations related to development and germination and its inhibition during desiccation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gacio Md, María del Carmen; Matilla, Angel Jesús

    2001-06-01

    The involvement of ethylene in zygotic embryogenesis is a little known aspect of the growth and development in higher plants. In the present work, we study the alterations of the last step of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway during the formation period of turnip tops (Brassica rapa cv. Rapa) seeds and its repercussions in the germination process and post-germinative growth. For this, we chose 11 different phases of silique development, the first being the recently fertilized pistil and the last being the silique just prior to its dehiscence (ca. 2 months post-anthesis). In the 11 phases, ethylene production was detected in both whole silique (with or without seeds) and in the seeds enclosed by the silique wall. The levels of ACC, ACO and ethylene production proved high in seeds belonging to: (1) the pod in the very early phases, when the seeds were growing but without photosynthetic competence; (2) the silique at maximum growth, in which the seeds will initiate desiccation and loss of photosynthetic activity. During the phases prior to dehiscence, there was a marked inhibition in the last step of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. In viable dry seeds, no ACO activity was detected and the ACC levels were 4-fold lower than at the onset of the silique senescence. Germination brings about a net synthesis of ACC with respect of the stores dry seed. This fact, together with other results presented in this work, point towards, as in other seeds, a dependence of ethylene synthesis for radicle emergence. The possible role played by the silique wall in the control of ethylene biosynthesis during zygotic embryogenesis, as well as the participation of ethylene as a hormonal signal in the triggering of seed desiccation in Brassica rapa cv. Rapa, are discussed in depth.

  20. SUPPRESSOR OF MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 1 controls seed germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stanga, John P; Smith, Steven M; Briggs, Winslow R; Nelson, David C

    2013-09-01

    Abiotic chemical signals discovered in smoke that are known as karrikins (KARs) and the endogenous hormone strigolactone (SL) control plant growth through a shared MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)-dependent pathway. A SL biosynthetic pathway and candidate KAR/SL receptors have been characterized, but signaling downstream of MAX2 is poorly defined. A screen for genetic suppressors of the enhanced seed dormancy phenotype of max2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) led to identification of a suppressor of max2 1 (smax1) mutant. smax1 restores the seed germination and seedling photomorphogenesis phenotypes of max2 but does not affect the lateral root formation, axillary shoot growth, or senescence phenotypes of max2. Expression of three transcriptional markers of KAR/SL signaling, D14-LIKE2, KAR-UP F-BOX1, and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE1, is rescued in smax1 max2 seedlings. SMAX1 is a member of an eight-gene family in Arabidopsis that has weak similarity to HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 101, which encodes a caseinolytic peptidase B chaperonin required for thermotolerance. SMAX1 and the SMAX1-like (SMXL) homologs are differentially expressed in Arabidopsis tissues. SMAX1 transcripts are most abundant in dry seed, consistent with its function in seed germination control. Several SMXL genes are up-regulated in seedlings treated with the synthetic SL GR24. SMAX1 and SMXL2 transcripts are reduced in max2 seedlings, which could indicate negative feedback regulation by KAR/SL signaling. smax1 seed and seedling growth mimics the wild type treated with KAR/SL, but smax1 seedlings are still responsive to 2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one (KAR2) or GR24. We conclude that SMAX1 is an important component of KAR/SL signaling during seed germination and seedling growth but is not necessary for all MAX2-dependent responses. We hypothesize that one or more SMXL proteins may also act downstream of MAX2 to control the diverse developmental responses to KARs and SLs.

  1. Muscle architecture during the course of development of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 (Trematoda, Diplostomidae) from cercariae to metacercariae.

    PubMed

    Petrov, A; Podvyaznaya, I

    2016-05-01

    Recent confocal microscopy studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of muscle systems in cercariae and adult digeneans, but the gross anatomy and development of metacercarial musculature remain relatively little known. To further our understanding of metacercarial development, this study used phalloidin staining and confocal microscopy to examine changes in muscle architecture over the course of development from cercariae to infective metacercariae in Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984. The paper describes muscle development in the body wall, anterior organ (oral sucker), acetabulum, pharynx and midgut and in the musculo-glandular organs that first appear in metacercariae (lappets and holdfast). The muscle architecture of the cercarial tail is also described. The results of the study support previously reported observations that diplostomid musculature undergoes substantial transformation during metacercarial development. The most profound changes, involving extensive remodelling and replacement of cercarial muscles, were seen in the body-wall musculature and in the anterior organ as it developed into the oral sucker. Muscle systems of other cercarial organs showed more gradual changes. The adaptive importance of developmental changes in musculature is discussed.

  2. A Multiprocessor SoC Architecture with Efficient Communication Infrastructure and Advanced Compiler Support for Easy Application Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urfianto, Mohammad Zalfany; Isshiki, Tsuyoshi; Khan, Arif Ullah; Li, Dongju; Kunieda, Hiroaki

    This paper presentss a Multiprocessor System-on-Chips (MPSoC) architecture used as an execution platform for the new C-language based MPSoC design framework we are currently developing. The MPSoC architecture is based on an existing SoC platform with a commercial RISC core acting as the host CPU. We extend the existing SoC with a multiprocessor-array block that is used as the main engine to run parallel applications modeled in our design framework. Utilizing several optimizations provided by our compiler, an efficient inter-communication between processing elements with minimum overhead is implemented. A host-interface is designed to integrate the existing RISC core to the multiprocessor-array. The experimental results show that an efficacious integration is achieved, proving that the designed communication module can be used to efficiently incorporate off-the-shelf processors as a processing element for MPSoC architectures designed using our framework.

  3. Rapid EHR development and implementation using web and cloud-based architecture in a large home health and hospice organization.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Charlotte A; Teenier, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Health care organizations have long been limited to a small number of major vendors in their selection of an electronic health record (EHR) system in the national and international marketplace. These major EHR vendors have in common base systems that are decades old, are built in antiquated programming languages, use outdated server architecture, and are based on inflexible data models [1,2]. The option to upgrade their technology to keep pace with the power of new web-based architecture, programming tools and cloud servers is not easily undertaken due to large client bases, development costs and risk [3]. This paper presents the decade-long efforts of a large national provider of home health and hospice care to select an EHR product, failing that to build their own and failing that initiative to go back into the market in 2012. The decade time delay had allowed new technologies and more nimble vendors to enter the market. Partnering with a new start-up company doing web and cloud based architecture for the home health and hospice market, made it possible to build, test and implement an operational and point of care system in 264 home health locations across 40 states and three time zones in the United States. This option of "starting over" with the new web and cloud technologies may be posing a next generation of new EHR vendors that retells the Blackberry replacement by iPhone story in healthcare.

  4. Rapid EHR development and implementation using web and cloud-based architecture in a large home health and hospice organization.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Charlot