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Sample records for arctic lake correlate

  1. Archaea in Arctic Thermokarst Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheus Carnevali, P. B.; Rohrssen, M.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Kuhn, E.; Williams, M.; Adams, H. E.; Berisford, D. F.; Hand, K. P.; Priscu, J. C.; Walter Anthony, K.; Love, G. D.; Hedlund, B. P.; Murray, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    , which include, in part, a methanogenic community. These findings suggest that the archaeal community in lake sediments of the Northern Slope of Alaska may be more relevant to estimates of methane release from the Arctic than previously thought. Our work will set the grounds to further the understanding of the effect of temperature increases on microbial activities that directly affect the greenhouse gas inventory, and it will expand the census of psychrophiles that thrive in permafrost environments.

  2. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.001), water content (p < 0.01), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, p < 0.01), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si, p < 0.01), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N, p < 0.05), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The results suggest soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments. PMID:27516761

  3. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexeev, Vladimir; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69,p < 0.001) to this lake regime shift. To understand how and to what extent sea ice affects lakes, we conducted model experiments to simulate winters with years of high (1991/92) and low (2007/08) sea ice extent for which we also had field measurements and satellite imagery characterizing lake ice conditions. A lake ice growth model forced with Weather Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter 'ocean-effect' snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  4. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69, p < 0.001) to this lake regime shift. To understand how and to what extent sea ice affects lakes, we conducted model experiments to simulate winters with years of high (1991/92) and low (2007/08) sea ice extent for which we also had field measurements and satellite imagery characterizing lake ice conditions. A lake ice growth model forced with Weather Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter ‘ocean-effect’ snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  5. A Pan-Arctic Assessment of High-Latitude Lake Change ~25 Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Smith, L. C.; Li, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions are the home to the world's largest quantity of terrestrial lakes. These lakes play a preeminent role in the global water cycle and balance, are sensitive to global warming, and are vital for human and animal water supply. However, they are poorly observed, and a uniform lake inventory is unavailable at the pan-Arctic scale. Though there have been studies of Arctic lake dynamics at local scales, the general picture of Arctic lake change stays unclear. A systematic regional-scale assessment of Arctic lake change in the past ~30 years is crucial for us to address "How have Arctic lakes responded to global warming?" The presentation reports a systematic effort of high-latitude (45N and north) lake inventory using recently available high-resolution satellite imagery. Since Arctic lakes are abundant in small-size classes and their seasonality varies from region to region, pan-Arctic lake mapping requires the use of thousands of cloud-free Landsat images acquired in lake-stable seasons. Nearly eight million lakes have been mapped in various landscapes of the pan-Arctic using automated lake identification algorithms with high replicability. Lake-abundant regions are selected using a systematic sampling strategy to detect decadal lake change using the mid-1970s and circa-2000 Landsat imagery. Spatial patterns of the observed lake dynamics are analyzed at regional scales and the relationship between lake abundance and size distribution is investigated.

  6. Methane transport from the active layer to lakes in the Arctic using Toolik Lake, Alaska, as a case study.

    PubMed

    Paytan, Adina; Lecher, Alanna L; Dimova, Natasha; Sparrow, Katy J; Kodovska, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros; Murray, Joseph; Tulaczyk, Slawomir; Kessler, John D

    2015-03-24

    Methane emissions in the Arctic are important, and may be contributing to global warming. While methane emission rates from Arctic lakes are well documented, methods are needed to quantify the relative contribution of active layer groundwater to the overall lake methane budget. Here we report measurements of natural tracers of soil/groundwater, radon, and radium, along with methane concentration in Toolik Lake, Alaska, to evaluate the role active layer water plays as an exogenous source for lake methane. Average concentrations of methane, radium, and radon were all elevated in the active layer compared with lake water (1.6 × 10(4) nM, 61.6 dpm⋅m(-3), and 4.5 × 10(5) dpm⋅m(-3) compared with 1.3 × 10(2) nM, 5.7 dpm⋅m(-3), and 4.4 × 10(3) dpm⋅m(-3), respectively). Methane transport from the active layer to Toolik Lake based on the geochemical tracer radon (up to 2.9 g⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1)) can account for a large fraction of methane emissions from this lake. Strong but spatially and temporally variable correlations between radon activity and methane concentrations (r(2) > 0.69) in lake water suggest that the parameters that control methane discharge from the active layer also vary. Warming in the Arctic may expand the active layer and increase the discharge, thereby increasing the methane flux to lakes and from lakes to the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming. More work is needed to quantify and elucidate the processes that control methane fluxes from the active layer to predict how this flux might change in the future and to evaluate the regional and global contribution of active layer water associated methane inputs.

  7. Methane transport from the active layer to lakes in the Arctic using Toolik Lake, Alaska, as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Paytan, Adina; Lecher, Alanna L.; Dimova, Natasha; Sparrow, Katy J.; Kodovska, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros; Murray, Joseph; Tulaczyk, Slawomir; Kessler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Methane emissions in the Arctic are important, and may be contributing to global warming. While methane emission rates from Arctic lakes are well documented, methods are needed to quantify the relative contribution of active layer groundwater to the overall lake methane budget. Here we report measurements of natural tracers of soil/groundwater, radon, and radium, along with methane concentration in Toolik Lake, Alaska, to evaluate the role active layer water plays as an exogenous source for lake methane. Average concentrations of methane, radium, and radon were all elevated in the active layer compared with lake water (1.6 × 104 nM, 61.6 dpm⋅m−3, and 4.5 × 105 dpm⋅m−3 compared with 1.3 × 102 nM, 5.7 dpm⋅m−3, and 4.4 × 103 dpm⋅m−3, respectively). Methane transport from the active layer to Toolik Lake based on the geochemical tracer radon (up to 2.9 g⋅m−2⋅y−1) can account for a large fraction of methane emissions from this lake. Strong but spatially and temporally variable correlations between radon activity and methane concentrations (r2 > 0.69) in lake water suggest that the parameters that control methane discharge from the active layer also vary. Warming in the Arctic may expand the active layer and increase the discharge, thereby increasing the methane flux to lakes and from lakes to the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming. More work is needed to quantify and elucidate the processes that control methane fluxes from the active layer to predict how this flux might change in the future and to evaluate the regional and global contribution of active layer water associated methane inputs. PMID:25775530

  8. Factors Controlling Methane in Arctic Lakes of Southwest Greenland

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed 15 lakes during the growing season of 2014 in Arctic lakes of southwest Greenland to determine which factors influence methane concentrations in these systems. Methane averaged 2.5 μmol L-1 in lakes, but varied a great deal across the landscape with lakes on older landscapes farther from the ice sheet margin having some of the highest values of methane reported in lakes in the northern hemisphere (125 μmol L-1). The most important factors influencing methane in Greenland lakes included ionic composition (SO4, Na, Cl) and chlorophyll a in the water column. DOC concentrations were also related to methane, but the short length of the study likely underestimated the influence and timing of DOC on methane concentrations in the region. Atmospheric methane concentrations are increasing globally, with freshwater ecosystems in northern latitudes continuing to serve as potentially large sources in the future. Much less is known about how freshwater lakes in Greenland fit in the global methane budget compared to other, more well-studied areas of the Arctic, hence our work provides essential data for a more complete view of this rapidly changing region. PMID:27454863

  9. Large fractionations of C and H isotopes related to methane oxidation in Arctic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieux, Sarah B.; White, Jeffrey R.; Sauer, Peter E.; Peng, Yongbo; Goldman, Amy E.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial oxidation of methane (CH4) plays a central role in carbon cycling in Arctic lakes, reducing potential CH4 emissions associated with warming. Isotopic signatures of CH4 (δ13C and δ2H) are indicators of microbial oxidation, wherein the process strongly enriches 13C and 2H in residual CH4. We present δ13C and δ2H measurements obtained from sampling the water column and sediment for dissolved CH4 from three, small Arctic lakes in western Greenland under both open-water and ice-covered conditions from 2013 to 2014. Despite substantial variations in aquatic chemistry among the lakes, δ13C and δ2H of CH4 suggested that CH4 was produced predominantly by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the littoral sediments and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in the profundal sediments in all of the lakes. Surprisingly large variations for both δ13C and δ2H of CH4 were observed, with δ13C extending from -72‰ to +7.4‰ and δ2H from -390‰ to +250‰. The CH4 isotopic values reported here were significantly more enriched (p < 0.0001) in both 13C and 2H than values reported from other Arctic freshwater environments. As is characteristic of methanotrophy, the enrichment in 13C and 2H was associated with low CH4 concentrations. We suggest that the CH4 most enriched in 13C and 2H may reflect unusually efficient methanotrophic communities in Arctic ice-margin lakes. This study provides the first measurement of δ2H for CH4 in an Arctic freshwater environment at concentrations <10 μM. The extreme enrichment of 13C and 2H of CH4 from Arctic methanotrophy has significant implications for interpreting sources and sinks of CH4. Without knowledge of local geology, stable isotope values of CH4 higher than -30‰ for δ13C and -150‰ for δ2H could be misinterpreted as thermogenic, geothermal, or abiogenic origins. Given crystalline bedrock and the strong positive correlation between δ13C and δ2H throughout the water columns in three Arctic lakes confirms that CH4 heavily

  10. Assessing Seasonal Lake Dynamics in Arctic Alaska: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Beck, R. A.; Healey, N.; Jones, S.; Lenters, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Shah, C. A.; Sheng, Y.; Smith, L. C.; Winston, B. S.; Jones, B. M.

    2008-12-01

    Lakes on the coastal plain of arctic Alaska have developed atop continuous permafrost. Recent research suggests that lake levels, rates of bank erosion and drainage, and depth of the thaw bulb in sediments beneath the lake may increase in response to a warmer and wetter climate. Assessment of lake dynamics entails separating seasonal and interannual fluctuations from the long-term response. A program to study lake dynamics was initiated in 2008 and includes: (1) analysis of both long-term lake changes and seasonal/ interannual fluctuations using high-resolution satellite imagery and aerial photographs, (2) repeated high- resolution mapping of shoreline configuration in spring and late summer using differential GPS combined with water level sensors, (3) conducting bathymetric surveys to determine basin shape and water volume, (4) evaluating the relation between wind vectors and surface water currents with real-time satellite networked GPS-enabled floats and a wide-area wireless network, and (5) quantifying the energy and water balance on a representative lake using data collected from a fully instrumented buoy. Lake basins surveyed near Barrow, Alaska have a maximum depth of 1.5-3.0 m and are characterized by a steep drop-off near the shore and very gradual deepening toward the center. Seasonal shoreline fluctuations are observed in most lakes, with the maximum effect noted in low-lying regions of the lake margin as the water level gradually falls through summer. Preliminary analysis of the lake energy and water balance is presented, including measurements of incoming and outgoing radiation, latent and sensible heat flux, and associated lake temperature and atmospheric parameters. In subsequent years, measurements will be made on lakes further inland where the surficial geology and climate differs from the coastal environment.

  11. Photodecomposition of methylmercury in an Arctic Alaskan lake.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fitzgerald, William F

    2006-02-15

    Sunlight-induced decomposition of monomethylmercury (MMHg) reduces its availability for accumulation in aquatic food webs. We examined MMHg degradation in epilimnetic waters of Toolik Lake (68 degrees 38' N, 149 degrees 36' W) in arctic Alaska, a region illuminated by sunlight almost continuously during the summer. MMHg decomposition in surface water of Toolik Lake is exclusively abiotic and mediated by sunlight; comparable rates of MMHg decomposition were observed in filter-sterilized and unfiltered surface waters incubated under in situ sunlight and temperature conditions, and no MMHg was degraded in unfiltered aliquots incubated in the dark. Rates of photodecomposition are first order with respect to both MMHg concentration and the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), except at the lake surface where rates of photochemical degradation are enhanced relative to PAR intensity and may be attributed to an additional influence of ultraviolet light. The estimated annual loss of MMHg to photodecomposition in Toolik Lake, though limited to a 100-d ice-free season, accounts for about 80% of the MMHg mobilized annually from in situ sedimentary production, the primary source in Toolik Lake. These results suggest that greater light attenuation in lacustrine surface waters, a potential result of increased loadings of dissolved organic matter due to continued warming in the Arctic, may result in less photodecomposition and subsequently greater availability of MMHg for bioaccumulation.

  12. Holocene Temperature Reconstructions from Arctic Lakes based on Alkenone Paleothermometry and Non-Destructive Scanning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, W. J.; Balascio, N. L.; Bradley, R. S.; Bakke, J.; Gjerde, M.; Kaufman, D. S.; Briner, J. P.; von Gunten, L.

    2014-12-01

    Generating continuous, accurate and quantitative Holocene temperature estimates from the Arctic is an ongoing challenge. In many Arctic regions, tree ring-based approaches cannot be used and lake sediments provide the most valuable repositories for extracting paleotemperature information. Advances in lacustrine alkenone paleothermometry now allow for quantitative reconstruction of lake-water temperature based on the UK37 values of sedimentary alkenones. In addition, a recent study demonstrated the efficacy of non-destructive scanning reflectance spectroscopy in the visible range (VIS-RS) for high-resolution quantitative temperature reconstruction from arctic lake sediments1. In this presentation, I will report a new UK37-based temperature reconstruction and a scanning VIS-RS record (using the RABD660;670 index as a measure of sedimentary chlorin content) from Kulusuk Lake in southeastern Greenland (65.6°N, 37.1°W). The UK37 record reveals a ~3°C increase in summer lake water temperatures between ~10ka and ~7ka followed by sustained warmth until ~4ka and a gradual (~3°C) cooling until ~400 yr BP. The strong correlation between UK37 and RABD660;670 measured in the same sediment core provides further evidence that in arctic lakes where temperature regulates primary productivity, and thereby sedimentary chlorin content, these proxies can be combined to develop high-resolution quantitative temperature records. The Holocene temperature history of Kulusuk Lake determined using this approach corresponds to changes in the size of the glaciers adjacent to the lake, as inferred from sediment minerogenic properties measured with scanning XRF. Glaciers retreated during early Holocene warming, likely disappeared during the period of mid-Holocene warmth, and advanced after 4ka. I will also discuss new UK37 and RABD660;670 reconstructions from northwestern Svalbard and the central Brooks Range of Alaska within the framework of published regional temperature reconstructions and

  13. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA FROM FOUR US ARCTIC LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including...

  14. HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SEDIMENT AND FRESHWATER FISH IN U.S. ARCTIC LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]} were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated...

  15. Exploratory Hydrocarbon Drilling Impacts to Arctic Lake Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Thienpont, Joshua R.; Kokelj, Steven V.; Korosi, Jennifer B.; Cheng, Elisa S.; Desjardins, Cyndy; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.; Pisaric, Michael FJ.; Smol, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent attention regarding the impacts of oil and gas development and exploitation has focused on the unintentional release of hydrocarbons into the environment, whilst the potential negative effects of other possible avenues of environmental contamination are less well documented. In the hydrocarbon-rich and ecologically sensitive Mackenzie Delta region (NT, Canada), saline wastes associated with hydrocarbon exploration have typically been disposed of in drilling sumps (i.e., large pits excavated into the permafrost) that were believed to be a permanent containment solution. However, failure of permafrost as a waste containment medium may cause impacts to lakes in this sensitive environment. Here, we examine the effects of degrading drilling sumps on water quality by combining paleolimnological approaches with the analysis of an extensive present-day water chemistry dataset. This dataset includes lakes believed to have been impacted by saline drilling fluids leaching from drilling sumps, lakes with no visible disturbances, and lakes impacted by significant, naturally occurring permafrost thaw in the form of retrogressive thaw slumps. We show that lakes impacted by compromised drilling sumps have significantly elevated lakewater conductivity levels compared to control sites. Chloride levels are particularly elevated in sump-impacted lakes relative to all other lakes included in the survey. Paleolimnological analyses showed that invertebrate assemblages appear to have responded to the leaching of drilling wastes by a discernible increase in a taxon known to be tolerant of elevated conductivity coincident with the timing of sump construction. This suggests construction and abandonment techniques at, or soon after, sump establishment may result in impacts to downstream aquatic ecosystems. With hydrocarbon development in the north predicted to expand in the coming decades, the use of sumps must be examined in light of the threat of accelerated permafrost thaw, and the

  16. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling impacts to Arctic lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Joshua R; Kokelj, Steven V; Korosi, Jennifer B; Cheng, Elisa S; Desjardins, Cyndy; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M; Pisaric, Michael F J; Smol, John P

    2013-01-01

    Recent attention regarding the impacts of oil and gas development and exploitation has focused on the unintentional release of hydrocarbons into the environment, whilst the potential negative effects of other possible avenues of environmental contamination are less well documented. In the hydrocarbon-rich and ecologically sensitive Mackenzie Delta region (NT, Canada), saline wastes associated with hydrocarbon exploration have typically been disposed of in drilling sumps (i.e., large pits excavated into the permafrost) that were believed to be a permanent containment solution. However, failure of permafrost as a waste containment medium may cause impacts to lakes in this sensitive environment. Here, we examine the effects of degrading drilling sumps on water quality by combining paleolimnological approaches with the analysis of an extensive present-day water chemistry dataset. This dataset includes lakes believed to have been impacted by saline drilling fluids leaching from drilling sumps, lakes with no visible disturbances, and lakes impacted by significant, naturally occurring permafrost thaw in the form of retrogressive thaw slumps. We show that lakes impacted by compromised drilling sumps have significantly elevated lakewater conductivity levels compared to control sites. Chloride levels are particularly elevated in sump-impacted lakes relative to all other lakes included in the survey. Paleolimnological analyses showed that invertebrate assemblages appear to have responded to the leaching of drilling wastes by a discernible increase in a taxon known to be tolerant of elevated conductivity coincident with the timing of sump construction. This suggests construction and abandonment techniques at, or soon after, sump establishment may result in impacts to downstream aquatic ecosystems. With hydrocarbon development in the north predicted to expand in the coming decades, the use of sumps must be examined in light of the threat of accelerated permafrost thaw, and the

  17. Shrinking sea ice, increasing snowfall and thinning lake ice: a complex Arctic linkage explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Ben W.

    2016-09-01

    The dramatic shrinkage of Arctic sea ice is one of the starkest symptoms of global warming, with potentially severe and far-reaching impacts on arctic marine and terrestrial ecology (Post et al 2013 Science 341 519-24) and northern hemisphere climate (Screen et al 2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 084006). In their recent article, Alexeev et al (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 074022) highlight another, and unexpected, consequence of Arctic sea ice retreat: the thinning of lake ice in northern Alaska. This is attributed to early winter ‘ocean effect’ snowfall which insulates lake surfaces and inhibits the formation of deep lake ice. Lake ice thinning has important consequences for Arctic lake hydrology, biology and permafrost degradation.

  18. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Welker, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Since many Arctic lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2-m or greater), seasonal ice commonly freezes to the lake bed (bedfast ice) by winter's end. Bedfast ice fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes that exceed the maximum ice thickness (floating ice) and maintain perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-out of bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22-June) than ice-out on adjacent floating ice lakes (9-July). Earlier ice-free conditions in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28% on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes created by the combination of lake depth relative to ice thickness and associated ice-out timing currently cause a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes. Thus understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime is essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed regime shift in lakes to floating ice conditions due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes occurs in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms.

  19. Ice Processes and Growth History on Arctic and Sub-Arctic Lakes Using ERS-1 SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, K.; Jeffries, M. O.; Weeks, W. F.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of ice growth and decay processes on a selection of shallow and deep sub-Arctic and Arctic lakes was conducted using radiometrically calibrated ERS-1 SAR images. Time series of radar backscatter data were compiled for selected sites on the lakes during the period ot ice cover (September to June) for the years 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. A variety of lake-ice processes could be observed, and significant changes in backscatter occurred from the time of initial ice formation in autumn until the onset of the spring thaw. Backscatter also varied according to the location and depth of the lakes. The spatial and temporal changes in backscatter were most constant and predictable at the shallow lakes on the North Slope of Alaska. As a consequence, they represent the most promising sites for long-term monitoring and the detection of changes related to global warming and its effects on the polar regions.

  20. GROWTH, SURVIVORSHIP, AND REPRODUCTION OF DAPHNIA MIDDENDORFFIANA IN SEVERAL ARCTIC LAKES AND PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth, survivorship and reproduction of Arctic region Daphnia middendorffiana was investigated in several lakes and ponds on the tundra in northern Alaska and additionally in a laboratory study. Growth rate equations, reproduction rates and survivorship under natural conditi...

  1. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  2. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael P; Zimmerman, Christian E

    2014-05-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  3. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P; Zimmerman, Christian E

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  4. Diffusive summer methane flux from lakes to the atmosphere in the Alaskan arctic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Masafumi; Kim, Yong-Won; Uchida, Masao; Utsumi, Motoo

    2016-09-01

    Dissolved methane concentrations (DM) in thirty lakes along Dalton Highway were measured in the open water season in 2008 and in 2012 to estimate diffusive flux from lake surfaces and to verify the enhancive effect of thawing permafrost on flux in the Alaskan arctic zone. An inverse relationship between lake size and DM was obtained in lakes in the regions as was found for European boreal lakes. There was no evidence indicating an effect of thawing permafrost on DM in these lakes. DM in lakes in the taiga region, however, were higher than those in the tundra region. All lake images on a map larger than 0.001 km2 were analyzed, and the area and number distributions were obtained in order to calculate regional mass fluxes of diffusive methane. The total area of all lakes (339,733) in the Alaskan Arctic zone (northern region from 64.00°N) is 25.5 × 103 km2. Regional summer diffusive flux of methane from lakes in the Alaskan arctic zone was estimated to be 22 Gg CH4 yr-1. Average diffusive flux density (per lake area) was 0.86 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, which is similar to that in European boreal lakes.

  5. Sources and Fluxes of Atmospheric Methane from Lakes in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Akerstrom, F.; Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Eisner, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic may result in release of carbon dioxide and/or methane from thawing permafrost soils, resulting in a positive feedback to warming. Permafrost thaw may also result in release of methane from previously trapped natural gas. The Arctic landscape is approximately 50% covered by shallow permafrost lakes, and these environments may serve as bellwethers for climate change - carbon cycle feedbacks, since permafrost thaw is generally deeper under lakes than tundra soils. Since 2011, the Circum-Arctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) project has documented landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain, including carbon cycle feedbacks to climate warming. Here we present a dataset of concentrations, isotope ratios (13C and 2H), and atmospheric fluxes of methane from lakes in Arctic Alaska. Concentrations of methane in lake water ranged from 0.3 to 43 micrograms per liter, or between 6 and 750 times supersaturated with respect to air. Isotopic measurements of dissolved methane indicated that most of the lakes had methane derived from anaerobic organic matter decomposition, but that some lakes may have a small source of methane from fossil fuel sources such as natural gas or coal beds. Concurrent measurements of methane fluxes and dissolved methane concentrations in summer of 2014 will aid in translating routine dissolved measurements into fluxes, and will also elucidate the relative importance of diffusive versus ebulliative fluxes. It is essential that measurements of methane emissions from Arctic lakes be continued long-term to determine whether methane emissions are on the rise, and whether warming of the lakes leads to increased venting of fossil fuel methane from enhanced thaw of permafrost beneath the lakes.

  6. Methane-derived carbon flow through microbial communities in arctic lake sediments.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2015-09-01

    Aerobic methane (CH4 ) oxidation mitigates CH4 release and is a significant pathway for carbon and energy flow into aquatic food webs. Arctic lakes are responsible for an increasing proportion of global CH4 emissions, but CH4 assimilation into the aquatic food web in arctic lakes is poorly understood. Using stable isotope probing (SIP) based on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA-SIP) and DNA (DNA-SIP), we tracked carbon flow quantitatively from CH4 into sediment microorganisms from an arctic lake with an active CH4 seepage. When 0.025 mmol CH4 g(-1) wet sediment was oxidized, approximately 15.8-32.8% of the CH4 -derived carbon had been incorporated into microorganisms. This CH4 -derived carbon equated to up to 5.7% of total primary production estimates for Alaskan arctic lakes. Type I methanotrophs, including Methylomonas, Methylobacter and unclassified Methylococcaceae, were most active at CH4 oxidation in this arctic lake. With increasing distance from the active CH4 seepage, a greater diversity of bacteria incorporated CH4 -derived carbon. Actinomycetes were the most quantitatively important microorganisms involved in secondary feeding on CH4 -derived carbon. These results showed that CH4 flows through methanotrophs into the broader microbial community and that type I methanotrophs, methylotrophs and actinomycetes are important organisms involved in using CH4 -derived carbon in arctic freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Patterns of lake occupancy by fish indicate different adaptations to life in a harsh Arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on these patterns, we propose an overall model of primary controls on the distribution of fish on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Harsh conditions, including lake freezing, limit occupancy in winter through extinction events while lake occupancy in spring and summer is driven by directional migration (large-bodied species) and undirected dispersal (small-bodied species).

  8. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  9. Correlated declines in Pacific arctic snow and sea ice cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Robert P.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, Gennady I.; Drobot, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of future climate suggest that global warming will reduce Arctic snow and ice cover, resulting in decreased surface albedo (reflectivity). Lowering of the surface albedo leads to further warming by increasing solar absorption at the surface. This phenomenon is referred to as “temperature–albedo feedback.” Anticipation of such a feedback is one reason why scientists look to the Arctic for early indications of global warming. Much of the Arctic has warmed significantly. Northern Hemisphere snow cover has decreased, and sea ice has diminished in area and thickness. As reported in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment in 2004, the trends are considered to be outside the range of natural variability, implicating global warming as an underlying cause. Changing climatic conditions in the high northern latitudes have influenced biogeochemical cycles on a broad scale. Warming has already affected the sea ice, the tundra, the plants, the animals, and the indigenous populations that depend on them. Changing annual cycles of snow and sea ice also affect sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), further complicating feedbacks involving the global budgets of these important constituents. For instance, thawing permafrost increases the extent of tundra wetlands and lakes, releasing greater amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Variable sea ice cover may affect the hemispheric carbon budget by altering the ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. There is growing concern that amplification of global warming in the Arctic will have far-reaching effects on lower latitude climate through these feedback mechanisms. Despite the diverse and convincing observational evidence that the Arctic environment is changing, it remains unclear whether these changes are anthropogenically forced or result from natural variations of the climate system. A better understanding of what controls the seasonal distributions of snow and ice

  10. Predicting Late Winter Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Arctic Lakes Using Morphology and Landscape Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppi, Jason C.; Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2016-02-01

    Overwintering habitat for Arctic freshwater fish is essential, such that understanding the distribution of winter habitat quality at the landscape-scale is warranted. Adequate dissolved oxygen (DO) is a major factor limiting habitat quality in the Arctic region where ice cover can persist for 8 months each year. Here we use a mixed-effect model developed from 20 lakes across northern Alaska to assess which morphology and landscape attributes can be used to predict regional overwintering habitat quality. Across all lakes, we found that the majority of the variations in late winter DO can be explained by lake depth and littoral area. In shallow lakes (<4 m), we found evidence that additional variables such as elevation, lake area, ice cover duration, and snow depth were associated with DO regimes. Low DO regimes were most typical of shallow lakes with large littoral areas and lakes that had high DO regimes often were lakes with limited littoral areas and deeper water. Our analysis identifies metrics that relate to late winter DO regimes in Arctic lakes that can aid managers in understanding which lakes will likely provide optimum DO for overwintering habitat. Conversely, lakes which predicted to have marginal winter DO levels may be vulnerable to disturbances that could lower DO below critical thresholds to support sensitive fish. In regions where lakes are also used by humans for industrial winter water supply, such as ice-road construction for oil and gas development, these findings will be vital for the management of resources and protection of Arctic fish.

  11. Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Lu, Zong; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The balance of thermokarst lakes with bedfast- and floating-ice regimes across Arctic lowlands regulates heat storage, permafrost thaw, winter-water supply, and over-wintering aquatic habitat. Using a time-series of late-winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to distinguish lake ice regimes in two regions of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska from 2003–2011, we found that 18% of the lakes had intermittent ice regimes, varying between bedfast-ice and floating-ice conditions. Comparing this dataset with a radar-based lake classification from 1980 showed that 16% of the bedfast-ice lakes had shifted to floating-ice regimes. A simulated lake ice thinning trend of 1.5 cm/yr since 1978 is believed to be the primary factor driving this form of lake change. The most profound impacts of this regime shift in Arctic lakes may be an increase in the landscape-scale thermal offset created by additional lake heat storage and its role in talik development in otherwise continuous permafrost as well as increases in over-winter aquatic habitat and winter-water supply.

  12. A climatology of weather-driven mixing events in a dimictic Arctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Melanie; MacIntyre, Sally; Kushner, Paul

    2014-05-01

    For dimictic and polymictic Arctic lakes, mixing during the ice-free season is primarily controlled by the passage of cold fronts and their associated strong winds. At Toolik Lake, a Long Term Ecological Research site in Alaska, year-to-year variability in lake stability and mixing frequency has been considerable over the past 14 summers. Mixing is important for lake productivity, distributing dissolved gases and nutrients through the water column. Summertime Arctic warming might be expected to stabilize Arctic lakes such as Toolik, but the control of individual weather events on a season's mixing characteristics complicates the ability to predict trends in stability and mixing. With this motivation, this work aims to characterize weather systems that are conducive to mixing at Toolik. High resolution lake and meteorological data from the site were used to characterize mixing while atmospheric reanalysis data were used to describe the weather systems. Mixing events were first identified using an automated algorithm based on Lake Number and lake thermal structure. The algorithm identified mixing events that are separated by at least the timescale of weather systems, so that any given weather event should cause at most one mixing event. Because low Lake Number conditions typically highlight strong wind events, temperature profile data over time were used to identify thermocline deepening as a complementary indicator for mixing. Mixing events were found to be most often characterized by simultaneous occurrence of a low Lake Number condition and thermocline deepening. Once mixing events were identified, they were classified according to their corresponding atmospheric structures. Two primary weather system types with distinct characteristics were determined to be associated with mixing. The analysis suggests that changing the occurrence of these weather system types might change the summertime thermal structure of Toolik Lake, and by extension other lakes in the region.

  13. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčováa, Jana; Knudsen, Rune; Kuhn, Jesper A.; Henriksen, Eirik H.; Siwertsson, Anna; Shaw, Jenny C.; Kuris, Armand M.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae). Sampling potential invertebrate hosts allowed matching of sequence data for different stages, thus achieving molecular elucidation of trematode life-cycles and exploration of host-parasite interactions. Phylogenetic analyses also helped identify three major mollusc intermediate hosts (Radix balthica, Pisidium casertanum and Sphaerium sp.) in the lake. Our findings increase the known trematode diversity at the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, showing that digenean diversity is high in this otherwise depauperate sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystem, and indicating that sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems may be characterised by unique trematode assemblages.

  14. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčová, Jana; Knudsen, Rune; Kuhn, Jesper A; Henriksen, Eirik H; Siwertsson, Anna; Shaw, Jenny C; Kuris, Armand M; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-03-14

    To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae). Sampling potential invertebrate hosts allowed matching of sequence data for different stages, thus achieving molecular elucidation of trematode life-cycles and exploration of host-parasite interactions. Phylogenetic analyses also helped identify three major mollusc intermediate hosts (Radix balthica, Pisidium casertanum and Sphaerium sp.) in the lake. Our findings increase the known trematode diversity at the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, showing that digenean diversity is high in this otherwise depauperate sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystem, and indicating that sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems may be characterised by unique trematode assemblages.

  15. Lake temperature and ice cover regimes in the Alaskan Subarctic and Arctic: Integrated monitoring, remote sensing, and modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Whitman, Matthew; Larsen, A.; Urban, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    Lake surface regimes are fundamental attributes of lake ecosystems and their interaction with the land and atmosphere. High latitudes may be particularly sensitive to climate change, however, adequate baselines for these lakes are often lacking. In this study, we couple monitoring, remote sensing, and modeling techniques to generate baseline datasets of lake surface temperature and ice cover in the Alaskan Subarctic and Arctic. No detectable trends were observed during this study period, but a number of interesting patterns were noted among lakes and between regions. The largest Arctic lake was relatively unresponsive to air temperature, while the largest Subarctic lake was very responsive likely because it is fed by glacial runoff. Mean late summer water temperatures were higher than air temperatures with differences ranging from 1.7 to 5.4°C in Subarctic lakes and from 2.4 to 3.2°C in Arctic lakes. The warmest mean summer water temperature in both regions was in 2004, with the exception of Subarctic glacially fed lake that was highest in 2005. Ice-out timing had high coherence within regions and years, typically occurring in late May in Subarctic and in early-July in Arctic lakes. Ice-on timing was more dependent on lake size and depth, often varying among lakes within a region. Such analyses provide an important baseline of lake surface regimes at a time when there is increasing interest in high-latitude water ecosystems and resources during an uncertain climate future.

  16. Biogeography of bacterioplankton in lakes and streams of an Arctic tundra catchment.

    PubMed

    Crump, Ron C; Adams, Heather E; Hobbie, John E; Kling, George W

    2007-06-01

    Bacterioplankton community composition was compared across 10 lakes and 14 streams within the catchment of Toolik Lake, a tundra lake in Arctic Alaska, during seven surveys conducted over three years using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified rDNA. Bacterioplankton communities in streams draining tundra were very different than those in streams draining lakes. Communities in streams draining lakes were similar to communities in lakes. In a connected series of lakes and streams, the stream communities changed with distance from the upstream lake and with changes in water chemistry, suggesting inoculation and dilution with bacteria from soil waters or hyporheic zones. In the same system, lakes shared similar bacterioplankton communities (78% similar) that shifted gradually down the catchment. In contrast, unconnected lakes contained somewhat different communities (67% similar). We found evidence that dispersal influences bacterioplankton communities via advection and dilution (mass effects) in streams, and via inoculation and subsequent growth in lakes. The spatial pattern of bacterioplankton community composition was strongly influenced by interactions among soil water, stream, and lake environments. Our results reveal large differences in lake-specific and stream-specific bacterial community composition over restricted spatial scales (<10 km) and suggest that geographic distance and connectivity influence the distribution of bacterioplankton communities across a landscape.

  17. PCB concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) are correlated to habitat use and lake characteristics.

    PubMed

    Guildford, S J; Muir, D C G; Houde, M; Evans, M S; Kidd, K A; Whittle, D M; Drouillard, K; Wang, X; Anderson, M R; Bronte, C R; Devault, D S; Haffner, D; Payne, J; Kling, H J

    2008-11-15

    This study considers the importance of lake trout habitat as a factor determining persistent organochlorine (OC) concentration. Lake trout is a stenothermal, cold water species and sensitive to hypoxia. Thus, factors such as lake depth, thermal stratification, and phosphorus enrichment may determine not only which lakes can support lake trout but may also influence among-lake variability in lake trout population characteristics including bioaccumulation of OCs. A survey of 23 lakes spanning much of the natural latitudinal distribution of lake trout provided a range of lake trout habitat to test the hypothesis that lake trout with greater access to littoral habitat for feeding will have lower concentrations of OCs than lake trout that are more restricted to pelagic habitat. Using the delta13C stable isotope signature in lake trout as an indicator of influence of benthic littoral feeding, we found a negative correlation between lipid-corrected delta13C and sigmaPCB concentrations supporting the hypothesis that increasing accessto littoral habitat results in lower OCs in lake trout. The prominence of mixotrophic phytoplankton in lakes with more contaminated lake trout indicated the pelagic microbial food web may exacerbate the biomagnification of OCs when lake trout are restricted to pelagic feeding. A model that predicted sigmaPCB in lake trout based on lake area and latitude (used as proximate variables for proportion of littoral versus pelagic habitat and accessibility to littoral habitat respectively) explained 73% of the variability in sigmaPCBs in lake trout in the 23 lakes surveyed.

  18. CYCLING OF DISSOLVED ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN ARCTIC ALASKAN LAKES. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aqueous production and water-air exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) are important features of the environmental cycling of Hg. We investigated Hg0 cycling in ten Arctic Alaskan lakes that spanned a wide range in physicochemical characteristics. Dissolved...

  19. Surface water connectivity drives richness and composition of Arctic lake fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laske, Sarah M.; Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Koch, Joshua C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides useful baseline information on the processes that drive the relations between patch connectivity and fish species richness and assemblage composition. The environmental processes that organise fish assemblages in Arctic lakes are likely to change in a warming climate.

  20. Arctic deltaic lake sediments as recorders of fluvial organic matter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonk, Jorien; Dickens, Angela; Giosan, Liviu; Zipper, Samuel; Galy, Valier; Holmes, Robert; Montlucon, Daniel; Kim, Bokyung; Hussain, Zainab; Eglinton, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Arctic deltas are dynamic and vulnerable regions that play a key role in land-ocean interactions and the global carbon cycle. Delta lakes may provide valuable historical records of the quality and quantity of fluvial fluxes, parameters that are challenging to investigate in these remote regions. Here we study lakes from across the Mackenzie Delta, Arctic Canada, that receive fluvial sediments from the Mackenzie River when spring flood water levels rise above natural levees. We compare downcore lake sediments with suspended sediments collected during the spring flood, using bulk (% organic carbon, % total nitrogen, 13C, 14C) and molecular organic geochemistry (lignin, leaf waxes). High-resolution age models (137Cs, 210Pb) of downcore lake sediment records (n=11) along with lamina counting on high-resolution radiographs show sediment deposition frequencies ranging between annually to every 15 years. Down-core geochemical variability in a representative delta lake sediment core is consistent with historical variability in spring flood hydrology (variability in peak discharge, ice jamming, peak water levels). Comparison with earlier published Mackenzie River depth profiles shows that (i) lake sediments reflect the riverine surface suspended load, and (ii) hydrodynamic sorting patterns related to spring flood characteristics are reflected in the lake sediments. Bulk and molecular geochemistry of suspended particulate matter from the spring flood peak and lake sediments are relatively similar showing a mixture of modern higher-plant derived material, older terrestrial permafrost material, and old rock-derived material. This suggests that deltaic lake sedimentary records hold great promise as recorders of past (century-scale) riverine fluxes and may prove instrumental in shedding light on past behaviour of arctic rivers, as well as how they respond to a changing climate.

  1. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  2. Photodemethylation of Methylmercury in Eastern Canadian Arctic Thaw Pond and Lake Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Girard, Catherine; Leclerc, Maxime; Amyot, Marc

    2016-04-05

    Permafrost thaw ponds of the warming Eastern Canadian Arctic are major landscape constituents and often display high levels of methylmercury (MeHg). We examined photodegradation potentials in high-dissolved organic matter (DOC) thaw ponds on Bylot Island (BYL) and a low-DOC oligotrophic lake on Cornwallis Island (Char Lake). In BYL, the ambient MeHg photodemethylation (PD) rate over 48 h of solar exposure was 6.1 × 10(-3) m(2) E(-1), and the rate in MeHg amended samples was 9.3 × 10(-3) m(2) E(-1). In contrast, in low-DOC Char Lake, PD was only observed in the first 12 h, which suggests that PD may not be an important loss process in polar desert lakes. Thioglycolic acid addition slowed PD, while glutathione and chlorides did not impact northern PD rates. During an ecosystem-wide experiment conducted in a covered BYL pond, there was neither net MeHg increase in the dark nor loss attributable to PD following re-exposure to sunlight. We propose that high-DOC Arctic thaw ponds are more prone to MeHg PD than nearby oligotrophic lakes, likely through photoproduction of reactive species rather than via thiol complexation. However, at the ecosystem level, these ponds, which are widespread through the Arctic, remain likely sources of MeHg for neighboring systems.

  3. Source Characterization and Temporal Variation of Methane Seepage from Thermokarst Lakes on the Alaska North Slope in Response to Arctic Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    The goals of this research were to characterize the source, magnitude and temporal variability of methane seepage from thermokarst lakes (TKL) within the Alaska North Slope gas hydrate province, assess the vulnerability of these areas to ongoing and future arctic climate change and determine if gas hydrate dissociation resulting from permafrost melting is contributing to the current lake emissions. Analyses were focused on four main lake locations referred to in this report: Lake Qalluuraq (referred to as Lake Q) and Lake Teshekpuk (both on Alaska's North Slope) and Lake Killarney and Goldstream Bill Lake (both in Alaska's interior). From analyses of gases coming from lakes in Alaska, we showed that ecological seeps are common in Alaska and they account for a larger source of atmospheric methane today than geologic subcap seeps. Emissions from the geologic source could increase with potential implications for climate warming feedbacks. Our analyses of TKL sites showing gas ebullition were complemented with geophysical surveys, providing important insight about the distribution of shallow gas in the sediments and the lake bottom manifestation of seepage (e.g., pockmarks). In Lake Q, Chirp data were limited in their capacity to image deeper sediments and did not capture the thaw bulb. The failure to capture the thaw bulb at Lake Q may in part be related to the fact that the present day lake is a remnant of an older, larger, and now-partially drained lake. These suggestions are consistent with our analyses of a dated core of sediment from the lake that shows that a wetland has been present at the site of Lake Q since approximately 12,000 thousand years ago. Chemical analyses of the core indicate that the availability of methane at the site has changed during the past and is correlated with past environmental changes (i.e. temperature and hydrology) in the Arctic. Discovery of methane seeps in Lake Teshekpuk in the northernmost part of the lake during 2009

  4. Partially-drained Thaw Lakes as Hotspots of Biological Activity on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. C.; Fondell, T.; Schmutz, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Thaw lakes cover a large proportion of arctic coastal plains in the US, Canada, and Russia. These lakes are replenished by spring snowmelt and lose water to stream discharge and evapotranspiration during the short arctic summer. While some lakes display nearly static water levels throughout the summer, many fluctuate with some losing more than 50% of their water. We investigated the biogeochemical implications of these water level changes on nutrient fluxes and cycling by sampling several lakes over multiple years and using these data to build a simple lake nutrient cycling model. We find that lakes that lose greater than 20 % of their water display substantially higher nutrient concentrations than lakes with static water levels. The seasonal trend in nutrients, chlorophyll, and other basic water quality parameters suggests low, but positive rates of aquatic ecosystem productivity during the summer. Drained areas on lake margins remained moist for much of the summer and were used extensively by water birds. As lake water levels increased in the fall, a pulse of nutrients entered the lake, likely related to flushing and inundation of this terrestrial ecosystem. Chemical trends along a flowpath from the drained lake outlet into the drainage network suggests continued biogeochemical cycling and the potential importance of drained lake nutrients to downstream environments including river networks and coastal environments. Together, these findings indicate that drained lakes are relatively eutrophic and ecologically-productive, and thus need to be considered to understand nutrient cycling on the arctic coastal plain.

  5. Arctic lakes show strong decadal trend in earlier spring ice-out

    PubMed Central

    Šmejkalová, Tereza; Edwards, Mary E.; Dash, Jadunandan

    2016-01-01

    The timing of the seasonal freeze-thaw cycle of arctic lakes affects ecological processes and land-atmosphere energy fluxes. We carried out detailed ice-phenology mapping of arctic lakes, based on daily surface-reflectance time series for 2000–2013 from MODIS at 250 m spatial resolution. We used over 13,300 lakes, area >1 km2, in five study areas distributed evenly across the circumpolar Arctic — the first such phenological dataset. All areas showed significant trends towards an earlier break-up, stronger than previously reported. The mean shift in break-up start ranged from −0.10 days/year (Northern Europe) to −1.05 days/year (central Siberia); the shift in break-up end was between −0.14 and −0.72 days/year. Finally, we explored the effect of temperature on break-up timing and compared results among study areas. The 0 °C isotherm shows the strongest relationship (r = 0.56–0.81) in all study areas. If the trend in early break-up continues, rapidly changing ice phenology will likely generate significant, arctic-wide impacts. PMID:27924914

  6. Arctic lakes show strong decadal trend in earlier spring ice-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmejkalová, Tereza; Edwards, Mary E.; Dash, Jadunandan

    2016-12-01

    The timing of the seasonal freeze-thaw cycle of arctic lakes affects ecological processes and land-atmosphere energy fluxes. We carried out detailed ice-phenology mapping of arctic lakes, based on daily surface-reflectance time series for 2000–2013 from MODIS at 250 m spatial resolution. We used over 13,300 lakes, area >1 km2, in five study areas distributed evenly across the circumpolar Arctic — the first such phenological dataset. All areas showed significant trends towards an earlier break-up, stronger than previously reported. The mean shift in break-up start ranged from ‑0.10 days/year (Northern Europe) to ‑1.05 days/year (central Siberia); the shift in break-up end was between ‑0.14 and ‑0.72 days/year. Finally, we explored the effect of temperature on break-up timing and compared results among study areas. The 0 °C isotherm shows the strongest relationship (r = 0.56–0.81) in all study areas. If the trend in early break-up continues, rapidly changing ice phenology will likely generate significant, arctic-wide impacts.

  7. Climate-driven regime shifts in the biological communities of arctic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Smol, John P.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Birks, H. John B.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Jones, Vivienne J.; Korhola, Atte; Pienitz, Reinhard; Rühland, Kathleen; Sorvari, Sanna; Antoniades, Dermot; Brooks, Stephen J.; Fallu, Marie-Andrée; Hughes, Mike; Keatley, Bronwyn E.; Laing, Tamsin E.; Michelutti, Neal; Nazarova, Larisa; Nyman, Marjut; Paterson, Andrew M.; Perren, Bianca; Quinlan, Roberto; Rautio, Milla; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Siitonen, Susanna; Solovieva, Nadia; Weckström, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-five paleolimnological records from lakes in the circumpolar Arctic reveal widespread species changes and ecological reorganizations in algae and invertebrate communities since approximately anno Domini 1850. The remoteness of these sites, coupled with the ecological characteristics of taxa involved, indicate that changes are primarily driven by climate warming through lengthening of the summer growing season and related limnological changes. The widespread distribution and similar character of these changes indicate that the opportunity to study arctic ecosystems unaffected by human influences may have disappeared. PMID:15738395

  8. Large difference in carbon emission – burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, E. J.; Klaminder, J.; Bastviken, D.; Olid, C.; Hansson, S. V.; Karlsson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission:burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to subarctic – arctic lakes. These results suggest major differences in lake C cycling between biomes, as lakes in warmer boreal regions emit more and store relatively less C than lakes in colder arctic regions. Such effects are of major importance for understanding climatic feedbacks on the continental C sink – source function at high latitudes. If predictions of global warming and northward expansion of the boreal biome are correct, it is likely that increasing C emissions from high latitude lakes will partly counteract the presumed increasing terrestrial C sink capacity at high latitudes. PMID:26370519

  9. Large difference in carbon emission – burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Lundin, E J; Klaminder, J; Bastviken, D; Olid, C; Hansson, S V; Karlsson, J

    2015-09-15

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission:burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to subarctic - arctic lakes. These results suggest major differences in lake C cycling between biomes, as lakes in warmer boreal regions emit more and store relatively less C than lakes in colder arctic regions. Such effects are of major importance for understanding climatic feedbacks on the continental C sink - source function at high latitudes. If predictions of global warming and northward expansion of the boreal biome are correct, it is likely that increasing C emissions from high latitude lakes will partly counteract the presumed increasing terrestrial C sink capacity at high latitudes.

  10. Declining Sea Ice Extent Links Early Winter Climate to Changing Arctic Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Cai, L.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes on the Alaskan North Slope regulate surface energy balance and interactions with permafrost as well as providing important habitat. Winter lake ice regimes (floating-ice or bedfast-ice conditions) determine whether lakes develop and maintain taliks and can support overwintering fish habitat. Lake ice thickness is a key variable determining whether a lake has a bedfast or floating-ice regime. Recent observations suggest a trend towards more lakes with floating-ice conditions due to thinner ice growth, but the broader scale associated climate conditions driving these regime shift are less certain. This study finds that the changing arctic summer/fall sea ice conditions might be affecting lake ice thickness on the North Slope. Late ocean freeze-up near the Alaskan coast leads to warmer weather and more snowfall in the early winter. Warmer early winters and thicker snowpack result in thinner lake ice the following winter thus potentially developing more ice-floating lakes before the start of the summer. Experiments with a regional atmospheric model WRF for two years with very different sea ice conditions indicate that the extent of open water next to the North Slope is a crucial factor for developing thicker snowpack, also warmer air temperature in early winter.

  11. Bubbles trapped in arctic lake ice: Potential implications for methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, Martin; Crill, Patrick M.; Bastviken, David; Danielsson, Åsa; NorbäCk, Elin

    2011-09-01

    The amount of methane (CH4) emitted from northern lakes to the atmosphere is uncertain but is expected to increase as a result of arctic warming. A majority of CH4 is thought to be released through ebullition (bubbling), a pathway with extreme spatial variability that limits the accuracy of measurements. We assessed ebullition during early and late winter by quantifying bubbles trapped in the ice cover of two lakes in a landscape with degrading permafrost in arctic Sweden using random transect sampling and a digital image processing technique. Bubbles covered up to ˜8% of the lake area and were largely dominated by point source emissions with spatial variabilities of up to 1056%. Bubble occurrence differed significantly between early and late season ice, between the two lakes and among different zones within each lake (p < 0.001). Using a common method, we calculated winter fluxes of up to 129 ± 486 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. These calculations are, on average, two times higher than estimates from North Siberian and Alaskan lakes and four times higher than emissions measured from the same lakes during summer. Therefore, the calculations are likely overestimates and point to the likelihood that estimating CH4 fluxes from ice bubble distributions may be more difficult than believed. This study also shows that bubbles quantified using few transects will most likely be unsuitable in making large-scale flux estimates. At least 19 transects covering ˜1% of the lake area were required to examine ebullition with high precision in our studied lakes.

  12. 1,500-Year Cycle in Holocene Climate from Burial Lake, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbinder, M. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Dorfman, J. M.; Finney, B.; Stoner, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Millennial-scale fluctuations in climate conditions are commonly observed in Holocene paleoclimate archives, however the meaning of these variations including whether they might arise from internal or external forcing are still actively debated. Proxy evidence of millennial-scale variability is most clearly present in a few specific parts of the world (e.g. North Atlantic region), whereas a lack of evidence from many other regions may result from a lack of observations or a lack of signal. Here we present the first evidence for such variations in Arctic Alaska using sedimentological and geochemical analyses from Burial Lake (68.43°N, 159.17°W; 460 m above sea level) in the western Brooks Range. We measured biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratios, dry bulk density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence measurements, and elemental abundances from scanning XRF and use radiocarbon dating on terrestrial macrofossils to establish age control. Large fluctuations in biogenic silica and related proxies at millennial time scales over the last 10,000 cal yr BP are attributed to changes in aquatic productivity, which is indirectly mediated by climate through changes in the duration of the ice-free growing season and the availability of limiting nutrients. Spectral and wavelet analysis of the BSi record indicates a significant 1,500-yr cycle (above 95% confidence) emerges by ~6,000 cal yr BP. Comparison of BSi with reconstructed total solar irradiance reveals a low correlation (r2 = 0.01), suggesting no direct solar forcing of aquatic productivity. A comparison with Northern Hemisphere wide records shows no consistent phase relationship between the timing of maxima/minima in our BSi record. These results are consistent with previous work showing a strong middle Holocene transition into a ~1500-yr cycle. Similar timing for the emergence of an ~1500-yr cycle are found in proxies sensitive to thermohaline circulation and deep water

  13. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: levels, sources and fluxes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liping; Zheng, Gene J; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen, Liqi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W; Lam, James C W; Yang, Xulin; Lam, Paul K S; Wong, Ming H

    2009-04-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  14. Decadally resolved quantitative temperature reconstruction spanning 5.6 ka at Kurupa Lake, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt, B. R.; Kaufman, D. S.; Briner, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Pre-instrumental quantitative temperature records, fundamental for placing recent warming in the context of long-term, natural climate variability, are scarce in Arctic Alaska. New non-destructive high-resolution core scanning methods provide a means of constructing downcore inference models for various paleoclimate signals. Here we use visible reflectance spectroscopy (VIS-RS) to measure organic pigment (chlorophyll derivative) concentration in sediments from Kurupa Lake to quantitatively reconstruct air temperature in the north-central Brooks Range, Alaska during the past 5.6 ka. Kurupa Lake (N 68.35°, W -154.61°) is 29.7 km2, 40 m at maximum depth, and is fed by several tributaries, including meltwater from eight rapidly disappearing cirque glaciers. A 6.2-m-long core composed of finely laminated (sub-mm to 5 cm) coarse-grained clays to medium-grained silts was collected in 2010 from the primary depocenter of Kurupa Lake (depth = 34 m). The age model for the core is based on six radiocarbon ages and a Pu profile to capture the 1963 spike and 1953 onset of Pu deposition from atmospheric weapons testing. The split-core face was scanned with a Konica Minolta CM-2600d spectrometer at 2 mm intervals, corresponding to 1-2 years. The relative absorption band depth at 660-670 nm (RABD660-670) was used to quantify total sedimentary organic pigments (primarily diagenetic products of chlorophyll-a) as a proxy for primary productivity. Gridded temperature data from the NCEP reanalysis dataset were used for this study because regional weather stations in the Brooks Range are scarce and records discontinuous. The gridded data perform well in this area and are highly correlated (r = 0.88) with the instrumental record from Barrow. Mean May-through-October (warm half-year) temperature (5-year smoothed) from NCEP reanalysis data (130 years) correlates with inferred organic pigment content from Kurupa Lake (r = 0.76, p < 0.001). We chose k-fold cross-validation (k = 10) to

  15. Early holocene trace metal enrichment in organic lake sediments, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.P.; Haertling, J.W.

    1997-02-01

    Trace metals having accumulated in preindustrial ({sup 14}C dated) sediments from two small, acid-sensitive, arctic lakes show unexpected stratigraphic trends. Concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn have successive maxima in early to mid-Holocene sediments, of amplitudes comparable to lakes affected by loading from industrial atmospheric fallout. These profiles contrast sharply the concentrations of elements primarily associated with catchment erosion (Ti, V, Zr), and are attributed to the enhanced transport of organic-bound trace metals from the catchments to the lakes in the early Holocene. Paleoliminological conditions conferred effective sedimentary sinks for each of the enriched elements, although a certain degree of diagenetic mobilization is also observed. The study verifies that natural conditions may, under specific circumstances, produce sediment chemical signatures of potentially toxic metals that bear similarities to those reported from lakes adversely impacted by atmospheric pollution. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Soil Microbial Communities across a Chronosequence of Drained Lake Basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Bockheim, J.; Mueller, C. W.; Hinkel, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain landscape is comprised of approximately 25% drained lake basins spanning a continuum of geologic succession that provides the basis for an analysis of biologic change in soil on a millennial temporal scale. We examined patterns in soil carbon and microbial community composition across a 5,000-yr succession of these lake basins near Barrow, Alaska. Soil properties such as depth, pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and bulk density, were related to microbial community composition and abundance. Non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that soil microbial community composition was distinguishable between basins at the two extremes of the chronosequence (youngest and most ancient). In the youngest basins, organic carbon levels were positively correlated with abundance of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi, whereas in the oldest basins carbon levels were associated only with gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, soil pH was negatively correlated with abundance of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi. Surprisingly, the proportions of bacteria and fungi remained constant across the basin successional gradient with soil depth (up to 117 cm) and between the active layer and permafrost, although the total microbial biomass was 1.6-fold higher in the active layer. Cryoturbation in permafrost landscapes could be maintaining local homogeneity of the microbial community across the horizons sampled through mixing of materials across soil horizons. The results of this study indicate that the developmental time of drained lake basins impacts the community structure of major microbial groups, while soil depth influences microbial biomass. Examining the biomass distribution of active microorganisms across the chronosequence and at soil depth could help us better understand how different microbial groups respond to warming temperatures in the Arctic Coastal Plain.

  17. Identification of functionally active aerobic methanotrophs in sediments from an arctic lake using stable isotope probing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Catranis, Catharine; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Arctic lakes are a significant source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), but the role that methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) play in limiting the overall CH4 flux is poorly understood. Here, we used stable isotope probing (SIP) techniques to identify the metabolically active aerobic methanotrophs in upper sediments (0–1 cm) from an arctic lake in northern Alaska sampled during ice-free summer conditions. The highest CH4 oxidation potential was observed in the upper sediment (0–1 cm depth) with 1.59 μmol g wet weight-1 day-1 compared with the deeper sediment samples (1–3 cm, 3–5 cm and 5–10 cm), which exhibited CH4 oxidation potentials below 0.4 μmol g wet weight-1 day-1. Both type I and type II methanotrophs were directly detected in the upper sediment total communities using targeted primer sets based on 16S rRNA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and functional genes (pmoA and mxaF) in the 13C-DNA from the upper sediment indicated that type I methanotrophs, mainly Methylobacter, Methylosoma, Methylomonas and Methylovulum miyakonense, dominated the assimilation of CH4. Methylotrophs, including the genera Methylophilus and/or Methylotenera, were also abundant in the 13CDNA. Our results show that a diverse microbial consortium acquired carbon from CH4 in the sediments of this arctic lake.

  18. Threshold sensitivity of shallow Arctic lakes and sublake permafrost to changing winter climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Bondurant, Allen C.; Romanovksy, Vladimir E.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Parsekian, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions and feedbacks between abundant surface waters and permafrost fundamentally shape lowland Arctic landscapes. Sublake permafrost is maintained when the maximum ice thickness (MIT) exceeds lake depth and mean annual bed temperatures (MABTs) remain below freezing. However, declining MIT since the 1970s is likely causing talik development below shallow lakes. Here we show high-temperature sensitivity to winter ice growth at the water-sediment interface of shallow lakes based on year-round lake sensor data. Empirical model experiments suggest that shallow (1 m depth) lakes have warmed substantially over the last 30 years (2.4°C), with MABT above freezing 5 of the last 7 years. This is in comparison to slower rates of warming in deeper (3 m) lakes (0.9°C), with already well-developed taliks. Our findings indicate that permafrost below shallow lakes has already begun crossing a critical thawing threshold approximately 70 years prior to predicted terrestrial permafrost thaw in northern Alaska.

  19. Methane turnover and environmental change from Holocene biomarker records in a thermokarst lake in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elvert, Marcus; Pohlman, John; Becker, Kevin W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic lakes and wetlands contribute a substantial amount of methane to the contemporary atmosphere, yet profound knowledge gaps remain regarding the intensity and climatic control of past methane emissions from this source. In this study, we reconstruct methane turnover and environmental conditions, including estimates of mean annual and summer temperature, from a thermokarst lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska for the Holocene by using source-specific lipid biomarkers preserved in a radiocarbon-dated sediment core. Our results document a more prominent role for methane in the carbon cycle when the lake basin was an emergent fen habitat between ~12,300 and ~10,000 cal yr BP, a time period closely coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) in North Alaska. Enhanced methane turnover was stimulated by relatively warm temperatures, increased moisture, nutrient supply, and primary productivity. After ~10,000 cal yr BP, a thermokarst lake with abundant submerged mosses evolved, and through the mid-Holocene temperatures were approximately 3°C cooler. Under these conditions, organic matter decomposition was attenuated, which facilitated the accumulation of submerged mosses within a shallower Lake Qalluuraq. Reduced methane assimilation into biomass during the mid-Holocene suggests that thermokarst lakes are carbon sinks during cold periods. In the late-Holocene from ~2700 cal yr BP to the most recent time, however, temperatures and carbon deposition rose and methane oxidation intensified, indicating that more rapid organic matter decomposition and enhanced methane production could amplify climate feedback via potential methane emissions in the future.

  20. Comparison of carbon emission and accumulation rates in sub-arctic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Erik; Bastviken, David; Klaminder, Jonatan; Olid Garcia, Carolina; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Lakes play an important role for the carbon cycling in the sub-arctic landscape by both storing carbon in sediments and by releasing carbon to the atmosphere. Still, our knowledge regarding the importance of carbon accumulation rates vs. carbon emissions in lakes is poor, restricting large scale assessment of source sink potential of lakes in the landscape. In this study we compare annual carbon accumulation rates and CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere for six Swedish subarctic lakes. We measured the partial pressure of CO2 (every second hour) during the ice free season. CH4 emissions were measured using floating chambers. Furthermore, we sampled sediment cores from each lake (one to three cores per lake depending on lakes sizes) and calculated the recent accumulation rate of carbon into sediments by dating each core, using 210Pb. Total annual carbon emissions (CO2 + CH4) ranged between 5 to 54 g C m-2 yr-1; hence, all lakes were atmospheric net sources of carbon. Carbon emissions were overall dominated by CO2 which made up to over 90 % of the total annual carbon emission in all lakes except one, having low CO2 emission, where CH4 counted for 40% of the annual carbon emission. Sediment carbon accumulation rates were of comparable magnitudes as the emissions, counting for rates of 30 to 60% of the total carbon emission to the atmosphere. This results stress the dual role of subarctic lakes as they are acting both as atmospheric sources of CO2 and CH4 and as significant storages of carbon in sediments.

  1. Western Arctic Vulnerability to Warming over the past 3.6 Myr: Lessons from sediments drilled at Lake El'gygytgyn, Western Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.; Minyuk, P.; Lake El'gygytgyn Science Team

    2011-12-01

    International Continental Deep drilling (ICDP) at Lake El'gygytgyn (67_30' N, 172_05' E; "Lake E"), recovered lacustrine sediments dating back to 3.6 Ma that provides the first time-continuous Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoclimate record of different interglacials from the terrestrial Arctic. While discontinuous, spatially diverse Pliocene and Pleistocene marine interglacial records are known from the arctic borderlands at the outcrop scale, the Lake El'gygytgyn record is critically important understanding the western Arctic landscape response to different forcing factors operating across the Arctic since the mid-Pliocene warm period. The record is important for evaluating the sensitivity of the Arctic region and to provide a template of Arctic climate variability that can be compared to other regions. Lake E modeling is framed around suites of sensitivity tests of Beringian climate response to the full range of forcing experienced over the last ~3.5 million years using a nested Global-Regional Climate Model (GCM-RCM). The Pliocene portion of the lake record (~3.6-3.0 Ma; a time when atmospheric CO2 levels may have been like today) has nearly twice the sedimentation rate as later Quaternary intervals, partly as a consequence of basin infilling but also presumably due to more rainfall and more active rivers at that time. Studies of spores and pollen from this portion of the core (samples every ~10k) show that the area was once dominated by trees, providing us with the pace of variability in Pliocene Arctic forests, which included species of pine, larch, spruce, fir, alder, and hemlock. Hemlock and tree pine pollen is exceptional for this latitude but the assemblage implies July temperatures nearly 8 degrees warmer than today with ~3 times the annual precipitation. Modeling suggests sustained forests at Lake E in both cold and warm orbits during this interval. The record includes a strong M2 cooling event to conditions like today at ~3.3 Ma, but not glacial climates as

  2. Mid to Late Holocene hydroclimatic and geochemical records from the varved sediments of East Lake, Cape Bounty, Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuven, Stéphanie; Francus, Pierre; Lamoureux, Scott

    2011-09-01

    A long sedimentary sequence from East Lake, Cape Bounty, Melville Island (74°55'N; 109°30'W) contains a 4200 year-long clastic varved record of paleohydrologic variations at high resolution. Sedimentary elemental geochemistry from micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and sediment fabric variability reflect changes in sediment sources and lacustrine conditions through time. The sedimentary environment progressed from marine in the mid-Holocene, to estuarian from 2195 BC to 243 AD, to fully lacustrine source after 244 AD. Correlation with local meteorological data indicates that varve thickness (VT) is positively correlated with snow depth on May 1st and negatively correlated with mean Sept-May temperatures. Our paleoclimatic reconstruction from VT series revealed high snow accumulation and warm Sept-May months before 1350 BC, and a period of low snow accumulation and cold Sept-May between 1600-1900 AD that may correspond to the Little Ice Age. The general trends of VT series from Cape Bounty are in phase with the δ 18O series in Agassiz Ice Cap, and in anti-phase with the VT series from Lower Murray Lake in the northeastern of Queen's Elizabeth Islands (QEI). Low mean Arctic temperatures coincide with clusters of high sediment yield events at East, Nicolay and South Sawtooth Lakes, especially during 1600-1750 AD and 1810-1910 AD. The East Lake record also exhibits the signature of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) for periods: 600-850 AD, 1400-1550 AD and 1750-1850 AD.

  3. Postglacial environmental succession of Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic) inferred from biogeochemical and microfossil proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narancic, Biljana; Pienitz, Reinhard; Chapligin, Bernhard; Meyer, Hanno; Francus, Pierre; Guilbault, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut) is currently the largest lake in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Despite its enormous size, this freshwater system remains little studied until the present-day. Existing records from southern Baffin Island indicate that in the early postglacial period, the region was submerged by the postglacial Tyrell Sea due to isostatic depression previously exerted by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. However, these records are temporally and spatially discontinuous, relying on qualitative extrapolation. This paper presents the first quantitative reconstruction of the postglacial environmental succession of the Nettilling Lake basin based on a 8300 yr-long high resolution sedimentary record. Our multi-proxy investigation of the glacio-isostatic uplift and subsequent changes in paleosalinity and sediment sources is based on analyses of sediment fabric, elemental geochemistry (μ-XRF), diatom assemblage composition, as well as on the first diatom-based oxygen isotope record from the eastern Canadian Arctic. Results indicate that the Nettilling Lake basin experienced a relatively rapid and uniform marine invasion in the early Holocene, followed by progressive freshening until about 6000 yr BP when limnological conditions similar to those of today were established. Our findings present evidence for deglacial processes in the Foxe Basin that were initiated at least 400yrs earlier than previously thought.

  4. The Late Pleistocene climatic optimum in the eastern Arctic region: Evidence from El'gygytgyn Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkin, A. V.; Anderson, P. M.; Minyuk, P. S.; Nedorubova, E. Yu.; Goryachev, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    The palynological investigations of sediments of the crater of El'gygytgyn Lake (67°30' N, 172°05' E), which provided a continuous record of interglacial and glacial events in Polar Chukotka, revealed significant climate warming corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS 31) lasting from 1.062 to 1.081Ma ago. Its upper limit is placed within the Jaramillo paleomagnetic episode (0.99-1.07 Ma) registered in the sedimentary section of the lake. During MIS 31, the vegetation community was dominated by Betula- Alnus forests with subordinate Larix trees. These forests included also coniferous ( Picea, Pinus) and broad-leaved trees and shrubs ( Quercus, Carpinus, Corylus). The interglacial of MIS 31 was characterized by the warmest climate for the entire Quaternary Period. The warming episode established in the continuous record of the section of El'gygytgyn Lake implies relations between climatic events in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

  5. Temporal trends of mercury, cesium, potassium, selenium, and thallium in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Lake Hazen, Nunavut, Canada: effects of trophic position, size, and age.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Nikolaus; Power, Michael; Babaluk, John A; Reist, James D; Köck, Günter; Lockhart, Lyle W; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2009-02-01

    Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.), the top predator in High Arctic lakes, often is used as a bioindicator of Hg contamination in Arctic aquatic ecosystems. The present study investigated effects of trophic position, size, and age of Arctic char in Lake Hazen, the largest lake in the Canadian High Arctic (81 degrees 50'N, 70 degrees 25'W), on Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, several essential (Se, K) and nonessential elements (Tl, Cs) in char muscle tissue were examined to compare their behavior to that of Hg. Trophic position of Arctic char was identified by stable isotope (delta15N) signature. Temporal trends of Hg from seven sampling campaigns over a 16-year period (1990-2006) were investigated for the overall data and for one trophic class. Concentrations of Hg were not correlated with age but were positively related to fork length and trophic position. Large char with greater delta15N signatures (> 12 per thousand) had larger Hg concentrations (0.09-1.63 microg/g wet wt) than small char with smaller delta15N signatures (< 12 per thousand, 0.03-0.32 microg/g wet wt), indicating that Hg concentrations increased with trophic position. Nonessential Cs and Tl showed relationships to age, length, and trophic position similar to those of Hg, indicating their potential to bioaccumulate and biomagnify. Essential Se and K did not show these relationships. Concentrations of Hg were adjusted using delta15N, leading to less within-year variability and a more consistent temporal trend. The delta15N-adjusted trend showed no decline of Hg in Arctic char from Lake Hazen (1990-2006) in the overall data set and in the small morphotype. Trends for the same period before the adjustment were not significant for the overall data set, but a slight decrease was apparent in the small morphotype. The results confirm the need to consider trophic position and fish size when monitoring temporal trends of Hg, particularly for species with different morphotypes.

  6. Methane sources in arctic thermokarst lake sediments on the North Slope of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Matheus Carnevali, P B; Rohrssen, M; Williams, M R; Michaud, A B; Adams, H; Berisford, D; Love, G D; Priscu, J C; Rassuchine, O; Hand, K P; Murray, A E

    2015-03-01

    The permafrost on the North Slope of Alaska is densely populated by shallow lakes that result from thermokarst erosion. These lakes release methane (CH4 ) derived from a combination of ancient thermogenic pools and contemporary biogenic production. Despite the potential importance of CH4 as a greenhouse gas, the contribution of biogenic CH4 production in arctic thermokarst lakes in Alaska is not currently well understood. To further advance our knowledge of CH4 dynamics in these lakes, we focused our study on (i) the potential for microbial CH4 production in lake sediments, (ii) the role of sediment geochemistry in controlling biogenic CH4 production, and (iii) the temperature dependence of this process. Sediment cores were collected from one site in Siqlukaq Lake and two sites in Sukok Lake in late October to early November. Analyses of pore water geochemistry, sedimentary organic matter and lipid biomarkers, stable carbon isotopes, results from CH4 production experiments, and copy number of a methanogenic pathway-specific gene (mcrA) indicated the existence of different sources of CH4 in each of the lakes chosen for the study. Analysis of this integrated data set revealed that there is biological CH4 production in Siqlukaq at moderate levels, while the very low levels of CH4 detected in Sukok had a mixed origin, with little to no biological CH4 production. Furthermore, methanogenic archaea exhibited temperature-dependent use of in situ substrates for methanogenesis, and the amount of CH4 produced was directly related to the amount of labile organic matter in the sediments. This study constitutes an important first step in better understanding the actual contribution of biogenic CH4 from thermokarst lakes on the coastal plain of Alaska to the current CH4 budgets.

  7. Stable isotopes and Digital Elevation Models to study nutrient inputs in high-Arctic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calizza, Edoardo; Rossi, David; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Careddu, Giulio; Rossi, Loreto

    2016-04-01

    Ice cover, run-off from the watershed, aquatic and terrestrial primary productivity, guano deposition from birds are key factors controlling nutrient and organic matter inputs in high-Arctic lakes. All these factors are expected to be significantly affected by climate change. Quantifying these controls is a key baseline step to understand what combination of factors subtends the biological productivity in Arctic lakes and will drive their ecological response to environmental change. Basing on Digital Elevation Models, drainage maps, and C and N elemental content and stable isotope analysis in sediments, aquatic vegetation and a dominant macroinvertebrate species (Lepidurus arcticus Pallas 1973) belonging to Tvillingvatnet, Storvatnet and Kolhamna, three lakes located in North Spitsbergen (Svalbard), we propose an integrated approach for the analysis of (i) nutrient and organic matter inputs in lakes; (ii) the role of catchment hydro-geomorphology in determining inter-lake differences in the isotopic composition of sediments; (iii) effects of diverse nutrient inputs on the isotopic niche of Lepidurus arcticus. Given its high run-off and large catchment, organic deposits in Tvillingvatnet where dominated by terrestrial inputs, whereas inputs were mainly of aquatic origin in Storvatnet, a lowland lake with low potential run-off. In Kolhamna, organic deposits seem to be dominated by inputs from birds, which actually colonise the area. Isotopic signatures were similar between samples within each lake, representing precise tracers for studies on the effect of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in lakes. The isotopic niche of L. aricticus reflected differences in sediments between lakes, suggesting a bottom-up effect of hydro-geomorphology characterizing each lake on nutrients assimilated by this species. The presented approach proven to be an effective research pathway for the identification of factors subtending to nutrient and organic matter inputs and transfer

  8. Toolik Lake project: Terrestrial and freshwater research on change in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, J.E.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

    1992-03-01

    The Toolik Lake research project in the foothills of the North Slope, Alaska, has collected data since 1975 with funding from the NSFs Division of Polar Programs and from the Long Term Ecological Research Program and Ecosystems Research Program of the Division of Biotic Systems and Resources. The broad goal is to understand and predict how ecosystems of tundra, lakes, and streams function and respond to change. One specific goal is to understand the extent of control by resources (bottom-up control) or by grazing and predation (top-down control). The processes and relationships are analyzed in both natural ecosystems and in ecosystems that have undergone long-term experimental manipulations to simulate effects of climate and human-caused change. These manipulations include the fertilization of lakes and steams, the addition and removal of lake trout from lakes, the changing of the abundance of arctic grayling in sections of rivers, the exclusion of grazers from tundra, and the shading, fertilizing, and heating of the tussock tundra. A second specific goal is to monitor year-to-year variability and to measure how rapidly long-term change occurs. The measurements include: for lakes, measurements of temperature, chlorophyll, primary productivity; for streams, nutrients, chlorophyll on riffle rocks, insect and fish abundance, and water flow; and for the tundra, amount of flowering, air temperature, solar radiation, and biomass. A third specific goal is to understand the exchange of nutrients between land and water.

  9. Methane emissions proportional to permafrost carbon thawed in Arctic lakes since the 1950s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter Anthony, Katey; Daanen, Ronald; Anthony, Peter; Schneider von Deimling, Thomas; Ping, Chien-Lu; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Grosse, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost thaw exposes previously frozen soil organic matter to microbial decomposition. This process generates methane and carbon dioxide, and thereby fuels a positive feedback process that leads to further warming and thaw. Despite widespread permafrost degradation during the past ~40 years, the degree to which permafrost thaw may be contributing to a feedback between warming and thaw in recent decades is not well understood. Radiocarbon evidence of modern emissions of ancient permafrost carbon is also sparse. Here we combine radiocarbon dating of lake bubble trace-gas methane (113 measurements) and soil organic carbon (289 measurements) for lakes in Alaska, Canada, Sweden and Siberia with numerical modelling of thaw and remote sensing of thermokarst shore expansion. Methane emissions from thermokarst areas of lakes that have expanded over the past 60 years were directly proportional to the mass of soil carbon inputs to the lakes from the erosion of thawing permafrost. Radiocarbon dating indicates that methane age from lakes is nearly identical to the age of permafrost soil carbon thawing around them. Based on this evidence of landscape-scale permafrost carbon feedback, we estimate that 0.2 to 2.5 Pg permafrost carbon was released as methane and carbon dioxide in thermokarst expansion zones of pan-Arctic lakes during the past 60 years.

  10. Presence of the Cyanotoxin Microcystin in Arctic Lakes of Southwestern Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Trout-Haney, Jessica V.; Wood, Zachary T.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins have received significant attention in eutrophic temperate and tropical systems where conspicuous blooms of certain planktonic taxa release toxins into fresh water, threatening its potability and safe use for recreation. Although toxigenic cyanobacteria are not confined to high nutrient environments, bloom-forming species, or planktonic taxa, these other situations are studied les often studied. For example, toxin production in picoplankton and benthic cyanobacteria—the predominant photoautotrophs found in polar lakes—is poorly understood. We quantified the occurrence of microcystin (MC, a hepatotoxic cyanotoxin) across 18 Arctic lakes in southwestern Greenland. All of the focal lakes contained detectable levels of MC, with concentrations ranging from 5 ng·L−1 to >400 ng·L−1 during summer, 2013–2015. These concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than many eutrophic systems, yet the median lake MC concentration in Greenland (57 ng·L−1) was still 6.5 times higher than the median summer MC toxicity observed across 50 New Hampshire lakes between 1998 and 2008 (8.7 ng·L−1). The presence of cyanotoxins in these Greenlandic lakes demonstrates that high latitude lakes can support toxigenic cyanobacteria, and suggests that we may be underestimating the potential for these systems to develop high levels of cyanotoxins in the future. PMID:27589801

  11. A lake-centric geospatial database to guide research and inform management decisions in an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska experiencing climate and land-use changes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Whitman, Matthew S; Nigro, Debora; Nitze, Ingmar; Beaver, John; Gädeke, Anne; Zuck, Callie; Liljedahl, Anna; Daanen, Ronald; Torvinen, Eric; Fritz, Stacey; Grosse, Guido

    2017-03-25

    Lakes are dominant and diverse landscape features in the Arctic, but conventional land cover classification schemes typically map them as a single uniform class. Here, we present a detailed lake-centric geospatial database for an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska. We developed a GIS dataset consisting of 4362 lakes that provides information on lake morphometry, hydrologic connectivity, surface area dynamics, surrounding terrestrial ecotypes, and other important conditions describing Arctic lakes. Analyzing the geospatial database relative to fish and bird survey data shows relations to lake depth and hydrologic connectivity, which are being used to guide research and aid in the management of aquatic resources in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Further development of similar geospatial databases is needed to better understand and plan for the impacts of ongoing climate and land-use changes occurring across lake-rich landscapes in the Arctic.

  12. Late Quaternary paleomagnetic secular variation, relative paleointensity, and environmental magnetism from Cascade Lake, Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, D. P.; Kaufman, D. S.; Stoner, J. S.; Reilly, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Two sediment cores from Cascade Lake (68.38°N, 154.60°W), Arctic Alaska were selected for paleomagnetic analysis to compare 14C age control with paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) age control derived from field models and other local sedimentary records. Rock magnetic experiments were performed to quantify variability in magnetic properties and to infer sediment sourcing during the late Quaternary. U-channels were studied through AF demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization, and laboratory-induced magnetizations including anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) acquisition, ARM demagnetization, and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM). Maximum angular deviation values average <2°, indicating a strong, well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization dominated by a low-coercivity component that increases up core. Average inclinations are within 4° of the expected geocentric axial dipole, and major inclination features can be correlated across the two cores. Correlation of inclination changes with the Burial Lake record, 200 km to the west (Dorfman, 2013, unpub. thesis), indicates that the Cascade Lake sedimentary sequence overlying the basal diamicton likely spans at least 16 ka. Cascade Lake sediments may be suitable for RPI estimation using the ARM or IRM as a normalizer, following a more detailed examination of magnetic properties. A systematic offset between the Cascade Lake 14C chronology and PSV and RPI chronologies wiggle-matched to field models suggests a hard-water effect of ~1000 yr, although we cannot rule out the possibility that at least some of the age offset represents a post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in effect at Cascade Lake. S-ratios (IRM0.3T/SIRM) and ARM-ratios (ARM/SIRM) show a sharp decrease in low-coercivity material across the transition from clastic sediments to organic-rich sediments, followed by an increase in the concentration of fine-grained magnetic material and

  13. Sediment dynamics in paired High Arctic lakes revealed from high-resolution swath bathymetry and acoustic stratigraphy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Lajeunesse, P.; Francus, P.

    2016-09-01

    High Arctic lakes are commonly used for paleoclimatic reconstructions because they are particularly sensitive to climate variability. However, the processes leading to sediment deposition and distribution in these lakes are often poorly understood. Here for the first time in the Canadian High Arctic, we present original data resulting from swath bathymetry and subbottom surveys carried out on two lakes at Cape Bounty, Melville Island. The results reveal the dynamic nature of the lakes, in which mass movement deposits and bedforms on the deltas reflect frequent slope instabilities and hyperpycnal flow activity. The analysis of the mass movement deposits reveals that small blocky debris flows/avalanches, debris flows, and a slide occurred during the Holocene. These mass movements are believed to have been triggered by earthquakes and potentially by permafrost thawing along the shoreline. Altogether, these mass movement deposits cover more than 30% of the lake floors. Additionally, the river deltas on both lakes were mapped and reveal the presence of several gullies and bedforms. The presence of gullies along the delta front indicates that hyperpycnal flows generated at the river mouth can transport sediment in different trajectories downslope, resulting in a different sediment accumulation pattern and record. The dynamic nature of these two lakes suggests that further analysis on sediment transport and distribution within Arctic lakes is required in order to improve paleoclimatic reconstructions.

  14. Methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes during the 21st century: An analysis with process-based models of lake evolution and biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zeli; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2015-12-01

    The importance of methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the global carbon cycle has been suggested by recent studies. These studies indicated that climate change influences this methane source mainly in two ways: the warming of lake sediments and the evolution of thermokarst lakes. Few studies have been conducted to quantify the two impacts together in a unified modeling framework. Here we adapt a region-specific lake evolution model to the pan-Arctic scale and couple it with a lake methane biogeochemical model to quantify the change of this freshwater methane source in the 21st century. Our simulations show that the extent of thaw lakes will increase throughout the 21st century in the northern lowlands of the pan-Arctic where the reworking of epigenetic ice in drained lake basins will continue. The projected methane emissions by 2100 are 28.3 ± 4.5 Tg CH4 yr-1 under a low warming scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6) and 32.7 ± 5.2 Tg CH4 yr-1 under a high warming scenario (RCP 8.5), which are about 2.5 and 2.9 times the simulated present-day emissions. Most of the emitted methane originates from nonpermafrost carbon stock. For permafrost carbon, the methanogenesis will mineralize a cumulative amount of 3.4 ± 0.8 Pg C under RCP 2.6 and 3.9 ± 0.9 Pg C under RCP 8.5 from 2006 to 2099. The projected emissions could increase atmospheric methane concentrations by 55.0-69.3 ppb. This study further indicates that the warming of lake sediments dominates the increase of methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the future.

  15. Unanticipated Geochemical and Microbial Community Structure under Seasonal Ice Cover in a Dilute, Dimictic Arctic Lake.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Ursel M E; Cadieux, Sarah B; Hemmerich, Chris; Pratt, Lisa M; White, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Despite most lakes in the Arctic being perennially or seasonally frozen for at least 40% of the year, little is known about microbial communities and nutrient cycling under ice cover. We assessed the vertical microbial community distribution and geochemical composition in early spring under ice in a seasonally ice-covered lake in southwest Greenland using amplicon-based sequencing that targeted 16S rRNA genes and using a combination of field and laboratory aqueous geochemical methods. Microbial communities changed consistently with changes in geochemistry. Composition of the abundant members responded strongly to redox conditions, shifting downward from a predominantly heterotrophic aerobic community in the suboxic waters to a heterotrophic anaerobic community in the anoxic waters. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Sporichthyaceae, Comamonadaceae, and the SAR11 Clade had higher relative abundances above the oxycline and OTUs within the genus Methylobacter, the phylum Lentisphaerae, and purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) below the oxycline. Notably, a 13-fold increase in sulfide at the oxycline was reflected in an increase and change in community composition of potential sulfur oxidizers. Purple non-sulfur bacteria were present above the oxycline and green sulfur bacteria and PSB coexisted below the oxycline, however, PSB were most abundant. For the first time we show the importance of PSB as potential sulfur oxidizers in an Arctic dimictic lake.

  16. A mass balance model describing multiyear fate of organochlorine compounds in a high Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Helm, Paul A; Diamond, Miriam L; Semkin, Ray; Strachan, William M J; Teixeira, Camilla; Gregor, Dennis

    2002-03-01

    Data collected over a 3-year study of a high arctic watershed and lake are used to understand the fate of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and form the basis of a mass balance contaminant fate model. The model uses the fugacity/aquivalence approach to describe OC dynamics between air, stream inflows and outflow, the water column, and surficial sediments. The steady-state model results indicate that stream inflows contributed from 96 to >99% of total chemical loadings, but 57-98% of total loadings were lost from the lake via the outlet, the percentage of which is controlled by the hydrologic regime of the high arctic lake. Conversely, only 0.4-3.4% of loadings were retained within the sediments due to the high export rate, minimal scavenging from the water column and low organic carbon fraction of the sediments. Using the unsteady-state model, which includes year-round processes, degradation was estimated to account for losses of 7-32% for the more persistent OCs and 42-50% for the less persistent OCs (alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan I). If loadings were eliminated, water column concentrations would decline with half-lives <1 year for less persistent OCs and 1-2 years for the more persistent OCs, whereas the half-lives for OCs in sediment are 8-25 years.

  17. Unanticipated Geochemical and Microbial Community Structure under Seasonal Ice Cover in a Dilute, Dimictic Arctic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Ursel M. E.; Cadieux, Sarah B.; Hemmerich, Chris; Pratt, Lisa M.; White, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite most lakes in the Arctic being perennially or seasonally frozen for at least 40% of the year, little is known about microbial communities and nutrient cycling under ice cover. We assessed the vertical microbial community distribution and geochemical composition in early spring under ice in a seasonally ice-covered lake in southwest Greenland using amplicon-based sequencing that targeted 16S rRNA genes and using a combination of field and laboratory aqueous geochemical methods. Microbial communities changed consistently with changes in geochemistry. Composition of the abundant members responded strongly to redox conditions, shifting downward from a predominantly heterotrophic aerobic community in the suboxic waters to a heterotrophic anaerobic community in the anoxic waters. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Sporichthyaceae, Comamonadaceae, and the SAR11 Clade had higher relative abundances above the oxycline and OTUs within the genus Methylobacter, the phylum Lentisphaerae, and purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) below the oxycline. Notably, a 13-fold increase in sulfide at the oxycline was reflected in an increase and change in community composition of potential sulfur oxidizers. Purple non-sulfur bacteria were present above the oxycline and green sulfur bacteria and PSB coexisted below the oxycline, however, PSB were most abundant. For the first time we show the importance of PSB as potential sulfur oxidizers in an Arctic dimictic lake. PMID:27458438

  18. Quantifying change in North American Arctic lakes between 1990 and present.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M.; Wooten, M.; DiMiceli, C.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Arctic and Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) is a new multi-year and mulit-disciplinary field campaign that is set to begin in 2015. One of the primary themes of this campaign is to understand the complicated hydrology of the region. Small lakes and ponds are a prominent feature of the landscape in the High Northern Latitudes. Previous mapping efforts have been accomplished with either single date medium to fine resolution imagery or multiple observations with coarse resolution imagery. The maps from single date imagery are prone to errors relate to weather phenomena such as flood and drought. The coarse resolution products are limited to larger water bodies and miss the many smaller lakes and ponds in the region. We have created a time series of maps from Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper in three epochs (1990 - 1992), (2000 - 2002), and (2010 - 2012) showing the location and extent of water bodies in the region. These maps represent the first comprehensive time series of water bodies in the region that have been generated with a consistent input data set at 30m spatial resolution. We can use these maps to quantify the amount of change that has occurred in the Arctic lakes over the past 20+ years. Here we will present the first versions of the maps with the associated structure and formats and some initial results from analysis of change in northern Canada.

  19. Drainage network structure and hydrologic behavior of three lake-rich watersheds on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, C.D.; Whitman, M.S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Kemnitz, R.; Grosse, G.; Urban, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds draining the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska are dominated by permafrost and snowmelt runoff that create abundant surface storage in the form of lakes, wetlands, and beaded streams. These surface water elements compose complex drainage networks that affect aquatic ecosystem connectivity and hydrologic behavior. The 4676 km2 Fish Creek drainage basin is composed of three watersheds that represent a gradient of the ACP landscape with varying extents of eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial landforms. In each watershed, we analyzed 2.5-m-resolution aerial photography, a 5-m digital elevation model, and river gauging and climate records to better understand ACP watershed structure and processes. We show that connected lakes accounted for 19 to 26% of drainage density among watersheds and most all channels initiate from lake basins in the form of beaded streams. Of the > 2500 lakes in these watersheds, 33% have perennial streamflow connectivity, and these represent 66% of total lake area extent. Deeper lakes with over-wintering habitat were more abundant in the watershed with eolian sand deposits, while the watershed with marine silt deposits contained a greater extent of beaded streams and shallow thermokarst lakes that provide essential summer feeding habitat. Comparison of flow regimes among watersheds showed that higher lake extent and lower drained lake-basin extent corresponded with lower snowmelt and higher baseflow runoff. Variation in baseflow runoff among watersheds was most pronounced during drought conditions in 2007 with corresponding reduction in snowmelt peak flows the following year. Comparison with other Arctic watersheds indicates that lake area extent corresponds to slower recession of both snowmelt and baseflow runoff. These analyses help refine our understanding of how Arctic watersheds are structured and function hydrologically, emphasizing the important role of lake basins and suggesting how future lake change may impact hydrologic

  20. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Urban, F.E.; Grosse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes cover > 20% of the landscape throughout much of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness (1·5–2·0 m) represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behaviour. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analysing remotely sensed, water quality, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from L) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Shorter-term (2004–2008) specific conductance data indicated a drying pattern across lakes of all depths consistent with the long-term record for only shallow lakes. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P − EL. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes.

  1. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  2. Evidence of recent changes in the ice regime of lakes in the Canadian High Arctic from spaceborne satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdu, C. M.; Duguay, C. R.; Fernández Prieto, D.

    2015-11-01

    Arctic lakes, through their ice cover phenology, are a key indicator of climatic changes that the high-latitude environment is experiencing. In the case of lakes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), many of which are ice covered more than ten months per year, warmer temperatures could result in ice regime shifts. Within the dominant polar-desert environment, small local warmer areas have been identified. These relatively small regions - polar oases - with longer growing seasons, greater biological production and diversity, are confined from the surrounding barren polar desert. The ice regimes of 11 lakes located in both polar-desert and polar-oasis environments, with surface areas between 4 and 542 km2, many of unknown bathymetry, were documented. In order to investigate the response of ice cover of lakes in the CAA to climate conditions during recent years, a 15-year time series (1997-2011) of RADARSAT-1/2 ScanSAR Wide Swath, ASAR Wide Swath and Landsat acquisitions were analysed. Results show that melt onset (MO) occurred earlier for all observed lakes. With the exception of Lower Murray Lake, all lakes experienced earlier summer-ice minimum and water-clear-of-ice dates (WCI), with greater changes being observed for polar-oasis lakes (9-24 days earlier WCI dates for lakes located in polar oases and 2-20 days earlier WCI dates for polar-desert lakes). Additionally, results suggest that some lakes may be transitioning from a perennial/multiyear to a seasonal ice regime, with only a few lakes maintaining a multiyear ice cover on occasional years. Aside Lake Hazen and Murray Lakes that preserved their ice cover during the summer of 2009, no residual ice was observed on any of the other lakes from 2007 to 2011.

  3. Evidence of recent changes in the ice regime of lakes in the Canadian High Arctic from spaceborne satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdu, Cristina M.; Duguay, Claude R.; Fernández Prieto, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Arctic lakes, through their ice cover phenology, are a key indicator of climatic changes that the high-latitude environment is experiencing. In the case of lakes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), many of which are ice covered more than 10 months per year, warmer temperatures could result in ice regime shifts. Within the dominant polar-desert environment, small local warmer areas have been identified. These relatively small regions - polar oases - with longer growing seasons and greater biological productivity and diversity are secluded from the surrounding barren polar desert. The ice regimes of 11 lakes located in both polar-desert and polar-oasis environments, with surface areas between 4 and 542 km2, many of unknown bathymetry, were documented. In order to investigate the response of ice cover of lakes in the CAA to climate conditions during recent years, a 15-year time series (1997-2011) of RADARSAT-1/2 ScanSAR Wide Swath, ASAR Wide Swath, and Landsat acquisitions were analyzed. Results show that melt onset occurred earlier for all observed lakes. With the exception of Lower Murray Lake, all lakes experienced earlier summer ice minimum and water-clear-of-ice (WCI) dates, with greater changes being observed for polar-oasis lakes (9-24 days earlier WCI dates for lakes located in polar oases and 2-20 days earlier WCI dates for polar-desert lakes). Additionally, results suggest that some lakes may be transitioning from a perennial/multiyear to a seasonal ice regime, with only a few lakes maintaining a multiyear ice cover on occasional years. Aside Lake Hazen and Murray Lakes, which preserved their ice cover during the summer of 2009, no residual ice was observed on any of the other lakes from 2007 to 2011.

  4. Annually resolved environmental reconstruction in two arctic varved lake sediment records using image analysis of thin-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francus, P.; Patridge, W.; Bradley, R. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Keimig, F.; Stoner, J.

    2003-04-01

    We obtained quantitative multivariate data from each varve in two minerogenic lacustrine sequences from the Canadian High Arctic, using an image analysis technique applied to thin-sections. In Sawtooth Lake (79° 20 N, 83° 51 W), the information on each varve from the uppermost core section was compared with a 35 yr meteorological dataset. Snowmelt intensity, which is an index reflecting the energy available for sediment transport, correlates well with the median grain-size measured for each varve, as well as with the weight of the 10-20 and 20-60 microns fractions. The proportion of fine silt also correlates with low intensity summer precipitation. In Murray Lake (81°20 N, 69°30 W), annual median grain-size is believed to be a proxy for summer temperature. The chronologies of both records, based on independent varve counts, have been confirmed using environemental magnetic parameters. We present the spectral properties of the varve records, and the paleoenvironmental history of the region, for the last 1000 years. Image analysis of thin-sections allows us to decipher the climatic control on sedimentary processes, and yields a new perspective for constructing models that link climate to sediments containing few biological remains.

  5. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address environmental research questions specifically related to Alaska's oil and gas natural resources development. The focus of this project was on the environmental issues associated with allocation of water resources for construction of ice roads and ice pads. Earlier NETL projects showed that oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. Arctic require large amounts of water for ice road and ice pad construction. Traditionally, lakes have been the source of freshwater for this purpose. The distinctive hydrological regime of northern lakes, caused by the presence of ice cover and permafrost, exerts influence on lake water availability in winter. Lakes are covered with ice from October to June, and there is often no water recharge of lakes until snowmelt in early June. After snowmelt, water volumes in the lakes decrease throughout the summer, when water loss due to evaporation is considerably greater than water gained from rainfall. This balance switches in August, when air temperature drops, evaporation decreases, and rain (or snow) is more likely to occur. Some of the summer surface storage deficit in the active layer and surface water bodies (lakes, ponds, wetlands) is recharged during this time. However, if the surface storage deficit is not replenished (for example, precipitation in the fall is low and near‐surface soils are dry), lake recharge is directly affected, and water availability for the following winter is reduced. In this study, we used snow fences to augment fresh water supplies in shallow arctic lakes despite unfavorable natural conditions. We implemented snow‐control practices to enhance snowdrift accumulation (greater snow water equivalent), which led to increased meltwater production and an extended melting season that resulted in lake recharge despite low precipitation during the years of the experiment. For three years (2009, 2010

  6. Sedimentary processes in High Arctic lakes (Cape Bounty, Melville Island, Canada): What do sediments really record?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, Alexandre; Lamoureux, Scott; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Francus, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary sequences can hold a substantial amount of information regarding paleoenvironments, hydroclimate variability and extreme events, providing critical insights into past climate change. The study of lacustrine sediments is often limited to the analysis of sediment cores from which past changes are inferred. However, studies have provided evidence that the accumulation of sediments in lacustrine basins and their distribution can be affected by a wide range of internal and external forcing mechanisms. It is therefore crucial to have a good knowledge of the factors controlling the transport and distribution of sediments in lakes prior to investigating paleoenvironmental archives. To address this knowledge gap, the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO), located on southern Melville Island in the Canadian High Arctic, was initiated in 2003 as a long term monitoring site with the aim of understanding the controls over sediment transport within similar paired watersheds and lakes. The East and West lakes have been monitored each year since 2003 to document the role of hydro-climate variability on water column processes and sediment deposition. Moorings recording water electrical conductivity, temperature, density, dissolved oxygen and turbidity, as well as sediment traps were deployed during the active hydrological period (generally May-July). These data were analyzed in combination with hydrological and climatic data from the watersheds. Additionally, a high-resolution bathymetric and sub-bottom survey was completed in 2015 and allowed imaging the lake floor and sub-surface in great detail. This combination of process and lake morphological data are unique in the Arctic. The morphostratigraphic analysis reveals two highly disturbed lake floors, being widely affected by subaqueous mass movements that were triggered during the last 2000 years. Backscatter intensity maps and the presence of bedforms on each delta foresets indicate that

  7. Shifts in Identity and Activity of Methanotrophs in Arctic Lake Sediments in Response to Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux to the atmosphere is mitigated via microbial CH4 oxidation in sediments and water. As arctic temperatures increase, understanding the effects of temperature on the activity and identity of methanotrophs in arctic lake sediments is important to predicting future CH4 emissions. We used DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and pyrosequencing analyses to identify and characterize methanotrophic communities active at a range of temperatures (4°C, 10°C, and 21°C) in sediments (to a depth of 25 cm) sampled from Lake Qalluuraq on the North Slope of Alaska. CH4 oxidation activity was measured in microcosm incubations containing sediments at all temperatures, with the highest CH4 oxidation potential of 37.5 μmol g−1 day−1 in the uppermost (depth, 0 to 1 cm) sediment at 21°C after 2 to 5 days of incubation. Q-PCR of pmoA and of the 16S rRNA genes of type I and type II methanotrophs, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in 13C-labeled DNA obtained by SIP demonstrated that the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter, Methylomonas, and Methylosoma dominated carbon acquisition from CH4 in the sediments. The identity and relative abundance of active methanotrophs differed with the incubation temperature. Methylotrophs were also abundant in the microbial community that derived carbon from CH4, especially in the deeper sediments (depth, 15 to 20 cm) at low temperatures (4°C and 10°C), and showed a good linear relationship (R = 0.82) with the relative abundances of methanotrophs in pyrosequencing reads. This study describes for the first time how methanotrophic communities in arctic lake sediments respond to temperature variations. PMID:22522690

  8. Shifts in identity and activity of methanotrophs in arctic lake sediments in response to temperature changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux to the atmosphere is mitigated via microbial CH4 oxidation in sediments and water. As arctic temperaturesincrease, understanding the effects of temperature on the activity and identity of methanotrophs in arctic lake sediments is importantto predicting future CH4 emissions. We used DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), andpyrosequencing analyses to identify and characterize methanotrophic communities active at a range of temperatures (4°C, 10°C,and 21°C) in sediments (to a depth of 25 cm) sampled from Lake Qalluuraq on the North Slope of Alaska. CH4 oxidation activitywas measured in microcosm incubations containing sediments at all temperatures, with the highest CH4 oxidation potential of37.5 mol g1 day1 in the uppermost (depth, 0 to 1 cm) sediment at 21°C after 2 to 5 days of incubation. Q-PCR of pmoA and ofthe 16S rRNA genes of type I and type II methanotrophs, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in 13C-labeled DNA obtained bySIP demonstrated that the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter, Methylomonas, and Methylosoma dominated carbon acquisitionfrom CH4 in the sediments. The identity and relative abundance of active methanotrophs differed with the incubation temperature.Methylotrophs were also abundant in the microbial community that derived carbon from CH4, especially in the deeper sediments(depth, 15 to 20 cm) at low temperatures (4°C and 10°C), and showed a good linear relationship (R0.82) with the relativeabundances of methanotrophs in pyrosequencing reads. This study describes for the first time how methanotrophiccommunities in arctic lake sediments respond to temperature variations.

  9. Shifts in identity and activity of methanotrophs in arctic lake sediments in response to temperature changes.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-07-01

    Methane (CH(4)) flux to the atmosphere is mitigated via microbial CH(4) oxidation in sediments and water. As arctic temperatures increase, understanding the effects of temperature on the activity and identity of methanotrophs in arctic lake sediments is important to predicting future CH(4) emissions. We used DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and pyrosequencing analyses to identify and characterize methanotrophic communities active at a range of temperatures (4°C, 10°C, and 21°C) in sediments (to a depth of 25 cm) sampled from Lake Qalluuraq on the North Slope of Alaska. CH(4) oxidation activity was measured in microcosm incubations containing sediments at all temperatures, with the highest CH(4) oxidation potential of 37.5 μmol g(-1) day(-1) in the uppermost (depth, 0 to 1 cm) sediment at 21°C after 2 to 5 days of incubation. Q-PCR of pmoA and of the 16S rRNA genes of type I and type II methanotrophs, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in (13)C-labeled DNA obtained by SIP demonstrated that the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter, Methylomonas, and Methylosoma dominated carbon acquisition from CH(4) in the sediments. The identity and relative abundance of active methanotrophs differed with the incubation temperature. Methylotrophs were also abundant in the microbial community that derived carbon from CH(4), especially in the deeper sediments (depth, 15 to 20 cm) at low temperatures (4°C and 10°C), and showed a good linear relationship (R = 0.82) with the relative abundances of methanotrophs in pyrosequencing reads. This study describes for the first time how methanotrophic communities in arctic lake sediments respond to temperature variations.

  10. Variations in methane concentration and isotopic composition in a broad survey of lakes in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, A.; Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing methane emissions from thawing permafrost may represent a positive feedback to climate warming. Lakes are hotspots for permafrost thaw in summer due to low albedo, and warm, saturated sediments may mobilize a larger portion of thawed organic carbon as methane versus carbon dioxide than terrestrial soils. Thawing permafrost may also accelerate methane emissions via the release of previously trapped natural gas. As part of the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON), we have measured dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and stable isotope composition of methane (carbon-13 and deuterium) in approximately 65 lakes across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient in Arctic Alaska, with sampling conducted twice a year (April and August) for the past two years. We have two north-to-south sampling transects, one western transect starting in Barrow, AK and heading south to about 70 degrees N, and the other eastern transect heading south from Teshekpuk Lake to the Toolik Lake area. Methane concentrations were an average of ~500 times higher under ice than in open-water conditions, with average under-ice concentrations of about 25 micromoles per liter versus 50 nanomoles per liter in open water. It was also expected that southern lakes would have higher concentrations of methane in summer, consistent with the observed latitudinal temperature gradient. However, the highest methane concentrations were found in lakes in the western portion of the study domain, with no latitudinal trend. Total dissolved methane concentrations observed in summer 2012 ranged from 10 nanomoles per liter to 121 micromoles per liter in the western transect, and 7 nanomoles per liter to 1 micromole per liter in the eastern transect. Stable isotopic analyses indicated that many of the western transect lakes have thermogenic methane, such as that derived from fossil fuel formations. Longer-term sampling will help to indicate whether climate warming causes an increase in

  11. From the Arctic Lake to the Arctic Ocean: Radiogenic Isotope Signature of Transitional Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Veron, A. J.; Stevenson, R.; Carignan, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean was once an enclosed basin with fresh surface water conditions during the Paleocene and most of the Eocene epochs (e.g. Moran et al. 2004), until a readjustment in high latitude plate tectonics allowed North Atlantic marine water to flow into the Arctic basin some 36 Ma ago (Poirier and Hillaire-Marcel, 2011). This first input was sufficient to overprint the earlier osmium isotopic composition in the basin (ibid.) and deposit marine sediments on the Lomonosov Ridge between 36 Ma and present day. Here, we present Sr and Pb isotope signatures in the transitional layers of the same ACEX sequence from Lomonosov Ridge (ca. 190 to 210 mcd). Bulk sediment samples were leached prior to total dissolution in order to remove the hydrogeneous Sr fraction of the sediment. The Sr isotopic signature of the residual fraction is thought to reflect the origin of the sedimentary load that was deposited before, during, and after the transition (source tracing). Leaching was not required for the Pb isotope analyses as leached residues and bulk sediments yielded similar isotopic composition for the oxic sediments. Moreover, correction for in-situ production is needed within the anoxic lacustrine section (see below), so bulk sediments were measured. Above and below the lacustrine/marine boundary, we note relatively constant source provenances (or mixture of sources). This implies that the relative contributions from regional detrital sedimentary sources, and thus relative erosion rates over surrounding continents, did not change much on the long term scale. On the other hand, a sharp change in the isotopic compositions highlights the transition level itself, with an abrupt shift to low 87Sr/88Sr isotope compositions and by a smaller excursion in all three 204Pb-normalised lead isotopes compositions (corrected for in-situ decay of U). In the light of the recently revised age of the transitional layer (~36 Ma at the lacustrine/marine transition), this isotopic excursion

  12. Effects of long-term nutrient additions on Arctic tundra, stream, and lake ecosystems: beyond NPP.

    PubMed

    Gough, Laura; Bettez, Neil D; Slavik, Karie A; Bowden, William B; Giblin, Anne E; Kling, George W; Laundre, James A; Shaver, Gaius R

    2016-11-01

    Primary producers form the base of food webs but also affect other ecosystem characteristics, such as habitat structure, light availability, and microclimate. Here, we examine changes caused by 5-30+ years of nutrient addition and resulting increases in net primary productivity (NPP) in tundra, streams, and lakes in northern Alaska. The Arctic provides an important opportunity to examine how ecosystems characterized by low diversity and low productivity respond to release from nutrient limitation. We review how responses of algae and plants affect light availability, perennial biotic structures available for consumers, oxygen levels, and temperature. Sometimes, responses were similar across all three ecosystems; e.g., increased NPP significantly reduced light to the substrate following fertilization. Perennial biotic structures increased in tundra and streams but not in lakes, and provided important new habitat niches for consumers as well as other producers. Oxygen and temperature responses also differed. Life history traits (e.g., longevity) of the primary producers along with the fate of detritus drove the responses and recovery. As global change persists and nutrients become more available in the Arctic and elsewhere, incorporating these factors as response variables will enable better prediction of ecosystem changes and feedbacks in this biome and others.

  13. Identification of Younger Dryas outburst flood path from Lake Agassiz to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Murton, Julian B; Bateman, Mark D; Dallimore, Scott R; Teller, James T; Yang, Zhirong

    2010-04-01

    The melting Laurentide Ice Sheet discharged thousands of cubic kilometres of fresh water each year into surrounding oceans, at times suppressing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and triggering abrupt climate change. Understanding the physical mechanisms leading to events such as the Younger Dryas cold interval requires identification of the paths and timing of the freshwater discharges. Although Broecker et al. hypothesized in 1989 that an outburst from glacial Lake Agassiz triggered the Younger Dryas, specific evidence has so far proved elusive, leading Broecker to conclude in 2006 that "our inability to identify the path taken by the flood is disconcerting". Here we identify the missing flood path-evident from gravels and a regional erosion surface-running through the Mackenzie River system in the Canadian Arctic Coastal Plain. Our modelling of the isostatically adjusted surface in the upstream Fort McMurray region, and a slight revision of the ice margin at this time, allows Lake Agassiz to spill into the Mackenzie drainage basin. From optically stimulated luminescence dating we have determined the approximate age of this Mackenzie River flood into the Arctic Ocean to be shortly after 13,000 years ago, near the start of the Younger Dryas. We attribute to this flood a boulder terrace near Fort McMurray with calibrated radiocarbon dates of over 11,500 years ago. A large flood into the Arctic Ocean at the start of the Younger Dryas leads us to reject the widespread view that Agassiz overflow at this time was solely eastward into the North Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Future distribution of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus in Sweden under climate change: effects of temperature, lake size and species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Ohlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Novel communities will be formed as species with a variety of dispersal abilities and environmental tolerances respond individually to climate change. Thus, models projecting future species distributions must account for species interactions and differential dispersal abilities. We developed a species distribution model for Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, a freshwater fish that is sensitive both to warm temperatures and to species interactions. A logistic regression model using lake area, mean annual air temperature (1961-1990), pike Esox lucius and brown trout Salmo trutta occurrence correctly classified 95 % of 467 Swedish lakes. We predicted that Arctic char will lose 73 % of its range in Sweden by 2100. Predicted extinctions could be attributed both to simulated temperature increases and to projected pike invasions. The Swedish mountains will continue to provide refugia for Arctic char in the future and should be the focus of conservation efforts for this highly valued fish.

  15. Effects of sample mass and macrofossil type on radiocarbon dating of arctic and boreal lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W W; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Brubaker, L B; Hu, F S; Lozhkin, A V; Tinner, W; Kaltenrieder, P

    2006-05-29

    Dating lake sediments by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) {sup 14}C analysis of plant macrofossils overcomes one of the main problems associated with dating bulk sediment samples, the presence of old organic matter. Even so, many AMS dates from arctic and boreal sites appear to misrepresent the age of the sediment. To understand the nature of these apparent dating anomalies better, we conducted a series of {sup 14}C dating experiments using samples from Alaskan and Siberian lake-sediment cores. First, to test whether our analytical procedures introduced a sample-mass bias, we obtained {sup 14}C dates for different-sized pieces of single woody macrofossils. In these sample-mass experiments, sized statistically equivalent ages were found for samples as small as 0.05 mg C. Second, to assess whether macrofossil type influenced dating results, we conducted sample-type experiments in which {sup 14}C dates were obtained for different macrofossil types sieved from the same depth in the sediment. We dated materials from multiple levels in sediment cores from Upper Capsule Lake (North Slope, northern Alaska) and Grizzly Lake (Copper River Basin, southern Alaska), and from single depths in other records from northern Alaska. In several of the experiments there were significant discrepancies between dates for different plant tissues, and in most cases wood and charcoal were older than other macrofossil types, usually by several hundred years. This pattern suggests that {sup 14}C dates for woody macrofossils may misrepresent the age of the sediment by centuries, perhaps due to their longer terrestrial residence time and the potential in-built age of long-lived plants. This study identifies why some {sup 14}C dates appear to be inconsistent with the overall age-depth trend of a lake-sediment record, and it may guide the selection of {sup 14}C samples in future studies.

  16. Algal pigments record shifts in dominant primary productivity through the Holocene in an arctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, C.; Miller, G. H.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The character and magnitude of primary productivity in arctic lakes is largely controlled by climate. Organic compounds derived from pigments and preserved in lake sediments allow reconstruction of past abundances of algae that do not leave silicious microfossils. Fossil algal pigments are abundant in lake sediment and can be accurately quantified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Several groups of algae produce unique pigments that can be used to reconstruct their past abundance. In Qivitu Highlands Lake, eastern central Baffin Island, the ratio of pigments diatoxantin and lutein exhibits coherent changes through the Holocene. Diatoxanthin is produced by diatoms and chrysophytes, whereas lutein is produced by green algae and higher plants. Because these pigments are the dominant carotenoids in the sediment, they serve as proxies for the dominant group of primary producers. During the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the past century, lutein is much more abundant than diatoxanthin. During Neoglacial cooling and into the Little Ice Age, diatoxanthin becomes the dominant carotenoid. This shift reveals that there was a change in not only the magnitude of algal production, but also the most abundant type. The adaptation of aquatic algal assemblages to changing climate suggests that gross changes in primary productivity may not be suitable to track the abundance of one type of algal microfossil (such as diatoms) without considering the other algal groups. Higher plants also produce lutein, and its abundance is additionally influenced by the presence of terrestrial organic matter as well as aquatic macrophyte plants. We hypothesize that the prevalence of lutein during warm summers is due to a longer ice-free season, allowing the development of a greater biomass of green algae and macrophyte plants as well as possible increases of terrestrial higher plant communities. This is part of a larger study where the lutein to diatoxanthin ratio is compared to organic

  17. Methane Concentrations and Biogeochemistry in Lake Sediments from Stordalen Mire, Sub-Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, M.; DeStasio, J.; Erickson, L.; Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Setera, J.; Prado, M. F.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Lake sediments are an important global carbon sink of both allochthonous and autochthonous inputs. However, lakes are also known to emit carbon in gaseous form, most often as methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2), which are potent greenhouse gases. As northern latitudes warm, it is increasingly important to understand these gases and the sediments that store them. In July of 2013 we took 48 cores at 16 sites throughout three lakes surrounding a mire underlain by degrading permafrost in sub-arctic Sweden. The goal was to characterize the sedimentology and geochemistry of the lake sediments to better understand the production, distribution, and flux of CO2 and CH4 from these lakes. Villasjön is a shallow lake less than 1.5 meters deep, Mellan Harrsjön has a maximum depth of 7 meters and is stream-fed, and Inre Harrsjön has a maximum depth of 5 meters and is connected to Mellan Harrsjön. Published radiocarbon dates suggest that all three lakes formed approximately 3400 years ago. At each sample site, we retrieved 2 to 4 cores from the lake bottom, approximately 40-80 cm in length. The cores were sub-sampled for measurements of bulk TOC, TC, TN, TS, and CaCO3 (by difference) using a CHNS Elemental Analyzer, and grain size using a laser particle size analyzer. Headspace CO2 and CH4 by gas chromatography and infrared gas analysis (IRGA) yielded production rates and CH4 sediment concentrations. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from porewater extractions were analyzed using IRGA and stable carbon isotopes of DIC were analyzed via a Quantum Cascade Laser. The recovered sediments in the cores from all three lakes were composed of three layers: an upper layer of organic rich sediment (30-40 cm thick), a middle transition layer of mixed organic and lithogenic materials (5-10 cm thick), and a deep layer of grey lithogenic clay with less organic carbon (of variable thickness). Preliminary results from the 12 Villasjön sites indicate that CH4 is present and produced from the

  18. Methods to assess natural and anthropogenic thaw lake drainage on the western Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Beck, R.A.; Frohn, R.

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of lakes are found on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska and northwestern Canada. Developed atop continuous permafrost, these thaw lakes and associated drained thaw lake basins are the dominant landscape elements and together cover 46% of the 34,570 km2western Arctic Coastal Plain (WACP). Lakes drain by a variety of episodic processes, including coastal erosion, stream meandering, and headward erosion, bank overtopping, and lake coalescence. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery from the mid-1970s to Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+) imagery from around 2000 shows that 50 lakes completely or partially drained over the approximately 25 year period, indicating landscape stability. The lake-specific drainage mechanism can be inferred in some cases and is partially dependant on geographic settings conducive to active erosion such as riparian and coastal zones. In many cases, however, the cause of drainage is unknown. The availability of high-resolution aerial photographs for the Barrow Peninsula extends the record back to circa 1950; mapping spatial time series illustrates the dynamic nature of lake expansion, coalescence, and drainage. Analysis of these historical images suggests that humans have intentionally or inadvertently triggered lake drainage near the village of Barrow. Efforts to understand landscape processes and identify events have been enhanced by interviewing Iñupiaq elders and others practicing traditional subsistence lifestyles. They can often identify the year and process by which individual lakes drained, thereby providing greater dating precision and accuracy in assessing the causal mechanism. Indigenous knowledge has provided insights into events, landforms, and processes not previously identified or considered.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of gyres in oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska based on remotely sensed images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhan, Shengan; Beck, Richard A.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Liu, Hongxing; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of oriented thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska has been the subject of debate for more than half a century. The striking elongation of the lakes perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction has led to the development of a preferred wind-generated gyre hypothesis, while other hypotheses include a combination of sun angle, topographic aspect, and/or antecedent conditions. A spatio-temporal analysis of oriented thermokarst lake gyres with recent (Landsat 8) and historical (Landsat 4, 5, 7 and ASTER) satellite imagery of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska indicates that wind-generated gyres are both frequent and regionally extensive. Gyres are most common in lakes located near the Arctic coast after several days of sustained winds from a single direction, typically the northeast, and decrease in number landward with decreasing wind energy. This analysis indicates that the conditions necessary for the Carson and Hussey (1962) wind-generated gyre for oriented thermokarst lake formation are common temporally and regionally and correspond spatially with the geographic distribution of oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Given an increase in the ice-free season for lakes as well as strengthening of the wind regime, the frequency and distribution of lake gyres may increase. This increase has implications for changes in northern high latitude aquatic ecosystems, particularly if wind-generated gyres promote permafrost degradation and thermokarst lake expansion.

  20. Sedimentary Record of the Last two Interglacials in the Terrestrial Canadian Arctic (Pingualuit Crater Lake, Nunavik)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, G.; Guyard, H.; Pienitz, R.; Hausmann, S.; Francus, P.; Salonen, V.; Luoto, T.; Black, J.; Lamothe, M.; Zolitschka, B.; Larocque, I.

    2009-05-01

    The Pingualuit crater lake (Nunavik, Canada) resulted from a meteoritic impact that occurred ca. 1.4 million years ago. Due to its unique morphometry (depth and shape), the lake bottom may have escaped glacial erosion. Based on a punctual seismic profile acquired using a 12 kHz Knudsen echosounder and using both gravity and piston corers, we recovered the uppermost 8.5 m of sediments. High-resolution physical (CAT- Scan, Multi Sensor Core Logger, diffuse spectral reflectance), geochemical (ITRAX core scanner, carbon and nitrogen contents, δ13C of the organic matter) and magnetic (magnetic susceptibility, natural, anhysteretic, isothermal and saturation isothermal remanent magnetizations) analyses were performed. Two main lithofacies were clearly identified by the different measurements and likely represent successive interglacial/glacial cycles. Most of the sediment consists of light grey silts containing several angular rock fragments, that is characterized by very low organic carbon content, relatively high density and magnetic susceptibility values, suggesting a deposition during glacial conditions. Interbedded between this facies are at least two decimetre-thick, organic-rich and finely laminated intervals likely representing ice free periods. The presence of diatoms, chrysophytes and chironomid head capsules in smear and microscope slides from these two intervals supports this hypothesis. In addition, preliminary Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) measurements indicate that the upper organic-rich layer has an age coeval with the last interglacial (Oxygen Isotope Stage 5), while the age of the lower organic-rich layer is consistent with an older interglacial, likely the Oxygen Isotope Stage 7. The sedimentary infill thus constitutes a unique long-term terrestrial record of environmental and climatic conditions in the Canadian Arctic. Furthermore, because these sediments escaped glacial erosion, it suggests the presence of a subglacial lake during the last

  1. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST θ = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

  2. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global F(ST) θ = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global F(ST) = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats.

  3. Method- and species-specific detection probabilities of fish occupancy in Arctic lakes: Implications for design and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining species occurrence often fail to account for false absences in field sampling. We investigate detection probabilities of five gear types for six fish species in a sample of lakes on the North Slope, Alaska. We used an occupancy modeling approach to provide estimates of detection probabilities for each method. Variation in gear- and species-specific detection probability was considerable. For example, detection probabilities for the fyke net ranged from 0.82 (SE = 0.05) for least cisco (Coregonus sardinella) to 0.04 (SE = 0.01) for slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Detection probabilities were also affected by site-specific variables such as depth of the lake, year, day of sampling, and lake connection to a stream. With the exception of the dip net and shore minnow traps, each gear type provided the highest detection probability of at least one species. Results suggest that a multimethod approach may be most effective when attempting to sample the entire fish community of Arctic lakes. Detection probability estimates will be useful for designing optimal fish sampling and monitoring protocols in Arctic lakes.

  4. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Black Carbon Deposition to Dated Fennoscandian Arctic Lake Sediments from 1830 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Meri M; Gustafsson, Örjan; Rose, Neil L; Pesonen, Antto; Yang, Handong; Weckström, Jan; Palonen, Vesa; Oinonen, Markku J; Korhola, Atte

    2015-12-15

    Black carbon (BC) is fine particulate matter produced by the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. It has a strong climate warming effect that is amplified in the Arctic. Long-term trends of BC play an important role in assessing the climatic effects of BC and in model validation. However, few historical BC records exist from high latitudes. We present five lake-sediment soot-BC (SBC) records from the Fennoscandian Arctic and compare them with records of spheroidal carbonaceous fly-ash particles (SCPs), another BC component, for ca. the last 120 years. The records show spatial and temporal variation in SBC fluxes. Two northernmost lakes indicate declining values from 1960 to the present, which is consistent with modeled BC deposition and atmospheric measurements in the area. However, two lakes located closer to the Kola Peninsula (Russia) have recorded increasing SBC fluxes from 1970 to the present, which is likely caused by regional industrial emissions. The increasing trend is in agreement with a Svalbard ice-core-BC record. The results suggest that BC deposition in parts of the European Arctic may have increased over the last few decades, and further studies are needed to clarify the spatial extent of the increasing BC values and to ascertain the climatic implications.

  6. Multiple climatic signals inferred from the varved sediments of a coastal lake in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is extremely sensitive to climate change, and an influential part of the global climate system. However, the assessment of climate change and impacts from the Arctic remains a challenge mainly due to short and sparse meteorological records. In this context, data from natural paleoclimate archives are fundamental to place climate variability into perspective and assess the sensitivity of Earth's climate to natural and anthropogenic forcings. In particular, Arctic lakes are excellent potential archives. They are sensitive to extreme seasonal variations in surface processes and have a limited direct human impact. Nevertheless, the study of Arctic lakes is an analytical and technical challenge because: (i) limnological information are often lacking due to difficult accessibility; (ii) 210Pb inventories are low and terrestrial macrofossils for 14C dating are rare, which limits the development of precise sediment chronologies; and (iii) sediment accumulation rates are often low, which may restrict the temporal resolution and length of the paleoclimate records. Here, we present a high-resolution record from the varved sediments (annual laminations) of a saline coastal lake located in the Canadian High Arctic (unofficial name Chevalier Lake; Melville Island, NT). The particular interest of this location is the catchment area: 152 times larger than the lake area (Ac = 350 km²; AL = 2.3 km²). This particularity generates high sedimentation rates, atypical of previously studied arctic lakes. Two sediment cores were recovered from the centre and a more proximal zone of the lake. We used microstratigraphy supported by X-ray fluorescence data (Zr/K for particle size, Fe/Rb for the winter clay cap distinction) to develop a precise and cross-dated varve chronology covering the last 400 years. Dating of the uppermost section could be validated with preliminary 137Cs data. Stratigraphical analysis reveals the presence of three sediment units within the meter

  7. Ice-cover is the principal driver of ecological change in High Arctic lakes and ponds.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Katherine; Michelutti, Neal; Sugar, Madeline; Douglas, Marianne S V; Smol, John P

    2017-01-01

    Recent climate change has been especially pronounced in the High Arctic, however, the responses of aquatic biota, such as diatoms, can be modified by site-specific environmental characteristics. To assess if climate-mediated ice cover changes affect the diatom response to climate, we used paleolimnological techniques to examine shifts in diatom assemblages from ten High Arctic lakes and ponds from Ellesmere Island and nearby Pim Island (Nunavut, Canada). The sites were divided a priori into four groups ("warm", "cool", "cold", and "oasis") based on local elevation and microclimatic differences that result in differing lengths of the ice-free season, as well as about three decades of personal observations. We characterized the species changes as a shift from Condition 1 (i.e. a generally low diversity, predominantly epipelic and epilithic diatom assemblage) to Condition 2 (i.e. a typically more diverse and ecologically complex assemblage with an increasing proportion of epiphytic species). This shift from Condition 1 to Condition 2 was a consistent pattern recorded across the sites that experienced a change in ice cover with warming. The "warm" sites are amongst the first to lose their ice covers in summer and recorded the earliest and highest magnitude changes. The "cool" sites also exhibited a shift from Condition 1 to Condition 2, but, as predicted, the timing of the response lagged the "warm" sites. Meanwhile some of the "cold" sites, which until recently still retained an ice raft in summer, only exhibited this shift in the upper-most sediments. The warmer "oasis" ponds likely supported aquatic vegetation throughout their records. Consequently, the diatoms of the "oasis" sites were characterized as high-diversity, Condition 2 assemblages throughout the record. Our results support the hypothesis that the length of the ice-free season is the principal driver of diatom assemblage responses to climate in the High Arctic, largely driven by the establishment of new

  8. Ice-cover is the principal driver of ecological change in High Arctic lakes and ponds

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Katherine; Michelutti, Neal; Sugar, Madeline; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Recent climate change has been especially pronounced in the High Arctic, however, the responses of aquatic biota, such as diatoms, can be modified by site-specific environmental characteristics. To assess if climate-mediated ice cover changes affect the diatom response to climate, we used paleolimnological techniques to examine shifts in diatom assemblages from ten High Arctic lakes and ponds from Ellesmere Island and nearby Pim Island (Nunavut, Canada). The sites were divided a priori into four groups (“warm”, “cool”, “cold”, and “oasis”) based on local elevation and microclimatic differences that result in differing lengths of the ice-free season, as well as about three decades of personal observations. We characterized the species changes as a shift from Condition 1 (i.e. a generally low diversity, predominantly epipelic and epilithic diatom assemblage) to Condition 2 (i.e. a typically more diverse and ecologically complex assemblage with an increasing proportion of epiphytic species). This shift from Condition 1 to Condition 2 was a consistent pattern recorded across the sites that experienced a change in ice cover with warming. The “warm” sites are amongst the first to lose their ice covers in summer and recorded the earliest and highest magnitude changes. The “cool” sites also exhibited a shift from Condition 1 to Condition 2, but, as predicted, the timing of the response lagged the “warm” sites. Meanwhile some of the “cold” sites, which until recently still retained an ice raft in summer, only exhibited this shift in the upper-most sediments. The warmer “oasis” ponds likely supported aquatic vegetation throughout their records. Consequently, the diatoms of the “oasis” sites were characterized as high-diversity, Condition 2 assemblages throughout the record. Our results support the hypothesis that the length of the ice-free season is the principal driver of diatom assemblage responses to climate in the High Arctic

  9. Incipient speciation through niche expansion: an example from the Arctic charr in a subarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Rune; Klemetsen, Anders; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hermansen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Two reproductive isolated morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), termed profundal and littoral charr according to their different spawning habitats, co-occur in the postglacial lake Fjellfrøsvatn in North Norway. All profundal charr live in deep water their entire life and have a maximum size of 14 cm, while the littoral charr grow to 40 cm. Some small and young littoral charr move to the profundal zone in an ontogenetic habitat shift in the ice-free season and the rest of the population remains in epilimnic waters. The two morphs had different diet niches in the profundal zone: the profundal charr ate typical soft-bottom prey (chironomid larvae, pea mussels and benthic copepods), while the young littoral charr mainly consumed crustacean zooplankton. In four other lakes without a profundal morph (i.e. monomorphic populations), young charr also performed ontogenetic habitat shifts to the profundal zone and fed on zooplankton. The profundal morph of Fjellfrøsvatn therefore utilize a food resource niche that neither the littoral morph nor comparable monomorphic populations exploit. This suggests that intraspecific resource competition has driven incipient ecological speciation of the profundal charr of Fjellfrøsvatn. The exploitation of the soft-bottom resources by the profundal charr supports earlier experimental findings that the profundal morph is genetically different in trophic behaviour and morphology. The sympatric ecological divergence within the profundal habitat is possible because unexploited food resources (soft-bottom profundal prey) are available. Apparently, this represents a case of incipient segregation by expansion to new resource types (niche invasion), and not by subdivision of one broad ancestral niche. PMID:16928630

  10. Variation in scale shape among alternative sympatric phenotypes of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from two lakes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Paz, M V; Demetriou, M; Adams, C E

    2010-04-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis was used to detect differences in scale shape between ecologically distinct phenotypes of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus coexisting in the same lake. Relative warp analysis and standard multivariate analyses of the partial warps, obtained after a Procrustes superimposition, showed that scale landmarks were efficient in discriminating among two closely related alternative phenotypes within each of the two lakes. In Loch Tay, S. alpinus exhibited a bimodal body size-frequency distribution among sexually mature fish, whereas in Loch Awe, S. alpinus are unimodal in body size but segregated into two distinct spawning phenotypes. In both lakes, alternative phenotypes showed significant differences in foraging ecology, habitat use and life history. It is probable that differences in scale shape reflect differences in ecology of these forms.

  11. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    DOE PAGES

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; ...

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the activemore » layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.« less

  12. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.

  13. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B.J.; Carver, S.M.; Bockheim, J.G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G.W.; Hinkel, K.M.; Mueller, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures. PMID:26681584

  14. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in Arctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kao-Kniffin, J; Woodcroft, B J; Carver, S M; Bockheim, J G; Handelsman, J; Tyson, G W; Hinkel, K M; Mueller, C W

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus 'Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis' were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus 'M. stordalenmirensis' across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.

  15. Abundance and patterns of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in Arctic floodplain lakes of the Mackenzie River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateauvert, C. Adam; Lesack, Lance F. W.; Bothwell, Max L.

    2012-12-01

    The Mackenzie River Delta is a lake-rich arctic floodplain that receives high inputs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and suspended particulates from allochthonous and autochthonous sources, and may transfer carbon from dissolved to particulate phase via in situ formation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP provides food for grazers, surfaces for bacteria, and increased potential for aggregation and sedimentation of organic matter. During open water 2006, we tracked TEP abundances in three Delta lakes representing gradients that include declining river-to-lake connection times, increasing levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and declining chromophoric-DOM (CDOM). Unexpectedly, TEP abundances were highest immediately after the flood, when autochthonous autotrophic production was at a seasonal low and CDOM a seasonal high. Moreover, the lake with the strongest riverine influence and lowest levels of autochthonous autotrophic production had the highest mean TEP-carbon (TEP-C) concentrations among the lakes. The mean proportion of particulate organic carbon (POC) represented by TEP-C increased with increasing river connection time, and appears to represent a substantial proportion of POC in Mackenzie Delta Lakes. Unexpectedly, the TEP gradient was most strongly related to CDOM (river water source) rather than overall DOC. Variations in CDOM accounted for 53% of TEP-C variation among the lakes, indicating allochthonous matter was the most important source of TEP. DOC release from in situ macrophytes during periods of high photosynthesis may contribute to TEP formation in the lake with lowest riverine influence, but pH levels >9.5 driven by the high photosynthetic rates complicate the interpretation of results from this lake.

  16. A GCM comparison of Pleistocene super-interglacial periods in relation to Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, A. J.; DeConto, R. M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, the lack of time-continuous, terrestrial paleoenvironmental data from the Pleistocene Arctic has made model simulations of past interglacials difficult to assess. Here, we compare climate simulations of four warm interglacials at Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 1 (9 ka), 5e (127 ka), 11c (409 ka) and 31 (1072 ka) with new proxy climate data recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia. Climate reconstructions of the mean temperature of the warmest month (MTWM) indicate conditions up to 0.4, 2.1, 0.5 and 3.1 °C warmer than today during MIS 1, 5e, 11c and 31, respectively. While the climate model captures much of the observed warming during each interglacial, largely in response to boreal summer (JJA) orbital forcing, the extraordinary warmth of MIS 11c compared to the other interglacials in the Lake El'gygytgyn temperature proxy reconstructions remains difficult to explain. To deconvolve the contribution of multiple influences on interglacial warming at Lake El'gygytgyn, we isolated the influence of vegetation, sea ice and circum-Arctic land ice feedbacks on the modeled climate of the Beringian interior. Simulations accounting for climate-vegetation-land-surface feedbacks during all four interglacials show expanding boreal forest cover with increasing summer insolation intensity. A deglaciated Greenland is shown to have a minimal effect on northeast Asian temperature during the warmth of stages 11c and 31 (Melles et al., 2012). A prescribed enhancement of oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean does have some effect on Lake El'gygytgyn's regional climate, but the exceptional warmth of MIS l1c remains enigmatic compared to the modest orbital and greenhouse gas forcing during that interglacial.

  17. Correlating the presence of Sparganium angustifolium with methane ebullition in a subarctic Swedish lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilson, K.; Sampson, J. M.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.; Crawford, M.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide. It is released in the Arctic from the seafloor and sediments in melting permafrost regions. Lakes and ponds also emit methane to the atmosphere. Methane production in anoxic lake sediments is often controlled by the amount of available organic material and temperature. It is speculated that the amount and type of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in lakes can also affect methane production in two ways; by either providing a source of carbon (C) for methane production and/or releasing oxygen into the sediment through the roots to hinder production. We sampled SAV at 63 locations on Mellan Harrsjön, a small post-glacial lake in a permafrost setting in sub-arctic Sweden (N 68°21', E 19°02'). We also measured percent cover of the vegetation, dissolved oxygen, temperature, depth and other variables. We found that the most abundant species, Sparganium angustifolium, occurred in areas with high ebullitive methane emissions from previous studies and therefore provides a carbon source for CH4 production. We also found that over a ten day period percent cover of Sparganium angustifolium increased, with increasing water temperatures, from 37 to 49%. With Arctic warming, high latitude lakes are likely to experience an earlier ice-out and later freeze-up. Because of this, SAV growth is likely to increase and provide a more stable carbon source for CH4 production.

  18. Pleistocene sediments of Lake Baikal: Lithology and stratigraphic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akulov, N. I.; Mashchuk, I. M.; Akulova, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cenozoic sediments of Lake Baikal penetrated by boreholes and investigated by the manned submersible Pisces, as well as coeval deposits cropping out in beach scarps, recovered by mine workings, and drilled in the coastal zone were the object of this investigation. The main attention was paid to Pleistocene bottom sediments penetrated by Borehole BDP-99-2. The investigations included the detailed analysis of the lithology (grain-size composition, immersion mineralogy of light and heavy fractions, X-ray structural analysis of clayey fraction) and palynological assemblages to specify facies features of Cenozoic sediments, correlate all their known stratigraphic units constituting the sedimentary section of the lake with their analogs in the onshore part of the Baikal rift zone, and compile the composite Cenozoic section. The following features of these sediments are noted: (1) as a whole, Pleistocene sediments are characterized by the hydromica-smectite composition of their clayey fraction with an insignificant share of kaoline; (2) the heavy fraction is dominated by the terrigenous epidote-amphibole association poorly resistant to weathering; (3) Pleistocene sediments of the lake contain siderite, vivianite, pyrite, and goethite concretions and micrometeorites, in addition to well-known ferromanganese nodules; (4) the presence of relict palynomorphs in Pleistocene sediments of Baikal is determined by their erosion from Miocene and Pliocene cavernous clays cropping out on underwater slopes of the Posol'skaya Bank and subsequent reburial along with Pleistocene palynological assemblages.

  19. Diet of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) in Arctic lakes during the nesting season inferred from fatty acid analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, T B; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Iverson, S J; Padula, V. M.; Rosenberger, A E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dietary habits of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) can give important insights into their ecology, however, studying the diet of loons is difficult when direct observation or specimen collection is impractical. We investigate the diet of yellow-billed loons nesting on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska using quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Tissue analysis from 26 yellow-billed loons and eleven prey groups (nine fish species and two invertebrate groups) from Arctic lakes suggests that yellow-billed loons are eating high proportions of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) during late spring and early summer. The prominence of blackfish in diets highlights the widespread availability of blackfish during the early stages of loon nesting, soon after spring thaw. The high proportions of broad whitefish and three-spined stickleback may reflect a residual signal from the coastal staging period prior to establishing nesting territories on lakes, when loons are more likely to encounter these species. Our analyses were sensitive to the choice of calibration coefficient based on data from three different species, indicating the need for development of loon-specific coefficients for future study and confirmation of our results. Regardless, fish that are coastally distributed and that successfully overwinter in lakes are likely key food items for yellow-billed loons early in the nesting season.

  20. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from ponds and lakes of the Eastern Canadian Arctic (Bylot Island, Nunavut)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Prėskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission rate of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local conditions, hindering pan-Arctic generalizations. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems located on Bylot Island, in the continuous permafrost zone of the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes. The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, 1 or 2 orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (< 550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (> 2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on GHG emissions by permafrost aquatic systems and their potential positive feedback effect on climate.

  1. Parameterizing correlations between hydrometeor species in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Vincent E.; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Fan, Jiwen; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-phase Arctic clouds, like other clouds, contain small-scale variability in hydrometeor fields, such as cloud water or snow mixing ratio. This variability may be worth parameterizing in coarse-resolution numerical models. In particular, for modeling multispecies processes such as accretion and aggregation, it would be useful to parameterize subgrid correlations among hydrometeor species. However, one difficulty is that there exist many hydrometeor species and many microphysical processes, leading to complexity and computational expense. Existing lower and upper bounds on linear correlation coefficients are too loose to serve directly as a method to predict subgrid correlations. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative method that begins with the spherical parameterization framework of Pinheiro and Bates (1996), which expresses the correlation matrix in terms of its Cholesky factorization. The values of the elements of the Cholesky matrix are populated here using a "cSigma" parameterization that we introduce based on the aforementioned bounds on correlations. The method has three advantages: (1) the computational expense is tolerable; (2) the correlations are, by construction, guaranteed to be consistent with each other; and (3) the methodology is fairly general and hence may be applicable to other problems. The method is tested noninteractively using simulations of three Arctic mixed-phase cloud cases from two field experiments: the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Benchmark simulations are performed using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model that includes a bin microphysical scheme. The correlations estimated by the new method satisfactorily approximate the correlations produced by the LES.

  2. Parameterizing correlations between hydrometeor species in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Vincent E.; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Fan, Jiwen; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2011-08-16

    Mixed-phase Arctic clouds, like other clouds, contain small-scale variability in hydrometeor fields, such as cloud water or snow mixing ratio. This variability may be worth parameterizing in coarse-resolution numerical models. In particular, for modeling processes such as accretion and aggregation, it would be useful to parameterize subgrid correlations among hydrometeor species. However, one difficulty is that there exist many hydrometeor species and many microphysical processes, leading to complexity and computational expense.Existing lower and upper bounds (inequalities) on linear correlation coefficients provide useful guidance, but these bounds are too loose to serve directly as a method to predict subgrid correlations. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative method that is based on a blend of theory and empiricism. The method begins with the spherical parameterization framework of Pinheiro and Bates (1996), which expresses the correlation matrix in terms of its Cholesky factorization. The values of the elements of the Cholesky matrix are parameterized here using a cosine row-wise formula that is inspired by the aforementioned bounds on correlations. The method has three advantages: 1) the computational expense is tolerable; 2) the correlations are, by construction, guaranteed to be consistent with each other; and 3) the methodology is fairly general and hence may be applicable to other problems. The method is tested non-interactively using simulations of three Arctic mixed-phase cloud cases from two different field experiments: the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE). Benchmark simulations are performed using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model that includes a bin microphysical scheme. The correlations estimated by the new method satisfactorily approximate the correlations produced by the LES.

  3. Radiocarbon age-offsets in an arctic lake reveal the long-term response of permafrost carbon to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Pohlman, John W.; Kunz, Michael L.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Continued warming of the Arctic may cause permafrost to thaw and speed the decomposition of large stores of soil organic carbon (OC), thereby accentuating global warming. However, it is unclear if recent warming has raised the current rates of permafrost OC release to anomalous levels or to what extent soil carbon release is sensitive to climate forcing. Here we use a time series of radiocarbon age-offsets (14C) between the bulk lake sediment and plant macrofossils deposited in an arctic lake as an archive for soil and permafrost OC release over the last 14,500 years. The lake traps and archives OC imported from the watershed and allows us to test whether prior warming events stimulated old carbon release and heightened age-offsets. Today, the age-offset (2 ka; thousand of calibrated years before A.D. 1950) and the depositional rate of ancient OC from the watershed into the lake are relatively low and similar to those during the Younger Dryas cold interval (occurring 12.9–11.7 ka). In contrast, age-offsets were higher (3.0–5.0 ka) when summer air temperatures were warmer than present during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (11.7–9.0 ka) and Bølling-Allerød periods (14.5–12.9 ka). During these warm times, permafrost thaw contributed to ancient OC depositional rates that were ~10 times greater than today. Although permafrost OC was vulnerable to climate warming in the past, we suggest surface soil organic horizons and peat are presently limiting summer thaw and carbon release. As a result, the temperature threshold to trigger widespread permafrost OC release is higher than during previous warming events.

  4. High Resolution CH4 Emissions and Dissolved CH4 Measurements Elucidate Surface Gas Exchange Processes in Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sontro, T.; Sollberger, S.; Kling, G. W.; Shaver, G. R.; Eugster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 14% of the Alaskan North Slope is covered in lakes of various sizes and depths. Diffusive carbon emissions (CH4 and CO2) from these lakes offset the tundra sink by ~20 %, but the offset would substantially increase if ebullitive CH4 emissions were also considered. Ultimately, arctic lake CH4 emissions are not insignificant in the global CH4 budget and their contribution is bound to increase due to impacts from climate change. Here we present high resolution CH4 emission data as measured via eddy covariance and a Los Gatos gas analyzer during the ice free period from Toolik Lake, a deep (20 m) Arctic lake located on the Alaskan North Slope, over the last few summers. Emissions are relatively low (< 25 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) with little variation over the summer. Diurnal variations regularly occur, however, with up to 3 times higher fluxes at night. Gas exchange is a relatively difficult process to estimate, but is normally done so as the product of the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface and the gas transfer velocity, k. Typically, k is determined based on the turbulence on the water side of the interface, which is most commonly approximated by wind speed; however, it has become increasingly apparent that this assumption does not remain valid across all water bodies. Dissolved CH4 profiles in Toolik revealed a subsurface peak in CH4 at the thermocline of up to 3 times as much CH4 as in the surface water. We hypothesize that convective mixing at night due to cooling surface waters brings the subsurface CH4 to the surface and causes the higher night fluxes. In addition to high resolution flux emission estimates, we also acquired high resolution data for dissolved CH4 in surface waters of Toolik Lake during the last two summers using a CH4 equilibrator system connected to a Los Gatos gas analyzer. Thus, having both the flux and the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface measured directly, we can calculate k and investigate the processes influencing

  5. Climate Effects on Methylmercury Bioaccumulation Along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetelat, J.; Richardson, M.; MacMillan, G. A.; Amyot, M.; Hintelmann, H.; Crump, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inorganic mercury (Hg) loadings to Arctic lakes decline with latitude. However, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in fish and their prey do not decline in a similar fashion, suggesting that higher latitude lakes are more vulnerable to Hg inputs. Preliminary results will be presented from a three-year study (2012-2015) of climate effects on MMHg bioaccumulation in lakes of the eastern Canadian Arctic. We have investigated mercury transport and accumulation processes in lakes and ponds from three study regions along a latitudinal gradient in climate-controlled ecosystem types in the Canadian Arctic, specifically sub-Arctic taiga, Arctic tundra and polar desert. In each water body, we measured key aspects of MMHg bioaccumulation—MMHg bioavailability to benthic food webs and organism growth rates—as well as how watershed characteristics affect the transport of Hg and organic carbon to lakes. Novel approaches were incorporated including the use of passive samplers (Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film samplers or DGTs) to estimate sediment bioavailable MMHg concentrations and tissue RNA content to compare organism short-term growth rates. A comparison of Arctic tundra and sub-Arctic taiga lakes showed that surface water concentrations of MMHg were strongly and positively correlated to total Hg concentrations both within and among study regions, implying strong control of inorganic Hg supply. Sediment concentrations of bioavailable MMHg were highly variable among lakes, although average concentrations were similar between study regions. Local environmental conditions appear to have a strong influence on sediment potential for MMHg supply. Lake-dwelling Arctic char from tundra lakes had similar or higher total Hg concentrations compared with brook trout from sub-Arctic lakes that were exposed to higher water MMHg concentrations. Potential environmental drivers of these patterns will be discussed. This latitudinal study will provide new

  6. Swimming endurance of bull trout, lake trout, arctic char, and rainbow trout following challenge with Renibacterium salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.T.; Moffitt, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the swimming endurance of juvenile bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, lake trout S. namaycush, Arctic char S. alpinus, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 9??C and 15??C to determine whether sublethal infection from a moderate challenge of Renibacterium salmoninarum administered months before testing affected the length of time fish could maintain a swimming speed of 5-6 body lengths per second in an experimental flume. Rainbow trout and Arctic char swam longer in trials than did bull trout or lake trout, regardless of challenge treatment. When we tested fish 14-23 weeks postchallenge, we found no measurable effect of R. salmoninarum on the swimming endurance of the study species except for bull trout, which showed a mixed response. We conducted additional trials with bull trout 5-8 weeks postchallenge to determine whether increasing the challenge dose would affect swimming endurance and hematocrit. In those tests, bull trout with clinical signs of disease and those exposed to the highest challenge doses had significantly reduced swimming endurance compared with unchallenged control fish. Fish hematocrit levels measured at the end of all swimming endurance tests varied among species and between test temperatures, and patterns were not always consistent between challenged and control fish.

  7. 2.8 Million Years of Arctic Climate Change from Deep Drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Wennrich, V.; Nowaczyk, N.; DeConto, R.; Anderson, P.; Andreev, A.; Haltia-Hovi, E.; Kukkonen, M.; Lozhkin, A.; Rosén, P.; Tarasov, P.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific deep drilling at Lake El'gygtygyn in Chukotka, northeastern Russia (67.5 °N, 172 °E) revealed the first high-resolution record of environmental history in the Arctic that spans the past 2.8 Ma continuously (Melles et al. 2012). In this presentation we focus on the end-member glacial and interglacial climatic conditions during this period as clearly reflected in the pelagic lake sediments recovered. Peak glacial conditions, when mean annual air temperatures at least 4 (± 0.5) °C lower than today led to perennial lake ice (Nolan 2012), first appeared at Lake El'gygytgyn 2.602 - 2.598 Ma ago, during marine isotope stage (MIS) 104. These pervasive glacial episodes gradually increase in frequency from ~2.3 to ~1.8 Ma, eventually concurring with all glacials and several stadials reflected globally in stacked marine isotope records. Particularly warm interglacials, in contrast, experienced a long ice-free season and enhanced nutrient supply from the catchment, which allowed for significantly higher primary production than today. These settings were most pronounced for MIS 11c, 31, 49, 55, 77, 87, 91, and 93. Their exceptional character becomes evident based upon pollen-based climate reconstructions in selected interglacials, showing that the mean temperature of the warmest month and the annual precipitation during the thermal maxima of MIS 11c and 31 ("super" interglacials) were 4-5 °C and ~300 mm higher than those of MIS 1 and 5e ("normal" interglacials), respectively. According to climate simulations, the exceptional warm and moist climates at least during MIS 11c cannot be explained by the natural variability in Earth's orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations alone. A remarkable coincidence of the super interglacials at Lake El'gygytgyn with diatomite layers in the Antarctic ANDRILL 1B, which reflect periods of a diminished West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) (Naish et al. 2009, Pollard and DeConto 2009), suggests intra-hemispheric climate

  8. Mapping pan-Arctic CH4 emissions using an adjoint method by integrating process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models and atmospheric CH4 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z.; Zhuang, Q.; Henze, D. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Turner, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding CH4 emissions from wetlands and lakes are critical for the estimation of Arctic carbon balance under fast warming climatic conditions. To date, our knowledge about these two CH4 sources is almost solely built on the upscaling of discontinuous measurements in limited areas to the whole region. Many studies indicated that, the controls of CH4 emissions from wetlands and lakes including soil moisture, lake morphology and substrate content and quality are notoriously heterogeneous, thus the accuracy of those simple estimates could be questionable. Here we apply a high spatial resolution atmospheric inverse model (nested-grid GEOS-Chem Adjoint) over the Arctic by integrating SCIAMACHY and NOAA/ESRL CH4 measurements to constrain the CH4 emissions estimated with process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models. Our modeling experiments using different wetland CH4 emission schemes and satellite and surface measurements show that the total amount of CH4 emitted from the Arctic wetlands is well constrained, but the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions is sensitive to priors. For CH4 emissions from lakes, our high-resolution inversion shows that the models overestimate CH4 emissions in Alaskan costal lowlands and East Siberian lowlands. Our study also indicates that the precision and coverage of measurements need to be improved to achieve more accurate high-resolution estimates.

  9. Statistical topography as a mechanistic model for the geometry & size distribution of tidal mud puddles, Arctic melt ponds, & terrestrial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Brendan

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the last decade have reported power law distributions for the sizes of terrestrial lakes & Arctic melt ponds, as well as relationships between their area & the fractal dimension of their contours. These systems are important for the climate system, in terms of carbon cycling & ice-albedo feedback, respectively; these distributions offer promise for improved quantification & description of their influence. However, a mechanistic explanation of their distribution is lacking, & both systems remain difficult to observe logistically. Here we report 1) a simple mechanistic model for the distribution of lakes & melt ponds, based on statistical topography, which neatly predicts their distribution & the relationship between area & fractal dimension, as well as 2) the existence of a similar phenomena in tidal mud flats. Data was collected at low tide in a tidal bed near Damariscotta, Maine, which reveals a power law size distribution over a large dynamic range & a well-defined compatible fractal dimension. This data set significantly extends the observed spatiotemporal range of such phenomena, & suggests this easily observable system may be an ideal model for lakes & melt ponds. MIT-WHOI Jiont Program, Physical Oceanography.

  10. Spatial variation in landscape-level CO2 and CH4 fluxes from arctic coastal tundra: influence from vegetation, wetness, and the thaw lake cycle.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Cove S; Oechel, Walter C

    2013-09-01

    Regional quantification of arctic CO2 and CH4 fluxes remains difficult due to high landscape heterogeneity coupled with a sparse measurement network. Most of the arctic coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska is part of the thaw lake cycle, which includes current thaw lakes and a 5500-year chronosequence of vegetated thaw lake basins. However, spatial variability in carbon fluxes from these features remains grossly understudied. Here, we present an analysis of whole-ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes from 20 thaw lake cycle features during the 2011 growing season. We found that the thaw lake cycle was largely responsible for spatial variation in CO2 flux, mostly due to its control on gross primary productivity (GPP). Current lakes were significant CO2 sources that varied little. Vegetated basins showed declining GPP and CO2 sink with age (R(2) = 67% and 57%, respectively). CH4 fluxes measured from a subset of 12 vegetated basins showed no relationship with age or CO2 flux components. Instead, higher CH4 fluxes were related to greater landscape wetness (R(2) = 57%) and thaw depth (additional R(2) = 28%). Spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 fluxes had good satellite remote sensing indicators, and we estimated the region to be a small CO2 sink of -4.9 ± 2.4 (SE) g C m(-2) between 11 June and 25 August, which was countered by a CH4 source of 2.1 ± 0.2 (SE) g C m(-2) . Results from our scaling exercise showed that developing or validating regional estimates based on single tower sites can result in significant bias, on average by a factor 4 for CO2 flux and 30% for CH4 flux. Although our results are specific to the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska, the degree of landscape-scale variability, large-scale controls on carbon exchange, and implications for regional estimation seen here likely have wide relevance to other arctic landscapes.

  11. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Deep lakes in the Polar Urals - unique archives for reconstructing the Quaternary climate and glacial history in the Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, J.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Henriksen, M.; Lohne, O. S.; Mangerud, J.; Nazarov, D.

    2009-12-01

    A lake coring campaign in the Polar Urals is carried out within the framework of the Norwegian-Russian IPY-project “The Ice Age Development and Human Settlement in Northern Eurasia” (ICEHUS). The overall aim of the project is to improve the description and understanding of the Late Quaternary environmental and climate changes in the Russian Arctic and how these changes may have affected the early human occupation. In order to obtain a continuous record of climate variability back in time seismic records and sediment cores have been collected from selected mountain lakes. The summer of 2009 we cored two lakes situated near the water shed in the interior northernmost Urals. Seismic profiles show that both these glacially eroded basins contain thick sequences of Quaternary sediments. The thickest strata were found in Bolshoye Shuchye, the largest and deepest lake in the Ural Mountains. This lake is 13 km long and 140 m deep and contains more than 130 m of acoustically laminated sediments. These strata probably accumulated over a rather long time span, possibly covering several interglacial-glacial cycles. Up to 24 m long cores were obtained from the lake floors. We anticipate that they will provide unique high resolution records of the climate and glacial history during the last Ice Age. The seismic records and the sediment cores will form a well-founded basis for assessing the potential and possibilities to core also the deeper strata that could not be reached with the applied coring equipment. In view of the obtained results from the investigated basins, as well as other geological and geochronological data from the surrounding areas, we find it highly unlikely that any glaciers extended into these lakes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), supporting our current hypothesis that the local glaciers in the Polar Urals remained small during the LGM. Our observations indicate that the mountain valleys have been essentially ice free since Marine Isotope Stage 4, at

  13. Arctic lakes and streams as gas conduits to the atmosphere: Implications for tundra carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, G.W. ); Kipphut, G.W. ); Miller, M.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Arctic tundra has large amounts of stored carbon and is thought to be a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) (0.1 to 0.3 petagram of carbon per year) (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams). But this estimate of carbon balance is only for terrestrial ecosystems. Measurements of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in 29 aquatic ecosystems across arctic Alaska showed that in most cases (27 of 29) CO{sub 2} was released to the atmosphere. This CO{sub 2} probably originates in terrestrial environments; erosion of particulate carbon plus ground-water transport of dissolved carbon from tundra contribute to the CO{sub 2} flux from surface waters to the atmosphere. If this mechanism is typical of that of other tundra areas, then current estimates of the arctic terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2} may be 20 percent too high. 1 table, 2 figs., 21 refs.

  14. Correlation and Trend Studies of the Sea Ice Cover and Surface Temperatures in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Co-registered and continuous satellite data of sea ice concentrations and surface ice temperatures from 1981 to 1999 are analyzed to evaluate relationships between these two critical climate parameters and what they reveal in tandem about the changing Arctic environment. During the 18-year period, the actual Arctic ice area is shown to be declining at a rate of 3.1 +/- 0.4 % /decade while the surface ice temperature has been increasing at 0.4 +/- 0.2 K /decade. Yearly anomaly maps also show that the ice concentration anomalies are predominantly positive in the 1980s and negative in the 1990s while surface temperature anomalies were mainly negative in the 1980s and positive in the 1990s. The yearly ice concentration and surface temperature anomalies are shown to be highly correlated indicating a strong link especially in the seasonal region and around the periphery of the perennial ice cover. The surface temperature data are also especially useful in providing the real spatial scope of each warming (or cooling) phenomenon that usually extends beyond the boundaries of the sea ice cover. Studies of the temporal variability of the summer ice minimum also reveal that the perennial ice cover has been declining at the rate of 6.6% /decade while the summer surface ice temperature has been increasing at the rate of 1.3 K /decade. Moreover, high year-to-year fluctuations in the minimum ice cover in the 1990s may have caused reductions in average thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover.

  15. New permafrost is forming around shrinking Arctic lakes, but will it last?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Voss, Clifford I.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lake shrinkage in cold regions has been linked to climate warming and permafrost thaw. Permafrost aggradation, however, has been observed within the margins of recently receded lakes, in seeming contradiction of climate warming. Here permafrost aggradation dynamics are examined at Twelvemile Lake, a retreating lake in interior Alaska. Observations reveal patches of recently formed permafrost within the dried lake margin, colocated with discrete bands of willow shrub. We test ecological succession, which alters shading, infiltration, and heat transport, as the driver of aggradation using numerical simulation of variably saturated groundwater flow and heat transport with phase change (i.e., freeze-thaw). Simulations support permafrost development under current climatic conditions, but only when net effects of vegetation on soil conditions are incorporated, thus pointing to the role of ecological succession. Furthermore, model results indicate that permafrost aggradation is transitory with further climate warming, as new permafrost thaws within seven decades.

  16. A 37,000-year environmental magnetic record of aeolian dust deposition from Burial Lake, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Finkenbinder, M. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Xuan, C.; St-Onge, G.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental magnetism and radiocarbon dating of Burial Lake sediments constrain the timing and magnitude of regional aeolian deposition for the Noatak region of western Arctic Alaska for the last ∼37,000 years. Burial Lake (68.43°N, 159.17°W, 21.5 m water depth) is optimally located to monitor regional dust deposition because it is perched above local drainage and isolated from glacial processes. Cores collected in the summer of 2010 were studied through the application of magnetizations and progressive alternating field (AF) demagnetization of u-channel samples, with additional data provided by computed tomography (CT) derived density, hysteresis measurements, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiments, organic carbon content, biogenic silica, physical grain size, radiocarbon dating of wood, seeds, and plant macrofossils, point source magnetic susceptibility, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). With similar magnetic properties to regional Alaskan loess deposits, low coercivity, highly magnetic material deposited during the late-Pleistocene contrasts with a high coercivity, weakly magnetic component found throughout the record, consistent with locally-derived detritus. The relative proportion of low coercivity to high coercivity magnetic material, defined by the S-Ratios, is used to reconstruct the regional input of dust to the basin over time. A four-fold decrease in the low coercivity component through the deglacial transition is interpreted to reflect diminished dust input to the region. Comparisons with potential sources of dust show that the timing of deposition in Burial Lake is largely consistent with general aridity, lack of vegetative cover, and increased windiness, rather than glacial advances or retreats. The influence from subaerial exposure of continental shelves cannot be ruled out as a significant far-field source of dust to interior Alaska during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but is unlikely to have been the sole source, or to

  17. Pliocene and Quaternary climate evolution of the high Western Arctic derived from initial geochemistry and FTIRS data of the Lake El`gygytgyn sediments, NE Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennrich, V.; Kukkonen, M.; Meyer-Jacob, C.; Minyuk, P.; Rosen, P.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    High arctic Lake El‘gygytgyn (67°30’ N, 172°05’ E) is a 3.6 Ma old meteorite crater lake located in Chukotka/NE Siberia, 100 km to the north of the Arctic Circle. With its continuous and undisturbed sequence since the Pliocene, the lake comprises the most long-lasting climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. In spring 2009, the ICDP El‘gygytgyn Drilling Project recovered the 317-m long lacustrine sediment record from 170 m water depth at site D1 in the central lake part. Here we present initial results of elemental analyses as well as infrared spectroscopy of this record. The elemental composition of the lake sediment was investigated by a combination of high-resolution element analyses using an ITRAX X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner (Cox Analytics), and conventional XRF spectrometry. The results well reflect variations in sedimentation, weathering, lake hydrology and productivity mostly triggered by glacial-interglacial cycles. Furthermore, due to the high spatial resolution of the ITRAX even short-term fluctuations of those proxies could be detected, displaying the sensitivity of the Lake El‘gygytgyn sediments to regional and global climate changes on a decadal to centennial scale. Measurements of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIRS) in the mid-infrared (MIR) region were conducted to quantitatively estimate contents of biogenic silica (BSi), total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in Lake El‘gygytgyn sediments. Simultaneous inference of these components is possible because IR-spectra in the MIR-region contain a wide variety of information on minerogenic and organic substances. The technique requires only small amounts (0.01g dry weight) of sample material and negligible sample pre-treatments. FTIRS calibrations for BSi, TN, TOC, and TIC based on core catcher samples of the sediment sequence yielded good statistical performances and emphasize the potential of the technique for high

  18. Seasonal Change in Trophic Niche of Adfluvial Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Coexisting Fishes in a High-Elevation Lake System.

    PubMed

    Cutting, Kyle A; Cross, Wyatt F; Anderson, Michelle L; Reese, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of non-native species is a leading threat to global aquatic biodiversity. Competition between native and non-native species is often influenced by changes in suitable habitat or food availability. We investigated diet breadth and degree of trophic niche overlap for a fish assemblage of native and non-native species inhabiting a shallow, high elevation lake system. This assemblage includes one of the last remaining post-glacial endemic populations of adfluvial Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in the contiguous United States. We examined gut contents and stable isotope values of fish taxa in fall and spring to assess both short- (days) and long-term (few months) changes in trophic niches. We incorporate these short-term (gut contents) data into a secondary isotope analysis using a Bayesian statistical framework to estimate long-term trophic niche. Our data suggest that in this system, Arctic grayling share both a short- and long-term common food base with non-native trout of cutthroat x rainbow hybrid species (Oncorhynchus clarkia bouvieri x Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). In addition, trophic niche overlap among Arctic grayling, hybrid trout, and brook trout appeared to be stronger during spring than fall. In contrast, the native species of Arctic grayling, burbot (Lota lota), and suckers (Catostomus spp.) largely consumed different prey items. Our results suggest strong seasonal differences in trophic niche overlap among Arctic grayling and non-native trout, with a potential for greatest competition for food during spring. We suggest that conservation of endemic Arctic grayling in high-elevation lakes will require recognition of the potential for coexisting non-native taxa to impede well-intentioned recovery efforts.

  19. Seasonal Change in Trophic Niche of Adfluvial Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Coexisting Fishes in a High-Elevation Lake System

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Anderson, Michelle L.; Reese, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of non-native species is a leading threat to global aquatic biodiversity. Competition between native and non-native species is often influenced by changes in suitable habitat or food availability. We investigated diet breadth and degree of trophic niche overlap for a fish assemblage of native and non-native species inhabiting a shallow, high elevation lake system. This assemblage includes one of the last remaining post-glacial endemic populations of adfluvial Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in the contiguous United States. We examined gut contents and stable isotope values of fish taxa in fall and spring to assess both short- (days) and long-term (few months) changes in trophic niches. We incorporate these short-term (gut contents) data into a secondary isotope analysis using a Bayesian statistical framework to estimate long-term trophic niche. Our data suggest that in this system, Arctic grayling share both a short- and long-term common food base with non-native trout of cutthroat x rainbow hybrid species (Oncorhynchus clarkia bouvieri x Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). In addition, trophic niche overlap among Arctic grayling, hybrid trout, and brook trout appeared to be stronger during spring than fall. In contrast, the native species of Arctic grayling, burbot (Lota lota), and suckers (Catostomus spp.) largely consumed different prey items. Our results suggest strong seasonal differences in trophic niche overlap among Arctic grayling and non-native trout, with a potential for greatest competition for food during spring. We suggest that conservation of endemic Arctic grayling in high-elevation lakes will require recognition of the potential for coexisting non-native taxa to impede well-intentioned recovery efforts. PMID:27205901

  20. Diagenetic regimes in Arctic Ocean sediments: Implications for sediment geochemistry and core correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, A.-K.; März, C.; Schuth, S.; Lettmann, K. A.; Schnetger, B.; Wolff, J.-O.; Brumsack, H.-J.

    2016-09-01

    Dark brown sediment layers are a potential stratigraphic tool in Quaternary Arctic Ocean sediments. They are rich in Mn, Fe, and trace metals scavenged from the water column and were most likely deposited during interglacial intervals. In this study, we combine sediment and pore water data from sediment cores taken in different parts of the Arctic Ocean to investigate the influence of early diagenetic processes on sediment geochemistry. In most studied cores, Mn, Co, and Mo are released into the pore waters from Mn oxide dissolution in deeper (>1.5 m) sediment layers. The relationship between sedimentary Mn, Co, and Mo contents in excess of the lithogenic background (elementxs) shows that Coxs/Moxs values are a diagnostic tool to distinguish between layers with diagenetic metal addition from the pore waters (Coxs/Moxs < 1), layers affected by Mn oxide dissolution and metal release (Coxs/Moxs > 10), and unaffected layers (Coxs/Moxs from 1 to 10). Steady-state calculations based on current pore water profiles reveal that in the studied cores, the diagenetic addition of these metals from the pore water pool alone is not sufficient to produce the sedimentary metal enrichments. However, it seems evident that dissolution of Mn oxides in the Mn reduction zone can permanently alter the primary geochemical signature of the dark brown layers. Therefore, pore water data and Coxs/Moxs values should be considered before core correlation when this correlation is solely based on Mn contents and dark sediment color. In contrast to the mostly non-lithogenic origin of Mn in the dark brown layers, sedimentary Fe consists of a large lithogenic (80%) and a small non-lithogenic fraction (20%). Our pore water data show that diagenetic Fe remobilization is not currently occurring in the sediment. The dominant Fe sources are coastal erosion and river input. Budget calculations show that Fe seems to be trapped in the modern Arctic Ocean and accumulates in shelf and basin sediments. The Fe

  1. Correlations between Inter-Annual Variations in Arctic Sea Ice Extent, Greenland Surface Melt, and Boreal Snow Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorstena; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Intensification of global warming in recent decades has caused a rise of interest in year-to-year and decadal-scale climate variability in the Arctic. This is because the Arctic is believed to be one of the most sensitive and vulnerable regions to climatic changes. For over two decades satellite passive microwave observations have been utilized to continuously monitor the Arctic environment. Derived parameters include sea ice cover, snow cover and snow water equivalent over land, and Greenland melt extent and length of melt season. Most studies have primarily concentrated on trends and variations of individual variables. In this study we investigated how variations in sea ice cover, Greenland surface melt, and boreal snow cover are correlated. This was done on hemispheric as well as on regional scales. Latest results will be presented including data from the summer of 2004.

  2. Exceptional summer warming leads to contrasting outcomes for methane cycling in small Arctic lakes of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieux, Sarah B.; White, Jeffrey R.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2017-02-01

    In thermally stratified lakes, the greatest annual methane emissions typically occur during thermal overturn events. In July of 2012, Greenland experienced significant warming that resulted in substantial melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and enhanced runoff events. This unusual climate phenomenon provided an opportunity to examine the effects of short-term natural heating on lake thermal structure and methane dynamics and compare these observations with those from the following year, when temperatures were normal. Here, we focus on methane concentrations within the water column of five adjacent small lakes on the ice-free margin of southwestern Greenland under open-water and ice-covered conditions from 2012-2014. Enhanced warming of the epilimnion in the lakes under open-water conditions in 2012 led to strong thermal stability and the development of anoxic hypolimnia in each of the lakes. As a result, during open-water conditions, mean dissolved methane concentrations in the water column were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater in 2012 than in 2013. In all of the lakes, mean methane concentrations under ice-covered conditions were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater than under open-water conditions, suggesting spring overturn is currently the largest annual methane flux to the atmosphere. As the climate continues to warm, shorter ice cover durations are expected, which may reduce the winter inventory of methane and lead to a decrease in total methane flux during ice melt. Under open-water conditions, greater heat income and warming of lake surface waters will lead to increased thermal stratification and hypolimnetic anoxia, which will consequently result in increased water column inventories of methane. This stored methane will be susceptible to emissions during fall overturn, which may result in a shift in greatest annual efflux of methane from spring melt to fall overturn. The results of this study suggest that interannual variation in ground-level air

  3. Maximum-limiting ages of Lake Michigan coastal dunes: Their correlation with Holocene lake level history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arbogast, Alan F.; Loope, Walter L.

    1999-01-01

    At each site, thick deposits of eolian sand overlie late-Pleistocene lacustrine sands. Moderately developed Spodosols (Entic Haplorthods) formed in the uppermost part of the lake sediments are buried by thick dune sand at three sites. At the fourth locality, a similar soil occurs in a very thin (1.3 m) unit of eolian sand buried deep within a dune. These soils indicate long-term (∼ 4,000 years) stability of the lake deposits following subaerial exposure. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal in the buried sola indicates massive dune construction began between 4,900 and 4,500 cal. yr B.P. at the Nordhouse Dunes site, between 4,300 and 3,900 cal. yr B.P. at the Jackson and Nugent Quarries, and between 3,300 to 2,900 cal. yr B.P. at Rosy Mound. Given these ages, it can be concluded that dune building at one site occurred during the Nipissing high stand but that the other dunes developed later. Although lake levels generally fell after the Nipissing, it appears that dune construction may have resulted from small increases in lake level and destabilization of lake-terrace bluffs.

  4. Benthic foraminiferal growth seasons implied from Mg/Ca-temperature correlations for three Arctic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Hald, Morten; Marchitto, Thomas M.; Junttila, Juho; Klitgaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen

    2016-11-01

    Core-top sediment samples from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, and adjacent fjord and shelf areas were collected in order to investigate a potential relationship between Mg/Ca-ratios of Arctic benthic foraminifera and the ambient bottom water temperatures (BWT). The area is influenced by large seasonal variation in factors such as light and temperature, which is further strengthened by oceanographic shifts, including inflow of relatively warm Atlantic water. Four hydrological seasons have been defined. The studied samples were collected during the years 2005-2010 and comprise data from three hydrological seasons: spring, summer, and autumn. Five common species of cold-water benthic foraminifera were investigated: Islandiella helenae/norcrossi, Buccella frigida, Nonionellina labradorica, Elphidium clavatum, and Cassidulina reniforme. For E. clavatum and C. reniforme, the investigations failed. For the remaining three species, the Mg/Ca-temperature correlations initially appeared stochastic holding correlation coefficients between 0.01 and 0.15. However, grouping the data based on seasons gave stronger Mg/Ca-temperature correlations, indicating specific growing seasons for the three species. The equations represent a starting point for a discussion on seasonality rather than robust, "ready-to-use" equations. I. helenae/norcrossi seems to reproduce and grow during summer (July/August) in outer Kongsfjorden. For B. frigida, a Mg/Ca-temperature correlation is seen both in summer (July/August) and autumn (October/November) samples, indicative of a continuous reproduction/growth-season lasting from July to November. N. labradorica appears to reproduce and grow during autumn (October/November). The results indicate that temperature reconstructions based on these benthic foraminifera reproduce seasonal temperatures rather than annual average temperatures.

  5. A radiocarbon-based inventory of methane and inorganic carbon dissolved in surface lake waters in arctic Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Clayton, Elder; Xu, Xiaomei; Lehman, Jennifer; Townsend-Small, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Major uncertainties in land-atmosphere carbon (C) exchange in the rapidly warming and wetting Arctic are 1) the magnitude and timing of net losses of ancient permafrost C to the atmosphere and 2) the relative changes of C exchange as carbon dioxide (CO2) or the more powerful greenhouse gas methane (CH4). For CH4, the role of diffusive fluxes versus plant-mediated and ebullition fluxes is poorly constrained. Radiocarbon (14C) is a unique tracer for distinguishing ancient permafrost C from C rapidly cycling between the land and atmosphere. In addition, stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and D/H) provide insight to trace gas production and consumption pathways. Previous measurements, however, have focused on CH4 from ebullition fluxes due to technical and logistical challenges in 14C-CH4 analysis. We quantified the 14C content and δ13C signatures of dissolved CH4 and DIC in lake surface waters along a north-south transect on the North Slope of Alaska, USA (69.9°N to 71.28°N, -156.12°W to -156.32°W). Samples were collected at the end of winter before ice break-up (April 2013) and during summer (August 2012 & 2013) in 1 L bottles. A subset of samples was also analyzed for CH4 and CO2 concentrations and stable isotope ratios by the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON). In addition, in August 2013, we measured the 14C content and δ13C ratios of lake-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 exchange near Barrow, AK, USA (71°N, -156°W). We obtained dissolved CH4 and CO2 sufficient for 14C analysis from lakes with concentrations as low as 0.01 mg C /L) using a novel, in situ preconcentration method (liqui-cel, Membrana). And, we measured and collected isoflux samples of simulated, near-shore ebulltion-derived CH4 and CO2 using floating headspace chambers. Isotope samples were processed using a novel, flow-through vacuum line and analyzed at the KCCAMS facility at the University of California, Irvine, USA with accelerator (0.5MV 1.5SDH-2, National Electrostatics Corporation) and

  6. Correlates of zooplankton beta diversity in tropical lake systems.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paloma M; Bini, Luis M; Declerck, Steven A J; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Vieira, Ludgero C G; Bonecker, Claudia C; Lansac-Toha, Fabio A; Esteves, Francisco A; Bozelli, Reinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    The changes in species composition between habitat patches (beta diversity) are likely related to a number of factors, including environmental heterogeneity, connectivity, disturbance and productivity. Here, we used data from aquatic environments in five Brazilian regions over two years and two seasons (rainy and dry seasons or high and low water level periods in floodplain lakes) in each year to test hypotheses underlying zooplankton beta diversity variation. The regions present different levels of hydrological connectivity, where three regions present lakes that are permanent and connected with the main river, while the water bodies of the other two regions consist of permanent lakes and temporary ponds, with no hydrological connections between them. We tested for relationships between zooplankton beta diversity and environmental heterogeneity, spatial extent, hydrological connectivity, seasonality, disturbance and productivity. Negative relationships were detected between zooplankton beta diversity and both hydrological connectivity and disturbance (periodic dry-outs). Hydrological connectivity is likely to affect beta diversity by facilitating dispersal between habitats. In addition, the harsh environmental filter imposed by disturbance selected for only a small portion of the species from the regional pool that were able to cope with periodic dry-outs (e.g., those with a high production of resting eggs). In summary, this study suggests that faunal exchange and disturbance play important roles in structuring local zooplankton communities.

  7. Correlates of Zooplankton Beta Diversity in Tropical Lake Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Paloma M.; Bini, Luis M.; Declerck, Steven A. J.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.; Vieira, Ludgero C. G.; Bonecker, Claudia C.; Lansac-Toha, Fabio A.; Esteves, Francisco A.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The changes in species composition between habitat patches (beta diversity) are likely related to a number of factors, including environmental heterogeneity, connectivity, disturbance and productivity. Here, we used data from aquatic environments in five Brazilian regions over two years and two seasons (rainy and dry seasons or high and low water level periods in floodplain lakes) in each year to test hypotheses underlying zooplankton beta diversity variation. The regions present different levels of hydrological connectivity, where three regions present lakes that are permanent and connected with the main river, while the water bodies of the other two regions consist of permanent lakes and temporary ponds, with no hydrological connections between them. We tested for relationships between zooplankton beta diversity and environmental heterogeneity, spatial extent, hydrological connectivity, seasonality, disturbance and productivity. Negative relationships were detected between zooplankton beta diversity and both hydrological connectivity and disturbance (periodic dry-outs). Hydrological connectivity is likely to affect beta diversity by facilitating dispersal between habitats. In addition, the harsh environmental filter imposed by disturbance selected for only a small portion of the species from the regional pool that were able to cope with periodic dry-outs (e.g., those with a high production of resting eggs). In summary, this study suggests that faunal exchange and disturbance play important roles in structuring local zooplankton communities. PMID:25330034

  8. ERS-1 SAR backscatter changes associated with ice growing on shallow lakes in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Wakabayashi, H.; Weeks, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial and temporal backscatter intensity (sigma(sup o)) variations from ice growing on shallow lakes during winter 1991-92 near Barrow, NW Alaska, have been quantified for the first time using ERS-I C-band SAR data acquired at the Alaska SAR Facility. A field and laboratory validation program, including measurements of the thickness and structure-stratigraphy of the ice, indicates that sigma(sup o) values are strongly dependent on whether the ice freezes to the lake bottom, or remains afloat. Backscatter intensity decreases significantly when the ice grounds on the bottom. Strong backscatter from floating ice is attributed to a specular ice-water interface and vertically oriented tubular bubbles. During the spring thaw, backscatter undergoes a reversal; sigma(sup o) values from ice that was grounded increase, while sigma(sup o) values from ice that was afloat decrease. This phenomenon has not previously been reported.

  9. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene vegetation history of northeastern Russian Arctic inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. A.; Tarasov, P. E.; Wennrich, V.; Raschke, E.; Herzschuh, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2014-05-01

    The 318 m thick lacustrine sediment record from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Russian Arctic cored by the international El'gygytgyn Drilling Project provides unique opportunities for the time-continuous reconstruction of the regional paleoenvironmental history for the past 3.6 Myr. Pollen studies of the lower 216 m of the lacustrine sediments demonstrate their value as an excellent archive of vegetation and climate changes during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. About 3.5-3.35 Myr BP, the vegetation at Lake El'gygytgyn, now an area of tundra was dominated by spruce-larch-fir-hemlock forests. After ca. 3.35 Myr BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared. A very pronounced environmental change took place ca. 3.31-3.28 Myr BP, corresponding to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2, when treeless tundra- and steppe-like habitats became dominant in the regional vegetation. Climate conditions were similar to those of Late Pleistocene cold intervals. Numerous coprophilous fungi spores identified in the pollen samples suggest the presence of grazing animals around the lake. Following the MIS M2 event, larch-pine forests with some spruce mostly dominated the area until ca. 2.6 Myr BP, interrupted by colder and drier intervals ca. 3.043-3.025, 2.935-2.912, and 2.719-2.698 Myr BP. At the beginning of the Pleistocene, ca. 2.6 Myr BP, noticeable climatic deterioration occurred. Forested habitats changed to predominantly treeless and shrubby environments, which reflect a relatively cold and dry climate. Peaks in observed green algae colonies (Botryococcus) around 2.53, 2.45, 2.32-2.305, 2.20 and 2.16-2.15 Myr BP suggest a spread of shallow water environments. A few intervals (i.e., 2.55-2.53, ca. 2.37, and 2.35-2.32 Myr BP) with a higher presence of coniferous taxa (mostly pine and larch) document some relatively short-term climate ameliorations during Early Pleistocene glacial periods.

  10. Chemotype diversity in Planktothrix rubescens (cyanobacteria) populations is correlated to lake depth.

    PubMed

    Haruštiaková, Danka; Welker, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The cyanobacterial species Planktothrix rubescens is known to preferably inhabit deep, stratified, oligo- to mesotrophic lakes. It is also known for the production of diverse bioactive peptides, including the hepatotoxic microcystins. A number of studies showed that P. rubescens populations generally consist of multiple distinct genotypes or chemotypes, respectively. In the present study, variability of chemotype diversity was analysed. Filaments of P. rubescens were isolated from water samples originating from 10 European lakes and analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In most of the analysed filaments multiple peptides belonging to multiple peptide classes could be detected. A resulting data matrix of 964 filaments and 37 individual peptides was subjected to correspondence analysis and K-means clustering. From the latter analysis the distribution of chemotypes among the lakes was established and diversity estimated by computing Shannon-Indices. Diversity varied strongly among lakes with the lowest diversity found in non-alpine lakes. Further, chemotype diversity was strongly correlated to the maximum depth of the sampled lakes in alpine and non-alpine lakes. The possible influence of both factors, geographic isolation and water column depth, on the observed patterns of chemotype diversity of P. rubescens populations is discussed.

  11. Temporal correlation of U. S. Great Basin lake sediments below the Mono Lake Excursion using paleomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Negrini, R. M.; Knott, J. R.; Lund, S.; Benson, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning nearly 50 years ago with a paleomagnetic study of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Mono Basin, CA (Denham and Cox, 1971), there have been subsequent studies to document paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in the basin and to establish a chronology for that record (Vazquez and Lidzbarski, 2012). We report a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) investigation of lacustrine sediments in the Mono Basin, CA, that extends the base of the PSV record of Lund et al. (1988) by about 20 percent. We did our investigation at two localities separated by about 4 km on the southeastern and eastern sides of Mono Lake: South Shore Cliffs (SSC) and Warm Springs (WS). The sampled interval at SSC is from 0.1 m above to 2.2 m below Wilson Creek Ash 19 in the tephrostratigraphy of Lajoie (1968), ending in loose sand. At WS, we sampled from Ash 17 to 1.0 m below Ash 19, a total of 2 m. At SSC using back-to-back horizons 2-cm thick containing one to three samples each that were a.f. or thermally demagnetized, we found rapidly fluctuating PSV in the interval from ~ 0.3 to 1.0 m below Ash 19. The fluctuating PSV contains a change in declination of ~ 80˚ from 308˚ (n = 3, α-95: 6.1˚) to 29˚ (n = 3, α-95: 11.5˚) within a single hand sample that spans 14 cm. Inclination during that change in declination gradually rose from 56˚ to 63˚ and increased to 70˚ before reducing to a minimum of 29.9˚. The path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles when the declination is most westerly forms a narrow loop that reaches 49.7˚ N latitude near 170˚ E longitude. At WS the westerly swing in declination is absent, but the easterly declination and relatively steep inclination described above are recorded. A study of the relative paleomagnetic intensity (RPI) shows that the maximum RPI is ~1.5 m below Ash 19 and decreases to a minimum ~6 cm above the ash. Distinct PSV and RPI features below the Mono Lake excursion correlate well between records from the periphery of Mono Lake and those from

  12. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  13. Pliocene to Pleistocene climate and environmental history of Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic, based on high-resolution inorganic geochemistry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennrich, V.; Minyuk, P. S.; Borkhodoev, V.; Francke, A.; Ritter, B.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Sauerbrey, M. A.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2014-07-01

    The 3.6 Ma sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia, Far East Russian Arctic, represents the longest continuous climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Its elemental composition as determined by X-ray fluorescence scanning exhibits significant changes since the mid-Pliocene caused by climate-driven variations in primary production, postdepositional diagenetic processes, and lake circulation as well as weathering processes in its catchment. During the mid- to late Pliocene, warmer and wetter climatic conditions are reflected by elevated Si / Ti ratios, indicating enhanced diatom production in the lake. Prior to 3.3 Ma, this signal is overprinted by intensified detrital input from the catchment, visible in maxima of clastic-related proxies, such as K. In addition, calcite formation in the early lake history points to enhanced Ca flux into the lake caused by intensified weathering in the catchment. A lack of calcite deposition after ca. 3.3 Ma is linked to the development of permafrost in the region triggered by cooling in the mid-Pliocene. After ca. 3.0 Ma the elemental data suggest a gradual transition to Pleistocene-style glacial-interglacial cyclicity. In the early Pleistocene, the cyclicity was first dominated by variations on the 41 kyr obliquity band but experienced a change to a 100 kyr eccentricity dominance during the middle Pleistocene transition (MPT) at ca. 1.2-0.6 Ma. This clearly demonstrates the sensitivity of the Lake El'gygytgyn record to orbital forcing. A successive decrease of the baseline levels of the redox-sensitive Mn / Fe ratio and magnetic susceptibility between 2.3 and 1.8 Ma reflects an overall change in the bottom-water oxygenation due to an intensified occurrence of pervasive glacial episodes in the early Pleistocene. The coincidence with major changes in the North Pacific and Bering Sea paleoceanography at ca. 1.8 Ma implies that the change in lake hydrology was caused by a regional cooling in the North Pacific and the western

  14. Historical interrelated variations of mercury and aquatic organic matter in lake sediment cores from a subArctic lake in Yukon, Canada: further evidence toward the algal-mercury scavenging hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Stern, G A; Sanei, H; Roach, P; DeLaronde, J; Outridge, P M

    2009-10-15

    This study investigates the role of climate-driven aquatic productivity increases in conrolling the sedimentary accumulation of mercury (Hg) in Kusawa Lake, Yukon, Canada. Organic geochemistry data reveals a significant link between the increasing trends of Hg and of labile algal-derived organic matter (OM) over the centuries and in particular over recent decades. Sedimentary Hg accumulation rates continue to increase even though atmospheric concentrations of Hg have remained the same or even declined. Together, these findings indicate that the significant rise in Hg content recorded in the sediments since the early 1950s may not be representative of increasing atmospheric Hg levels but are strongly influenced by elevated concentrations of algal-derived OM in the water-column. These likely increase the scavenging rate of "available" Hg from the water column. Therefore, recent increases in algal productivity may result in overestimation of the historical rates of atmospheric Hg deposition recorded in the sediments. This study confirms earlier published findings from two High Arctic lakes, and shows that the Hg-OM scavenging hypothesis may also apply to sub-Arctic lakes.

  15. Quaternary Arctic Climate Change of the past 2.8 Ma as reconstructed from sediments of Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennrich, V.; Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Deconto, R. M.; Anderson, P. A.; Andreev, A. A.; Haltia, E.; Kukkonen, M.; Lozhkin, A. V.; Rosen, P.; Tarasov, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific deep drilling at Lake El'gygtygyn in Chukotka, northeastern Russia (67.5° N, 172° E) revealed the first high-resolution record of environmental history in the Arctic that spans the past 3.6 Ma continuously (Melles et al. 2012, Brigham-Grette et al. 2013). In this presentation we focus on the end-member glacial and interglacial climatic conditions of the past 2.8 Ma as clearly reflected in the pelagic lake sediments recovered. Peak glacial conditions, when mean annual air temperatures at least 3.3 (×0.9) °C lower than today led to perennial lake ice (Nolan 2013), first appeared at Lake El'gygytgyn 2.602 - 2.598 Ma ago, during marine isotope stage (MIS) 104. These pervasive glacial episodes gradually increase in frequency from ~2.3 to ~1.8 Ma, eventually concurring with all glacials and several stadials reflected globally in stacked marine isotope records. Particularly warm interglacials, in contrast, experienced a long ice-free season and enhanced nutrient supply from the catchment, which allowed for significantly higher primary production than today. These settings were most pronounced for MIS 11c, 31, 49, 55, 77, 87, 91, and 93. Their exceptional character becomes evident based upon pollen-based climate reconstructions in selected interglacials, showing that the mean temperature of the warmest month and the annual precipitation during the thermal maxima of MIS 11c and 31 ('super' interglacials) were 4-5 °C and ~300 mm higher than those of MIS 1 and 5e ('normal' interglacials), respectively. According to climate simulations, the exceptional warm and moist climates at least during MIS 11c cannot be explained by the natural variability in Earth's orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations alone. A remarkable coincidence of the super interglacials at Lake El'gygytgyn with diatomite layers in the Antarctic ANDRILL 1B, which reflect periods of a diminished West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) (Naish et al. 2009, Pollard and DeConto 2009), suggests

  16. Mid-Pliocene to Early Quaternary Evolution of the Beringian Arctic from Deep Drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn, Chukotka: initial results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.; Minyuk, P.; Andreev, A.; Snyder, J.; Wennrich, V.; Lake El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    One of the primary objectives for deep drilling at Lake El’gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°05' E), formed 3.6 Ma ago by a meteorite impact event, was to recover lacustrine sediments that would provide the first high resolution Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoclimate record from the terrestrial Arctic. While discontinuous, spatially diverse Pliocene marine records are known from the arctic borderlands at the outcrop scale, the Lake El’gygytgyn record is critically important for balancing the inherent marine bias we currently have in understanding the climate variability of a world warmer than today. Moreover, this continuous land record contributes to our knowledge of the terminal Pliocene transition, be it steps, jolts or plunges, into the early Quaternary. The Pliocene portion of the lake record recovered extends from 130 m to 315 m depth below lake floor with nearly twice the sedimentation rate of Quaternary interval, presumably due to enhanced hydrologic systematics. The lower most, initial 15 m of the lake sequence directly after the meteorite impact appear to be sterile perhaps due to the intense heat generated by the impact that would have taken thousands of years to dissipate. The remaining portion of the Pliocene sequence is characterized by sequences of lacustrine mud overlain by coarser facies. Palynologically studied portions of the core are mostly dominated by tree pollen, providing us with a compositional idea of changes in Pliocene El’gygtgyn forests of pine (Pinus), larch (Larix) spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), alder (Alnus), and, hemlock (Tsuga), not just scrubs. However, sediments paleomagnetically dated between 3.11 and 3.04 Ma ago show dramatic decrease in tree pollen contents, while pollen of Artemisia and spores of Selaginella rupestris and coprophiluous fungi became common elements in the record. Such changes point to treeless environments that can be described as early tundra-steppe. We present here a very preliminary compilation of the collective

  17. [Dynamics of parasite communities in an age series of Arctic Cisco Coregonus migratorius (Georgi, 1775)].

    PubMed

    Dugarov, Zh N; Pronin, N M

    2013-01-01

    Parasite communities of Arctic cisco from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal have been analyzed at levels of a host individual (infracommunity), a individual age group of a host-(assemblages of infracommunities), and a host population (component community). Significant positive correlations of parameters of species richness (number of parasite species, Margalef and Menhinick indices) with the age of Arctic cisco were recorded only at the level of parasite inffacommunities. The absence of linear positive correlations between the parameters of species richness and the age of Arctic cisco at the level of assemblages of parasite infracommunities were revealed for the first time for fish of Lake Baikal. The peculiarity of the dynamics of parasite communities of. Arctic cisco is determined by specific features of the host physiology and ecology, primarily by the age dynamics of the feeding spectrum.

  18. Deployment of Indicator of Reduction in Soils (IRIS) Probes in Arctic Drained Thaw Lake Basins and Drainages: Time Integrated Signals of Soil Saturation and Redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Hudak, M.; Gard, M.; Altmann, G.; Throckmorton, H.; Wilson, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate driven warming and degradation of permafrost may lead to changes in the hydrology of low gradient regions like the North Slope of Alaska. Hydrologic changes will affect the saturation and redox state of soils in drained thaw lake basins (DTLBs), interlake areas, and associated drainages. These changes are being investigated at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) and surroundings as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment - Arctic project. As a complement to traditional redox and aqueous chemistry measurements, the use of indicator of reduction in soils (IRIS) probes is being assessed as a simple and cost-effective way to monitor redox changes. The probes consist of PVC sheets coated with a ferrihydrite paint. Under reducing conditions iron on these probes will partially dissolve. The amount of dissolution can be quantified by image analysis and related in a semi-quantitative fashion to redox conditions in the soils. IRIS probes have been successfully utilized in numerous temperate settings to demonstrate, for example, the presence of reducing soils for wetlands delineation. Test probes were installed in saturated soils for 48 hours in July, 2013. After 48 hours, minor reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite was observed. No sulfide precipitation was noted. As such, probes were installed in quadruplicate at 14 locations representing primarily outlet drainages from different-aged DTLBs and interlake areas. In each case, the probes were installed to refusal at the frost table within the active layer overlying the permafrost. IRIS probes were deployed adjacent to arrays of rhizon samplers used for soil pore water sampling so that time-integrated IRIS probe results can be compared to chemical results (a snapshot in time) obtained at the beginning and end of the monitoring period (probes will be extracted in September). Image analysis will employ LANL's GENIE technology. Field measurements of ferrous iron in water samples showed significant redox

  19. If Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is “the most diverse vertebrate,” what is the lake charr Salvelinus namaycush?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fishes are prominent vertebrate models of evolution, illustrated among old-world radiations by the Cichlidae of East African Great Lakes and new-world radiations by the circumpolar Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Herein, we describe variation in lake charr S. namaycush morphology, life history, physiology, and ecology, as another example of radiation. The lake charr is restricted to northern North America, where it originated from glacial refugia and diversified in large lakes. Shallow and deepwater morphs arose in multiple lakes, with a large-bodied shallow-water ‘lean’ morph in shallow inshore depths, a small-bodied mid-water ‘humper’ morph on offshore shoals or banks, and a large-bodied deep-water ‘siscowet’ morph at depths > 100 m. Eye position, gape size, and gillraker length and spacing adapted for feeding on different-sized prey, with piscivorous morphs (leans and siscowets) reaching larger asymptotic size than invertivorous morphs (humpers). Lean morphs are light in color, whereas deepwater morphs are drab and dark, although the pattern is reversed in dark tannic lakes. Morphs shift from benthic to pelagic feeding at a length of 400–490-mm. Phenotypic differences in locomotion, buoyancy, and lipid metabolism evolved into different mechanisms for buoyancy regulation, with lean morphs relying on hydrodynamic lift and siscowet morphs relying on hydrostatic lift. We suggest that the Salvelinus genus, rather than the species S. alpinus, is a diverse genus that should be the subject of comparative studies of processes causing divergence and adaptation among member species that may lead to a more complete evolutionary conceptual model.

  20. A GCM comparison of Plio-Pleistocene interglacial-glacial periods in relation to Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, A. J.; DeConto, R. M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2014-08-01

    Until now, the lack of time-continuous, terrestrial paleoenvironmental data from the Pleistocene Arctic has made model simulations of past interglacials difficult to assess. Here, we compare climate simulations of four warm interglacials at Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1 (9 ka), 5e (127 ka), 11c (409 ka), and 31 (1072 ka) with new proxy climate data recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia. Climate reconstructions of the Mean Temperature of the Warmest Month (MTWM) indicate conditions 2.1, 0.5 and 3.1 °C warmer than today during MIS 5e, 11c, and 31, respectively. While the climate model captures much of the observed warming during each interglacial, largely in response to boreal summer orbital forcing, the extraordinary warmth of MIS 11c relative to the other interglacials in the proxy records remain difficult to explain. To deconvolve the contribution of multiple influences on interglacial warming at Lake El'gygytgyn, we isolated the influence of vegetation, sea ice, and circum-Arctic land ice feedbacks on the climate of the Beringian interior. Simulations accounting for climate-vegetation-land surface feedbacks during all four interglacials show expanding boreal forest cover with increasing summer insolation intensity. A deglaciated Greenland is shown to have a minimal effect on Northeast Asian temperature during the warmth of stage 11c and 31 (Melles et al., 2012). A prescribed enhancement of oceanic heat transport into the Arctic ocean has some effect on Beringian climate, suggesting intrahemispheric coupling seen in comparisons between Lake El'gygytgyn and Antarctic sediment records might be related to linkages between Antarctic ice volume and ocean circulation. The exceptional warmth of MIS 11c remains enigmatic however, relative to the modest orbital and greenhouse gas forcing during that interglacial. Large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during Plio-Pleistocene glaciation causes a substantial decrease in Mean Temperature of the Coldest Month (MTCM) and

  1. [Microbial biomass and its correlations with carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the sediments of Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Xu, De-Lin; Guo, Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Qing; An, Shu-Qing

    2012-07-01

    To explore the responses and feedbacks of the microbes in the sediments of Taihu Lake to the sediment nutrients, an investigation was made on the microbial biomass carbon (MB(C)), microbial biomass nitrogen (MB(N)), microbial biomass phosphorus (MB(P)), and their correlations with the total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the sediments. The microbial biomass in the sediments was 184.66 mg x kg(-1), being higher at the lakeside than in the mid-lake region. The MB(C) was higher in the western coastal region, Zhushan Bay, and Meiliang Bay, with an average of 127.57 mg x kg(-1), MB(N) was higher in Meiliang Bay, Gonghu Bay, mid-lake region close to Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay, and eastern costal region, with an average of 19.25 mg x kg(-1), and MB(P) was higher in the eastern region and parts of the mid-lake region, with an average was 19.09 mg x kg(-1). The TOC high value zone (> or = 2.30 g x kg(-1)) was mainly in Zhushan Bay, western coastal region, Meiliang Bay, and Gonghu Bay, with an average of 1.59 g x kg(-1), TN high value zone (> or = 0.30 g x kg(-1)) was mainly in the Gonghu Bay, Meiliang Bay, Zhushan Bay, and western costal region, with an average of 0.21 g x kg(-1), and TP high value zone (> or = 1.20 g x kg(-1)) was mainly in the eastern coastal region and parts of the mid-lake region, with an average of 0.55 g x kg(-1). The TOC/TN ratio in the sediments was 7-19, with an average of 8.97, which showed that the organic substances in the sediments had obvious dual sources, among which, terrestrial organisms were mainly in the west side of the lake. The microbial biomass in the sediments was significantly positively correlated with sediment TOC and TN but had less correlation with sediment TP, and the MB(C)/MB(N) was significantly correlated with sediment TOC/TN, suggesting that the microbes in the sediments of Taihu Lake were mainly affected by the sediment TOC and TN, and the changes of the TOC/TN had significant

  2. A Possible Correlation between the Surface Temperature and Thickness of Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadcap, C.; Herman, R. B.; Eagle, J. L.; Montgomery, S. B.; Baumgardner, C.; Brett, M. C.; Blake, D.

    2014-12-01

    A geophysical survey of the Chukchi Sea ice was conducted just offshore from the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory in Barrow, Alaska. Multiple surveys were conducted along 200-meter lines using a capacitively coupled resistivity array, a thermal sensor array, and an ice drill. A custom thermal sensor array based on the Arduino platform was constructed for this work. This array included an infrared sensor with a 35° field of view. This gave an average surface temperature reading over a spot of ≈25cm diameter with an accuracy of ±0.1°C . An ambient temperature sensor with an accuracy of ±1°C was positioned 25cm above the ice. Both of these were mounted on a repurposed GPR cart with a custom-built odometer wheel. Sets of 30 data points were collected every 17cm along the survey lines. Most data were collected during daylight hours. Some thermal data were collected in the morning twilight to study the effects of shadows cast by snow mounds. Resistivity data were obtained at 8 to 10 vertical depths as determined by the length of the array using 2.5m dipoles. This depended on the ice thickness along a survey line as well as the equipment's susceptibility to ambient temperature variations. The data points were obtained approximately 35cm apart horizontally. The resistivity data were inverted using software with a number of parameters to be set by the user. Adjusting these parameters caused the modeled depth to the ice/water boundary to vary significantly. The parameters have been refined through ice drill data obtained at 10-meter intervals. The ice drill was deployed only after resistivity and thermal data were obtained for each survey line. The resistivity and ice drill data showed an average ice depth of 1.2-1.7 meters, significantly thinner than in previous years' surveys. The modeled locations of the ice/water boundaries from the resistivity and ice drill data were compared to the surface temperatures along the survey lines. An analysis of the correlation of

  3. Temporal and spatial variations in phytoplankton: correlations with environmental factors in Shengjin Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Wang, Chao; Deng, Daogui; Zhao, Xiuxia; Zhou, Zhongze

    2015-09-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in the phytoplankton community and environmental variables were investigated from February to July 2014, in the upper lake of Shengjin Lake, China. We identified 192 species of phytoplankton belonging to 8 phyla and 84 genera, of which 46.4% of Chlorophyta, 29.2% of Bacillariophyta, and 12.5% of Cyanophyta. There were 14 predominant species. Marked temporal and spatial variations were observed in the phytoplankton community. The total abundance of phytoplankton ranged from 3.66 × 10(5) to 867.93 × 10(5) cells/L and total biomass ranging from 0.40 to 20.89 mg/L. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index varied from 3.50 to 8.35 with an average of 5.58, revealing high biodiversity in the phytoplankton community. There were substantial temporal changes in the dominant species, from Bacillariophyta and Cryptophyta to Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta. Phytoplankton biomass and abundance showed a similar increasing trend from February to July. Pearson correlations and Redundancy analysis revealed that the most significant environmental factors influencing phytoplankton community were water temperature (T), transparency (SD), and nutrient concentration. The positive correlation between the key water bird areas and phytoplankton biomass indicated that the droppings of wintering water birds had an important influence on the phytoplankton community in the upper lake of Shengjin Lake.

  4. A comparison of short-term measurements of lake evaporation using eddy correlation and energy budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    1991-01-01

    Concurrent short-term measurements of evaporation from a shallow lake, using eddy correlation and energy budget methods, indicate that sensible and latent heat flux between lake and atmosphere, and energy storage in the lake, may vary considerably across the lake. Measuring net radiation with a net radiometer on the lake appeared to be more accurate than measuring incoming radiation nearby and modeling outgoing radiation. Short-term agreement between the two evaporation measurements was obtained by using an energy storage term that was weighted to account for the area-of-influence of the eddy correlation sensors. Relatively short bursts of evaporation were indicated by the eddy correlation sensors shortly after midnight on two of three occasions. ?? 1991.

  5. Initial Results on the Pliocene and Quaternary Evolution of the Western Arctic from the Deep Drilling in 2008/09 at Lake Elgygytgyn, Chukotka (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Koeberl, C.; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    Lake Elgygytgyn, located 100 km to the north of the Arctic Circle (67°30' N, 172°05' E) in a crater of 18 km diameter, was formed 3.6 Ma ago by a meteorite impact event. From Oct. 2008 until May 2009 an ICDP drilling campaign was conducted at Lake Elgygytgyn, achieving its three major objectives. First, drilling from the ice cover in the lake center penetrated the entire, 315 m thick lake sediment succession in 170 m water depth. The sediments show no indications for hiatuses due to glaciation or desiccation. Hence, their temporal length and geologic significance is absolutely unprecedented, for the first time providing deep and widely continuous insights into the climatic and environmental evolution of the terrestrial Arctic since Pliocene times. This is particularly true for the lowermost 40 m and uppermost 140 m of the sequence, which were drilled with almost 100 % recovery and, using the chronological information we have available, likely reflect the initial lake stage during the Pliocene and the last ca. 2.8 Ma, respectively. In between, the quality of the record is restricted due to lower recovery as a consequence of technical problems and/or sequences of coarse sand and gravel interbedded with lacustrine mud. Second, a ca. 200 m thick, almost complete section of impact breccias was recovered underneath the lake sediments, consisting of a ca. 100 m thick suevite layer above broken and fractured volcanic basement rocks. Investigation of this core sequence promises new information concerning the Elgygytgyn impact event, including the composition and nature of the meteorite, the energy released, and the shock behavior of the volcanic basement rocks. Third, a 142 m long sequence was recovered from the permafrost deposits in the western lake catchment, only a few hundred meters from the lake shore. The core consists of gravelly and sandy alluvial fan deposits, which are continuously frozen and rich with ground ice. The sediment and ice composition promises to

  6. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  7. Inverse modeling of pan-Arctic methane emissions at high spatial resolution: what can we learn from assimilating satellite retrievals and using different process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models?

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Zeli; Zhuang, Qianlai; Henze, Daven K.; ...

    2016-10-12

    Understanding methane emissions from the Arctic, a fast-warming carbon reservoir, is important for projecting future changes in the global methane cycle. Here we optimized methane emissions from north of 60° N (pan-Arctic) regions using a nested-grid high-resolution inverse model that assimilates both high-precision surface measurements and column-average SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartogrphY (SCIAMACHY) satellite retrievals of methane mole fraction. For the first time, methane emissions from lakes were integrated into an atmospheric transport and inversion estimate, together with prior wetland emissions estimated with six biogeochemical models. In our estimates, in 2005, global methane emissions were in the range ofmore » 496.4–511.5 Tg yr−1, and pan-Arctic methane emissions were in the range of 11.9–28.5 Tg yr−1. Methane emissions from pan-Arctic wetlands and lakes were 5.5–14.2 and 2.4–14.2 Tg yr−1, respectively. Methane emissions from Siberian wetlands and lakes are the largest and also have the largest uncertainty. Our results indicate that the uncertainty introduced by different wetland models could be much larger than the uncertainty of each inversion. We also show that assimilating satellite retrievals can reduce the uncertainty of the nested-grid inversions. The significance of lake emissions cannot be identified across the pan-Arctic by high-resolution inversions, but it is possible to identify high lake emissions from some specific regions. In contrast to global inversions, high-resolution nested-grid inversions perform better in estimating near-surface methane concentrations.« less

  8. Inverse modeling of pan-Arctic methane emissions at high spatial resolution: what can we learn from assimilating satellite retrievals and using different process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zeli; Zhuang, Qianlai; Henze, Daven K.; Frankenberg, Christian; Dlugokencky, Ed; Sweeney, Colm; Turner, Alexander J.; Sasakawa, Motoki; Machida, Toshinobu

    2016-10-01

    Understanding methane emissions from the Arctic, a fast-warming carbon reservoir, is important for projecting future changes in the global methane cycle. Here we optimized methane emissions from north of 60° N (pan-Arctic) regions using a nested-grid high-resolution inverse model that assimilates both high-precision surface measurements and column-average SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartogrphY (SCIAMACHY) satellite retrievals of methane mole fraction. For the first time, methane emissions from lakes were integrated into an atmospheric transport and inversion estimate, together with prior wetland emissions estimated with six biogeochemical models. In our estimates, in 2005, global methane emissions were in the range of 496.4-511.5 Tg yr-1, and pan-Arctic methane emissions were in the range of 11.9-28.5 Tg yr-1. Methane emissions from pan-Arctic wetlands and lakes were 5.5-14.2 and 2.4-14.2 Tg yr-1, respectively. Methane emissions from Siberian wetlands and lakes are the largest and also have the largest uncertainty. Our results indicate that the uncertainty introduced by different wetland models could be much larger than the uncertainty of each inversion. We also show that assimilating satellite retrievals can reduce the uncertainty of the nested-grid inversions. The significance of lake emissions cannot be identified across the pan-Arctic by high-resolution inversions, but it is possible to identify high lake emissions from some specific regions. In contrast to global inversions, high-resolution nested-grid inversions perform better in estimating near-surface methane concentrations.

  9. Reconstructing Holocene glacier activity at Langfjordjøkelen, Arctic Norway, using multi-proxy fingerprinting of distal glacier-fed lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmeier, Hella E.; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; Trachsel, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    Late Glacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations are important indicators of climate variability in the northern polar region and contain knowledge vital to understanding and predicting present and future climate changes. However, there still is a lack of robustly dated terrestrial climate records from Arctic Norway. Here, we present a high-resolution relative glacier activity record covering the past ∼10,000 cal. a BP from the northern outlet of the Langfjordjøkelen ice cap in Arctic Norway. This record is reconstructed from detailed geomorphic mapping, multi-proxy sedimentary fingerprinting and analyses of distal glacier-fed lake sediments. We used Principal Component Analysis to characterize sediments of glacial origin and trace them in a chain of downstream lakes. Of the variability in the sediment record of the uppermost Lake Jøkelvatnet, 73% can be explained by the first Principal Component axis and tied directly to upstream glacier erosion, whereas the glacial signal becomes weaker in the more distal Lakes Store Rundvatnet and Storvatnet. Magnetic susceptibility and titanium count rates were found to be the most suitable indicators of Holocene glacier activity in the distal glacier-fed lakes. The complete deglaciation of the valley of Sør-Tverrfjorddalen occurred ∼10,000 cal. a BP, followed by a reduced or absent glacier during the Holocene Thermal Optimum. The Langfjordjøkelen ice cap reformed with the onset of the Neoglacial ∼4100 cal. a BP, and the gradually increasing glacier activity culminated at the end of the Little Ice Age in the early 20th century. Over the past 2000 cal. a BP, the record reflects frequent high-amplitude glacier fluctuations. Periods of reduced glacier activity were centered around 1880, 1600, 1250 and 950 cal. a BP, while intervals of increased glacier activity occurred around 1680, 1090, 440 and 25 cal. a BP. The large-scale Holocene glacier activity of the Langfjordjøkelen ice cap is consistent with regional temperature

  10. Magnetostratigraphy of sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn ICDP Site 5011-1: paleomagnetic age constraints for the longest paleoclimate record from the continental Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haltia, E. M.; Nowaczyk, N. R.

    2014-03-01

    Paleomagnetic measurements were performed on sediments drilled from ICDP Site 5011-1 in Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°05' E) located in Far East Russian Arctic. The lake partly fills a crater formed by a meteorite impact 3.58 ± 0.04 Ma ago. Sediments from three parallel cores (5011-1A, 5011-1B and 5011-1C), recovered from the middle part of the lake, yield a total of 355 m of sediment. Sediments are characterized by a variable lithology, where intervals of homogenous and laminated sediments alternate, and mass movement deposits occur frequently along the sediment profile. Mineral magnetic investigation made on sediments enclosed in core catchers suggests that magnetic carrier in these sediments is partly maghemitized Ti-rich pseudo-single domain magnetite. Its detrital origin can be shown by mineral magnetic measurements and SEM-EDS analyses performed on mini-sized cylindrical rock samples, polished rock sections and creek sediments. The intensity of the natural remanent magnetization in the sediments is high with a range from about 1 to 1000 mA m-1. Most of the sediments carry a stable magnetization interpreted as primary depositional remanent magnetization. Characteristic inclination data show alternating intervals of steep positive and negative inclinations that are used to assign magnetic polarity to the lake sediment profile. This is a rather straightforward procedure owing to the mainly high quality of data. The Matuyama/Gauss (M/G) (2.608 Ma) and Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) (0.780 Ma) reversals were recognized in the sediments. The Mammoth and Kaena reversed subchrons were identified during the Gauss chron, and the Olduvai and Jaramillo normal subchrons as well as the Réunion and Cobb Mountain cryptochrons were identified during the Matuyama chron. Sediments also provide a record of the Olduvai precursor and Intra-Jaramillo geomagnetic excursions. Sediment deposition rate is highest at the base of the sequence laid down in the early Gauss chron, when the

  11. Magnetostratigraphy of sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn ICDP Site 5011-1: paleomagnetic age constraints for the longest paleoclimate record from the continental Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haltia, E. M.; Nowaczyk, N. R.

    2013-09-01

    Paleomagnetic measurements were performed on sediments drilled from ICDP Site 5011-1 in Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°05' E) located in Far East Russian Arctic. The lake fills partly a crater formed by a meteorite impact 3.58 ± 0.04 Ma ago. Sediments from three parallel cores (5011-1A, 5011-1B and 5011-1C), recovered from the middle part of the lake, yielded a total of 355 m of sediment. Sediments are characterized by variable lithology, where intervals of homogenous and laminated sediments alternate, and mass movement deposits of variable thickness occur frequently along the sediment profile. Mineral magnetic investigation made on sediments enclosed in core catchers suggests that magnetic carrier in these sediments is partly maghemitized Ti-rich pseudo-single domain magnetite. Its detrital origin could be shown by mineral magnetic measurements and SEM-EDS analyses performed on mini-sized cylindrical rock samples, polished rock sections, creek sediments and magnetic extracts prepared from them. The intensity of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in the sediments is mainly high with a range from about 1 to 1000 mA m-1. Most of the sediments carry a stable magnetization component interpreted as primary depositional remanent magnetization. Characteristic inclination data show alternating intervals of steep positive and negative inclinations that were used to assign magnetic polarity to the lake sediment profile. This was a rather straightforward procedure owing to the mainly high quality of data. The Matuyama/Gauss (2.608 Ma) and Brunhes/Matuyama (0.780 Ma) reversals were recognized in the sediments. Furthermore, during the Gauss chron the Mammoth and Kaena reversed subchrons, and during the Matuyama, the Olduvai and Jaramillo normal subchrons, as well as the Réunion and Cobb Mountain cryptochrons were identified. Sediment deposition rate is highest at the base of the sequence laid down in the beginning of Gauss chron, when deposition rate is approximately

  12. Correlations between the Heterogeneity of Permafrost Thaw Depth and Vegetation in Boreal Forests and Arctic Tundra in Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, K. L. Q.; Natali, S.; Kholodov, A. L.; Loranty, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate change induces rapid large scale changes in the far Northern regions of the globe, which include the thickening of the active layer of arctic and subarctic soils. Active layer depth, in turn, drives many changes to the hydrology and geochemistry of the soil, making an understanding of this layer essential to boreal forest and arctic tundra ecology. Because the structure of plant communities can affect the thermal attributes of the soil, they may drive variations in active layer depth. For instance, trees and tussocks create shade, which reduces temperatures, but also hold snow, which increases temperature through insulation; these aspects of vegetation can increase or decrease summer thaw. The goal of this project is to investigate correlations between the degree of heterogeneity of active layer depths, organic layer thickness, and aboveground vegetation to determine how these facets of Northern ecosystems interact at the ecosystem scale. Permafrost thaw and organic layer depths were measured along 20m transects in twenty-four boreal forest and tundra sites in Alaska. Aboveground vegetation along these transects was characterized by measuring tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tussock dimensions, and understory biomass. Using the coefficient of variation as a measure of heterogeneity, we found a positive correlation between thaw depth variability and tussock volume variability, but little correlation between the former and tree DBH variability. Soil organic layer depth variability was also positively correlated with thaw depth variability, but weakly correlated with tree and tussock heterogeneity. These data suggest that low vegetation and organic layer control the degree of variability in permafrost thaw at the ecosystem scale. Vegetation can thus affect the microtopography of permafrost and future changes in the plant community that affect vegetation heterogeneity will drive corresponding changes in the variability of the soil.

  13. A high-resolution mid-Pleistocene temperature record from Arctic Lake El'gygytgyn: a 50 kyr super interglacial from MIS 33 to MIS 31?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wet, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Isla S.; DeConto, Robert M.; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Previous periods of extreme warmth in Earth's history are of great interest in light of current and predicted anthropogenic warming. Numerous so called ;super interglacial; intervals, with summer temperatures significantly warmer than today, have been identified in the 3.6 million year (Ma) sediment record from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeast Russia. To date, however, a high-resolution paleotemperature reconstruction from any of these super interglacials is lacking. Here we present a paleotemperature reconstruction based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 35 to MIS 29, including super interglacial MIS 31. To investigate this period in detail, samples were analyzed with an unprecedented average sample resolution of 500 yrs from MIS 33 to MIS 30. Our results suggest the entire period currently defined as MIS 33-31 (∼1114-1062 kyr BP) was characterized by generally warm and highly variable conditions at the lake, at times out of phase with Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, and that cold ;glacial; conditions during MIS 32 lasted only a few thousand years. Close similarities are seen with coeval records from high southern latitudes, supporting the suggestion that the interval from MIS 33 to MIS 31 was an exceptionally long interglacial (Teitler et al., 2015). Based on brGDGT temperatures from Lake El'gygytgyn (this study and unpublished results), warming in the western Arctic during MIS 31 was matched only by MIS 11 during the Pleistocene.

  14. Leucocyte profiles of Arctic marine birds: correlates of migration and breeding phenology.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Mark L; Little, Catherine M; Boyd, Ellen S; Ballard, Jennifer; Elliott, Kyle H; Gilchrist, H Grant; Hipfner, J Mark; Petersen, Aevar; Shutler, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Most Arctic marine birds are migratory, wintering south of the limit of annual pack ice and returning north each year for the physiologically stressful breeding season. The Arctic environment is changing rapidly due to global warming and anthropogenic activities, which may influence the timing of breeding in relation to arrival times following migration, as well as providing additional stressors (e.g. disturbance from ships) to which birds may respond. During stressful parts of their annual cycle, such as breeding, birds may reallocate resources so that they have increased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in their white blood cell (leucocyte) profiles. We analysed leucocyte profiles of nine species of marine birds to establish reference ranges for these species in advance of future Arctic change. Leucocyte profiles tended to cluster among taxonomic groups across studies, suggesting that reference values for a particular group can be established, and within species there was evidence that birds from colonies that had to migrate farther had higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios during incubation than those that did not have to travel as far, particularly for species with high wing loading.

  15. Leucocyte profiles of Arctic marine birds: correlates of migration and breeding phenology

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Mark L.; Little, Catherine M.; Boyd, Ellen S.; Ballard, Jennifer; Elliott, Kyle H.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Hipfner, J. Mark; Petersen, Aevar; Shutler, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Most Arctic marine birds are migratory, wintering south of the limit of annual pack ice and returning north each year for the physiologically stressful breeding season. The Arctic environment is changing rapidly due to global warming and anthropogenic activities, which may influence the timing of breeding in relation to arrival times following migration, as well as providing additional stressors (e.g. disturbance from ships) to which birds may respond. During stressful parts of their annual cycle, such as breeding, birds may reallocate resources so that they have increased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in their white blood cell (leucocyte) profiles. We analysed leucocyte profiles of nine species of marine birds to establish reference ranges for these species in advance of future Arctic change. Leucocyte profiles tended to cluster among taxonomic groups across studies, suggesting that reference values for a particular group can be established, and within species there was evidence that birds from colonies that had to migrate farther had higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios during incubation than those that did not have to travel as far, particularly for species with high wing loading. PMID:27293713

  16. Organic Geochemical Reconstructions from Lake El'gygytgyn, Northeast Arctic Siberia, Constrain Arctic Temperature and Hydrologic Change Across the Pliocene-Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keisling, B. A.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Castañeda, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Pliocene epoch (5-2.65 Ma) represents an analog for future climate conditions, with pCO2 and continental configurations similar to present. Thus, understanding the climatic changes that occurred during the Pliocene might be useful for predicting how climate will involve in the future. In pursuit of this goal, reconstructions based on ocean sediments have proven useful, but also highlighted inconsistencies and gaps in our understanding of the climate mechanisms important during the Pliocene. For example, the conditions that drove ice growth and decay in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, especially during a period known as the intensification of northern hemisphere glaciation, are debated. A major obstacle to refining our knowledge of such phenomena is the lack of paleoclimate records from terrestrial sites. To address this shortcoming, we develop a record of climatic changes across the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, spanning 2.82-2.41 million years ago (Ma), in a lacustrine record from Arctic Russia. Here we use branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes (n-alkane δD) to reconstruct temperature and hydrology during this interval. We find close coupling between the proxies from 2.55 - 2.41 Ma, suggesting glacial-interglacial temperature changes of 5-10ºC during this time in the Arctic. Prior to this, the proxies do not agree on the character of climate changes, suggesting a decoupling of temperature and the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic from 2.7-2.55 Ma. Shifts in the leaf wax hydrogen isotope record at 2.69 and 2.73 Ma, independent of changes in temperature, point to potentially dramatic changes in the high-latitude hydrological cycle at these times. This record allows us, for the first time, to put discontinuous and time-uncertain records into regional perspective and better constrain the evolution of multiple independent Arctic feedback systems during the Pliocene and into the

  17. Spatiotemporal distribution of algal and nutrient, and their correlations based on long-term monitoring data in Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Stone, M.; Yu, Z.; Young, M.; Shafer, D. S.; Zhu, J.; Warwick, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication in Lake Taihu - China’s third largest freshwater lake - has led to deterioration of water quality and caused more frequent cyanobacteria blooms at many lake locations in recent years. Eutrophication is thought to be fueled by increased nutrient loading, a consequence of rapid population and economic growth in the region. To understand the spatiotemporal distribution of algal blooms, a database was developed that includes long-term meteorological, hydrological, water quality, and socioeconomic data from the Lake Taihu watershed. The data were collected through various field observations, and augmented with information from local and provincial agencies, and universities. Based on the data, spatiotemporal distributions of, and correlations between, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and water temperature (WT) were analyzed. Results revealed a high degree of correlation between TP and Chl-a concentrations during warm seasons, with high concentrations of both substances present in the northern and northwest portions of the lake. During winter months, Chl-a concentrations were more strongly correlated with WT. Spatial trends in TP and TN concentrations corresponded to observed nutrient fluxes from adjoining rivers in densely populated areas, demonstrating the influence of watershed pollutant loads on lake water quality. Among important questions to be answered is whether wind-driven resuspension of existing nutrients in sediments in this shallow (< 3 m) lake may cause cyanobacteria blooms to begin. This study identifies other questions, data gaps, and research needs, and provides a foundation for improving lake management strategies.

  18. Paleo-environmental gateways in the eastern Canadian arctic - Recent isotope hydrology and diatom oxygen isotopes from Nettilling Lake, Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapligin, B.; Narancic, B.; Meyer, H.; Pienitz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake is located on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada between the areas of past warming (Canadian High Arctic to the North) and climatic stability (Northern Quebec and Labrador region to the South). Despite being the largest lake in the Nunavut region with a postglacial marine to lacustrine transition history only a few paleo-environmental investigations were completed in this area. The oxygen isotope composition of diatoms (δ18Odiatom) can provide valuable insights into paleo-environmental conditions. Here, the recent (isotope) hydrology and hydrochemical data from the lake are presented to facilitate the interpretation of a δ18Odiatom record from an 82 cm sediment core (Ni-2B). The well-mixed lake (δ18Owater = -17.4‰) is influenced by a heavier (less negative) isotope composition (-18.80‰) from Amadjuak River draining Amadjuak Lake to the South and water of lighter (more negative) isotopic composition (-16.4‰) from the Isurtuq River originating from Penny Ice Cap in the North-East. From the δ18Owater and δ18Odiatom of the topmost sample of core Ni-2B a Δ18Osilica-water of 1000 ln α(silica-water) = 40.2‰ for sub-recent diatoms of Nettilling Lake was calculated matching the known water-silica fractionation for fossil sediments well and thereby showing the general applicability of this proxy for paleo-reconstructions in this region. Extremely large δ18Odiatom variations in the core of more than 13‰ are mainly induced by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water due to a shift from glaciomarine (δ18Odiatom = +34.6‰) through brackish (+23.4 to +27.2‰) towards lacustrine (+21.5‰) conditions (transition zones glaciomarine to brackish at 69 cm/7300 yr cal. BP and brackish to lacustrine at 35 cm/6000 yr cal. BP) associated with a shift in the degree of salinity. Our study provides the first evidence that paleo-salinity can be reconstructed by δ18Odiatom. Additionally, for the lacustrine section it could be demonstrated that

  19. Satellite Observed Variability in Antarctic and Arctic Surface Temperatures and Their Correlation to Open Water Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies using meterological station data have indicated that global surface air temperature has been increasing at a rate of 0.05 K/decade. Using the same set of data but for stations in the Antarctic and Arctic regions (>50 N) only, the increases in temperature were 0.08, and 0.22 K/decade, when record lengths of 100 and 50 years, respectively, were used. To gain insights into the increasing rate of warming, satellite infrared and passive microwave observations over the Arctic region during the last 20 years were processed and analyzed. The results show that during this period, the ice extent in the Antarctic has been increasing at the rate of 1.2% per decade while the surface temperature has been decreasing at about 0.08 K per decade. Conversely, in the Northern Hemisphere, the ice extent has been decreasing at a rate of 2.8% per decade, while the surface temperatures have been increasing at the rate of 0.38 K per decade. In the Antarctic, it is surprising that there is a short term trend of cooling during a global period of warming. Very large anomalies in open water areas in the Arctic were observed especially in the western region, that includes the Beaufort Sea, where the observed open water area was about 1x10(exp 6) sq km, about twice the average for the region, during the summer of 1998. In the eastern region, that includes the Laptev Sea, the area of open water was also abnormally large in the summer of 1995. Note that globally, the warmest and second warmest years in this century, were 1998 and 1995, respectively. The data, however, show large spatial variability with the open water area distribution showing a cyclic periodicity of about ten years, which is akin to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations. This was observed in both western and eastern regions but with the phase of one lagging the other by about two years. This makes it difficult to interpret what the trends really mean. But although the record length of satellite data is still

  20. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  1. Biogeochemical variability during the past 3.6 million years recorded by FTIR spectroscopy in the sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Jacob, C.; Vogel, H.; Gebhardt, A. C.; Wennrich, V.; Melles, M.; Rosén, P.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) can be applied to quantitatively assess lacustrine sediment constituents. In this study, we developed calibration models based on FTIRS for the quantitative determination of biogenic silica (BSi; n = 420; gradient: 0.9-56.5%), total organic carbon (TOC; n = 309; gradient: 0-2.9%), and total inorganic carbon (TIC; n= 152; gradient: 0-0.4%) in a 318 m-long sediment record with a basal age of 3.6 million years from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic. The developed partial least squares (PLS) regression models yield high cross-validated (CV) R2CV = 0.86-0.91 and low root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) (3.1-7.0% of the gradient for the different properties). By applying these models to 6771 samples from the entire sediment record, we obtained detailed insight into bioproductivity variations in Lake El'gygytgyn throughout the middle to late Pliocene and Quaternary. High accumulation rates of BSi indicate a productivity maximum during the middle Pliocene (3.6-3.3 Ma), followed by gradually decreasing rates during the late Pliocene and Quaternary. The average BSi accumulation during the middle Pliocene was ~3 times higher than maximum accumulation rates during the past 1.5 million years. The indicated progressive deterioration of environmental and climatic conditions in the Siberian Arctic starting at ca. 3.3 Ma is consistent with the first occurrence of glacial periods and the finally complete establishment of glacial-interglacial cycles during the Quaternary.

  2. Impact processes, permafrost dynamics, and climate and environmental variability in the terrestrial Arctic as inferred from the unique 3.6 Myr record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russia - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennrich, Volker; Andreev, Andrei A.; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Fedorov, Grigory; Zhao, Wenwei; Gebhardt, Catalina A.; Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Snyder, Jeffrey A.; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Schwamborn, Georg; Chapligin, Bernhard; Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Minyuk, Pavel S.; Koeberl, Christian; Melles, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn in Far East Russia is a 3.6 Myr old impact crater lake. Located in an area that has never been affected by Cenozoic glaciations nor desiccation, the unique sediment record of the lake represents the longest continuous sediment archive of the terrestrial Arctic. The surrounding crater is the only impact structure on Earth developed in mostly acid volcanic rocks. Recent studies on the impactite, permafrost, and sediment sequences recovered within the framework of the ICDP "El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" and multiple pre-site surveys yielded new insight into the bedrock origin and cratering processes as well as permafrost dynamics and the climate and environmental history of the terrestrial Arctic back to the mid-Pliocene. Results from the impact rock section recovered during the deep drilling clearly confirm the impact genesis of the El'gygytgyn crater, but indicate an only very reduced fallback impactite sequence without larger coherent melt bodies. Isotope and element data of impact melt samples indicate a F-type asteroid of mixed composition or an ordinary chondrite as the likely impactor. The impact event caused a long-lasting hydrothermal activity in the crater that is assumed to have persisted for c. 300 kyr. Geochemical and microbial analyses of the permafrost core indicate a subaquatic formation of the lower part during lake-level highstand, but a subaerial genesis of the upper part after a lake-level drop after the Allerød. The isotope signal and ion compositions of ground ice is overprinted by several thaw-freeze cycles due to variations in the talik underneath the lake. Modeling results suggest a modern permafrost thickness in the crater of c. 340 m, and further confirm a pervasive character of the talik below Lake El'gygytgyn. The lake sediment sequences shed new leight into the Pliocene and Pleistocene climate and environmental evolution of the Arctic. During the mid-Pliocene, significantly warmer and wetter climatic conditions in

  3. Geospatial analysis of lake and landscape interactions within the Toolik Lake region, North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Prasad A.

    The Arctic region of Alaska is experiencing severe impacts of climate change. The Arctic lakes ecosystems are bound to undergo alterations in its trophic structure and other chemical properties. However, landscape factors controlling the lake influxes were not studied till date. This research has examined the currently existing lake landscape interactions using Remote Sensing and GIS technology. The statistical modeling was carried out using Regression and CART methods. Remote sensing data was applied to derive the required landscape indices. Remote sensing in the Arctic Alaska faces many challenges including persistent cloud cover, low sun angle and limited snow free period. Tundra vegetation types are interspersed and intricate to classify unlike managed forest stands. Therefore, historical studies have remained underachieved with respect thematic accuracies. However, looking at vegetation communities at watershed level and the implementation of expert classification system achieved the accuracies up to 90%. The research has highlighted the probable role of interactions between vegetation root zones, nutrient availability within active zone, as well as importance of permafrost thawing. Multiple regression analyses and Classification Trees were developed to understand relationships between landscape factors with various chemical parameters as well as chlorophyll readings. Spatial properties of Shrubs and Riparian complexes such as complexity of individual patches at watershed level and within proximity of water channels were influential on Chlorophyll production of lakes. Till-age had significant impact on Total Nitrogen contents. Moreover, relatively young tills exhibited significantly positive correlation with concentration of various ions and conductivity of lakes. Similarly, density of patches of Heath complexes was found to be important with respect to Total Phosphorus contents in lakes. All the regression models developed in this study were significant at 95

  4. Recent ice cap snowmelt in Russian High Arctic and anti-correlation with late summer sea ice extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng; Ramage, Joan; Semmens, Kathryn; Obleitner, Friedrich

    2014-04-01

    Glacier surface melt dynamics throughout Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) serve as a good indicator of ice mass ablation and regional climate change in the Russian High Arctic. Here we report trends of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) by combining multiple resolution-enhanced active and passive microwave satellite datasets and analyze the TMD correlations with local temperature and regional sea ice extent. The glacier surface snowpack on SevZ melted significantly earlier (-7.3 days/decade) from 1992 to 2012 and significantly longer (7.7 days/decade) from 1995 to 2011. NovZ experienced large interannual variability in MOD, but its annual mean TMD increased. The snowpack melt on NovZ is more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than SevZ in recent decades. After ruling out the regional temperature influence using partial correlation analysis, the TMD on both archipelagoes is statistically anti-correlated with regional late summer sea ice extent, linking land ice snowmelt dynamics to regional sea ice extent variations.

  5. The correlation and quantification of airborne spectroradiometer data to turbidity measurements at Lake Powell, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A water sampling program was accomplished at Lake Powell, Utah, during June 1975 for correlation to multispectral data obtained with a 500-channel airborne spectroradiometer. Field measurements were taken of percentage of light transmittance, surface temperature, pH and Secchi disk depth. Percentage of light transmittance was also measured in the laboratory for the water samples. Analyses of electron micrographs and suspended sediment concentration data for four water samples located at Hite Bridge, Mile 168, Mile 150 and Bullfrog Bay indicated differences in the composition and concentration of the particulate matter. Airborne spectroradiometer multispectral data were analyzed for the four sampling locations. The results showed that: (1) as the percentage of light transmittance of the water samples decreased, the reflected radiance increased; and (2) as the suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) increased, the reflected radiance increased in the 1-80 mg/l range. In conclusion, valuable qualitative information was obtained on surface turbidity for the Lake Powell water spectra. Also, the reflected radiance measured at a wavelength of 0.58 micron was directly correlated to the suspended sediment concentration.

  6. Magnetic properties of sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn, Northeastern Siberia: constructing an age model for a terrestrial arctic climate record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haltia-Hovi, E.; Nowaczyk, N.; Lake El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30'N 172°00'E; 12 km in diameter; maximum depth 175 m) occupies a meteorite impact crater formed ca. 3.6 Ma ago in Western Beringia, Northeastern Siberia. The area is assumed to have escaped Quaternary glaciations, and the sediments deposited in the basin are anticipated to preserve a unique terrestrial paleoclimatic record extending until the early part of Late Pliocene. Pilot study on the sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn started in the year 1998 showed that magnetic susceptibility (κLF) is responding to variations in Northern Hemisphere insolation during the last 250 kyr (Nowaczyk et al., 2007). Encouraged by the results from the pilot study, new cores were retrieved from the lake in the frame of a joint ICDP El'gygytgyn Drilling Project in spring 2009, when sediments were cored to the depth of 318 meters reaching the impact rocks underlying the sediments. At present, sediments are subjected to intensive study of their physical, biological and chemical proxies to reveal arctic climatic history as recorded by the sediments. κLF is measured on split core surfaces at 1 mm intervals, and it shows pronounced highs and lows with values generally ranging between 0.1 to 3.0*1000 (10-6 SI). To investigate magnetostratigraphy, U-channel samples have been taken from the sediments cored from two parallel coring sites, and measurements of NRM and its AF demagnetization are underway to construct an age model for the sediments based on polarity changes. The polarity sequence established heretofore reveals a clear pattern of magnetozones with normal/reversed polarity, where B/M boundary (0.781 Ma), Jaramillo subchron (from 1.072 to 0.988 Myr) and the termination of Olduvai subchron (1.778 Ma) are manifested distinctly in the data. NRM values range between 0.001 and 0.1 A/m, and magnetizations of low intensity coincide with more complicated magnetizations with multiple components. Information on mineral magnetic properties have been collected from discrete

  7. Microbial Community Structure in Lake and Wetland Sediments from a High Arctic Polar Desert Revealed by Targeted Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Stoeva, Magdalena K.; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Chételat, John; Hintelmann, Holger; Pelletier, Philip; Poulain, Alexandre J.

    2014-01-01

    While microbial communities play a key role in the geochemical cycling of nutrients and contaminants in anaerobic freshwater sediments, their structure and activity in polar desert ecosystems are still poorly understood, both across heterogeneous freshwater environments such as lakes and wetlands, and across sediment depths. To address this question, we performed targeted environmental transcriptomics analyses and characterized microbial diversity across three depths from sediment cores collected in a lake and a wetland, located on Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Microbial communities were characterized based on 16S rRNA and two functional gene transcripts: mcrA, involved in archaeal methane cycling and glnA, a bacterial housekeeping gene implicated in nitrogen metabolism. We show that methane cycling and overall bacterial metabolic activity are the highest at the surface of lake sediments but deeper within wetland sediments. Bacterial communities are highly diverse and structured as a function of both environment and depth, being more diverse in the wetland and near the surface. Archaea are mostly methanogens, structured by environment and more diverse in the wetland. McrA transcript analyses show that active methane cycling in the lake and wetland corresponds to distinct communities with a higher potential for methane cycling in the wetland. Methanosarcina spp., Methanosaeta spp. and a group of uncultured Archaea are the dominant methanogens in the wetland while Methanoregula spp. predominate in the lake. PMID:24594936

  8. Factors influencing bacterial dynamics along a transect from supraglacial runoff to proglacial lakes of a high Arctic glacier [corrected].

    PubMed

    Mindl, Birgit; Anesio, Alexandre M; Meirer, Katrin; Hodson, Andrew J; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Sommaruga, Ruben; Sattler, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial production in glacial runoff and aquatic habitats along a c. 500 m transect from the ablation area of a Svalbard glacier (Midre Lovénbreen, 79 degrees N, 12 degrees E) down to a series of proglacial lakes in its forefield were assessed. In addition, a series of in situ experiments were conducted to test how different nutrient sources (glacial flour and dissolved organic matter derived from goose faeces) and temperature affect bacterial abundance and production in these ecosystems. Bacterial abundance and production increased significantly along this transect and reached a maximum in the proglacial lakes. Bacterial diversity profiles as assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that communities in glacial runoff were different from those in proglacial lakes. Heterotrophic bacterial production was mainly controlled by temperature and phosphorus limitation. Addition of both glacial flour and dissolved organic matter derived from goose faeces stimulated bacterial production in those lakes. The results suggest that glacial runoff sustains an active bacterial community which is further stimulated in proglacial lakes by higher temperatures and nutrient inputs from bird faeces. Thus, as in maritime temperate and Antarctic settings, bacterial communities developing in the recently deglaciated terrain of Svalbard receive important inputs of nutrients via faunal transfers from adjacent ecosystems.

  9. Understanding how lake populations of arctic char are structured and function with special consideration of the potential effects of climate change: a multi-faceted approach.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Luecke, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the effects of climate change on populations of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in two lakes. Both populations cycle dramatically between dominance by small (≤300 mm) and large (>300 mm) char. Apparent survival (Φ) and specific growth rates (SGR) were relatively high (40-96%; SGR range 0.03-1.5%) and comparable to those of conspecifics at lower latitudes. Climate change scenarios mimicked observed patterns of warming and resulted in temperatures closer to optimal for char growth (15.15 °C) and a longer growing season. An increase in consumption rates (28-34%) under climate change scenarios led to much greater growth rates (23-34%). Higher growth rates predicted under climate change resulted in an even greater predicted amplitude of cycles in population structure as well as an increase in reproductive output (Ro) and decrease in generation time (Go). Collectively, these results indicate arctic char populations (not just individuals) are extremely sensitive to small changes in the number of ice-free days. We hypothesize years with a longer growing season, predicted to occur more often under climate change, produce elevated growth rates of small char and act in a manner similar to a "resource pulse," allowing a sub-set of small char to "break through," thus setting the cycle in population structure.

  10. Biotic and abiotic correlates with black bullhead population characteristics in Nebraska sandhill lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, Q.E.; Ward, M.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Chipps, S.R.; Willis, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    We explored relationships among black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) population characteristics and physicochemical attributes in shallow lakes and quantified relationships between population characteristics of black bullhead and sport fishes. Lake characteristics and fisheries survey data were collected from the Sandhills region of northcentral Nebraska from May through June, 1998 and 1999. Relative abundance of black bullheads was inversely related to proportional stock density (r=-0.672, df=15, P=0.004); however, neither relative weight nor growth was significantly (P ??? 0.20) related to black bullhead relative abundance. Population characteristics of common panfish species such as bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), green sunfish (L. cyanellus), pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were not correlated with black bullhead relative abundance or size structure. Rather, proportional stock density (r=0.655, df=10, P=0.029) and growth (r=0.59, df=11, P=0.04) of black bullhead were positively related to relative abundance of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Similarly, black bullhead relative abundance was inversely related to largemouth bass size structure (r=-0.51, df=14, P= 0.05). Black bullhead mean length at age 3 was positively related to total phosphorous concentration (r=0.65, df=16, P=0.004), and bullhead relative abundance was positively related to shoreline development index (r=0.46, df=22, P=0.03). Population characteristics of black bullhead appeared to have little influence on panfish communities. Rather, black bullhead abundance, predator density, and lake productivity exhibited stronger relationships with black bullhead population characteristics.

  11. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical data in highly stratified sediments from the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Steffen Leth; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Lanzén, Anders; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Ovreås, Lise; Steen, Ida H; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Schleper, Christa

    2012-10-16

    Microbial communities and their associated metabolic activity in marine sediments have a profound impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Their composition and structure are attributed to geochemical and physical factors, but finding direct correlations has remained a challenge. Here we show a significant statistical relationship between variation in geochemical composition and prokaryotic community structure within deep-sea sediments. We obtained comprehensive geochemical data from two gravity cores near the hydrothermal vent field Loki's Castle at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Geochemical properties in the rift valley sediments exhibited strong centimeter-scale stratigraphic variability. Microbial populations were profiled by pyrosequencing from 15 sediment horizons (59,364 16S rRNA gene tags), quantitatively assessed by qPCR, and phylogenetically analyzed. Although the same taxa were generally present in all samples, their relative abundances varied substantially among horizons and fluctuated between Bacteria- and Archaea-dominated communities. By independently summarizing covariance structures of the relative abundance data and geochemical data, using principal components analysis, we found a significant correlation between changes in geochemical composition and changes in community structure. Differences in organic carbon and mineralogy shaped the relative abundance of microbial taxa. We used correlations to build hypotheses about energy metabolisms, particularly of the Deep Sea Archaeal Group, specific Deltaproteobacteria, and sediment lineages of potentially anaerobic Marine Group I Archaea. We demonstrate that total prokaryotic community structure can be directly correlated to geochemistry within these sediments, thus enhancing our understanding of biogeochemical cycling and our ability to predict metabolisms of uncultured microbes in deep-sea sediments.

  12. Re-Os geochronology of Arctic black shales to evaluate the Anisian-Ladinian boundary and global faunal correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangping; Hannah, Judith L.; Stein, Holly J.; Bingen, Bernard; Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron; Weitschat, Wolfgang; Mørk, Atle; Weiss, Hermann M.

    2009-11-01

    Boreal and Tethyan faunas differ throughout the Triassic, limiting the use of biostratigraphy for global correlation. Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) dating of organic-rich black shales, calibrated with existing biostratigraphy, provides a new means to establish correlations of global fauna using absolute time. Here we present Re-Os radiometric ages for Middle Triassic organic-rich shales from two biostratigraphically defined sections at Svalbard and the Svalis Dome in the Barents Sea. Mature black shales from Svalbard, inferred to be Middle to Late Anisian, define a 241.2 ± 2.2 Ma isochron with an initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.831 ± 0.025, the highest seawater Os isotope ratio yet recorded between the Cambrian and Lower Jurassic. Svalis Dome shales in the uppermost Anisian yield a 239.3 ± 2.7 Ma age and initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.679 ± 0.020. The higher initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio for Svalbard shales most likely reflects global seawater at the time of deposition, whereas the lower initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio for the Svalis Dome may represent seawater with limited communication to the open ocean, as suggested by the ratio of trace metal abundances and total organic carbon contents. These age data indicate a maximum age of 239.3 ± 2.7 Ma for the Anisian-Ladinian boundary in the Arctic Boreal realm. This age agrees with the proposed boundary in the Tethyan realm, 240 to 243 Ma, and thus confirms the correlations between Boreal and Tethys based on biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. Our study affirms that Re-Os geochronology of black shale is a reliable method for obtaining depositional ages and establishing biostratigraphic correlations between paleogeographically separated regions.

  13. Social correlates of term small for gestational age babies in a Russian Arctic setting

    PubMed Central

    Usynina, Anna A.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Krettek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with both short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. Although social risk factors for SGA births have been studied earlier, such data are limited from Northern Russia. Objective We assessed maternal social risk factors for term SGA births based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). Design Data on term live-born singleton infants born between 2006 and 2011 in Murmansk County were obtained from the MCBR. We applied the 10th percentile for only birth weight (SGAW) or for both birth weight and birth length (SGAWL). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of independent variables on SGA males and females with adjustment for known risk factors and potential confounders. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the studied risk factors were calculated. Results The proportions of term SGAW and SGAWL births were 9.7 and 4.1%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of term SGA births among less educated, unemployed, unmarried, smoking and underweight women was higher compared with women from the reference groups. Evidence of alcohol abuse was also associated with birth of SGAWL and SGAW boys. Maternal overweight and obesity decreased the risk of SGA. Conclusions Maternal low education, unemployment, unmarried status, smoking, evidence of alcohol abuse and underweight increased the risk of term SGA births in a Russian Arctic setting. This emphasizes the importance of both social and lifestyle factors for pregnancy outcomes. Public health efforts to reduce smoking, alcohol consumption and underweight of pregnant women may therefore promote a decrease in the prevalence of SGA births. PMID:27906118

  14. A comparison of organochlorine and heavy metal contamination and effects in freshwater fish from the U.S. and Russian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, S.M.; Landers, D.H.; Gubala, C.P.; Curtis, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Liver and muscle from grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from four US Arctic lakes, and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), whitefish (Coregonus sp.) and burbot (Lola lota) from five lakes in the Taimyr Peninsula of the Russian Arctic were analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cu, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) and organochlorine content (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes). Although the Russian Arctic is home to two of the largest metal smelters in the world (Nickel and Norilsk), and is often considered a source for atmospheric pollutants to the North American Arctic, heavy metal burdens in fish collected along a transact northeast of the Norilsk smelter in Russia were not elevated relative to US Arctic fish. Sediment records from these lakes indicate that metal flux to the lakes has not increased in the post industrial era. Thus, metal concentrations in fish likely represent natural background concentrations for these areas. Likewise, levels of PCBs and DDTs were similar in US and Russian fish. Burbot collected south of the Norilsk smelter showed elevated levels of Hg, p,p{prime}-DDE, and PCBs 138 and 153 relative to other species collected in Russia and the US. The authors believe this is attributable to species differences in trophic positioning, rather than differences in total contaminant flux. There were no indications of reproductive impairment, as indicated by circulating sex steroid levels, in Russian fish. By contrast, a negative correlation was observed between both 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone and liver Pb concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.51--0.82) in Arctic graving from the US Arctic. These data suggest that long range atmospheric transport and deposition of anthropogenically-derived contaminants are probably not a significant stressor affecting aquatic food webs in these two Arctic regions.

  15. Molecular and neurochemical biomarkers in Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) were correlated to brain mercury and selenium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Sonja K; Shaw, Alyssa C; Basu, Niladri; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-10-07

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations have increased in western Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) since the industrial revolution. Methylmercruy (MeHg) is a known neurotoxicant, yet little is known about the risk of exposure for beluga whales. Selenium (Se) has been linked to demethylation of MeHg in cetaceans, but its role in attenuating Hg toxicity in beluga whales is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to explore relationships between Hg and Se concentrations and neurochemical biomarkers in different brain regions of beluga whales in order to assess potential neurotoxicological risk of Hg exposure in this population. Brain tissue was sampled from hunter-harvested beluga whales from the western Canadian Arctic in 2008 and 2010. Neurochemical and molecular biomarkers were measured with radioligand binding assays and quantitative PCR, respectively. Total Hg (HgT) concentration ranged from 2.6-113 mg kg(-1) dw in temporal cortex. Gamma-amminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R) binding in the cerebellum was negatively associated with HgT, MeHg and total Se (SeT) concentrations (p ≤ 0.05). The expression of mRNA for GABAA-R subunit α2 was negatively associated with HgT and MeHg (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, GABAA-R binding was positively correlated to mRNA expression for GABAA-R α2 subunit, and negatively correlated to the expression of mRNA for GABAA-R α4 subunit (p ≤ 0.05). The expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) subunit 2b mRNA expression was negatively associated with iHglabile concentration in the cerebellum (p ≤ 0.05). Variation of molecular and/or biochemical components of the GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling pathways were associated with MeHg exposure in beluga whales. Our results show that MeHg exposure is associated with neurochemical variation in the cerebellum of beluga whales and Se may partially protect from MeHg-associated neurotoxicity.

  16. A structural fabric defined by topographic lineaments: Correlation with Tertiary deformation of Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands, Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, Gordon

    1994-01-01

    Digital topographic contours from four 1:250000 scale maps have been gridded to produce a digital elevation model for part of Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands in the Canadian Arctic Islands. Gradient calculations were used to define both east and west dipping slopes defining a pattern of lineaments that have been compared with mapped geological structures. In ice-covered areas, where geological mapping was not possible, well-defined topographic lineaments have been identified and are correlated to extensions of major structural features. The northeast-southwest patterns of both topographic lineaments and mapped structures are strongly unimodal and support a single compressive event oriented at 67 deg west of north. This orientation is coincidental with the convergence direction calculated from the kinematic poles of rotation for Greenland relative to North America between 56 and 35 Ma. A minor secondary peak at 70 east of north is observed for thrust and normal fault solutions and is not directly related to the predicted convergence direction. Whether this represents a unique phase of deformation or is a subcomponent of a single event is not known. The agreement of structural components, lineament orientations, and convergence direction suggests an overwhelming over print of Eurekan deformation on any preexisting structural fabric. This study confirms, for the first time, an excellent compatibility between geological and geophysical constraints for the timing and geometry of the Eurekan orogeny.

  17. Correlation of Late-Pleistocene Lake-Level Oscillations in Mono Lake, California, with North Atlantic Climate Events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Burdett, J.W.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Rose, T.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Schwartz, M.

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen-18 (18O) values of sediment from the Wilson Creek Formation, Mono Basin, California, indicate three scales of temporal variation (Dansgaard-Oeschger, Heinrich, and Milankovitch) in the hydrologic balance of Mono Lake between 35,400 and 12,900 14C yr B.P. During this interval, Mono Lake experienced four lowstands each lasting from 1000 to 2000 yr. The youngest low-stand, which occurred between 15,500 and 14,000 14C yr B.P., was nearly synchronous with a desiccation of Owens Lake, California. Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) data indicate that three of four persistent lowstands occurred at the same times as Heinrich events H1, H2, and H4. 18O data indicate the two highest lake levels occurred ???18,000 and ???13,100 14C yr B.P., corresponding to passages of the mean position of the polar jet stream over the Mono Basin. Extremely low values of total inorganic carbon between 26,000 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. indicate glacial activity, corresponding to a time when summer insolation was much reduced. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  18. Geostatistical study of spatial correlations of lead and zinc concentration in urban reservoir. Study case Czerniakowskie Lake, Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The article presents detailed geostatistical analysis of spatial distribution of lead and zinc concentration in water, suspension and bottom sediments of large, urban lake exposed to intensive anthropogenic pressure within a large city. Systematic chemical measurements were performed at eleven cross-sections located along Czerniakowskie Lake, the largest lake in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. During the summer, the lake is used as a public bathing area, therefore, to better evaluate human impacts, field measurements were carried out in high-use seasons. It was found that the spatial distributions of aqueous lead and zinc differ during the summer and autumn. In summer several Pb and Zn hot-spots were observed, while during autumn spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were rather homogenous throughout the entire lake. Large seasonal differences in spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were found in bottom sediments. Autumn concentrations of both heavy metals were ten times higher in comparison with summer values. Clear cross-correlations of Pb and Zn concentrations in water, suspension and bottom sediments suggest that both Pb and Zn came to Czerniakowskie Lake from the same source.

  19. Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene environments of the north-eastern Russian Arctic inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. A.; Tarasov, P. E.; Wennrich, V.; Raschke, E.; Herzschuh, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2013-08-01

    The 318 m thick lacustrine sediment record in Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Russian Arctic cored by the international El'gygytgyn Drilling Project provides unique opportunities allowing the time-continuous reconstruction of the regional paleoenvironmental history for the past 3.6 Myr. Pollen studies of the lower 216 m of the lacustrine sediments show their value as an excellent archive of vegetation and climate changes during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. About 3.50-3.35 Myr BP the vegetation at Lake El'gygytgyn, in nowadays tundra area, was dominated by spruce-larch-fir-hemlock forests. After ca. 3.4 Myr BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared. A very pronounced environmental changes took place at ca. 3.305-3.275 Myr BP, corresponding with the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2, when treeless tundra- and steppe-like habitats became dominant in the regional vegetation. Climate conditions were similar to those of Late Pleistocene cold intervals. Numerous coprophilous fungi spores identified in the pollen samples suggest the presence of grazing animals around the lake. Following the MIS M2 event, larch-pine forests with some spruce mostly dominated in the area until ca. 2.6 Myr BP, interrupted by colder and drier intervals ca. 3.04-3.02, 2.93-2.91, and 2.725-2.695 Myr BP. At the beginning of the Pleistocene, ca. 2.6 Myr BP, noticeable climatic deterioration occurred. Forested habitats changed to predominantly treeless and shrubby environments, which reflect a relatively cold and dry climate. Revealed peaks in green algae colonies (Botryococcus) around 2.53, 2.45, 2.320-2.305 and 2.175-2.150 Myr BP suggest a spread of shallow water environments. Few intervals (i.e. 2.55-2.53, ca. 2.37, and 2.35-2.32 Myr BP) with a higher presence of coniferous taxa (mostly pine and larch) document some relatively short-term climate ameliorations.

  20. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Elberling, Bo; Larsen, Martin M; Mylius, Maria Rask; Lund, Magnus; Abermann, Jakob; Rigét, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Riverine mercury (Hg) export dynamics from the Zackenberg River Basin (ZRB) in Northeast Greenland were studied for the period 2009-2013. Dissolved and sediment-bound Hg was measured regularly in the Zackenberg River throughout the periods with running water (June-October) and coupled to water discharge measurements. Also, a few samples of snow, soil, and permafrost were analysed for Hg. Mean concentrations of dissolved and sediment-bound Hg in the river water (±SD) were 0.39 ± 0.13 and 5.5 ± 1.4 ngL(-1), respectively, and mean concentrations of Hg in the river sediment were 0.033 ± 0.025 mg kg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514 km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57 kg and the majority (86-96%) was associated with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1 gH gk m(-2)yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred in four of the five years in July-August. Floods accounted for 5 to >10% of the annual water discharge, and up to >31% of the annual Hg export. Also, the winter snowfall and the summer temperatures were found to be important indirect controls on the annual Hg export. The occurrence and timing of glacial lake outburst floods in the ZRB in late summer at the time of maximum soil thaw depth, the location of the glacier in the upper ZRB, and increased thawing of the permafrost in Zackenberg in recent years leading to destabilisation of river banks are considered central factors explaining the high fraction of flood-controlled Hg export in this area.

  1. Correlation analysis of tree growth, climate, and acid deposition in the Lake States. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Holdaway, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The report describes research designed to detect subtle regional tree growth trends related to sulfate (SO{sub 4}) deposition in the Lake States. Correlation methods were used to analyze climatic and SO{sub 4} deposition. Effects of SO{sub 4} deposition are greater on climatically stressed trees, especially pine species on dry sites, than on unstressed trees. Jack pine growth shows the strongest correlation to both climate and acid deposition.

  2. Ferry Lake, Rodessa, and Punta Gorda Anhydrite bed correlation, lower cretaceous, offshore eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Ferry Lake and Punta Gorda Anhydrite have been used as marker beds throughout Gulf of Mexico, and divided into nine individual anhydrite beds traceable from southern Mississippi to southern Florida. The underlying Rodessa Formation has an equally well-developed anhydrite section in the offshore Eastern Gulf of Mexico and is divided into twelve basinwide anhydrite bed groupings. The anhydrites of Ferry Lake and Rodessa Formation are traceable to the anhydrites of the Punta Gorda and Lehigh Acres Formations of South Florida. Anhydrite beds appear to thicken in the central part of the trend interfingering with carbonates of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge reef. Paleontologic data indicate that depositional water depths of the interbedded carbonates range from sea level to 100 meters. Carbonates and anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo highs with evaporites precipitating out of a hyper-saline solution on the flanks. Areas where poor anhydrite bed development occurs may indicate areas of patch reefs and, therefore, the best potential for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Individual anhydrite beds have been correlated and color-coded on photocopies of compensated neutron density logs to determine their geographic distribution. Prepared cross sections show some beds to be areawide while others are more restricted. Isopach maps show the configuration of the basin in which these beds were deposited with the basin`s long isopach axis parallel to the reef trend. Anhydrite deposition occurred with evaporation of restricted highstand waters behind reefs that rimmed the shelf edge.

  3. Under-ice noise generated from diamond exploration in a Canadian sub-arctic lake and potential impacts on fishes.

    PubMed

    Mann, D; Cott, P; Horne, B

    2009-11-01

    Mineral exploration is increasing in Canada, particularly in the north where extensive diamond mining and exploration are occurring. This study measured the under-ice noise produced by a variety of anthropogenic sources (drilling rigs, helicopters, aircraft landing and takeoff, ice-road traffic, augers, snowmobiles, and chisels) at a winter-based diamond exploration project on Kennady Lake in the Northwest Territories, Canada to infer the potential impact of noise on fishes in the lake. The root-mean-square noise level measured 5 m from a small diameter drill was approximately 46 dB greater (22 kHz bandwidth) than ambient noise, while the acoustic particle velocity was approximately 40 dB higher than ambient levels. The loudest sounds at the exploration site were produced by ice cracking, both natural and during landing and takeoff of a C130 Hercules aircraft. However, even walking on the snow above the ice raised ambient sound levels by approximately 30 dB. Most of the anthropogenic sounds are likely detectable by fishes with hearing specializations, such as chubs and suckers. Other species without specialized hearing adaptations will detect these sounds only close to the source. The greatest potential impact of noise from diamond exploration is likely to be the masking of sounds for fishes with sensitive hearing.

  4. On- Offshore correlation around the New Siberian Islands, Laptev and East Siberian Seas, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Gaedicke, C.; Brandes, C.; Sobelev, N.; Mouly, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Laptev and East Siberian Seas cover large areas of the continental margin of North-Eastern Siberia and are separated by the New Siberian Islands. The East Siberian Shelf covering an area of 935.000 km2 is a virtually unexplored area and most geological models for this shelf are extrapolations of the geology of the New Siberian Islands, the Wrangel Island and the northeast Siberia landmass. Apart from few seismic reflection lines airborne magnetic data were the primary means of deciphering the structural pattern of the East Siberian Shelf. The Laptev Shelf covers an area of about 660.00 km2 and occupies a shelf region, where the active mid-oceanic spreading ridge of the Eurasia Basin meets the slope of a continental margin. Since no deep wells have been drilled so far on the shelves surrounding the New Siberian Islands, the precise age and nature of the seismic horizons which have been defined remain uncertain. All interpretations base on different evolution scenarios for the shelf areas resulting in a wide variety of interpretations available for the sedimentary cover of the Laptev Shelf where the interpretations range from Proterozoic to Cenozoic. Here we present correlations from onshore to offshore geology based on multichannel reflection seismic data acquired by BGR in the 1990th and a joint VSEGEI/BGR expedition to the New Siberian Islands in 2011. Key marker horizons in the offshore data are linked to major hiatuses in the onshore region. Well information is available close by the Lena delta in the form of sketched stratigraphy ranging from Proterozoic to Cretaceous. Both informations can be reconciled on a cross section despite a gap of approximately 25km, providing a tentative age for a regional unconformity sitting on top of an acoustic basement. We additionally reinterpret the stratigraphy based on rift stages at the conjugate North Greenland margin. Thus we suggest the presence of a break-up unconformity in the seismic data.

  5. Temporal variations of NDVI and correlations between NDVI and hydro-climatological variables at Lake Baiyangdian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Zhifeng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, correlations between vegetation dynamics (represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) and hydro-climatological factors were systematically studied in Lake Baiyangdian during the period from April 1998 to July 2008. Six hydro-climatological variables including lake volume, water level, air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and sunshine duration were used, as well as extracted NDVI series data representing vegetation dynamics. Mann-Kendall tests were used to detect trends in NDVI and hydro-climatological variation, and a Bayesian information criterion method was used to detect their abrupt changes. A redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to determine the major hydro-climatological factors contributing to NDVI variation at monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales. The results were as follows: (1) the trend analysis revealed that only sunshine duration significantly increased over the study period, with an inter-annual increase of 3.6 h/year (p < 0.01), whereas inter-annual NDVI trends were negligible; (2) the abrupt change detection showed that a major hydro-climatological change occurred in 2004, when abrupt changes occurred in lake volume, water level, and sunlight duration; and (3) the RDA showed that evaporation and temperature were highly correlated with monthly changes in NDVI. At larger time scales, however, water level and lake volume gradually became more important than evaporation and precipitation in terms of their influence on NDVI. These results suggest that water availability is the most important factor in vegetation restoration. In this paper, we recommend a practical strategy for lake ecosystem restoration that takes into account changes in NDVI.

  6. Holocene Age Methane and Carbon Dioxide Dominate Northern Alaska Thaw Lake Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, C.; Townsend-Small, A.; Hinkel, K. M.; Xu, X.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes expanding into ice-rich permafrost can rapidly re-introduce large quantities of ancient organic carbon (C) to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2) or the more powerful greenhouse gas methane (CH4). Quantifying the sources of greenhouse gas emissions from arctic lakes will reduce large uncertainties in the magnitude and timing of the C-climate feedback from the Arctic, and thus trajectories of climate change. This work provides the first regional assessment of integrated whole-lake radiocarbon (14C) ages of dissolved CH4 and CO2 as a proxy for C emission sources in northern Alaska. We collected water samples from below ice along two 170 km north-south transects on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska in April 2012 and 2013. These lakes represent a network monitored by the US-NSF funded project, Circum-Arctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON), http://www.arcticlakes.org/. Dissolved CH4 and CO2 were extracted and analyzed for their 14C content. The presence of winter ice on the surface of lakes obstructs the emission of CH4 and CO2 originating from the perennially thawed sub-lake sediments. The trapped gases are forced to mix, thus measured 14C ages are integrated signatures representing the whole-lake emissions. Dissolved CH4 and CO2 ages do not correlate with latitude, yet seem to be driven by surficial geology. Of nearly 150 14C measurements, below-ice dissolved CH4 is the oldest (around 2145 ± 15 14C YBP) in a lake residing on "peaty, sandy lowland" on the northern ACP near the town of Barrow. Modern CH4 and CO2 dominate emissions from "eolian sandy lowlands" in the interior of the ACP. Across all lakes, dissolved CH4 (avg. 836 14C YBP) is older than dissolved CO2 (avg. 480 14C YBP) by a regional average of ca. 360 14C YBP. Results from this study indicate that decomposing Holocene-age organic material is the primary source of CH4 and CO2 emissions from the Alaskan ACP. This baseline dataset provides the foundation for future regional lake monitoring

  7. Changing Arctic ecosystems: ecology of loons in a changing Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian; Schmutz, Joel; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a changing climate. From 2010 to 2014, a key study area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced rapid warming during the past 30 years, leading to the thawing of permafrost and changes to lake and river systems. These changes, and projections of continued change, have raised questions about effects on wildlife populations that rely on northern lake ecosystems, such as loons. Loons rely on freshwater lakes for nesting habitat and the fish and invertebrates inhabiting the lakes for food. Loons live within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) on Alaska’s northern coast, where oil and gas development is expected to increase. Research by the USGS examines how breeding loons use the Arctic lake ecosystem and the capacity of loons to adapt to future landscape change.

  8. Correlations between the Lomonosov Ridge, Marvin Spur and adjacent basins of the Arctic Ocean based on seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langinen, A. E.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, N. N.; Gee, D. G.; Zamansky, Yu. Ya.

    2009-07-01

    Seismic profiles across the Lomonosov Ridge, Marvin Spur and adjacent basins, acquired near the North Pole by the drifting ice-station NP-28, provide a reflection image of the upper parts of the Ridge that is readily correlatable with those acquired by the Alfred Wegner Institute closer to the Siberian margin. A prominent flat-lying composite reflection package is seen in most parts of the Ridge at a few hundred meters below the sea bottom. Underlying reflections are variable in intensity and also in dip. The base of this reflection package is often accompanied by a sharp increase in P-velocity and defines a major angular discontinuity, referred to here as the Lomonosov Unconformity. The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) cored the first c. 430 m section on the Lomonosov Ridge near the North Pole, in 2004 defining the deeper water character of the Neogene and the shallower water Paleogene sediments. These boreholes penetrated the composite reflection package towards the base of the hole and identified sediments (our Unit III) of late Paleocene and early Eocene age. Campanian beds at the very base of the hole were thought to be representative of the units below the Lomonosov Unconformity, but the P-velocity data suggest that this is unlikely. Correlation of the lithologies along the top of the Lomonosov Ridge and to the Marvin Spur indicates that the Marvin Spur is a sliver of continental crust closely related to, and rifted off the Ridge. This narrow (50 km wide) linear basement high can be followed into, beneath and across the Makarov Basin, supporting the interpretation that this Basin is partly resting on thinned continental crust. In the Makarov Basin, the Paleogene succession is much thicker than on the Ridge. Thus, the condensed, shallow water succession (with hiati) was deposited on the Ridge during rapid Eocene to Miocene subsidence of the Basin. In the Amundsen Basin, adjacent to the Lomonosov Ridge, the sedimentary successions thicken towards the Canadian

  9. Examining Dual Frequency X- and Ku-band Backscatter of Snow on Lake Ice and First-Year Sea Ice in the Sub-Arctic Hudson Bay Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, G. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Howell, S.; Kelly, R. E.; Silis, A.

    2011-12-01

    Fully polarimetric dual frequency ground-based scatterometer observations were collected at X- and Ku-band (9.6 and 17.2 GHz, respectively) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the winter of 2010-11 as part of the Canadian Snow and Ice Experiment (CASIX). Backscatter measurements were collected for five landcover types: lake ice, sea ice, dry tundra, open forest and wetland tundra (sedge fen); the combination of which comprises a unique dataset of dual-frequency backscatter signatures. Correlative data collected, including snow and ice properties, are utilized to characterize active microwave interactions and contribute to the development of snow/ice retrieval algorithms. This study presents backscatter signatures for lake and sea ice obtained during winter 2010-11. The seasonal backscatter evolution is compared to changes in snow and ice properties, including depth, density, snow water equivalent (SWE), ice thickness, ice type, and bubble concentration within the ice. Results over lake ice suggest that increases in backscatter at both X- and Ku-band frequencies correspond to increases in SWE, but are confounded by changes in the sub-nivian ice composition. Surface ice types (snow ice, rafted ice), high bubble concentrations at the ice/water interface and pressure/deformation cracks in the ice serve to confound backscatter at several monitoring sites. Over sea ice, preliminary results indicate that increased salinity levels near the ice/snow interface is the predominate factor influencing backscatter signatures. Physical phenomena encountered at sea ice sites are further explored to assess potential influences on scattering signatures. Preliminary findings presented here document the first ground-based dual frequency X- and Ku-band backscatter signatures collected over first year sea ice, and contribute to the scientific objectives of the proposed Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O), a candidate Earth Explorer mission of the European Space

  10. Genotypes of ITS region of rRNA in Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) populations in Erhai Lake (China) and their correlation with eutrophication level.

    PubMed

    Song, Gaofei; Jiang, Yongguang; Yu, Gongliang; Li, Renhui

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on spatiotemporal changes of Microcystis genotypes have shown that the existence and succession of dominant genotypes always occur in eutrophicated freshwater bodies. However, few studies have focused on the correlation between genotype composition and eutrophication level. In the present study, clone libraries of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rrn operon were sequenced from Microcystis populations in Erhai Lake, a subtropical plateau lake in the preliminary eutrophication stage. The genotype composition of the Microcystis populations was highly variable at spatiotemporal scales, and 473 ITS genotypes were identified from the 800 ITS sequences obtained. However, no significantly dominant ITS genotypes existed in the lake. Comparison of Erhai Lake with four major lakes in China, namely, Taihu, Chaohu, Gucheng, and Shijiu Lakes, showed that the Microcystis ITS genotypes and genetic diversity were negatively correlated with eutrophication level. Extensive comparison of the Microcystis ITS genotypes from waters worldwide revealed that 440 ITS genotypes were unique to Erhai Lake, and no obvious phylogenetic correlations can be detected among the dominant genotypes from different water bodies. The high genetic diversity of the Microcystis populations in Erhai Lake may have resulted from the effect of the early stage of eutrophication.

  11. The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Oliver; Hershler, Robert; Albrecht, Christian; Terrazas, Edmundo M; Apaza, Roberto; Fuentealba, Carmen; Wolff, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (where My is million years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota. Herein, we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28–0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46–1.52) My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance

  12. Gamete ripening and hormonal correlates in three strains of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17β (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17∝-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in

  13. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Hauptmann, Aviaja L.; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Elberling, Bo; Bælum, Jacob; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns. PMID:27708629

  14. Temporal development of the correlation between ozone and potential vorticity in the Arctic in the winters of 1988/1989, 1989/1990, and 1990/1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, Bjorn; Vondergathen, Peter; Braathen, Geir O.; Fabian, Rolf; Jorgensen, Torben S.; Kyro, Esko; Neuber, Roland; Rummukainen, Markku

    1994-01-01

    Ozone sonde data of the winters 1988/89, 1989/90, and 1990/91 from a group of Arctic stations are used in this study. The ozone mixing ratio on several isentropic surfaces is correlated to the potential vorticity (P). The P is based on the initialized analysis data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Similar investigations were made by Lait et al. (Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 521-524, March Supplement 1990) for the AASE campaign (January and February 1989), showing how the ozone mixing ratio varies with the distance to the edge of the vortex. Their findings are confirmed and extended to the following two winters. Furthermore we have studied the temporal development of the P-ozone correlations during these winters in order to recognize any chemical ozone depletion.

  15. Annual arctic wolf pack size related to arctic hare numbers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    During the summers of 2000 through 2006, I counted arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos) pups and adults in a pack, arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) along a 9 km index route in the area, and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in a 250 km2 part of the area near Eureka (80?? N, 86?? W), Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Adult wolf numbers did not correlate with muskox numbers, but they were positively related (r2 = 0.89; p < 0.01) to an arctic hare index. This is the first report relating wolf numbers to non-ungulate prey. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  16. Mercury concentrations in Arctic food fishes reflect the presence of anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), species, and life history.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Heidi K; Kidd, Karen A

    2010-05-01

    Single-spawning (semelparous) anadromous fishes are known to transport contaminants from marine to freshwater habitats, but little research has been conducted on contaminant biotransport by multiple-spawning (iteroparous) anadromous fishes. We examined the effect of iteroparous, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on mercury concentrations ([Hg]) in freshwater biota and compared [Hg] between species and life history types of Arctic charr and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Data from six lakes and one coastal marine area in the Arctic territory of Nunavut, Canada, indicated that 1) lake trout had significantly lower [Hg] in lakes where anadromous Arctic charr were present; 2) [Hg] was significantly lower in recently discovered anadromous lake trout than in resident lake trout; and 3) regardless of life history, Arctic charr had significantly lower [Hg] than lake trout. These differences were explained by fish condition, age-at-size, and C:N. Biomagnification of Hg, measured as log(10)[Hg]-delta(15)N slopes, did not differ between lakes with and without anadromous Arctic charr but was significantly higher in freshwater food webs ( approximately 0.2) than in the marine food web (0.08). Some biomagnification estimates were affected by correction for fish age and size. In contrast to semelparous anadromous species, biotransport of Hg by anadromous Arctic charr appears to be offset by increased growth of freshwater fishes.

  17. [Temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors and chlorophyll-a and their correlation analysis in a small enclosed lake].

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Chen, Ling

    2013-10-01

    About four year's field observation was conducted from July 2007 to September 2011, in a small enclosed eutrophic lake located in Qianwei Village, Chongming Island. The temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors (including physical-chemical factors and hydrodynamic condition) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were studied and their correlation was analyzed. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of Chl-a in the lake. Significantly positive correlation was found between Chl-a and water temperature, turbidity, TN and TP. Water temperature and nutrients were the main limited factors of seasonal changes of phytoplankton. It could be the result of phytoplankton growth that caused the seasonal change of turbidity. It was found that hydrological changes were the primary factor affecting the spatial difference of Chl-a concentration. Lower average Chl-a concentration (35. 30 microg.L-1) was recorded in the north watercourse, in condition with higher wind driven flow velocity ranging from 0. 08 m.s- 1 to 0. 22 m.s -1. A strong negative correlation was found between Chl-a concentration and flow velocity. Higher average Chl-a concentration (53. 11 microg.L-1) was frequently found under flow conditions ranged from 0 m.s-1 to 0. 10 m.s-1. These findings indicated that increasing hydrodynamic condition would significantly inhibit the growth of phytoplankton and reduce the risk of algae blooming in summer in these eutrophic water bodies.

  18. Analysis of methane monooxygenase genes in mono lake suggests that increased methane oxidation activity may correlate with a change in methanotroph community structure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ju-Ling; Joye, Samantha B; Scholten, Johannes C M; Schäfer, Hendrik; McDonald, Ian R; Murrell, J Colin

    2005-10-01

    Mono Lake is an alkaline hypersaline lake that supports high methane oxidation rates. Retrieved pmoA sequences showed a broad diversity of aerobic methane oxidizers including the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter (the dominant genus), Methylomicrobium, and Methylothermus, and the type II methanotroph Methylocystis. Stratification of Mono Lake resulted in variation of aerobic methane oxidation rates with depth. Methanotroph diversity as determined by analysis of pmoA using new denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis primers suggested that variations in methane oxidation activity may correlate with changes in methanotroph community composition.

  19. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  20. Delineation of the North Anatolian Fault Within the Sapanca Lake and Correlation of Seismo-Turbidites With Major Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; Demirbağ, E.; Cagatay, M. N.; Yıldırım, E.; Yalamaz, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic reflection studies have been carried out in the Sapanca Lake to delineate the geometry of the North Anatolian Fault. A total of 28 N-S and 2 E-W trending seismic profiles were obtained. The interpretation of seismic reflection profiles have revealed that the North Anatolian Fault Zone exhibits a pull-apart fault geometry within the Sapanca Lake and the active fault segments have been mapped. A bathymetry map of the Sapanca Lake is also generated and the maximum depth is determined to be 54 m. A systematic study of the sedimentological, physical and geochemical properties of three up to 75.7 cm long water-sediment interface cores located along depth transects ranging from 43 to 5.1.5 m water depth. The cores were analyzed using Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) for physical properties, laser particle size analyzer for granulometry, TOC Analyzer for Total Organic Organic (TOC) and Total Inorganic carbon (TIC) analysis and Itrax-XRF Core Scanner for elemental analysis and digital X-RAY Radiography. The Sapanca Lake earthquake records are characterized by seismo-turbidites consisting of grey or dark grey coarse to fine sand and silty mud with a sharp basal and transitional upper boundaries. The units commonly show normal size grading with their basal parts showing high density and magnetic susceptibility and enrichment in one or more of elements, such as Si, Ca, Tİ, K, Rb, Zr and Fe, indicative of coarse detrial input. Based on radionuclide and radiocarbon analyses the seismo-turbidites are correlated with the 1999 İzmit and Düzce (Mw=7.4 and 7.2), 1967 Mudurnu (Mw= 6.8), and 1957 Abant (Mw= 7.1) Earthquakes. Additionally a prominent Cs137 peak was found in the Sapanca Lake sediment cores at a depth of 12 cm. indicating that a radioactive fallout occurred in the region as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine.

  1. [The correlations between population of Oriental white stork and climate change in the Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Miao, Lu-Jun; Li, Yan-Kuo; Li, Jia; Xie, Guang-Yong; Yuan, Fang-Kai

    2013-12-01

    This study analyzed the population dynamics of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) wintering in the Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve (PLNNR) from 1985 to 2011, to see if there was any relationship with climate change. Testing of several climate variables-monthly average temperature, monthly average maximum and minimum temperature, as well as monthly precipitation-indicated that the population size of the Oriental white stork in the PLNNR was 1,340±178 ind., with significant linear increase and drastic annual fluctuation. Every single year, the population size only significantly correlated with the average minimum temperature of Nov. In theory, the low temperature of Nov. could drive individuals to choose other wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, instead of the Poyang Lake as wintering habitats. Meanwhile, temperatures in wintering areas also showed a carry-over effect on subsequent population size. Temperatures in primary stage and later stage of wintering period were significantly correlated with population size 2-9 years later, while the temperature of Oct. was highly significantly correlated with population size 2-5 years after. Temperatures of Feb. and Mar. in the later stage of wintering period were highly significantly correlated with population size of 8 and 3 years after, respectively. Moreover, the stepwise linear regression result showed that the average maximum temperature of Oct. and average maximum temperature of Mar. 2 years ago, as well as the average maximum temperature of Oct. and the average temperature of Mar. 4 years ago were significant predictor factors of the population size fluctuation of the Oriental white stork, which totally accounted for 79.2% of the population size change.

  2. Streamflow simulations of the terrestrial Arctic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fengge; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bowling, Laura C.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2005-04-01

    Predicting riverine discharge to the Arctic Ocean has become increasingly important because of the dominant role that river runoff plays in the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean, and the predicted high sensitivity of the region to global warming. The ability of land surface models to represent runoff and streamflow from northern river basins is critical to an understanding of the Arctic hydrologic cycle. A set of simulations with the land surface scheme VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) implemented at 100 km EASE-Grid across the pan-Arctic domain was conducted to evaluate the model's representation of various hydrologic processes in the Arctic land region, and to provide a consistent baseline hydroclimatology for the region. The pan-Arctic drainage basin system was partitioned into 12 regions for purposes of model implementation and testing. Streamflow observations at various basin outlets, satellite-based snow cover extent, observed dates of lake freeze-up and break-up, and sited monitored summer permafrost maximum active layer thickness were used to evaluate various simulated hydrologic variables. The results indicate that the VIC model was able to reproduce these hydrologic processes in the Arctic region. A 21-year average river inflow (1979-1999) to the Arctic Ocean from the AORB (Arctic Ocean River Basin) illustrated in Prowse and Flegg (2000), was estimated with the simulated streamflow as 3354 km3/yr, and 3596 km3/yr with the inclusion of the Arctic Archepelago, which are comparable to the previous estimates derived from the observed data.

  3. USING LAKE SEDIMENT MERCURY FLUX RATIOS TO EVALUATE THE REGIONAL AND CONTINENTAL DIMENSIONS OF MERCURY DEPOSITION IN ARCTIC AND BOREAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenically elevated Hg deposition in arctic and subarctic ecosystems is potentially a serious environmental problem, particularly in northern Europe and North America. To determine the magnitude of this concern, it is necessary to make an evaluation over a broad spatial sc...

  4. Investigation of correlation of the variations in land subsidence (detected by continuous GPS measurements) and methodological data in the surrounding areas of Lake Urmia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtased-Azar, K.; Mirzaei, A.; Nankali, H. R.; Tavakoli, F.

    2012-11-01

    Lake Urmia, a salt lake in the north-west of Iran, plays a valuable role in the environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, but now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and is rapidly going to become barren desert. As a result, the increasing demands upon groundwater resources due to expanding metropolitan and agricultural areas are a serious challenge in the surrounding regions of Lake Urmia. The continuous GPS measurements around the lake illustrate significant subsidence rate between 2005 and 2009. The objective of this study was to detect and specify the non-linear correlation of land subsidence and temperature activities in the region from 2005 to 2009. For this purpose, the cross wavelet transform (XWT) was carried out between the two types of time series, namely vertical components of GPS measurements and daily temperature time series. The significant common patterns are illustrated in the high period bands from 180-218 days band (~6-7 months) from September 2007 to February 2009. Consequently, the satellite altimetry data confirmed that the maximum rate of linear trend of water variation in the lake from 2005 to 2009, is associated with time interval from September 2007 to February 2009. This event was detected by XWT as a critical interval to be holding the strong correlation between the land subsidence phenomena and surface temperature. Eventually the analysis can be used for modeling and prediction purposes and probably stave off the damage from subsidence phenomena.

  5. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  6. Biogeochemical properties and diagenetic changes during the past 3.6 Ma recorded by FTIR spectroscopy in the sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Jacob, C.; Vogel, H.; Melles, M.; Rosén, P.

    2013-05-01

    A number of studies have shown that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) can be applied to quantitatively assess lacustrine sediment constituents. In this study, we developed calibration models based on FTIRS for the quantitative determination of biogenic silica (BSi; n = 420; gradient: 0.9-56.5%), total organic carbon (TOC; n = 309; gradient: 0.02-2.89%), and total inorganic carbon (TIC; n = 153; gradient: 0.01-1.46%) in a 318 m long sediment record with a basal age of 3.6 Ma from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic. The developed partial least squares regression (PLSR) models yield high cross-validated (CV) R2CV = 0.85-0.91 and low root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) (2.1-4.3% of the gradient for the different properties). The FTIRS-inferred concentrations of BSi, TOC, and TIC provide an initial insight into the climatic and environmental evolution at Lake El'gygytgyn throughout the late Pliocene and Quaternary showing a considerably high bioproductivity in the lake ecosystem between ~ 3.27-3.54 Ma during the early Pliocene warm period. Moreover, we found that the recorded FTIR spectra contain information on sample burial depth as a result of diagenetic changes (dehydration/dehydroxilation) of certain mineral phases. Despite the indicated post-depositional processes, the calibration models yield good statistical performances showing that general FTIRS models can be developed for several hundred meters long records extending several million years back in time. Our results highlight FTIRS to be a rapid, cost-effective alternative to conventional methods for quantification of biogeochemical properties.

  7. Spatial trends and historical deposition of mercury in eastern and northern Canada inferred from lake sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Muir, D C G; Wang, X; Yang, F; Nguyen, N; Jackson, T A; Evans, M S; Douglas, M; Köck, G; Lamoureux, S; Pienitz, R; Smol, J P; Vincent, W F; Dastoor, A

    2009-07-01

    Recent and historical deposition of mercury (Hg) was examined over a broad geographic area from southwestern Northwest Territories to Labrador and from the U.S. Northeast to northern Ellesmere Island using dated sediment cores from 50 lakes (18 in midlatitudes (41-50 degrees N), 14 subarctic (51-64 degrees N) and 18 in the Arctic (65-83 degrees N)). Distinct increases of Hg overtime were observed in 76% of Arctic, 86% of subarctic and 100% of midlatitude cores. Subsurface maxima in Hg depositional fluxes (microg m(-2) y(-1)) were observed in only 28% of midlatitude lakes and 18% of arctic lakes, indicating little recent reduction of inputs. Anthropogenic Hg fluxes adjusted for sediment focusing and changes in sedimentation rates (deltaF(adj,F)) ranged from -22.9 to 61 microg m(-2) y(-1) and were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 0.001) with latitude. Hg flux ratios (FRs; post-1990)/pre-1850) ranged from 0.5 to 7.7. The latitudinal trend for Hg deltaF(adj,F) values showed excellent agreement with predictions of the global mercury model, GRAHM for the geographic location of each lake (r = 0.933, P < 0.001). The results are consistent with a scenario of slow atmospheric oxidation of mercury, and slow deposition of reactive mercury emissions, declining with increasing latitude away from emission sources in the midlatitudes, and support the view that there are significant anthropogenic Hg inputs in the Arctic.

  8. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Nettilling Lake area (Baffin Island, Nunavut): A multi-proxy analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Anne; Pienitz, Reinhard; Francus, Pierre; Zdanowicz, Christian; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The paleoclimate and paleolimnological history of several Arctic regions remains poorly known. This is the case for the area around Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut), the largest lake of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. To reconstruct the past environmental history of this area, a highly innovative multi-proxy approach combining physical, magnetic, chemical and biological properties preserved in lake sediments was used. One particular goal of this study was to investigate the possible coupling between sedimentation processes observed in the lake and melt rates of nearby Penny Ice Cap. A 1-m long sediment core was retrieved from a small bay in the northeastern part of Nettilling Lake during the summer of 2010. This sampling area was chosen based on the hypothesis that incoming glacial meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap would leave a strong climate-modulated signal that would be reflected in the sedimentary sequence. The core was analyzed by both non-destructive (X-radiography (X-ray), microfluorescence-X (µ-XRF), magnetic susceptibility) and destructive (Loss On Ignition, grain size, water content, thin sections, diatoms) techniques. Radiometric AMS 14C and 210Pb/137Cs age determinations, as well as paleomagnetic measurements, were used to develop the core chronology, yielding an estimated bottom age of approximately 1365 AD. The sedimentation rate (0.15 cm.yr-1) in Nettilling Lake was found to be high compared to other Arctic lakes, due to inputs of highly turbid meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap with high suspended sediment loads. Significant correlations were found between geochemical profiles of elements linked to detrital inputs (Si, Ti, K, Ca) and melt rates from Penny Ice Cap since the 19th century. This suggests that variations in detrital elements in Nettilling Lake sediments might be used as an indirect indicator of regional climate fluctuations (e.g., summer temperatures) that determine glacier melt rates.

  9. The Circumpolar Arctic vegetation map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Donald A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Einarsson, E.; Elvebakk, A.; Gould, W.A.; Katenin, A.E.; Kholod, S.S.; Markon, C.J.; Melnikov, E.S.; Moskalenko, N.G.; Talbot, S. S.; Yurtsev, B.A.; Bliss, L.C.; Edlund, S.A.; Zoltai, S.C.; Wilhelm, M.; Bay, C.; Gudjonsson, G.; Ananjeva, G.V.; Drozdov, D.S.; Konchenko, L.A.; Korostelev, Y.V.; Ponomareva, O.E.; Matveyeva, N.V.; Safranova, I.N.; Shelkunova, R.; Polezhaev, A.N.; Johansen, B.E.; Maier, H.A.; Murray, D.F.; Fleming, Michael D.; Trahan, N.G.; Charron, T.M.; Lauritzen, S.M.; Vairin, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: What are the major vegetation units in the Arctic, what is their composition, and how are they distributed among major bioclimate subzones and countries? Location: The Arctic tundra region, north of the tree line. Methods: A photo-interpretive approach was used to delineate the vegetation onto an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) base image. Mapping experts within nine Arctic regions prepared draft maps using geographic information technology (ArcInfo) of their portion of the Arctic, and these were later synthesized to make the final map. Area analysis of the map was done according to bioclimate subzones, and country. The integrated mapping procedures resulted in other maps of vegetation, topography, soils, landscapes, lake cover, substrate pH, and above-ground biomass. Results: The final map was published at 1:7 500 000 scale map. Within the Arctic (total area = 7.11 x 106 km 2), about 5.05 ?? 106 km2 is vegetated. The remainder is ice covered. The map legend generally portrays the zonal vegetation within each map polygon. About 26% of the vegetated area is erect shrublands, 18% peaty graminoid tundras, 13% mountain complexes, 12% barrens, 11% mineral graminoid tundras, 11% prostrate-shrub tundras, and 7% wetlands. Canada has by far the most terrain in the High Arctic mostly associated with abundant barren types and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, whereas Russia has the largest area in the Low Arctic, predominantly low-shrub tundra. Conclusions: The CAVM is the first vegetation map of an entire global biome at a comparable resolution. The consistent treatment of the vegetation across the circumpolar Arctic, abundant ancillary material, and digital database should promote the application to numerous land-use, and climate-change applications and will make updating the map relatively easy. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  10. Arctic Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  11. Accelerometer-derived activity correlates with volitional swimming speed in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiem, J.D.; Dawson, J.W.; Gleiss, A.C.; Martins, E.G.; Haro, Alexander J.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Danylchuk, A.J.; Wilson, R.P.; Cooke, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying fine-scale locomotor behaviours associated with different activities is challenging for free-swimming fish.Biologging and biotelemetry tools can help address this problem. An open channel flume was used to generate volitionalswimming speed (Us) estimates of cultured lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) and these were paired withsimultaneously recorded accelerometer-derived metrics of activity obtained from three types of data-storage tags. This studyexamined whether a predictive relationship could be established between four different activity metrics (tail-beat frequency(TBF), tail-beat acceleration amplitude (TBAA), overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), and vectorial dynamic body acceleration(VeDBA)) and the swimming speed of A. fulvescens. Volitional Us of sturgeon ranged from 0.48 to 2.70 m·s−1 (0.51–3.18 bodylengths (BL) · s−1). Swimming speed increased linearly with all accelerometer-derived metrics, and when all tag types werecombined, Us increased 0.46 BL·s−1 for every 1 Hz increase in TBF, and 0.94, 0.61, and 0.94 BL·s−1 for every 1g increase in TBAA,ODBA, and VeDBA, respectively. Predictive relationships varied among tag types and tag-specific parameter estimates of Us arepresented for all metrics. This use of acceleration data-storage tags demonstrated their applicability for the field quantificationof sturgeon swimming speed.

  12. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  13. Correlation between nuptial colors and visual sensitivities tuned by opsins leads to species richness in sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey; Aibara, Mitsuto; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Tachida, Hidenori; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive isolation that prevents interspecific hybridization between closely related coexisting species maintains sympatric species diversity. One of the reproductive isolations is mate choice based on color signals (breeding color perceived by color vision). This is well known in several animal taxa, yet little is known about its genetic and molecular mechanism. Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are thought to be an example of sympatric species diversity. In the species inhabiting different light environments in rocky shore, speciation by sensory drive through color signals has been proposed by analyses of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene and the male nuptial coloration. However, the genetic and molecular mechanism of how diversity of sympatric species occurring in the same habitat is maintained remains unknown. To address this issue, we determined nucleotide sequences of eight opsins of six sympatric species collected from a sandy-muddy shore--an ideal model system for studying sympatric species. Among eight opsins, the LWS and RH1 alleles were diversified and one particular allele is dominant or fixed in each species, and we propose that this is due to natural selection. The functions of their LWS alleles were also diversified as shown by absorption measurements of reconstituted visual pigments. To analyze the relationship between nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments, we systematically evaluated and defined nuptial coloration. We showed that the coloration was species specific with respect to hue and significantly differentiated by the index values of hue (dominant wavelength: λ(d)). The λ(d) value of the male nuptial coloration correlated with the absorption of LWS pigments from all the species, suggesting that reproductive isolation through mate choice using color signals may prevent sympatric interspecific hybridization, thereby maintaining the species diversity in sympatric species in Lake Victoria.

  14. Thermal Preference Ranges Correlate with Stable Signals of Universal Stress Markers in Lake Baikal Endemic and Holarctic Amphipods

    PubMed Central

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Bedulina, Daria; Shatilina, Zhanna; Jakob, Lena; Vereshchagina, Kseniya; Lubyaga, Yulia; Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Luckenbach, Till; Lucassen, Magnus; Sartoris, Franz Josef; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the most pervasive abiotic environmental factor for aquatic organisms. Fluctuations in temperature range lead to changes in metabolic performance. Here, we aimed to identify whether surpassing the thermal preference zones is correlated with shifts in universal cellular stress markers of protein integrity, responses to oxidative stress and lactate content, as indicators of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure of the Lake Baikal endemic amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstfeldt, 1858), Ommatogammarus flavus (Dybowski, 1874) and of the Holarctic amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars 1863 (Amphipoda, Crustacea) to increasing temperatures resulted in elevated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and lactate content, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., catalase and peroxidase), and reduced lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Thus, the zone of stability (absence of any significant changes) of the studied molecular and biochemical markers correlated with the behaviorally preferred temperatures. We conclude that the thermal behavioral responses of the studied amphipods are directly related to metabolic processes at the cellular level. Thus, the determined thermal ranges may possibly correspond to the thermal optima. This relationship between species-specific behavioral reactions and stress response metabolism may have significant ecological consequences that result in a thermal zone-specific distribution (i.e., depths, feed spectrum, etc.) of species. As a consequence, by separating species with different temperature preferences, interspecific competition is reduced, which, in turn, increases a species’ Darwinian fitness in its environment. PMID:27706227

  15. Using linear models with correlated errors to analyze changes in abundance of Lake Michigan fishes: 1973-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Raz, Jonathan; Bandekar, Ramanath R.

    2000-01-01

    We examined annual changes in relative abundance of Lake Michigan fishes using linear models with correlated errors in space and time. Abundance of bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) was monitored with bottom trawls at 10 discrete depths (between 18 and 110 m) off eight fixed ports from 1973 to 1992. The model describing abundance included fixed effects of year, port, depth, and interaction terms as well as quadratic and cubic effects of year and depth because changes in abundance were not strictly linear. Observed temporal trends in abundance varied with species and depth. Additionally, trends in alewife and slimy sculpin abundances depended on port. Cubic trends in the abundance of bloater and quadratic trends in deepwater sculpin and rainbow smelt abundances were similar among ports, permitting lakewide inferences for these species. Mean bloater abundance was low throughout the 1970s, increased during the 1980s, and reached high levels by 1990. Mean abundances of deepwater sculpin and rainbow smelt increased from 1973 to the mid-1980s and declined thereafter. The linear model with correlated errors can be readily applied to repeated-measures data from other fixed-station fishery surveys and is appropriate for data exhibiting spatial and temporal autocorrelations.

  16. Millennial-scale vegetation changes in the north-eastern Russian Arctic during the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition (2.7-2.5 Ma) inferred from the pollen record of Lake El'gygytgyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Andrei A.; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Wennrich, Volker; Melles, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30‧N, 172°05‧E) spans the past 3.6 Ma and provides unique opportunities for qualitative and quantitative reconstructions of the regional paleoenvironmental history of the terrestrial Arctic. Millennial-scale pollen studies of the sediments that accumulated during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (ca. 2.7 to 2.5 Ma) demonstrate orbitally-driven vegetation and climate changes during this transitional interval. Pollen spectra show a significant vegetation shift at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary that is, however, delayed by a few thousand years compared to lacustrine response. About 2.70-2.68 Ma the vegetation at Lake El'gygytgyn, currently a tundra area was mostly dominated by larch forests with some shrub pine, shrub alder and dwarf birch in understory. During the marine isotope stages G3 and G1, ca. 2.665-2.647 and 2.625-2.617 Ma, some spruce trees grew in the local larch-pine forests, pointing to relatively warm climate conditions. At the beginning of the Pleistocene, around 2.588 Ma, a prominent climatic deterioration led to a change from larch-dominated forests to predominantly treeless steppe- and tundra-like habitats. Between ca. 2.56-2.53 Ma some climate amelioration is reflected by the higher presence of coniferous taxa (mostly pine and larch, but probably also spruce) in the area. After 2.53 Ma a relatively cold and dry climate became dominant again, leading to open steppe-like and shrubby environments followed by climate amelioration between ca. 2.510 and 2.495 Ma, when pollen assemblages show that larch forests with dwarf birch and shrub alder still grew in the lake's vicinity. Increased contents of green algae colonies (Botryococcus) remains and Zygnema cysts around 2.691-2.689, 2.679-2.677, 2.601-2.594, 2.564-2.545, and 2.532-2.510 Ma suggest a spread of shallow-water environments most likely due to a lake-level lowering. These events occurred simultaneously with dry climate conditions inferred

  17. Arctic Vortex

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-06-26

    article title:  A Vortex Street in the Arctic     View Larger Image ... 650 kilometers northeast of Iceland in the north Atlantic Ocean. Jan Mayen's Beerenberg volcano rises about 2.2 kilometers above the ...

  18. Do peatlands or lakes provide the most comprehensive distal tephra records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. J.; Swindles, G. T.; Lawson, I. T.; Savov, I. P.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the widespread application of tephra studies for dating and correlation of stratigraphic sequences ('tephrochronology'), questions remain over the reliability and replicability of tephra records from lake sediments and peats, particularly in sites >1000 km from source volcanoes. To address this, we examine the tephrostratigraphy of four pairs of lake and peatland sites in close proximity to one another (<10 km), and evaluate the extent to which the microscopic (crypto-) tephra records in lakes and peatlands differ. The peatlands typically record more cryptotephra layers than nearby lakes, but cryptotephra records from high-latitude peatlands can be incomplete, possibly due to tephra fallout onto snow and subsequent redistribution across the peatland surface by wind and during snowmelt. We find no evidence for chemical alteration of glass shards in peatland or lake environments over the time scale of this study (mid-to late- Holocene). Instead, the low number of basaltic cryptotephra layers identified in distal peatlands reflects the capture of only primary tephra-fall, whereas lakes concentrate tephra falling across their catchments which subsequently washes into the lake, adding to the primary tephra fallout received in the lake. A combination of records from both lakes and peatlands must be used to establish the most comprehensive and complete regional tephrostratigraphies. We also describe two previously unreported late Holocene cryptotephras and demonstrate, for the first time, that Holocene Icelandic ash clouds frequently reached Arctic Sweden.

  19. Quantifying Recent Ecological Changes in Remote Lakes of North America and Greenland Using Sediment Diatom Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, William O.; Telford, Richard J.; Birks, H. John B.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Hazewinkel, Roderick R. O.; Perren, Bianca B.; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Wolfe, Alexander P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although arctic lakes have responded sensitively to 20th-century climate change, it remains uncertain how these ecological transformations compare with alpine and montane-boreal counterparts over the same interval. Furthermore, it is unclear to what degree other forcings, including atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr), have participated in recent regime shifts. Diatom-based paleolimnological syntheses offer an effective tool for retrospective assessments of past and ongoing changes in remote lake ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized 52 dated sediment diatom records from lakes in western North America and west Greenland, spanning broad latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, and representing alpine (n = 15), arctic (n = 20), and forested boreal-montane (n = 17) ecosystems. Diatom compositional turnover (β-diversity) during the 20th century was estimated using Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis (DCCA) for each site and compared, for cores with sufficiently robust chronologies, to both the 19th century and the prior ∼250 years (Little Ice Age). For both arctic and alpine lakes, β-diversity during the 20th century is significantly greater than the previous 350 years, and increases with both latitude and altitude. Because no correlation is apparent between 20th-century diatom β-diversity and any single physical or limnological parameter (including lake and catchment area, maximum depth, pH, conductivity, [NO3−], modeled Nr deposition, ambient summer and winter air temperatures, and modeled temperature trends 1948–2008), we used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to summarize the amplitude of recent changes in relationship to lake pH, lake:catchment area ratio, modeled Nr deposition, and recent temperature trends. Conclusions/Significance The ecological responses of remote lakes to post-industrial environmental changes are complex. However, two regions reveal concentrations of sites

  20. Changing seasonality of Arctic hydrology disrupts key biotic linkages in Arctic aquatic ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deegan, L.; MacKenzie, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Fishscape Project

    2011-12-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is an important circumpolar species that provide a model system for understanding the impacts of changing seasonality on arctic ecosystem function. Grayling serve as food for other biota, including lake trout, birds and humans, and act as top-down controls in stream ecosystems. In Arctic tundra streams, grayling spend their summers in streams but are obligated to move back into deep overwintering lakes in the fall. Climatic change that affects the seasonality of river hydrology could have a significant impact on grayling populations: grayling may leave overwintering lakes sooner in the spring and return later in the fall due to a longer open water season, but the migration could be disrupted by drought due to increased variability in discharge. In turn, a shorter overwintering season may impact lake trout dynamics in the lakes, which may rely on the seasonal inputs of stream nutrients in the form of migrating grayling into these oligotrophic lakes. To assess how shifting seasonality of Arctic river hydrology may disrupt key trophic linkages within and between lake and stream components of watersheds on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range, Alaska, we have undertaken new work on grayling and lake trout population and food web dynamics. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags coupled with stream-width antenna units to monitor grayling movement across Arctic tundra watersheds during the summer, and into overwintering habitat in the fall. Results indicate that day length may prime grayling migration readiness, but that flooding events are likely the cue grayling use to initiate migration in to overwintering lakes. Many fish used high discharge events in the stream as an opportunity to move into lakes. Stream and lake derived stable isotopes also indicate that lake trout rely on these seasonally transported inputs of stream nutrients for growth. Thus, changes in the seasonality of river hydrology may have broader

  1. Diagnostic sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Ladd, Carol; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2016-11-01

    This study assesses sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort) seas with a purpose of understanding regional differences from the pan-Arctic perspective and how predictability might change under changing climate. Lagged correlation is derived using existing output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE), Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System, and NOAA Coupled Forecast System Reanalysis models. While qualitatively similar, quantitative differences exist in Arctic ice area lagged correlation in models with or without data assimilation. On regional scales, modeled ice area lagged correlations are strongly location and season dependent. A robust feature in the CESM-LE is that the pan-Arctic melt-to-freeze season ice area memory intensifies, whereas the freeze-to-melt season memory weakens as climate warms, but there are across-region variations in the sea ice predictability changes with changing climate.

  2. Arctic contaminants research program: Research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Ford, J.; Allen, S.; Curtis, L.; Omernik, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    The research plan was initially intended to contain the information needed to evaluate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Arctic Contaminant Research Program (ACRP). The scientific aspects of the proposed research form the main body of the document and focus on objectives of the specific research components, current literature, approach, and rationale. The ACRP has three major components: (1) extensive sampling of lichens, mosses, and soils to provide a spatial understanding of the status and extent of contaminants present in arctic ecosystems, (2) lake sediment research to evaluate the source and history of arctic contaminant inputs, and (3) food web research to evaluate the possible effects of atmospherically transported pollutants on arctic food webs. The research plan will be used to provide a framework for the ACRP, based on the preliminary studies done to date and will be implemented over the next five years. The Program will undergo additional peer reviews at two-year intervals in the future.

  3. Correlation of multi-channel seismic data from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas to onshore geology of the New Siberian Islands, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.; Mouly, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Laptev and East Siberian Seas cover large areas of the continental margin of North-Eastern Siberia and are separated by the New Siberian Islands. The East Siberian Shelf covering an area of 935.000 km2 is a virtually unexplored area and most geological models for this shelf are extrapolations of the geology of the New Siberian Islands, the Wrangel Island and the northeast Siberia landmass. Apart from few seismic reflection lines airborne magnetic data were the primary means of deciphering the structural pattern of the East Siberian Shelf. The Laptev Shelf covers an area of about 66.000 km2 and occupies a shelf region, where the active mid-oceanic spreading ridge meets the slope of a continental margin. Since no deep wells have been drilled so far on the shelves surrounding the New Siberian Islands, the precise age and nature of seismic horizons remain uncertain. All interpretations base on different evolution scenarios for the shelf areas resulting in a wide variety of interpretations available for the sedimentary cover of the Laptev Shelf where the interpretations range from Proterozoic to Cenozoic. During the joint VSEGEI/BGR field expedition CASE 13 (Circum Arctic Structural Events) in summer 2011 we sampled outcrops from the New Sibirian Archipelago including the DeLong Islands. Main purposes of the field work were: deciphering the structural evolution, paleo-stress analysis, stratigraphy and paleo-environmetal studies, and collection of potential hydrocarbon source rocks and host rocks. Here we present correlations from onshore to offshore based on multichannel reflection seismic data acquired by BGR in the 1990th and the field campaign CASE 13. Key marker horizons in the offshore data will be linked to major hiatuses in the onshore region. Well information is available close by the Lena delta in the form of sketched stratigraphy ranging from Proterozoic to Cretaceous. Both informations can be reconciled on a cross section despite a gap of approximately 25

  4. Arctic Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ...   View Larger Image Stratus clouds are common in the Arctic during the summer months, and are important modulators of ... from MISR's two most obliquely forward-viewing cameras. The cold, stable air causes the clouds to persist in stratified layers, and this ...

  5. Arctic Refuge

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (often abbreviated to ANWR) was established by President Eisenhower in 1960, and is the largest ... 40 species of coastal and freshwater fish. Although most of ANWR was designated as wilderness in 1980, the area along the coastal plain was ...

  6. Nuclear DNA content correlates with depth, body size, and diversification rate in amphipod crustaceans from ancient Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Yampolsky, Lev; Gregory, T Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Lake Baikal in Russia is a large, ancient lake that has been the site of a major radiation of amphipod crustaceans. Nearly 400 named species are known in this single lake, and it is thought that many more await description. The size and depth of Lake Baikal, in particular, may have contributed to the radiation of endemic amphipods by providing a large number of microhabitats for species to invade and subsequently experience reproductive isolation. Here we investigate the possibility that large-scale genomic changes have also accompanied diversification in these crustaceans. Specifically, we report genome size estimates for 36 species of Baikal amphipods, and examine the relationship between genome size, body size, and the maximum depths at which the amphipods are found in the lake. Genome sizes ranged nearly 8-fold in this sample of amphipod species, from 2.15 to 16.63 pg, and there were significant, positive, phylogenetically corrected relationships between genome size, body size, maximum depth, and diversification rate among these species. Our results suggest that major genomic changes, including transposable element proliferation, have accompanied speciation that was driven by selection for differences in body size and habitat preference in Lake Baikal amphipods.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Arctic Freshwaters: Approaches for Scaling UP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, S.; Cortés, A.; Cooke, M.; Sadro, S.; Kushner, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence moderates emissions of greenhouse gases on a number of scales, and it, in turn, is moderated by processes which govern the stability of boundary layers. On the smallest scale, it mediates the fluxes of gases across the air-water interface; at intermediate scales, that is, the size of within lake eddies, it brings gases to the air-water interface; on a larger scale, eddies in the unstable atmospheric boundary layers transport gases away from water bodies and maintain concentration gradients and further, help sustain fluxes by inducing within lake turbulence. The winds and cooling which induce within-lake turbulence and over-lake boundary layers are moderated by weather patterns dependent on even larger scale physical processes. Using time series measurements of lake temperatures, surface meteorology, and profiles of temperature-gradient microstructure in Alaskan arctic lakes ranging from 0.1 to 150 ha in surface area, we quantify the dependency of turbulence in the water column and at the air-water interface on surface meteorology and lake size. We show the lake size dependent variability in the stability of atmospheric boundary layers. We illustrate the resulting lake-size and weather dependent variability in gas transfer coefficients and within lake mixing. Using cluster analysis, we identify dominant weather patterns in the Alaskan Arctic Region and link them to within lake mixing dynamics. We then illustrate the dependency of greenhouse gas emissions on variability in local weather, lake size, and weather patterns.

  8. The Interdependence of Lake Ice and Climate in Central North America. [correlation between freeze/than cycles of lakes and regional weather variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelacic, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of lake freeze transition zone migration with the movement of large pressure centers reveals the following consistencies: (1) polar continental cyclones originate within and/or travel along the trend of the transition zone; (2) polar continental anticyclones fail to cross the transition zone; (3) polar outbreak anticyclones pass through the transition zone, apparently unaffected. In addition, storm centers associated with the transition zone undergo significant intensification manifest by a deepening of the pressure through and increased precipitation outside the zone.

  9. International Arctic Research Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    the following results: " The U.S. now has an Arctic Research Policy Committee to define overall policy and coordinate Federal research efforts. " The...Arctic and the Nation as a whole. These accomplishments are the result of the cooperation among member agencies of the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee...facing the U.S. in the Arctic. THE INTERAGENCY ARCTIC RESEARCH POLICY COMMITTEE The Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, which met initially

  10. Tomography 3D models of S wave from cross-correlation of seismic noise to explore irregularities of subsoil under the artificial lake of Chapultepec Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Valdes, J. E.; Escobedo-Zenil, D.

    2013-05-01

    In June 2006, the base of the artificial lake in Chapultepec Park collapsed. 20 thousand liters of water were filtered to the ground through a crack increasing the dimensions of initial gap. Studies indicated that the collapse was due to saturated material associated with a sudden and massive water filtration process. Geological studies indicates that all the area of this section the subsoil is composed of vulcano-sedimentary materials that were economically exploited in the mid-20th century, leaving a series of underground mines that were rehabilitated for the construction of the Park. Currently, the Lake is rehabilitated and running for recreational activities. In this study we have applied two methods of seismic noise correlation; seismic interferometry (SI) in time domain and the Spatial Power Auto Correlation (SPAC) in frequency domain, in order to explore the 3D subsoil velocity structure. The aim is to highlight major variations in velocity that can be associated with irregularities in the subsoil that may pose a risk to the stability of the Lake. For this purpose we use 96 vertical geophones of 4.5 Hz with 5-m spacing that conform a semi-circular array that provide a length of 480 m around the lake zone. For both correlation methods, we extract the phase velocity associated with the dispersion characteristics between each pair of stations in the frequency range from 4 to 12 Hz. In the SPAC method the process was through the dispersion curve, and in SI method we use the time delay of the maximum amplitude in the correlation pulse, which was previously filtered in multiple frequency bands. The results of both processes were captured in 3D velocity volumes (in the case SI a process of traveltime tomography was applied). We observed that in the frequency range from 6 to 8 Hz, appear irregular structures, with high velocity contrast in relation with the shear wave velocity of surface layer (ten thick m of saturated sediments). One of these anomalies is related

  11. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  12. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  13. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  14. Arctic Languages: An Awakening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Dermid R. F., Ed.

    This work is a study of Arctic languages written in an interdisciplinary manner. Part of the Unesco Arctic project aimed at safeguarding the linguistic heritage of Arctic peoples, the book is the outcome of three Unesco meetings at which conceptual approaches to and practical plans for the study of Arctic cultures and languages were worked out.…

  15. Variations in anthropogenic silver in a large Patagonian lake correlate with global shifts in photographic processing technology.

    PubMed

    Juncos, Romina; Campbell, Linda; Arcagni, Marina; Daga, Romina; Rizzo, Andrea; Arribére, María; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, digital imaging technology replaced the traditional silver-halide film photography which had implications in Ag contamination. Lake Nahuel Huapi is a popular Patagonia tourist destination impacted by municipal silver (Ag) contamination from photographic processing facilities since 1990's. Silver concentrations in a dated sediment core from the lake bottom showed a 10-fold increase above background levels in the second half of the 20th century, then a decrease. This trend corresponds well with published annual global photography industry demand for Ag, which clearly shows the evolution and replacement of the traditional silver-halide film photography by digital imaging technology. There were significant decreases in Ag concentrations in sediments, mussels and fish across the lake between 1998 and 2011. Lower trophic organisms had variable whole-body Ag concentrations, from 0.2-2.6 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW) in plankton to 0.02-3.1 μg g(-1) DW in benthic macroinvertebrates. Hepatic Ag concentrations in crayfish, mussels and predatory fish were significantly elevated relative to muscle which often have Ag concentrations below the detection limit (0.01-0.05 μg g(-1) DW). Trophodynamic analyses using δ(15)N and whole-body invertebrate and muscle Ag concentrations indicated food web biodilution trends. High sedimentation rates in conjunction with the reduction of silver waste products discharged to the lake, as a result of the change to digital image processing technologies, are resulting in unplanned but welcome remediation of the Ag contamination in Lake Nahuel Huapi.

  16. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa, Inyo County, California; with a section on estimating evapotranspiration using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stannard, David I.

    1997-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the ground-water-flow system associated with Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. By using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique, measurements made between June 1983 and April 1984 to estimate evapotranspiration were found to range from 0.1 centimeter per day during winter months to about 0.3 centimeter per day during summer months; the annual average was 0.16 centimeter per day. These estimates were compared with evapotranspiration estimates calculated from six other methods.

  17. Russian Arctic

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  A Summer View of Russia's Lena Delta and Olenek River     View ... and the thousands of lakes, channels, and rivers of the Lena Delta into a fertile wetland, and when the usual blanket of thick snow had ...

  18. The Age of the Arctic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Oran R.

    1986-01-01

    Examines trends related to exploration in the Arctic by considering: (1) technology and military strategies; (2) foreign policy and the Arctic; (3) Arctic industrialization; (4) the Arctic policy agenda; and (5) recent United States initiatives in this region. (JN)

  19. Arctic technology and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, I.; Chryssostomidis, C.

    1984-01-01

    Topics covered include: legal regime of the arctic, including national and international legal frameworks that govern arctic resource development; environmental policy and socio-economic issues, focusing on the political and economic considerations of LNG transport in icebound waterways; risk and safety assessment for arctic offshore projects, drilling systems for the arctic; arctic offshore technology, including island, steel, and concrete structures; icebreaking technology, focusing on the current state of the art and indicating future research areas; arctic oceanography, summarizing characteristics of ice from field experiments pertaining to the design of structures, ships, and pipelines; arctic seismic exploration, detailing signal processes for underwater communication in the context of arctic geology and geophysics; ice morphology, providing information about ice shapes, particularly critical to the determination of overall strength of ice masses; remote sensing; modeling of arctic ice fields, including information about the design and construction of offshore facilities in polar areas; and engineering properties of ice, providing theoretical and experimental studies.

  20. Energy budget measurements using eddy correlation and Bowen ratio techniques at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Den Hartog, G.; Neumann, H. H.; King, K. M.; Chipanshi, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Fluxes of heat and water vapor were measured on a 20-m tower at Kinosheo Lake in the Hudson Bay lowlands using eddy correlation and Bowen ratio energy balance techniques. The study period was June 25 to July 28, 1990. Measurements were made over a peat bog consisting of a mixture of sphagnum moss and lichen hummocks and black pools. About 200 m west of the tower were several shallow ponds. The hummocks had a dry, insulating surface and were underlain by an ice layer near 50 cm depth until mid-July. At the beginning of the period the black pools were covered with water, and although the free water gradually disappeared over the study period, they remained saturated to the end of July. The depth of peat near the tower was about 3 m. Despite the ice layer under the hummocks, their daytime surface temperatures were high, near 35 C, and after the middle of July, above 40 C. Inspection of temperature, precipitation, and radiation data showed that the midsummer period of 1990 was warmer, drier, and sunnier than usual at Moosonee and so by influence at Lake Kinosheo. When all the data were combined to yield average diurnal energy balance components, the eddy correlation fluxes accounted for 90% of the available energy. Latent heat flux averaged 46% of the total available energy and the sensible heat flux averaged 34%. Daytime Bowen ratios were near 1 for the experimental period, suggesting that the bog behaved more like a dryland than a wetland. Eddy correlation measurements of sensible heat and latent heat flux were less than those measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique, the average ratios being 0.81 and 0.86 respectively. These differences were possibly due to the difficulty in measuring energy balance components of net radiation and ground heat flux over the mosaic surface.

  1. [Correlation between monthly average temperature and grasshopper outbreak in the region around Qinghai Lake based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ni, Shaoxiang; Deng, Ziwang; Chen, Yun

    2002-07-01

    It is necessary to study the relationship between grasshopper and ecological factors for forecasting grasshopper outbreak effectively. Temperature is one of main factors influencing grasshopper outbreak in the region around Qinghai Lake. With the support of Arc/Info and ArcView, monthly average temperatures were simulated under the scale of 150 m by data from sixteen meteorological stations adjacent to Qinghai Lake for adapting the comprehensive method and establishing spatial temperature database. Then, the relationship between grasshopper outbreak and monthly average temperature were analyzed by combining the spatial data of grasshopper density and the spatial data of monthly average temperature. The result showed that effects of monthly average temperature on Grasshopper outbreak were closely related to the life cycle of the dominant grasshopper species in the region, namely, monthly average temperatures of May, June, and July influenced grasshopper outbreak in the current year, and monthly average temperatures of August and September influenced grasshopper outbreak in the next year. Thereby, it could provide a base of establishing forecasting models of grasshopper outbreak.

  2. Combination of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis to characterize the binding of heavy metals with DOM in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; Yu, Guanghui; Yang, Liuyan; Jiang, Helong

    2013-12-15

    Enhanced knowledge on the binding of heavy metal (HM) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) is essential for understanding the toxicity and migration of HMs. In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were combined to characterize the metal binding properties of DOMs, which were respectively extracted from macrophyte- and algal-dominant sediments (named MDOM and ADOM) in a eutrophic shallow lake. 2D absorption COS revealed that MDOM exhibited more HM binding sites (193, 195, 196, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207, 208, 212, 217 nm) than ADOM (201, 205 nm). PARAFAC analysis identified one protein- and two humic-like components from all titrated samples, with each component exhibiting different binding behaviors. The modified Stern-Volmer model showed that PARAFAC-derived components in MDOM had higher conditional stability constants (logKM) than in ADOM, suggesting that macrophyte-dominant sediments might play a more important role in the detoxification of HMs. Meanwhile, low binding abilities of Zn(II)-DOM complexes indicated that the toxicity of zinc in eutrophic lakes should not be overlooked. More aromatic functional groups and binding sites were suggested to be responsible for the high binding ability. 2D-COS was a better approach than PARAFAC analysis for exploring HM-DOM interaction.

  3. Climatic reconstructions in the North American arctic during the last 6000 years

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.T.; Short, S.K.

    1983-07-11

    The objectives include: (1) building a data base of modern surface pollen samples from across the eastern and central Canadian arctic as well as along the North Slope of Alaska; (2) documenting changes in the pollen spectra at a series of peat and lake sites in northern Labrador, Baffin Island, and Keewatin; (3) preparing a series of transfer functions that relate modern climatic data to modern surface pollen spectra and applying the equations to fossil pollen spectra in the eastern Canadian arctic; and (4) discussing the significance of spikes of exotic tree and shrub pollen in high arctic peat and lake samples as paleoclimatic indicators.

  4. Fluvial sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, V. V.

    2006-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of recent publications on the fluvial suspended sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean. The total suspended matter exported from the Russian territory is 102 × 10 6 t/year and from the Canadian Arctic is 125 × 10 6 t/year. The total suspended matter (TSM) flux to the Arctic (227 × 10 6 t/year) is very low, only about 1% of the global flux. Mean concentrations of suspended matter and specific sediment discharge are approximately one order of magnitude lower than the global concentration. An analysis of the trends in the sediment loads based on records of up to 62 years in length shows decreases (Yenisey), increases (Kolyma) and stability (Ob). Among the reasons for the very low concentrations and fluxes of suspended sediment in the Arctic rivers are thin weathering crusts on the Arctic watersheds, low precipitation, extensive permafrost, low temperatures for most of the year, large areas of swamps and lakes and a low level of human activity. A stochastic sediment transport model by Morehead et al. [Morehead, M.D., Syvitski, J.P., Hutton, E.W., Peckham, S.D., 2003. Modeling the temporal variability in the flux of sediment from ungauged river basins. Glob. Planet. Change 39, 95-110] is applied to the Arctic rivers to estimate the sediment load increase should the surface temperature of the drainage basin increase. For every 2 °C of warming a 30% increase in the sediment flux could result and for each 20% increase in water discharge, a 10% increase in sediment load could follow. Based on this model, an increase of the sediment flux of six largest arctic rivers (Yenisey, Lena, Ob, Pechora, Kolyma and Severnaya Dvina) is predicted to range from 30% to 122% by 2100.

  5. Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 Loci in Sympatric Salvelinus alpinus Resource Morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn

    PubMed Central

    Kapralova, Kalina H.; Gudbrandsson, Johannes; Reynisdottir, Sigrun; Santos, Cristina B.; Baltanás, Vanessa C.; Maier, Valerie H.; Snorrason, Sigurdur S.; Palsson, Arnar

    2013-01-01

    Northern freshwater fish may be suitable for the genetic dissection of ecological traits because they invaded new habitats after the last ice age (∼10.000 years ago). Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) colonizing streams and lakes in Iceland gave rise to multiple populations of small benthic morphotypes, often in sympatry with a pelagic morphotype. Earlier studies have revealed significant, but subtle, genetic differentiation between the three most common morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn. We conducted a population genetic screen on four immunological candidate genes Cathelicidin 2 (Cath2), Hepcidin (Hamp), Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2a (Leap-2a), and Major Histocompatibility Complex IIα (MHCIIα) and a mitochondrial marker (D-loop) among the three most common Lake Thingvallavatn charr morphs. Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between morphs at the Cath2 and MHCIIα loci. No such signal was detected in the D-loop nor in the other two immunological genes. In Cath2 the small benthic morph deviated from the other two (FST = 0.13), one of the substitutions detected constituting an amino acid replacement polymorphism in the antimicrobial peptide. A more striking difference was found in the MHCIIα. Two haplotypes were very common in the lake, and their frequency differed greatly between the morphotypes (from 22% to 93.5%, FST = 0.67). We then expanded our study by surveying the variation in Cath2 and MHCIIα in 9 Arctic charr populations from around Iceland. The populations varied greatly in terms of allele frequencies at Cath2, but the variation did not correlate with morphotype. At the MHCIIα locus, the variation was nearly identical to the variation in the two benthic morphs of Lake Thingvallavatn. The results are consistent with a scenario where parts of the immune systems have diverged substantially among Arctic charr populations in Iceland, after colonizing the island ∼10.000 years ago. PMID:23894470

  6. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  7. Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. C.; Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.; Thurtell, G. W.; Kidd, G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) measurements of methane flux were made at the Kinosheo Lake tower site for a 1-month period during the 1990 summer intensive. The measurements were made with a diode-laser-based methane sensor using the eddy correlation technique. Measurements of the methane fluxes were made at two levels, 5 or 18 m. Approximately 900 half-hour average methane flux measurements were obtained. Weak temporal and diurnal trends were observed in the data. Fluxes averaged over the study period showed an overall methane emission of 16 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d with a daytime average of 20 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d and a nighttime average of 9 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d. The effect of emission footprint was evident in the data. A strong relationship between the daily average methane flux and wet bog temperature at 20-cm depth was observed.

  8. Arctic rivers water runoff change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Y.; Khristoforov, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern rivers water runoff plays great role in hydrological regime of Arctic Ocean and also influences the life quality of population of the arctic region. Investigation of spatial and temporal variability of arctic rivers runoff and also estimation of its runoff change will help to forecast and minimize possible negative effect of climate change in the Arctic region in ecological and economical scale. Statistical analysis of long-term fluctuations of runoff characteristics (annual runoff, spring flood, summer and winter runoff) and its major climate factors in general showed that climate change resulted in statistically significant increase of variances and autocorrelation in the second half of 20th century. In the same time statistically significant trends of mean annual runoff reflect the common influence of climate factors and manmade load on water recourses of the Arctic region. Rather tight correlation dependencies between long-term fluctuation of runoff characteristics and its major climate factors were built for the parts of the Arctic watershed, where manmade load level is low. Such correlation dependencies were significantly improved by taking into account spatial variability of northern region environmental conditions. Gained equations were used to estimate possible future water runoff change under climate change. Multi-model climate projections under A2 emission scenario were used to estimate future change of climate characteristics. In the result of such estimation annual water runoff may increase on 5-30% in the second half of 21st century compared with baseline period from low water management parts of Arctic watershed. Influence of major climate factors change on water runoff characteristics variability was more accurately checked by using conceptual hydrological model of Hydrometeorological scientific center of Russia and. This hydrological model was used on averaged size watersheds (around 20 000 km2) of Severnaya Dvina basin together with

  9. Recent Changes in the Arctic Melt Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.

  10. Light-absorbing impurities in Arctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, S. J.; Warren, S. G.; Grenfell, T. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Brandt, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Absorption of radiation by ice is extremely weak at visible and near-ultraviolet wavelengths, so small amounts of light-absorbing impurities in snow can dominate the absorption of solar radiation at these wavelengths, reducing the albedo relative to that of pure snow, contributing to the surface energy budget and leading to earlier snowmelt. In this study Arctic snow is surveyed for its content of light-absorbing impurities, expanding and updating the 1983-1984 survey of Clarke and Noone. Samples were collected in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean during 1998 and 2005-2009, on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, sea ice, frozen lakes, and in boreal forests. Snow was collected mostly in spring, when the entire winter snowpack is accessible for sampling. Sampling was carried out in summer on the Greenland Ice Sheet and on the Arctic Ocean, of melting glacier snow and sea ice as well as cold snow. About 1200 snow samples have been analyzed for this study. The snow is melted and filtered; the filters are analyzed in a specially designed spectrophotometer system to infer the concentration of black carbon (BC), the fraction of absorption due to non-BC light-absorbing constituents and the absorption Ångstrom exponent of all particles. This is done using BC calibration standards having a mass absorption efficiency of 6.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm and by making an assumption that the absorption Angstrom exponent for BC is 1.0 and for non-BC light-absorbing aerosol is 5.0. The reduction of snow albedo is primarily due to BC, but other impurities, principally brown (organic) carbon, are typically responsible for ~40% of the visible and ultraviolet absorption. The meltwater from selected snow samples was saved for chemical analysis to identify sources of the impurities. Median BC amounts in surface snow are as follows (nanograms of carbon per gram of snow): Greenland 3, Arctic Ocean snow 7, melting sea ice 8, Arctic Canada 8, subarctic Canada 14

  11. Arctic Climate during Eocene Hyperthermals: Wet Summers on Ellesmere Island?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, D. R.; West, C. K.; Basinger, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work has shown that during the late Paleocene to middle Eocene, mesothermal conditions (i.e., MAT ~12-15° C) and high precipitation (MAP > 150cm/yr) characterized Arctic climates - an Arctic rain forest. Recent analyses of Arctic Eocene wood stable isotope chemistry are consistent with the annual and seasonal temperature estimates from leaf physiognomy and nearest living relative analogy from fossil plants, including the lack of freezing winters, but is interpreted as showing that there was a summer peak in precipitation - modern analogs are best sought on the summer-wet east coasts (e.g., China, Japan, South Korea) not the winter-wet west coasts of present-day northern temperate continents (e.g., Pacific northwest of North America). Highly seasonal 'monsoon-type' summer-wet precipitation regimes (i.e., summer precip./winter precip. > 3.0) seem to characterize Eocene hyperthermal conditions in several regions of the earth, including the Arctic and Antarctic, based on both climate model sensitivity experiments and the paleoclimate proxy evidence. The leaf physiognomy proxy previously applied to estimate Arctic Paleogene precipitation was leaf area analysis (LAA), a correlation between mean leaf size in woody dicot vegetation and annual precipitation. New data from modern monsoonal sites, however demonstrates that for deciduous-dicot dominated vegetation, summer precipitation determines mean leaf size, not annual totals, and therefore that under markedly seasonal precipitation and/or light regimes that summer precipitation is being estimated using LAA. Presented here is a new analysis of a leaf macrofloras from 3 separate florules of the Margaret Formation (Split Lake, Stenkul Fiord and Strathcona Fiord) from Ellesmere Island that are placed stratigraphically as early Eocene, and likely fall within Eocene thermal maximum 1 (ETM1; = the 'PETM') or ETM2. These floras are each characterized by a mix of large-leafed and small-leafed dicot taxa, with overall

  12. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  13. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a NASA Earth Ventures (EV-1) investigation designed to quantify correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems through intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE's objectives are to: (1) Directly test hypotheses attributing the mobilization of vulnerable Arctic carbon reservoirs to climate warming; (2) Deliver the first direct measurements and detailed maps of CO2 and CH4 sources on regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic; and (3) Demonstrate new remote sensing and modeling capabilities to quantify feedbacks between carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes in the Arctic (Figure 1). We describe the investigation design and results from 2011 test flights in Alaska.

  14. [Energy flow in arctic aquatic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining the major pathways of energy flow in freshwater ecosystems of the Alaskan arctic coastal plain. Selected sites for study of the processes supplying energy to streams and lakes to verify the generality of past findings will be surveyed for collection of organisms including the Colville River drainage and the lake region around Teshekpuk Lake. Specific objectives are to collect food web apex organisms (fish and birds) from a variety of sites in the coastal plain to verify descriptive models of ecosystem structure and food web pathways and to compare the utilization rates by insect larvae of fresh litter and in situ primary production relative to more refractory peaty materials through seasonal sampling for isotopic analysis.

  15. [Energy flow in arctic aquatic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1985-12-31

    This study is aimed at determining the major pathways of energy flow in freshwater ecosystems of the Alaskan arctic coastal plain. Selected sites for study of the processes supplying energy to streams and lakes to verify the generality of past findings will be surveyed for collection of organisms including the Colville River drainage and the lake region around Teshekpuk Lake. Specific objectives are to collect food web apex organisms (fish and birds) from a variety of sites in the coastal plain to verify descriptive models of ecosystem structure and food web pathways and to compare the utilization rates by insect larvae of fresh litter and in situ primary production relative to more refractory peaty materials through seasonal sampling for isotopic analysis.

  16. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  17. First recorded proliferation of Coolia monotis (Meunier, 1919) in the North Lake of Tunis (Tunisia) correlation with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Armi, Zina; Turki, Souad; Trabelsi, Elbahri; Ben Maiz, Naceur

    2010-05-01

    Coolia monotis is a potentially toxic epiphytic dinoflagellate widespread along the Mediterranean coasts, where it is frequently detected year round at low concentrations. However, it only proliferates recurrently in some localities. The North Lake of Tunis is one of the affected areas in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Sea. This site is one of the most productive aquatic Tunisian areas (Recreational Fisheries and shellfish collecting). In the south part of this area of study, recurrent C. monotis proliferation (5 x10(5) cells per liter) took place in late spring and early summer of 2006. During this proliferation, the spatial distribution of C. monotis species, phytoplankton community, and abiotic factors were studied. The composition of the phytoplankton community exhibited a clear dominance of dinoflagellates over other genera. We suggest that proliferation development of C. monotis was linked to climatic conditions, water temperature (r = 0.24, p < 0.05) and high concentrations of nitrogenous nutrients, essentially NH(4)(+) (r = 0.18, p < 0.05) and NO(3)(-) (r = 0.21, p < 0.05).

  18. Naval Research Laboratory Arctic Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Initiatives • Naval Arctic Environmental Research – Improved Physical Understanding – Integrated Arctic Modeling and Prediction – Developing New ...of the Arctic environment and important coupled processes operating in the Arctic region • Development of a new , dynamic, fully-integrated Arctic...longer lead times, including the use of satellite SAR data for assimilation into integrated models • Generation of new technologies (platforms

  19. Remote Sensing of Arctic Landscape Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin M.

    Amplified warming in the Arctic has likely increased the rate of landscape change and disturbances in northern high latitude regions. Remote sensing provides a valuable tool for assessing the spatial and temporal patterns associated with arctic landscape dynamics over annual, decadal, and centennial time scales. In this dissertation, I focused on remote sensing studies associated with four primary components of arctic landscape change and disturbance: (1) permafrost coastline erosion, (2) thermokarst lake dynamics, (3) tundra fires, and (4) using repeat airborne LiDAR for the measurement of vertical deformation in an arctic coastal lowland landscape. By combining observations from several high resolution satellite images for a 9 km segment of the Beaufort Sea Coast between 2008 and 2012, I demonstrated that the report of heightened erosion at the beginning of the 2000s was equaled or exceeded in every year except 2010 and that the mean annual erosion rate was tightly coupled to the number of open water days and the number of storms. By combining historical aerial photographs from the 1950s and 1980s with recent high-resolution satellite imagery from the mid-2000s, I assessed the expansion and drainage of thermokarst lakes on the northern Seward Peninsula. I found that more than half of the lakes in the study area were expanding as a result of permafrost degradation along their margins but that the rate of expansion was fairly consistent (0.35 and 0.39 m/yr) between the 1950s and 1980s and 1980s and mid-2000s, respectively. However, it appeared that in a number of instances that expansion of lakes led to the lateral drainage and that over the 55-year study period the total lake area decreased by 24%. While these studies highlight the utility of quantifying disturbance during the remotely sensed image archive period (~1950s to present) they are inherently limited temporally. Thus, I also demonstrated techniques in which field studies and remote sensing data could be

  20. Polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes explain phenotype-genotype correlation of Microcystis colonies in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shutu; Sun, Qianqian; Zhou, Xiaohua; Tan, Xiao; Xiao, Man; Zhu, Wei; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA-ITS, cpcBA-IGS, mcy gene and several polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (epsL and TagH) were analyzed along with the identification of the morphology of Microcystis colonies collected in Lake Taihu in 2014. M. wesenbergii colonies could be distinguished directly from other colonies using espL. TagH divided all of the samples into two clusters but failed to distinguish different phenotypes. Our results indicated that neither morphology nor molecular tools including 16S rDNA, 16S-23S ITS and cpcBA-IGS could distinguish toxic and non-toxic species among the identified Microcystis species. No obvious relationship was detected between the phenotypes of Microcystis and their genotypes using 16S, 16S-23S and cpcBA-IGS, but polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes may distinguish the Microcystis phenotypes. Furthermore, the sequences of the polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (espL and TagH) extracted from Microcystis scums collected throughout 2015 was analyzed. Samples dominated by M. ichthyoblabe (60–100%) and M. wesenbergii (60–100%) were divided into different clade by both espL and TagH, respectively. Therefore, it was confirmed that M. wesenbergii and M. ichthyoblabe could be distinguished by the polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (espL and TagH). This study is of great significance in filling the gap between classification of molecular biology and the morphological taxonomy of Microcystis. PMID:27752091

  1. Polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes explain phenotype-genotype correlation of Microcystis colonies in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shutu; Sun, Qianqian; Zhou, Xiaohua; Tan, Xiao; Xiao, Man; Zhu, Wei; Li, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA-ITS, cpcBA-IGS, mcy gene and several polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (epsL and TagH) were analyzed along with the identification of the morphology of Microcystis colonies collected in Lake Taihu in 2014. M. wesenbergii colonies could be distinguished directly from other colonies using espL. TagH divided all of the samples into two clusters but failed to distinguish different phenotypes. Our results indicated that neither morphology nor molecular tools including 16S rDNA, 16S-23S ITS and cpcBA-IGS could distinguish toxic and non-toxic species among the identified Microcystis species. No obvious relationship was detected between the phenotypes of Microcystis and their genotypes using 16S, 16S-23S and cpcBA-IGS, but polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes may distinguish the Microcystis phenotypes. Furthermore, the sequences of the polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (espL and TagH) extracted from Microcystis scums collected throughout 2015 was analyzed. Samples dominated by M. ichthyoblabe (60–100%) and M. wesenbergii (60–100%) were divided into different clade by both espL and TagH, respectively. Therefore, it was confirmed that M. wesenbergii and M. ichthyoblabe could be distinguished by the polysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes (espL and TagH). This study is of great significance in filling the gap between classification of molecular biology and the morphological taxonomy of Microcystis.

  2. Evaluating Arctic warming mechanisms in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, Christian L. E.; Lee, Sukyoung; Feldstein, Steven B.

    2016-07-01

    Arctic warming is one of the most striking signals of global warming. The Arctic is one of the fastest warming regions on Earth and constitutes, thus, a good test bed to evaluate the ability of climate models to reproduce the physics and dynamics involved in Arctic warming. Different physical and dynamical mechanisms have been proposed to explain Arctic amplification. These mechanisms include the surface albedo feedback and poleward sensible and latent heat transport processes. During the winter season when Arctic amplification is most pronounced, the first mechanism relies on an enhancement in upward surface heat flux, while the second mechanism does not. In these mechanisms, it has been proposed that downward infrared radiation (IR) plays a role to a varying degree. Here, we show that the current generation of CMIP5 climate models all reproduce Arctic warming and there are high pattern correlations—typically greater than 0.9—between the surface air temperature (SAT) trend and the downward IR trend. However, we find that there are two groups of CMIP5 models: one with small pattern correlations between the Arctic SAT trend and the surface vertical heat flux trend (Group 1), and the other with large correlations (Group 2) between the same two variables. The Group 1 models exhibit higher pattern correlations between Arctic SAT and 500 hPa geopotential height trends, than do the Group 2 models. These findings suggest that Arctic warming in Group 1 models is more closely related to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation, whereas in Group 2, the albedo feedback effect plays a more important role. Interestingly, while Group 1 models have a warm or weak bias in their Arctic SAT, Group 2 models show large cold biases. This stark difference in model bias leads us to hypothesize that for a given model, the dominant Arctic warming mechanism and trend may be dependent on the bias of the model mean state.

  3. Observing a catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and drainage of thermokarst lakes have reshaped ice-rich permafrost lowlands in the Arctic throughout the Holocene. North of Teshekpuk Lake, on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, thermokarst lakes presently occupy 22.5% of the landscape, and drained thermokarst lake basins occupy 61.8%. Analysis of remotely sensed imagery indicates that nine lakes (>10 ha) have drained in the 1,750 km2 study area between 1955 and 2014. The most recent lake drainage was observed using in situ data loggers providing information on the duration and magnitude of the event, and a nearby weather station provided information on the environmental conditions preceding the lake drainage. Lake 195 (L195), an 80 ha thermokarst lake with an estimated water volume of ~872,000 m3, catastrophically drained on 05 July 2014. Abundant winter snowfall and heavy early summer precipitation resulted in elevated lake water levels that likely promoted bank overtopping, thermo-erosion along an ice-wedge network, and formation of a 9 m wide, 2 m deep, and 70 m long drainage gully. The lake emptied in 36 hours, with 75% of the water volume loss occurring in the first ten hours. The observed peak discharge of the resultant flood was 25 m3/s, which is similar to that in northern Alaska river basins whose areas are more than two orders of magnitude larger. Our findings support the catastrophic nature of sudden lake drainage events and the mechanistic hypotheses developed by J. Ross Mackay.

  4. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  5. Paleolimnological records of nitrogen deposition in shallow, high-elevation lakes of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Otu, Megan K.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Baron, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic sources has been altering ecosystem function in lakes of the Rocky Mountains, other regions of western North America, and the Arctic over recent decades. The response of biota in shallow lakes to atmospheric deposition of Nr, however, has not been considered. Benthic algae are dominant in shallow, high-elevation lakes and are less sensitive to nutrient inputs than planktonic algae. Because the benthos is typically more nutrient rich than the water column, shallow lakes are not expected to show evidence of anthropogenic Nr. In this study, we assessed sedimentary evidence for regional Nr deposition, sediment chronology, and the nature of algal community response in five shallow, high-elevation lakes in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE). Over 140 diatom taxa were identified from the sediments, with a relatively high species richness of taxa characteristic of oligotrophic conditions. The diatom assemblages were dominated by benthic taxa, especially motile taxa. The GRTE lakes demonstrate assemblage-wide shifts in diatoms, including 1) synchronous and significant assemblage changes centered on ~1960 AD; 2) pre-1960 assemblages differed significantly from post-1960 assemblages; 3) pre-1960 diatom assemblages fluctuated randomly, whereas post- 1960 assemblages showed directional change; 4) changes in δ15N signatures were correlated with diatom community composition. These results demonstrate recent changes in shallow high18 elevation lakes that are most correlated with anthropogenic Nr. It is also possible, however, that the combined effect of Nr deposition and warming is accelerating species shifts in benthic diatoms. While uncertainties remain about the potential synergy of Nr deposition and warming, this study adds shallow lakes to the growing list of impacted high-elevation localities in western North America.

  6. Reconstructing level changes and assessing evidence for tectonic and glacial-rebound induced tilting of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand using novel techniques for correlating and dating paleoshorelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, S. T.; Stahl, T. A.; Cook, S.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial-rebound signals have not previously been identified or isolated from tectonic processes in the New Zealand landscape. This contrasts with other parts of the world where glacial-unloading has caused tens to hundreds of meters of uplift and increased fault activity. The aim of this research was to quantify the magnitude and timing of post-glacial lake-level changes and deformation of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand. Abandoned shorelines up to 43 m above the modern water-level had previously been suggested to be tilted. Accurate measurement of the magnitude and timing of tilting would provide a unique attempt to extract a glacial-rebound signal from the tectonically-overprinted New Zealand landscape. Paleo-shoreline profiles were surveyed along the lake using GPS and existing air-borne LiDAR datasets. The shoreline profiles were correlated based on elevation and numerically cross-correlated to assess potential progressive offset. The results reveal negligible elevation differences, in conflict with previous suggestions of shoreline tilting. The timing of lake lowering was assessed with Schmidt hammer exposure-age and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of a flight of alluvial terraces directly correlated with the shorelines. The ages suggest formation of the lake by ~17.1 +/- 2.6 ka, which is assumed to be the approximate age for initial formation of the highest and most prominent preserved shoreline. Abandonment of this high-stand shoreline is thought to have commenced at ~12 ka when lake drainage switched to a new outlet, and was followed by gradual lowering (of about 20 m in 8-10 kyr). Lowering accelerated at about 2 ka, rapidly achieving 26-29 m of lowering before then reversing by 3-6 m to attain the present-day level. Glacial-rebound induced uplift or fault activity in the last 18 kyr has not been recorded by paleo-shorelines of Lake Wakatipu. We suggest that a glacial-isostatic signal is not present in the data because either glacial

  7. Russia in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Sea OCS, the Beaufort Sea OCS, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ), the Central Arctic (the region found between the Colville and Canning...and local legis- lation, as is the case with the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ), and are thus more accessible to drill- ing. To enhance U.S...reserves out of reach. Until recently, potentially large U.S. natural gas deposits have been off limits. For instance, ANWR holds potential reserves

  8. Cystic echinococcosis in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L

    2003-01-01

    The northern biotype of Echinococcus granulosus occurs throughout the holarctic zones of tundra and taiga, from eastern Fennoscandia to the Bering Strait in Eurasia and in North America from arctic Alaska approximately to the northern border of the United States. The cycle of the cestode is complex in taiga at lower latitudes, because of the greater diversity of potential hosts. In the Arctic and Subarctic, however, four patterns of predator/prey relationships may be discerned. Two natural cycles involve the wolf and wild reindeer and the wolf and elk (moose), respectively. Where deer of the two species coexist, both are prey of the wolf; the interactions of the wolf and elk are here described on the basis of long-term observations made on Isle Royale (in Lake Superior near the southern limit of taiga), where only the wolf and elk serve as hosts for E. granulosus. A synanthropic cycle involving herding-dogs and domesticated reindeer caused hyperendemicity of cystic echinococcosis in arctic Eurasia, mainly in northeastern Siberia. The 4th pattern, a semi-synanthropic cycle, formerly existed in Alaska, wherein sled-dogs of the indigenous hunters became infected by consuming the lungs of wild reindeer. The sequence of changes in life-style inherent in the process of acculturation affected the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis among nomadic Iñupiat in arctic Alaska. When those people became sedentary, the environs of their early villages soon became severely contaminated by faeces of dogs, and cases of cystic echinococcosis occurred. Compared to cystic echinococcosis caused by E. granulosus adapted to synanthropic hosts (dog and domestic ungulates), the infection produced by the northern biotype is relatively benign. Nearly all diagnosed cases of cystic echinococcosis (> 300) in Alaska have occurred in indigenous people; only one fatality has been recorded (in a non-indigenous person). After sled-dogs were replaced by machines, cases have become rare in Alaska. A

  9. Population viability of Arctic grayling in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steed, Amber C.; Zale, Alexander V.; Koel, Todd M.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The fluvial Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus is restricted to less than 5% of its native range in the contiguous United States and was relisted as a category 3 candidate species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2010. Although fluvial Arctic grayling of the lower Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were considered to have been extirpated by 1935, anglers and biologists have continued to report catching low numbers of Arctic grayling in the river. Our goal was to determine whether a viable population of fluvial Arctic grayling persisted in the Gibbon River or whether the fish caught in the river were downstream emigrants from lacustrine populations in headwater lakes. We addressed this goal by determining relative abundances, sources, and evidence for successful spawning of Arctic grayling in the Gibbon River. During 2005 and 2006, Arctic grayling comprised between 0% and 3% of the salmonid catch in riverwide electrofishing (mean < 1%; SE < 1%) and snorkeling (mean = 1%; SE = 1%) surveys; Arctic grayling constituted 0–14% of the salmonid catch obtained by targeted angling (3 of 22 fish; mean = 4%; SE = 5%). Low values of the genetic differentiation index (F ST = 0.0021 ± 0.002 [mean ± 95% confidence interval]) between headwater lake and river Arctic grayling indicated that fish from throughout the Gibbon River system probably belonged to the same population. Back-calculated lengths at most ages were similar among all fish, and successful spawning within the Gibbon River below the headwater lakes was not documented. Few Arctic grayling adults and no fry were detected in the Gibbon River, implying that a reproducing fluvial population does not exist there. These findings have implications for future Endangered Species Act considerations and management of fluvial Arctic grayling within and outside of Yellowstone National Park. Our comprehensive approach is broadly applicable to the management of sparsely detected aquatic species worldwide.

  10. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  11. A SPECTRAL INDEX FOR ASSESSING SURFACE WATER DEPTH: CASE STUDY FROM A LARGE-SCALE HYDROLOGICAL MANIPULATION EXPERIMENT IN ARCTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S.; Gamon, J. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale hydrological changes in arctic tundra associated with climate change calls for remote sensing tools that can characterize changing surface hydrology over large regions. The NSF-supported Biocomplexity project in Barrow, Alaska, involves experimental manipulation of water table (drained, flooded, and control treatments) in an Arctic thaw lake basin to investigate the effects of altered hydrology on land-atmosphere carbon balance. Throughout the 2008 growing season, hyperspectral reflectance data were collected in the visible and near IR using a robotic tram system that operated along a 300m tramline situated in each treatment. Water table depths were also collected from water wells placed along transects. A spectral index was developed using reflectance in the IR region (1000 nm, where water absorbs strongly) and reflectance in the blue region (460 nm, where water absorbs poorly). Indices formulate from these two bands were strongly correlated with the depth of standing water. This index successfully captured treatment effects on standing water depth, and may have larger utility as a sensitive measure of hydrological change in arctic regions.

  12. Hydrogeologic Controls on Lake Level at Mountain Lake, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roningen, J. M.; Burbey, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Mountain Lake in Giles County, Virginia has a documented history of severe natural lake-level changes involving groundwater seepage that extend over the past 4200 years. Featured in the 1986 movie Dirty Dancing, the natural lake dried up completely in September 2008 and levels have not yet recovered. A hydrogeologic investigation was undertaken in an effort to determine the factors influencing lake level changes. A daily water balance, dipole-dipole electrical resistivity surveying, well logging and chemical sampling have shed light on: 1) the influence of a fault not previously discussed in literature regarding the lake, 2) the seasonal response to precipitation of a forested first-order drainage system in fractured rock, and 3) the possibility of flow pathways related to karst features. Geologic controls on lake level were investigated using several techniques. Geophysical surveys using dipole-dipole resistivity located possible subsurface flowpaths both to and from the lake. Well logs, lineament analysis, and joint sampling were used to assess structural controls on lake hydrology. Major ions were sampled at wells, springs, streams, and the lake to evaluate possible mixing of different sources of water in the lake. Groundwater levels were monitored for correlation to lake levels, rainfall events, and possible seismic effects. The hydrology of the lake was quantified with a water balance on a daily time step. Results from the water balance indicate steady net drainage and significant recharge when vegetation is dormant, particularly during rain-on-snow melt events. The resistivity survey reveals discrete areas that represent flow pathways from the lake, as well as flowpaths to springs upgradient of the lake located in the vicinity of the fault. The survey also suggests that some flowpaths may originate outside of the topographic watershed of the lake. Chemical evidence indicates karst may underlie the lakebed. Historical data suggest that artificial intervention

  13. Geography of Alaska Lake Districts: Identification, Description, and Analysis of Lake-Rich Regions of a Diverse and Dynamic State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are abundant landforms and important ecosystems in Alaska, but are unevenly distributed on the landscape with expansive lake-poor regions and several lake-rich regions. Such lake-rich areas are termed lake districts and have landscape characteristics that can be considered distinctive in similar respects to mountain ranges. In this report, we explore the nature of lake-rich areas by quantitatively identifying Alaska's lake districts, describing and comparing their physical characteristics, and analyzing how Alaska lake districts are naturally organized and correspond to climatic and geophysical characteristics, as well as studied and managed by people. We use a digital dataset (National Hydrography Dataset) of lakes greater than 1 hectare, which includes 409,040 individual lakes and represents 3.3 percent of the land-surface area of Alaska. The selection criteria we used to identify lake districts were (1) a lake area (termed limnetic ratio, in percent) greater than the mean for the State, and (2) a lake density (number of lakes per unit area) greater than the mean for the State using a pixel size scaled to the area of interest and number of lakes in the census. Pixels meeting these criteria were grouped and delineated and all groups greater than 1,000 square kilometers were identified as Alaska's lake districts. These lake districts were described according to lake size-frequency metrics, elevation distributions, geology, climate, and ecoregions to better understand their similarities and differences. We also looked at where lake research and relevant ecological monitoring has occurred in Alaska relative to lake districts and how lake district lands and waters are currently managed. We identified and delineated 20 lake districts in Alaska representing 16 percent of the State, but including 65 percent of lakes and 75 percent of lake area. The largest lake districts identified are the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Arctic Coastal Plain, and Iliamna lake districts with

  14. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  15. Light-absorbing impurities in Arctic snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, S. J.; Warren, S. G.; Grenfell, T. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Brandt, R. E.

    2010-08-01

    Absorption of radiation by ice is extremely weak at visible and near-ultraviolet wavelengths, so small amounts of light-absorbing impurities in snow can dominate the absorption of solar radiation at these wavelengths, reducing the albedo relative to that of pure snow, contributing to the surface energy budget and leading to earlier snowmelt. In this study Arctic snow is surveyed for its content of light-absorbing impurities, expanding and updating the 1983-1984 survey of Clarke and Noone. Samples were collected in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean during 2005-2009, on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, sea ice, frozen lakes, and in boreal forests. Snow was collected mostly in spring, when the entire winter snowpack is accessible for sampling. Sampling was carried out in summer on the Greenland ice sheet and on the Arctic Ocean, of melting glacier snow and sea ice as well as cold snow. About 1200 snow samples have been analyzed for this study. The snow is melted and filtered; the filters are analyzed in a specially designed spectrophotometer system to infer the concentration of black carbon (BC), the fraction of absorption due to non-BC light-absorbing constituents and the absorption Ångstrom exponent of all particles. The reduction of snow albedo is primarily due to BC, but other impurities, principally brown (organic) carbon, are typically responsible for ~40% of the visible and ultraviolet absorption. The meltwater from selected snow samples was saved for chemical analysis to identify sources of the impurities. Median BC amounts in surface snow are as follows (nanograms of carbon per gram of snow): Greenland 3, Arctic Ocean snow 7, melting sea ice 8, Arctic Canada 8, Subarctic Canada 14, Svalbard 13, Northern Norway 21, Western Arctic Russia 26, Northeastern Siberia 17. Concentrations are more variable in the European Arctic than in Arctic Canada or the Arctic Ocean, probably because of the proximity to BC sources. Individual

  16. Arctic circulation regimes.

    PubMed

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability.

  17. Arctic circulation regimes

    PubMed Central

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. PMID:26347536

  18. A Tale of Two Lakes: Catchment-Specific Responses to Late Holocene Cooling in Northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, S. E.; Florian, C. R.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Zalzal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Lake sediments are frequently utilized for reconstructing paleoclimate in the Arctic, particularly in Iceland, where high sedimentation rates and abundant tephra layers allow for the development high-resolution, well-dated records. However, when developing climate records using biological proxies, catchment-specific processes must be understood and separated from the primary climate signal in order to develop accurate reconstructions. In this study, we compare proxy records (biogenic silica [BSi], C:N, ∂13C, and algal pigments) of the last 2 ka from two nearby lakes in northwest Iceland in order to elucidate how different catchments respond to similar climate history. Torfdalsvatn and Bæjarvötn are two coastal lakes located 60 km apart; mean summer temperatures are highly correlated between the two sites over the instrumental record, and likely for the past 2 ka as well. Consistent with other Icelandic records, both lakes record cooling as decreasing aquatic productivity (BSi) over the last 2 ka. Both sediment cores also record the onset of landscape destabilization, reflected by increased terrestrial input (C:N and ∂13C), which suggests an intensification of cooling. However, the timing and magnitude of this shift differ markedly between lakes. Biological proxies indicate gradual landscape destabilization beginning ~900 AD at Torfdalsvatn in contrast to a sharper, more intense landscape destabilization at ~1400 AD at Bæjarvötn. Because temperatures at the two lakes are well correlated, contrasting proxy responses are likely the result of catchment-specific thresholds and processes. Specifically, a steeper catchment at Bæjarvötn may allow for a more pronounced influx of terrestrial material as the critical shear stress for soil erosion is surpassed more readily. The impact of human colonization on erosion rates is also critical to assess, and recent developments in lipid biomarkers will allow for more precise reconstructions of human activity in each

  19. Streamflow Simulations of the Terrestrial Arctic Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, F.; Adam, J.; Bowling, L.; Lettenmaier, D.

    2003-12-01

    Runoff from the Arctic terrestrial drainage system represents about two-thirds of the net flux of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Both the amount and the timing of freshwater inflow to the ocean systems are important to ocean circulation, salinity, and sea ice dynamics. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is used to simulate runoff and streamflow from the pan-Arctic terrestrial domain from 1979 to 1999. The VIC model is a grid-based land surface scheme designed both for inclusion in GCMs, and for use as a stand-alone macroscale hydrological model. The key elements of the model that are particularly relevant to high latitude implementations include a two-layer energy balance snow model, a frozen soil/permafrost algorithm, a blowing snow model, and a lakes and wetlands model, none of which have previously been applied over the entire pan-Arctic domain. The model was applied over a 100kmx100km EASE grid mesh with full energy balance (closure for surface skin temperature) at a time step of 3 hours. A river network was developed for the model grid mesh and a routing scheme was run offline which takes daily VIC surface and subsurface runoff as input to obtain model simulated streamflows at the outlets of selected study basins. The forcing data, soil, and vegetation parameters needed by the VIC are described and evaluated, along with calibration issues. The VIC streamflow simulations for the Lena, Ob, and Mackenzie watersheds are compared with observations. For the 20-year study period, an estimate is provided of the mean freshwater flux to the Arctic and its spatial distribution, and is compared with previous estimates.

  20. Arctic Haze Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset

  1. Ice-Free Arctic Ocean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years, according to a new report. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify any natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. "What really makes the Arctic different…

  2. Limnological and water-quality data from Wonder Lake, Chilchukabena Lake, and Lake Minchumina, Denali National Park and Preserve and surrounding area, Alaska, June 2006-August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, D.A.; Arp, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Growing visitor traffic and resource use, as well as natural and anthropogenic land and climatic changes, can place increasing stress on lake ecosystems in Denali National Park and Preserve. Baseline data required to substantiate impact assessment in this sub-arctic region is sparse to non-existent. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a water-quality assessment of several large lakes in and around the Park from June 2006 to August 2008. Discrete water-quality samples, lake profiles of pH, specific conductivity, dissolved-oxygen concentration, water temperature, turbidity, and continuous-record temperature profile data were collected from Wonder Lake, Chilchukabena Lake, and Lake Minchumina. In addition, zooplankton, snow chemistry data, fecal coliform, and inflow/outflow water-quality samples also were collected from Wonder Lake.

  3. Current use pesticides in Arctic media; 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Hoferkamp, Lisa; Hermanson, Mark H; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-07-01

    This review will summarize the levels of selected current use pesticides (CUPs) that have been identified and reported in Arctic media (i.e. air, water, sediment, and biota) since the year 2000. Almost all of the 10 CUPs (chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, diazinon, dicofol, lindane, methoxychlor, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), pentachlorophenol, and trifluralin) examined in the review currently are, or have been, high production volume chemicals i.e. >1M lbs/y in USA or >1000 t/y globally. Characteristic travel distances for the 10 chemicals range from 55 km (methoxychlor) to 12,100 km (PCNB). Surveys and long-term monitoring studies have demonstrated the presence of 9 of the 10 CUPs included in this review in the Arctic environment. Only dicofol has not been reported. The presence of these chemicals has mainly been reported in high volume air samples and in snow from Arctic ice caps and lake catchments. There are many other CUPs registered for use which have not been determined in Arctic environments. The discovery of the CUPs currently measured in the Arctic has been mainly serendipitous, a result of analyzing some samples using the same suite of analytes as used for studies in mid-latitude locations. A more systematic approach is needed to assess whether other CUPs might be accumulating in the arctic and ultimately to assess whether their presence has any significance biologically or results in risks for human consumers.

  4. Role of Atmospheric Transport on the Arctic Amplification: Adjusting Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUG, J.; Yim, B.; Jin, F.

    2013-12-01

    It is controversial whether the atmospheric transport plays a role in arctic amplification. Recently, Hwang et al. (2011) showed that the magnitude of the arctic amplification is negatively correlated with anomalous poleward atmospheric transport. That is, when the arctic amplification is strong (weak), the atmospheric transport plays a negative (positive) role in the arctic amplification. In this study, it is discussed what is a physical mechanism to determine the role of atmospheric transport and relation with the arctic amplification. Here, we suggest adjusting roles of atmospheric transport. The strength of local feedback over the Arctic determines zonal wind changes. The zonal wind changes are determined by two factors. The first one is polar cap cooling, and second is surface warming. They play opposite roles. So, there will be two different zonal wind responses in high-latitude to the greenhouse warming. Depending on the zonal wind response, the atmospheric transport can play a different role because the zonal wind changes can organize synoptic eddy feedbacks including heat flux, which largely contributes to poleward energy transport. We show here that when polar cap cooling is strong, and surface warming over Arctic is relatively weak, the Jet stream tends to be shifted poleward, so it leads to poleward atmospheric transport. On the other hand, when the surface warming is too strong, it lead to southward shift of Jet stream and equatorward atmospheric transport, which paly a negative role in the Arctic amplification.

  5. First Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Frey, K. E.; Lenters, J. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    In April 2012, instruments were deployed in over 50 lakes in northern Alaska as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to observe short- and long-term variability in physical, limnological and biogeochemical processes in Arctic lakes. The network currently consists of nine observation nodes on two parallel transects extending from the Arctic Ocean south to the Brooks Range Foothills. At each node, at least six representative lakes that vary by surface area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels: basic, enhanced and comprehensive. At each node we deployed a suite of instrumentation and collected a variety of field measurements. This approach allows for the study of lakes and their diversity across strong physical and biological gradients. To date we have established sites at a wide variety of Arctic lake types; 25 are thermokarst lakes set in ice-rich, fine-grained marine surficial sediments (Outer Coastal Plain), 6 lakes are in alluvial/aeolian sediments (Inner Coastal Plain) and 6 are in ice-rich silt (Arctic Foothills Yedoma), 5 are depressional lakes formed in a late Pleistocene sand sheet (Ikpikpuk Sand Sea), 6 represent glacial thermokarst or kettle lakes near the Brooks Range (Toolik region), 7 lakes are of fluvial or deltaic origin (Fish Creek basin, Ikpikpuk Delta), and Teshekpuk Lake, the largest lake in Arctic Alaska, is of a complex origin. In April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth were deployed through the ice cover, water samples were collected, and real-time time lapse cameras were installed to capture snow melt and ice-off. Sensors were recovered from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording lake regimes and events from ice decay and snowmelt influx to open-water warming and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude; in lakes deeper than 2 m, ice was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the coast of the Arctic Ocean with inter-lake

  6. Transient Storage in Zero-Order Channels Draining Arctic Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. L.; Harms, T.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Water tracks are linear regions of preferential hydrologic flow on arctic hillslopes that discharge to lakes and higher-order streams. In comparison to headwater streams, which encompass flow velocities of 0.1 - 1.0 + m/s, water velocity in water tracks ranges 0.001 - 0.1 m/s, suggesting the potential for significant interaction of water and solutes with transient storage zones in hillslopes compared to streams. Transient storage, the temporary retention of water and solutes in slow-flowing water, contributes to increased water residence time and thus the exposure of water and associated solutes to biochemically reactive substrates. Seasonal patterns in thaw depth of hillslope soils and discharge from hillslopes in the Arctic suggest that the relative contribution of transient storage zones might show predictable seasonal- and event-scale patterns. We conducted slug injections of a conservative solute (NaCl) in two water tracks in the Kuparuk River watershed, Alaska, during two summers to characterize how transient storage varied with thaw depth and discharge. The resulting break-through curves were separated into three dominant processes using an analytical advection-dispersion model: 1) salt mass primarily moved by advection and dispersion, 2) salt mass experiencing transient storage, and 3) a mass loss term. Across all tracer experiments, the mean percentage of total injected tracer mass associated with transient storage was 54%. This is comparable to a peat-bottomed stream but greater than a cobble-lined channel in a nearby catchment. However, transient storage was variable among experiments (1.3 - 72%). Discharge was also variable across experiments, ranging 0.05 - 3.5 L/s, and there was a negative correlation between transient storage and discharge. Thus, we expect significant interaction of solutes with soils in water tracks during inter-storm periods, when the majority of water moving through water tracks enters transient storage zones. We did not see a

  7. Toxicokinetics and effects of PCBs in Arctic fish: a review of studies on Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, EH; Vijayan, M.N.; Killie, J.-E.A.; Aluru, N.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a series of environmentally realistic laboratory experiments, toxicokinetics and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Winter fasting and emaciation, which are common among Arctic charr living in high latitudes, resulted in a redistribution of the lipophilic PCBs from lipid-storing tissue such as the muscle, to vital organs that must be considered sensitive toward PCB (liver and brain). This redistribution was accompanied by a significant potentiation of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A biomarker response, from low activities in October (within those measured in uncontaminated charr) to a high, probably maximum, induction in May. Performance studies demonstrated a clear effect of environmentally realistic PCB levels on endocrine mechanisms, immune function, and seawater preadaptation (smoltification) in charr that had been feed deprived for several months after contamination with Aroclor 1254, whereas a high PCB dose exerted only minor, if any, effects in charr that had been fed after contamination. These results demonstrate that emaciation results in decreased dose-response relationships in fish, and indicate that arctic animals undergoing seasonal cycles of "fattening" and emaciation may be extra sensitive toward persistent, lipophilic organochlorines. Pilot studies on Arctic charr from Bjørnøya Island revealed marked CYP1A biomarker responses and an upregulation of genes involved in cellular homeostatic mechanisms in charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels).

  8. Arctic ice management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desch, Steven J.; Smith, Nathan; Groppi, Christopher; Vargas, Perry; Jackson, Rebecca; Kalyaan, Anusha; Nguyen, Peter; Probst, Luke; Rubin, Mark E.; Singleton, Heather; Spacek, Alexander; Truitt, Amanda; Zaw, Pye Pye; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2017-01-01

    As the Earth's climate has changed, Arctic sea ice extent has decreased drastically. It is likely that the late-summer Arctic will be ice-free as soon as the 2030s. This loss of sea ice represents one of the most severe positive feedbacks in the climate system, as sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by sea ice is absorbed by open ocean. It is unlikely that CO2 levels and mean temperatures can be decreased in time to prevent this loss, so restoring sea ice artificially is an imperative. Here we investigate a means for enhancing Arctic sea ice production by using wind power during the Arctic winter to pump water to the surface, where it will freeze more rapidly. We show that where appropriate devices are employed, it is possible to increase ice thickness above natural levels, by about 1 m over the course of the winter. We examine the effects this has in the Arctic climate, concluding that deployment over 10% of the Arctic, especially where ice survival is marginal, could more than reverse current trends of ice loss in the Arctic, using existing industrial capacity. We propose that winter ice thickening by wind-powered pumps be considered and assessed as part of a multipronged strategy for restoring sea ice and arresting the strongest feedbacks in the climate system.

  9. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, Mark D.; Robinson, David G.; Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.; Peterson, Kara J.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Desilets, Darin Maurice; Reinert, Rhonda Karen

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  10. Vector-borne pathogens in arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, from Canada.

    PubMed

    Mascarelli, Patricia E; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J; Alisauskas, Ray T; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relatively low biodiversity within arctic ecosystems, arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, could serve as sentinels for the study of changes in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of 5 different genera of vector borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp.) using blood collected from 28 live-trapped arctic foxes from the region of Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Bartonella henselae (n = 3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (n = 1), Ehrlichia canis (n = 1), and an Anaplasma sp. (n = 1) DNA were PCR amplified and subsequently identified by sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidence that vector borne pathogens, not typically associated with the arctic ecosystem, exist at low levels in this arctic fox population, and that vector exposure, pathogen transmission dynamics, and changes in the geographic distribution of pathogens over time should be investigated in future studies.

  11. Lake Tahoe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, list of partner agencies.

  12. Modelled present and future thaw lake area expansion/contraction trends throughout the continuous permafrost zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Y.; van Huissteden, J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Thaw lakes and drained lake basins are a dominant feature of Arctic lowlands. Thaw lakes are a source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), which is produced under anaerobic conditions, while drained lake basins are carbon sinks due to sedimentation. Besides feedbacks on climate, the development of thaw lakes due to the melt-out of ground ice and subsequent ground subsidence, can have significant impacts on the regional morphology, hydrology, geophysics and biogehemistry. Permafrost degradation as a result of climate warming, which is proceeding considerably faster in high latitude regions than the global average, could lead to either an increases in lake area due to lake expansion, or decrease due to lake drainage. However, which process will dominate is elusive. Therefore understanding thaw lake dynamics and quantifying the feedbacks related to thaw lake expansion and contraction are urgent questions to solve. We apply a stochastic model, THAWLAKE, on four representative Arctic sites, to reproduce recent lake dynamics (1963-2012) and predict for the future changes under various anticipated climate scenarios. The model simulations of current thaw lake cycles and expansion rates are comparable with data. Future lake expansions are limited by lake drainage. We suggest further improvements in the area of enhancing the hydrology component, and operation on larger scales to gauge the impacts on lacustrine morphology and greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  14. Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Antti P; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Harrod, Chris; Jones, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic high-latitude lakes. We analyzed food-web structure and resource use by a generalist top predator, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in 17 oligotrophic subarctic lakes covering a marked gradient in size (0.5-1084 km(2)) and fish species richness (2-13 species). We expected top predators to shift from littoral to pelagic energy sources with increasing lake size, as the availability of pelagic prey resources and the competition for littoral prey are both likely to be higher in large lakes with multispecies fish communities. We also expected top predators to occupy a higher trophic position in lakes with greater fish species richness due to potential substitution of intermediate consumers (prey fish) and increased piscivory by top predators. Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, the mean reliance of Arctic charr on littoral energy sources showed a significant negative relationship with lake surface area, whereas the mean trophic position of Arctic charr, reflecting the lake food-chain length, increased with fish species richness. These results were supported by stomach contents data demonstrating a shift of Arctic charr from an invertebrate-dominated diet to piscivory on pelagic fish. Our study highlights that, because they determine the main energy source (littoral vs. pelagic) and the trophic position of generalist top predators, ecosystem size and fish diversity are particularly important factors influencing function and

  15. NASA's Arctic Voyage 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's first oceanographic research expedition left Alaska on June 15, 2010. The ICESCAPE mission will head into the Arctic to study sea ice and the changing ocean ecosystem. Listen to the scientis...

  16. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  17. Holocene fire regimes and treeline migration rates in sub-arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulphur, Kyle C.; Goldsmith, Shantal A.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Macumber, Andrew; Griffith, Fritz; Swindles, Graeme T.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Falck, Hendrik; Clark, Ian D.

    2016-10-01

    Holocene climate change resulted in major vegetation reorganization in sub-arctic Canada near modern treeline. However, little is known of the effects of long-term climate change on boreal forest composition and fire regimes below treeline in this region. We present a high-resolution vegetation and fire history from two sites within the modern boreal forest in the central Northwest Territories, Canada, to provide new insight on sub-arctic vegetation response to Holocene climate dynamics and the role of fire in boreal ecosystems. Palynological analysis of sediments retrieved from Waite and Danny's lakes (informal) is used to reconstruct regional vegetation dynamics and boreal fire regimes. The longer Danny's Lake record documents treeline expansion beginning at ca. 7430-7220 cal yr BP. Integration of our new data with previous work shows that treeline expanded between ca. 4050 cal. yr BP and ca. 3840 cal yr BP at a rate of ca. 50 m/yr in response to the 1-2 °C increase in temperature estimated for the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Forest fires were relatively frequent during the early Holocene, before declining in frequency in response to development of cooler and wetter climate conditions associated with the Neoglacial (beginning after ca. 2200-2320 cal yr BP). We document a trend of increasing fire frequency in the 20th century that is correlated with warming at this time. These dynamics south of modern treeline provide insight into factors creating heterogeneity in plant community responses to large-scale climate events in high northern latitudes and suggest that large scale reorganization of boreal vegetation and fire regimes can be expected over the coming decades.

  18. Evidence for past variations in methane availability in a Siberian thermokarst lake based on δ13C of chitinous invertebrate remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hardenbroek, M.; Heiri, O.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Bastviken, D.; Ilyashuk, B. P.; Wiklund, J. A.; Hall, R. I.; Lotter, A. F.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding past methane dynamics in arctic wetlands and lakes is crucial for estimating future methane release. Methane fluxes from lake ecosystems have increasingly been studied, yet only few reconstructions of past methane emissions from lakes are available. In this study, we develop an approach to assess changes in methane availability in lakes based on δ13C of chitinous invertebrate remains and apply this to a sediment record from a Siberian thermokarst lake. Diffusive methane fluxes from the surface of ten newly sampled Siberian lakes and seven previously studied Swedish lakes were compared to taxon-specific δ13C values of invertebrate remains from lake surface sediments to investigate whether these invertebrates assimilated 13C-depleted carbon typical for methane. Remains of chironomid larvae of the tribe Orthocladiinae that, in the study lakes, mainly assimilate plant-derived carbon had higher δ13C than other invertebrate groups. δ13C of other invertebrates such as several chironomid groups (Chironomus, Chironomini, Tanytarsini, and Tanypodinae), cladocerans (Daphnia), and ostracods were generally lower. δ13C of Chironomini and Daphnia, and to a lesser extent Tanytarsini was variable in the lakes and lower at sites with higher diffusive methane fluxes. δ13C of Chironomini, Tanytarsini, and Daphnia were correlated significantly with diffusive methane flux in the combined Siberian and Swedish dataset (r = -0.72, p = 0.001, r = -0.53, p = 0.03, and r = -0.81, p < 0.001, respectively), suggesting that δ13C in these invertebrates was affected by methane availability. In a second step, we measured δ13C of invertebrate remains from a sediment record of Lake S1, a shallow thermokarst lake in northeast Siberia. In this record, covering the past ca 1000 years, δ13C of taxa most sensitive to methane availability (Chironomini, Tanytarsini, and Daphnia) was lowest in sediments deposited from ca AD 1250 to ca AD 1500, and after AD 1970, coinciding with warmer

  19. Recent lake ice-out phenology within and among lake districts of Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The timing of ice-out in high latitudes is a fundamental threshold for lake ecosystems and an indicator of climate change. In lake-rich regions, the loss of ice cover also plays a key role in landscape and climatic processes. Thus, there is a need to understand lake ice phenology at multiple scales. In this study, we observed ice-out timing on 55 large lakes in 11 lake districts across Alaska from 2007 to 2012 using satellite imagery. Sensor networks in two lake districts validated satellite observations and provided comparison with smaller lakes. Over this 6 yr period, the mean lake ice-out for all lakes was 27 May and ranged from 07 May in Kenai to 06 July in Arctic Coastal Plain lake districts with relatively low inter-annual variability. Approximately 80% of the variation in ice-out timing was explained by the date of 0°C air temperature isotherm and lake area. Shoreline irregularity, watershed area, and river connectivity explained additional variation in some districts. Coherence in ice-out timing within the lakes of each district was consistently strong over this 6 yr period, ranging from r-values of 0.5 to 0.9. Inter-district analysis of coherence also showed synchronous ice-out patterns with the exception of the two arctic coastal districts where ice-out occurs later (June–July) and climatology is sea-ice influenced. These patterns of lake ice phenology provide a spatially extensive baseline describing short-term temporal variability, which will help decipher longer term trends in ice phenology and aid in representing the role of lake ice in land and climate models in northern landscapes.

  20. Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    distribution is unlimited. Key Data Requirements • Sea Ice – Location: Area, Onset, Growth, Drift, and Decay – Characterization: % Coverage, Thickness...Cloud ACE Developmental Server hosted at UAHuntsville ACE User Community Public Internet Tailored Ice Product Generation (NIC) Arctic Research...distribution is unlimited. Arctic Map 26 July 2012 13 Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent; National Data Buoy Center DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A

  1. North America Arctic report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1982-07-12

    This work covers exploration and development action and plans in the Arctic frontiers of the US and Canada. An update is provided of the status and outlook in the Arctic islands, off the Canadian East Coast, in the Canadian-US Beaufort Sea, and in Alaska's onshore and offshore areas. How operators plan to delay the invitable decline and maintain production at Prudhoe Bay also is discussed.

  2. Arctic Physical Oceanography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    approval to proceed, Polar Science Center, in Fridtjof Nansen , who allowed his especially constructed the fall of 1978, started the detailed planning... Nansen and his negotiating contracts for aircraft and personnel support men conducted a remarkable and wide-ranging services. program of scientific...in the Amerasia the Arctic Midoceanic Ridge, across the Nansen Frac- Basin of the Arctic Ocean. These stations were sup- ture Zone, and up the

  3. Arctic Insecurity: Avoiding Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    nations’ EEZs. Arctic nations will face the challenge of protecting fishing industries from outside competition, overfishing , and pollution. A...Council” September 1996. and is apprehensive that North Atlantic 33 Julia L. Gourley, US Senior Arctic Official, Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs...42 Ibid., p 9. 43 Norway’s Defense Minister made comments during a speech to the Atlantic Council of Finland. Norwegian Government, “Norway’s

  4. USGS Arctic science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark; Smith, Durelle

    2015-07-17

    The United States is one of eight Arctic nations responsible for the stewardship of a polar region undergoing dramatic environmental, social, and economic changes. Although warming and cooling cycles have occurred over millennia in the Arctic region, the current warming trend is unlike anything recorded previously and is affecting the region faster than any other place on Earth, bringing dramatic reductions in sea ice extent, altered weather, and thawing permafrost. Implications of these changes include rapid coastal erosion threatening villages and critical infrastructure, potentially significant effects on subsistence activities and cultural resources, changes to wildlife habitat, increased greenhouse-gas emissions from thawing permafrost, threat of invasive species, and opening of the Arctic Ocean to oil and gas exploration and increased shipping. The Arctic science portfolio of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its response to climate-related changes focuses on landscapescale ecosystem and natural resource issues and provides scientific underpinning for understanding the physical processes that shape the Arctic. The science conducted by the USGS informs the Nation's resource management policies and improves the stewardship of the Arctic Region.

  5. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in

  6. Potential impacts of the Arctic on interannual and interdecadal summer precipitation over China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuefeng; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-02-01

    After the end of the 1970s, there has been a tendency for enhanced summer precipitation over South China and the Yangtze River valley and drought over North China and Northeastern China. Coincidentally, Arctic ice concentration has decreased since the late 1970s, with larger reduction in summer than spring. However, the Arctic warming is more significant in spring than summer, suggesting that spring Arctic conditions could be more important in their remote impacts. This study investigates the potential impacts of the Arctic on summer precipitation in China. The leading spatial patterns and time coefficients of the unfiltered, interannual, and interdecadal precipitation (1960-2008) modes were analyzed and compared using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, which shows that the first three EOFs can capture the principal precipitation patterns (northern, central and southern patterns) over eastern China. Regression of the Arctic spring and summer temperature onto the time coefficients of the leading interannual and interdecadal precipitation modes shows that interdecadal summer precipitation in China is related to the Arctic spring warming, but the relationship with Arctic summer temperature is weak. Moreover, no notable relationships were found between the first three modes of interannual precipitation and Arctic spring or summer temperatures. Finally, correlations between summer precipitation and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index from January to August were investigated, which indicate that summer precipitation in China correlates with AO only to some extent. Overall, this study suggests important relationships between the Arctic spring temperature and summer precipitation over China at the interdecadal time scale.

  7. The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Fahnestock, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program (AVS) is a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) and funded by the National Science Foundation. AVS provides small grants to researchers and other Arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. The program aims to: initiate and encourage arctic science education in communities with little exposure to arctic research; increase collaboration among the arctic research community; nurture communication between arctic researchers and community residents; and foster arctic science education at the local level. Individuals, community organizations, and academic organizations can apply to host a speaker. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Preference is given to tours that reach broad and varied audiences, especially those targeted to underserved populations. Between October 2000 and July 2013, AVS supported 114 tours spanning 9 different countries, including tours in 23 U.S. states. Tours over the past three and a half years have connected Arctic experts with over 6,600 audience members. Post-tour evaluations show that AVS consistently rates high for broadening interest and understanding of arctic issues. AVS provides a case study for how face-to-face interactions between arctic scientists and general audiences can produce high-impact results. Further information can be found at: http://www.arcus.org/arctic-visiting-speakers.

  8. Will Arctic ground squirrels impede or accelerate climate-induced vegetation changes to the Arctic tundra?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J.; Flower, C. E.; Brown, J.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Whelan, C.

    2014-12-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the climate feedbacks associated with predicted vegetation shifts in the Arctic tundra in response to global environmental change. However, little is known regarding the extent to which consumers can facilitate or respond to shrub expansion. Arctic ground squirrels, the largest and most northern ground squirrel, are abundant and widespread throughout the North American tundra. Their broad diet of seeds, flowers, herbage, bird's eggs and meat speaks to the need to breed, feed, and fatten in a span of some 12-16 weeks that separate their 8-9 month bouts of hibernation with the potential consequence to impact ecosystem dynamics. Therefore Arctic ground squirrels are a good candidate to evaluate whether consumers are mere responders (bottom-up effects) or drivers (top-down) of the observed and predicted vegetation changes. As a start towards this question, we measured the foraging intensity (giving-up densities) of Arctic ground squirrels in experimental food patches within which the squirrels experience diminishing returns as they seek the raisins and peanuts that we provided at the Toolik Lake field station in northern Alaska. If the squirrels show their highest feeding intensity in the shrubs, they may impede vegetation shifts by slowing the establishment and expansion of shrubs in the tundra. Conversely, if they show their lowest feeding intensity within shrub dominated areas, they may accelerate vegetation shifts. We found neither. Feeding intensity varied most among transects and times of day, and least along a tundra-to-shrub vegetation gradient. This suggests that the impacts of squirrels will be heterogeneous - in places responders and in others drivers. We should not be surprised then to see patches of accelerated and impeded vegetation changes in the tundra ecosystem. Some of these patterns may be predictable from the foraging behavior of Arctic ground squirrels.

  9. Grain Size Analyses of Neogene-Quaternary Sediments from the Arctic Coring Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Lado-Insua, T.; O'Regan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) recovered the first Cenozoic sediment sequence from the central Arctic Ocean. Results from this expedition indicate that perennial sea ice may have formed in the Arctic at or before the early mid-Miocene. Sea ice formation is an important process in the global climate system, affecting directly the Earth's albedo and indirectly the Meridional Overturning Circulation. The deep Arctic Ocean receives sediment primarily from ice-rafted debris and turbidity currents. Suspension freezing on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic has generally been considered the major process trapping sediment within sea ice. Sea ice motion is largely driven by wind. The anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre transports sea ice over the Amerasia Basin, while the Transpolar Drift transports it across the Eurasian Basin. The Transpolar Drift is divided into a Siberian and Polar branch, both branches cross the position of the ACEX drilling sites on the Lomonosov Ridge. Grain size analyses of ACEX sediments were obtained with a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle sizing system. Preliminary analyses indicate pulses with a higher percentage of sand between 3.64 Ma ago until the end of the Gelasian (1.8 Ma). The percent sand remained relatively low during the Cenozoic with the exception of two major increases of sand occurring ~6.2 and 9.2 Ma ago and a smaller peak ~8.2 Ma ago. These intervals also show less sorting and lower values for skewness and kurtosis. Increases in the percentage of sand and less sorting at this latitude relate to ice rafted debris, indicating an increase in sea-ice melting during these periods. A Principal Components Analysis and a Maximum Correlation Factor Analysis agree on a correlation between different grain sizes that would divide the grain size in two major distributions (<19 μm and 19 μm to 2 mm) based on the sedimentation and transport mechanism. These two classes do not agree with the major divisions of sand (63

  10. The early Miocene onset of a ventilated circulation regime in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Martin; Backman, Jan; Rudels, Bert; Nycander, Jonas; Frank, Martin; Mayer, Larry; Jokat, Wilfried; Sangiorgi, Francesca; O'Regan, Matthew; Brinkhuis, Henk; King, John; Moran, Kathryn

    2007-06-21

    Deep-water formation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean is a key driver of the global thermohaline circulation and hence also of global climate. Deciphering the history of the circulation regime in the Arctic Ocean has long been prevented by the lack of data from cores of Cenozoic sediments from the Arctic's deep-sea floor. Similarly, the timing of the opening of a connection between the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, permitting deep-water exchange, has been poorly constrained. This situation changed when the first drill cores were recovered from the central Arctic Ocean. Here we use these cores to show that the transition from poorly oxygenated to fully oxygenated ('ventilated') conditions in the Arctic Ocean occurred during the later part of early Miocene times. We attribute this pronounced change in ventilation regime to the opening of the Fram Strait. A palaeo-geographic and palaeo-bathymetric reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean, together with a physical oceanographic analysis of the evolving strait and sill conditions in the Fram Strait, suggests that the Arctic Ocean went from an oxygen-poor 'lake stage', to a transitional 'estuarine sea' phase with variable ventilation, and finally to the fully ventilated 'ocean' phase 17.5 Myr ago. The timing of this palaeo-oceanographic change coincides with the onset of the middle Miocene climatic optimum, although it remains unclear if there is a causal relationship between these two events.

  11. Review of methane mitigation technologies with application to rapid release of methane from the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Smith, Clara A; Bourcier, William L; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Aines, Roger D

    2012-06-19

    Methane is the most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, with particular influence on near-term climate change. It poses increasing risk in the future from both direct anthropogenic sources and potential rapid release from the Arctic. A range of mitigation (emissions control) technologies have been developed for anthropogenic sources that can be developed for further application, including to Arctic sources. Significant gaps in understanding remain of the mechanisms, magnitude, and likelihood of rapid methane release from the Arctic. Methane may be released by several pathways, including lakes, wetlands, and oceans, and may be either uniform over large areas or concentrated in patches. Across Arctic sources, bubbles originating in the sediment are the most important mechanism for methane to reach the atmosphere. Most known technologies operate on confined gas streams of 0.1% methane or more, and may be applicable to limited Arctic sources where methane is concentrated in pockets. However, some mitigation strategies developed for rice paddies and agricultural soils are promising for Arctic wetlands and thawing permafrost. Other mitigation strategies specific to the Arctic have been proposed but have yet to be studied. Overall, we identify four avenues of research and development that can serve the dual purposes of addressing current methane sources and potential Arctic sources: (1) methane release detection and quantification, (2) mitigation units for small and remote methane streams, (3) mitigation methods for dilute (<1000 ppm) methane streams, and (4) understanding methanotroph and methanogen ecology.

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  13. Historical and ecological determinants of genetic structure in arctic canids.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E; Krizan, J; Nagy, J A; Fuglei, E; Dumond, M; Johnson, D; Veitch, A; Berteaux, D; Strobeck, C

    2007-08-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) and arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) are the only canid species found throughout the mainland tundra and arctic islands of North America. Contrasting evolutionary histories, and the contemporary ecology of each species, have combined to produce their divergent population genetic characteristics. Arctic foxes are more variable than wolves, and both island and mainland fox populations possess similarly high microsatellite variation. These differences result from larger effective population sizes in arctic foxes, and the fact that, unlike wolves, foxes were not isolated in discrete refugia during the Pleistocene. Despite the large physical distances and distinct ecotypes represented, a single, panmictic population of arctic foxes was found which spans the Svalbard Archipelago and the North American range of the species. This pattern likely reflects both the absence of historical population bottlenecks and current, high levels of gene flow following frequent long-distance foraging movements. In contrast, genetic structure in wolves correlates strongly to transitions in habitat type, and is probably determined by natal habitat-biased dispersal. Nonrandom dispersal may be cued by relative levels of vegetation cover between tundra and forest habitats, but especially by wolf prey specialization on ungulate species of familiar type and behaviour (sedentary or migratory). Results presented here suggest that, through its influence on sea ice, vegetation, prey dynamics and distribution, continued arctic climate change may have effects as dramatic as those of the Pleistocene on the genetic structure of arctic canid species.

  14. Geographic Analysis of Alaska Lake Districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The state of Alaska has over 400,000 lakes greater than 0.01 km2 in surface area covering approximately 3.3% of the landscape. As in most lake-rich regions, these lakes are unevenly distributed on the landscape. So in order to better understand how lakes are organized on the landscape and relate this geographic organization to other climatologic, geologic, and biogeographic characteristics, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Alaska lakes. Using a combination of numerical abundance and surface-area extent of lakes, we selected lake density thresholds to identify and delineate 22 lake districts in Alaska. The total area of these 22 lakes districts occupy 16% of Alaska, yet encompass 64% of lakes and 76% of lake surface-area. The three largest lake districts are associated with the Yukon-Kuskokwin Delta, the Northern Arctic Coastal Plain, and the mountain front of the Alaskan Range on the Alaska Peninsula. Interestingly, these largest lake districts are covered by >17% lakes, while most of the smaller lake districts we identified have <10% lake cover. Of the remaining smaller lake districts, 9 are associated with mountain fronts or intermountain basins, 4 are associated with coastal plains, 3 are associated with floodplains and deltas, and 3 occur in high-elevation or mountain terrain. The highest numerical lake densities occur at deltas, while relatively lower densities occur in mountainous areas where individual lakes are often larger in surface area and likely volume. Comparison of these lake districts were made to permafrost distribution, glacial history, lithology, watershed position, and regional hydrologic budgets and regimes to better understand where lake-rich regions occur, why, and how they might change in the future. Ten of the 22 lake districts occur in areas dominated by continuous permafrost, 6 occur in areas of discontinuous or sporadic permafrost, and the other 6 occur in regions without perennially frozen soils. The majority of lake districts

  15. Temporal trends of organochlorine contaminants in burbot and lake trout from three selected Yukon lakes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M J; Stern, G A; Diamond, M; Croft, M V; Roach, P; Kidd, K

    2005-12-01

    Historical studies have demonstrated that organochlorine (OC) concentrations in top predators can vary considerably from lake to lake within a small geographic region but temporal trends of these contaminants have rarely been monitored in a sub-Arctic area for a long period of time. This study examined OC concentrations, including chlordane (CHL), DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), toxaphene (CHB), PCB and chlorinated benzenes (CBz) in lake trout and burbot, from three Yukon lakes (Laberge, Kusawa, Quiet), over a span of 11 years (1992-2003). Temporal and spatial differences continue to exist in the OC concentrations of burbot and lake trout between these lakes. There is strong evidence that these contaminants are declining at various rates in lake trout (Salveninus namaycush) in Laberge, Kusawa and Quiet Lakes. For example, SigmaDDT concentrations have decreased 39%, 85% and 84% in Kusawa, Quiet and Laberge Lakes, respectively. Conversely, no consistent trends were observed in OC concentrations for burbot (Lota lota). For example, there is no evidence of a decline in toxaphene concentrations of Kusawa burbot yet a 58% decrease was observed in Laberge samples. Increases were also observed in the SigmaHCH levels of Kusawa Lake burbot, as well as increases in all OC groups (except SigmaHCH) for the Quiet Lake burbot samples. Decreases in burbot were evident in SigmaHCH and SigmaCHB for Lake Laberge fish and in SigmaCHL for Kusawa Lake samples. Spatial variations in OC levels are quite evident as Lake Laberge trout and burbot continued to maintain the highest levels over the eleven-year period from 1992 to 2003 followed by Kusawa Lake and then Quiet Lake. These differences were related to a variety of factors especially the species morphological characteristics such as log age, log weights and fish lipid content. A decreasing trend in Quiet and Laberge Lake trout lipid content, coupled with fluctuating condition factors and increases in body masses, suggest biotic

  16. Impacts of shore expansion and catchment characteristics on lacustrine thermokarst records in permafrost lowlands, Alaska Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Josefine; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wetterich, Sebastian; Tjallingii, Rik; Fritz, Michael; Arp, Christopher D.; Rudaya, Natalia; Grosse, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Arctic lowland landscapes have been modified by thermokarst lake processes throughout the Holocene. Thermokarst lakes form as a result of ice-rich permafrost degradation, and they may expand over time through thermal and mechanical shoreline erosion. We studied proximal and distal sedimentary records from a thermokarst lake located on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to reconstruct the impact of catchment dynamics and morphology on the lacustrine depositional environment and to quantify carbon accumulation in thermokarst lake sediments. Short cores were collected for analysis of pollen, sedimentological, and geochemical proxies. Radiocarbon and 210Pb/137Cs dating, as well as extrapolation of measured historic lake expansion rates, were applied to estimate a minimum lake age of ~1400 calendar years BP. The pollen record is in agreement with the young lake age as it does not include evidence of the “alder high” that occurred in the region ~4000 cal yr BP. The lake most likely initiated from a remnant pond in a drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) and deepened rapidly as evidenced by accumulation of laminated sediments. Increasing oxygenation of the water column as shown by higher Fe/Ti and Fe/S ratios in the sediment indicate shifts in ice regime with increasing water depth. More recently, the sediment source changed as the thermokarst lake expanded through lateral permafrost degradation, alternating from redeposited DTLB sediments, to increased amounts of sediment from eroding, older upland deposits, followed by a more balanced combination of both DTLB and upland sources. The characterizing shifts in sediment sources and depositional regimes in expanding thermokarst lakes were, therefore, archived in the thermokarst lake sedimentary record. This study also highlights the potential for Arctic lakes to recycle old carbon from thawing permafrost and thermokarst processes.

  17. Genetic Variability and Structuring of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Populations in Northern Fennoscandia

    PubMed Central

    Shikano, Takahito; Järvinen, Antero; Marjamäki, Paula; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Variation in presumably neutral genetic markers can inform us about evolvability, historical effective population sizes and phylogeographic history of contemporary populations. We studied genetic variability in 15 microsatellite loci in six native landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia, where this species is considered near threatened. We discovered that all populations were genetically highly (mean FST ≈ 0.26) differentiated and isolated from each other. Evidence was found for historical, but not for recent population size bottlenecks. Estimates of contemporary effective population size (Ne) ranged from seven to 228 and were significantly correlated with those of historical Ne but not with lake size. A census size (NC) was estimated to be approximately 300 individuals in a pond (0.14 ha), which exhibited the smallest Ne (i.e. Ne/NC = 0.02). Genetic variability in this pond and a connected lake is severely reduced, and both genetic and empirical estimates of migration rates indicate a lack of gene flow between them. Hence, albeit currently thriving, some northern Fennoscandian populations appear to be vulnerable to further loss of genetic variability and are likely to have limited capacity to adapt if selection pressures change. PMID:26468642

  18. Endoparasites in the feces of arctic foxes in a terrestrial ecosystem in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Stacey A.; Lalonde, Laura F.; Samelius, Gustaf; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Gajadhar, Alvin A.; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    The parasites of arctic foxes in the central Canadian Arctic have not been well described. Canada’s central Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change, which is predicted to cause shifts in parasite and wildlife species distributions, and trophic interactions, requiring that baselines be established to monitor future alterations. This study used conventional, immunological, and molecular fecal analysis techniques to survey the current gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna currently present in arctic foxes in central Nunavut, Canada. Ninety-five arctic fox fecal samples were collected from the terrestrial Karrak Lake ecosystem within the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Samples were examined by fecal flotation to detect helminths and protozoa, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and quantitative PCR with melt-curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) to detect coccidia. Positive qPCR-MCA products were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Arctic foxes from Karrak Lake were routinely shedding eggs from Toxascaris leonina (63%). Taeniid (15%), Capillarid (1%), and hookworm eggs (2%), Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts 3%), and Eimeria sp. (6%), and Cystoisospora sp. (5%) oocysts were present at a lower prevalence on fecal flotation. Cryptosporidium sp. (9%) and Giardia sp. (16%) were detected by IFA. PCR analysis detected Sarcocystis (15%), Cystoisospora (5%), Eimeria sp., and either Neospora sp. or Hammondia sp. (1%). Through molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis, we identified two distinct lineages of Sarcocystis sp. present in arctic foxes, which probably derived from cervid and avian intermediate hosts. Additionally, we detected previously undescribed genotypes of Cystoisospora. Our survey of gastrointestinal endoparasites in arctic foxes from the central Canadian Arctic provides a unique record against which future comparisons can be made. PMID:24533320

  19. Endoparasites in the feces of arctic foxes in a terrestrial ecosystem in Canada.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Stacey A; Lalonde, Laura F; Samelius, Gustaf; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2013-12-01

    The parasites of arctic foxes in the central Canadian Arctic have not been well described. Canada's central Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change, which is predicted to cause shifts in parasite and wildlife species distributions, and trophic interactions, requiring that baselines be established to monitor future alterations. This study used conventional, immunological, and molecular fecal analysis techniques to survey the current gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna currently present in arctic foxes in central Nunavut, Canada. Ninety-five arctic fox fecal samples were collected from the terrestrial Karrak Lake ecosystem within the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Samples were examined by fecal flotation to detect helminths and protozoa, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and quantitative PCR with melt-curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) to detect coccidia. Positive qPCR-MCA products were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Arctic foxes from Karrak Lake were routinely shedding eggs from Toxascaris leonina (63%). Taeniid (15%), Capillarid (1%), and hookworm eggs (2%), Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts 3%), and Eimeria sp. (6%), and Cystoisospora sp. (5%) oocysts were present at a lower prevalence on fecal flotation. Cryptosporidium sp. (9%) and Giardia sp. (16%) were detected by IFA. PCR analysis detected Sarcocystis (15%), Cystoisospora (5%), Eimeria sp., and either Neospora sp. or Hammondia sp. (1%). Through molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis, we identified two distinct lineages of Sarcocystis sp. present in arctic foxes, which probably derived from cervid and avian intermediate hosts. Additionally, we detected previously undescribed genotypes of Cystoisospora. Our survey of gastrointestinal endoparasites in arctic foxes from the central Canadian Arctic provides a unique record against which future comparisons can be made.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Linkages Between Arctic Pingos and Subsurface Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casavant, R.; Skirvin, S.; Patel, C.; Burr, D.

    2008-12-01

    This NASA-SETI supported study investigates the distribution of pingos (elliptically-shaped ice-rich topographic mounds) across 2300 square kilometers of the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska in relation to the shallow geological framework that exists immediately beneath them. Pingos in the central North Slope of Alaska are classified as being of the closed or hydrostatic type. Their genesis is often assigned to freezing and cryogenic uplift of near-surface saturated thaw lake sediments that are exposed as lakes are drained and/or become choked with sediments. Although thaw lakes appear rather ubiquitous across the study area, pingos do not. Pingo distributions can be categorized as either clusters of elements or as relatively dispersed. Spatial statistical analysis reveals that pingo distribution is non-random and clustered. The analysis also took into account that pingo distribution is a function of preferential preservation between modern rivers channels that cross the study area. Pingo distributions and frequency were tested in relation to the location and type of stratigraphic and sedimentological features that characterized the shallow subsurface across the study area. Subsurface interpretation was derived mostly from oil well wireline logs. Gamma ray logs for more than 160 wells were used to define, correlate and assess the connectivity and conductivity of shallow and near-surface stratigraphic units between wells. Assessed also were major facies changes and the type and locations of subsurface structures such as major basement-to-surface faults and folds. The surface and near-surface truncation and subcropping of tilted, alternating units of permeable coarse-grained and confining fine- grained units were also mapped in relation to pingo locations. Preliminary and intriguing findings will be presented which contribute to the hypothesis that pingo genesis, location, and variations in morphology could be, in part, linked to a well-documented and active

  1. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  2. Remote sensing of algal blooms by aircraft and satellite in Lake Erie and Utah Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    During late summer, when the surface waters of Lake Erie reach their maximum temperature, an algal bloom is likely to develop. Such phenomena, which characterize eutrophic conditions, have been noticed on other shallow lakes using the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1). The concentration of the algae into long streamers provides additional information on surface circulations. To augment the ERTS Multispectral Scanner Subsystem data of Lake Erie, an aircraft was used to obtain correlative thermal-IR and additional multiband photographs. A large bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae observed in Utah Lake together with recent bloom history in Lake Erie is used to verify the Great Lakes bloom.

  3. Subcellular distribution of trace elements and liver histology of landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) sampled along a mercury contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Barst, Benjamin D; Rosabal, Maikel; Campbell, Peter G C; Muir, Derek G C; Wang, Xioawa; Köck, Günter; Drevnick, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    We sampled landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from four lakes (Small, 9-Mile, North, Amituk) in the Canadian High Arctic that span a gradient of mercury contamination. Metals (Hg, Se, Tl, and Fe) were measured in char tissues to determine their relationships with health indices (relative condition factor and hepatosomatic index), stable nitrogen isotope ratios, and liver histology. A subcellular partitioning procedure was employed to determine how metals were distributed between potentially sensitive and detoxified compartments of Arctic char livers from a low- and high-mercury lake (Small Lake and Amituk Lake, respectively). Differences in health indices and metal concentrations among char populations were likely related to differences in feeding ecology. Concentrations of Hg, Se, and Tl were highest in the livers of Amituk char, whereas concentrations of Fe were highest in Small and 9-Mile char. At the subcellular level we found that although Amituk char had higher concentrations of Tl in whole liver than Small Lake char, they maintained a greater proportion of this metal in detoxified fractions, suggesting an attempt at detoxification. Mercury was found mainly in potentially sensitive fractions of both Small and Amituk Lake char, indicating that Arctic char are not effectively detoxifying this metal. Histological changes in char livers, mainly in the form of melano-macrophage aggregates and hepatic fibrosis, could be linked to the concentrations and subcellular distributions of essential or non-essential metals.

  4. High Arctic Hillslope-Wetland Linkages: Types, Patterns and Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. L.; Abnizova, A.

    2012-12-01

    High Arctic wetlands are lush areas in an otherwise barren landscape. They help to store and replenish water and they serve as significant resting and breeding grounds for migratory birds. In addition, they provide rich grazing grounds for arctic fauna such as muskox and caribou. Arctic wetlands can be small, patchy grounds of wet vegetation or they can encompass large zones characterized by lakes, ponds, wet meadows, and, often times, they are inter-mixed with areas of dry ground. While seasonal snowmelt continues to remain the most critical source of water for recharging ponds, lakes, and meadows in these environments, less is known about the role of lateral inputs of water into low-lying wetlands, namely water flowing into these wetland ecosystems from adjacent hillslopes, which often surround them. This paper will review the different modes of hillslope runoff into both patchy and regional-scale wetlands including late-lying snowbeds, snow-filled creeks, and both small and large (>1st order) streams. It will draw upon field results from four arctic islands (Ellesmere, Cornwallis, Somerset and Bathurst Island) and a research period which spans from the mid'90s until present. Our study will evaluate seasonal and inter-seasonal patterns of snowmelt driven discharge (initiation, duration), timing, and magnitude of peak flows, in addition to stream response to rainfall and dry episodes. The impacts of these lateral water sources for a range of wetlands (ponds, wet meadows) will include an analysis of water level fluctuations (frequency, duration), shrinkage/expansion rates, and water quality. Finally, this study will surmise how these types of lateral hillslope inflows might shift in the future and suggest the impact of these changes on the sustainability of High Arctic wetland terrain.

  5. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    PubMed

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  6. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of Rorschach. Eutrophication, or the process of nutrient enrichment, is rapidly accelerated ... of the value of Lake Constance, efforts to mitigate eutrophication were initiated in the 1970's. MISR was built and is managed ...

  7. Enhanced sea-ice export from the Arctic during the Younger Dryas.

    PubMed

    Not, Christelle; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2012-01-31

    The Younger Dryas cold spell of the last deglaciation and related slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation have been linked to a large array of processes, notably an influx of fresh water into the North Atlantic related to partial drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz. Here we observe a major drainage event, in marine sediment cores raised from the Lomonosov Ridge, in the central Arctic Ocean marked by a pulse in detrital dolomitic-limestones. This points to an Arctic-Canadian sediment source area with about fivefold higher Younger Dryas ice-rafting deposition rate, in comparison with the Holocene. Our findings thus support the hypothesis of a glacial drainage event in the Canadian Arctic area, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, enhancing sea-ice production and drifting through the Arctic, then export through Fram Strait, towards Atlantic meridional overturning circulation sites of the northern North Atlantic.

  8. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  9. Holocene Full-Vector Secular Variation from African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S.; Platzman, E. S.; Johnson, T. C.; Scholz, C. A.; Cohen, A. S.; Russell, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    We are developing a regional pattern of Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) from four lakes in East Africa - Lake Turkana (3°N), Lake Victoria (1°S), Lake Tanganyika (5°S), and Lake Malawi (10°S). Detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements have been made on two cores from Lake Malawi (9m meters in depth, last ~10,000 years), two cores from Lake Victoria (8 m, last ~8,000 years), 11 cores from Lake Turkana (2-9 m, last ~10,000 years), and one core from Lake Tanganyika (5 m, last ~5,000 years). Our rock magnetic studies identify significant intervals of magnetic mineral dissolution in Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika making parts of these cores unsuitable for relative paleointensity studies. On the other hand, rock magnetic variability in the Lake Malawi and Lake Turkana cores are stable and correlatable among cores. We have recovered directional secular variation records from Lakes Malawi, Victoria, and Turkana. Millennial-scale inclination and declination features can be correlated among cores at each lake and between lakes. We have also recovered relative paleointensity records from Lakes Malawi and Turkana. More than 20 radiocarbon dates and detailed seismic stratigraphy (Turkana) provide critical added information for correlating and dating the paleomagnetic records.

  10. Communicating Arctic Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serreze, M.

    2009-12-01

    Nowhere on the planet are emerging signals of climate change more visible than in the Arctic. Rapid warming, a quickly shrinking summer sea ice cover, and thawing permafrost, will have impacts that extend beyond the Arctic and may reverberate around the globe. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) of the University of Colorado has taken a leading role in trying to effectively communicate the science and importance of Arctic change. Our popular “Sea Ice News and Analysis” web site tracks the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover and provides scientific analysis with language that is accurate yet accessible to a wide audience. Our Education Center provides accessible information on all components of the Earth’s cryosphere, the changes being seen, and how scientists conduct research. A challenge faced by NSIDC is countering the increasing level of confusion and misinformation regarding Arctic and global change, a complex problem that reflects the low level of scientific literacy by much of the public, the difficulties many scientists face in communicating their findings in accurate but understandable terms, and efforts by some groups to deliberately misrepresent and distort climate change science. This talk will outline through examples ways in which NSIDC has been successful in science communication and education, as well as lessons learned from failures.

  11. Aggregation methodology for the circum-arctic resource appraisal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, John H.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that intends to aggregate the results of a recent assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arctic by the U.S. Geological Survey. The assessment occurred in 48 geologically defined regions called assessment units. The methodology includes using assessor specified pair-wise correlations as the basis to construct a correlation matrix. Sampling from this matrix generates more realistic uncertainty estimates of aggregated resources than if assumptions of total independence or total dependence are made. The latter two assumptions result in overly narrow or overly broad estimates. Aggregation results for resources in regions north of the Arctic Circle are presented.

  12. The Arctic Circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  13. Arctic terrestrial hydrology: A synthesis of processes, regional effects, and research challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bring, A.; Fedorova, I.; Dibike, Y.; Hinzman, L.; Mârd, J.; Mernild, S. H.; Prowse, T.; Semenova, O.; Stuefer, S. L.; Woo, M.-K.

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial hydrology is central to the Arctic system and its freshwater circulation. Water transport and water constituents vary, however, across a very diverse geography. In this paper, which is a component of the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis, we review the central freshwater processes in the terrestrial Arctic drainage and how they function and change across seven hydrophysiographical regions (Arctic tundra, boreal plains, shield, mountains, grasslands, glaciers/ice caps, and wetlands). We also highlight links between terrestrial hydrology and other components of the Arctic freshwater system. In terms of key processes, snow cover extent and duration is generally decreasing on a pan-Arctic scale, but snow depth is likely to increase in the Arctic tundra. Evapotranspiration will likely increase overall, but as it is coupled to shifts in landscape characteristics, regional changes are uncertain and may vary over time. Streamflow will generally increase with increasing precipitation, but high and low flows may decrease in some regions. Continued permafrost thaw will trigger hydrological change in multiple ways, particularly through increasing connectivity between groundwater and surface water and changing water storage in lakes and soils, which will influence exchange of moisture with the atmosphere. Other effects of hydrological change include increased risks to infrastructure and water resource planning, ecosystem shifts, and growing flows of water, nutrients, sediment, and carbon to the ocean. Coordinated efforts in monitoring, modeling, and processing studies at various scales are required to improve the understanding of change, in particular at the interfaces between hydrology, atmosphere, ecology, resources, and oceans.

  14. Identification of tundra land cover near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska using SPOT satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1994-01-01

    Tundra vegetation in the Teshekpuk Lake area of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain was mapped to assess distribution andabundance of waterfowl habitats. Three SPOT satellite scenes were acquired and registered to a 20 m Universal Transverse Mercatorgrid. Two clustering techniques were used to develop statistical parameters by which the SPOT data were spectrally classified.Amaximum likelihood algorithm that correlated spectral classes with land cover types was applied to the SPOT data. Field data were usedto assist in spectral class labeling and vegetation descriptions. Twelve cover classes were mapped. The most common type was moistsedge meadow tundra (13.5%); the least common was moss/peat shoreline (0.2%). The moss/peat shoreline type, important to moultinggeese and other waterfowl, was spectrally identified using supervised clustering techniques. All other land cover types were identifiedusing unsupervised clustering techniques. Cover classes were described, and a tundra landscape profile produced.

  15. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  16. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Atmospheric aspects of Arctic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Three important features of recent Arctic change are the rather uniform pattern of Arctic temperature amplification in response to greenhouse gas forcing, the modification of atmospheric temperature and wind patterns over newly sea-ice-free regions, and the possible increased linkage between Arctic climate and sub-arctic weather. An important argument for anthropogenic forcing of recent Arctic change is the model predicted rather uniform increases in Arctic temperatures, in contrast to more regional temperature maximums associated with intrinsic climate variability patterns such as those which occurred during the 1930s Arctic warming. Sea-ice-free areas at the end of summer are allowing: added heat and moisture transport into the troposphere as documented during the recent Japanese vessel Mirai cruises, decreased boundary layer stratification, and modification of wind flow through thermal wind processes. Winter 2009-2010 and December 2010 showed a unique connectivity between the Arctic and more southern weather when the typical polar vortex was replaced by high geopotential heights over the central Arctic and low heights over mid-latitudes that resulted in record snow and low temperatures, a Warm Arctic-Cold Continents pattern. A major challenge of Arctic meteorology is to understand the interaction of forced changes such as loss of sea ice and land impacts with intrinsic climate patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation and Pacific North American climate patterns. Could persistent shifts in Arctic climate be triggered by a combination of a gradual upward trend in temperature, an extreme event e.g. fortuitous timing in the natural variability of the atmospheric or ocean general circulation, and Arctic specific feedbacks? Scientific progress on both issues requires sustained decadal observations.

  18. Observing lake ice phenology across Alaska using in situ sensors, aircraft, and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Bodony, K.; Sturdivant, E.; Frey, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    The timing of ice-out in high latitudes is a fundamental threshold for lake ecosystems and an indicator of climate change. Thus, there is a need to understand lake ice phenology at multiple scales from small to large lakes and across lake-rich landscapes. In this study, we observed ice-out timing for large lakes using MODIS imagery in eleven lake districts across Alaska from 2007 - 2012 and validated these and expanded to smaller lakes using in situ sensors and shore-based cameras. Over this six year period, the mean lake ice-out for all lakes was 27 May and ranged from 07 May in Kenai to 06 July in Arctic Coastal Plain lake districts with relatively low interannual variability. Approximately 80% of the variation in ice out timing was explained by the 0°C air temperature isotherm date (ATID) and lake area. Shoreline irregularity, watershed area, and river connectivity explained additional variation in some districts. Inter-district analysis of coherence showed synchronous ice-out patterns with the exception of the two arctic coastal districts where ice-out occurs later (June - July) and regional climatology is strongly sea-ice influenced. Following this baseline analysis to document spatial and temporal variability, Alaska experienced record cold spring conditions in 2013. This apparent anomaly from long-term trends of earlier springs in northern latitudes provided an opportunity to validate empirical models and look at lake responses under conditions more representative of times before modern warming. In 2013 mean ice-out for all study lakes was 13 days later than mean for the previous six year observation period. The lower latitude and interior lake districts Denali, Kenai, and Minto Flats had ice-free conditions >18 days later in 2013 than the baseline period compared to higher latitude and coastal districts Beringia, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Arctic Coastal Plain became ice-free well within the range of recent interannual variability. Observations from this

  19. Arctic Ocean basin liquid freshwater storage trend 1992-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, B.; Karcher, M.; Kauker, F.; Schauer, U.; Toole, J. M.; Krishfield, R. A.; Pisarev, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Su, J.

    2014-02-01

    Freshwater in the Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the regional ocean circulation, sea ice, and global climate. From salinity observed by a variety of platforms, we are able, for the first time, to estimate a statistically reliable liquid freshwater trend from monthly gridded fields over all upper Arctic Ocean basins. From 1992 to 2012 this trend was 600±300 km3 yr-1. A numerical model agrees very well with the observed freshwater changes. A decrease in salinity made up about two thirds of the freshwater trend and a thickening of the upper layer up to one third. The Arctic Ocean Oscillation index, a measure for the regional wind stress curl, correlated well with our freshwater time series. No clear relation to Arctic Oscillation or Arctic Dipole indices could be found. Following other observational studies, an increased Bering Strait freshwater import to the Arctic Ocean, a decreased Davis Strait export, and enhanced net sea ice melt could have played an important role in the freshwater trend we observed.

  20. Seasonal cues of Arctic grayling movement in a small Arctic stream: the importance of surface water connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Arp, Christopher D.; Adams, Jeff; Falke, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In Arctic ecosystems, freshwater fish migrate seasonally between productive shallow water habitats that freeze in winter and deep overwinter refuge in rivers and lakes. How these movements relate to seasonal hydrology is not well understood. We used passive integrated transponder tags and stream wide antennae to track 1035 Arctic grayling in Crea Creek, a seasonally flowing beaded stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. Migration of juvenile and adult fish into Crea Creek peaked in June immediately after ice break-up in the stream. Fish that entered the stream during periods of high flow and cold stream temperature traveled farther upstream than those entering during periods of lower flow and warmer temperature. We used generalized linear models to relate migration of adult and juvenile fish out of Crea Creek to hydrology. Most adults migrated in late June – early July, and there was best support (Akaike weight = 0.46; w i ) for a model indicating that the rate of migration increased with decreasing discharge. Juvenile migration occurred in two peaks; the early peak consisted of larger juveniles and coincided with adult migration, while the later peak occurred shortly before freeze-up in September and included smaller juveniles. A model that included discharge, minimum stream temperature, year, season, and mean size of potential migrants was most strongly supported (w i  = 0.86). Juvenile migration rate increased sharply as daily minimum stream temperature decreased, suggesting fish respond to impending freeze-up. We found fish movements to be intimately tied to the strong seasonality of discharge and temperature, and demonstrate the importance of small stream connectivity for migratory Arctic grayling during the entire open-water period. The ongoing and anticipated effects of climate change and petroleum development on Arctic hydrology (e.g. reduced stream connectivity, earlier peak flows, increased evapotranspiration) have important implications

  1. Climate driven changes in hydrology, nutrient cycling, and food web dynamics in surface waters of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. C.; Wipfli, M.; Schmutz, J.; Gurney, K.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing rapidly as a result of a warming climate. While many areas of the arctic are expected to dry as a result of warming, the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, which extends from the Brooks Range north to the Beaufort Sea will likely become wetter, because subsurface hydrologic fluxes are constrained by thick, continuous permafrost. This landscape is characterized by large, oriented lakes and many smaller ponds that form in the low centers and troughs/edges of frost polygons. This region provides important breeding habitat for many migratory birds including loons, arctic terns, eiders, shorebirds, and white-fronted geese, among others. Increased hydrologic fluxes may provide a bottom-up control on the success of these species by altering the availability of food resources including invertebrates and fish. This work aimed to 1) characterize surface water fluxes and nutrient availability in the small streams and lake types of two study regions in the ACP, 2) predict how increased hydrological fluxes will affect the lakes, streams, and water chemistry, and 3) use nutrient additions to simulate likely changes in lake chemistry and invertebrate availability. Initial observations suggest that increasing wetland areas and availability of nutrients will result in increased invertebrate abundance, while the potential for drainage and terrestrialization of larger lakes may reduce fish abundance and overwintering habitat. These changes will likely have positive implications for insectivores and negative implications for piscivorous waterfowl.

  2. Spatial distribution of thermokarst landforms across Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Grosse, G.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Jones, B. M.; Arp, C. D.; McGuire, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic Alaska is characterized by widespread past and present thaw of ice rich permafrost and subsequent thermokarst development. Variations in ice content and distribution, and topography across Arctic Alaska result in thermokarst landform diversity. Thermokarst causes a number of biogeochemical and ecological shifts that include changes in soil carbon dynamics, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition, wildlife habitat, and fresh water availability. Ongoing climate change may lead to an increase in thermokarst landscape features. Thus, a better understanding of the current temporal and spatial dynamics of thermokarst is needed in order to project its future dynamics. Understanding how vulnerable Arctic Alaska is to future thermokarst development is critical for resource management, industry development, and subsistence hunting. We focused on the distribution of thermokarst landforms among ten study sites aligned with the NSF CALON (Towards a Circum-Arctic Lakes Observation Network) project in Arctic Alaska. Sites represent diverse substrates including eolian silt, eolian sand, marine sand, deltaic, and marine silt. We conducted thermokarst landform mapping and spatial and morphometric analyses using high-resolution aerial photography, an interferometric synthetic aperture radar derived digital elevation model (IfSAR DEM), and hydrographic layers from the National Land Cover Database derived from Landsat-7. Non-lake thermokarst landforms were visually mapped and hand digitized using aerial photographs and the IfSAR DEM. Initial results show thermokarst forms are most prevalent in marine silt areas with up to 99% of study areas affected by thermokarst activity. Eolian sand areas are the least thermokarst affected (mean of 57%). Drained thermokarst lake basins, thermokarst lakes, and areas affected by thermokarst pit formation were the dominant thermokarst landforms, covering up to 70%, 54%, and 8% of the landscape. The number of overlapping lake and basin

  3. Eukaryotes in Arctic and Antarctic cyanobacterial mats.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2012-11-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the polar regions. Most mats are multilayered three-dimensional structures with the filamentous cyanobacteria embedded in a gel-like matrix. Although early descriptions mentioned the presence of larger organisms including metazoans living in the mats, there have been few studies specifically focused on the microbial eukaryotes, which are often small cells with few morphological features suitable for identification by microscopy. Here, we applied 18S rRNA gene clone library analysis to identify eukaryotes in cyanobacterial mat communities from both the Antarctic and the extreme High Arctic. We identified 39 ribotypes at the level of 99% sequence similarity. These consisted of taxa within algal and other protist groups including Chlorophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Ciliophora, and Cercozoa. Fungi were also recovered, as were 21 metazoan ribotypes. The eukaryotic taxa appeared habitat-specific with little overlap between lake, pond, and ice shelf communities. Some ribotypes were common to both Arctic and Antarctic mats, suggesting global dispersal of these taxa and similarity in the environmental filters acting on protist communities. Many of these eukaryotic taxa likely benefit from protected, nutrient-rich microhabitats within the cyanobacterial mat environment.

  4. The Lake Ohrid SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Leng, Melanie J.; Francke, Alexander; Baumgarten, Henrike; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Giacco, Biagio; Lacey, Jack H.; Leicher, Niklas; Levkov, Zlatko; Lindhorst, Katja; Reed, Jane M.; Zhang, Xiaosen; Sadori, Laura; Vogel, Hendrik; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wonik, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP SCOPSCO project at Lake Ohrid in Macedonia and Albania was one of the most successful lake drilling campaigns worldwide. Drilling took place from April to June 2013 and yielded more than 2000 m of sediments from four different sites in the lake. The maximum penetration was 569 m below lake floor and the overall recovery at all drill sites was > 95 %. Almost two years after the drilling operation, core opening and processing as well as biological and geological analyses are still ongoing. However, most of the cores from the main drill site, the so-called DEEP site in the centre of the lake, are meanwhile opened and reveal a unique record of lake history. The extraordinary quality of seismic, borehole logging and core data allows us to achieve the major goals of the SCOPSCO project. Seismic data, diatoms and coarse-grained sediments in the basal cores indicate that Lake Ohrid had no marine origin, as it was speculated in the past. The data show that Lake Ohrid established in a highly dynamic pull-apart basin with varying fluvial and shallow water conditions. On top of these basal sediments, borehole logging data, XRF scanning data, carbonate, and the amount of organic matter indicate a complete and high resolution succession of glacial / interglacial cycles and interspersed stadials and interstadials. This allows us to determine the establishment of Lake Ohrid by means of chronostratigraphic tuning to about 1.3 to 1.5 Ma ago. Additional, independent age control is given by paleomagnetic data and by numerous tephra layers, which can be correlated with well-dated proximal tephra deposits in Italy. The uppermost 350 m of the sediment record contain more than 30 tephras, which makes the Lake Ohrid record to the rosetta stone of distal Italian tephra deposits in the Balkan region. The unique sediment record of Lake Ohrid is fundamental to obtain crucial information on the overall goal of the SCOPSCO project, i.e. to clarify why Lake Ohrid has one of highest

  5. Lake Evaporation: a Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amayreh, Jumah Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    Reliable evaporation data are an essential requirement in any water and/or energy budget studies. This includes operation and management of both urban and agricultural water resources. Evaporation from large, open water surfaces such as lakes and reservoirs may influence many agricultural and irrigation decisions. In this study evaporation from Bear Lake in the states of Idaho and Utah was measured using advanced research instruments (Bowen Ratio and Eddy Correlation). Actual over-lake evaporation and weather data measurements were used to understand the mechanism of evaporation in the lake, determine lake-related parameters (such as roughness lengths, heat storage, net radiation, etc.), and examine and evaluate existing lake evaporation methods. This enabled the development of a modified and flexible model incorporating the tested methods for hourly and daily best estimates of lake evaporation using nearby simple land-based weather data and, if available, remotely sensed data. Average evaporation from Bear Lake was about 2 mm/day during the summer season (March-October) of this two-year (1993-1994) study. This value reflects the large amount of energy consumed in heating the water body of the lake. Moreover, evaporation from the lake was not directly related to solar radiation. This observation was clear during night time when the evaporation continued with almost the same rate as daytime evaporation. This explains the vital role of heat storage in the lake as the main driving energy for evaporation during night time and day time cloudy sky conditions. When comparing over-lake and nearby land-based weather parameters, land-based wind speed was the only weather parameter that had a significant difference of about 50% lower than over-lake measurements. Other weather parameters were quite similar. The study showed that evaporation from the lake can be accurately estimated using Penman-type equations if related parameters such as net radiation, heat storage, and

  6. Physiological Adaptations of Arctic Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Contents #s 1, 2, 3, and 4, and Item G in Expenditures); b) Studies on Hibernation Factor Transferred from Marmots to Test Animals (see Table of Contents...relatives of the woodchuck (i.e. arctic marmots ) also can produce hibernation factor. Credit: *Supported in part by The Arctic Institute of North America...hibernating Arctic marmot , were all capable of inducing the 13-lined ground squirrel to hibernate in the summer, a season when that species would

  7. ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    the Navy the capability to conduct short-term (1 week) to extended (2 weeks) coupled weather forecasts for the Arctic region. APPROACH To...sensitivity of the Arctic weather forecast to key numerical parameters; and 5) conduct extensive validation and verification of the coupled system and...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Proshuntinsky, Andrew; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Nguyen, An T.; Lindsay, Ron; Haas, Christian; Zhang, Jinlun; Diansky, Nikolay; Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Ashik, Igor; De Cuevas, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared with estimates of sea ice thickness derived from pan-Arctic satellite freeboard measurements (2004-2008); airborne electromagnetic measurements (2001-2009); ice draft data from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea, and the Beaufort Sea (1992-2008) and from submarines (1975-2000); and drill hole data from the Arctic basin, Laptev, and East Siberian marginal seas (1982-1986) and coastal stations (1998-2009). Despite an assessment of six models that differ in numerical methods, resolution, domain, forcing, and boundary conditions, the models generally overestimate the thickness of measured ice thinner than approximately 2 mand underestimate the thickness of ice measured thicker than about approximately 2m. In the regions of flat immobile landfast ice (shallow Siberian Seas with depths less than 25-30 m), the models generally overestimate both the total observed sea ice thickness and rates of September and October ice growth from observations by more than 4 times and more than one standard deviation, respectively. The models do not reproduce conditions of fast ice formation and growth. Instead, the modeled fast ice is replaced with pack ice which drifts, generating ridges of increasing ice thickness, in addition to thermodynamic ice growth. Considering all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observations are from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II and Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System models.

  9. Fat content of the flesh of siscowets and lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Phillips, Arthur M.

    1965-01-01

    Samples of flesh were excised from the middorsal region of 67 siscowets (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) and 46 lake trout (Salvelinus n. namaycush) collected from Lake Superior. Chemical analysis of the samples revealed a range in fat content (dry weight) of 32.5 to 88.8 per cent in siscowets and 6.6 to 52.3 per cent in lake trout. Percentage fat increased progressively with increase in length of fish in both forms, but the average rate of increase was far greater for siscowets than for lake trout at lengths between 12 and 20 inches. Despite substantial individual variation, the percentage fat in the two forms was widely different and without overlap at all comparable lengths. The range in iodine number of the fat was 100 to 160 for siscowets and 103 to 161 for lake trout; average values were generally lower for siscowets than for lake trout among fish of comparable length. Percentage fat and relative weight were not correlated significantly in either subspecies. The fat content of flesh samples from a distinctive subpopulation of Lake Superior lake trout known as 'humpers' was more closely similar to that of typical lean lake trout than to siscowets, but the rate of increase in fat with increasing length was greater than for lean lake trout. Flesh samples from hatchery-reared stocks of lake trout, hybrid lake trout X siscowets, and siscowets tended to support the view that the wide difference in fat content between siscowets and lake trout is genetically determined.

  10. Landforms Produced by Permafrost-Volcano Interactions, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beget, J.; Kargel, J.; Wessels, R.

    2005-12-01

    Three different types of distinctive landforms are recognized at sites in Arctic Alaska where volcanic eruptions occurred through permafrost. On the Seward Peninsula at ca. 66° N, a series of giant explosion craters known as the Espenberg Maars are as much as 8 km in diameter. These craters were produced by numerous explosions caused by cryo-magmatic interactions. The giant maars formed during eruptions at 21kyr, 62 ± 10 kyr, and 160 ± 8 kyr., and so are correlative with times of extremely cold climate and thick ground ice during marine isotope stages 2, 4, and 6. At Imuruk Lake at ca. 65° N the Lost Jim lava flow was erupted only a few thousand years ago. The basaltic lava flow advanced over permafrost, and are bounded by unusually steep flow fronts and levees as much as 20 m high, covered with lava flow surfaces sloping as much as 60°. These `super-inflated' flow margins terminate in zones of complex thermokarst collapse features recording melting of ground ice under the lava. We speculate that as the lava flow advanced it melted ground ice and produced steam that quenched the lava and produced extremely steep and inflated flow margins. At the Ingakslugwat Hills at ca. 61.5° N., unusual composite volcanoes as much as 7 km long and 400 m high are made largely of pyroclastic ejecta. These features are significantly higher than the regional water table, and yet are capped with maars and numerous intersecting arms of explosion craters of various. We call these distinctive landforms Ingakslugwat volcanoes. We suggest that since the water table is hundreds of meters lower, the water source for continued explosive volcanism in Ingakslugwat Volcanoes is the melting of ground ice in permafrost. We hypothesize the permafrost table rises in the new ejecta following each successive eruption, resulting in multiple cycles of cryo-magmatic explosive volcanism and the creation of thick complexes of volcaniclastic debris.

  11. Arctic River organic matter transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Peter; Gustafsson, Orjan; Vonk, Jorien; Spencer, Robert; McClelland, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Arctic Rivers have unique hydrology and biogeochemistry. They also have a large impact on the Arctic Ocean due to the large amount of riverine inflow and small ocean volume. With respect to organic matter, their influence is magnified by the large stores of soil carbon and distinct soil hydrology. Here we present a recap of what is known of Arctic River organic matter transport. We will present a summary of what is known of the ages and sources of Arctic River dissolved and particulate organic matter. We will also discuss the current status of what is known about changes in riverine organic matter export due to global change.

  12. White Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  13. How lake morphometry reflects environmental conditions in the permafrost-dominated Lena Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, A.; Grosse, G.; Schirrmeister, L.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous lakes characterize the landscape of the northeast Siberian Lena Delta, which is situated in the zone of continuous permafrost. We provide a detailed lake inventory of this largest Arctic delta. The inventory is based on Landsat-7 ETM+ image data and spatial analysis in ArcGIS. Several morphometric lake attributes were determined from the resulting data set and statistically analysed regarding the lakes' association with one of the three geomorphological main units of the Lena delta. Significant differences in the morphometric lake characteristics allowed the distinction of a mean lake type for each main unit. The lake types reflect the special lithological and cryolithological conditions and geomorphologic processes prevailing on each terrace. The first main unit, which represents the modern active delta, is characterized by small lakes of irregular shape, like meander scrolls and oxbow lakes. Large oriented lakes dominate on the second terrace that consists of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene sands. On the third terrace, which is represented by relics of a Late Pleistocene accumulation plain with fine-grained and ice-rich deposits, typical thermokarst lakes with regular, circular shorelines prevail. Most studied lakes are thermokarst lakes by their nature, as they have been or still are expanding by thermoabrasion of shore banks and deepening of the lake basin. However, a distinction between primary and secondary thermokarst lakes can be made. Primary lakes are those initially formed by thaw subsidence, i.e. the third terrace lakes. Secondary thermokarst lakes are typically formed by other processes, e.g. the change of the fluvial channel network on the first terrace. The role of lakes on the second terrace is still debated. They appear to be typical thermokarst lakes by morphometry, but their primary initiation might have been related to inter-dune or old fluvial water bodies.

  14. High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometric Measurements of the Arctic Troposphere on-board the NASA DC-8 during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubison, M. J.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    A High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, DeCarlo et al., Anal. Chem., 2006) was deployed aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign during the spring and summer of 2008. The main focus of the spring phase, operated out of Fairbanks, Alaska, was to investigate the composition and sources of Arctic Haze (e.g. Quinn et al., Tellus B, 2007), a persistent pollution layer that accumulates under the stable springtime Polar High anti-cyclonic weather pattern. The sulphate-dominated aerosol in the Arctic Haze almost always contained smaller amounts of organic matter. Multiple biomass-burning plumes and some plumes from North-American pollution were observed. Comparison of tracers for biomass-burning in both the gas- and aerosol-phases show good correlation and point to the long-term persistence of organic aerosol of biomass-burning origin in the springtime Arctic. The organic aerosol was typically highly oxidized. During the summer phase, operated out of Palmdale, California, and Cold Lake, Canada, the focus was investigating California pollution and the composition and evolution of the outflow from large-scale boreal forest fires, respectively. However, the numerous fires burning in Northern California during the project timeframe allowed for the sampling of biomass-burning plumes from both locations. The persistence and correlation of the gas- and aerosol-phase fire markers observed during the spring phase was once again apparent. This observation, over a range of transport timescales and geographical locations, suggests that certain components of the AMS mass spectrum can be used as robust markers for biomass-burning in the organic aerosol composition. Measurements from multiple fires of aerosol chemical composition, including volatility profiles of important organic components, are compared to monitor the evolution of biomass

  15. Effect of solar activity on the frequency of occurrence of major anomalies in the Arctic. [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotinskaya, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Major air pressure and temperature anomalies in certain arctic regions were studied with a view toward predicting their occurrence. Correlations are sought between the frequency of arctic anomalies and solar activity, or specifically the Wolf number and the index of geomagnetic disturbance. Graphic techniques are used to show that solar activity has a definite influence on the frequency of occurrence of major anomalies of pressure and temperature in the Arctic.

  16. Sunlight Controls Water Column Processing of Carbon in Arctic Freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Ward, C. P.; Crump, B. C.; Kling, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon (C) in thawing permafrost soils may have global impacts on climate change, yet controls on its processing and fate are poorly understood. The dominant fate of dissolved organic C (DOC) released from soils to inland waters is either complete oxidation to CO2 or partial oxidation and river export to oceans. Both processes are most often attributed to bacterial respiration, but we recently showed that photochemical oxidation exceeds rates of respiration and accounts for 70-95% of total DOC processed in the water column of arctic lakes and rivers. While the overall dominance of photochemical processing in streams and lakes remained, the fate of DOC varied consistently by water type. In small streams DOC was mainly mineralized by sunlight to CO2, while in lakes the main fate of DOC was partial photo-oxidation. Large rivers were intermediate between these end members, and photo-mineralization to CO2 was about equal to or less than partial photo-oxidation. We suggest this pattern is a result of light-exposure history, where DOC leached from soils into headwater streams has little prior light exposure and is labile to complete photo-oxidation, but as light exposure increases moving downstream and into lakes with longer residence times the DOC photo-lability declines. Thus as easily photo-mineralized moieties are removed, DOC fate shifts toward partial photo-oxidation and downstream export in rivers and lakes. At the basin scale, photochemical processing of DOC is about one third of the total CO2 released from surface waters, and is thus an important, newly measured component of the Arctic C budget. We also suggest that these photochemical transformations of DOC will occur in any shallow surface water, and could be important for better understanding inland water carbon cycling.

  17. A Novel Technique for Improving our Understanding of Arctic Methane and Carbon Dioxide Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, C.; Czimczik, C. I.; Townsend-Small, A.; Xu, X.; Saltzman, E. S.; Aydin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of Arctic methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and sources can verify the region's role in the global carbon cycle and provide potential evidence for an enhanced positive greenhouse gas feedback in the atmosphere. 14C data from the Arctic is limited, especially for CH4, and generally uncertain due to the complexity of measurement and remoteness of sampling sites. Previous methods rely on highly spatially and temporally variable ebullition events (bubble flux) to capture a CH4 sample concentrated enough for 14C-CH4 analysis, resulting in a limited representation of the Arctic's role in the global CH4 budget. To enhance 14C-CH4 and 14C-CO2 field sampling ability, improve our knowledge of Arctic lake biogeochemistry, and further constrain and verify pan-Arctic estimates of CH4 and CO2 sources and emissions, we have: (1) deployed a novel water-degassing field sampling technique that targets the highly distributed dissolved CH4 and CO2 (diffusive fraction) in Arctic lake water, (2) deployed a series of floating headspace chambers for estimating lake-to-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes, and (3) utilized a novel, flow-through vacuum line system to measure the 14C content of CH4 and CO2 in discrete air samples. This method eliminates the need to extensively observe Arctic lakes for highly sporadic CH4 ebullition events by targeting the less concentrated but prevalent fraction of dissolved CH4. Since this method extracts dissolved CH4 and CO2 from lake water in the field, the need for transporting large volumes of water back to an analytical laboratory (a task that becomes prohibitive when sampling in the remote Arctic) is eliminated. In-situ estimations of dissolved CH4 concentrations from the Arctic and Boreal wetland regions of Alaska range from essentially no dissolved CH4 to as high as 0.35 mg/L. Dissolved CH4 is estimated in the field via headspace equilibration and detection with a handheld catalytic converter sensor (Gas

  18. Arctic thermal design

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, V.J.

    1985-05-01

    Arctic engineering theories and techniques are discussed. The problems associated with ameliorating cold-climate effects is examined. External accumulation of ice on solid surfaces, floating ice sheets, icebergs, multiyear ice, and ice ridges are discussed, and the problems associated with these hazards are analyzed. The author believes that it is possible to deal rationally with these problems if the engineer is aware of them, and that ignorance can cause spectacular failures in the cold regions.

  19. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  20. Arctic Patrol Vessel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    could not be input into the program. Table 4 shows a one-digit weight breakdown of the APV. ARCTIC PATROL VESSEL WEIGHTS SUMMARY SWBS GROUPS... SWBS 100 group, resulting in an increase of 220 tons. 3.7.2. Topside Icing Accounting for topside icing is crucial to gaining an accurate...characteristics, a comprehensive SWBS breakdown, a hullform body plan and a full general arrangement drawing. 21. The team will be encouraged to produce

  1. Arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D J; Tracey, B; Marshall, H; Norstrom, R J

    1992-07-15

    Limited data have been collected on the presence of contaminants in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem, with the exception of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. Although southern and temperate biological systems have largely cleansed themselves of radioactive fallout deposited during the 1950s and 1960s, Arctic environments have not. Lichens accumulate radioactivity more than many other plants because of their large surface area and long life span; the presence and persistence of radioisotopes in the Arctic is of concern because of the lichen----reindeer----human ecosystem. Effective biological half-life of cesium 137 is reckoned to be substantially less than its physical half-life. The database on organochlorines in Canadian Arctic terrestrial mammals and birds is very limited, but indications are that the air/plant/animal contaminant pathway is the major route of these compounds into the terrestrial food chain. For terrestrial herbivores, the most abundant organochlorine is usually hexachlorobenzene followed by hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. PCB accumulation favours the hexachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyl and heptachlorobiphenyl homologous series. The concentrations of the various classes of organochlorine compounds are substantially lower in terrestrial herbivore tissues than in marine mammal tissues. PCBs and DDT are the most abundant residues in peregrine falcons (a terrestrial carnivore) reaching average levels of 9.2 and 10.4 micrograms.g-1, respectively, more than 10 times higher than other organochlorines and higher than in marine mammals, including the polar bear. Contaminants from local sources include metals from mining activities, hydrocarbons and waste drilling fluids from oil and gas exploration and production, wastes from DEW line sites, naturally occurring radionuclides associated with uranium mineralization, and smoke containing SO2 and H2SO4 aerosol from the Smoking Hills at Cape Bathurst, N.W.T.

  2. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    design with a full load displacement of 6,480 long tons. The vessel was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small...and system complexity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic patrol, green technology, environment, polution , ship design, CISD, fuel cell 16. SECURITY...was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small interdiction and rescue craft. In anticipation of more stringent

  3. Mercury accumulation in yellow perch in Wisconsin seepage lakes: Relation to lake characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Rada, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    We studied relations between lacustrine characteristics and the total mercury (Hg) content of calendar age- 2 yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) in 10 seepage lakes in north-central Wisconsin. Mean concentrations and burdens (masses) of Hg in whole perch varied widely among lakes, were negatively correlated with lake pH and were positively correlated with total Hg concentration in surficial profundal sediment. Approximately 80 to 90% of the variation in Hg concentration and burden in whole perch was explained with multiple regressions containing two independent variables: either lake pH or alkalinity, and Hg concentration in surficial sediment. The mean concentration of Hg in axial muscle tissue of age-5 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) from five of the study lakes was highly correlated with the mean concentration in whole age-2 perch in the same lakes.

  4. Testing the potential of OSL, TT-OSL, IRSL and post-IR IRSL luminescence dating on a Middle Pleistocene sediment record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, A.; Hilgers, A.

    2012-09-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn is a 12 km wide crater lake located in remote Chukotka in the far East Russian Arctic about 100 km to the north of the Arctic Circle. It was formed by a meteorite impact about 3.58 Ma ago. This study tests the paleomagnetic and proxy data-based Mid- to Late-Pleistocene sediment deposition history using novel luminescence dating techniques of sediment cores taken from the centre of the 175 m deep lake. For dating polymineral and quartz fine grains (4-11 μm grain size range) were extracted from nine different levels from the upper 28 m of sediment cores 5011-1A and 5011-1B. Polymineral sub-samples were analysed by infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and post-IR infra-red stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL) using single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) sequences. SAR protocols were further applied to measure the blue light optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally-transferred OSL (TT-OSL) of fine-grained quartz supplemented by a multiple aliquot TT-OSL approach. According to an independent age model, the lowest sample from 27.8-27.9 m below lake bottom level correlates to the Brunhes-Matuyama (B/M) reversal. Finally, the SAR post-IR-IRSL protocol applied to polymineral fine grains was the only luminescence technique able to provide dating results of acceptable accuracy up to ca. 700 ka. Major factors limiting precision and accuracy of the luminescence chronology are, for some samples, natural signals already approaching saturation level, and overall the uncertainty related to the sediment water content and its variations over geological times.

  5. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.

  6. Shelf ice glaciation in the Arctic Ocean? New results from northernmost Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjaer, K.; Moller, P.; Larsen, N. K.

    2007-12-01

    Bounding on the last remaining patch of permanent sea ice and capped by an ice sheet with meltwater sufficient to disrupt the thermohaline circulation, North Greenland is strategically located for contributing to the understanding of the climate system. The coastal plain, which faces the Arctic Ocean, more than 100 km long and 15 km wide, is covered by a continuous blanket of Quaternary sediment that spans at least the period since the last deglaciation c. 9000 years ago, and is capped by an array of glacial and marine landforms. This area therefore contains an unsurpassed source for recording marine and glacial activities along the world's northernmost coast - a source which, owing to its inaccessibility, has largely remained untapped. Preliminary results from the 'LongTerm Project', which ended this summer, show that at least two major glacial events hit the coasts by the end of the last ice age. One of them was possibly a large scale expansion of the Inland Ice resulting in formation of a 100,000 km2 ice shelf in the Arctic Ocean - a type of glaciation, which has usually been thought to be an Antarctic speciality. Even more significantly, abundant accumulations of glacio- fluvial and -lacustrine sediments show that heat transfer to these extreme latitudes by the end of the last ice age was sufficient to allow massive melting of land-based ice. Finally, among the summer's surprises was the discovery of thick piles of raised marine sediments along the coast, allowing a detailed record of sea level history and faunal change, which can be correlated with a terrestrial record from cores, obtained from two lakes on the coastal plain.

  7. New sedimentological evidence supporting a catastrophic meltwater discharge event along the Beaufort margin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotsko, S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Keigwin, L. D.; Mendenhall, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, a cruise on the USCGC Healy mapped the Beaufort margin from Barrow, AK into the Amundsen Gulf using a towed CHIRP subbottom profiler and a hull-mounted Knudsen CHIRP subbottom profiler to study the deglaciation of the margin. Sediment cores were also acquired. New grain size analyses for three sediment cores will be presented. These records help constrain the flooding events captured in the existing grain size data from JPC 15, just east of the Mackenzie trough. This core shows evidence of multiple ice rafted debris events that were likely sourced from the retreat of the Amundsen ice stream. These layers have peaks in grain size around ~20 microns compared to the ~5 micron average for the rest of the core. The grain size peaks correlate to the high amplitude reflectors observed in the seismic CHIRP data. Similar reflectors are observed in the seismic data from two of the new core locations, one in the Mackenzie trough and one east of the trough. The seismic data from these stations also record a thick sediment package that is ~7 meters thick at its depocenter. This layer is interpreted to record a massive meltwater discharge event that entered the Arctic via the Mackenzie River. Oxygen isotope data from JPC 15 support an event at this location based on the covarying benthic and planktonic records. In our conceptual model, the pulses of freshwater from the Amundsen Gulf likely freshened the margin sufficiently that the major discharge event was then able to push the system over the edge. This catastrophic glacial lake draining out the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea and export out of the Arctic into the North Atlantic caused diminished meridional overturning circulation - slowing of the conveyor belt thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, potentially caused the Younger Dryas cold period.

  8. Glacial Lake Lind, Wisconsin and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.D.; Addis, K.L.; Ferber, L.R.; Hemstad, C.B.; Meyer, G.N.; Komai, L.T.

    1999-01-01

    Glacial Lake Lind developed in the pre-late Wisconsinan St. Croix River valley, Minnesota and Wisconsin, and lasted more than 1000 yr during the retreat of the Superior lobe at the end of the Wisconsinan glaciation. Lake Lind sediment consists primarily of red varved silt and clay, but also includes mud-flow deposits, nearshore silt (penecontemporaneously deformed in places), nearshore rippled sand, and deltaic sand. Lake Lind varved red clay is not part of glacial Lake Grantsburg, as suggested by earlier authors, because the red varves are separated from overlying glacial Lake Grantsburg silt and clay by a unit of deltaic and fluvial sand. Furthermore, varve correlations indicate that the base of the red varves is younger to the north, showing that the basin expanded as the Superior lobe retreated and was not a lake basin dammed to the southwest by the advancing Grantsburg sublobe. Varve correlations indicate that the Superior lobe retreated at a rate of about 200 m/yr. Uniform winter-clay thickness throughout most of the varve couplets suggests thermal stratification in the lake with clay trapped in the epilimnion; some clay would exit the lake at the outlet prior to winter freeze. Zones of thicker winter-clay layers, in places associated with mud-flow layers, indicate outlet incision, lake-level fall, and shoreline erosion and resuspension of lake clay. The most likely outlet for glacial Lake Lind was in the southwest part of the lake near the present site of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Nearshore sediment indicates that the lake level of glacial Lake Lind was around 280 m. The elevation of the base of the Lake Lind sediments indicates water depth was 20 to 55 m. Evidence in the southern part of the lake basin suggests that the Superior lobe readvanced at least once during the early stages of glacial Lake Lind. Lake Lind ended not by drainage but by being filled in by prograding deltas and outwash plains composed of sand derived from the retreating Superior lobe. It

  9. Forest blowdown and lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.E.; Rush, R.M. ); Peplies, R.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine the role of forest blowdown in lake acidification. The approach combines geographic information systems (GIS) and digital remote sensing with traditional field methods. The methods of analysis consist of direct observation, interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs, and statistical comparison of two geographical distributions-one representing forest blow-down and another representing lake chemistry. Spatial and temporal associations between surface water pH and landscape disturbance are strong and consistent in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. In 43 Adirondack Mountain watersheds, lake pH is associated with the percentage of the watershed area blown down and with hydrogen ion deposition (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of {minus}0.67 and {minus}0.73, respectively). Evidence of a temporal association is found at Big Moose Lake and Jerseyfield Lake in New York and the Lygners Vider Plateau of Sweden. They conclude that forest blowdown facilities the acidification of some lakes by altering hydrologic pathways so that waters (previously acidified by acid deposition and/or other sources) do not experience the neutralization normally available through contact with subsurface soils and bedrock. Increased pipeflow is suggested as a mechanism that may link the biogeochemical impacts of forest blowdown to lake chemistry.

  10. Seasonal bathythermal distribution of juvenile lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1987-01-01

    Bathythermal distributions of hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of three genetic strains (Lake Superior; Clearwater Lake, Manitoba; and Seneca Lake, New York) were described from catches with bottom trawls in Lake Ontario during April-May, June, July-August, and October, 1978–1984. This work was part of a program to evaluate post-stocking performance of hatchery-reared fish and identify strains for continued use in rehabilitation of lake trout in Lake Ontario. All age groups of Lake Superior fish were in deeper water in April-May than in June each year; mean depth of capture was greatest at age II and became progressively shallower at ages III and IV. Mean depth of capture in April-May was positively correlated with severity of the preceding winter as judged by heating degree days and average wind speed. During July-August, the fish were concentrated between the epilimnion and 50 m, with no consistent trend in depth by age; however, 92% were captured at water temperatures of 12°C or lower. Mean temperatures of capture for Lake Superior fish during the four respective sampling periods were 3.9, 7.5, 6.9, and 9.5° C for fish of age II and 3.9, 8.4, 6.9, and 8.7° C for fish of age III. The age-II Clearwater Lake fish were consistently at shallower depths than age-II Lake Superior fish. Mean temperatures of capture were 4.2, 9.7, 9.6, and 10.7° C during the four respective sampling periods; during July-August, 91% were taken in water of 12° C or lower. The distribution of Seneca Lake fish was similar to that of the Lake Superior strain. Mean temperatures at which the three strains were captured were well below published preferred temperatures of yearlings in the laboratory. Annual variations in depth distributions during a given season were probably due to differing thermal regimes resulting from annual variations in the weather.

  11. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. IPY: An excellent opportunity to improve Arctic DEMs and document today's Arctic for future generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.

    2003-12-01

    create stunning orthorectified images. These SAR systems, flying on a LearJet, can rapidly acquire day or night in a wide range of weather, eliminating most of the logistical delays common to other systems. Airborne Lidar, a laser based system, is also advanced to the stage where near-shore coastal bathymetry can be measured, such that we could seamlessly integrate DEMs and bathymetry. While the price of such acquisitions is high, it is comparable to DEM acquisitions on the rest of the planet and Mars, and the benefits would be enormous to a wide variety of polar researchers - perfect for the IPY. Presented in this poster will be several examples of how new DEMs have improved our Arctic research at UAF. McCall Glacier was originally an IGY field site and now has the longest record of mass balance observations of any glacier in the US Arctic, but our measurement program is hampered by the lack of decent topographic maps there. Our research using a new DEM in the Kuparuk River watershed in Alaska has shown that these DEMs substantially improve our hydrological modeling in such low gradient watersheds. With DEMs of such high accuracy and resolution, we can also begin a program of repeat-topographic mapping, to document changes not only to glaciers, but subtler permafrost phenomena with decimeter-scale changes such as pingos, thermokarsts, polygons, and oriented lakes. The time to acquire such data is now, however, before widespread changes occur. Thus the upcoming IPY can perhaps leave no better legacy than to replace the IGY-era, mediocre topographic maps with an accurate, high-resolution digital elevation model representing today's Arctic, which will remain valuable to generations of polar scientists.

  13. Arctic Sea Ice Changes, Interactions, and Feedbacks on the Arctic Climate during the Satellite Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Key, J. R.; Liu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Of all the components of the Earth climate system, the cryosphere is arguably the least understood even though it is a very important indicator and an effective modulator of regional and global climate change. Changes in sea ice will significantly affect exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass between the ocean and the atmosphere, and have profound socio-economic impacts on transportation, fisheries, hunting, polar animal habitat and more. In the last three decades, the Arctic underwent significant changes in sea ice as part of the accelerated global climate change. With the recently developed One-dimensional Thermodynamic Ice Model (OTIM), sea and lake ice thickness and trends can be reasonably estimated. The OTIM has been extensively validated against submarine and moored upward-looking sonar measurements, meteorological station measurements, and comprehensive numerical model simulations. The Extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) dataset has 25 climate parameters covering surface, cloud, and sea ice properties as well as surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes for the period 1982 - 2004 over the Arctic and Antarctic at 25 km resolution. The OTIM has been used with APP-x dataset for Arctic sea ice thickness and volume estimation. Statistical analysis of spatial and temporal distributions and trends in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume over the satellite period has been performed, along with the temporal analysis of first year and multiple year sea ice extent changes. Preliminary results show clear evidence that Arctic sea ice has been experiencing significant changes over the last two decades of the 20th century. The Arctic sea ice has been shrinking unexpectedly fast with the declines in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume, most apparent in the fall season. Moreover, satellites provide an unprecedented opportunity to observe Arctic sea ice and its changes with high spatial and temporal coverage that is making it an ideal data source for mitigating

  14. Peopling of the high Arctic - induced by sea ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funder, Svend

    2010-05-01

    blocked its landing). Our record shows that a period with less sea ice than now ended shortly after 6 kaBP. When the Independence I people (4450-3850 kaBP) came into the area, the sea ice conditions may have been similar to the present with land-fast ice for a good part of the year. The annual insolation was 2-3% higher than now, but the vegetation, especially in coastal areas, had deteriorated to Polar desert, as at present. This development continued, and when the second wave of immigrants came, The Independence II people (2900-2300 kaBP), both sea-ice conditions and insolation were similar to the present. Finally, when the last group of immigrants, the Thule people (AD1400-1500), reached the area had year-round land-fast ice. These results show that there is no clear correlation between climate change and human migration into Greenland, but it may have been the increase in sea ice after 6 kaBP that paved the ground for the peopling of high Arctic Canada and Greenland. The three North Greenland immigration-waves took place in a 'deteriorating' (cooling) climate, and evidence from lake sediments and ice coring show that the immigrants met an environment that was similar to today's - or even more harsh.

  15. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  16. Lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.E.; Peplies, R.W.; Rush, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    This paper examined a National Research Council (NRC) report called Acid Deposition: Long-Term Trends. The report has been the final word on acid deposition as the cause of acidification of lakes. The authors considered it important that the tentative nature of this report be kept in perspective so that the work of the NRC would promote rather than inhibit scientific inquiry on the lake acidification issue. In this spirit, this report proposed that degradation of storm damaged trees could increase the acidity of the forest humus and as a result the ground water which would fed local streams and lakes. They proposed that extensive forest blowdown could be a factor in acidification of surface waters.

  17. The trophic classification of lakes using ERTS multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, R. J.; Boland, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Lake classification methods based on the use of ERTS data are described. Preliminary classification results obtained by multispectral and digital image processing techniques indicate satisfactory correlation between ERTS data and EPA-supplied water analysis. Techniques for determining lake trophic levels using ERTS data are examined, and data obtained for 20 lakes are discussed.

  18. Treating floodplain lakes of large rivers as study units for variables that vary within lakes; an evaluation using chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids data from floodplain lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, B.R.; Rogala, J.R.; Houser, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Contiguous floodplain lakes ('lakes') have historically been used as study units for comparative studies of limnological variables that vary within lakes. The hierarchical nature of these studies implies that study variables may be correlated within lakes and that covariate associations may differ not only among lakes but also by spatial scale. We evaluated the utility of treating lakes as study units for limnological variables that vary within lakes based on the criteria of important levels of among-lake variation in study variables and the observation of covariate associations that vary among lakes. These concerns were selected, respectively, to ensure that lake signatures were distinguishable from within-lake variation and that lake-scale effects on covariate associations might provide inferences not available by ignoring those effects. Study data represented chlorophyll a (CHL) and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) data from lakes within three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Sampling occurred in summer from 1993 through 2005 (except 2003); numbers of lakes per reach varied from 7 to 19, and median lake area varied from 53 to 101 ha. CHL and ISS levels were modelled linearly, with lake, year and lake x year effects treated as random. For all reaches, the proportions of variation in CHL and ISS attributable to differences among lakes (including lake and lake x year effects) were substantial (range: 18%-73%). Finally, among-lake variation in CHL and ISS was strongly associated with covariates and covariate effects that varied by lakes or lake-years (including with vegetation levels and, for CHL, log(ISS)). These findings demonstrate the utility of treating floodplain lakes as study units for the study of limnological variables and the importance of addressing hierarchy within study designs when making inferences from data collected within floodplain lakes.

  19. Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in April 2012, over 55 lakes in northern Alaska were instrumented as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes developed atop permafrost. The current network has nine observation nodes along two latitudinal transects that extend from the Arctic Ocean south 200 km to the foothills of the Brooks Range. At each node, six representative lakes of differing area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels, and a suite of instruments were deployed to collect field measurements on lake physiochemistry, lake-surface and terrestrial climatology, and lake bed and permafrost temperature. Each April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth are deployed through the ice and water samples are collected. Sensors are downloaded from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording a timeline of lake regimes and events from ice decay to the summertime energy and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude. In 2012, ice on deeper (>2 m) lakes was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the Arctic Ocean coast. Lake ice thickness was about 20 cm thicker in winter 2013 although winter temperatures were several degrees warmer than the previous year; this is likely due to a thinner snow cover in 2013. Lake ice elevations agree with this general trend, showing higher absolute elevation in April 2013 compared to 2012 for most of the surveyed lakes. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, although there is significant inter-lake variability related to lake depth. Following ice-off, rapid lake warming occurs and water temperature varies synchronously in response to synoptic weather variations and associated changes in net radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Average mid-summer (July) lake temperatures spanned a relatively wide range in 2012 from 7°C to 18°C, with higher

  20. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake.

  1. Cryosat-2 thickness retrievals of freshwater lake ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. F.; Casey, J. A.; Haas, C.

    2014-12-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Cryosat mission was launched to improve our knowledge of the trends in the thickness of sea ice and glaciers. The new Synthetic Aperture processing method allows for significantly enhanced along-track resolution compared to traditional pulse-limited radar altimeters. Satellite observations have revealed rapid changes in the duration of the seasonal snow and ice cover of subarctic lakes. The often smooth, homogeneous ice cover of lakes is an excellent target for detailed studies of radar altimeter and imaging radar backscatter behavior. Furthermore, there is only limited information available regarding the changes in ice thickness of these lakes. Here we present and validate a method to retrieve the thickness of lake ice using CryoSat L1B data. In contrast to sea ice measurements where ice thickness is derived from isostatic freeboard retrievals, we obtain ice thickness from radar returns from both the ice surface and bottom, assuming that CryoSat's Ku-band radar pulses can penetrate through freshwater ice. The seasonal evolution of ice thickness of Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, two large lakes in northern Canada, thus observed is compared to in-situ measurements, SAR imagery, scatterometer data, the results of a freezing-degree-day model, and previous studies. These confirm that the Ku-band signal often penetrates through the low-loss freshwater ice and is scattered from both the snow/ice and the ice/water interfaces. We examine the data for scattering from within the snow pack and the ice as this introduces uncertainty in the retrieval of ice thickness by masking the signal from snow/ice or ice/water interfaces. Although not designed for freshwater lake ice studies, CryoSat-2 and future SAR/SARIN mode satellite altimeter missions offer new possibilities to monitor Arctic and sub-Arctic lakes.

  2. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Southwestern Greenland Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, C. L.; Giles, M. E.; Underwood, G. J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important property of Arctic lake ecosystems, originating from allochthonous inputs from catchments and autochthonous production by plankton in the water column. Little is known about the quality of DOM in Arctic lakes that lack substantial inputs from catchments and such lakes are abundant in southwestern Greenland. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the fraction that absorbs ultraviolet (UV) and visible light, is the controlling factor for the optical properties of many surface waters and as well informs on the quality of DOM. We examined the quality of CDOM in 21 lakes in southwestern Greenland, from the ice sheet to the coast, as part of a larger study examining the role of DOM in regulating microbial communities in these lakes. DOM was size fractioned and absorbance and fluorescence was measured on each size fraction, as well as on bulk DOM. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm (SUVA254), computed by normalizing absorption (a254) to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, provided an estimate of the aromatic carbon content of DOM. SUVA values were generally <2, indicating low aromatic content. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of CDOM fluorescence was used to determine the relative abundance of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM in all size fractions. Younger lakes near the ice sheet and lakes near the coast had lower amounts of CDOM and appeared more microbial in quality. However, lakes centrally located between the ice sheet and the coast had the highest CDOM concentrations and exhibited strong humic fluorescence. Overall distinct differences in CDOM quality were observed between lake locations and among DOM size fractions.

  3. a New Japanese Project for Arctic Climate Change Research - Grene Arctic - (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    A new Arctic Climate Change Research Project 'Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences' has started in 2011 for a five years project. GRENE-Arctic project is an initiative of Arctic study by more than 30 Japanese universities and institutes as the flame work of GRENE (Green Network of Excellence) of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). The GRENE-Arctic project set four strategic research targets: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic 2. Understanding the Arctic system for global climate and future change 3. Evaluation of the effects of Arctic change on weather in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries 4. Prediction of sea Ice distribution and Arctic sea routes This project aims to realize the strategic research targets by executing following studies: -Improvement of coupled general circulation models based on validations of the Arctic climate reproducibility and on mechanism analyses of the Arctic climate change and variability -The role of Arctic cryosphere in the global change -Change in terrestrial ecosystem of pan-Arctic and its effect on climate -Studies on greenhouse gas cycles in the Arctic and their responses to climate change -Atmospheric studies on Arctic change and its global impacts -Ecosystem studies of the Arctic ocean declining Sea ice -Projection of Arctic Sea ice responding to availability of Arctic sea route (* ** ***) *Changes in the Arctic ocean and mechanisms on catastrophic reduction of Arctic sea ice cover **Coordinated observational and modeling studies on the basic structure and variability of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system ***Sea ice prediction and construction of ice navigation support system for the Arctic sea route. Although GRENE Arctic project aims to product scientific contribution in a concentrated program during 2011-2016, Japanese Arctic research community established Japan Consortium for Arctic Environmental Research (JCAR) in May

  4. Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear and the sources of MeHg to arctic freshwater ecosystems are still largely unidentified. Our research is demonstrating that some shallow and warm wetland ponds on the Arctic landscape contain high MeHg concentrations compared to nearby deep and cold lakes. We used a mass-balance approach to measure the net in-pond production of MeHg in two warm wetland ponds (Ponds 1 and 2) near Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (81° N latitude). We quantified external inputs and outputs of MeHg to and from the ponds, as well as the accumulation of MeHg in the water column during the summers of 2005 and 2008. Any changes in water column MeHg concentrations that could not be accounted for by external inputs or sinks were attributed to in-pond production. The principal external input and sink of MeHg was, respectively, wet atmospheric deposition and water-column MeHg photodemethylation. For 2005, we estimate that the net flux of MeHg from sediments into the water column was 0.015 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 1 and 0.0016 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 2. Compared to sediment-water MeHg fluxes measured in Alaskan tundra lakes (0.0015-0.0045 μg m-2 d-1), Pond 1 sediments are a greater source of MeHg while Pond 2 is similar to the Alaskan lakes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MeHg in the water column of Pond 1 (0.0061 μg m-2 d-1) was similar to the net yield of MeHg from temperate boreal wetlands (0.0005-0.006 μg m-2 d-1), demonstrating that these Arctic wetlands are important sites of MeHg production. In addition, we used mercury stable-isotope tracers to quantify methylation and

  5. Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Husby, Arild; Kotrschal, Alexander; Hayward, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zidar, Josefina; Løvlie, Hanne; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and (1) investment into other costly tissues, (2) overall metabolic rate, and (3) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing data are inconclusive. However, there are good reasons to believe that energetic limitations might play a role in large-scale patterns of brain size evolution also in ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we test these hypotheses in a group of ectothermic vertebrates, the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and confounding ecological variables, we find a negative association between brain size and gut size. Furthermore, we find that the evolution of a larger brain is accompanied by increased reproductive investment into egg size and parental care. Our results indicate that the energetic costs of encephalization may be an important general factor involved in the evolution of brain size also in ectothermic vertebrates.

  6. Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bruce J; Holmes, Robert M; McClelland, James W; Vörösmarty, Charles J; Lammers, Richard B; Shiklomanov, Alexander I; Shiklomanov, Igor A; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2002-12-13

    Synthesis of river-monitoring data reveals that the average annual discharge of fresh water from the six largest Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean increased by 7% from 1936 to 1999. The average annual rate of increase was 2.0 +/- 0.7 cubic kilometers per year. Consequently, average annual discharge from the six rivers is now about 128 cubic kilometers per year greater than it was when routine measurements of discharge began. Discharge was correlated with changes in both the North Atlantic Oscillation and global mean surface air temperature. The observed large-scale change in freshwater flux has potentially important implications for ocean circulation and climate.

  7. Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey (Arctic Eis): Marine ecosystem dynamics in the rapidly changing Pacific Arctic Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Weems, Jared; Farley, Edward V.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Arctic Marine Ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes associated with ice loss and surface warming resulting from human activities (IPCC, 2013). The most dramatic changes include an earlier ice retreat and a longer ice-free season, particularly on Arctic inflow shelves such as the Barents Sea in the Atlantic Arctic and the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea in the Pacific Arctic, the two major gateways into the Arctic (Danielson et al., 2016; Frey et al., 2015; Serreze et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2015). The retreat of Arctic sea ice has opened access to the Arctic marine environment and its resources, particularly during summer, and among other changes has brought with it increased research activities. For the Pacific Arctic region, these activities have led to several recent compendiums examining physical, biogeochemical, and biological patterns and trends in this rapidly changing environment (Arrigo, 2015, 2016; Arrigo et al., 2014; Bluhm et al., 2010; Dunton et al., 2014; Grebmeier and Maslowski, 2014; Hopcroft and Day, 2013; Moore and Stabeno, 2015).

  8. Climate-driven changes in grassland vegetation, snow cover, and lake water of the Qinghai Lake basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuelu; Liang, Tiangang; Xie, Hongjie; Huang, Xiaodong; Lin, Huilong

    2016-07-01

    Qinghai Lake basin and the lake have undergone significant changes in recent decades. We examine MODIS-derived grassland vegetation and snow cover of the Qinghai Lake basin and their relations with climate parameters during 2001 to 2010. Results show: (1) temperature and precipitation of the Qinghai Lake basin increased while evaporation decreased; (2) most of the grassland areas improved due to increased temperature and growing season precipitation; (3) weak relations between snow cover and precipitation/vegetation; (4) a significantly negative correlation between lake area and temperature (r=-0.9, p<0.05) and (5) a positive relation between lake level (lake-level difference) and temperature (precipitation). Compared with Namco Lake (located in the inner Tibetan Plateau) where the primary water source of lake level increases was the accelerated melt of glacier/perennial snow cover in the lake basin, for the Qinghai Lake, however, it was the increased precipitation. Increased precipitation explained the improvement of vegetation cover in the Qinghai Lake basin, while accelerated melt of glacier/perennial snow cover was responsible for the degradation of vegetation cover in Namco Lake basin. These results suggest different responses to the similar warming climate: improved (degraded) ecological condition and productive capacity of the Qinghai Lake basin (Namco Lake basin).

  9. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  10. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE): Examining the complex Arctic biological-climatologic-hydrologic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fundamental aspects of the complex Arctic biological-climatologic-hydrologic system remain poorly quantified. As a result, significant uncertainties exist in the carbon budget of the Arctic ecosystem. NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a currently-operational Earth Venture 1 (EV-1) mission that is examining correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems. CARVE is conducted through a series of intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission timeframe. CARVE employs a C-23 Sherpa aircraft to fly an innovative airborne remote sensing payload. This payload includes an L-band radiometer/radar system and a nadir-viewing spectrometer to deliver simultaneous measurements of land surface state variables that control gas emissions (i.e., soil moisture and inundation, freeze/thaw state, surface temperature) and total atmospheric columns of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. The aircraft payload also includes a gas analyzer that links greenhouse gas measurements directly to World Meteorological Organization standards and provide vertical profile information. CARVE measurement campaigns are scheduled regularly throughout the growing season each year to capture the seasonal variability in Arctic system carbon fluxes associated with the spring thaw, the summer drawdown, and the fall refreeze. Continuous ground-based measurements provide temporal and regional context as well as calibration for CARVE airborne measurements. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. Ultimately, CARVE will provide an integrated set of data that will provide unprecedented experimental insights into Arctic carbon cycling. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet

  11. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  12. Arctic Summer Ice Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open

  13. Oil in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    density of North Slope crude oil Is 0.89. After aging two weeks In the Arctic suimer, this density rises to about 0.95 . Hence the oil can be...the Ice. In that case, puddles form at the high points of the ice- water Interface. A third feature is the fact that crude oils are sticky, and...this section Is to develop equations which describe the boiling point distribution of crude oil as it ages on ice or water. We assume, firstly, that

  14. Lake Bonneville

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Grove Karl

    1890-01-01

    This volume is a contribution to the later physical history of the Great Basin. As a geographic province the Great Basin is characterized by a dry climate, changes of drainage, volcanic eruption, and crustal displacement. Lake Bonneville, the special theme of the volume, was a phenomenon of climate and drainage, but its complete history includes an account of contemporaneous eruption and displacement.

  15. Was the Eocene Arctic a Source Area for Exotic Plants and Mammals? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J. J.; Harrington, G. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    not found in correlative strata of either mid-latitude North America or Europe. Either the Arctic region is a source of some evolutionary novelty, or alternatively it recruited plants directly from Asia. In sum, although the Arctic was undoubtedly en route for terrestrial plants and animals dispersing across Holarctic continents during parts of the Paleogene, evidence from both the Eocene plant and vertebrate communities on Ellesmere Island indicates the Arctic must also be evaluated as a potential source area for exotic taxa.

  16. Monitoring ecosystem dynamics in an Arctic tundra ecosystem using hyperspectral reflectance and a robotic tram system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Santonu

    ) Is NDVI a good predictor for aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for plant species that are common in an arctic landscape? (4) How can cyberinfrastructure tools be developed to optimize ground-based remote sensing data collection, management and processing associated with a large scale experimental infrastructure? The Biocomplexity project experimentally manipulated the water table (drained, flooded, and control treatments) of a vegetated thaw lake basin to investigate the effects of altered hydrology on land-atmosphere carbon balance. In each experimental treatment, hyperspectral reflectance data were collected in the visible and near IR range of the spectrum using a robotic tram system that operated along a 300m tramline during the snow free growing period between June and August 2005-09. Water table depths (WTD) and soil volumetric water content were also collected along these transects. During 2005-2007, measurements were made without experimental treatments. Experimental treatments were run in 2008 and 2009, which involved water table being raised (+10cm) and lowered (-10cm) in flooding and draining treatments respectively. A new spectral index, the normalized difference surface water index (NDSWI) was developed and tested at multiple spatial and temporal scales. NDSWI uses the 460nm (blue) and 1000nm (IR) bands and was to capture surface hydrological dynamics in the study area using the robotic tram system. When applied to high spatial resolution satellite imagery, NDSWI was also able to capture changes in surface hydrology at the landscape scale. Interannual patterns of land-surface phenology (measured with the normalized difference vegetation index - NDVI) unexpectedly lacked marked differences under experimental conditions. Measurement of NDVI was, however, compromised when WTD was above ground level. NDVI and NDSWI were negatively correlated when WTD was above ground level, which held when scaled to MODIS imagery collected from satellite

  17. Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

  18. Submicron Aerosol Composition during the ARCTAS campaign: Arctic Haze, Biomass Burning, and California Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubison, M. J.; Sueper, D.; Dunlea, E.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weinheimer, A.; Knapp, D.; Dibb, J.; Schauer, E.; Diskin, G.; Sachse, G.; Anderson, B.; Thornhill, L.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Wennberg, P.; Crounse, J.

    2008-12-01

    A High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, DeCarlo et al., Anal. Chem., 2006) was deployed aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign during the spring and summer of 2008. One focus of the spring phase, operated out of Fairbanks, AK, was to investigate the composition and sources of Arctic Haze (see e.g. Quinn et al., Tellus B, 2007), a persistent pollution layer that accumulates under the stable springtime Polar High anti-cyclonic weather pattern. Results are presented comparing the sulfate-dominated composition of the Arctic Haze with observed North American pollution and biomass- burning layers. A further objective of the spring phase was to investigate halogen chemistry at the sea-ice surface. High-resolution spectra clearly show bromine in the aerosol phase in the marine boundary layer during periods of ozone depletion, and relate this to concurrent gas-phase observations aboard the DC-8. During the summer phase, operated out of Palmdale, CA and Cold Lake, Alberta, the focus was investigating pollution in California and the composition and evolution of the outflow from large-scale boreal forest fires, respectively. Using recently-developed software that enabled the AMS to sample at 1 Hz, the smoke plumes could be clearly differentiated from the background aerosol, detailed vertical profiles were measured during spiral descents and aerosol volatility was characterized with a thermodenuder. Aerosol biomass-burning markers exhibit high correlation with gas-phase fire markers for both Canadian boreal and Californian forest fires. Emission ratios and composition (e.g. inorganic species, organic O/C) are characterized for the different fires. Data from smoke plumes sampled over the extensive summer fires in California provide a contrast in emission profiles to the Canadian boreal biomass-burning aerosol. Finally, aerosol

  19. Characterization of Lake Michigan coastal lakes using zooplankton assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Goodrich, Maria L.; Murphy, Paul C.; Davis, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Zooplankton assemblages and water quality were examined bi-weekly from 17 April to 19 October 1998 in 11 northeastern Lake Michigan coastal lakes of similar origin but varied in trophic status and limnological condition. All lakes were within or adjacent to Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan. Zooplankton (principally microcrustaceans and rotifers) from triplicate Wisconsin net (80 I?m) vertical tows taken at each lake's deepest location were analyzed. Oxygen-temperature-pH-specific conductivity profiles and surface water quality were concurrently measured. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis showed small variations among sample replicates but large temporal differences. The potential use of zooplankton communities for environmental lake comparisons was evaluated by means of BIOENV (Primer 5.1) and principal component analyses. Zooplankton analyzed at the lowest identified taxonomic level yielded greatest sensitivity to limnological variation. Taxonomic and ecological aggregations of zooplankton data performed comparably, but less well than the finest taxonomic analysis. Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, and sulfate concentrations combined to give the best correlation with patterns of variation in the zooplankton data set. Principal component analysis of these variables revealed trophic status as the most influential major limnological gradient among the study lakes. Overall, zooplankton abundance was an excellent indicator of variation in trophic status.

  20. Expression patterns and organization of the hsp70 genes correlate with thermotolerance in two congener endemic amphipod species (Eulimnogammarus cyaneus and E. verrucosus) from Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Bedulina, D S; Evgen'ev, M B; Timofeyev, M A; Protopopova, M V; Garbuz, D G; Pavlichenko, V V; Luckenbach, T; Shatilina, Z M; Axenov-Gribanov, D V; Gurkov, A N; Sokolova, I M; Zatsepina, O G

    2013-03-01

    We studied various aspects of heat-shock response with special emphasis on the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) genes at various levels in two congener species of littoral endemic amphipods (Eulimnogammarus cyaneus and E. verrucosus) from Lake Baikal which show striking differences in their vertical distribution and thermal tolerance. Although both the species studied demonstrate high constitutive levels of Hsp70, the thermotolerant E. cyaneus exhibited a 5-fold higher basal level of Hsp70 proteins under normal physiological conditions (7 °C) and significantly lower induction of Hsp70 after temperature elevation compared with the more thermosensitive E. verrucosus. We isolated the hsp70 genes from both species and analysed their sequences. Two isoforms of the cytosolic Hsp70/Hsc70 proteins were detected in both species under normal physiological conditions and encoded by two distinct hsp/hsc70 family members. While both Hsp70 isoforms were synthesized without heat shock, only one of them was induced by temperature elevation. The observed differences in the Hsp70 expression patterns, including the dynamics of Hsp70 synthesis and threshold of induction, suggest that the increased thermotolerance in E. cyaneus (compared with E. verrucosus) is associated with a complex structural and functional rearrangement of the hsp70 gene family and favoured the involvement of Hsp70 in adaptation to fluctuating thermal conditions. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the thermal adaptation of Baikal amphipods and represents the first report describing the structure and function of the hsp70 genes of endemic Baikal species dwelling in thermally contrasting habitats.

  1. Seismic Investigations of Lake Ladoga (Russia) -First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastel, S.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.; Fedorov, G.

    2013-12-01

    A new joint German-Russian project aims at investigating the climatic and environmental history during Late Quaternary times along a more than 6000 km long longitudinal transect crossing northern Eurasia. For this purpose shallow and deep seismic surveys shall be carried out (from west to east) on the lakes Ladoga, Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing, Taymyr, and Emanda. Sediment cores will be taken based on the results of the seismic campaigns. The well-studied Lake El gygytgyn represents the eastern-most location of the transect and will act as reference site. In a first phase, we will investigate Lake Ladoga, which is located about 50 km east of St Petersburg. Lake Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe and covers an area of almost 18.000 km2. The modern sedimentation as well as the late glacial and Holocene history of the lake was studied in detail by the Russian Academy of Sciences Limnological Institute in St. Petersburg. The older lake history is only known from a transect drilled in the southern lake in the 1930ies. The cores of up to about 40 m length were only briefly described and are not existing any more. The results from these cores, known from unpublished reports only, show the existence of presumably marine Eemian sediments, representing the time when Ladoga Lake was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea and further to the Arcti