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  1. Organizing pneumonia: chest HRCT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Igor Murad; Zanetti, Gláucia; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Araujo-Neto, Cesar Augusto; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of HRCT findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma of patients with organizing pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the HRCT scans of 36 adult patients (26 females and 10 males) with biopsy-proven organizing pneumonia. The patients were between 19 and 82 years of age (mean age, 56.2 years). The HRCT images were evaluated by two independent observers, discordant interpretations being resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The most common HRCT finding was that of ground-glass opacities, which were seen in 88.9% of the cases. The second most common finding was consolidation (in 83.3% of cases), followed by peribronchovascular opacities (in 52.8%), reticulation (in 38.9%), bronchiectasis (in 33.3%), interstitial nodules (in 27.8%), interlobular septal thickening (in 27.8%), perilobular pattern (in 22.2%), the reversed halo sign (in 16.7%), airspace nodules (in 11.1%), and the halo sign (in 8.3%). The lesions were predominantly bilateral, the middle and lower lung fields being the areas most commonly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the most common findings, with a predominantly random distribution, although they were more common in the middle and lower thirds of the lungs. PMID:26176521

  2. Cocaine-induced pulmonary changes: HRCT findings *

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Renata Rocha; Zanetti, Gláucia; Souza, Arthur Soares; de Souza, Luciana Soares; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate HRCT scans of the chest in 22 patients with cocaine-induced pulmonary disease. Methods: We included patients between 19 and 52 years of age. The HRCT scans were evaluated by two radiologists independently, discordant results being resolved by consensus. The inclusion criterion was an HRCT scan showing abnormalities that were temporally related to cocaine use, with no other apparent causal factors. Results: In 8 patients (36.4%), the clinical and tomographic findings were consistent with "crack lung", those cases being studied separately. The major HRCT findings in that subgroup of patients included ground-glass opacities, in 100% of the cases; consolidations, in 50%; and the halo sign, in 25%. In 12.5% of the cases, smooth septal thickening, paraseptal emphysema, centrilobular nodules, and the tree-in-bud pattern were identified. Among the remaining 14 patients (63.6%), barotrauma was identified in 3 cases, presenting as pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hemopneumothorax, respectively. Talcosis, characterized as perihilar conglomerate masses, architectural distortion, and emphysema, was diagnosed in 3 patients. Other patterns were found less frequently: organizing pneumonia and bullous emphysema, in 2 patients each; and pulmonary infarction, septic embolism, eosinophilic pneumonia, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema, in 1 patient each. Conclusions: Pulmonary changes induced by cocaine use are varied and nonspecific. The diagnostic suspicion of cocaine-induced pulmonary disease depends, in most of the cases, on a careful drawing of correlations between clinical and radiological findings. PMID:26398752

  3. The halo sign: HRCT findings in 85 patients

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Watte, Guilherme; Pasqualotto, Alessandro Comarú; Severo, Luiz Carlos; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The halo sign consists of an area of ground-glass opacity surrounding pulmonary lesions on chest CT scans. We compared immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients in terms of halo sign features and sought to identify those of greatest diagnostic value. Methods: This was a retrospective study of CT scans performed at any of seven centers between January of 2011 and May of 2015. Patients were classified according to their immune status. Two thoracic radiologists reviewed the scans in order to determine the number of lesions, as well as their distribution, size, and contour, together with halo thickness and any other associated findings. Results: Of the 85 patients evaluated, 53 were immunocompetent and 32 were immunosuppressed. Of the 53 immunocompetent patients, 34 (64%) were diagnosed with primary neoplasm. Of the 32 immunosuppressed patients, 25 (78%) were diagnosed with aspergillosis. Multiple and randomly distributed lesions were more common in the immunosuppressed patients than in the immunocompetent patients (p < 0.001 for both). Halo thickness was found to be greater in the immunosuppressed patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Etiologies of the halo sign differ markedly between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Although thicker halos are more likely to occur in patients with infectious diseases, the number and distribution of lesions should also be taken into account when evaluating patients presenting with the halo sign. PMID:28117474

  4. Apollo experience report: The AN/ARD-17 direction finding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. R.; Middleton, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    This report contains a statement of the operational philosophy and requirements leading to the development of the AN/ARD-17 direction-finding system. The technical problems encountered and the solutions devised in the AN/ARD-17 development are discussed. An evaluation of the system under actual operational conditions is included.

  5. Living with ARDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With ARDS Some people fully recover from ARDS. Others continue to have health problems. After you ... of breath. After treatment, many people who have ARDS recover close-to-normal lung function within 6 ...

  6. Aluminosis – Detection of an almost forgotten disease with HRCT

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Thomas; Schaller, Karl Heinz; Angerer, Jürgen; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Letzel, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to detect high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in aluminium powder workers, which are consistent with early stages of aluminosis. 62 male workers from 8 departments of two plants producing aluminium (Al) powder were investigated using a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, lung function analysis, biological monitoring of Al in plasma and urine, chest X-ray, HRCT and immunological tests. Chronic bronchitis was observed in 15 (24.2%) of the workers, and four workers (6.5%) reported shortness of breath during exercise. HRCT findings in 15 workers (24.2%) were characterized by ill-defined centrilobular nodular opacities. Workers with ill-defined centrilobular nodular opacities had a lower vital capacity than workers who had no such HRCT-findings (90.9 % pred. vs. 101.8 % pred., p = 0.01). Biological monitoring in plasma and urine revealed higher internal exposure to Al in affected workers (33.5 μg/l plasma to 15.4 μg/l plasma, p = 0.01) and (340.5 μg/g creat. to 135.1 μg/g creat., p = 0.007). Years of exposure and concentration of aluminum in urine and plasma appear to be the best predictors for HRCT findings. Age and decreased vital capacity show borderline significance. We conclude that aluminosis is still relevant in occupational medicine. With HRCT it is possible to detect early stages of aluminosis and biological monitoring can be used to define workers at high risk. PMID:16722569

  7. ARDS User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Personal computers (PCs) are now used extensively for engineering analysis. their capability exceeds that of mainframe computers of only a few years ago. Programs originally written for mainframes have been ported to PCs to make their use easier. One of these programs is ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) which was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) by Nelson et al. to quickly and accurately analyze rotor steady state and transient response using the method of component mode synthesis. The original ARDS program was ported to the PC in 1995. Several extensions were made at ASU to increase the capability of mainframe ARDS. These extensions have also been incorporated into the PC version of ARDS. Each mainframe extension had its own user manual generally covering only that extension. Thus to exploit the full capability of ARDS required a large set of user manuals. Moreover, necessary changes and enhancements for PC ARDS were undocumented. The present document is intended to remedy those problems by combining all pertinent information needed for the use of PC ARDS into one volume.

  8. Obesity and ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mary; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to increase globally, with figures exceeding 30% of some populations. Patients who are obese experience alterations in baseline pulmonary mechanics, including airflow obstruction, decreased lung volumes, and impaired gas exchange. These physiologic changes have implications in many diseases, including ARDS. The unique physiology of patients who are obese affects the presentation and pathophysiology of ARDS, and patients who are obese who have respiratory failure present specific management challenges. Although more study is forthcoming, ventilator strategies that focus on transpulmonary pressure as a measure of lung stress show promise in pilot studies. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and the variable effects of obesity on respiratory mechanics and ARDS pathophysiology, we recommend an individualized approach to the management of the obese patient with ARDS. PMID:22948584

  9. How Is ARDS Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that help relieve symptoms, prevent complications, or improve quality of life. Supportive approaches used to treat ARDS include: Medicines to help you relax, relieve discomfort, and treat pain. Ongoing monitoring of heart and lung function (including blood pressure ...

  10. Creating virtual ARDS patients.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup; Haque, Mainul; Chikhani, Marc; Wenfei Wang; Hardman, Jonathan G; Bates, Declan G

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in patient-specific calibration of a novel highly integrated model of the cardiovascular and pulmonary pathophysiology associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). We focus on data from previously published clinical trials on the static and dynamic cardio-pulmonary responses of three ARDS patients to changes in ventilator settings. From this data, the parameters of the integrated model were identified using an optimization-based methodology in multiple stages. Computational simulations confirm that the resulting model outputs accurately reproduce the available clinical data. Our results open up the possibility of creating in silico a biobank of virtual ARDS patients that could be used to evaluate current, and investigate novel, therapeutic strategies.

  11. Comparative analysis of preoperative diagnostic values of HRCT and CBCT in patients with histologically diagnosed otosclerotic stapes footplates.

    PubMed

    Révész, Péter; Liktor, Balázs; Liktor, Bálint; Sziklai, István; Gerlinger, Imre; Karosi, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    This prospective case review was performed with the aim to compare and asses the diagnostic values of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the preoperative evaluation of otosclerosis. A total of 43 patients with histologically confirmed stapedial otosclerosis, who underwent unilateral stapedectomies were analyzed. Preoperative temporal bone CBCT and HRCT scans were performed in all cases. Both CBCT and HRCT imaging were characterized by a slice thickness of 0.4-0.625 mm and multiplanar image reconstruction. Histopathologic examination of the removed stapes footplates was performed in all cases. Findings of CBCT and HRCT were categorized according to the modified Marshall's grading system (fenestral or retrofenestral lesions). Histopathologic results were correlated with multiplanar reconstructed CBCT and HRCT scans, respectively. Negative control groups for CBCT (n = 36) and HRCT (n = 27) examinations consisted of patients, who underwent CBCT imaging due to various dental disorders or HRCT analysis due to idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Histologically active foci of otosclerosis (n = 31, 72 %) were identified by both CBCT and HRCT in all cases with a sensitivity of 100 %. However, CBCT could not detect histologically inactive otosclerosis (n = 12, 23 %; sensitivity 0 %). In contrast, HRCT showed inactive otosclerosis with a sensitivity of 59.3 %. According to CBCT results, no retrofenestral lesions were found and the overall sensitivity for hypodense lesions was 61.37 %. In conclusion, CBCT is a robust imaging method in the detection of histologically active fenestral hypodense foci of otosclerosis with high sensitivity and radiologic specificity. In the light of these results, HRCT still remains the basic imaging method in the preoperative diagnosis of otosclerosis, since it has much greater sensitivity and specificity in the detection of retrofenestral hypodense lesions and histologically inactive

  12. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  13. Plasmid pKM101 encodes two nonhomologous antirestriction proteins (ArdA and ArdB) whose expression is controlled by homologous regulatory sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Belogurov, A A; Delver, E P; Rodzevich, O V

    1993-01-01

    The IncN plasmid pKM101 (a derivative of R46) encodes the antirestriction protein ArdB (alleviation of restriction of DNA) in addition to another antirestriction protein, ArdA, described previously. The relevant gene, ardB, was located in the leading region of pKM101, about 7 kb from oriT. The nucleotide sequence of ardB was determined, and an appropriate polypeptide was identified in maxicells of Escherichia coli. Like ArdA, ArdB efficiently inhibits restriction by members of the three known families of type I systems of E. coli and only slightly affects the type II enzyme, EcoRI. However, in contrast to ArdA, ArdB is ineffective against the modification activity of the type I (EcoK) system. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of ArdA and ArdB revealed only one small region of similarity (nine residues), suggesting that this region may be somehow involved in the interaction with the type I restriction systems. We also found that the expression of both ardA and ardB genes is controlled jointly by two pKM101-encoded proteins, ArdK and ArdR, with molecular weights of about 15,000 and 20,000, respectively. The finding that the sequences immediately upstream of ardA and ardB share about 94% identity over 218 bp suggests that their expression may be controlled by ArdK and ArdR at the transcriptional level. Deletion studies and promoter probe analysis of these sequences revealed the regions responsible for the action of ArdK and ArdR as regulatory proteins. We propose that both types of antirestriction proteins may play a pivotal role in overcoming the host restriction barrier by self-transmissible broad-host-range plasmids. It seems likely that the ardKR-dependent regulatory system serves in this case as a genetic switch that controls the expression of plasmid-encoded antirestriction functions during mating. Images PMID:8393008

  14. Role of HRCT Chest in Post Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Suspected of Pulmonary Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R Ravi; Sharma, Ajay; Pannu, S K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stem cell transplantation is today’s procedure of choice for management of various hematopoietic malignant and severe immunogenic disorders. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a common technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary complications in stem cell transplant recipients. There are a large number of complications which can complicate the post-transplant period. Aim To study the role of HRCT chest in stem cell transplant patients developing pulmonary complications, detect any evidence of infection, detect clinical signs of lung infections, Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) or other regimen related toxicities outlined earlier, detect any evidence of GvHD and correlate these clinical signs with radiological changes in the lungs. Materials and Methods The study was a prospective study of 52 participants with indication of stem cell transplantation. The study included recipients of HSCT transplant and the exclusion criteria was patients who failed for engraftment and having an associated history of pulmonary embolism. Patients were screened for pre-transplant chemotherapy, clinical examination, laboratory investigations including blood and biochemical examinations, imaging by ultrasound, chest radiography, baseline HRCT and a follow-up for post-transplant infections and complications with 16 slice Siemens CT scan. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results Four patients among the total 56 were excluded due to non-engraftment. The most common associated findings in decreasing order are (these patients died): consolidation, pancytopenia and gastrointestinal tract symptoms with VOD (Veno-Occlusive Disease). These findings were seen on HRCT as consolidation, cavities, ground glass opacities, fibrotic changes, bronchiectatic changes and tree in bud appearance. Conclusion The study highlights the significant positive findings on the HRCT which were missed on routine chest radiograph and can be used for early diagnoses

  15. Diagnostic workup for ARDS patients.

    PubMed

    Papazian, Laurent; Calfee, Carolyn S; Chiumello, Davide; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Meyer, Nuala J; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Matthay, Michael A; Meduri, Gianfranco Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by the association of bilateral infiltrates and hypoxaemia following an initial insult. Although a new definition has been recently proposed (Berlin definition), there are various forms of ARDS with potential differences regarding their management (ventilator settings, prone positioning use, corticosteroids). ARDS can be caused by various aetiologies, and the adequate treatment of the responsible cause is crucial to improve the outcome. It is of paramount importance to characterize the mechanisms causing lung injury to optimize both the aetiological treatment and the symptomatic treatment. If there is no obvious cause of ARDS or if a direct lung injury is suspected, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) should be strongly considered to identify microorganisms responsible for pneumonia. Blood samples can also help to identify microorganisms and to evaluate biomarkers of infection. If there is no infectious cause of ARDS or no other apparent aetiology is found, second-line examinations should include markers of immunologic diseases. In selected cases, open lung biopsy remains useful to identify the cause of ARDS when all other examinations remain inconclusive. CT scan is fundamental when there is a suspicion of intra-abdominal sepsis and in some cases of pneumonia. Ultrasonography is important not only in evaluating biventricular function but also in identifying pleural effusions and pneumothorax. The definition of ARDS remains clinical and the main objective of the diagnostic workup should be to be focused on identification of its aetiology, especially a treatable infection.

  16. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... Therapy Pleurisy and Other Pleural ... underlying cause of ARDS, associated illnesses, and other factors. Some people who survive ...

  17. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, Benjamin E; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children.

  18. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Orwoll, Benjamin E.; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children. PMID:27313995

  19. Profiling of ARDS Pulmonary Edema Fluid Identifies a Metabolically Distinct Subset.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Angela J; Contrepois, Kevin; Wu, Manhong; Zheng, Ming; Peltz, Gary; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2017-03-03

    There is considerable biologic and physiologic heterogeneity among patients who meet standard clinical criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there exists a sub-group of ARDS patients who exhibit a metabolically distinct profile. We examined undiluted pulmonary edema fluid obtained at the time of endotracheal intubation from 16 clinically phenotyped ARDS patients and 13 control patients with hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Non-targeted metabolic profiling was carried out on the undiluted edema fluid. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses including principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were conducted to find discriminant metabolites. 760 unique metabolites were identified in the pulmonary edema fluid of these 29 patients. We found that a subset of ARDS patients (6/16, 38%) presented a distinct metabolic profile with the overrepresentation of 235 metabolites compared to edema fluid from the other 10 ARDS patients, whose edema fluid metabolic profile was indistinguishable from those of the 13 control patients with hydrostatic edema. This "high metabolite" endotype was characterized by higher concentrations of metabolites belonging to all of the main metabolic classes including lipids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. This distinct group with high metabolite levels in the edema fluid was also associated with a higher mortality rate. Thus, metabolic profiling of the edema fluid of ARDS patients supports the hypothesis that there is considerable biologic heterogeneity among ARDS patients who meet standard clinical and physiologic criteria for ARDS.

  20. Phosphorylation of ARD1 by IKK{beta} contributes to its destabilization and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Lee, Dung-Fang; Xia, Weiya; Lai, Chien-Chen; Li, Long-Yuan; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2009-11-06

    I{kappa}B kinase {beta} (IKK{beta}), a major kinase downstream of various proinflammatory signals, mediates multiple cellular functions through phosphorylation and regulation of its substrates. On the basis of protein sequence analysis, we identified arrest-defective protein 1 (ARD1), a protein involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation processes in many human cancer cells, as a new IKK{beta} substrate. We provided evidence showing that ARD1 is indeed a bona fide substrate of IKK{beta}. IKK{beta} physically associated with ARD1 and phosphorylated it at Ser209. Phosphorylation by IKK{beta} destabilized ARD1 and induced its proteasome-mediated degradation. Impaired growth suppression was observed in ARD1 phosphorylation-mimic mutant (S209E)-transfected cells as compared with ARD1 non-phosphorylatable mutant (S209A)-transfected cells. Our findings of molecular interactions between ARD1 and IKK{beta} may enable further understanding of the upstream regulation mechanisms of ARD1 and of the diverse functions of IKK{beta}.

  1. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Miller, Christopher N.; Deitchman, Andrew R.; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25742126

  2. Imaging Modality of Choice for Pre-Operative Cochlear Imaging: HRCT vs. MRI Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Rajendra N.; Shah, Dipali C.; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital inner ear malformations occur as a result of the arrest or aberrance of inner ear development due to the heredity, gene mutation or other factors. Ever since the availability of cochlear implants, pre-operative evaluation by imaging of temporal bone has gained much attention. Precise selection of the candidate for cochlear implant dependent on preoperative radiological investigations. Only CT (Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) can provide a better picture of anatomy and pathology. Aim To compare pre-operative imaging findings of both MRI and High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) temporal bone and to find the best modality of choice in patients with bilateral profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL). Materials and Methods This was a prospective, longitudinal, observational study conducted between June 2010 to November 2012. A total of 144 temporal bones were evaluated in 72 children with bilateral profound SNHL with congenital inner ear malformations. Each temporal bone was considered as a single case (144 cases). All the patients underwent HRCT and high field MRI study. MRI study included T2 W axial 3D FIESTA (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition) sequence. Anatomic abnormalities in each temporal bone were described and noted. For complete and better evaluation of Vestibulo-Cochlear Nerve (VCN) additional 3D oblique parasagittal view was taken perpendicular to the internal auditory canal with a small Field Of View (FOV). Results HRCT and MRI allowed accurate detection of inner ear malformations in children with bilateral SNHL. Majority of the patients presented with multiple structural abnormalities of inner ear. The common pathologies detected in the study were semicircular canal abnormality (89/144) followed by cochlear abnormalities (39/144). Most common cochlear abnormality was Mondini’s deformity (14/144). MRI demonstrated absent of vestibulo-cochlear nerve in 15 cases. Conclusion Few

  3. ARDS following inhalation of hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Bansal, D P; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Radhika, P; Sharma, Manish

    2011-02-01

    The clinical spectrum of Inhalation injury can range from mild cough to a devastating ARDS. We herewith present a patient who is a goldsmith by occupation and his work consists of dissolving gold in Hydrochloric acid. He had accidentally inhaled fumes of Hydrochloric acid and presented with cough and breathlessness, later on required mechanical ventilation for ARDS and improved. This highlights the importance of not to neglect mild symptoms like cough and dyspnea in such a scenario which may have some hidden catastrophe.

  4. Serum ACE Level in Sarcoidosis Patients with Typical and Atypical HRCT Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Kahkouee, Shahram; Samadi, Katayoon; Alai, Ali; Abedini, Atefeh; Rezaiian, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs. Before widespread use of computed tomography (CT), the severity of sarcoidosis was assessed based on chest X-ray abnormalities. HRCT can distinguish between active inflammatory changes and irreversible fibrosis. In this study, we analyzed different ACE levels in 148 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Material/Methods We categorized these patients based on their HRCT results into four groups: 1) patients diagnosed with chronic disease; 2) patients diagnosed with non-chronic disease; 3) patients who exhibited typical HRCT changes; and 4) patients who exhibited atypical HRCT changes. Afterward the mean ACE level of each group was calculated and compared. Result The HRCT scans of chronic sarcoidosis patients tended to show more atypical sarcoidosis patterns. Moreover, there was a reverse correlation between chronicity and ACE level (P-value <0.05). Conclusions HRCT is another modality which would be useful when the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is not definite. PMID:27733890

  5. Failure of statins in ARDS: the quest for the Holy Grail continues.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, David; Durand, Arthur; Gleeson, James; Taccone, Fabio S

    2016-11-01

    Experimental and clinical observational studies have shown potential benefits of statin administration in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by modulating inflammation and preventing worsening respiratory function. More recently, two randomized clinical trials failed to demonstrate an improved survival of ARDS patients treated with statins. In the first study, conducted by the ARDS Network, 745 patients with sepsis‑associated ARDS were randomized within 48-hours of onset to receive either rosuvastatin or placebo. There was no significant difference between the rosuvastatin and placebo groups for hospital mortality (primary outcome, 29% vs. 25%, P=0.21) or ventilator‑free days (15±11 vs. 15±11, respectively; P=0.96). In rosuvastatin‑treated patients, renal and hepatic failure free‑days were significantly lower than in the placebo group, raising serious safety concerns. In the second study (HARP-2 trial), 540 patients with ARDS were randomized within 48-hours of onset to receive either simvastatin (80 mg/day) or placebo. There was no significant difference between the study groups for number of ventilator‑free days (primary outcome, 13±10 in the simvastatin vs. 12±10 in the placebo group, P=0.21) or 28-day mortality (22% vs. 27%, respectively; P=0.23). No significant difference in serious adverse events was reported between groups. Herein, we discuss the main reasons for these negative findings and consider where there could be a role for statins in ARDS patients.

  6. The HRCT features of extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Thomas E

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to organic dusts can produce an immune-mediated inflammatory response in sensitized individuals. The pulmonary disease caused by this response has been called extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The clinical phases associated with this process have been termed acute, subacute, and chronic. There are corresponding imaging findings that are characteristic of each of these phases, although there is some overlap between the phases. The acute phase is characterized by confluent opacities that may mimic infection or edema. The subacute phase is characterized by centrilobular nodules, areas of ground-glass attenuation, a mosaic perfusion pattern, and air trapping on expiratory imaging. The chronic phase is characterized by subpleural irregular linear opacities with associated architectural distortion. Honeycombing may sometimes also be present. In the acute and subacute phases, the disease is predominantly in the lower lungs, whereas in chronic EAA the findings are predominant in the mid to upper lungs. Although the high-resolution computed tomography findings individually are nonspecific, the combination of the findings coupled with the distribution of the findings can often narrow the differential or allow a presumptive diagnosis of EAA to be made.

  7. A genome-wide expression analysis in blood identifies pre-elafin as a biomarker in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Beach, Douglas; Su, Li; Zhai, Rihong; Christiani, David C

    2008-06-01

    Previous microarray-based studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were performed using various models to mimic disease pathogenesis. The complexity of the pathophysiologic response to direct or indirect lung injury in ARDS is difficult to reconstruct in experimental conditions. Thus, direct analysis of ARDS patient blood may provide valuable information. We investigated genome-wide gene expression profiles in paired whole blood samples from patients with ARDS (n = 8) during the acute stage (within 3 d of diagnosis) and recovery stage of ARDS (around ICU discharge). Among 126 differentially expressed genes, peptidase inhibitor 3 (PI3, encoding elafin, a potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor) had the largest fold-change (-3-fold changes, acute stage/recovery stage) in expression, indicating down-regulation during the acute stage of ARDS. We further examined plasma PI3 levels in 40 patients with ARDS and 23 at-risk control subjects from the same cohort. There was a coincidence of the microarray findings of lower PI3 gene expression with the lower plasma PI3 during the acute-stage. The plasma PI3 levels were statistically significant different among pre-diagnosis, day of diagnosis, and post-diagnosis groups (ANOVA, P = 0.001), with a trend of decreasing from pre- to post-diagnosis group. The time course of plasma PI3 decrease is well correlated with the course of early ARDS development (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.52, P = 0.0006). Considering that PI3 can covalently binding to extracellular matrix in lung, circulating PI3 may provide a useful clinical marker for monitoring the early development of ARDS and may have implications for ARDS treatment.

  8. A Genome-Wide Expression Analysis in Blood Identifies Pre-Elafin as a Biomarker in ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Beach, Douglas; Su, Li; Zhai, Rihong; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Previous microarray-based studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were performed using various models to mimic disease pathogenesis. The complexity of the pathophysiologic response to direct or indirect lung injury in ARDS is difficult to reconstruct in experimental conditions. Thus, direct analysis of ARDS patient blood may provide valuable information. We investigated genome-wide gene expression profiles in paired whole blood samples from patients with ARDS (n = 8) during the acute stage (within 3 d of diagnosis) and recovery stage of ARDS (around ICU discharge). Among 126 differentially expressed genes, peptidase inhibitor 3 (PI3, encoding elafin, a potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor) had the largest fold-change (−3-fold changes, acute stage/recovery stage) in expression, indicating down-regulation during the acute stage of ARDS. We further examined plasma PI3 levels in 40 patients with ARDS and 23 at-risk control subjects from the same cohort. There was a coincidence of the microarray findings of lower PI3 gene expression with the lower plasma PI3 during the acute-stage. The plasma PI3 levels were statistically significant different among pre-diagnosis, day of diagnosis, and post-diagnosis groups (ANOVA, P = 0.001), with a trend of decreasing from pre- to post-diagnosis group. The time course of plasma PI3 decrease is well correlated with the course of early ARDS development (Pearson correlation coefficient: −0.52, P = 0.0006). Considering that PI3 can covalently binding to extracellular matrix in lung, circulating PI3 may provide a useful clinical marker for monitoring the early development of ARDS and may have implications for ARDS treatment. PMID:18203972

  9. Segmentation of interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Jatindra K.; Madhavi, Vaddepalli; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kumar, Prafulla

    2015-03-01

    Automated segmentation of pathological bearing region is the first step towards the development of lung CAD. Most of the work reported in the literature related to automated analysis of lung tissue aims towards classification of fixed sized block into one of the classes. This block level classification of lung tissues in the image never results in accurate or smooth boundaries between different regions. In this work, effort is taken to investigate the performance of three automated image segmentation algorithms those results in smooth boundaries among lung tissue patterns commonly encountered in HRCT images of the thorax. A public database that consists of HRCT images taken from patients affected with Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) is used for the evaluation. The algorithms considered are Markov Random Field (MRF), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Mean Shift (MS). 2-fold cross validation approach is followed for the selection of the best parameter value for individual algorithm as well as to evaluate the performance of all the algorithms. Mean shift algorithm is observed as the best performer in terms of Jaccard Index, Modified Hausdorff Distance, accuracy, Dice Similarity Coefficient and execution speed.

  10. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo; Bolgiaghi, Luca; Chiumello, Davide

    2016-12-29

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination) should be taken into account.

  11. Current Concepts of ARDS: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Umbrello, Michele; Formenti, Paolo; Bolgiaghi, Luca; Chiumello, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented. Therapeutic approaches to ARDS, including lung protective ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, corticosteroids and recruitment manoeuvres will be reviewed. We will underline how a holistic framework of respiratory and hemodynamic support should be provided to patients with ARDS, aiming to ensure adequate gas exchange by promoting lung recruitment while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. To do so, lung recruitability should be considered, as well as the avoidance of lung overstress by monitoring transpulmonary pressure or airway driving pressure. In the most severe cases, neuromuscular blockade, prone positioning, and extra-corporeal life support (alone or in combination) should be taken into account. PMID:28036088

  12. [The value of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis of deep forms of parodontitis].

    PubMed

    Schüller, H; Jervøe-Storm, P M; Frentzen, M

    1993-10-01

    It is difficult to demonstrate the extent of parodontal bone erosions with conventional radiographic techniques. HRCT makes it possible to demonstrate the alveolar structures without superimposition. 10 patients with parodontitis marginalis profunda were examined by conventional methods and HRCT. Comparison showed considerable superiority of HRCT in respect of demonstrating bone destruction. The absence of superimposition produces excellent demonstration of the roots and shows the bifurcation and trifurcation of teeth; consequently, mapping the position and shape of the root canals is possible and this is an important aid in the planning of parodontal surgical treatment.

  13. Antirestriction protein Ard (Type C) encoded by IncW plasmid pSa has a high similarity to the "protein transport" domain of TraC1 primase of promiscuous plasmid RP4.

    PubMed

    Belogurov, A A; Delver, E P; Agafonova, O V; Belogurova, N G; Lee, L Y; Kado, C I

    2000-03-03

    The IncW plasmid pSa contains the gene ard encoding an antirestriction function that is specific for type I restriction and modification systems. The nucleotide sequence of ard was determined and an appropriate polypeptide of about 33 kDa was identified in Escherichia coli T7 expression system. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence of Ard encoded by pSa revealed that this protein has no significant similarities with the known Ard proteins (ArdA and ArdB types) except the "antirestriction" motif (14 amino acid residues in length) conserved for all known Ard proteins. This finding suggests that pSa Ard may be classified as a new type of Ard proteins which we designated ArdC. The remarkable feature of ArdC is that it has a high degree of similarity (about 38 % identity) to the N-terminal region of RP4 TraC1 primase which includes about 300 amino acid residues and seems to be essential for binding to the single-stranded DNA and TraC1 protein transport to the recipient cells during the conjugal transfer of plasmid DNA. ArdC also binds to single-stranded DNA. In addition, this protein is able in vitro to protect the single-stranded but not double-stranded plasmid DNA against the activity of type II restriction endonuclease HhaI that cleaves both single and double-stranded DNA. We suggest that like TraC1, ArdC would be transported as a result of their interaction with the single-stranded DNA of transferred plasmid strand during conjugative passage through the cell envelope to the recipient bacterium. Such properties of ArdC protein might be useful to protect immediately the incoming single-stranded DNA from the host endonucleases.

  14. Applying metabolomics to uncover novel biology in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Angela J; Matthay, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of the pathogenesis and the resolution of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is needed. Although some progress has been made with the use of protein biomarkers and candidate gene studies in understanding the pathobiology of ARDS, we propose that new studies that measure the chemical breakdown products of cellular metabolism (metabolomics) may provide new insights into ARDS, in part because metabolomics targets a later point in the genomics cascade than is possible with studies of DNA, RNA, and protein biomarkers. Technological advances have made large-scale metabolomic profiling increasingly feasible. Metabolomic approaches have already achieved novel insights in nonpulmonary diseases such as diabetes mellitus and malignancy, as well as in sepsis, a major risk factor for developing ARDS. Metabolomic profiling is a promising approach to identify novel pathways in both patients at risk for developing ARDS as well as in the early phase of established ARDS.

  15. Identification of a novel antimicrobial peptide from human hepatitis B virus core protein arginine-rich domain (ARD).

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Li; Su, Pei-Yi; Chang, Ya-Shu; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, You-Di; Yu, Hui-Ming; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Chang, Kaichih; Shih, Chiaho

    2013-01-01

    The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens causes an increasing challenge to public health. Antimicrobial peptides are considered a possible solution to this problem. HBV core protein (HBc) contains an arginine-rich domain (ARD) at its C-terminus, which consists of 16 arginine residues separated into four clusters (ARD I to IV). In this study, we demonstrated that the peptide containing the full-length ARD I-IV (HBc147-183) has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at micro-molar concentrations, including some MDR and colistin (polymyxin E)-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Furthermore, confocal fluorescence microscopy and SYTOX Green uptake assay indicated that this peptide killed Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by membrane permeabilization or DNA binding. In addition, peptide ARD II-IV (HBc153-176) and ARD I-III (HBc147-167) were found to be necessary and sufficient for the activity against P. aeruginosa and K. peumoniae. The antimicrobial activity of HBc ARD peptides can be attenuated by the addition of LPS. HBc ARD peptide was shown to be capable of direct binding to the Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in several in vitro binding assays. Peptide ARD I-IV (HBc147-183) had no detectable cytotoxicity in various tissue culture systems and a mouse animal model. In the mouse model by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus, timely treatment by i.p. injection with ARD peptide resulted in 100-fold reduction of bacteria load in blood, liver and spleen, as well as 100% protection of inoculated animals from death. If peptide was injected when bacterial load in the blood reached its peak, the protection rate dropped to 40%. Similar results were observed in K. peumoniae using an IVIS imaging system. The finding of anti-microbial HBc ARD is discussed in the context of commensal gut microbiota, development of intrahepatic anti-viral immunity and establishment of chronic infection with HBV. Our current results suggested that HBc ARD

  16. Identification of a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from Human Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Arginine-Rich Domain (ARD)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng-Li; Su, Pei-Yi; Chang, Ya-Shu; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, You-Di; Yu, Hui-Ming; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Chang, Kaichih; Shih, Chiaho

    2013-01-01

    The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens causes an increasing challenge to public health. Antimicrobial peptides are considered a possible solution to this problem. HBV core protein (HBc) contains an arginine-rich domain (ARD) at its C-terminus, which consists of 16 arginine residues separated into four clusters (ARD I to IV). In this study, we demonstrated that the peptide containing the full-length ARD I–IV (HBc147-183) has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at micro-molar concentrations, including some MDR and colistin (polymyxin E)-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Furthermore, confocal fluorescence microscopy and SYTOX Green uptake assay indicated that this peptide killed Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by membrane permeabilization or DNA binding. In addition, peptide ARD II–IV (HBc153-176) and ARD I–III (HBc147-167) were found to be necessary and sufficient for the activity against P. aeruginosa and K. peumoniae. The antimicrobial activity of HBc ARD peptides can be attenuated by the addition of LPS. HBc ARD peptide was shown to be capable of direct binding to the Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in several in vitro binding assays. Peptide ARD I–IV (HBc147-183) had no detectable cytotoxicity in various tissue culture systems and a mouse animal model. In the mouse model by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus, timely treatment by i.p. injection with ARD peptide resulted in 100-fold reduction of bacteria load in blood, liver and spleen, as well as 100% protection of inoculated animals from death. If peptide was injected when bacterial load in the blood reached its peak, the protection rate dropped to 40%. Similar results were observed in K. peumoniae using an IVIS imaging system. The finding of anti-microbial HBc ARD is discussed in the context of commensal gut microbiota, development of intrahepatic anti-viral immunity and establishment of chronic infection with HBV. Our current results suggested that

  17. Evidence for chemokine synergy during neutrophil migration in ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew E; José, Ricardo J; Mercer, Paul F; Brealey, David; Parekh, Dhruv; Thickett, David R; O'Kane, Cecelia; McAuley, Danny F; Chambers, Rachel C

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterised by pulmonary oedema, respiratory failure and severe inflammation. ARDS is further characterised by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung interstitium and alveolar space. Objectives The factors that regulate neutrophil infiltration into the inflamed lung and our understanding of the pathomechanisms in ARDS remain incomplete. This study aimed at determining the role of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and CCL7 in ARDS. Methods CCL2 and CCL7 protein levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-challenged human volunteers and two separate cohorts of patients with ARDS. Neutrophil chemotaxis to ARDS BAL fluid was evaluated and the contribution of each was assessed and compared with chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8). Chemokine receptor expression on neutrophils from blood or BAL fluid of patients with ARDS was analysed by flow cytometry. Results CCL2 and CCL7 were significantly elevated in BAL fluid recovered from LPS-challenged volunteers and patients with ARDS. BAL fluid from patients with ARDS was highly chemotactic for human neutrophils and neutralising either CCL2 or CCL7 attenuated the neutrophil chemotactic response. Moreover, CCL2 and CCL7 synergised with CXCL8 to promote neutrophil migration. Furthermore, neutrophils isolated from the blood or BAL fluid differentially regulated the cell surface expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 during ARDS. Conclusion This study highlights important inflammatory chemokines involved in regulating neutrophil migration, which may have potential value as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ARDS. PMID:27496101

  18. A support vector machine classifier reduces interscanner variation in the HRCT classification of regional disease pattern in diffuse lung disease: Comparison to a Bayesian classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yongjun; Lim, Jonghyuck; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lynch, David A.

    2013-05-15

    integrated ROI data obtained from both scanners, the classification accuracies with the SVM and Bayesian classifiers were 92% and 77%, respectively. The selected features resulting from the classification process differed by scanner, with more features included for the classification of the integrated HRCT data than for the classification of the HRCT data from each scanner. For the integrated data, consisting of HRCT images of both scanners, the classification accuracy based on the SVM was statistically similar to the accuracy of the data obtained from each scanner. However, the classification accuracy of the integrated data using the Bayesian classifier was significantly lower than the classification accuracy of the ROI data of each scanner. Conclusions: The use of an integrated dataset along with a SVM classifier rather than a Bayesian classifier has benefits in terms of the classification accuracy of HRCT images acquired with more than one scanner. This finding is of relevance in studies involving large number of images, as is the case in a multicenter trial with different scanners.

  19. Construction and management of ARDS/sepsis registry with REDCap

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaoqing; Kozlowski, Natascha; Wu, Sulong; Jiang, Mei; Huang, Yongbo; Mao, Pu; Liu, Xiaoqing; He, Weiqun; Huang, Chaoyi; Zhang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to construct and manage an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)/sepsis registry that can be used for data warehousing and clinical research. Methods The workflow methodology and software solution of research electronic data capture (REDCap) was used to construct the ARDS/sepsis registry. Clinical data from ARDS and sepsis patients registered to the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital formed the registry. These data were converted to the electronic case report form (eCRF) format used in REDCap by trained medical staff. Data validation, quality control, and database management were conducted to ensure data integrity. Results The clinical data of 67 patients registered to the ICU between June 2013 and December 2013 were analyzed. Of the 67 patients, 45 (67.2%) were classified as sepsis, 14 (20.9%) as ARDS, and eight (11.9%) as sepsis-associated ARDS. The patients’ information, comprising demographic characteristics, medical history, clinical interventions, daily assessment, clinical outcome, and follow-up data, was properly managed and safely stored in the ARDS/sepsis registry. Data efficiency was guaranteed by performing data collection and data entry twice weekly and every two weeks, respectively. Conclusions The ARDS/sepsis database that we constructed and manage with REDCap in the ICU can provide a solid foundation for translational research on the clinical data of interest, and a model for development of other medical registries in the future. PMID:25276372

  20. An experimental study on the impacts of inspiratory and expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Du, Juan; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Rongchang

    2017-01-01

    In spite of intensive investigations, the role of spontaneous breathing (SB) activity in ARDS has not been well defined yet and little has been known about the different contribution of inspiratory or expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS. In present study, oleic acid-induced beagle dogs’ ARDS models were employed and ventilated with the same level of mean airway pressure. Respiratory mechanics, lung volume, gas exchange and inflammatory cytokines were measured during mechanical ventilation, and lung injury was determined histologically. As a result, for the comparable ventilator setting, preserved inspiratory muscles activity groups resulted in higher end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and oxygenation index. In addition, less lung damage scores and lower levels of system inflammatory cytokines were revealed after 8 h of ventilation. In comparison, preserved expiratory muscles activity groups resulted in lower EELV and oxygenation index. Moreover, higher lung injury scores and inflammatory cytokines levels were observed after 8 h of ventilation. Our findings suggest that the activity of inspiratory muscles has beneficial effects, whereas that of expiratory muscles exerts adverse effects during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model. Therefore, for mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS, the demands for deep sedation or paralysis might be replaced by the strategy of expiratory muscles paralysis through epidural anesthesia. PMID:28230150

  1. An experimental study on the impacts of inspiratory and expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Du, Juan; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Rongchang

    2017-02-23

    In spite of intensive investigations, the role of spontaneous breathing (SB) activity in ARDS has not been well defined yet and little has been known about the different contribution of inspiratory or expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS. In present study, oleic acid-induced beagle dogs' ARDS models were employed and ventilated with the same level of mean airway pressure. Respiratory mechanics, lung volume, gas exchange and inflammatory cytokines were measured during mechanical ventilation, and lung injury was determined histologically. As a result, for the comparable ventilator setting, preserved inspiratory muscles activity groups resulted in higher end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and oxygenation index. In addition, less lung damage scores and lower levels of system inflammatory cytokines were revealed after 8 h of ventilation. In comparison, preserved expiratory muscles activity groups resulted in lower EELV and oxygenation index. Moreover, higher lung injury scores and inflammatory cytokines levels were observed after 8 h of ventilation. Our findings suggest that the activity of inspiratory muscles has beneficial effects, whereas that of expiratory muscles exerts adverse effects during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model. Therefore, for mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS, the demands for deep sedation or paralysis might be replaced by the strategy of expiratory muscles paralysis through epidural anesthesia.

  2. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  3. Differentiation of several interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images using support vector machine: role of databases on performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Mandar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Dash, Jatindra K.; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is complicated group of pulmonary disorders. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) considered to be best imaging technique for analysis of different pulmonary disorders. HRCT findings can be categorised in several patterns viz. Consolidation, Emphysema, Ground Glass Opacity, Nodular, Normal etc. based on their texture like appearance. Clinician often find it difficult to diagnosis these pattern because of their complex nature. In such scenario computer-aided diagnosis system could help clinician to identify patterns. Several approaches had been proposed for classification of ILD patterns. This includes computation of textural feature and training /testing of classifier such as artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) etc. In this paper, wavelet features are calculated from two different ILD database, publically available MedGIFT ILD database and private ILD database, followed by performance evaluation of ANN and SVM classifiers in terms of average accuracy. It is found that average classification accuracy by SVM is greater than ANN where trained and tested on same database. Investigation continued further to test variation in accuracy of classifier when training and testing is performed with alternate database and training and testing of classifier with database formed by merging samples from same class from two individual databases. The average classification accuracy drops when two independent databases used for training and testing respectively. There is significant improvement in average accuracy when classifiers are trained and tested with merged database. It infers dependency of classification accuracy on training data. It is observed that SVM outperforms ANN when same database is used for training and testing.

  4. [Antimodification activity of the ArdA and Ocr proteins].

    PubMed

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G V; Kotova, V Iu; Rastorguev, S M

    2011-02-01

    The ArdA and Ocr antirestriction proteins, whose genes are in transmissible plasmids (ardA) and bacteriophage genomes (0.3 (ocr)), specifically inhibit type I restriction-modification enzymes. The Ocr protein (T7 bacteriophage) was shown to inhibit both restriction (endonuclease) and modification (methylase) activities of the EcoKI enzyme in a broad range of intracellular concentrations (starting from 10-20 molecules per cell). In contrast to Ocr, the ArdA protein (ColIb-P9 transmissible plasmid) inhibited both of the EcoKI activities only at high intracellular concentrations (30000-40000 molecules per cell). When the ArdA concentration was several fold lower, only endonuclease activity of EcoKI was inhibited. It was assumed that a poorer ArdA ability to inhibit EcoKI modification activity is related to the substantial difference in life cycle between transmissible plasmids (symbiosis with the bacterial cell) and bacteriophages (infection and lysis of bacteria). The Ocr and ArdA mutants that inhibited exclusively endonuclease activity of EcoKI were obtained. Antirestriction proteins incapable of homodimerization were assumed to inhibit only endonuclease activity of type I restriction-modification enzymes.

  5. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  6. Analysis of HRCT-derived xylem network reveals reverse flow in some vessels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow in xylem vessels is modeled based on constructions of three dimensional xylem networks derived from High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stems. Flow in 6-14% of the vessels was found to be oriented in the opposite direction to the bulk flow under norma...

  7. Analyzing 3D xylem networks in Vitis vinifera using High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) have made it possible to visualize three dimensional (3D) xylem networks without time consuming, labor intensive physical sectioning. Here we describe a new method to visualize complex vessel networks in plants and produce a quantitat...

  8. BLOCKADE OF ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR, ANGIOPOIETIN-2, REDUCES INDICES OF ARDS AND MORTALITY IN MICE RESULTING FROM THE DUAL-INSULTS OF HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK AND SEPSIS.

    PubMed

    Lomas-Neira, Joanne L; Heffernan, Daithi S; Ayala, Alfred; Monaghan, Sean F

    2016-02-01

    We have demonstrated hemorrhagic shock "priming" for the development of indirect acute respiratory distress syndrome (iARDS) in mice following subsequent septic challenge, and show pathology characteristic of patients with iARDS, including increased lung microvascular permeability and arterial PO2/FI02 reduced to levels comparable to mild/moderate ARDS during the 48 h following hemorrhage. Loss of endothelial cell (EC) barrier function is a major component in the development of iARDS. EC growth factors, Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and 2, maintain vascular homeostasis via tightly regulated competitive interaction with tyrosine kinase receptor, Tie2, expressed on ECs. Ang-2/Tie2 binding, in contrast to Ang-1, is believed to produce vessel destabilization, pulmonary leakage, and inflammation. Recent clinical findings from our trauma/surgical intensive care units and others have reported elevated Ang-2 in the plasma from patients that develop ARDS. We have previously described similarly elevated Ang-2 in plasma and lung tissue in our shock/sepsis model for the development of iARDS, and demonstrated effective reduction in indices of inflammation and lung tissue injury following siRNA inhibition of Ang-2 protein synthesis. In this study we show that Ang-2 in lung tissue and plasma spikes following hemorrhage (priming) and remain elevated at sepsis induction. In addition, that transient inhibition of Ang-2 function immediately following hemorrhage, suppressing priming, but not following sepsis, impacts the development of iARDS in our model. Our data demonstrate that selective temporal blockade of Ang-2 function following hemorrhagic shock priming significantly improved PO2/FIO2, decreased lung protein leak and indices of inflammation, and improved 10-day survival in our murine model for the development iARDS.

  9. Sepsis and ARDS: The Dark Side of Histones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiheng; Huang, Yongbo; Mao, Pu; Zhang, Jianrong; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in management over the last several decades, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) still remain major clinical challenges and the leading causes of death for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) due to insufficient understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases. However, recent studies have shown that histones, also known as chromatin-basic structure proteins, could be released into the extracellular space during severe stress and physical challenges to the body (e.g., sepsis and ARDS). Due to their cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, extracellular histones can lead to excessive and overwhelming cell damage and death, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of both sepsis and ARDS. In addition, antihistone-based treatments (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, activated protein C, and heparin) have shown protective effects and have significantly improved the outcomes of mice suffering from sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review researches related to the pathological role of histone in context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of histones as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of these diseases.

  10. ARD remediation with limestone in a CO2 pressurized reactor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Friedrich, Andrew E.; Vinci, Brian J.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a new process for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). The process treats ARD with intermittently fluidized beds of granular limestone maintained within a continuous flow reactor pressurized with CO2. Tests were performed over a thirty day period at the Toby Creek mine drainage treatment plant, Elk County, Pennsylvania in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Equipment performance was established at operating pressures of 0, 34, 82, and 117 kPa using an ARD flow of 227 L/min. The ARD had the following characteristics: pH, 3.1; temperature, 10 °C; dissolved oxygen, 6.4 mg/L; acidity, 260 mg/L; total iron, 21 mg/L; aluminum, 22 mg/L; manganese, 7.5 mg/L; and conductivity, 1400 μS/cm. In all cases tested, processed ARD was net alkaline with mean pH and alkalinities of 6.7 and 59 mg/L at a CO2 pressure of 0 kPa, 6.6 and 158 mg/L at 34 kPa, 7.4 and 240 mg/L at 82 kPa, and 7.4 and 290 mg/L at 117 kPa. Processed ARD alkalinities were correlated to the settled bed depth (p<0.001) and CO2 pressure (p<0.001). Iron, aluminum, and manganese removal efficiencies of 96%, 99%, and 5%, respectively, were achieved with filtration following treatment. No indications of metal hydroxide precipitation or armoring of the limestone were observed. The surplus alkalinity established at 82 kPa was successful in treating an equivalent of 1136 L/min (five-fold dilution) of the combined three ARD streams entering the Toby Creek Plant. This side-stream capability provides savings in treatment unit scale as well as flexibility in treatment effect. The capability of the system to handle higher influent acidity was tested by elevating the acidity to 5000 mg/L with sulfuric acid. Net alkaline effluent was produced, indicating applicability of the process to highly acidic ARD.

  11. Differences in radiological/HRCT findings in eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma: implication for bronchial responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Park, S‐W; Park, J‐S; Lee, Y‐M; Lee, J‐H; Jang, A‐S; Kim, D‐J; Hwangbo, Y; Uh, S‐T; Kim, Y‐H; Park, C‐S

    2006-01-01

    Background Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics is considered to be one of the major consequences of airway inflammation and remodelling. Airway responsiveness is normal in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis (EB), despite eosinophilic inflammation of the airways comparable to that which occurs in asthmatics. Comparisons between asthma and EB should clarify the changes in airway morphology that are related specifically to AHR in asthmatics. Methods Eighteen asthmatic patients, 15 patients with EB, and 11 healthy subjects were recruited. Airway wall area percentage (WA%), centrilobular prominence, and air trapping were compared using thin slice section computed tomography. Results WA% was significantly greater in asthmatics than in patients with EB (72 (3.1)% v 54 (2.1)%, p = 0.032) and was similar in EB patients and controls (54 (2.1)% v 57 (1.8)%, p>0.05). Centrilobular prominence and air trapping were similar in EB patients and asthmatics and were significantly greater than in controls. Conclusion WA% rather than air trapping or centrilobular prominence may be associated with the airway hyperresponsiveness that occurs in asthmatics but not in patients with EB. PMID:16244090

  12. Automated Lung Segmentation from HRCT Scans with Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pulagam, Ammi Reddy; Kande, Giri Babu; Ede, Venkata Krishna Rao; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu

    2016-08-01

    Performing accurate and fully automated lung segmentation of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images affected by dense abnormalities is a challenging problem. This paper presents a novel algorithm for automated segmentation of lungs based on modified convex hull algorithm and mathematical morphology techniques. Sixty randomly selected lung HRCT scans with different abnormalities are used to test the proposed algorithm, and experimental results show that the proposed approach can accurately segment the lungs even in the presence of disease patterns, with some limitations in the apices and bases of lungs. The algorithm demonstrates a high segmentation accuracy (dice similarity coefficient = 98.62 and shape differentiation metrics dmean = 1.39 mm, and drms = 2.76 mm). Therefore, the developed automated lung segmentation algorithm is a good candidate for the first stage of a computer-aided diagnosis system for diffuse lung diseases.

  13. Personalized medicine for ARDS: the 2035 research agenda.

    PubMed

    Beitler, Jeremy R; Goligher, Ewan C; Schmidt, Matthieu; Spieth, Peter M; Zanella, Alberto; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Calfee, Carolyn S; Cavalcanti, Alexandre B

    2016-05-01

    In the last 20 years, survival among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased substantially with advances in lung-protective ventilation and resuscitation. Building on this success, personalizing mechanical ventilation to patient-specific physiology for enhanced lung protection will be a top research priority for the years ahead. However, the ARDS research agenda must be broader in scope. Further understanding of the heterogeneous biology, from molecular to mechanical, underlying early ARDS pathogenesis is essential to inform therapeutic discovery and tailor treatment and prevention strategies to the individual patient. The ARDSne(x)t research agenda for the next 20 years calls for bringing personalized medicine to ARDS, asking simultaneously both whether a treatment affords clinically meaningful benefit and for whom. This expanded scope necessitates standard acquisition of highly granular biological, physiological, and clinical data across studies to identify biologically distinct subgroups that may respond differently to a given intervention. Clinical trials will need to consider enrichment strategies and incorporate long-term functional outcomes. Tremendous investment in research infrastructure and global collaboration will be vital to fulfilling this agenda.

  14. Rotordynamics on the PC: Further Capabilities of ARDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Rotordynamics codes for personal computers are now becoming available. One of the most capable codes is Analysis of RotorDynamic Systems (ARDS) which uses the component mode synthesis method to analyze a system of up to 5 rotating shafts. ARDS was originally written for a mainframe computer but has been successfully ported to a PC; its basic capabilities for steady-state and transient analysis were reported in an earlier paper. Additional functions have now been added to the PC version of ARDS. These functions include: 1) Estimation of the peak response following blade loss without resorting to a full transient analysis; 2) Calculation of response sensitivity to input parameters; 3) Formulation of optimum rotor and damper designs to place critical speeds in desirable ranges or minimize bearing loads; 4) Production of Poincard plots so the presence of chaotic motion can be ascertained. ARDS produces printed and plotted output. The executable code uses the full array sizes of the mainframe version and fits on a high density floppy disc. Examples of all program capabilities are presented and discussed.

  15. Expiratory model-based method to monitor ARDS disease state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Model-based methods can be used to characterise patient-specific condition and response to mechanical ventilation (MV) during treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Conventional metrics of respiratory mechanics are based on inspiration only, neglecting data from the expiration cycle. However, it is hypothesised that expiratory data can be used to determine an alternative metric, offering another means to track patient condition and guide positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) selection. Methods Three fully sedated, oleic acid induced ARDS piglets underwent three experimental phases. Phase 1 was a healthy state recruitment manoeuvre. Phase 2 was a progression from a healthy state to an oleic acid induced ARDS state. Phase 3 was an ARDS state recruitment manoeuvre. The expiratory time-constant model parameter was determined for every breathing cycle for each subject. Trends were compared to estimates of lung elastance determined by means of an end-inspiratory pause method and an integral-based method. All experimental procedures, protocols and the use of data in this study were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Liege Medical Faculty. Results The overall median absolute percentage fitting error for the expiratory time-constant model across all three phases was less than 10 %; for each subject, indicating the capability of the model to capture the mechanics of breathing during expiration. Provided the respiratory resistance was constant, the model was able to adequately identify trends and fundamental changes in respiratory mechanics. Conclusion Overall, this is a proof of concept study that shows the potential of continuous monitoring of respiratory mechanics in clinical practice. Respiratory system mechanics vary with disease state development and in response to MV settings. Therefore, titrating PEEP to minimal elastance theoretically results in optimal PEEP selection. Trends matched clinical

  16. Clinical Course and Changes in High-Resolution Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis without Honeycombing

    PubMed Central

    Bando, Masashi; Baba, Tomohisa; Kataoka, Kensuke; Yamada, Yoshihito; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Ikushima, Soichiro; Johkoh, Takeshi; Sakai, Fumikazu; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Hebisawa, Akira; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Some patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) do not have honeycombing on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) at their initial evaluation. The clinical course and sequential changes in HRCT findings in these patients are not fully understood. We reviewed the cases of 43 patients with IPF without honeycombing on initial HRCT from institutions throughout Japan. All patients were diagnosed with IPF based on a surgical lung biopsy. Multidisciplinary discussions were held five times between 2011 and 2014, to exclude alternative etiologies. We evaluated the sequential changes in HRCT findings in 30 patients with IPF. We classified these 30 patients into three groups based on their HRCT patterns and clarified the clinical characteristics and prognosis among the groups. The patterns of all 30 patients on initial HRCT corresponded to a possible usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern which was described in the 2011 International Statement. On long-term follow-up (71.0±38.7 standard deviation [SD] months), honeycombing was seen in 16 patients (53%, the HoneyCo group); traction bronchiectasis or cysts without honeycombing was observed in 12 patients (40%, the NoHoneyCo group), and two patients showed no interval change (7%, the NoChange group) on HRCT. The mean survival periods of the HoneyCo and NoHoneyCo groups were 67.1 and 61.2 months, respectively (p = 0.76). There are some patients with IPF whose conditions chronically progress without honeycombing on HRCT. The appearance of honeycombing on HRCT during the follow-up might not be related to prognosis. PMID:27829068

  17. Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module feasibility report. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, B. G.; Joyner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed performance evaluation of the Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module design was provided in support of OFT-1 ascent and OFT-1 intact launch aborts. The evaluation method used compared ARD results against results obtained using the full-up Space Vehicle Dynamic Simulations program under the same conditions. Results were presented for each of the three major ARD math models: (1) the ascent numerical integrator; (2) the mass model, and (3) the second stage predictor as well as the total ARD module. These results demonstrate that the baselined ARD module meets all design objectives for mission control center orbital flight test launch/abort support.

  18. Improvement of in vivo antimicrobial activity of HBcARD peptides by D-arginine replacement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Li; Su, Pei-Yi; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-11-01

    We previously identified a novel antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum bactericidal activity from human hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) arginine-rich domain (ARD). We compared the antimicrobial activities of HBcARD peptides from different hepadnaviruses which share similar amino acid sequences. In general, mammalian HBcARD peptides exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than avian peptides. Using the strategy of D-amino acid substitutions, we improved the antimicrobial efficacy of human HBcARD peptide. This D-HBcARD peptide was much more resistant than L-HBcARD peptide to proteolytic degradation in vitro. Moreover, this D-HBcARD peptide maintained similar minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) against tested bacteria, and showed very low hemolytic activity. In the Staphylococcus aureus-infected mouse model, this D-HBcARD peptide was more protective than the L-HBcARD peptide. Repeated treatments with either L- or D-HBcARD peptides induced no significant immunogenicity. New derivatives of HBcARD peptides could serve as alternatives to the conventional antibiotics in clinical medicine in the future.

  19. Rotordynamics on the PC: Transient Analysis With ARDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Personal computers can now do many jobs that formerly required a large mainframe computer. An example is NASA Lewis Research Center's program Analysis of RotorDynamic Systems (ARDS), which uses the component mode synthesis method to analyze the dynamic motion of up to five rotating shafts. As originally written in the early 1980's, this program was considered large for the mainframe computers of the time. ARDS, which was written in Fortran 77, has been successfully ported to a 486 personal computer. Plots appear on the computer monitor via calls programmed for the original CALCOMP plotter; plots can also be output on a standard laser printer. The executable code, which uses the full array sizes of the mainframe version, easily fits on a high-density floppy disk. The program runs under DOS with an extended memory manager. In addition to transient analysis of blade loss, step turns, and base acceleration, with simulation of squeeze-film dampers and rubs, ARDS calculates natural frequencies and unbalance response.

  20. RB-ARD: A proof of concept rule-based abort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard; Marinuzzi, John

    1987-01-01

    The Abort Region Determinator (ARD) is a console program in the space shuttle mission control center. During shuttle ascent, the Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) uses the ARD to determine the possible abort modes and make abort calls for the crew. The goal of the Rule-based Abort region Determinator (RB/ARD) project was to test the concept of providing an onboard ARD for the shuttle or an automated ARD for the mission control center (MCC). A proof of concept rule-based system was developed on a LMI Lambda computer using PICON, a knowdedge-based system shell. Knowdedge derived from documented flight rules and ARD operation procedures was coded in PICON rules. These rules, in conjunction with modules of conventional code, enable the RB-ARD to carry out key parts of the ARD task. Current capabilities of the RB-ARD include: continuous updating of the available abort mode, recognition of a limited number of main engine faults and recommendation of safing actions. Safing actions recommended by the RB-ARD concern the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) limit shutdown system and powerdown of the SSME Ac buses.

  1. Predictive criteria to study the pathogenesis of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in mice.

    PubMed

    Ortolan, Luana S; Sercundes, Michelle K; Barboza, Renato; Debone, Daniela; Murillo, Oscar; Hagen, Stefano C F; Russo, Momtchilo; D' Império Lima, Maria Regina; Alvarez, José M; Amaku, Marcos; Marinho, Claudio R F; Epiphanio, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) often results in morbidity and mortality. Murine models to study malaria-associated ALI/ARDS have been described; we still lack a method of distinguishing which mice will develop ALI/ARDS before death. This work aimed to characterize malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in a murine model and to demonstrate the first method to predict whether mice are suffering from ALI/ARDS before death. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA developing ALI/ARDS or hyperparasitemia (HP) were compared using histopathology, PaO2 measurement, pulmonary X-ray, breathing capacity, lung permeability, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels according to either the day of death or the suggested predictive criteria. We proposed a model to predict malaria-associated ALI/ARDS using breathing patterns (enhanced pause and frequency respiration) and parasitemia as predictive criteria from mice whose cause of death was known to retrospectively diagnose the sacrificed mice as likely to die of ALI/ARDS as early as 7 days after infection. Using this method, we showed increased VEGF levels and increased lung permeability in mice predicted to die of ALI/ARDS. This proposed method for accurately identifying mice suffering from ALI/ARDS before death will enable the use of this model to study the pathogenesis of this disease.

  2. Predictive Criteria to Study the Pathogenesis of Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ortolan, Luana S.; Sercundes, Michelle K.; Debone, Daniela; Hagen, Stefano C. F.; D' Império Lima, Maria Regina; Alvarez, José M.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Epiphanio, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) often results in morbidity and mortality. Murine models to study malaria-associated ALI/ARDS have been described; we still lack a method of distinguishing which mice will develop ALI/ARDS before death. This work aimed to characterize malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in a murine model and to demonstrate the first method to predict whether mice are suffering from ALI/ARDS before death. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA developing ALI/ARDS or hyperparasitemia (HP) were compared using histopathology, PaO2 measurement, pulmonary X-ray, breathing capacity, lung permeability, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels according to either the day of death or the suggested predictive criteria. We proposed a model to predict malaria-associated ALI/ARDS using breathing patterns (enhanced pause and frequency respiration) and parasitemia as predictive criteria from mice whose cause of death was known to retrospectively diagnose the sacrificed mice as likely to die of ALI/ARDS as early as 7 days after infection. Using this method, we showed increased VEGF levels and increased lung permeability in mice predicted to die of ALI/ARDS. This proposed method for accurately identifying mice suffering from ALI/ARDS before death will enable the use of this model to study the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25276057

  3. Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with Lung Protection in Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcelo L. M.; Ortolan, Luana S.; Sercundes, Michelle K.; Debone, Daniela; Murillo, Oscar; Lima, Flávia A.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a serious disease, caused by the parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which was responsible for 440,000 deaths in 2015. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the main clinical complications in severe malaria. The murine model DBA/2 reproduces the clinical signs of ALI/ARDS in humans, when infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. High levels of HO-1 were reported in cases of severe malaria. Our data indicated that the HO-1 mRNA and protein expression are increased in mice that develop malaria-associated ALI/ARDS (MA-ALI/ARDS). Additionally, the hemin, a HO-1 inducing drug, prevented mice from developing MA-ALI/ARDS when administered prior to the development of MA-ALI/ARDS in this model. Also, hemin treatment showed an amelioration of respiratory parameters in mice, high VEGF levels in the sera, and a decrease in vascular permeability in the lung, which are signs of ALI/ARDS. Therefore, the induction of HO-1 before the development of MA-ALI/ARDS could be protective. However, the increased expression of HO-1 on the onset of MA-ALI/ARDS development may represent an effort to revert the phenotype of this syndrome by the host. We therefore confirm that HO-1 inducing drugs could be used for prevention of MA-ALI/ARDS in humans. PMID:27974865

  4. Past and Present ARDS Mortality Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Máca, Jan; Jor, Ondřej; Holub, Michal; Sklienka, Peter; Burša, Filip; Burda, Michal; Janout, Vladimír; Ševčík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    ARDS is severe form of respiratory failure with significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of critical care patients. Epidemiological data are crucial for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions, designing studies, and optimizing resource distribution. The goal of this review is to present general aspects of mortality data published over the past decades. A systematic search of the MEDLINE/PubMed was performed. The articles were divided according to their methodology, type of reported mortality, and time. The main outcome was mortality. Extracted data included study duration, number of patients, and number of centers. The mortality trends and current mortality were calculated for subgroups consisting of in-hospital, ICU, 28/30-d, and 60-d mortality over 3 time periods (A, before 1995; B, 1995-2000; C, after 2000). The retrospectivity and prospectivity were also taken into account. Moreover, we present the most recent mortality rates since 2010. One hundred seventy-seven articles were included in the final analysis. General mortality rates ranged from 11 to 87% in studies including subjects with ARDS of all etiologies (mixed group). Linear regression revealed that the study design (28/30-d or 60-d) significantly influenced the mortality rate. Reported mortality rates were higher in prospective studies, such as randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies compared with retrospective observational studies. Mortality rates exhibited a linear decrease in relation to time period (P < .001). The number of centers showed a significant negative correlation with mortality rates. The prospective observational studies did not have consistently higher mortality rates compared with randomized controlled trials. The mortality trends over 3 time periods (before 1995, 1995-2000, and after 2000) yielded variable results in general ARDS populations. However, a mortality decrease was present mostly in prospective studies. Since 2010, the

  5. Advanced Research Deposition System (ARDS) for processing CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barricklow, Keegan Corey

    CdTe solar cells have been commercialized at the Gigawatt/year level. The development of volume manufacturing processes for next generation CdTe photovoltaics (PV) with higher efficiencies requires research systems with flexibility, scalability, repeatability and automation. The Advanced Research Deposition Systems (ARDS) developed by the Materials Engineering Laboratory (MEL) provides such a platform for the investigation of materials and manufacturing processes necessary to produce the next generation of CdTe PV. Limited by previous research systems, the ARDS was developed to provide process and hardware flexibility, accommodating advanced processing techniques, and capable of producing device quality films. The ARDS is a unique, in-line process tool with nine processing stations. The system was designed, built and assembled at the Materials Engineering Laboratory. Final assembly, startup, characterization and process development are the focus of this research. Many technical challenges encountered during the startup of the ARDS were addressed in this research. In this study, several hardware modifications needed for the reliable operation of the ARDS were designed, constructed and successfully incorporated into the ARDS. The effect of process condition on film properties for each process step was quantified. Process development to achieve 12% efficient baseline solar cell required investigation of discrete processing steps, troubleshooting process variation, and developing performance correlations. Subsequent to this research, many advances have been demonstrated with the ARDS. The ARDS consistently produces devices of 12% +/-.5% by the process of record (POR). The champion cell produced to date utilizing the ARDS has an efficiency of 16.2% on low cost commercial sodalime glass and utilizes advanced films. The ARDS has enabled investigation of advanced concepts for processing CdTe devices including, Plasma Cleaning, Plasma Enhanced Closed Space Sublimation

  6. Ray-tracing based registration for HRCT images of the lungs.

    PubMed

    Busayara, Sata; Zrimec, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Image registration is a fundamental problem in medical imaging. It is especially challenging in lung images compared, for example, with the brain. The challenges include large anatomical variations of human lung and a lack of fixed landmarks inside the lung. This paper presents a new method for lung HRCT image registration. It employs a landmark-based global transformation and a novel ray-tracing-based lung surface registration. The proposed surface registration method has two desirable properties: 1) it is fully reversible, and 2) it ensures that the registered lung will be inside the target lung. We evaluated the registration performance by applying it to lung regions mapping. Tested on 46 scans, the registered regions were 89% accurate compared with the ground-truth.

  7. Quantitative consensus of supervised learners for diffuse lung parenchymal HRCT patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    Automated lung parenchymal classification usually relies on supervised learning of expert chosen regions representative of the visually differentiable HRCT patterns specific to different pathologies (eg. emphysema, ground glass, honey combing, reticular and normal). Considering the elusiveness of a single most discriminating similarity measure, a plurality of weak learners can be combined to improve the machine learnability. Though a number of quantitative combination strategies exist, their efficacy is data and domain dependent. In this paper, we investigate multiple (N=12) quantitative consensus approaches to combine the clusters obtained with multiple (n=33) probability density-based similarity measures. Our study shows that hypergraph based meta-clustering and probabilistic clustering provides optimal expert-metric agreement.

  8. Active Reading Documents (ARDs): A Tool to Facilitate Meaningful Learning through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubas, Justin M.; Toledo, Santiago A.

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is a practical tool called the Active Reading Document (ARD) that can give students the necessary incentive to engage with the text/readings. By designing the tool to incrementally develop student understanding of the material through reading using Marzano's Taxonomy as a framework, the ARD offers support through scaffolding as they…

  9. Ardón: A Long Hidden L6 Chondrite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Llorca, J.; Weyrauch, M.; Bischoff, A.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Keil, K.; Laubenstein, M.; Pack, A.; Madiedo, J. M.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Riebe, M.; Wieler, R.; Ott, U.; Tapia, M.; Mestres, N.

    2014-09-01

    A L6 ordinary chondrite fall that occurred in Ardón, León province, Spain on July 9, 1931 is described. The 5.5 g stone was kept hidden for 83 years by Rosa González Pérez, who recovered the meteorite. Ardón is still a fresh ordinary chondrite.

  10. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Porcine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    swine U6 i!D 19, ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) A porcine model of Pseudorronas induced acute lung injury...and the clinical picture seen in ARDS unfolds. Pseudomonas- induced ARDS in the porcine model has been used as an effective and reproducible model of...sepsis- induced ARDS in this laboratory. Because ARDS is mediated by numerous inflammatory mediators, it is likely that treatment will require several

  11. [Right ventricular function in ARDS and mechanical respiration].

    PubMed

    Engelmann, L

    2004-10-01

    The right ventricle is the stepchild of intensive care medicine. In diseases of the lung mainly when the relationship between ventilation and perfusion is disturbed, assisted respiration with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is essential to improve oxygenation. The serious damage to the lung parenchyma as seen in adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia has considerable consequences for cardiac function. Whereas left ventricular function remains almost completely unaffected well into late stages of the disease, the right ventricle is subjected early to stress from the underlying disease and mechanical ventilation. The effects of therapeutic measures aimed at maintaining oxygenation and ventilation partially have negative consequences for right ventricular function and encourage the development of acute cor pulmonale. They can be the cause of right-sided heart failure.

  12. Regulation of growth factor receptor degradation by ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein (ARD) 1.

    PubMed

    Meza-Carmen, Victor; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Kang, Gi Soo; Kato, Jiro; Donati, Chiara; Zhang, Chun-Yi; Vichi, Alessandro; Payne, D Michael; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Stylianou, Mario; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2011-06-28

    ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein 1 (ARD1) is a 64-kDa protein containing a functional ADP-ribosylation factor (GTP hydrolase, GTPase), GTPase-activating protein, and E3 ubiquitin ligase domains. ARD1 activation by the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor cytohesin-1 was known. GTPase and E3 ligase activities of ARD1 suggest roles in protein transport and turnover. To explore this hypothesis, we used mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from ARD1-/- mice stably transfected with plasmids for inducible expression of wild-type ARD1 protein (KO-WT), or ARD1 protein with inactivating mutations in E3 ligase domain (KO-E3), or containing persistently active GTP-bound (KO-GTP), or inactive GDP-bound (KO-GDP) GTPase domains. Inhibition of proteasomal proteases in mifepristone-induced KO-WT, KO-GDP, or KO-GTP MEFs resulted in accumulation of these ARD1 proteins, whereas KO-E3 accumulated without inhibitors. All data were consistent with the conclusion that ARD1 regulates its own steady-state levels in cells by autoubiquitination. Based on reported growth factor receptor-cytohesin interactions, EGF receptor (EGFR) was investigated in induced MEFs. Amounts of cell-surface and total EGFR were higher in KO-GDP and lower in KO-GTP than in KO-WT MEFs, with levels in both mutants greater (p = 0.001) after proteasomal inhibition. Significant differences among MEF lines in content of TGF-β receptor III were similar to those in EGFR, albeit not as large. Differences in amounts of insulin receptor mirrored those in EGFR, but did not reach statistical significance. Overall, the capacity of ARD1 GTPase to cycle between active and inactive forms and its autoubiquitination both appear to be necessary for the appropriate turnover of EGFR and perhaps additional growth factor receptors.

  13. Enhanced production of IGF‐I in the lungs of fibroproliferative ARDS patients

    PubMed Central

    Andonegui, Graciela; Krein, Peter M.; Mowat, Connie; Brisebois, Ronald; Doig, Christopher; Green, Francis H. Y.; Léger, Caroline; Winston, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Insulin‐Like Growth Factor I (IGF‐I) has been identified in the lungs of individuals with fibrotic lung diseases. In a previous retrospective study, we showed enhanced IGF‐I immunoreactivity in individuals with fibroproliferative acute respiratory distress syndrome (FP‐ARDS), but we were unable to determine if this correlation was causative. This study was undertaken to prospectively investigate whether IGF‐I expression correlated with the fibroproliferative process and whether IGF‐I was induced and made in the lungs. We measured IGF‐I and procollagen III peptide (PCP‐III) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from controls, early ALI/ARDS patients and FP‐ARDS patients. We also measured IGF‐I mRNA and immunoreactivity from controls and FP‐ARDS patient lung biopsies. We determined the level of lung permeability by measuring albumin and urea levels in ELF and serum. Our data show that IGF‐I is significantly increased in the ELF in FP‐ARDS patients. A significant correlation between IGF‐I and PCP‐III in the ELF of FP‐ARDS patients is found. IGF‐I mRNA is elevated in the FP‐ARDS lung biopsies. Our data suggest that IGF‐I found in the lungs of FP‐ARDS patients results from both increased lung permeability and local production of IGF‐I. The role of IGF‐I in the fibroproliferative process in the lungs has recently been confirmed in an animal model of lung fibroproliferation. This study importantly suggest that IGF‐I protein is made in the lungs of FP‐ARDS patients and correlates with increased levels of ELF PCP‐III, implicating a role for IGF‐I in the fibroproliferative process in humans. PMID:25367695

  14. Polyamine biosynthesis regulated by StARD expression plays an important role in potato wound periderm formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Hyun Soon; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kim, Yoon Sik; Oh, Hyun Woo; Joung, Hyouk; Chae, Suhn Kee; Suh, Kyong Hoon; Jeon, Jae Heung

    2008-10-01

    An acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) gene of potatoes was isolated from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of potato post-suberization cDNA libraries. The highest expression levels of the StARD gene and the protein appeared 36 h after suberization. An approximate 9-fold increase in ARD activity was detected at 36 h after wounding. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis and immunolocalization studies revealed that StARD transcripts increase at the wound surface of potato tubers. The polyamine (PA) contents increased significantly after wounding at the wound surface. The increased PA content and ARD activity may play an important role in wound periderm formation.

  15. Performance comparison of classifiers for differentiation among obstructive lung diseases based on features of texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Seo, Joon Beom; Kang, Bokyoung; Kim, Dongil; Lee, June Goo; Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Namkug; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    The performance of classification algorithms for differentiating among obstructive lung diseases based on features from texture analysis using HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images was compared. HRCT can provide accurate information for the detection of various obstructive lung diseases, including centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans. Features on HRCT images can be subtle, however, particularly in the early stages of disease, and image-based diagnosis is subject to inter-observer variation. To automate the diagnosis and improve the accuracy, we compared three types of automated classification systems, naÃve Bayesian classifier, ANN (Artificial Neural Net) and SVM (Support Vector Machine), based on their ability to differentiate among normal lung and three types of obstructive lung diseases. To assess the performance and cross-validation of these three classifiers, 5 folding methods with 5 randomly chosen groups were used. For a more robust result, each validation was repeated 100 times. SVM showed the best performance, with 86.5% overall sensitivity, significantly different from the other classifiers (one way ANOVA, p<0.01). We address the characteristics of each classifier affecting performance and the issue of which classifier is the most suitable for clinical applications, and propose an appropriate method to choose the best classifier and determine its optimal parameters for optimal disease discrimination. These results can be applied to classifiers for differentiation of other diseases.

  16. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  17. Analysis of HRCT-derived xylem network reveals reverse flow in some vessels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eric F; Matthews, Mark A; McElrone, Andrew J; Phillips, Ronald J; Shackel, Kenneth A; Brodersen, Craig R

    2013-09-21

    Long distance water and nutrient transport in plants is dependent on the proper functioning of xylem networks, a series of interconnected pipe-like cells that are vulnerable to hydraulic dysfunction as a result of drought-induced embolism and/or xylem-dwelling pathogens. Here, flow in xylem vessels was modeled to determine the role of vessel connectivity by using three dimensional xylem networks derived from High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Chardonnay') stems. Flow in 4-27% of the vessel segments (i.e. any section of vessel elements between connection points associated with intervessel pits) was found to be oriented in the direction opposite to the bulk flow under normal transpiration conditions. In order for the flow in a segment to be in the reverse direction, specific requirements were determined for the location of connections, distribution of vessel endings, diameters of the connected vessels, and the conductivity of the connections. Increasing connectivity and decreasing vessel length yielded increasing numbers of reverse flow segments until a maximum value was reached, after which more interconnected networks and smaller average vessel lengths yielded a decrease in the number of reverse flow segments. Xylem vessel relays also encouraged the formation of reverse flow segments. Based on the calculated flow rates in the xylem network, the downward spread of Xylella fastidiosa bacteria in grape stems was modeled, and reverse flow was shown to be an additional mechanism for the movement of bacteria to the trunk of grapevine.

  18. Effective and Safe Use of Glucocorticosteroids for Rescue of Late ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Paolo; Money, Dustin T.; Gelvin, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of severe refractory hypoxemia requiring prolonged extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in a case of postpartum acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The clinical course was marked by persistently poor lung compliance and several complications of ECMO, that is, significant hemolysis, hemothorax, and intracranial bleeding. We report marked improvement of lung mechanics and respiratory function, leading to accelerated separation from ECMO, following rescue administration of low dose methylprednisolone 24 days after the onset of ARDS. Corticosteroid treatment was safe and well tolerated. In contrast with the conclusions of the 2006 ARDS Network trial, our report establishes a case in support of the use of low dose methylprednisolone as a safe and effective rescue treatment option in selected subsets of patients with nonresolving ARDS. PMID:28337348

  19. Operation Bull's Eye/ARDS (Auditory Reading Development System). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    The Auditory Reading Development Systems (ARDS) was devised to meet the educational needs of a segment of the model cities population that had not been reached by other programs. The ARDS is geared to teach the student whose reading level is 0.0 through 3.9, then 3.9 through 6.9, then 7.0 through 8.9. The target population is reached through…

  20. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS.

    PubMed

    Kangelaris, Kirsten Neudoerffer; Prakash, Arun; Liu, Kathleen D; Aouizerat, Bradley; Woodruff, Prescott G; Erle, David J; Rogers, Angela; Seeley, Eric J; Chu, Jeffrey; Liu, Tom; Osterberg-Deiss, Thomas; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2015-06-01

    The early sequence of events leading to the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with sepsis remains inadequately understood. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in gene expression early in the course of illness, when mechanisms of injury may provide the most relevant treatment and prognostic targets. We collected whole blood RNA in critically ill patients admitted from the Emergency Department to the intensive care unit within 24 h of admission at a tertiary care center. Whole genome expression was compared in patients with sepsis and ARDS to patients with sepsis alone. We selected genes with >1 log2 fold change and false discovery rate <0.25, determined their significance in the literature, and performed pathway analysis. Several genes were upregulated in 29 patients with sepsis with ARDS compared with 28 patients with sepsis alone. The most differentially expressed genes included key mediators of the initial neutrophil response to infection: olfactomedin 4, lipocalin 2, CD24, and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. These gene expression differences withstood adjustment for age, sex, study batch, white blood cell count, and presence of pneumonia or aspiration. Pathway analysis demonstrated overrepresentation of genes involved in known respiratory and infection pathways. These data indicate that several neutrophil-related pathways may be involved in the early pathogenesis of sepsis-related ARDS. In addition, identifiable gene expression differences occurring early in the course of sepsis-related ARDS may further elucidate understanding of the neutrophil-related mechanisms in progression to ARDS.

  1. Retrospective case series of the imaging findings of facial nerve hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yunlong; Jin, Yanfang; Yang, Bentao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to compare high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and thin-section magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of facial nerve hemangioma. The HRCT and MRI characteristics of 17 facial nerve hemangiomas diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients included in the study suffered from a space-occupying lesion of soft tissues at the geniculate ganglion fossa. Affected nerve was compared for size and shape with the contralateral unaffected nerve. HRCT showed irregular expansion and broadening of the facial nerve canal, damage of the bone wall and destruction of adjacent bone, with "point"-like or "needle"-like calcifications in 14 cases. The average CT value was 320.9 ± 141.8 Hu. Fourteen patients had a widened labyrinthine segment; 6/17 had a tympanic segment widening; 2/17 had a greater superficial petrosal nerve canal involvement, and 2/17 had an affected internal auditory canal (IAC) segment. On MRI, all lesions were significantly enhanced due to high blood supply. Using 2D FSE T2WI, the lesion detection rate was 82.4 % (14/17). 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) revealed the lesions in all patients. HRCT showed that the average number of involved segments in the facial nerve canal was 2.41, while MRI revealed an average of 2.70 segments (P < 0.05). HRCT and MR findings of facial nerve hemangioma were typical, revealing irregular masses growing along the facial nerve canal, with calcifications and rich blood supply. Thin-section enhanced MRI was more accurate in lesion detection and assessment compared with HRCT.

  2. SNAKES manipulator and ARD sluicer testing -- April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-05-29

    Long reach arms represent one of the options available for deployment of end effectors which can be used in the retrieval of radioactive waste, from the Hanford single shell tanks. The versatility of an arm based deployment system is such that it has the potential to improve the performance of a wide range of end effectors compared with stand-alone or other deployment methods. The long term reliability and availability of the deployment system is central to the timely completion of a waste retrieval program. However, concerns have been expressed over the dynamic performance of long reach arms and it is essential that an arm based system can cope with operational dynamic loads generated by end effectors. The test program conducted set out to measure static and dynamic loads and responses from a representative arm and sluicer, with the objective of extrapolating the data to a long reach arm system, that can be used for in-tank waste retrieval. As an arm with an appropriate reach was not available, the test program was undertaken to measure dynamic characteristics of a Magnox Electric 18 ft multi-link, hydraulically actuated SNAKES manipulator. This is the longest reach unit in service, albeit only one third of the 50 ft length required for in-tank waste retrieval. In addition operational performance and loading measurements were obtained from a low pressure confined system sluicer under development by ARD Environmental, to add to the end effector data base. When subject to impulse loading, the arm was found to behave in a repeatable manner having fundamental natural frequencies in the vertical and transverse directions of 1 Hz. There were also a large number of higher natural frequencies measured up to 100 Hz.

  3. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Porcine Model. Subtitle: Effects of Pharmacologic and Immunologic Intervention on the Porcine Pseudomonas Model of Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome ( ARDS ) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harvey J. Sugerman, M.D. AUTHORS: Patrick G. Mullen, M.B., F.R.C.S.I., Alastair C.J...Pseudomonas Model of Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome ( ARDS ) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 92-29868 Almost twenty-five years after...explosive form of lung injury in critically ill patients, which they termed adult respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ), the mortality and

  4. Effect of various binning methods and ROI sizes on the accuracy of the automatic classification system for differentiation between diffuse infiltrative lung diseases on the basis of texture features at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Sung, Yu Sub; Park, Bum-Woo; Lee, Youngjoo; Park, Seong Hoon; Lee, Young Kyung; Kang, Suk-Ho

    2008-03-01

    To find optimal binning, variable binning size linear binning (LB) and non-linear binning (NLB) methods were tested. In case of small binning size (Q <= 10), NLB shows significant better accuracy than the LB. K-means NLB (Q = 26) is statistically significant better than every LB. To find optimal binning method and ROI size of the automatic classification system for differentiation between diffuse infiltrative lung diseases on the basis of textural analysis at HRCT Six-hundred circular regions of interest (ROI) with 10, 20, and 30 pixel diameter, comprising of each 100 ROIs representing six regional disease patterns (normal, NL; ground-glass opacity, GGO; reticular opacity, RO; honeycombing, HC; emphysema, EMPH; and consolidation, CONS) were marked by an experienced radiologist from HRCT images. Histogram (mean) and co-occurrence matrix (mean and SD of angular second moment, contrast, correlation, entropy, and inverse difference momentum) features were employed to test binning and ROI effects. To find optimal binning, variable binning size LB (bin size Q: 4~30, 32, 64, 128, 144, 196, 256, 384) and NLB (Q: 4~30) methods (K-means, and Fuzzy C-means clustering) were tested. For automated classification, a SVM classifier was implemented. To assess cross-validation of the system, a five-folding method was used. Each test was repeatedly performed twenty times. Overall accuracies with every combination of variable ROIs, and binning sizes were statistically compared. In case of small binning size (Q <= 10), NLB shows significant better accuracy than the LB. K-means NLB (Q = 26) is statistically significant better than every LB. In case of 30x30 ROI size and most of binning size, the K-means method showed better than other NLB and LB methods. When optimal binning and other parameters were set, overall sensitivity of the classifier was 92.85%. The sensitivity and specificity of the system for each class were as follows: NL, 95%, 97.9%; GGO, 80%, 98.9%; RO 85%, 96.9%; HC, 94

  5. Update on the Role of Extracorporeal CO2 Removal as an Adjunct to Mechanical Ventilation in ARDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-16

    acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a devastating disease [1,2]. Mortality rates for ARDS have decreased over time but still remain...hyper- capnia has a series of potential adverse effects related to systemic and cerebral vasodilatation, cardiovascular de- pression, arrhythmia, and...hypercapnia [17]. The logic of this approach is that since inflammation contributes to respiratory failure and ARDS and respiratory acidosis has been

  6. Novel level-set based segmentation method of the lung at HRCT images of diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Namkug; Park, Sang Ok; Lee, Ho; Shin, Yeong Gil; Kim, Soo-Hong

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for reliable segmentation of the lung at HRCT of DILD. Our method consists of four main steps. First, the airway and colon are segmented and excluded by thresholding(-974 HU) and connected component analysis. Second, initial lung is identified by thresholding(-474 HU). Third, shape propagation outward the lung is performed on the initial lung. Actual lung boundaries exist inside the propagated boundaries. Finally, subsequent shape modeling level-set inward the lung from the propagated boundary can identify the lung boundary when the curvature term was highly weighted. To assess the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the segmentation results of 54 patients are compared with those of manual segmentation done by an expert radiologist. The value of 1 minus volumetric overlap is less than 5% error. Accurate result of our method would be useful in determining the lung parenchyma at HRCT, which is the essential step for the automatic classification and quantification of diffuse interstitial lung disease.

  7. Pediatric chest HRCT using the iDose4 Hybrid Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm: Which iDose level to choose?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarda, M.; Alexopoulou, E.; Mazioti, A.; Kordolaimi, S.; Ploussi, A.; Priftis, K.; Efstathopoulos, E.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose of the study is to determine the appropriate iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm level that combines image quality and diagnostic confidence, for pediatric patients undergoing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). During the last 2 years, a total number of 20 children up to 10 years old with a clinical presentation of chronic bronchitis underwent HRCT in our department's 64-detector row CT scanner using the iDose IR algorithm, with almost similar image settings (80kVp, 40-50 mAs). CT images were reconstructed with all iDose levels (level 1 to 7) as well as with filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm. Subjective image quality was evaluated by 2 experienced radiologists in terms of image noise, sharpness, contrast and diagnostic acceptability using a 5-point scale (1=excellent image, 5=non-acceptable image). Artifacts existance was also pointed out. All mean scores from both radiologists corresponded to satisfactory image quality (score ≤3), even with the FBP algorithm use. Almost excellent (score <2) overall image quality was achieved with iDose levels 5 to 7, but oversmoothing artifacts appearing with iDose levels 6 and 7 affected the diagnostic confidence. In conclusion, the use of iDose level 5 enables almost excellent image quality without considerable artifacts affecting the diagnosis. Further evaluation is needed in order to draw more precise conclusions.

  8. Survival Predictors for Severe ARDS Patients Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Retrospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yonghao; Zhang, Rong; Huang, Yongbo; He, Weiqun; Sang, Ling; Chen, Sibei; Nong, Lingbo; Li, Xi; Mao, Pu

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being applied as life support for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. However, the outcomes of this procedure have not yet been characterized in severe ARDS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of severe ARDS patients supported with ECMO and to identify potential predictors of mortality in these patients. A total of 38 severe ARDS patients (aged 51.39±13.27 years, 32 males) who were treated with ECMO in the specialized medical intensive care unit of Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases from July 2009 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical data of the patients on the day before ECMO initiation, on the first day of ECMO treatment and on the day of ECMO removal were collected and analyzed. All patients were treated with veno-venous ECMO after a median mechanical ventilation duration of 6.4±7.6 days. Among the 20 patients (52.6%) who were successfully weaned from ECMO, 16 patients (42.1%) survived to hospital discharge. Of the identified pre-ECMO factors, advanced age, a long duration of ventilation before ECMO, a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, underlying lung disease, and pulmonary barotrauma prior to ECMO were associated with unsuccessful weaning from ECMO. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that both barotrauma pre-ECMO and underlying lung disease were independent predictors of hospital mortality. In conclusion, for severe ARDS patients treated with ECMO, barotrauma prior to ECMO and underlying lung disease may be major predictors of ARDS prognosis based on multivariate analysis. PMID:27336170

  9. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on ARDS: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Parish, Masoud; Valiyi, Farnaz; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Sanaie, Sarvin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Golzari, Samad EJ; Mahmoodpoor, Ata

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an enteral nutrition diet, enriched with omega-3 fatty acids because of its anti-inflammatory effects on treatment of patients with mild to moderate ARDS. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed in two ICUs of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from Jun 2011 until Sep 2013 in north west of Iran. Fifty-eight patients with mild to moderate ARDS were enroled in this clinical trial. All patients received standard treatment for ARDS based on ARDS network trial. In intervention group, patients received 6 soft-gels of omega-3/day in addition to the standard treatment. Results: Tidal volume, PEEP, pH, PaO2/FiO2 , SaO2, P platue and PaCO2 on the 7th and 14th days didn’t have significant difference between two groups. Indices of lung mechanics (Resistance, Compliance) had significant difference between the groups on the 14th day. Pao2 had significant difference between two groups on both 7th and 14th days. Trend of PaO2 changes during the study period in two groups were significant. We showed that adjusted mortality rate did not have significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: It seems that adding omega-3 fatty acids to enteral diet of patients with ARDS has positive results in term of ventilator free days, oxygenation, lung mechanic indices; however, we need more multi center trials with large sample size and different doses of omega-3 fatty acids for their routine usage as an adjuant for ARDS treatment. PMID:25671189

  10. Severe ARDS may cause right heart failure with extreme hepatomegaly but without hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Søreide, E; Harboe, S; Søndenaa, K

    2002-08-01

    A young trauma patient developed severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), right heart failure, hepatic congestion and an extreme hepatomegaly but no hepatic failure. The patient needed 100% oxygen during ventilatory support for 80 days and was weaned from the ventilator after more than 100 days. The hepatomegaly gradually disappeared. Four months after the injury, the anatomical shape of the lungs, heart and liver were normalized. This case illustrates that severe ARDS may cause right heart failure and extreme hepatomegaly due to venous congestion in the liver and spleen, but without hepatic failure.

  11. Multivariable fractional polynomial interaction to investigate continuous effect modifiers in a meta-analysis on higher versus lower PEEP for patients with ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Sauerbrei, Willi; Royston, Patrick; Mercat, Alain; Slutsky, Arthur S; Cook, Deborah; Guyatt, Gordon H; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Stewart, Thomas E; Meade, Maureen; Briel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    these findings. Conclusions MFPI analyses suggest a nonlinear effect modification of higher PEEP ventilation by PaO2/FiO2 and oxygenation index with reduced mortality for some patients suffering from moderate ARDS. Study registration number CRD42012003129. PMID:27609843

  12. Regulation of Inflammatory Biomarkers by Intravenous Methylprednisolone in Pediatric ARDS Patients: Results from a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Kimura, Dai; Rovnaghi, Cynthia R.; Saravia, Jordy S.; Cormier, Stephania A; Teng, Bin; West, Alina N.; Meduri, Umberto G.; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A double-blind, randomized controlled trial showed that low-dose glucocorticoid therapy in pediatric ARDS patients is feasible and may improve both ventilation and oxygenation indices in these patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying potential changes in outcomes remain unclear. Based on these clinical findings, this study was designed to examine the effects of intravenous methylprednisolone on circulating inflammatory biomarkers in pediatric ARDS patients. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial with blood collection on study entry and day 7. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital. Patients Children (0–18 years) with ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation. Interventions 35 children were randomized within 72 hours of mechanical ventilation. The glucocorticoid group received methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg loading dose followed by 1 mg/kg/day continuous infusion from days 1–7. Both groups were ventilated following the ARDSnet recommendations. WBC and differential cell counts, plasma cytokines and CRP levels, and coagulation parameters were analyzed on days 0 and 7. Results At study entry, the placebo group had higher IL-15 and basophil levels. On day 7, in comparison to study entry, the placebo group had lower IL-1α, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels. The glucocorticoid group had lower INF-α, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, G-CSF and GM-CSF levels, and higher IL-17α levels on day 7 in comparison to study entry. Total and differential cell counts remained unchanged within the placebo group between days 0 and 7, whereas in the glucocorticoid group total WBC and platelets counts were increased on day 7. Pearson’s correlation studies within the placebo and glucocorticoid groups revealed positive and negative correlations between cytokine levels, cell counts, coagulation parameters and relevant clinical parameters of disease severity identified in our previous study. Multiple regression models identified several cytokines as predictors for

  13. HrcT is a key component of the type III secretion system in Xanthomonas spp. and also regulates the expression of the key hrp transcriptional activator HrpX.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Yang; Zou, Li-Fang; Xue, Xiao-Bo; Cai, Lu-Lu; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Xiong, Li; Ji, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Gong-You

    2014-07-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS), encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes in Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria, delivers repertoires of T3SS effectors (T3SEs) into plant cells to trigger the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost or resistant-host plants and promote pathogenicity in susceptible plants. The expression of hrp genes in Xanthomonas is regulated by two key regulatory proteins, HrpG and HrpX. However, the interactions between hrp gene products in directing T3SE secretion are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that HrcT of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola functions as a T3SS component and positively regulates the expression of hrpX. Transcription of hrcT occurs via two distinct promoters; one (T1) is with the hrpB operon and the second (T3) within hrpB7 Via either promoter T1 or T3, the defect in Hrp phenotype by hrcT deletion was corrected in the presence of hrcT only from Xanthomonas species but not from other phytopathogenic bacteria. An N-terminally truncated HrcT was able to bind the hrpX promoter and activate the expression of hrpX, supporting that HrcT is a positive regulator of hrpX. A revised model showing the regulatory interactions between HrcT, HrpX, and HrpG is proposed.

  14. Etiology and Outcomes of ARDS in a Rural-Urban Fringe Hospital of South India.

    PubMed

    George, Tarun; Viswanathan, Stalin; Karnam, Ali Hasan Faiz; Abraham, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Etiology and outcomes of acute lung injury in tropical countries may be different from those of western nations. We describe the etiology and outcomes of illnesses causing acute lung injury in a rural populace. Study Design. A prospective observational study. Setting. Medical ICU of a teaching hospital in a rural-urban fringe location. Patients. Patients ≥13 years, admitted between December 2011 and May 2013, satisfying AECC criteria for ALI/ARDS. Results. Study had 61 patients; 46 had acute lung injury at admission. Scrub typhus was the commonest cause (7/61) and tropical infections contributed to 26% of total cases. Increasing ARDS severity was associated with older age, higher FiO2 and APACHE/SOFA scores, and longer duration of ventilation. Nonsurvivors were generally older, had shorter duration of illness, a nontropical infection, and higher total WBC counts, required longer duration of ventilation, and had other organ dysfunction and higher mean APACHE scores. The mortality rate of ARDS was 36.6% (22/61) in our study. Conclusion. Tropical infections form a major etiological component of acute lung injury in a developing country like India. Etiology and outcomes of ARDS may vary depending upon the geographic location and seasonal illnesses.

  15. Etiology and Outcomes of ARDS in a Rural-Urban Fringe Hospital of South India

    PubMed Central

    Karnam, Ali Hasan Faiz; Abraham, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Etiology and outcomes of acute lung injury in tropical countries may be different from those of western nations. We describe the etiology and outcomes of illnesses causing acute lung injury in a rural populace. Study Design. A prospective observational study. Setting. Medical ICU of a teaching hospital in a rural-urban fringe location. Patients. Patients ≥13 years, admitted between December 2011 and May 2013, satisfying AECC criteria for ALI/ARDS. Results. Study had 61 patients; 46 had acute lung injury at admission. Scrub typhus was the commonest cause (7/61) and tropical infections contributed to 26% of total cases. Increasing ARDS severity was associated with older age, higher FiO2 and APACHE/SOFA scores, and longer duration of ventilation. Nonsurvivors were generally older, had shorter duration of illness, a nontropical infection, and higher total WBC counts, required longer duration of ventilation, and had other organ dysfunction and higher mean APACHE scores. The mortality rate of ARDS was 36.6% (22/61) in our study. Conclusion. Tropical infections form a major etiological component of acute lung injury in a developing country like India. Etiology and outcomes of ARDS may vary depending upon the geographic location and seasonal illnesses. PMID:24660060

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases and protein tyrosine kinases: potential novel targets in acute lung injury and ARDS.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Yael; Zemans, Rachel L; Yamashita, Cory M; Downey, Gregory P

    2014-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS fall within a spectrum of pulmonary disease that is characterized by hypoxemia, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and dysregulated and excessive inflammation. While mortality rates have improved with the advent of specialized ICUs and lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies, few other therapies have proven effective in the management of ARDS, which remains a significant clinical problem. Further development of biomarkers of disease severity, response to therapy, and prognosis is urgently needed. Several novel pathways have been identified and studied with respect to the pathogenesis of ALI and ARDS that show promise in bridging some of these gaps. This review will focus on the roles of matrix metalloproteinases and protein tyrosine kinases in the pathobiology of ALI in humans, and in animal models and in vitro studies. These molecules can act independently, as well as coordinately, in a feed-forward manner via activation of tyrosine kinase-regulated pathways that are pivotal in the development of ARDS. Specific signaling events involving proteolytic processing by matrix metalloproteinases that contribute to ALI, including cytokine and chemokine activation and release, neutrophil recruitment, transmigration and activation, and disruption of the intact alveolar-capillary barrier, will be explored in the context of these novel molecular pathways.

  17. Prolonged Glucocorticoid Treatment in ARDS: Impact on Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Meduri, Gianfranco Umberto; Schwingshackl, Andreas; Hermans, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation and duration of immobilization are strong independent risk factors for the development of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) results in muscle wasting during disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy (ICU bed rest) and septic shock. In addition, NF-κB-mediated signaling plays a significant role in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Older trials investigating high dose glucocorticoid treatment reported a lack of a sustained anti-inflammatory effects and an association with ICUAW. However, prolonged low-to-moderate dose glucocorticoid treatment of sepsis and ARDS is associated with a reduction in NF-κB DNA-binding, decreased transcription of inflammatory cytokines, enhanced resolution of systemic and pulmonary inflammation, leading to fewer days of mechanical ventilation, and lower mortality. Importantly, meta-analyses of a large number of randomized controlled trials investigating low-to-moderate glucocorticoid treatment in severe sepsis and ARDS found no increase in ICUAW. Furthermore, while the ARDS network trial investigating methylprednisolone treatment in persistent ARDS is frequently cited to support an association with ICUAW, a reanalysis of the data showed a similar incidence with the control group. Our review concludes that in patients with sepsis and ARDS, any potential direct harmful neuromuscular effect of glucocorticoids appears outweighed by the overall clinical improvement and reduced duration of organ failure, in particular ventilator dependency and associated immobilization, which are key risk factors for ICUAW. PMID:27532030

  18. Plasma angiopoietin-2 outperforms other markers of endothelial injury in prognosticating pediatric ARDS mortality.

    PubMed

    Zinter, Matt S; Spicer, Aaron; Orwoll, Benjamin O; Alkhouli, Mustafa; Dvorak, Christopher C; Calfee, Carolyn S; Matthay, Michael A; Sapru, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a key mediator of pulmonary vascular permeability. This study tested the association between plasma Ang-2 and mortality in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with stratification for prior hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT), given the severe, yet poorly understood, ARDS phenotype of this subgroup. We enrolled 259 children <18 years of age with ARDS; 25 had prior HCT. Plasma Ang-2, von Willebrand Factor antigen (vWF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured on ARDS days 1 and 3 and correlated with patient outcomes. Day 1 and day 3 Ang-2 levels were associated with mortality independent of age, sex, race, and P/F ratio [odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.5, P = 0.027; and OR 10.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-46.5, P = 0.003, for each log10 increase in Ang-2]. vWF was associated with mortality (P = 0.027), but VEGF was not. The association between day 1 Ang-2 and mortality was independent of levels of both vWF and VEGF (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1-12.1, P = 0.039, for each log10 increase in Ang-2). 45% of the cohort had a rising Ang-2 between ARDS day 1 and 3 (adjusted mortality OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-9.2, P = 0.026). HCT patients with a rising Ang-2 had 70% mortality compared with 13% mortality for those without (OR 16.3, 95% CI 1.3-197.8, P = 0.028). Elevated plasma levels of Ang-2 were associated with mortality independent of vWF and VEGF. A rising Ang-2 between days 1 and 3 was strongly associated with mortality, particularly in pediatric HCT patients, suggesting vulnerability to ongoing endothelial damage.

  19. Directional Multi-scale Modeling of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Lung Images for Diffuse Lung Disease Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Kiet T.; Sowmya, Arcot

    A directional multi-scale modeling scheme based on wavelet and contourlet transforms is employed to describe HRCT lung image textures for classifying four diffuse lung disease patterns: normal, emphysema, ground glass opacity (GGO) and honey-combing. Generalized Gaussian density parameters are used to represent the detail sub-band features obtained by wavelet and contourlet transforms. In addition, support vector machines (SVMs) with excellent performance in a variety of pattern classification problems are used as classifier. The method is tested on a collection of 89 slices from 38 patients, each slice of size 512x512, 16 bits/pixel in DICOM format. The dataset contains 70,000 ROIs of those slices marked by experienced radiologists. We employ this technique at different wavelet and contourlet transform scales for diffuse lung disease classification. The technique presented here has best overall sensitivity 93.40% and specificity 98.40%.

  20. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an oral ghrelin agonist (ARD-07) in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Carol M; Casanova, Anna-Tina; Baselgia-Jeker, Luisa; Neave, Nicola; Larsen, Finn; Skillern, Laurence; Drewe, Juergen; Beglinger, Christoph

    2009-05-01

    ARD-07 (also known as EP01572) is a peptidomimetic growth hormone secretagogue that can be administered orally. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of a meal on the oral bioavailability of ARD-07 after a single oral dose (0.5 mg/kg). In addition, the pharmacodynamic effects (growth hormone release, insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations) and the tolerability of ARD-07 are investigated in this open-label, randomized, crossover study. Sixteen healthy subjects (8 males, 8 females) receive ARD-07 on 2 different days; the treatment consists of a single oral dose of ARD-07 (0.5 mg/kg body weight), once with and the second day without a test meal. Plasma kinetics of ARD-07 and pharmacodynamic effects are quantified by specific assays. Results are given as mean +/- SEM: The area under the curve for 0 to 24 hours is approximately twice as high without food (27.8 +/- 4.1) than with food (13.7 +/- 1.2; P = .002). The maximum observed ARD-07 concentration relative to dose administration (C(max)) is more than twice as high without food (10.6 +/- 1.6 ng/mL) than with food (4.4 +/- 0.5 ng/mL; P = .001). C(max) of growth hormone occurs at a significantly (P = .001) later stage with food (C(max) = 13.0 +/- 3.5 ng/mL) than without food (37.1 +/- 5.3 ng/mL). Food has a marked effect on the absorption of ARD-07: there is a significant difference in bioavailability between administration of oral ARD-07 with and without food.

  1. Is pulmonary resistance constant, within the range of tidal volume ventilation, in patients with ARDS?

    PubMed

    Mols, G; Kessler, V; Benzing, A; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, M; Geiger, K; Guttmann, J

    2001-02-01

    When managing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), respiratory system compliance is usually considered first and changes in resistance, although recognized, are neglected. Resistance can change considerably between minimum and maximum lung volume, but is generally assumed to be constant in the tidal volume range (V(T)). We measured resistance during tidal ventilation in 16 patients with ARDS or acute lung injury by the slice method and multiple linear regression analysis. Resistance was constant within V(T) in only six of 16 patients. In the remaining patients, resistance decreased, increased or showed complex changes. We conclude that resistance within V(T) varies considerably from patient to patient and that constant resistance within V(T) is not always likely.

  2. Biomarkers of ALI/ARDS: pathogenesis, discovery, and relevance to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Janz, David R; Ware, Lorraine B

    2013-08-01

    Despite the high incidence and poor prognosis of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it remains challenging to identify patients who are at highest risk of developing these syndromes, differentiate these syndromes from other causes of acute respiratory failure, and accurately prognosticate once the diagnosis is made. The identification and validation of biological markers of ALI has the potential to ameliorate these challenges by facilitating studies of therapies aimed at prevention, identifying patients more accurately that have ALI so they can benefit from evidence-based therapies and enrollment in clinical trials, and determining which patients are unlikely to have a positive outcome to guide therapeutic choices and trials of experimental rescue therapies. This article reviews the current state of biomarker research in ALI/ARDS. New methodologies for identification of novel biomarkers of ALI, including metabolomics, proteomics, gene expression, and genetic studies are also discussed.

  3. Effects of nitric oxide inhalation on pulmonary serial vascular resistances in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, M; Guénard, H; Gabinski, C

    1996-11-01

    The pulmonary vasculature site of action of nitric oxide (NO) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still unknown. Seven patients were studied during the early stage of ARDS. The bedside pulmonary artery single-occlusion technique, which allows estimation of the pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap) and segmental pulmonary vascular resistance, was used without NO or with increasing inhaled NO concentrations (15 and 25 parts per million [ppm]). Systemic circulatory parameters remained unaltered during 15 ppm NO inhalation, whereas 25 ppm NO inhalation slightly decreased mean systemic arterial pressure from 76.7 +/- 5.1 (mean +/- SEM) to 69 +/- 5.2 mm Hg (p < 0.01). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppam) and mean pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcapm) fell during 25 ppm NO inhalation from 27.4 +/- 3.5 to 21 +/- 2.2 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and from 14.8 +/- 1.5 to 10.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (p < 0.001) respectively, the total pulmonary resistance decreased by 28% (p < 0.01). The resistance of the capillary-venous compartment fell during 25 ppm NO inhalation from 100 +/- 16 to 47 +/- 16 dyn x s x m(2) x cm(-5) (p < 0.01), whereas the pulmonary arterial resistance was unchanged. In these patients NO inhalation during the early stage of ARDS reduces selectively Ppam and Pcapm by decreasing the pulmonary capillary-venous resistance. This latter effect may reduce the filtration through the capillary bed and hence alveolar edema during ARDS.

  4. Effects of Pharmacologic and Immunologic Intervention on the Pseudomonas Porcine Model of ARDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    amnug p"inenaL in interns’".’ carc unis. 8 Although originally described as non- cardiogenic or high permeability pulmonary edema , ARDS is much more... edema with sequestration of neutrophils, initially in the pulmonary vasculature but later in the interstitium and the alveolar space. Endothelial...epithelial component, as reflected by the presence of hyaline material, neutrophils and cellular debris, in addition to the high protein edema fluid efflux

  5. Rationale for Prolonged Glucocorticoid Use in Pediatric ARDS: What the Adults Can Teach Us

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Meduri, Gianfranco Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Based on molecular mechanisms and physiologic data, a strong association has been established between dysregulated systemic inflammation and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In ARDS patients, glucocorticoid receptor-mediated downregulation of systemic inflammation is essential to restore homeostasis, decrease morbidity and improve survival and can be significantly enhanced with prolonged low-to-moderate dose glucocorticoid treatment. A large body of evidence supports a strong association between prolonged glucocorticoid treatment-induced downregulation of the inflammatory response and improvement in pulmonary and extrapulmonary physiology. The balance of the available data from eight controlled trials (n = 622) provides consistent strong level of evidence for improving patient-centered outcomes and hospital survival. The sizable increase in mechanical ventilation-free days (weighted mean difference, 6.48 days; CI 95% 2.57–10.38, p < 0.0001) and intensive care unit-free days (weighted mean difference, 7.7 days; 95% CI, 3.13–12.20, p < 0.0001) by day 28 is superior to any investigated intervention in ARDS. For treatment initiated before day 14 of ARDS, the increased in hospital survival (70 vs. 52%, OR 2.41, CI 95% 1.50–3.87, p = 0.0003) translates into a number needed to treat to save one life of 5.5. Importantly, prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is not associated with increased risk for nosocomial infections (22 vs. 27%, OR 0.61, CI 95% 0.35–1.04, p = 0.07). Treatment decisions involve a tradeoff between benefits and risks, as well as costs. This low-cost, highly effective therapy is familiar to every physician and has a low risk profile when secondary prevention measures are implemented. PMID:27379217

  6. Acute cor pulmonale in ARDS: rationale for protecting the right ventricle.

    PubMed

    Repessé, Xavier; Charron, Cyril; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The ventilatory strategy for ARDS has been regularly amended over the last 40 years as knowledge of the pathophysiology of ARDS has increased. Initially focused mainly on the lung with the objectives of "opening the lung" and optimizing arterial oxygen saturation, this strategy now also takes into account pulmonary vascular injury and its effects on the right ventricle and on hemodynamics. Hemodynamic devices now available at the bedside, such as echocardiography, allow intensivists to evaluate respiratory settings according to right ventricular tolerance. Here, we review the pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular dysfunction in ARDS, consider the beneficial and deleterious effects of mechanical ventilation, describe the incidence and meaning of acute cor pulmonale based on recent studies in large series of patients, and propose a new, although not strictly validated, approach based on the protection of both the lung and right ventricle. One of our conclusions is that evaluating the right ventricle may help intensivists to assess the balance between recruitment and overdistension induced by the ventilatory strategy. Prone positioning with its beneficial effects on the lung and also on hemodynamics (the right ventricle) is a good illustration of this. Readers should be aware that most of the information given in this article reflects the point of view of the authors. Although based on clinical observations, clinical studies, and well-known pathophysiology, there is no evidence-based medicine to support this clinical commentary. Other approaches may be favored, in which case our article should be read as another attempt to help intensivists to improve management of ARDS.

  7. Update in ARDS management: recent randomized controlled trials that changed our practice.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, J Fernando; Diaz Guzman Zavala, Enrique; Arroliga, Alejandro C

    2006-03-01

    In the last 7 years, 14 randomized controlled trials in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown that: Mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight is better than mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume of 12 mL/kg of predicted body weight. Prone positioning improves oxygenation but poses safety concerns. A high level of positive end-expiratory pressure does not improve survival. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is in theory the ideal "lung-protective" method, but its benefits have not been proven. No drug therapy has been shown to improve survival in patients with ARDS. Exogenous surfactant may improve oxygenation but has no significant effect on the death rate or length of use of mechanical ventilation. Low-dose inhaled nitric oxide has no substantial impact on the duration of ventilatory support or on the death rate. Partial liquid ventilation may be beneficial in young patients with acute lung injury or ARDS, although further study is needed to confirm this.

  8. Clinical study on VATS combined mechanical ventilation treatment of ARDS secondary to severe chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical effects of microinvasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) combined with mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to severe chest trauma. A total of 62 patients with ARDS secondary to severe chest trauma were divided into the observation and control groups. The patients in the observation groups were treated with VATS combined with early mechanical ventilation while patients in the control group were treated using routine open thoracotomy combined with early mechanical ventilation. Compared to the controls, the survival rate of the observation group was significantly higher. The average operation time of the observation group was significantly shorter than that of the control group, and the incidence of complications in the perioperative period of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05). The average application time of the observation group was significantly shorter than that of the control group, and the incidence of ventilator-associated complications was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, a reasonable understanding of the indications and contraindications of VATS, combined with early mechanical treatment significantly improved the success rate of the treatment of ARDS patients secondary to severe chest trauma and reduced the complications. PMID:27446317

  9. ARD1-mediated Hsp70 acetylation balances stress-induced protein refolding and degradation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Eun Ji; Vo, Tam Thuy Lu; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jun Yong; Jang, Jae Kyung; Wee, Hee-Jun; Lee, Hye Shin; Jang, Se Hwan; Park, Zee Yong; Jeong, Jaeho; Lee, Kong-Joo; Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Bong Jin; Lee, Mi-Ni; Oh, Goo Taeg; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2016-10-06

    Heat shock protein (Hsp)70 is a molecular chaperone that maintains protein homoeostasis during cellular stress through two opposing mechanisms: protein refolding and degradation. However, the mechanisms by which Hsp70 balances these opposing functions under stress conditions remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Hsp70 preferentially facilitates protein refolding after stress, gradually switching to protein degradation via a mechanism dependent on ARD1-mediated Hsp70 acetylation. During the early stress response, Hsp70 is immediately acetylated by ARD1 at K77, and the acetylated Hsp70 binds to the co-chaperone Hop to allow protein refolding. Thereafter, Hsp70 is deacetylated and binds to the ubiquitin ligase protein CHIP to complete protein degradation during later stages. This switch is required for the maintenance of protein homoeostasis and ultimately rescues cells from stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, ARD1-mediated Hsp70 acetylation is a regulatory mechanism that temporally balances protein refolding/degradation in response to stress.

  10. Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S; Moss, Marc; Hough, Catherine L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Rice, Todd W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are similar to those of other survivors of critical illness and largely affect the nerve, muscle, and central nervous system but also include a constellation of varied physical devastations ranging from contractures and frozen joints to tooth loss and cosmesis. Compromised quality of life is related to a spectrum of impairment of physical, social, emotional, and neurocognitive function and to a much lesser extent discrete pulmonary disability. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is ubiquitous and includes contributions from both critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy, and recovery from these lesions may be incomplete at 5 years after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment in ARDS survivors ranges from 70 to 100 % at hospital discharge, 46 to 80 % at 1 year, and 20 % at 5 years, and mood disorders including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also sustained and prevalent. Robust multidisciplinary and longitudinal interventions that improve these outcomes are still uncertain and data in our literature are conflicting. Studies are needed in family members of ARDS survivors to better understand long-term outcomes of the post-ICU family syndrome and to evaluate how it affects patient recovery.

  11. ARD1-mediated Hsp70 acetylation balances stress-induced protein refolding and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Eun Ji; Vo, Tam Thuy Lu; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jun Yong; Jang, Jae Kyung; Wee, Hee-Jun; Lee, Hye Shin; Jang, Se Hwan; Park, Zee Yong; Jeong, Jaeho; Lee, Kong-Joo; Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Bong Jin; Lee, Mi-Ni; Oh, Goo Taeg; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp)70 is a molecular chaperone that maintains protein homoeostasis during cellular stress through two opposing mechanisms: protein refolding and degradation. However, the mechanisms by which Hsp70 balances these opposing functions under stress conditions remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Hsp70 preferentially facilitates protein refolding after stress, gradually switching to protein degradation via a mechanism dependent on ARD1-mediated Hsp70 acetylation. During the early stress response, Hsp70 is immediately acetylated by ARD1 at K77, and the acetylated Hsp70 binds to the co-chaperone Hop to allow protein refolding. Thereafter, Hsp70 is deacetylated and binds to the ubiquitin ligase protein CHIP to complete protein degradation during later stages. This switch is required for the maintenance of protein homoeostasis and ultimately rescues cells from stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, ARD1-mediated Hsp70 acetylation is a regulatory mechanism that temporally balances protein refolding/degradation in response to stress. PMID:27708256

  12. Rationale and Description of Right Ventricle-Protective Ventilation in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Paternot, Alexis; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is associated with ARDS and leads to increased right-ventricular afterload and eventually right-ventricular failure, also called acute cor pulmonale. Interest in acute cor pulmonale and its negative impact on outcome in patients with ARDS has grown in recent years. Right-ventricular function in these patients should be closely monitored, and this is helped by the widespread use of echocardiography in intensive care units. Because mechanical ventilation may worsen right-ventricular failure, the interaction between the lungs and the right ventricle appears to be a key factor in the ventilation strategy. In this review, a rationale for a right ventricle-protective ventilation approach is provided, and such a strategy is described, including the reduction of lung stress (ie, the limitation of plateau pressure and driving pressure), the reduction of PaCO2 , and the improvement of oxygenation. Prone positioning seems to be a crucial part of this strategy by protecting both the lungs and the right ventricle, resulting in increased survival of patients with ARDS. Further studies are required to validate the positive impact on prognosis of right ventricle-protective mechanical ventilation.

  13. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P.; Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  14. Plasma C-Reactive Protein Levels Are Associated With Improved Outcome in ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ednan K.; Khan, Uzma A.; Januzzi, James L.; Gong, Michelle N.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) has been studied as a marker of systemic inflammation and outcome in a number of diseases, but little is known about its characteristics in ARDS. We sought to examine plasma levels of CRP in patients with ARDS and their relationship to outcome and measures of illness severity. Methods: We measured CRP levels in 177 patients within 48 h of disease onset and tested the association of protein level with 60-day mortality, 28-day daily organ dysfunction scores, and number of ventilator-free days. Results: We found that CRP levels were significantly lower in nonsurvivors when compared with survivors (p = 0.02). Mortality rate decreased with increasing CRP decile (p = 0.02). An increasing CRP level was associated with a significantly higher probability of survival at 60 days (p = 0.005). This difference persisted after adjustment for age and severity of illness in a multivariable model (p = 0.009). Multivariable models were also used to show that patients in the group with higher CRP levels had significantly lower organ dysfunction scores (p = 0.001) and more ventilator-free days (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Increasing plasma levels of CRP within 48 h of ARDS onset are associated with improved survival, lower organ failure scores, and fewer days of mechanical ventilation. These data appear to be contrary to the established view that CRP is solely a marker of systemic inflammation. PMID:19411291

  15. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Procine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimitfed 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an explosive ...Avail an•Id-or Dist Special C QUA.Lr j~4 Introduction Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an explosive form of acute respiratory failure...most central to the disease process (Windsor et al. 1993; Tate and Repine, 1983; Staub et al. 1982). This was first postulated by Metchinkoff in 1887

  16. 3D cine magnetic resonance imaging of rat lung ARDS using gradient-modulated SWIFT with retrospective respiratory gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Lei, Jianxun; Utecht, Lynn; Garwood, Michael; Ingbar, David H.; Bhargava, Maneesh

    2015-03-01

    SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (SWIFT) with gradient modulation and DC navigator retrospective gating is introduced as a 3D cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for the lung. In anesthetized normal rats, the quasi-simultaneous excitation and acquisition in SWIFT enabled extremely high sensitivity to the fast-decaying parenchymal signals (TE=~4 μs), which are invisible with conventional MRI techniques. Respiratory motion information was extracted from DC navigator signals and the SWIFT data were reconstructed to 3D cine images with 16 respiratory phases. To test this technique's capabilities, rats exposed to > 95% O2 for 60 hours for induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), were imaged and compared with normal rat lungs (N=7 and 5 for ARDS and normal groups, respectively). SWIFT images showed lung tissue density differences along the gravity direction. In the cine SWIFT images, a parenchymal signal drop at the inhalation phase was consistently observed for both normal and ARDS rats due to lung inflation (i.e. decrease of the proton density), but the drop was less for ARDS rats. Depending on the respiratory phase and lung region, the lungs from the ARDS rats showed 1-24% higher parenchymal signal intensities relative to the normal rat lungs, likely due to accumulated extravascular water (EVLW). Those results demonstrate that SWIFT has high enough sensitivity for detecting the lung proton density changes due to gravity, different phases of respiration and accumulation of EVLW in the rat ARDS lungs.

  17. 3D Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rat Lung ARDS using Gradient-modulated SWIFT with Retrospective Respiratory Gating.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Lei, Jianxun; Utecht, Lynn; Garwood, Michael; Ingbar, David; Bhargava, Maneesh

    2015-02-21

    SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (SWIFT) with gradient modulation and DC navigator retrospective gating is introduced as a 3D cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for the lung. The quasi-simultaneous excitation and acquisition in SWIFT enabled extremely high sensitivity to the fast-decaying parenchymal signals (TE=~4 μs), which are invisible with conventional MRI techniques. Based on respiratory motion information extracted from DC navigator signals, the SWIFT data were reconstructed to 3D cine images with 16 respiratory phases. To test the capability of the proposed technique, rats exposed to > 95% O2 for 60 hours for induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), were imaged and compared with normal rat lungs (N=7 and 5 for ARDS and normal group, respectively). SWIFT images showed lung tissue density difference along the gravity direction. In the cine SWIFT images, parenchymal signal drop at the inhalation phase was consistently observed for both normal and ARDS rats due to inflation of the lung (i.e. decrease of the proton density), but the drop was less for ARDS rats. Depending on the respiration phase and lung region, the lungs from the ARDS rats showed 1-24% higher parenchymal signal intensities relative to the normal rat lungs, which would be mainly from accumulation of extravascular water (EVLW). Those results demonstrate that SWIFT has high enough sensitivity for detecting the lung proton density changes due to gravity, different respiration phases and accumulation of EVLW in the rat ARDS lungs.

  18. Ventilator-associated pneumonia and ICU mortality in severe ARDS patients ventilated according to a lung-protective strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) may contribute to the mortality associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to determine the incidence, outcome, and risk factors of bacterial VAP complicating severe ARDS in patients ventilated by using a strictly standardized lung-protective strategy. Methods This prospective epidemiologic study was done in all the 339 patients with severe ARDS included in a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial of cisatracurium besylate in severe ARDS patients. Patients with suspected VAP underwent bronchoalveolar lavage to confirm the diagnosis. Results Ninety-eight (28.9%) patients had at least one episode of microbiologically documented bacterial VAP, including 41 (41.8%) who died in the ICU, compared with 74 (30.7%) of the 241 patients without VAP (P = 0.05). After adjustment, age and severity at baseline, but not VAP, were associated with ICU death. Cisatracurium besylate therapy within 2 days of ARDS onset decreased the risk of ICU death. Factors independently associated with an increased risk to develop a VAP were male sex and worse admission Glasgow Coma Scale score. Tracheostomy, enteral nutrition, and the use of a subglottic secretion-drainage device were protective. Conclusions In patients with severe ARDS receiving lung-protective ventilation, VAP was associated with an increased crude ICU mortality which did not remain significant after adjustment. PMID:22524447

  19. The Creation and Statistical Evaluation of a Deterministic Model of the Human Bronchial Tree from HRCT Images

    PubMed Central

    Montesantos, Spyridon; Katz, Ira; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative description of the morphology of lung structure is essential prior to any form of predictive modeling of ventilation or aerosol deposition implemented within the lung. The human lung is a very complex organ, with airway structures that span two orders of magnitude and having a multitude of interfaces between air, tissue and blood. As such, current medical imaging protocols cannot provide medical practitioners and researchers with in-vivo knowledge of deeper lung structures. In this work a detailed algorithm for the generation of an individualized 3D deterministic model of the conducting part of the human tracheo-bronchial tree is described. Distinct initial conditions were obtained from the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of seven healthy volunteers. The algorithm developed is fractal in nature and is implemented as a self-similar space sub-division procedure. The expansion process utilizes physiologically realistic relationships and thresholds to produce an anatomically consistent human airway tree. The model was validated through extensive statistical analysis of the results and comparison of the most common morphological features with previously published morphometric studies and other equivalent models. The resulting trees were shown to be in good agreement with published human lung geometric characteristics and can be used to study, among other things, structure-function relationships in simulation studies. PMID:27977730

  20. Continuous distending pressure effects on variables contributing to oxygenation in healthy and ARDS model pigs during HFOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviola, Marianna; Hajny, Ondrej; Roubik, Karel

    2014-10-01

    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an alternative mode of mechanical ventilation. HFOV has been shown to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and may represent an effective lung-protective ventilation in patients where conventional ventilation is failing. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of continuous distending pressure (CDP) on variables that contribute to the oxygenation in healthy and ARDS lung model pigs. Methods. In order to simulate a lung disease, lung injury was induced by lavage with normal saline with detergent in three pigs. HFOV ventilation was applied before and after the lung lavage. CDP was stepwise increased by 2 cmH2O, until the maximum CDP (before the lung lavage 32 cmH2O and after the lung lavage 42 cmH2O) and then it was stepwise decreased by 2 cmH2O to the initial value. In this paper we analyzed the following parameters acquired during our experiments: partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), cardiac output (CO) and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (SvO2). In order to find how both PaO2 and CO affected SvO2 during the increase of CDP before and after lavage, a nonlinear regression fitting of the response in SvO2 on the predictors (PaO2 and CO) was implemented. Results. Before the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 remained constant, CO strongly decreased and SvO2 slightly decreased. After the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 strongly increased, CO decreased and SvO2 increased. So, development of SvO2 followed the PaO2 and CO trends. Changes in PaO2 and CO occur at decisive CDP step and it was much higher after the lung lavage compared to the healthy lungs. The implemented nonlinear model gives a good goodness of fitting in all three pigs. The values of PaO2 and CO estimated coefficients changed at the same decisive step of CDP identified by the trends. Also the algorithm identified a CDP step much higher after the lung lavage

  1. Disease-specific dynamic biomarkers selected by integrating inflammatory mediators with clinical informatics in ARDS patients with severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chengshui; Shi, Lin; Li, Yuping; Wang, Xiangdong; Yang, Shuanying

    2016-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogeneous syndrome that occurs as a result of various risk factors, including either direct or indirect lung injury, and systemic inflammation triggered also by severe pneumonia (SP). SP-ARDS-associated morbidity and mortality remains high also due to the lack of disease-specific biomarkers. The present study aimed at identifying disease-specific biomarkers in SP or SP-ARDS by integrating proteomic profiles of inflammatory mediators with clinical informatics. Plasma was sampled from the healthy as controls or patients with SP infected with bacteria or infection-associated SP-ARDS on the day of admission, day 3, and day 7. About 15 or 52 cytokines showed significant difference between SP and SP-ARDS patients with controls or 13 between SP-ARDS with SP alone and controls, including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), protein NOV homolog (NOV/CCN3), glypican 3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4), IL-5, IL-5 R alpha, IL-22 BP, leptin, MIP-1d, and orexin B with a significant correlation with Digital Evaluation Score System (DESS) scores. ARDS patients with overexpressed IL-6, CXCL16, or IGFBP-4 had significantly longer hospital stay and higher incidence of secondary infection. We also found higher levels of those mediators were associated with poor survival rates in patients with lung cancer and involved in the process of the epithelial mesenchymal transition of alveolar epithelial cells. Our preliminary study suggested that integration of proteomic profiles with clinical informatics as part of clinical bioinformatics is important to validate and optimize disease-specific and disease-staged biomarkers.

  2. The Ardón L6 ordinary chondrite: A long-hidden Spanish meteorite fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-RodríGuez, Josep M.; Llorca, Jordi; Weyrauch, Mona; Bischoff, Addi; Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Keil, Klaus; Laubenstein, Matthias; Pack, Andreas; Madiedo, José MaríA.; Alonso-AzcáRate, Jacinto; Riebe, My; Wieler, Rainer; Ott, Uli; Tapia, Mar; Mestres, NarcíS.

    2014-08-01

    We report and describe an L6 ordinary chondrite fall that occurred in Ardón, León province, Spain (longitude 5.5605°W, latitude 42.4364°N) on July 9th, 1931. The 5.5 g single stone was kept hidden for 83 yr by Rosa González Pérez, at the time an 11 yr old who had observed the fall and had recovered the meteorite. According to various newspaper reports, the event was widely observed in Northern Spain. Ardón is a very well-preserved, fresh, strongly metamorphosed (petrologic type 6), and weakly shocked (S3) ordinary chondrite with well-equilibrated and recrystallized minerals. The mineral compositions (olivine Fa23.7±0.3, low-Ca pyroxene Fs20.4±0.2Wo1.5±0.2, plagioclase An10.3±0.5Ab84.3±1.2), magnetic susceptibility (log χ = 4.95 ± 0.05 × 10-9 m3 kg-1), bulk density (3.49 ± 0.05 g cm-3), grain density (3.58 ± 0.05 g cm-3), and porosity (2.5 vol%) are typical for L6 chondrites. Short-lived radionuclides confirm that the meteorite constitutes a recent fall. The 21Ne and 38Ar cosmic ray exposure ages are both about 20-30 Ma, similar to values for many other L chondrites. The cosmogenic 22Ne/21Ne ratio indicates that preatmospheric Ardón was a relatively large body. The fact that the meteorite was hidden in private hands for 83 yr makes one wonder if other meteorite falls may have experienced the same fate, thus possibly explaining the anomalously low number of falls reported in continental Spain in the 20th century.

  3. Respiratory Impairment after Early Red Cell Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with ALI/ARDS.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Surender; Sanfilippo, Dominic; Shoemaker, Allen; Curtis, Scott; Zuiderveen, Sandra; Ndika, Akunne; Stoiko, Michael; Hassan, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In the first 48 hours of ventilating patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a multipronged approach including packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion is undertaken to maintain oxygen delivery. Hypothesis. We hypothesized children with ALI/ARDS transfused within 48 hours of initiating mechanical ventilation would have worse outcome. The course of 34 transfused patients was retrospectively compared to 45 nontransfused control patients admitted to the PICU at Helen DeVos Children's Hospital between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2009. Results. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) prior to transfusion was 8.2 g/dl compared to 10.1 g/dl in control. P/F ratio decreased from 135.4 ± 7.5 to 116.5 ± 8.8 in transfused but increased from 148.0 ± 8.0 to 190.4 ± 17.8 (P < 0.001) in control. OI increased in the transfused from 11.7 ± 0.9 to 18.7 ± 1.6 but not in control. Ventilator days in the transfused were 15.6 ± 1.7 versus 9.5 ± 0.6 days in control (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher rates of MODS in transfused patients; 29.4% versus 17.7%, odds ratio 1.92, 95% CI; 0.6-5.6 Fisher exact P < 0.282. Conclusion. This study suggests that early transfusions of patients with ALI/ARDS were associated with increased ventilatory needs.

  4. The Effects of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) on Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. H.; Gabor, R. S.; SanClements, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Located in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, the catchments drained by the headwaters of the Snake River are dominated by metal- and sulfide-rich bedrock. The breakdown of these minerals results in acidic metal-rich waters in the Snake (pH ~3) that persist until the confluence with Deer Creek (pH ~7). Previous research has been conducted examining the interactions of acid-rock drainage (ARD) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), but the effects of ARD on DOM production is not as well understood. In a synoptic study, samples of creek water were collected at evenly spaced intervals along the length of a tributary to the Snake River which drains an area with ARD. At each sampling location, water samples were collected and pH, conductivity, and temperature were measured. Water samples were analyzed for metal chemistry, and the DOM was analyzed with UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The character of the DOM was described using PARAFAC and index calculations. This work demonstrates that the introduction of acid and dissolved metal species has notable effects on DOM composition. Preliminary data suggests that the introduction of acid drainage is responsible for the formation of a fluorophore not accounted for in the Cory and McKnight PARAFAC model. Both high concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. zinc) and the novel fluorophore are present downstream from a mining site, which indicates it as a possible source of both species. The data suggest a link between the introduction of fluorophores in acidic waters and acidophile populations at the source of the acid rock drainage.

  5. Respiratory Impairment after Early Red Cell Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with ALI/ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Surender; Sanfilippo, Dominic; Shoemaker, Allen; Curtis, Scott; Zuiderveen, Sandra; Ndika, Akunne; Stoiko, Michael; Hassan, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In the first 48 hours of ventilating patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a multipronged approach including packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion is undertaken to maintain oxygen delivery. Hypothesis. We hypothesized children with ALI/ARDS transfused within 48 hours of initiating mechanical ventilation would have worse outcome. The course of 34 transfused patients was retrospectively compared to 45 nontransfused control patients admitted to the PICU at Helen DeVos Children's Hospital between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2009. Results. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) prior to transfusion was 8.2 g/dl compared to 10.1 g/dl in control. P/F ratio decreased from 135.4 ± 7.5 to 116.5 ± 8.8 in transfused but increased from 148.0 ± 8.0 to 190.4 ± 17.8 (P < 0.001) in control. OI increased in the transfused from 11.7 ± 0.9 to 18.7 ± 1.6 but not in control. Ventilator days in the transfused were 15.6 ± 1.7 versus 9.5 ± 0.6 days in control (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher rates of MODS in transfused patients; 29.4% versus 17.7%, odds ratio 1.92, 95% CI; 0.6–5.6 Fisher exact P < 0.282. Conclusion. This study suggests that early transfusions of patients with ALI/ARDS were associated with increased ventilatory needs. PMID:22957223

  6. Can chest high-resolution computed tomography findings diagnose pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis?*

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Flávia Angélica Ferreira; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Silva, Claudio S.; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at retrospectively reviewing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in order to evaluate the frequency of tomographic findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients (9 females and 4 males; age, 9 to 59 years; mean age, 34.5 years) were included in the present study. The HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers whose decisions were made by consensus. The inclusion criterion was the presence of abnormalities typical of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis at HRCT, which precludes lung biopsy. However, in 6 cases lung biopsy was performed. Results Ground-glass opacities and small parenchymal nodules were the predominant tomographic findings, present in 100% of cases, followed by small subpleural nodules (92.3%), subpleural cysts (84.6%), subpleural linear calcifications (69.2%), crazy-paving pattern (69.2%), fissure nodularity (53.8%), calcification along interlobular septa (46.2%) and dense consolidation (46.2%). Conclusion As regards distribution of the lesions, there was preferential involvement of the lower third of the lungs. No predominance of distribution in axial and anteroposterior directions was observed. PMID:26379317

  7. Alternative splicing regulates the production of ARD-1 endoribonuclease and NIPP-1, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, as isoforms encoded by the same gene.

    PubMed

    Chang, A C; Sohlberg, B; Trinkle-Mulcahy, L; Claverie-Martin, F; Cohen, P; Cohen, S N

    1999-11-15

    ARD-1 is an endoribonuclease identified initially as the product of a human cDNA that complements mutations in rne, a gene that encodes Escherichia coli ribonuclease E. NIPP-1 was identified in bovine nuclear extracts as an inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1. Earlier work has shown that the protein-coding sequence of ARD-1 is identical to the carboxy-terminal third of NIPP-1. However, whether ARD-1 is present in eukaryotes as a distinct entity has been unclear, as neither ARD-1-specific transcripts nor ARD-1 protein were detected in mammalian cells in earlier studies. Here we show that ARD-1 exists in human cells as a discrete protein, and that the ARD-1 and NIPP-1 peptides are isoforms encoded by a single gene and the same alternatively spliced precursor RNA. A retained intron containing multiple translation stop codons that are configured to terminate translation and initiate nonsense-mediated decay, limits the production of cellular ARD-1 protein. Our results establish the process by which functionally disparate ARD-1 and NIPP-1 peptides are generated from the protein-coding sequence of the same gene in human cells.

  8. Measurement of the J = 0-1 rotational transitions of three isotopes of ArD(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, W. C.; Plummer, G. M.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    The rotational transitions of all three isotopic species of ArD(+) in samples containing the Ar isotopes in their natural abundances have been measured by means of millimeter and submillimeter techniques that employ a magnetically enhanced abnormal glow discharge. All three transition frequency measurements were made from digitally averaged signals detected through a lock-in amplifier with a 10-msec time constant. The Ar-4OD(+) transition was easily visible in real time on an oscilloscope with SNR of about 15. It is noted that the observed transition of Ar-38D(+) is more than five orders of magnitude weaker than that due to HCO(+).

  9. Structural analysis of the KRIT1 ankyrin repeat and FERM domains reveals a conformationally stable ARD-FERM interface

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Li, Xiaofeng; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular dysplasias that usually occur in the brain and are associated with mutations in the KRIT1/CCM1, CCM2/MGC4607/OSM/Malcavernin, and PDCD10/CCM3/TFAR15 genes. Here we report the 2.9 Å crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and FERM domain of the protein product of KRIT1 (KRIT1; Krev interaction trapped 1). The crystal structure reveals that the KRIT1 ARD contains 4 ankyrin repeats. There is an unusual conformation in the ANK4 repeat that is stabilized by Trp-404, and the structure reveals a solvent exposed ankyrin groove. Domain orientations of the three copies within the asymmetric unit suggest a stable interaction between KRIT1 ARD and FERM domains, indicating a globular ARD-FERM module. This resembles the additional F0 domain found N-terminal to the FERM domain of talin. Structural analysis of KRIT1 ARD-FERM highlights surface regions of high evolutionary conservation, and suggests potential sites that could mediate interaction with binding partners. The structure therefore provides a better understanding of KRIT1 at the molecular level. PMID:26458359

  10. Structural analysis of the KRIT1 ankyrin repeat and FERM domains reveals a conformationally stable ARD-FERM interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Li, Xiaofeng; Boggon, Titus J

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular dysplasias that usually occur in the brain and are associated with mutations in the KRIT1/CCM1, CCM2/MGC4607/OSM/Malcavernin, and PDCD10/CCM3/TFAR15 genes. Here we report the 2.9 Å crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and FERM domain of the protein product of KRIT1 (KRIT1; Krev interaction trapped 1). The crystal structure reveals that the KRIT1 ARD contains 4 ankyrin repeats. There is an unusual conformation in the ANK4 repeat that is stabilized by Trp-404, and the structure reveals a solvent exposed ankyrin groove. Domain orientations of the three copies within the asymmetric unit suggest a stable interaction between KRIT1 ARD and FERM domains, indicating a globular ARD-FERM module. This resembles the additional F0 domain found N-terminal to the FERM domain of talin. Structural analysis of KRIT1 ARD-FERM highlights surface regions of high evolutionary conservation, and suggests potential sites that could mediate interaction with binding partners. The structure therefore provides a better understanding of KRIT1 at the molecular level.

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated successfully by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a nearly drowned patient.

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Tomohiro; Ohshima, Kazuma; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Asada, Toshifumi; Hiruma, Takahiro; Doi, Kento; Gunshin, Masataka; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Anraku, Masaki; Nakajima, Susumu; Nakajima, Jun; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    This report highlights about one acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) case after near-drowning resuscitated using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Few cases have been reported about ECMO use for near-drowning and in most of these cases, ECMO was initiated within the first week. However, in our report, we would like to emphasize that seemingly irreversible secondary worsening of ARDS after nearly drowned patient was successfully treated by ECMO use more than 1 week after near-drowning followed by discharge without home oxygen therapy, social support, or any complication. This is probably due to sufficient lung rest for ventilator-associated lung injury during ECMO use. Based on our case's clinical course, intensive care unit physicians must consider ECMO even in the late phase of worsened ARDS after near-drowning.

  12. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Summer

    2016-11-10

    Despite advances in mechanical ventilation, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates ranging from 26% to 58%. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit that serves as an artificial membrane lung and blood pump to provide gas exchange and systemic perfusion for patients when their own heart and lungs are unable to function adequately. ECMO is a complex network that provides oxygenation and ventilation and allows the lungs to rest and recover from respiratory failure while minimizing iatrogenic ventilator-induced lung injury. In critical care settings, ECMO is proven to improve survival rates and outcomes in patients with severe ARDS. This review defines severe ARDS; describes the ECMO circuit; and discusses recent research, optimal use of the ECMO circuit, limitations of therapy including potential complications, economic impact, and logistical factors; and discusses future research considerations.

  13. Setting mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients during VV-ECMO: where are we?

    PubMed

    Del Sorbo, L; Goffi, A; Goligher, E; Fan, E; Slutsky, A S

    2015-12-01

    Currently, many centers use venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) as an adjunctive means of gas exchange to mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with severe ARDS and refractory hypoxemia. One of the most interesting and controversial issues in the management of these patients is how to set the ventilatory strategy. The support provided by VV-ECMO makes the balance between risks and benefits of MV remarkably different from the conventional setting, since the need for MV to facilitate oxygenation and carbon dioxide clearance is greatly reduced or abolished during VV-ECMO. Therefore, the risks of causing ventilator-induced lung injury are of foremost importance; however, the issue of the optimum ventilatory strategy during VV-ECMO has not received sufficient consideration. This paper will describe the diverse MV strategies applied during VV-ECMO in clinical practice and will highlight specific pathophysiological considerations that are crucial in the process of defining optimal ventilation settings in patients with ARDS supported with VV-ECMO.

  14. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis.

  15. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  16. Does the simple dynamical systems approach provide useful information about catchment hydrological functioning in a Mediterranean context? Application to the Ardèche catchment (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.; Braud, I.; Branger, F.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2014-09-01

    This study explores how catchment heterogeneity and variability can be summarized in simplified models, representing the dominant hydrological processes. It focuses on Mediterranean catchments, characterized by heterogeneous geology, pedology, and land use, as well as steep topography and a rainfall regime in which summer droughts contrast with high-rainfall periods in autumn. The Ardèche catchment (south-east France), typical of this environment, is chosen to explore the following questions: (1) can such a Mediterranean catchment be adequately characterized by simple dynamical systems approach and what are the limits of the method under such conditions? (2) What information about dominant predictors of hydrological variability can be retrieved from this analysis in such catchments? In this work we apply the data-driven approach of Kirchner (WRR, 2009) to estimate discharge sensitivity functions that summarize the behavior of four sub-catchments of the Ardèche, using non-vegetation periods (November-March) from 9 years of data (2000-2008) from operational networks. The relevance of the inferred sensitivity function is assessed through hydrograph simulations, and through estimating precipitation rates from discharge fluctuations. We find that the discharge-sensitivity function is downward-curving in double-logarithmic space, thus allowing further simulation of discharge and non-divergence of the model, only during non-vegetation periods. The analysis is complemented by a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis showing how the parameters summarizing the discharge sensitivity function impact the simulated hydrographs. The resulting discharge simulation results are good for granite catchments, found to be predominantly characterized by saturation excess runoff and sub-surface flow processes. The simple dynamical system hypothesis works especially well in wet conditions (peaks and recessions are well modeled). On the other hand, poor model performance is associated with

  17. Dysregulation of the angiopoietin–Tie-2 axis in sepsis and ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Samir M

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in microvascular endothelial structure and function are pivotal in the acute inflammatory response, the body’s rapid, coordinated effort to localize, sequester, and eliminate microbial invaders at their portal of entry. To achieve this, the endothelium becomes leaky and inflamed, providing innate immune cells and humoral effector molecules access to the site of infection. During sepsis this locally adaptive response becomes manifest throughout the body, leading to dangerous host consequences. Increased leakiness in the pulmonary circulation contributes to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a complication of sepsis associated with 40% mortality. Understanding the molecular governance of vascular leak and inflammation has major diagnostic, prognostic, and potentially therapeutic implications for this common and pernicious disease. This review summarizes results from cell-based experiments, animal models, and observational human studies; together, these studies suggest that an endothelial receptor called Tie2 and its ligands, called angiopoietins, form a signaling axis key to the vascular dyshomeostasis that underlies sepsis. PMID:23652985

  18. A closed-loop controller for mechanical ventilation of patients with ARDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; East, Thomas D

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical ventilators are routinely used to care for patients who cannot adequately breath on their own. Management of mechanical ventilation often involves a careful watch of the patient's arterial blood-oxygen tension and requires frequent adjustment of ventilation parameters to optimize the therapy. This situation lends itself as a candidate for closed-loop control. This report describes a closed-loop control system based on well-established protocols to systematically maintain appropriate levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inspired oxygen (FiO2) in patients with Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The closed-loop control system consists of an in-dwelling arterial oxygenation (PaO2) sensor (Pfizer Continucath), coupled to a Macintosh computer that continuously controls FiO2 and PEEP settings on a Hamilton Amadeus ventilator. The implemented protocols provide continuous closed-loop control of oxygenation and a balance between patient need and minimal therapy. The controller is based on a traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) approach. The idea is to control, or maintain, the patient's PaO2 level at a target value determined, or set, by the patient's physician. The controller also features non-linear and adaptive characteristics that allow the system to respond more aggressively to "threatening" levels of PaO2. Another benefit of the control system is the ability to display, monitor, record and store all system parameters, settings, and control variables for future analysis and study. The system was extensively tested in the laboratory and in animal trials prior to use on human subjects. The results of a small clinical trial indicated that the system maintained control of the patient's therapy nearly 84% of the time. During the remainder of this time, the controller was interrupted primarily for suctioning, PaO2 sensor calibration or replacement. The response of the closed-loop controller was found to be appropriate

  19. [Antirestriction proteins ardA and Ocr as effective inhibitors of the type I restriction-modification enzymes].

    PubMed

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B; Rastorguev, S M

    2009-01-01

    Genes encoding antirestriction proteins (antirestrictases, inasmuch as the antirestriction proteins inhibit the activity of restriction-modification systems, but have no proper enzyme activity, the name antirestrictase is only tentative) are included in the composition of conjugative plasmids (genes ardABC) and some bacteriophages (genes ocr and darA). Antirestriction proteins inhibit of the type I restriction-modification enzymes and thus protect unmodified DNA of plasmids and bacteriophages from degradation. Antirestriction proteins belong to the "protein mimicry of DNA" family: the spatial structure is like the B-form of DNA, and therefore the antirestriction proteins operated on the principle of concurrent inhibition replacing DNA in the complex with the restriction-modification enzyme. Based on the prepared in vitro mutant forms of ArdA and Ocr, and also on natural proteins ArdA selectively inhibiting restriction activity of the type I enzymes, but not affecting their methylase activity, we have developed a model of complex formation between the antirestriction proteins and the restriction-modification enzymes R2M2S. Antirestriction proteins are capable of competing displacement of the DNA strand from two sites which are situated as follows: 1) in S-subunit (enzyme contact with the specific DNA site) and 2) in R-subunit (through this unit translocation of the DNA strand occurs followed by its degradation). Analysis of estriction and antimodification activities of proteins ArdA and Ocr depending on the expression level of genes ardA and ocr was performed (the cloning of the genes was done under strictly regulated promoter).

  20. Identification of StARD3 as a Lutein-binding Protein in the Macula of the Primate Retina†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Lutein, zeaxanthin and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the macular pigment of the human retina. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of these carotenoids in the diet, serum and macula are associated with decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the AREDS2 study is prospectively testing this hypothesis. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms underlying the selective uptakes of lutein and zeaxanthin into the human macula may provide important insights into the physiology of the human macula in health and disease. GSTP1 is the macular zeaxanthin-binding protein, but the identity of the human macular lutein-binding protein has remained elusive. Prior identification of the silkworm lutein-binding protein (CBP) as a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) protein family, and selective labeling of monkey photoreceptor inner segments by anti-CBP antibody provided an important clue toward identifying the primate retina lutein-binding protein. Homology of CBP to all 15 human StARD proteins was analyzed using database searches, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and we here provide evidence to identify StARD3 (also known as MLN64) as a human retinal lutein-binding protein. Further, recombinant StARD3 selectively binds lutein with high affinity (KD = 0.45 micromolar) when assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues to explore its roles in human macular physiology and disease. PMID:21322544

  1. Comparative analysis of anti-restriction activities of ArdA (ColIb-P9) and Ocr (T7) proteins.

    PubMed

    Zavilgelsky, G B; Kotova, V Yu; Rastorguev, S M

    2008-08-01

    Anti-restriction proteins ArdA and Ocr are specific inhibitors of type I restriction-modification enzymes. The IncI1 transmissible plasmid ColIb-P9 ardA and bacteriophage T7 0.3(ocr) genes were cloned in pUC18 vector. Both ArdA (ColIb-P9) and Ocr (T7) proteins inhibit both restriction and modification activities of the type I restriction-modification enzyme (EcoKI) in Escherichia coli K12 cells. ColIb-P9 ardA, T7 0.3(ocr), and the Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE genes were cloned in pZ-series vectors with the P(ltetO-1) promoter, which is tightly repressible by the TetR repressor. Controlling the expression of the lux-genes encoding bacterial luciferase demonstrates that the P(ltetO-1) promoter can be regulated over an up to 5000-fold range by supplying anhydrotetracycline to the E. coli MG1655Z1 tetR(+) cells. Effectiveness of the anti-restriction activity of the ArdA and Ocr proteins depended on the intracellular concentration. It is shown that the dissociation constants K(d) for ArdA and Ocr proteins with EcoKI enzyme differ 1700-fold: K(d) (Ocr) = 10(-10) M, K(d) (ArdA) = 1.7.10(-7) M.

  2. Neuronal acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila: the ARD protein is a component of a high-affinity alpha-bungarotoxin binding complex.

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, P; Hermans-Borgmeyer, I; Betz, H; Gundelfinger, E D

    1988-01-01

    The ard gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a structural homologue of vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) and is expressed exclusively in nervous tissue. To study the nature of the ARD protein, antibodies were raised against fusion constructs containing two regions of this polypeptide. One segment is putatively extracellular (amino acids 65-212), the other domain is exposed to the cytoplasm (amino acids 305-444). The ARD antisera obtained served to investigate the physical relationship between the ARD protein and alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Btx) binding sites occurring in Drosophila. Two different high-affinity binding sites for [125I]alpha-Btx, a highly potent antagonist of vertebrate muscle AChR, were detected in fly head membranes. Equilibrium binding and kinetic studies revealed Kd values of approximately 0.1 nM (site 1) and approximately 4 nM (site 2). The estimated maximal binding (Bmax) was approximately 240 and 1080 fmol/mg protein respectively. Both sites exhibited a nicotinic-cholinergic pharmacology. Immunoprecipitation experiments with the ARD antisera indicated that the ARD protein is associated with the [125I]alpha-Btx binding site 1 only. These data support the previously postulated hypothesis that the ARD protein is part of an alpha-Btx binding neuronal AChR of Drosophila. Furthermore, they indicate heterogeneity in nicotinic-cholinergic binding sites in the insect nervous system. PMID:3141150

  3. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  4. Effect(s) of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Porcine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    PROBLEM The adult respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ), as first described by Ashbaugh (1) 20 years ago, is a pathophysiological pulmonary condition of...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Lab Animals; Acute Respiratory Distress ; Pigs; Capillary 06 05 Permeability; -- I; Swine# 7...71 NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Q Unannounced C JustifloatiL- By Availabiltty odes. Dist 4ptei± SUMMARY The adult respiratory distress syndrome is a condition

  5. The pressure-volume curve is greatly modified by recruitment. A mathematical model of ARDS lungs.

    PubMed

    Hickling, K G

    1998-07-01

    A mathematical model of the ARDS lung, with simulated gravitational superimposed pressure, evaluated the effect of varying alveolar threshold opening pressures (TOP), PEEP and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) on the static pressure-volume (PV) curve. The lower inflection point (Pflex) was affected by SP and TOP, and did not accurately indicate PEEP required to prevent end-expiratory collapse. Reinflation of collapsed lung units (recruitment) continued on the linear portion of the PV curve, which had a slope at any volume greater than the total compliance of aerated alveoli. As recruitment diminished, the reduced PV slope could produce an upper Pflex at 20 to 30 cm H2O pressure. An upper Pflex caused by alveolar overdistension could be modified or eliminated by recruitment with high TOP. With constant PIP as PEEP increased, and TOP range of 5 to 60 cm H2O, PEEP to prevent end-expiratory collapse was indicated by minimum PV slope above 20 cm H2O, minimum hysteresis, and maximum volume at a pressure of 20 cm H2O. With constant inflation volume as PEEP increased, the effect on PV slope was unpredictable. Although increased PV slope indicated recruitment, maximum PV slope usually underestimated PEEP required to prevent end-expiratory collapse. Therefore, with this model the PV curve did not reliably predict optimal ventilator settings.

  6. Adult non-cardiac ECMO for the treatment of ARDS--the Mississippi experience.

    PubMed

    Frei, Lonnie W

    2013-07-01

    The University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) has become a center for ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation), providing this service to patients requiring this life-saving modality. UMMC is the only ECMO center in the state. Prior to the cases presented, ECMO use at UMMC has been limited to neonates and the pediatric patient population as well as by the cardiothoracic service for patients with cardiac failure or inability to wean from bypass. The use of ECMO for non-cardiac support in the adult population has been limited in the past, but recent reports in the literature and experience elsewhere has proven the viability of the technology. This is a retrospective report of the first three adult non-cardiac cases employing ECMO for ARDS (Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome) in Mississippi. We achieved 100% survival in a disease process which reportedly carries a mortality ranging from 20-50%. A brief review of ECMO and its use in this population is also presented.

  7. Management of refractory hypoxemia during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for ARDS.

    PubMed

    Montisci, Andrea; Maj, Giulia; Zangrillo, Alberto; Winterton, Dario; Pappalardo, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently a widely used therapeutic strategy. However, patients are often still hypoxemic despite complete ECMO support. The major determinants of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) during VV ECMO are pump flow, degree of recirculation, patient's systemic venous return and its oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration and residual lung function. Current guidelines state that the support can be considered adequate when the patient's SpO2 is equal or greater than 80%, but a possible objection could be that such a value of O2-tension may be too low and may worsen the patient's prognosis. Moving from the pathophysiology of hypoxemia during VV ECMO, this review focuses on recirculation of blood and on the possible strategies to minimize it, on the pharmacologic modulation of intrapulmonary shunt and on the questions related to management of ECMO flow and the risks and benefits of permissive hypoxemic states. Transfusional strategy during VV ECMO, administration of neuromuscular blocking agents and sedatives, therapeutic hypothermia, and prone positioning is also reviewed. The potential advantages of β-blockers are discussed. Finally, transition from VV ECMO to venoarterial ECMO (VA ECMO) or a hybrid configuration is also examined.

  8. Neanderthal hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    PubMed

    Mersey, Ben; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Brudvik, Kyle; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    The hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy cave (Ardèche, France) comprise 24 specimens of Eemian age (ca. 120 ka). The specimens include primarily complete elements, which are rare among the Moula-Guercy postcrania. The hand remains have several characteristic Neanderthal traits including a laterally facing (parasagittally oriented) second metacarpal-capitate articulation, a short styloid process, a wide proximal articular surface on the third metacarpal, and absolutely expanded apical tuberosities on the distal hand phalanges relative to modern humans. The foot remains include several incomplete elements along with an antimeric pair of naviculars, a medial cuneiform and cuboid, and a single complete element from each of the distal segments (one each: metatarsal, proximal foot phalanx, intermediate foot phalanx, distal foot phalanx). Consistent among the specimens are relatively wide diaphyses for length in the metatarsals and phalanges and large and prominent muscle attachments, both consistent with previously published Neanderthal morphology. The hand and foot collection from Moula-Guercy is an important dataset for future studies of Neanderthal functional morphology, dexterity, and behavior as it represents a previously undersampled time period for European Neanderthals.

  9. Neanderthal axial and appendicular remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    PubMed

    Mersey, Ben; Brudvik, Kyle; Black, Michael T; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    Excavations carried out during the 1990s at Moula-Guercy cave Ardèche, France, yielded 108 hominid specimens dating to 100-120 Ka. In this paper, we describe and compare the 39 axial and appendicular specimens not including hand and foot bones. Among these remains are a large adult femur, several clavicles, a likely antimeric pair of radial heads, and a nearly complete superior pubic ramus. Analyses of this material indicate a clear affinity with Neanderthals by the presence of large and robust muscle attachments, thick long bone cortices, a long pubic ramus, and a superoinferiorly flattened clavicle shaft. The recovered remains reveal the presence of a mature male, a smaller mature individual, possibly a reproductive age female, an immature individual of age 10-12, and a second immature individual of age 4. Future analyses on the Moula-Guercy remains will illuminate ties to other known Neanderthal populations and contribute to the ongoing debate over the relative rate of Neanderthal metric growth.

  10. BPD Following Preterm Birth: A Model for Chronic Lung Disease and a Substrate for ARDS in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Anita; Carroll, Christopher; Bhandari, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) may be a different entity, vis-à-vis adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), based on its epidemiology and outcomes. A more pediatric-specific definition of PARDS to include the subgroup of patients with underlying lung (and heart) disease has been proposed. Epidemiological data suggest that up to 13% of the children with ARDS have a history of prematurity and/or underlying chronic lung disease. However, the specific contribution of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common chronic lung disease in infants, to the development of PARDS is not known. BPD leads to damaged lungs with long-term consequences secondary to disordered growth and immune function. These damaged lungs could potentially act as a substrate, which given the appropriate noxious stimuli, can predispose a child to PARDS. Interestingly, similar biomarkers [KL-6, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, sICAM-1, angiopoietin-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 and -9] of pulmonary injury have been associated both with BPD and ARDS. Recognition of a unique pattern of clinical symptomatology and/or outcomes of PARDS, if present, could potentially be useful for investigating targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:27379219

  11. Evidence for Accelerated Radioactive Decay (ARD) Models of Type I Supernova Lightcurves in the Low Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Bert W.; Leventhal, Marvin

    2014-06-01

    Forty years ago Van Hise [ApJ 192 (1974) 657-659] observed that the post peak light curve for the Type I supernova SN1937C is well represented by a sum of two exponentials with half lives which are ~ 0.75 of the terrestrial half lives of 56Ni and 56Co in the beta decay chain 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe. Thirty nine years ago Leventhal and McCall [Nature 255 (1975) 690-692] proposed a fully convective, radioactive white dwarf model to account for the observed accelerated decay. Thirty eight years ago ARD models were tested by Rust, et al. [Nature 262 (1976) 118-120] on the data from the 15 fragmentary light curves available at that time. The results offered significant but not overwhelming support for ARD models. In this paper we present a new mathematical model for Type I lightcurves and fit that model, using only 6 free parameters, to an extensive collection of higher quality lightcurves that have been measured over the last 38 years. The fits all capture more than 99% of the total variance in the measured data, thus establishing the reality of an ARD lightcurve model. These new results provide a much improved Phillips relation for calibrating the extragalactic distance scale and testing other cosmological relations.

  12. Structural analysis of the KRIT1 ankyrin repeat and FERM domains reveals a conformationally stable ARD-FERM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong; Li, Xiaofeng; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-10-14

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular dysplasias that usually occur in the brain and are associated with mutations in the KRIT1/CCM1, CCM2/MGC4607/OSM/Malcavernin, and PDCD10/CCM3/ TFAR15 genes. Here we report the 2.9 Å crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and FERM domain of the protein product of KRIT1 (KRIT1; Krev interaction trapped 1). The crystal structure reveals that the KRIT1 ARD contains 4 ankyrin repeats. There is also an unusual conformation in the ANK4 repeat that is stabilized by Trp-404, and the structure reveals a solvent exposed ankyrin groove. Domain orientations of the three copies within the asymmetric unit suggest a stable interaction between KRIT1 ARD and FERM domains, indicating a globular ARD–FERM module. It resembles the additional F0 domain found N-terminal to the FERM domain of talin. Structural analysis of KRIT1 ARD–FERM highlights surface regions of high evolutionary conservation, and suggests potential sites that could mediate interaction with binding partners. The structure therefore provides a better understanding of KRIT1 at the molecular level.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel water-deficit-suppressed gene OsARD encoding an aci-reductone-dioxygenase-like protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; He, Xiaowei; Yang, Ling; Shou, Huixia; Wu, Ping

    2005-10-24

    The aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) family common to bacteria, plants and animals is involved in the methionine salvage pathway. A water-deficit-suppressed gene, OsARD encoding an aci-reductone-dioxygenase-like protein, was identified from rice (Oryza sativa L.). Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the OsARD expression is regulated by abiotic stresses and phytohormones. OsARD was mainly expressed in roots under flood conditions. It was suppressed by abiotic stresses including water deficit, high salinity and low temperature, and induced by ethylene and gibberellin acid (GA). Our results showed that the genes for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase were upregulated in RNA-interference (RNAi) transgenic rice plants with a significant reduction of OsARD expression. Furthermore, the expression of two genes for ethylene signal transduction, ETR2 and EIN3, increased in these RNAi transgenic plants, whereas the expression of ERF3 was suppressed. These results suggest that OsARD may play a role in the metabolism of methionine and ethylene in response to abiotic stresses.

  14. Nur77 attenuates endothelin-1 expression via downregulation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in A549 cells and in an ARDS rat model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yujie; Zeng, Yi; Huang, Xia; Qin, Yueqiu; Luo, Weigui; Xiang, Shulin; Sooranna, Suren R; Pinhu, Liao

    2016-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by inflammatory injury to the alveolar and capillary barriers that results in impaired gas exchange and severe acute respiratory failure. Nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 has emerged as a regulator of gene expression in inflammation, and its role in the pathogenesis of ARDS is not clear. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of Nur77 and its underlying mechanism in the regulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced A549 cells and an ARDS rat model. We demonstrate that LPS induced Nur77 expression and nuclear export in A549 cells. Overexpression of Nur77 markedly decreased basal and LPS-induced ET-1 expression in A549 cells, whereas knockdown of Nur77 increased the ET-1 expression. LPS-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK were blocked by Nur77 overexpression and augmented by Nur77 knockdown in A549 cells. In vivo, LPS induced Nur77 expression in lung in ARDS rats. Pharmacological activation of Nur77 by cytosporone B (CsnB) inhibited ET-1 expression in ARDS rats, decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, and relieved lung, liver, and kidney injury. Pharmacological deactivation of Nur77 by 1,1-bis-(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH, C-DIM8) had no effect on ET-1 expression and lung injury. These results indicated that Nur77 decreases ET-1 expression by suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK in LPS-stimulated A549 cells in vitro, and, in an LPS-induced ARDS rat model, CsnB reduced ET-1 expression and lung injury in ARDS rats.

  15. Nur77 attenuates endothelin-1 expression via downregulation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in A549 cells and in an ARDS rat model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yujie; Zeng, Yi; Huang, Xia; Qin, Yueqiu; Luo, Weigui; Xiang, Shulin; Sooranna, Suren R.

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by inflammatory injury to the alveolar and capillary barriers that results in impaired gas exchange and severe acute respiratory failure. Nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 has emerged as a regulator of gene expression in inflammation, and its role in the pathogenesis of ARDS is not clear. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of Nur77 and its underlying mechanism in the regulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced A549 cells and an ARDS rat model. We demonstrate that LPS induced Nur77 expression and nuclear export in A549 cells. Overexpression of Nur77 markedly decreased basal and LPS-induced ET-1 expression in A549 cells, whereas knockdown of Nur77 increased the ET-1 expression. LPS-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK were blocked by Nur77 overexpression and augmented by Nur77 knockdown in A549 cells. In vivo, LPS induced Nur77 expression in lung in ARDS rats. Pharmacological activation of Nur77 by cytosporone B (CsnB) inhibited ET-1 expression in ARDS rats, decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, and relieved lung, liver, and kidney injury. Pharmacological deactivation of Nur77 by 1,1-bis-(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH, C-DIM8) had no effect on ET-1 expression and lung injury. These results indicated that Nur77 decreases ET-1 expression by suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK in LPS-stimulated A549 cells in vitro, and, in an LPS-induced ARDS rat model, CsnB reduced ET-1 expression and lung injury in ARDS rats. PMID:27765761

  16. A rat model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Part 1. Time dependency of histological and pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Germann, P G; Häfner, D

    1998-08-01

    The time course of histopathological changes in a rat lung lavage model of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was analyzed by sacrificing animals 10, 30, 60, 180, and 210 min after the last lung parenchyma lavage which was performed with physiological saline solution. This lavage depleted the lung from its natural surfactant resources leading into a pathophysiological cascade similar to that of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Tracheotomized rats (12 animals per time point) were pressure-controlled ventilated (Siemens Servo Ventilator 900C) with 100% oxygen at a respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min, inspiration-expiration ratio of 1:2, peak inspiratory pressure of 28 cm H2O at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cm H2O. During the whole experimental period, the ventilation was not changed. Blood gases (partial arterial oxygen pressures [PaO2, mmHg] and partial arterial carbon dioxide pressures [PaCO2, mmHg]) were estimated before, directly after, and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 min after the last lavage. For grading lung lavage-induced histopathological changes associated with the time-dependent development of ARDS, slides were coded and evaluated without any knowledge of the sacrifice time. A semiquantitative grading was performed with respect to the severity of the following parameters: hyaline membrane formation (HM), interstitial and intraalveolar edema edema (E), and margination and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) into the lung alveoli. The severity of these parameters showed a time-dependent increase after the last lavage. This was accompanied by a time-dependent decrease in partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) values during the early postlavage period (up to 30 min). Thereafter, PaO2 levels remained fairly stable. The severity of intraalveolar and/or perivascular hemorrhages within the lung was not time dependent. The rat lavage model shows similarities to the pathophysiological sequelae

  17. A computer-aided differential diagnosis between UIP and NSIP using automated assessment of the extent and distribution of regional disease patterns at HRCT: comparison with the radiologist's decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Sang Ok; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Jeongjin

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of computer aided differential diagnosis (CADD) between usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) at HRCT in comparison with that of a radiologist's decision. A computerized classification for six local disease patterns (normal, NL; ground-glass opacity, GGO; reticular opacity, RO; honeycombing, HC; emphysema, EM; and consolidation, CON) using texture/shape analyses and a SVM classifier at HRCT was used for pixel-by-pixel labeling on the whole lung area. The mode filter was applied on the results to reduce noise. Area fraction (AF) of each pattern, directional probabilistic density function (pdf) (dPDF: mean, SD, skewness of pdf /3 directions: superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, central-peripheral), regional cluster distribution pattern (RCDP: number, mean, SD of clusters, mean, SD of centroid of clusters) were automatically evaluated. Spatially normalized left and right lungs were evaluated separately. Disease division index (DDI) on every combination of AFs and asymmetric index (AI) between left and right lung ((left-right)/left) were also evaluated. To assess the accuracy of the system, fifty-four HRCT data sets in patients with pathologically diagnosed UIP (n=26) and NSIP (n=28) were used. For a classification procedure, a CADD-SVM classifier with internal parameter optimization, and sequential forward floating feature selection (SFFS) were employed. The accuracy was assessed by a 5-folding cross validation with 20- times repetition. For comparison, two thoracic radiologists reviewed the whole HRCT images without clinical information and diagnose each case either as UIP or NSIP. The accuracies of radiologists' decision were 0.75 and 0.87, respectively. The accuracies of the CADD system using the features of AF, dPDF, AI of dPDF, RDP, AI of RDP, DDI were 0.70, 0.79, 0.77, 0.80, 0.78, 0.81, respectively. The accuracy of optimized CADD using all features after SFFS was 0.91. We developed the CADD

  18. ARD-353 [4-((2R,5S)-4-(R)-(4-diethylcarbamoylphenyl)(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl)-2,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid], a novel nonpeptide delta receptor agonist, reduces myocardial infarct size without central effects.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael J; Holt, Jonathon D S; O'Neill, Scott J; Wei, Ke; Pendergast, William; Gross, Garrett J; Gengo, Peter J; Chang, Kwen-Jen

    2006-01-01

    A novel delta-receptor selective compound, ARD-353 [4-((2R,5S)-4-(R)-(4-diethylcarbamoylphenyl)(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl)-2, 5-dimethylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid], was evaluated for activity on infarct size in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. ARD-353 was characterized as having delta receptor selectivity using radioligand binding and had no apparent selectivity between delta receptor subtypes as determined by [(3)H] cyclic [D-Pen(2),D-Pen(5)]enkephalin (delta(1)) and [(3)H]Deltorphin II (delta(2)) competition binding. ARD-353 also showed selective delta receptor agonist activity in mouse-isolated vas deferens. There was no evidence of any seizure-like convulsions when ARD-353 was administered to mice either i.v. or p.o., implying minimal penetration of the blood-brain barrier. ARD-353 decreased infarct size in a left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion model of myocardial infarction. In animals pretreated with ARD-353 (i.v.) and then subjected to 30 min of LAD occlusion followed by 90 min of reperfusion, infarct size was reduced in a dose-dependent manner compared with vehicle-treated controls. The effects of ARD-353 on infarct size were blocked by the delta(1)-opioid selective antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone, indicating a significant role for the delta(1)-opioid receptor in the cardioprotective mechanism of ARD-353. ARD-353 (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) produced significant protection when administered 5 min and 12 and 48 h before ischemic insult or when given immediately after the ischemic insult (at the start of reperfusion). Given the lack of central nervous system effects and beneficial efficacy in the rat model of myocardial ischemia, it is felt that ARD-353 is the first nonpeptide delta-receptor agonist with true potential for clinical use before surgically induced ischemia or in an emergency setting.

  19. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail binding protein-1 (MTCBP-1) acts as an eukaryotic aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the methionine salvage pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Wakako; Gotoh, Isamu; Uekita, Takamasa; Seiki, Motoharu

    2005-06-01

    MTCBP-1 was identified as a protein that binds the cytoplasmic tail of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Since MTCBP-1 has a putative beta-barrel structure, it is presumably a member of the recently proposed cupin superfamily that contains tremendously diverged functions of proteins in spite of their well-conserved beta-barrel structure. MTCBP-1 shows significant homology to the bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the cupin family, which is an enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle). Since it is difficult to speculate the functions of cupin proteins simply based on their sequence homology, we examined whether the eukaryotic ARD homologs surely function in the methionine metabolism. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, yeast could grow when substrate of MTA cycle was provided. Disruption of the yeast ARD homolog, YMR009w gene, abolished ability of the cells to grow in this culture condition. Re-expression of either the YMR009w or MTCBP-1 gene restored the cell growth. Mutation analysis revealed that the glutamic acid residue in the beta-barrel fold and the N-terminal extension from the beta-barrel fold were found to be important for the activity to restore the growth. Thus, MTCBP-1 isolated as a binding protein for MT1-MMP was demonstrated to function as an ARD-like enzyme in the MTA cycle in yeast.

  20. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  1. Development of community based model of Tawanchai Center: sufficiency economy principles for community Development an applicability at Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kotrmaneetaweetong, Unchana; Choopen, Hhakuan; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the present study are 1) to study the application of sufficiency economy philosophy in community development as a model for future application of community health care program of Tawanchai Center, 2) study the administrative model for self sufficiency economy community in Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province. The integrated study model included qualitative research by collecting data from documents, textbook, article, report, theory concept, researches and interviewing of relevant persons and the quantitative research by collecting data from questionnaires. The findings of study included objectives for development model of sufficiency economy for understanding of people, and use the philosophy of sufficiency economy model which compose of decrease expenditure, increase income activities, saving activities, learning activities and preservation of environment and sustainable natural resources activities. Decrease in expenditure activities included household gardening, and no allurements leading to ruin. Increase in income activities included supplement occupation and appropriate use of technology. Saving activities included creating saving group in household and community level. Learning activities included community use of local wisdom, and household learnt philosophy of sufficiency economy in daily living. Preservation of environment and sustainable natural resources activities included the use of sustainable raw materials in occupation. The generosity of one another activities included helping each other and solving problems for the poor and disable persons. The community development at in Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province followed all of the above scope and guidelines and is the model for application of sufficiency community philosophy. We recommended method for successful implementation, including the starting from group process with capability of

  2. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease *

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mauricio; Gomez, Dario Maldonado; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Villegas, Claudia Jaramillo; Pérez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. METHODS: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. PMID:23670499

  3. Towards finding the linkage between metabolic and age-related disorders using semantic gene data network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uzzal Hossain, Mohammad; Zaffar Shibly, Abu; Md. Omar, Taimur; Tous Zohora, Fatama; Sara Santona, Umme; Hossain, Md. Jakir; Hosen Khoka, Md. Sadek; Ara Keya, Chaman; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic disorder (MD) occurs when the metabolic process is disturbed. This process is carried out by thousands of enzymes participating in numerous inter-dependent metabolic pathways. Critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing and transportation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are affected in metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the common pathways of metabolic disorders by building protein-protein interactions (PPI) for network analysis. The molecular network linkages between MD and age related diseases (ARD) are intriguing. Hence, we created networks of protein-protein interactions that are related with MD and ARD using relevant known data in the public domain. The network analysis identified known MD associated proteins and predicted genes and or its products of ARD in common pathways. The genes in the common pathways were isolated from the network and further analyzed for their co-localization and shared domains. Thus, a model hypothesis is proposed using interaction networks that are linked between MD and ARD. This data even if less conclusive finds application in understanding the molecular mechanism of known diseases in relation to observed molecular events PMID:27212841

  4. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  5. Rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high in-hospital mortality. Alveolar recruitment followed by ventilation at optimal titrated PEEP may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS, but the effects on mortality and other clinical outcomes remain unknown. This article reports the rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART). Methods/Design ART is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized (concealed), controlled trial, which aims to determine if maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with ARDS compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy). We will enroll adult patients with ARDS of less than 72 h duration. The intervention group will receive an alveolar recruitment maneuver, with stepwise increases of PEEP achieving 45 cmH2O and peak pressure of 60 cmH2O, followed by ventilation with optimal PEEP titrated according to the static compliance of the respiratory system. In the control group, mechanical ventilation will follow a conventional protocol (ARDSNet). In both groups, we will use controlled volume mode with low tidal volumes (4 to 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight) and targeting plateau pressure ≤30 cmH2O. The primary outcome is 28-day survival, and the secondary outcomes are: length of ICU stay; length of hospital stay; pneumothorax requiring chest tube during first 7 days; barotrauma during first 7 days; mechanical ventilation-free days from days 1 to 28; ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month survival. ART is an event-guided trial planned to last until 520 events (deaths within 28 days) are observed. These events allow detection of a hazard ratio of 0.75, with 90% power and two-tailed type I error of 5%. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If the ART strategy with maximum recruitment and PEEP titration improves 28-day survival, this

  6. Effect of Heme Oxygenase-1 on Mitofusin-1 protein in LPS-induced ALI/ARDS in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianbo; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhen; Dong, Shuan; Wang, Dan; Gong, Lirong; Shi, Jia; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Daquan; Mu, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common and important oxidative stress in the lung. Mitochondrial fusion responds to the normal morphology and function of cells and is finely regulated by mitochondrial fusion proteins, such as mitofusin-1 protein (Mfn1), mitofusin-2 protein (Mfn2) and optical atrophy 1 (OPA1). Additionally, Mfn1 has been identified as the most important protein in mitochondrial fusion. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible protein that plays a critical role in protecting against oxidative stress. However, whether the protection of HO-1 is related to mitochondrial fusion is still a question. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo experiments aimed to identify the relationship between HO-1 and Mfn1. Here, we used Hemin and ZnPP-IX as treatments in an in vivo experiment. Then, HO-1 and Mfn1 were measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Supernatants were analyzed for MDA, SOD, and ROS. Our results implied that HO-1 upregulation suppressed oxidative stress induced by LPS, and the possible mechanism could be associated with Mfn1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:27830717

  7. Decitabine and 5-azacitidine both alleviate LPS induced ARDS through anti-inflammatory/antioxidant activity and protection of glycocalyx and inhibition of MAPK pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Kong, Guiqing; Li, Yan; Zhu, Weiwei; Xu, Haixiao; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Jiankui; Wang, Lipeng; Zhang, Zhongwen; Wu, Yaru; Liu, Xiangyong; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2016-12-01

    Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC) and 5-azacitidine (Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, possess a wide range of anti-metabolic and anti-cancer activities. This study examined the effects of DAC and Aza on inflammatory and oxidative injuries, as well as on glycocalyx and MAPK signaling pathways, in a LPS-stimulated ARDS mouse model. Results of ELISA revealed that DAC and Aza significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β and prevented LPS-induced elevation of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in serum. The W/D ratio of lung and histopathologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that DAC and Aza pretreatment substantially improved lung tissue injury. DAC and Aza reduced the level of glycocalyx degradation products (e.g., heparan sulfate and haluronic acid) and protected glycocalyx integrity. Western blot assay demonstrated that DAC and Aza both significantly suppressed LPS-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathways by blocking the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and P38 in lung tissues. Bisulfite sequencing PCR and real time-PCR showed that DAC reversed the RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation and furthermore elevated the expression of RASSF1A, which is a tumor suppressor that regulates MAPK signaling pathway. These results suggested that DAC inhibited the MAPK signaling pathway in LPS-induced ARDS mice might via demethylation in RASSF1A promoter region and by restoring its expression. This study highlighted the close relationship between DNA methylation and the development and progression of ARDS.

  8. MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF A2AR-D2R ALLOSTERISM: ROLE OF THE INTRACELLULAR LOOP 3 OF THE D2R

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), an antagonistic interaction has been shown between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors (A2ARs and D2Rs) that may be relevant both in normal and pathological conditions (i.e. Parkinson’s disease). Thus, the molecular determinants mediating this receptor-receptor interaction have recently been explored, since the fine tuning of this target (namely the A2AR/D2R oligomer) could possibly improve the treatment of certain CNS diseases. Here, we used a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach to examine the allosteric modulation of the D2R within the A2AR/D2R oligomer and the dependence of this receptor-receptor interaction on two regions rich in positive charges on intracellular loop 3 (IL3) of the D2R. Interestingly, we observed a negative allosteric effect of the D2R agonist quinpirole on A2AR ligand binding and activation. However, these allosteric effects were abolished upon mutation of specific arginine residues (217–222 and 267–269) on IL3 of the D2R, thus demonstrating a major role of these positively-charged residues in mediating the observed receptor-receptor interaction. Overall, these results provide structural insights to better understand the functioning of the A2AR/D2R oligomer in living cells. PMID:22924752

  9. Interaction of the GTP-binding and GTPase-activating domains of ARD1 involves the effector region of the ADP-ribosylation factor domain.

    PubMed

    Vitale, N; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1997-02-14

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and members of the Ras superfamily, originally identified and purified by their ability to enhance the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and more recently recognized as critical participants in vesicular trafficking pathways and phospholipase D activation. ARD1 is a 64-kDa protein with an 18-kDa carboxyl-terminal ARF domain (p3) and a 46-kDa amino-terminal extension (p5) that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. Using recombinant proteins, we showed that p5, the amino-terminal domain of ARD1, stimulates the GTPase activity of p3, the ARF domain, and appears to be the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) component of this bifunctional protein, whereas in other members of the Ras superfamily a separate GAP molecule interacts with the effector region of the GTP-binding protein. p5 stimulated the GTPase activity of p3 but not of ARF1, which differs from p3 in several amino acids in the effector domain. After substitution of 7 amino acids from p3 in the appropriate position in ARF1, the chimeric protein ARF1(39-45p3) bound to p5, which increased its GTPase activity. Specifically, after Gly40 and Thr45 in the putative effector domain of ARF1 were replaced with the equivalent Asp and Pro, respectively, from p3, functional interaction of the chimeric ARF1 with p5 was increased. Thus, Asp25 and Pro30 of the ARF domain (p3) of ARD1 are involved in its functional and physical interaction with the GTPase-activating (p5) domain of ARD1. After deletion of the amino-terminal 15 amino acids from ARF1(39-45p3), its interaction with p5 was essentially equivalent to that of p3, suggesting that the amino terminus of ARF1(39-45p3) may interfere with binding to p5. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the GAP domain of ARD1 interacts with the effector region of the ARF domain and thereby stimulates GTP hydrolysis.

  10. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  11. Structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 at 1.74 Å resolution and model of a complex with lutein

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Martin P.; George, Evan W.; Tran, Quang T.; Baumgardner, Kody; Zharov, Gabe; Lee, Sarah; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Shihab, Saeed; Mattinson, Ty; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    A crystal structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 (StAR-related lipid-transfer protein 3; also known as MLN64) has been refined to 1.74 Å resolution. A previous structure of the same protein determined to 2.2 Å resolution highlighted homology with StARD1 and shared cholesterol-binding character. StARD3 has since been recognized as a carotenoid-binding protein in the primate retina, where its biochemical function of binding lutein with specificity appears to be well suited to recruit this photoprotective molecule. The current and previous structures correspond closely to each other (r.m.s.d. of 0.25 Å), especially in terms of the helix-grip fold constructed around a solvent-filled cavity. Regions of interest were defined with alternate conformations in the current higher-resolution structure, including Arg351 found within the cavity and Ω1, a loop of four residues found just outside the cavity entrance. Models of the complex with lutein generated by rigid-body docking indicate that one of the ionone rings must protrude outside the cavity, and this insight has implications for molecular interactions with transport proteins and enzymes that act on lutein. Interestingly, models with the ∊-ionone ring characteristic of lutein pointing towards the bottom of the cavity were associated with fewer steric clashes, suggesting that steric complementarity and ligand asymmetry may play a role in discriminating lutein from the other ocular carotenoids zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, which only have β-ionone rings. PMID:27487925

  12. Structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 at 1.74 Å resolution and model of a complex with lutein

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, Martin P. George, Evan W.; Tran, Quang T.; Baumgardner, Kody; Zharov, Gabe; Lee, Sarah; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Shihab, Saeed; Mattinson, Ty; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2016-07-27

    The structure of a START-domain protein known to bind lutein in the human retina is reported to an improved resolution limit. Rigid-body docking demonstrates that at least a portion of lutein must protrude from the large tunnel-like cavity characteristic of this helix-grip protein and suggests a mechanism for lutein binding specificity. A crystal structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 (StAR-related lipid-transfer protein 3; also known as MLN64) has been refined to 1.74 Å resolution. A previous structure of the same protein determined to 2.2 Å resolution highlighted homology with StARD1 and shared cholesterol-binding character. StARD3 has since been recognized as a carotenoid-binding protein in the primate retina, where its biochemical function of binding lutein with specificity appears to be well suited to recruit this photoprotective molecule. The current and previous structures correspond closely to each other (r.m.s.d. of 0.25 Å), especially in terms of the helix-grip fold constructed around a solvent-filled cavity. Regions of interest were defined with alternate conformations in the current higher-resolution structure, including Arg351 found within the cavity and Ω1, a loop of four residues found just outside the cavity entrance. Models of the complex with lutein generated by rigid-body docking indicate that one of the ionone rings must protrude outside the cavity, and this insight has implications for molecular interactions with transport proteins and enzymes that act on lutein. Interestingly, models with the ∊-ionone ring characteristic of lutein pointing towards the bottom of the cavity were associated with fewer steric clashes, suggesting that steric complementarity and ligand asymmetry may play a role in discriminating lutein from the other ocular carotenoids zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, which only have β-ionone rings.

  13. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca2+ concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  14. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  15. [Complex control of the source of infection in sepsis : Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridging concept for tracheal fistula repair in sepsis-associated ARDS].

    PubMed

    Weiterer, S; Schmidt, K; Deininger, M; Ulrich, A; Tochtermann, U; Eberhardt, R; Hofer, S; Weigand, M A; Brenner, T

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present a case of a tracheal fistula due to an anastomotic insufficiency following abdominothoracic esophageal resection. Despite immediate discontinuity resection, the tracheal fistula could not be surgically closed, resulting in incomplete control of the source of infection and an alternative treatment concept in the form of interventional fistula closure using a Y-tracheal stent. However, owing to existing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with a considerable risk of peri-interventional hypoxia, a temporary bridging concept using venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was implemented successfully.

  16. Importance des algues Dasycladales révélée par la cathodoluminescence des évaporites triasiques (Trias des Forages GPF Ardèche, France). Role of Dasycladals algae displayed by the cathodoluminescence of Triassic evaporites (GPF deep bore holes, Ardèche, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Pierre; Arbey, François

    1999-06-01

    Two metastable minerals (the biogenic aragonite of Dasycladals algae and the diagenetic gypsum replaced by dolomite, anhydrite and quartz) appear to be significant for the diagenesis of Triassic evaporites of Ardèche, France (GPF cored deep drillings: Balazuc 1 and Morte-Mérie 1). The cathodoluminescence colours of dolomite, anhydrite and authigenic quartz, are digitally enhanced and compared with the high magnification pictures of SEM electron-excited cathodoluminescence (200-800 nm).

  17. What is the ARD?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    Until as recently as 100 years ago, the concept of retirement had almost no meaning. Now it is a formal stage of life with its own privileges and responsibilities We are living longer and learning more about how to take full advantage of the opportunities this provides. The Association of Retiring Dentists is an organization intended to make that a rich experience for all.

  18. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)?

    PubMed

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean-François; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey.

  19. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)?

    PubMed Central

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean–François; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey. PMID:26745626

  20. Design and implementation of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the treatment of moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advances in supportive care, moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality rates, and novel therapies to treat this condition are needed. Compelling pre-clinical data from mouse, rat, sheep and ex vivo perfused human lung models support the use of human mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) as a novel intravenous therapy for the early treatment of ARDS. Methods This article describes the study design and challenges encountered during the implementation and phase 1 component of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of bone marrow-derived human MSCs for moderate-severe ARDS. A trial enrolling 69 subjects is planned (9 subjects in phase 1, 60 subjects in phase 2 treated with MSCs or placebo in a 2:1 ratio). Results This report describes study design features that are unique to a phase 1 trial in critically ill subjects and the specific challenges of implementation of a cell-based therapy trial in the ICU. Conclusions Experience gained during the design and implementation of the START study will be useful to investigators planning future phase 1 clinical trials based in the ICU, as well as trials of cell-based therapy for other acute illnesses. Trial registration Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01775774 and NCT02097641. PMID:25593740

  1. Mitochondrial Transfer via Tunneling Nanotubes is an Important Mechanism by Which Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Macrophage Phagocytosis in the In Vitro and In Vivo Models of ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Megan V.; Morrison, Thomas J.; Doherty, Declan F.; McAuley, Daniel F.; Matthay, Michael A.; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; O'Kane, Cecilia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been reported to improve bacterial clearance in preclinical models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The mechanism of this effect is not fully elucidated yet. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the antimicrobial effect of MSC in vivo depends on their modulation of macrophage phagocytic activity which occurs through mitochondrial transfer. We established that selective depletion of alveolar macrophages (AM) with intranasal (IN) administration of liposomal clodronate resulted in complete abrogation of MSC antimicrobial effect in the in vivo model of Escherichia coli pneumonia. Furthermore, we showed that MSC administration was associated with enhanced AM phagocytosis in vivo. We showed that direct coculture of MSC with monocyte‐derived macrophages enhanced their phagocytic capacity. By fluorescent imaging and flow cytometry we demonstrated extensive mitochondrial transfer from MSC to macrophages which occurred at least partially through tunneling nanotubes (TNT)‐like structures. We also detected that lung macrophages readily acquire MSC mitochondria in vivo, and macrophages which are positive for MSC mitochondria display more pronounced phagocytic activity. Finally, partial inhibition of mitochondrial transfer through blockage of TNT formation by MSC resulted in failure to improve macrophage bioenergetics and complete abrogation of the MSC effect on macrophage phagocytosis in vitro and the antimicrobial effect of MSC in vivo. Collectively, this work for the first time demonstrates that mitochondrial transfer from MSC to innate immune cells leads to enhancement in phagocytic activity and reveals an important novel mechanism for the antimicrobial effect of MSC in ARDS. Stem Cells 2016;34:2210–2223 PMID:27059413

  2. Down-regulation of the expression of the FIH-1 and ARD-1 genes at the transcriptional level by nickel and cobalt in the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Ke, Qingdong; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max

    2005-04-01

    Although nickel and cobalt compounds have been known to cause induction of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and activation of a battery of hypoxia-inducible genes in the cell, the molecular mechanisms of this induction remain unclear. The post-translational modification of HIF-1a, the oxygen-sensitive subunit of HIF-1, regulates stabilization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding activity, and transcriptional activity of the protein. Among the enzymes regulating the post-translational modification of HIF-la, the factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) hydroxylates the protein at asparagine 803, suppressing the interaction of HIF-1a with transcription coactivators p300/CBP and reducing the transcriptional activity of the protein. ARD-1, the acetyltransferase, acetylates HIF-1a at lysine 532, which enhances the interaction of HIF-1a with pVHL. Therefore, FIH-1 and ARD-1 negatively regulate the transcriptional activity and the stability of HIF-1a. We examined the mRNA levels of FIH-l and ARD-1 genes after exposure nickel (II) or cobalt (II) to the cell and found that both genes were down-regulated by the chemical treatment, which may lead to reduced levels of both proteins and result in increased level of HIF-1 a and its transcriptional activity.

  3. The DNA-mimic antirestriction proteins ArdA ColIB-P9, Arn T4, and Ocr T7 as activators of H-NS-dependent gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Melkina, Olga E; Goryanin, Ignatiy I; Zavilgelsky, Gennadii B

    2016-11-01

    The antirestriction proteins ArdA ColIb-P9, Arn T4 and Ocr T7 specifically inhibit type I and type IV restriction enzymes and belong to the family of DNA-mimic proteins because their three-dimensional structure is similar to the double-helical B-form DNA. It is proposed that the DNA-mimic proteins are able to bind nucleoid protein H-NS and alleviate H-NS-silencing of the transcription of bacterial genes. Escherichia coli lux biosensors were constructed by inserting H-NS-dependent promoters into a vector, thereby placing each fragment upstream of the promoterless Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE operon. It was demonstrated that the DNA-mimic proteins ArdA, Arn and Ocr activate the transcription of H-NS-dependent promoters of the lux operon of marine luminescent bacteria (mesophilic Aliivibrio fischeri and psychrophilic Aliivibrio logei), and the dps gene from E. coli. It was also demonstrated that the ArdA antirestriction protein, the genes of which are located on transmissive plasmids ColIb-P9, R64, PK101, decreases levels of H-NS silencing of the PluxC promoter during conjugation in the recipient bacteria.

  4. [Recurrence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a patient with Sai-rei-to-induced pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kensuke; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Togashi, Yuki; Zaima, Mika; Kohno, Chiyoko; Yamada, Yoshihito

    2008-10-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever and difficulty in walking with marked hypoxemia and diffuse ground glass opacities in bilateral lung fields by chest radiography and CT scanning. Treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids resulted in improvement of the clinical findings and successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. At first, we diagnosed severe mycoplasma pneumonia because of a 2560 titer in a particle agglutiation (PA) test. Five days after discharge, she was given a second emergency admission, because of fever and difficulty in walking. Chest X-ray film revealed improvement after administration of methylprednisolone. Her detailed medical history proved that she had been treated with a Chinese herbal drug, Sai-rei-to, for several weeks before first admission. We finally diagnosed her disease as Sai-rei-to-induced pneumonitis. Despite intensive treatment, she finally died. The histopathological findings (H-E stain) of the autopsied lungs showed hyaline membrane formation and hyperplasia of type II alveolar epithelium cells, so-called, diffuse alveolar damage. This case and other referred in the literature suggest that Sai-rei-to-induced pneumonitis can become severe.

  5. Finding Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finding Dental Care Where can I find low-cost dental care? Dental schools often have clinics that allow dental ... can I find more information? See Finding Low Cost Dental Care . ​​​​ WWNRightboxRadEditor2 Contact Us 1-866-232-4528 nidcrinfo@ ...

  6. Find a Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  7. Effects on hemodynamics and gas exchange of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Sabater, Joan; Masclans, Joan Ramon; Sacanell, Judit; Chacon, Pilar; Sabin, Pilar; Planas, Merce

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effects on hemodynamics and gas exchange of a lipid emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with ARDS. Methods The design was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study in our Intensive Medicine Department of Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona-Spain). We studied 16 consecutive patients with ARDS and intolerance to enteral nutrition (14 men and 2 women; mean age: 58 ± 13 years; APACHE II score: 17.8 ± 2.3; Lung Injury Score: 3.1 ± 0.5; baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 149 ± 40). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: Group A (n = 8) received the study emulsion Lipoplus® 20%, B.Braun Medical (50% MCT, 40% LCT, 10% ω-3); Group B (n = 8) received the control emulsion Intralipid® Fresenius Kabi (100% LCT). Lipid emulsions were administered during 12 h at a dose of 0.12 g/kg/h. Measurements of the main hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters were made at baseline (immediately before administration of the lipid emulsions), every hour during the lipid infusion, at the end of administration, and six hours after the end of administration lipid infusion. Results No statistically significant changes were observed in the different hemodynamic values analyzed. Likewise, the gas exchange parameters did not show statistically significant differences during the study. No adverse effect attributable to the lipid emulsions was seen in the patients analyzed. Conclusion The lipid emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids was safe and well tolerated in short-term administration to patients with ARDS. It did not cause any significant changes in hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters. Trial registration ISRCTN63673813 PMID:18947396

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health & Wellness > Health Professionals Lung Health & Wellness > Healthy Air (Indoor & Outdoor) Lung Health & Wellness > LUNG FORCE Updates Lung Health & Wellness > Quit Smoking Lung Health & ...

  9. A Review of the Literature and of Work Done in A.R.D and C.R.D.D. on Picrite and its Intermediates with a View to Finding a Cheap and Economical Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    illegible. DSTL ltr dtd 13 Feb 2007; DSTL ltr dtd 13 Feb 2007 3C7/K/47 l ’ rj COPY Na \\ ON: Mjjlfe£_ h. Date ~k^ CONFIDENTIAL OAljg Ministry of...method of manufacturing picrite other’ than through carbide then the methods most worthy of further study and detailed costing are methods ( l ) and (7...Cyanamide is formed by the action of bromine on potassium cyanide dissolved in liquid ammonia.(4°) ( l ) Cyanamide and carbon dioxide are fof^ed by the

  10. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  11. Find a Midwife

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Find a Midwife practice locator is a web-based service that allows you to find midwifery practices in your area. It also supplies you with basic contact information like practice name, address, phone number, e-mail address, web site and a map of the area. If ...

  12. Find an Audiologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back | Close Find an Audiologist | Search Search By City/State City State/Territory: (Non U.S.) AA AB AE AK ... Heard and Mc Donald Islands Holy see (Vatican City State) Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia ...

  13. Find a Massage Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Massage Therapists Ethics Research Business Master the Classroom for Massage Educators Career Guidance Career Guidance Make ... a Massage Therapist » Browse by location » Browse by technique » Find a massage therapy school Proprietary Information and ...

  14. Find a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctor Finding a doctor with special training in movement disorders can make a big difference in your ... Goldstein Goldstone Gollomp Goodman Gorman Gottschalk Graff Greeley Green Gregory Griffith Grill Grillone Grist Grossman Groves Gudesblatt ...

  15. Find an Endocrinologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Women's Health 5-Digit Zip Code Search Radius 10 miles 25 miles 50 miles Country ALBANIA ... Health Network is supported by network sponsors. Contact a Health Professional What is an Endocrinologist? Endocrinology Find ...

  16. Find a Dermatologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Dermatology™ Excellence in Dermatologic Surgery™ Excellence in Medical Dermatology™ Excellence in Dermatopathology™ Donate Search Menu Donate Member Resources & Programs Practice Tools Education Meetings & Events Advocacy Public & Patients Find a ...

  17. Find a Periodontist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Find a Periodontist - Advanced Search U.S. Zip Code Search The best way to locate periodontists in your area is to enter your zip code and select a maximum acceptable driving distance below. ...

  18. Find a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get My Plan Info Service Status Countries ZIP Code Enter Valid ZIP Code Plans Clear Profile Find a Doctor Your health ... Live? Please enter your country and/or ZIP code Country: Zip Code: All Provider Directories I know ...

  19. Find a Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact Find an ... more. Disclaimer of Liabilities The Academy of General Dentistry's (AGD) Web site provides a listing of members ...

  20. Pathological findings in homocystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J. B.; Carson, Nina A. J.; Neill, D. W.

    1964-01-01

    Pathological findings are described in four cases of a new aminoaciduria in which homocystine is excreted in the urine. All the patients were mentally retarded children. Three of them presented diagnostic features of Marfan's syndrome. Necropsy on one case and biopsy findings in the others are described. Fatty change occurs in the liver. The most striking lesions are vascular. Metachromatic medial degeneration of the aorta and of the elastic arteries in the necropsied case are considered in relation to Marfan's syndrome. Other changes, particularly thrombosis which is prevalent in homocystinuria, suggest the possibility of a platelet defect. The findings are discussed in respect of an upset in the metabolism of sulphur-containing amino-acids and with particular reference to Marfan's syndrome. Images PMID:14195630

  1. Mobious syndrome: MR findings

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Maskal Revanna; Vaishali, Dhulappa Mudabasappagol; Vedaraju, Kadaba Shamachar; Nagaraj, Bangalore Rangaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder. We report a case of Möbius syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with bilateral convergent squint and left-sided facial weakness. The characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Möbius syndrome, which include absent bilateral abducens nerves and absent left facial nerve, were noted. In addition, there was absence of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and absence of bilateral facial colliculi. Clinical features, etiology, and imaging findings are discussed. PMID:28104946

  2. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  3. Finding Their Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In…

  4. Implementing Institutional Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Although many agree that institutional research in higher education has come of age and is accepted as a part of institutional management, great variations exist in the extent to which institutional research findings are synthesized and utilized in management decision-making. A number of reasons can be identified as accounting for this phenomenon,…

  5. Finding Those Missing Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses not to give up on a site when a URL returns an error message. Many web sites can be found by using strategies such as URL trimming, searching cached sites, site searching and searching the WayBack Machine. Methods and tips for finding web sites are contained within this article.

  6. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  7. Finding Health Care Services

    Cancer.gov

    If you have been diagnosed with cancer, finding a doctor and treatment facility for your cancer care is an important step to getting the best treatment possible. Learn tips for choosing a doctor and treatment facility to manage your cancer care.

  8. Find a Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teens Treatment Tips for Parents and Caregivers Anxiety Disorders at School School Refusal Test Anxiety News and Research College Students Facts Find Help Tips National Stress Øut Day News and Research Resources Women Facts News and Research Pregnancy and Medication Postpartum ...

  9. Finding voices through writing.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, P

    1994-01-01

    Assisting students to find their writing "voices" is another way to emphasize writing as a professional tool for nursing. The author discusses a teaching strategy that required students to write using a variety of styles. Students wrote fables, poetry, and letters, and used other creative writing styles to illustrate their views and feelings on professional nursing issues. Creation of a class book empowered students to see versatility with writing styles can be a powerful communication tool to use with peers, clients, and society.

  10. Mineral find highlights cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Heavy minerals with potential commercial value were discovered last month by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in seafloor deposits off the coasts of Virginia and Georgia. The USGS sent the research vessel J. W. Powell on a 25-day cruise along the East Coast to assess the concentrations of commercially important minerals in that segment of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).Assistant Secretary of the Interior Robert Broadbent called the findings of the Powell “promising” and said they served as a “reminder of just how little we do know about the seafloor resources just a few miles offshore.”

  11. Finding the Next Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Kepler Team

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago, we knew of no planets orbiting other Sun-like stars, yet today, the roll call is nearly 1,000 strong. Statistical studies of exoplanet populations are possible, and words like "habitable zone" are heard around the dinner table. Theorists are scrambling to explain not only the observed physical characteristics but also the orbital and dynamical properties of planetary systems. The taxonomy is diverse but still reflects the observational biases that dominate the detection surveys. We've yet to find another planet that looks anything like home. The scene changed dramatically with the launch of the Kepler spacecraft in 2009 to determine, via transit photometry, the fraction of stars harboring earth-size planets in or near the Habitable Zone of their parent star. Early catalog releases hint that nature makes small planets efficiently: over half of the sample of 2,300 planet candidates discovered in the first two years are smaller than 2.5 times the Earth's radius. I will describe Kepler's milestone discoveries and progress toward an exo-Earth census. Humankind's speculation about the existence of other worlds like our own has become a veritable quest.

  12. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  13. Immunological findings in autism.

    PubMed

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  14. Effects of an omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion on eicosanoid synthesis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of lipid emulsions has been associated with changes in lung function and gas exchange which may be mediated by biologically active metabolites derived from arachidonic acid. The type and quantity of the lipid emulsions used could modulate this response, which is mediated by the eicosanoids. This study investigates the use of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsions in ARDS patients and their effects on eicosanoid values. Methods Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study carried out at the Intensive Medicine Department of Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona-Spain). We studied 16 consecutive patients with ARDS and intolerance to enteral nutrition (14 men; age: 58 ± 13 years; APACHE II score 17.8 ± 2.3; Lung Injury Score: 3.1 ± 0.5; baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 149 ± 40). Patients were randomized into two groups: Group A (n = 8) received the study emulsion Lipoplus® 20%, B. Braun Medical (50% MCT, 40% LCT, 10% fish oil (FO)); Group B (n = 8) received the control emulsion Intralipid® Fresenius Kabi (100% LCT). Lipid emulsions were administered for 12 h at a dose of 0.12 g/kg/h. We measured LTB4, TXB2, and 6-keto prostaglandin F1α values at baseline [immediately before the administration of the lipid emulsions (T-0)], at the end of the administration (T-12) and 24 hours after the beginning of the infusion (T 24) in arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Results In group A (FO) LTB4, TXB2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α levels fell during omega-3 administration (T12). After discontinuation (T24), levels of inflammatory markers (both systemic and pulmonary) behaved erratically. In group B (LCT) all systemic and pulmonary mediators increased during lipid administration and returned to baseline levels after discontinuation, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. There was a clear interaction between the treatment in group A (fish oil) and changes in LTB4 over time. Conclusions Infusion of lipids enriched

  15. Effects of lung surfactant factor (LSF) treatment on gas exchange and histopathological changes in an animal model of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): comparison of recombinant LSF with bovine LSF.

    PubMed

    Häfner, D; Germann, P G; Hauschke, D

    1994-10-01

    Repetitive lung lavage of adult rats leads to lung injury similar to ARDS resulting in poor gas exchange, protein leakage and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) into the alveolar spaces (J Appl Physiol 1983; 55: 131-138). In a previous dose response comparison we have demonstrated that poor gas exchange could be improved by lung surfactant factor (LSF) instillation soon after lavage. Since Surfacten (Tokyo Tanabe Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was described in vitro to inhibit PMN activity, we compared this preparation with a Recombinant LSF preparation (Byk Gulden, Konstanz, Germany; phospholipids plus human identical surfactant protein C) at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Their efficacy was compared with an untreated control group with respect to improving gas exchange, inhibition of hyaline membrane formation and inhibition of the inflammatory response after multiple lavage. Tracheotomized rats were pressure-controlled ventilated (Siemens Servo Ventilator 900C, Sweden) with 100% oxygen at a respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min, inspiration:expiration ratio of 1:2, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 28 cmH2O at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cmH2O. Two hours after LSF administration PEEP was reduced from 8 to 6 cmH2O (first PEEP-reduction), from 6 to 3 (second reduction) and from 3 to 0 cmH2O (third reduction) and finally raised to 8 cmH2O. Results for the averaged partial arterial oxygen pressure [PaO2 (mmHg)] of the 2 h period [PaO2(5'-120')] and for the PaO2 during the second PEEP reduction [PaO2(PEEP23/3] were calculated. Both LSF preparations caused a dose-dependent increase of the PaO2 (5'-120') and the PaO2(PEEP23/3). Similarly, the formation of hyaline membranes was inhibited by both LSF preparations in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the inflammatory response (infiltration of PMN) was not effected by either of the LSF preparations at any dose level. The described variations in ventilator settings are useful to

  16. Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…

  17. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... description, phone numbers, maps and directions, such as To Find Out More: Visit www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  18. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A; Varma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  19. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  20. Whole-genome Sequencing for Tracing the Transmission Link between Two ARD Outbreaks Caused by a Novel HAdV Serotype 7 Variant, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shaofu; Li, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yong; Liu, Nan; Li, Chengyi; Li, Shenlong; Li, Ming; Jiang, Zhengjie; Sun, Huandong; Li, Ying; Xie, Jing; Yang, Chaojie; Wang, Jian; Li, Hao; Yi, Shengjie; Wu, Zhihao; Jia, Leili; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Ma, Hui; Yuan, Zhengquan; Song, Hongbin

    2015-09-04

    From December 2012 to February 2013, two outbreaks of acute respiratory disease caused by HAdV-7 were reported in China. We investigated possible transmission links between these two seemingly unrelated outbreaks by integration of epidemiological and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. WGS analyses showed that the HAdV-7 isolates from the two outbreaks were genetically indistinguishable; however, a 12 bp deletion in the virus-associated RNA gene distinguished the outbreak isolates from other HAdV-7 isolates. Outbreak HAdV-7 isolates demonstrated increased viral replication compared to non-outbreak associated HAdV-7 isolate. Epidemiological data supported that the first outbreak was caused by introduction of the novel HAdV-7 virus by an infected recruit upon arrival at the training base. Nosocomial transmission by close contacts was the most likely source leading to onset of the second HAdV-7 outbreak, establishing the apparent transmission link between the outbreaks. Our findings imply that in-hospital contact investigations should be encouraged to reduce or interrupt further spread of infectious agents when treating outbreak cases, and WGS can provide useful information guiding infection-control interventions.

  1. The phylogenetic utility of acetyltransferase (ARD1) and glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QtRNA) for reconstructing Cenozoic relationships as exemplified by the large Australian cicada Pauropsalta generic complex.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher L; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris

    2015-02-01

    The Pauropsalta generic complex is a large group of cicadas (72 described spp.; >82 undescribed spp.) endemic to Australia. No previous molecular work on deep level relationships within this complex has been conducted, but a recent morphological revision and phylogenetic analysis proposed relationships among the 11 genera. We present here the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the complex using five loci (1 mtDNA, 4 nDNA), two of which are from nuclear genes new to cicada systematics. We compare the molecular phylogeny to the morphological phylogeny. We evaluate the phylogenetic informativeness of the new loci to traditional cicada systematics loci to generate a baseline of performance and behavior to aid in gene choice decisions in future systematic and phylogenomic studies. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies strongly support the monophyly of most of the newly described genera; however, relationships among genera differ from the morphological phylogeny. A comparison of phylogenetic informativeness among all loci revealed that COI 3rd positions dominate the informativeness profiles relative to all other loci but exhibit some among taxon nucleotide bias. After removing COI 3rd positions, COI 1st positions dominate near the terminals, while the period intron has the most phylogenetic informativeness near the root. Among the nuclear loci, ARD1 and QtRNA have lower phylogenetic informativeness than period intron and elongation factor 1 alpha intron, but the informativeness increases at you move from the tips to the root. The increase in phylogenetic informativeness deeper in the tree suggests these loci may be useful for resolving older relationships.

  2. Revisiting the Archival Finding Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Archivists have been creating finding aids for generations, and in the last three decades they have done this work via a succession of standardized formats. However, like many other disciplines, they have carried out such work in violation of systems analysis. Although purporting to have the users of finding aids systems first and foremost in…

  3. Finding the object'' proceedings addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Ultrasound findings in trisomy 22.

    PubMed

    Schwendemann, Wade D; Contag, Stephen A; Koty, Patrick P; Miller, Richard C; Devers, Patricia; Watson, William J

    2009-02-01

    We sought to identify the characteristic sonographic findings of fetal trisomy 22 by performing a retrospective review of nine cases of fetal trisomy 22. All cases of chromosomal mosaicism were excluded, as were first-trimester losses. Indications for sonography, gestational age, and sonographically detected fetal anomalies were analyzed. The majority of patients were referred for advanced maternal age or abnormal ultrasound findings on screening exam. Oligohydramnios was the most common sonographic finding, present in 55% of affected fetuses. Intrauterine growth restriction and increased nuchal thickness were slightly less frequent.

  5. A Family Finds Its Way

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... spoke recently with NIH MedlinePlus ' Christopher Klose. At its heart, TBI, hearing loss, any health condition is ...

  6. Find a NCCAOM Certified Practitioner

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCAOM Certification Get Certified Get Recertified PDA Search Engine Find A Practitioner State Licensing Helpful NCCAOM Links ... My Status State Licensure Diplomates Recertification PDA Search Engine State Licensure Consumers Diplomate of Acupuncture Diplomate of ...

  7. Visual direction finding by fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

  8. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  9. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J

    1989-01-01

    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18.

  10. Ocular findings in cytogenetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W A; Alfi, O S; Donnell, G N

    1979-06-01

    Several cytogenetic syndromes are reviewed, and the salient ocular and facial abnormalities that might lead to a diagnosis are pointed out. Examples are given of mongoloid slant to the palpebral fissures, not only in Down's syndrome, but also in monosomy 9p, where, in addition, the triangular skull is almost diagnostic. Antimongoloid slant is found in trisomy 9p, where the eyes also have enophthalmos of monosomy 9p. Hypertelorism is another common finding in these syndromes; in monosomy 5p it is almost always present, although it occurs in other conditions as well, including trisomy 12p. The ring 22 syndrome has a distinguishing finding called "doe's eyes" because of the shape of the palpebral fissures. Trisomy 13 has numerous ocular findings as well as skull and facial involvements.

  11. Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, Guillaume; Stoye, Jens

    In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations or as sequences. Considering permutations, we give several algorithms whose running time depends on the size of the actual output rather than the output in the worst case. Indeed, we first provide a straightforward O(n 3) time algorithm for finding all nested common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing an O(n 2) time algorithm computing an irredundant output. Finally, we show, by providing a third algorithm, that finding only the maximal nested common intervals can be done in linear time. Considering sequences, we provide solutions (modifications of previously defined algorithms and a new algorithm) for different variants of the problem, depending on the treatment one wants to apply to duplicated genes.

  12. Acid corrosive esophagitis: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-06-01

    Thirty-nine esophagograms of 24 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCI) in suicide attempts were reviewed. All esophagograms were obtained in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases. In the acute and subacute phases, the radiographic findings consisted of mucosal edema, submucosal edema or hemorrhage, ulcerations, sloughing of the mucosa, atony, and dilatation. Strictures of the esophagus were present in the chronic phase. These radiographic findings were not different from those found in alkaline corrosive esophagitis. The severity of the corrosive esophagitis is considered related to the concentration, amount, viscosity, and duration of contact between the caustic agent and the esophageal mucosa.

  13. Scintigraphic findings in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I

    1977-06-01

    A prospective study of bone scintigraphic findings has been carried out in 63 patients, firmly diagnosed as having ankylosing spondylitis. In addition to abnormal uptake of the radiotracer at the sacroiliac joints, a peripheral arthropathy has been a common finding, particularly in the proximal joints, occurring in up to 50% of patients. Increased uptake of radiotracer in the spine has also been found both diffusely and focally. Focal increases have been noted at the apophyseal joints in 40% of patients and in three patients with a sterile intervertebral diskitis, an unusual complication of this disease only diagnosed in two patients after bone scintigraphy.

  14. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  15. Lung segmentation from HRCT using united geometric active contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwei; Li, Chuanfu; Xiong, Jin; Feng, Huanqing

    2007-12-01

    Accurate lung segmentation from high resolution CT images is a challenging task due to various detail tracheal structures, missing boundary segments and complex lung anatomy. One popular method is based on gray-level threshold, however its results are usually rough. A united geometric active contours model based on level set is proposed for lung segmentation in this paper. Particularly, this method combines local boundary information and region statistical-based model synchronously: 1) Boundary term ensures the integrality of lung tissue.2) Region term makes the level set function evolve with global characteristic and independent on initial settings. A penalizing energy term is introduced into the model, which forces the level set function evolving without re-initialization. The method is found to be much more efficient in lung segmentation than other methods that are only based on boundary or region. Results are shown by 3D lung surface reconstruction, which indicates that the method will play an important role in the design of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system.

  16. AR/D image processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wookey, Cathy; Nicholson, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    General Dynamics has developed advanced hardware, software, and algorithms for use with the Tomahawk cruise missile and other unmanned vehicles. We have applied this technology to the problem of locating and determining the orientation of the docking port of a target vehicle with respect to an approaching spacecraft. The system described in this presentation utilizes a multi-processor based computer to digitize and process television imagery and extract parameters such as range to the target vehicle, approach, velocity, and pitch and yaw angles. The processor is based on the Inmos T-800 Transputer and is configured as a loosely coupled array. Each processor operates asynchronously and has its own local memory. This allows additional processors to be easily added if additional processing power is required for more complex tasks. Total system throughput is approximately 100 MIPS (scalar) and 60 MFLOPS and can be expanded as desired. The algorithm implemented on the system uses a unique adaptive thresholding technique to locate the target vehicle and determine the approximate position of the docking port. A target pattern surrounding the port is than analyzed in the imagery to determine the range and orientation of the target. This information is passed to an autopilot which uses it to perform course and speed corrections. Future upgrades to the processor are described which will enhance its capabilities for a variety of missions.

  17. How to Find Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  18. Findings from ATSDR's Health Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susten, Allan S.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes findings from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concerning the evaluation of data about hazardous substance release into the environment. Identifies the hazardous substances, exposure, health effects, and public health impact from 951 facilities identified on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the Environmental…

  19. Electroencephalographic findings in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Velasques, Bruna Brandao; Cagy, Mauricio; Marques, Juliana Bittencourt; Teixeira, Silmar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-12-01

    Some studies have reported the importance of electroencephalography (EEG) as a method for investigating abnormal parameters in psychiatric disorders. Different findings in time and frequency domain analysis with regard to central nervous system arousal during acute panic states have already been obtained. This study aimed to systematically review the EEG findings in panic disorder (PD), discuss them having a currently accepted neuroanatomical hypothesis for this pathology as a basis, and identify limitations in the selected studies. Literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, using the keywords electroencephalography and panic disorder; 16 articles were selected. Despite the inconsistency of EEG findings in PD, the major conclusions about the absolute power of alpha and beta bands point to a decreased alpha power, while beta power tends to increase. Different asymmetry patterns were found between studies. Coherence studies pointed to a lower degree of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity at the frontal region and intra-hemispheric at the bilateral temporal region. Studies on possible related events showed changes in memory processing in PD patients when exposed to aversive stimuli. It was noticed that most findings reflect the current neurobiological hypothesis of PD, where inhibitory deficits of the prefrontal cortex related to the modulation of amygdala activity, and the subsequent activation of subcortical regions, may be responsible to trigger anxiety responses. We approached some important issues that need to be considered in further researches, especially the use of different methods for analyzing EEG signals.

  20. Multi-Criteria Path Finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A.

    2012-07-01

    Path finding solutions are becoming a major part of many GIS applications including location based services and web-based GIS services. Most traditional path finding solutions are based on shortest path algorithms that tend to minimize the cost of travel from one point to another. These algorithms make use of some cost criteria that is usually an attribute of the edges in the graph network. Providing one shortest path limits user's flexibility when choosing a possible route, especially when more than one parameter is utilized to calculate cost (e.g., when length, number of traffic lights, and number of turns are used to calculate network cost.) K shortest path solutions tend to overcome this problem by providing second, third, and Kth shortest paths. These algorithms are efficient as long as the graphs edge weight does not change dynamically and no other parameters affect edge weights. In this paper we try to go beyond finding shortest paths based on some cost value, and provide all possible paths disregarding any parameter that may affect total cost. After finding all possible paths, we can rank the results by any parameter or combination of parameters, without a substantial increase in time complexity.

  1. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable!

    SciTech Connect

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address ``root cause`` as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a ``root problems`` approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee`s part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  2. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable

    SciTech Connect

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address root cause'' as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a root problems'' approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee's part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  3. Finding Cryptography in Object Code

    SciTech Connect

    Jason L. Wright

    2008-10-01

    Finding and identifying Cryptography is a growing concern in the malware analysis community. In this paper, a heuristic method for determining the likelihood that a given function contains a cryptographic algorithm is discussed and the results of applying this method in various environments is shown. The algorithm is based on frequency analysis of opcodes that make up each function within a binary.

  4. MR imaging findings of endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Cornelius, Rebecca; Cunnane, Mary Beth; Golnik, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is a sight-threatening ophthalmologic emergency. The clinical diagnosis is often challenging, and delayed diagnosis may exacerbate the poor visual prognosis. B-scan ultrasonography or spectral domain optical coherence tomography are imaging aids at the clinician’s office. Cross-sectional imaging such as CT and particularly MRI can also help in the assessment of disease extent or complications. MR imaging findings are rarely described in the literature. Here, we discuss the spectrum of imaging findings of endophthalmitis and correlate them with key anatomic and pathophysiologic details of the globe. Early disease is often subtle on MR imaging with thick uveal enhancement, while advanced disease demonstrates retinal/choroidal detachment, vitreal exudates and peribulbar inflammation. Other noninfectious inflammatory diseases of the globe can show similar findings; however, MR diffusion-weighted images help identify infectious exudates and evaluate response to therapy. Knowledge of the spectrum of imaging findings of this disease is important for radiologists and help in the management decision process. PMID:26915896

  5. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... state's health department . Some states have registries (Immunization Information Systems) that include adult vaccines. Unfortunately, there is no national organization that maintains vaccination records. The Centers for Disease ... (CDC) does not have this information. What To Do If You Can't Find ...

  6. 1980-1981 Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    This volume summarizes the results of evaluation and testing activities carried out in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District (AISD) during the 1980-81 school year. The text consists of five parts: Section one highlights important findings in the areas of Title I Schoolwide Projects, compensatory programs, early childhood programs,…

  7. Radiological Findings of Michel Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayse; Demirtas, Hakan; Celik, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital abnormalities of the inner ear is the most common cause of neurosensory hearing loss. Michel inner ear deformity is a rare developmental anomaly refers to the total aplasia of the inner ear. It is caused by developmental arrest of otic placode early during the third week of gestational age. Case report: We have discussed here that three year old girl diagnosed Michel aplasia with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. PMID:27482139

  8. Painful heel: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Narváez, J A; Narváez, J; Ortega, R; Aguilera, C; Sánchez, A; Andía, E

    2000-01-01

    Heel pain is a common and frequently disabling clinical complaint that may be caused by a broad spectrum of osseous or soft-tissue disorders. These disorders are classified on the basis of anatomic origin and predominant location of heel pain to foster a better understanding of this complaint. The disorders include plantar fascial lesions (fasciitis, rupture, fibromatosis, xanthoma), tendinous lesions (tendinitis, tenosynovitis), osseous lesions (fractures, bone bruises, osteomyelitis, tumors), bursal lesions (retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilleal bursitis), tarsal tunnel syndrome, and heel plantar fat pad abnormalities. With its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help determine the cause of heel pain and help assess the extent and severity of the disease in ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases. Careful analysis of MR imaging findings and correlation of these findings with patient history and findings at physical examination can suggest a specific diagnosis in most cases. The majority of patients with heel pain can be successfully treated conservatively, but in cases requiring surgery (eg, plantar fascia rupture in competitive athletes, deeply infiltrating plantar fibromatosis, masses causing tarsal tunnel syndrome), MR imaging is especially useful in planning surgical treatment by showing the exact location and extent of the lesion.

  9. [The chest CT findings and pathologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideo

    2009-08-01

    The past research of the radiologic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in Japan was based on morphological pathology of the untreated patient autopsy. I would like to show the chest CT scan of tuberculosis diseases with caseous granuloma at its exudative reaction, proliferative reaction, productive reaction, cirrhotic reaction until self cure. This progress reflects the normal cell mediated immunological responses. Also I would like to show the cavitation of granuloma, which results from liquefaction of caseous materials during the course and results in the formation of the source of infection. And finally I would like to show the morphological differences of acinous lesion, acino-nodular lesion and caseous lobular pneumonia. These differences reflect the amount of bacilli disseminated in the peripheral parts under the lobules. In this study, I do not show old age cases and HIV positive cases, who do not form typical granuloma due to the decreased cell mediated immnunity and whose X ray findings are atypical.

  10. MRI findings in Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Raval, Monali; Kumari, Rima; Dung, Aldrin Anthony Dung; Guglani, Bhuvnesh; Gupta, Nitij; Gupta, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7), abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  11. Endoscopic findings in uninvestigated dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important to know the causes of dyspepsia to establish the therapeutic approach. Dyspepsia is a frequent syndrome in our country, where there are restrictions to endoscopy and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This study aimed to assess the endoscopic findings of the syndrome, in an outpatient screening clinic of a tertiary hospital in São Paulo. Methods Outpatients with uninvestigated dyspepsia, according to Rome III criteria, answered a dyspepsia questionnaire and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The Rapid Urease Test was applied to fragments of the antral mucosa and epidemiological data were collected from the studied population. Organic dyspepsia findings were analyzed with different variables to verify statistically significant associations. Results Three hundred and six patients were included and 282 were analyzed in the study. The mean age was 44 years and women comprised 65% of the sample. Forty-five percent of the patients reported alarm symptoms. Functional dyspepsia was found in 66% of the patients (20% with normal endoscopy results and 46% with gastritis), 18% had GERD and 13% had ulcers (duodenal in 9% and gastric in 4%). Four cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were identified (1.4%), one without alarm characteristics, 1 case of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and 1 case of gastric lymphoma. The prevalence of H. pylori was 54% and infection, age and smoking status were associated with organic dyspepsia. The age of 48 years was indicative of alarm signs. Conclusions The endoscopic diagnosis of uninvestigated dyspepsia in our setting showed a predominance of functional disease, whereas cancer was an uncommon finding, despite the high prevalence of H. pylori. Organic dyspepsia was associated with infection, age and smoking status. PMID:24499444

  12. Radiologic findings in primary hyperoxaluria

    SciTech Connect

    Martijn, A.; Thijn, C.J.P.

    1982-03-01

    Six out of seven patients with primary hyperoxaluria showed various degrees of oxalosis. The radiographic manifestations differ between patients younger than 15 years and those older than 45 years. The mild manifestations in children, only urolithiasis, can be explained by the, as yet, unimpaired renal function. The renal function in the older patients, with extensive pathologic changes like nephrocalcinosis, urolithiasis, soft-tissue calcification, and osseous changes, is very poor. The findings of extensive softtissue calcification and the bony changes are not in complete agreement with those in the literature.

  13. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  14. Audiologic findings in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, Urmen; Rosen, Heather; Mulliken, John B; Gopen, Quinton; Meara, John G; Rogers, Gary F

    2010-09-01

    Hearing loss has been described in patients with certain craniosynostotic syndromes but is poorly defined in Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). Our objective was to characterize the otologic and audiologic findings in PS. The records of PS patients evaluated at our craniofacial center over a 30-year period were culled. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis and formal audiologic examination were included. Diagnostic criteria were characteristic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 or 2 (FGFR1, FGFR2) or, in the absence of genetic testing, typical clinical findings of PS as determined by a clinical geneticist or the most senior author. Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had hearing loss. Twenty patients had traditional audiologic testing: 14 (70%) had pure conductive loss (minor to severe), and 3 (15%) had a mixed conductive/sensorineural loss (minor to severe). Two additional patients had hearing loss by Behavioral Observational Audiometry (sound fields method). One patient with early conductive hearing loss was subsequently determined to have a pure sensorineural deficit. Nine patients (45%) had permanent hearing loss significant enough to require audiologic amplification. All patients with PS demonstrated hearing loss, although the severity and the anatomic basis (ie., neural vs conductive) were variable. Conductive hearing loss, possibly caused by structural abnormalities, was most common. Sensorineural hearing loss was less common and may be related to the effect of FGFR mutations on cranial nerve and/or inner-ear development.

  15. Imaging findings in pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Eva; Alguersuari, Anna; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Spinu, Cristina; Mata, Josep M

    2012-12-01

    Vasculitis is a destructive inflammatory process affecting blood vessels. Pulmonary vasculitis may develop secondary to other conditions or constitute a primary idiopathic disorder. Thoracic involvement is most common in primary idiopathic large-vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behçet disease) and primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitides (Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Primary pulmonary vasculitides are rare, and their signs and symptoms are nonspecific, overlapping with those of infections, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. The radiologic findings in primary pulmonary vasculitis vary widely and can include vessel wall thickening, nodular or cavitary lesions, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations, among others. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage usually results from primary small-vessel vasculitis in the lungs. To diagnose vasculitis, medical teams must recognize characteristic combinations of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic features.

  16. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  17. Dental findings in Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M; Odell, E W; Sheehy, E C

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the dental findings of a child with the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe. The genetic abnormality in this condition results in an inborn error of inositol phosphate metabolism. Renal tubular dysfunction leads to metabolic acidosis and phosphaturia. At 4 years, generalised mobility of all primary teeth was noted. It is postulated that a defective inositol phosphate metabolism was responsible for the periodontal pathology found in this case. This is in direct contrast with previous reports of prolonged retention of primary teeth in children with this condition. Histology of extracted primary incisors demonstrated enlarged pulp chambers and mildly dysplastic dentin formation. This is consistent with a chronic subrachitic state, a known feature of Lowe syndrome, but no prominent interglobular dentin was present.

  18. Finding and Not Finding Rat Perirhinal Neuronal Responses to Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Robert U.; Brown, Malcolm W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is much evidence that the perirhinal cortex of both rats and monkeys is important for judging the relative familiarity of visual stimuli. In monkeys many studies have found that a proportion of perirhinal neurons respond more to novel than familiar stimuli. There are fewer studies of perirhinal neuronal responses in rats, and those studies based on exploration of objects, have raised into question the encoding of stimulus familiarity by rat perirhinal neurons. For this reason, recordings of single neuronal activity were made from the perirhinal cortex of rats so as to compare responsiveness to novel and familiar stimuli in two different behavioral situations. The first situation was based upon that used in “paired viewing” experiments that have established rat perirhinal differences in immediate early gene expression for novel and familiar visual stimuli displayed on computer monitors. The second situation was similar to that used in the spontaneous object recognition test that has been widely used to establish the involvement of rat perirhinal cortex in familiarity discrimination. In the first condition 30 (25%) of 120 perirhinal neurons were visually responsive; of these responsive neurons 19 (63%) responded significantly differently to novel and familiar stimuli. In the second condition eight (53%) of 15 perirhinal neurons changed activity significantly in the vicinity of objects (had “object fields”); however, for none (0%) of these was there a significant activity change related to the familiarity of an object, an incidence significantly lower than for the first condition. Possible reasons for the difference are discussed. It is argued that the failure to find recognition‐related neuronal responses while exploring objects is related to its detectability by the measures used, rather than the absence of all such signals in perirhinal cortex. Indeed, as shown by the results, such signals are found when a different methodology is used.

  19. Mental Findings in Trauma Victims

    PubMed Central

    CAN, İsmail Özgür; DEMİROĞLU UYANIKER, Zehra; ULAŞ, Halis; KARABAĞ, Gökmen; CİMİLLİ, Can; SALAÇİN, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In medico-legal evaluation of trauma patients, the bio-psychological effects of the trauma and the severity of the injuries require to be evaluated. In this study, assuming the fact that psychiatric assessment is not taken into consideration in physical trauma cases, we planned to show the presence of psychological trauma in our medico-legally evaluated patients who presented with different types of traumas and to review the mental findings and diagnoses in trauma victims. Method We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 1975 patients aged 18 years or older who presented to the Department of Forensic Medicine at Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine for medico-legal evaluation between 1999 and 2009. Psychiatric assessment was performed in 142 patients by the Department of Psychiatry. The data contained in medico-legal reports and patient records were then examined with respect to patients’ age, gender, nature of traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses, descriptive characteristics of the patients, severity of trauma and past history of mental disorder and trauma experience. Results of the medicolegal evaluations were also analyzed. Result Of the 142 patients, 80 (56.3%) were female and their average age was 40.30±17.17 years. The most frequent traumatic events were traffic accidents (29.6%) and violence-related blunt force trauma (28.9%). When the distribution of the most common psychiatric diagnoses was examined, it was found that anxiety disorders were found in 69 cases (48.6%), adjustment disorders were found in 16 cases (11.3%) and mood disorders were found in 12 cases (8.5%). Among anxiety disorders, acute stress disorder (n=39) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n=27) were the most common ones. In 27 cases of the 142, it was determined that, psychiatric symptoms and findings did not meet the diagnostic criteria of any psychiatric disorder. Diagnosis of psychiatric disorder was not significantly related with traumatic

  20. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  1. MR findings in pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Pawlik, H; Laubenberger, J; Darge, K; Baborie, A; Korinthenberg, R; Langer, M

    1998-07-01

    We present four cases with combined hypoplasia of the cerebellum and the ventral pons-pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH). PCH represents an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with fetal onset. The disease is rare, with less than 20 cases having been reported. The main findings of PCH and the inclusion criteria for our cases can be summarised as progressive microcephaly from birth, pontocerebellar hypoplasia documented by MRI and marked chorea, which may change, later in childhood, to more dystonic patterns. The cerebral cortex becomes progressively atrophic. Motor and mental development are delayed, and epilepsy, mainly tonic-clonic seizures, is frequent. The MRI features in all of our cases were: (1) Hypoplastic cerebellum situated close to the tentorium. The hypoplastic cerebellum has a reduced number of folia, in contrast to the normal number of thin folia in simple cerebellar atrophy. (2) The cerebellar hemispheres are reduced to bean-like or wing-like structures. The cerebellar hemispheres appear to 'float' in the posterior fossa. (3) Markedly hypoplastic ventral pons. (4) Slight atrophy of the supratentorial gyral pattern. (5) Dilated cerebromedullary cistern and fourth ventricle. (6) Delayed myelination of the white matter. (7) No significant disorganisation of brain architecture and no severe corpus callosum defect.

  2. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research.

  3. Somatosensory findings in postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Nurmikko, T; Bowsher, D

    1990-01-01

    Somatic sensory perception thresholds (warm, cold, hot pain, touch, pinprick, vibration, two-point discrimination), allodynia and skin temperature were assessed in the affected area of 42 patients with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 20 patients who had had unilateral shingles not followed by PHN (NoPHN), and in the mirror-image area on the other side. There was no difference between the two groups for age or length of time after the acute herpes zoster infection. The PHN group showed significant changes in all sensory threshold measurements when the affected area was compared with the mirror-image area on the unaffected side, while the NoPHN group exhibited no threshold changes. Mechanical allodynia was present in 87% of the PHN group; half of the 12 patients with ophthalmic PHN showed extension of allodynia to the maxillary distribution. No differences in skin temperature were recorded between affected and unaffected regions in either group. Our findings show a deficit of sensory functions mediated by both large and small primary afferent fibres and also suggest major central involvement in the pathophysiology of the condition. If PHN does not occur following acute herpes zoster, recovery of neural functions appears to be good. PMID:2313300

  4. Pollution! Find a STEM solution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takač, Danijela; Moćan, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Primary and secondary school Pantovčak is an innovative school in downtown Zagreb, Croatia. The school is involved in many projects concerning STEM education. Pollution! Find a STEM solution! is a two year long cross-curricular project that grew out of identified need to develop STEM and ICT skills more. Pisa results make evident that students' knowledge is poor and motivation for math and similar subjects is low. Implying priorities of European Commission, like e-learning, raises motivation and also develops basic skills and improves knowledge in science, math, physic, ICT. Main objectives are to increase students' interest in STEM education and careers and introduce them to all available new trends in technology, engineering and science in their region by visiting clean technology industries and strengthening links with them, to introduce some future digital jobs and prepare students for rapid technological changes by integrating ICT into classroom practice more, to highlight the importance of global environmental issues and improve the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development and renewable energy, to develop collaborative partnership between schools and the wider community in formal, non-formal and informal learning, to support multilingualism by publishing Open Educational Resources in 8 different languages and to strengthen the professional profile of the teaching profession. The project brings together 231 teachers and 2729 students from five different European countries in learning to think globally and work on activities that contribute to the community's well-being. There are altogether 33 activities, divided in 4 categories. STEM activities are focused on students building the devices for measuring air, light and noise pollution in their school and homes. They use the scientific method to analyze the data and compare the results with their peers to find a solution. Eskills, digital literacy and digital jobs are focused on introducing career

  5. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  6. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  7. Finding time, stopping the frenzy.

    PubMed

    Perlow, L A

    1998-08-01

    While the deleterious consequences of long hours of work for individuals, families and communities have previously been documented, the assumption that long hours are necessary to get the work done, especially in a world where speed is becoming increasingly critical to corporate success, has prompted little challenge. So Leslie Perlow, an assistant professor of business at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, set out to explore the necessity for the seemingly endless workdays that so many postindustrial settings require. Her study of a group of software engineers at a Fortune 500 company--identified only as the Ditto Corp--is detailed in her book, Finding Time: How Corporations, Individuals, and Families Can Benefit from New Work Practices (Cornell University Press, 1997). Perlow's research reveals a "sad and all too common tale" of workers harried by competing demands, frequent interruptions and shifting deadlines. To meet the firm's expectations, the engineers she studied sacrificed home life, focused on individual tasks to the detriment of group goals and, in many cases, eventually lost any enthusiasm they'd had for working for the company. There has been some recognition that stress and burnout may be bad for a corporation as employees become less committed, decide to leave or get fired and that this kind of turnover can hurt the firm in the longer term. But Perlow documented the additional, and quite significant, shorter-term costs to the corporation of the current way of using time at work. What she found was a "vicious time cycle:" Time pressures led to a crisis mentality, which led to "individual heroics." That is, I'll do whatever it takes to do my job--even if it means interrupting you while you try to do yours. For the engineers Perlow studied, the lack of helping, the constant interruptions and the perpetual crises--clearly illustrated by the daily log that appears on page 34--made it harder to develop products. Ultimately, they worked long hours to

  8. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the... have a notice published which informs the public of the RUS finding and the availability of the EA...

  9. The current state in the evaluation and treatment of ARdS and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Josh E; Weiss, Yoram G; Mosheiff, Rami

    2009-11-01

    Trauma, the number one cause of death until the fourth decade of life, causes an inflammatory response. This response in its extreme is associated with the development of the systemic inflammatory state, adult respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. The inflammatory response is mediated via multiple pathways- the inflammatory-cytokine, immunologic, coagulation and endocrine pathways. It is countered by producing antiinflammatory mediators. This reaction is altered in elderly patients. Knowledge of the patient's prior medical problems and the differential diagnosis for the possible causes of the current condition should help direct the surgical intervention and supportive care in an attempt to stabilize the patient. With the improvement of monitoring and diagnostic technologies, understanding the significance of the inflammatory pathways in trauma patients will decrease morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

  10. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Zoonotic malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is an important, but newly recognized, human pathogen. For the first time, post-mortem findings from a fatal case of knowlesi malaria are reported here. Case presentation A formerly healthy 40 year-old male became symptomatic 10 days after spending time in the jungle of North Borneo. Four days later, he presented to hospital in a state of collapse and died within two hours. He was hyponatraemic and had elevated blood urea, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and amino transferase values; he was also thrombocytopenic and eosinophilic. Dengue haemorrhagic shock was suspected and a post-mortem examination performed. Investigations for dengue virus were negative. Blood for malaria parasites indicated hyperparasitaemia and single species P. knowlesi infection was confirmed by nested-PCR. Macroscopic pathology of the brain and endocardium showed multiple petechial haemorrhages, the liver and spleen were enlarged and lungs had features consistent with ARDS. Microscopic pathology showed sequestration of pigmented parasitized red blood cells in the vessels of the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart and kidney without evidence of chronic inflammatory reaction in the brain or any other organ examined. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of acute tubular necrosis and endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Conclusions The overall picture in this case was one of systemic malaria infection that fit the WHO classification for severe malaria. Post-mortem findings in this case were unexpectedly similar to those that define fatal falciparum malaria, including cerebral pathology. There were important differences including the absence of coma despite petechial haemorrhages and parasite sequestration in the brain. These results suggest that further study of knowlesi malaria

  11. 7 CFR 3052.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Audit findings. 3052.510 Section 3052.510 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  12. 7 CFR 3052.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Audit findings. 3052.510 Section 3052.510 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  13. 29 CFR 99.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Audit findings. 99.510 Section 99.510 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 99.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  14. Find a Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Physician

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physiatry About AAPM&R Loading Find a PM&R Physician Welcome to Find a PM&R Physician, ... Find Physicians by Name Loading FieldSet Find PM&R Physicians Near Me Starting Zip/Postal Code Distance ( ...

  15. Indian Health Service: Find Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Forgot Password IHS Home Find Health Care Find Health Care IMPORTANT If you are having a health emergency ... services, continuous nursing services and that provides comprehensive health care including diagnosis and treatment. Health Locations An ambulatory ...

  16. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  17. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  18. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  19. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1…

  20. Escitalopram-induced word finding difficulty.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Ming; Lee, Wen-Kuei; Chang, Shang-Wen; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Huang, Jen-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Escitalopram is the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. No available report indicating escitalopram may induce word finding difficulty. Here we are presenting a 50-year-old patient who suffered from escitalopram-induced word finding difficulty and the symptom resolved after replacing with bupropion. Carefully monitoring word finding difficulty and speech fluency during antidepressant treatment is important in clinical practice when using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, especially escitalopram.

  1. Incidental findings: a common law approach.

    PubMed

    Tovino, Stacey A

    2008-01-01

    Federal regulations governing human subjects research do not address key questions raised by incidental neuroimaging findings, including the scope of a researcher's disclosure with respect to the possibility of incidental findings and the question whether a researcher has an affirmative legal cuty to seek, detect, and report incidental findings. The scope of researcher duties may, however, be mapped with reference to common law doctrine, including fiduciary, tort, contract, and bailment theories of liability.

  2. Direction Finding Using Multiple MEMS Acoustic Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    research is that it is possible to operate this microelectromechanical direction-finding sensor assembly to find the bearing of a signal on...sensor assembly to find the bearing of a signal on resonance over an angular range of 120° with a maximum uncertainty of 3.4°. vi THIS PAGE...documentation boasts an accuracy of plus or minus 7.5 degrees bearing accuracy within < 1 second with detection ranges greater than 400 m. Output is provided

  3. Pulmonary diseases with imaging findings mimicking aspergilloma.

    PubMed

    Gazzoni, Fernando Ferreira; Severo, Luiz Carlos; Marchiori, Edson; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Garcia, Tiago Severo; Irion, Klaus L; Camargo, José Jesus; Felicetti, José Carlos; de Mattos Oliveira, Flavio; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Patients with preexisting lung cavities are at risk of developing intracavitary fungal colonization. Because Aspergillus spp. are the most commonly implicated fungi, these fungal masses are called aspergillomas. Their characteristic "ball-in-hole" appearance, however, may be found in a variety of other conditions that can produce radiologic findings mimicking aspergilloma. In this paper, we review the main diseases that may mimic the radiographic findings of aspergilloma, with brief descriptions of clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings.

  4. Top 10 Replicated Findings from Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; DeFries, John C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of current concerns about replication in psychological science, we describe 10 findings from behavioral genetic research that have robustly replicated. These are ‘big’ findings, both in terms of effect size and potential impact on psychological science, such as linearly increasing heritability of intelligence from infancy (20%) through adulthood (60%). Four of our top-10 findings involve the environment, discoveries that could only have been found using genetically sensitive research designs. We also consider reasons specific to behavioral genetics that might explain why these findings replicate. PMID:26817721

  5. Ocular findings in conjoined (Siamese) twins.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mansour, N; Rosenberg, H S

    1991-01-01

    Conjoined twinning is a rare form of congenital anomaly. The ocular findings in six sets of conjoined twins as well as those reported elsewhere include abnormal optic nerve decussation, pseudosynophthalmos, microphthalmia, abnormal eyelids, orbital encephalocele, occipital encephalocele, and eyelid coloboma. These findings are interpreted as due to deformations from appositional fusion-related factors or malformations from developmental factors.

  6. 20 CFR 617.33 - Findings required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.33 Findings required. (a) Findings by liable State. Before final payment of a job search allowance may be approved, the following... search allowance specified in § 617.32(a) (1) through (4); (2) The application for a job search...

  7. 20 CFR 617.33 - Findings required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.33 Findings required. (a) Findings by liable State. Before final payment of a job search allowance may be approved, the following... search allowance specified in § 617.32(a) (1) through (4); (2) The application for a job search...

  8. EnviroSafe Finding of Violation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reissuing an enclosed Finding of Violation (FOV) to Enviro-Safe Refrigerants, Inc. (you). We find that you have violated the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7413(a) (the CAA).

  9. 38 CFR 41.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audit findings. 41.510 Section 41.510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.510 Audit findings....

  10. Find a Sleep Center Near You

    MedlinePlus

    ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius: 5 10 25 50 100 Find a Sleep Facility Near You Use the fields below to find your nearest sleep center. The search may include your full address, your ... can change the search radius by increasing or decreasing the number of miles ...

  11. Employment for Spouses Gets Harder to Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2009-01-01

    Worries about a partner's finding a job are a major reason why colleges lose faculty and professional-staff recruits. Some institutions have hired people to focus largely on nonfaculty job searches. (Finding faculty jobs for spouses or partners is a more complex negotiation with the university.) But as the economy continues to dip into uncharted…

  12. Online Finding Aids: Are They Practical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Christina J.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the uses, practicality, and problems involved in creating online finding aids by state-funded university archivists across the nation. It examines various aspects of online finding aids such as financial considerations, its importance as a research tool, timelines, demographics, and use. The more technical side is also…

  13. 10 CFR 1022.14 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Floodplain and Wetland Reviews § 1022.14 Findings. (a) If DOE finds that no practicable alternative to locating or conducting the action in the floodplain or wetland is available, then before...

  14. 10 CFR 1022.14 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Floodplain and Wetland Reviews § 1022.14 Findings. (a) If DOE finds that no practicable alternative to locating or conducting the action in the floodplain or wetland is available, then before...

  15. 10 CFR 1022.14 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Floodplain and Wetland Reviews § 1022.14 Findings. (a) If DOE finds that no practicable alternative to locating or conducting the action in the floodplain or wetland is available, then before...

  16. 10 CFR 1022.14 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Floodplain and Wetland Reviews § 1022.14 Findings. (a) If DOE finds that no practicable alternative to locating or conducting the action in the floodplain or wetland is available, then before...

  17. 10 CFR 1022.14 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Floodplain and Wetland Reviews § 1022.14 Findings. (a) If DOE finds that no practicable alternative to locating or conducting the action in the floodplain or wetland is available, then before...

  18. Planar antenna system for direction finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardale, Iulia-Cezara; Cocias, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Ana; Tamas, Razvan; Berescu, Serban

    2015-02-01

    Applications of direction finding techniques include detection and localization of pulsed electromagnetic sources. This paper presents the design and analysis of a planar antenna system for direction finding. Our proposed system includes 4 hybrid couplers that generate 900 shifted signals, 2 crossover couplers also known as 0dB couplers, two 450 phase shifters, two 00 phase shifters and 4 patch antennas.

  19. 38 CFR 41.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit findings. 41.510 Section 41.510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.510 Audit findings....

  20. 3 CFR - Finding and Recapturing Improper Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Finding and Recapturing Improper Payments Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 10, 2010 Finding and Recapturing Improper Payments Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies My Administration is committed to reducing payment errors and...

  1. 16 CFR 1210.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings. 1210.5 Section 1210.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.5 Findings. Section 9(f) of the Consumer...

  2. 16 CFR 1210.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Findings. 1210.5 Section 1210.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.5 Findings. Section 9(f) of the Consumer...

  3. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  4. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  5. 16 CFR 1213.7 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission, in order to issue a standard, make the following findings and include them in the rule. 15 U.S.C. 2058(f)(3). These findings are contained in the appendix to this part 1213. (a) The rule in this part (including its effective date of June 19, 2000 is reasonably necessary to eliminate or reduce an...

  6. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  7. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  8. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  9. Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

  10. 34 CFR 300.111 - Child find.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Child find. 300.111 Section 300.111 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.111 Child find. (a) General. (1) The State...

  11. 34 CFR 300.111 - Child find.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child find. 300.111 Section 300.111 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.111 Child find. (a) General. (1) The State...

  12. 34 CFR 300.111 - Child find.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child find. 300.111 Section 300.111 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.111 Child find. (a) General. (1) The State...

  13. 34 CFR 300.111 - Child find.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Child find. 300.111 Section 300.111 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.111 Child find. (a) General. (1) The State...

  14. Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

  15. 5 CFR 2638.504 - Director's finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director's finding. 2638.504 Section 2638... Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.504 Director's finding. (a) In general. If the Director has reason to believe that an employee is violating or has violated an ethics provision, the Director...

  16. Family Finding Evaluations: A Summary of Recent Findings--Appendix. Publication #2015-01A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandivere, Sharon; Malm, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Family Finding Evaluations: A Summary of Recent Findings. Publication #2015-01," and is an added resource for further information. The report reviews the results from 13 evaluations of Family Finding. The Family Finding model provides child welfare…

  17. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia.

  18. Vertex finding with deformable templates at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Nikita; Khanov, Alexandre

    1997-02-01

    We present a novel vertex finding technique. The task is formulated as a discrete-continuous optimisation problem in a way similar to the deformable templates approach for the track finding. Unlike the track finding problem, "elastic hedgehogs" rather than elastic arms are used as deformable templates. They are initialised by a set of procedures which provide zero level approximation for vertex positions and track parameters at the vertex point. The algorithm was evaluated using the simulated events for the LHC CMS detector and demonstrated good performance.

  19. Tympanometric findings in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, A; Brandolini, C; Piras, G; Modugno, G C

    2013-04-01

    The diagnostic role of audio-impedancemetry in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) disease is well known. In particular, since the first reports, the presence of evoked acoustic reflexes has represented a determining instrumental exhibit in differential diagnosis with other middle ear pathologies that are responsible for a mild-low frequencies air-bone gap (ABG). Even though high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) completed by parasagittal reformatted images still represents the diagnostic gold standard, several instrumental tests can support a suspect of labyrinthine capsule dehiscence when "suggestive" symptoms occur. Objective and subjective audiometry often represents the starting point of the diagnostic course aimed at investigating the cause responsible for the so-called "intra-labyrinthine conductive hearing loss". The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of tympanometry, in particular of the inter-aural asymmetry ratio in peak compliance as a function of different mild-low frequencies ABG on the affected side, in the diagnostic work-up in patients with unilateral SSCD. The working hypothesis is that an increase in admittance of the "inner-middle ear" conduction system due to a "third mobile window" could be detected by tympanometry. A retrospective review of the clinical records of 45 patients with unilateral dehiscence selected from a pool of 140 subjects diagnosed with SSCD at our institution from 2003 to 2011 was performed. Values of ABG amplitude on the dehiscent side and tympanometric measurements of both ears were collected for each patient in the study group (n = 45). An asymmetry between tympanometric peak compliance of the involved side and that of the contralateral side was investigated by calculating the inter-aural difference and the asymmetry ratio of compliance at the eardrum. A statistically significant correlation (p = 0.015 by Fisher's test) between an asymmetry ratio ≥ 14% in favour of the pathologic ear and an ABG

  20. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Information Finding Good Health Information on the Internet Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table of Contents Stephanie ... conditions, medications, and wellness issues. Our site provides access to information produced by the National Library of ...

  1. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  2. Online Imagery: Finding Pictures for Business Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of America Online and CompuServe to find clip art, photos, and other images for use in desktop publishing projects. Highlights include copyright issues, different graphic formats, graphic conversion programs, compression programs, and downloading. (LRW)

  3. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electronic Media , Office of Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study ... Calendar Resources Resources Contact Us Frequently Asked Questions CDC Quick Links Data & Statistics Freedom of Information Act ...

  4. Textual Research and Coherence: Findings, Intuition, Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haswell, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    Notes discrepancies between findings from textual studies and classroom practices and textbooks. Reviews research on cohesion and writing development. Argues that teachers must critically examine writing research and apply it in the classroom. (JAD/RAE)

  5. Finding Hooks to Catch Reluctant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Marijo

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a list of books of varying lengths and difficulty that the reading teacher can use to help reluctant readers find that all-important breakthrough book to discover what reading can do for them. (KEH)

  6. Can you find south using your watch?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Li; Baruch, John

    2011-06-01

    Li Jian and John Baruch examine the astronomical thinking behind the Boy Scout wristwatch compass as a means of direction finding, and assess its usefulness as you move across the surface of the Earth.

  7. 20 CFR 617.44 - Findings required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... finds, that the individual has obtained suitable employment affording a reasonable expectation of... employment affording a reasonable expectation of employment of long-term duration, or a bona fide offer...

  8. How to Find Insects Weathering the Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how and where to find insects and other invertebrates in winter, as well as how to collect samples in order to watch those animals reappear in spring. Includes crickets, honey bees, mosquitoes, house flies, and butterflies and moths. (MA)

  9. Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162700.html Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds Women less ... Dr. Claire Duvernoy, chair of the Women in Cardiology Council at the American College of Cardiology (ACC). ...

  10. Ebola Can Linger in Lungs, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162904.html Ebola Can Linger in Lungs, Study Finds Discovery in ... Researchers say they've discovered signs that the Ebola virus could lurk in the lungs and reproduce ...

  11. 77 FR 32116 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...''). Specifically, Respondent committed research misconduct by knowingly and intentionally: Falsifying...

  12. How to Find the Students' Inner Geek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Marc

    2005-01-01

    As a chemistry professor at a liberal-arts college, the author believes it is his job to find the youthful awe in his students and draw it out so that they will be intrigued once again by science and nature, so that they want to learn about equilibria, pH, and redox reactions. He has to go fishing inside their brains, to find, hook, and reel in…

  13. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations.

  14. Lung in Dengue: Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Brum, Ana Livia Garcia; Paes, Marciano Viana; Póvoa, Tiago Fajardo; Basilio-de-Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Marchiori, Edson; Borghi, Danielle Provençano; Ramos, Grazielle Viana; Bozza, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue virus infection may be asymptomatic or lead to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever with or without warning signs, or severe dengue. Lower respiratory symptoms are unusual and lung-imaging data in patients with dengue are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate lung changes associated with dengue infection, we retrospectively analyzed 2,020 confirmed cases of dengue. Twenty-nine of these patients (11 females and 18 males aged 16–90 years) underwent chest computed tomography (CT), which yielded abnormal findings in 17 patients: 16 patients had pleural effusion (the sole finding in six patients) and 11 patients had pulmonary abnormalities. Lung parenchyma involvement ranged from subtle to moderate unilateral and bilateral abnormalities. The most common finding was ground-glass opacity in eight patients, followed by consolidation in six patients. Less common findings were airspace nodules (two patients), interlobular septal thickening (two patients), and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (one patient). Lung histopathological findings in four fatal cases showed thickening of the alveolar septa, hemorrhage, and interstitial edema. Conclusions/Significance In this largest series involving the use of chest CT to evaluate lung involvement in patients with dengue, CT findings of lower respiratory tract involvement were uncommon. When abnormalities were present, pleural effusion was the most frequent finding and lung involvement was often mild or moderate and bilateral. Extensive lung abnormalities are infrequent even in severe disease and when present should lead physicians to consider other diagnostic possibilities. PMID:24836605

  15. A survey of DNA motif finding algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Modan K; Dai, Ho-Kwok

    2007-01-01

    Background Unraveling the mechanisms that regulate gene expression is a major challenge in biology. An important task in this challenge is to identify regulatory elements, especially the binding sites in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for transcription factors. These binding sites are short DNA segments that are called motifs. Recent advances in genome sequence availability and in high-throughput gene expression analysis technologies have allowed for the development of computational methods for motif finding. As a result, a large number of motif finding algorithms have been implemented and applied to various motif models over the past decade. This survey reviews the latest developments in DNA motif finding algorithms. Results Earlier algorithms use promoter sequences of coregulated genes from single genome and search for statistically overrepresented motifs. Recent algorithms are designed to use phylogenetic footprinting or orthologous sequences and also an integrated approach where promoter sequences of coregulated genes and phylogenetic footprinting are used. All the algorithms studied have been reported to correctly detect the motifs that have been previously detected by laboratory experimental approaches, and some algorithms were able to find novel motifs. However, most of these motif finding algorithms have been shown to work successfully in yeast and other lower organisms, but perform significantly worse in higher organisms. Conclusion Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif finding remains a complex challenge for biologists and computer scientists. Researchers have taken many different approaches in developing motif discovery tools and the progress made in this area of research is very encouraging. Performance comparison of different motif finding tools and identification of the best tools have proven to be a difficult task because tools are designed based on algorithms and motif models that are diverse and complex and our incomplete understanding of

  16. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  17. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Computed Tomography Findings in Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Arumugam; Jakanani, George; Mayer, Nick; Mulcahy, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGN) is an uncommon condition characterized by chronic suppurative renal inflammation that leads to progressive parenchymal destruction. Purpose: To review the computed tomography (CT) findings of patients diagnosed with XGN. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of CT findings in patients with histologically proven XGN was carried out. Results: Thirteen CT examinations of 11 patients were analyzed. Renal enlargement was demonstrable on the affected side in all patients. Nine patients (82%) had multiple dilated calyces and abnormal parenchyma. Six patients (55%) had a renal pelvis or upper ureteric calculus causing obstruction. Three patients (27%) had focal fat deposits identifiable within the inflamed renal parenchyma. Two patients had renal abscesses. Ten patients (91%) had extrarenal extension of the inflammatory changes. Three patients (27%) demonstrated extensive retroperitoneal inflammation. Conclusion: Unilateral renal enlargement and inflammation were the most consistent findings of XGN on CT. Perinephric inflammation and collections or abscess should also alert the radiologist to the possibility of this diagnosis. PMID:22315712

  19. Scurvy in an autistic child: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gongidi, Preetam; Johnson, Craig; Dinan, David

    2013-10-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C and is rarely seen in the United States. We describe the MRI findings of a case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior. Advanced imaging is rarely performed in clinically well-understood disease entities such as scurvy. Typical radiographic findings are well described leading to definitive diagnosis, although the findings can be missed or misinterpreted given the rarity of scurvy in daily practice. To our knowledge, MRI features of scurvy in children in the US have been described in only one case report. This case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior emphasizes that classic nutritional deficiencies, despite their rarity, must be included in the differential diagnosis of at-risk populations.

  20. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  1. New stopping criteria for iterative root finding

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajsen, Jorgen L.

    2014-01-01

    A set of simple stopping criteria is presented, which improve the efficiency of iterative root finding by terminating the iterations immediately when no further improvement of the roots is possible. The criteria use only the function evaluations already needed by the root finding procedure to which they are applied. The improved efficiency is achieved by formulating the stopping criteria in terms of fractional significant digits. Test results show that the new stopping criteria reduce the iteration work load by about one-third compared with the most efficient stopping criteria currently available. This is achieved without compromising the accuracy of the extracted roots. PMID:26064544

  2. Preliminary Airspace Operations Simulations Findings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Provides preliminary findings of the initial series (normal operations and contingency management) of airspace operations simulations. The key elements of this report discuss feedback from controller subjects for UAS flight above FL430. Findings provide initial evaluation of routine UAS operations above dense ARTCC airspace (ZOB), and identify areas of further research, policy direction and procedural development. This document further serves as an addendum to the detailed AOS simulation plan (Deliverable SIM001), incorporating feedback from FAA air traffic personnel and Access 5 IPTs.

  3. [Bioptic and autoptic findings in lymphogranulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Frege, J; Köhler, A H

    1978-05-15

    A reclassification of bioptical and autoptical findings in the lymphogranulomatosis according to the criteria of Lukes and co-workers resulted in an unambiguous prevailing of the mixed cellularity in bioptical preparations and of the form poor in lymphocytes in autoptical preparations. The comparison of bioptical and autoptical findings revealed the expected changing from the type rich in lymphocytes to the type poor in lymphocytes. The causes for this changing of the histological form might to be found in the deteriorating immunological defensive condition of the patient as well as in the influence on the histological picture by our modern therapy.

  4. Dermoscopic Findings of Scalp Aplasia Cutis Congenita

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Leandro; Aguiar, Fernanda Musa; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Miteva, Mariya I.; Pinto, Giselle Martins

    2017-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare disease characterized by congenital absence of skin, affecting preferentially the scalp. Diagnosis is made clinically; however, recent studies have shown that dermoscopy can be a useful tool for the diagnosis and differentiation from sebaceous nevus. The clinical findings include a shiny atrophic alopecic patch associated with dermoscopic findings of absent follicular openings, thicker vessels and a distinct collar hypertrichosis. We report 2 cases of alopecia presenting from birth. At dermoscopy, the absence of follicular openings and the increase in the caliber of vessels led us to establish the diagnosis of ACC. PMID:28232928

  5. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic.

  6. Anal fistula: intraoperative difficulties and unexpected findings.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A

    2011-07-28

    Anal fistula surgery is a commonly performed procedure. The diverse anatomy of anal fistulae and their proximity to anal sphincters make accurate preoperative diagnosis essential to avoid recurrence and fecal incontinence. Despite the fact that proper preoperative diagnosis can be reached in the majority of patients by simple clinical examination, endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, on many occasions, unexpected findings can be encountered during surgery that can make the operation difficult and correct decision-making crucial. In this article we discuss the difficulties and unexpected findings that can be encountered during anal fistula surgery and how to overcome them.

  7. Finding overlapping communities using seed set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    The local optimization algorithm using seed set to find overlapping communities has become more and more a significant method, but it is a great challenge how to choose a good seed set. In this paper, a new method is proposed to achieve the choice of candidate seed sets, and yields a new algorithm to find overlapping communities in complex networks. By testing in real world networks and synthetic networks, this method can successfully detect overlapping communities and outperform other state-of-the-art overlapping community detection methods.

  8. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  9. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    PubMed Central

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  10. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage.

    PubMed

    Faverio, Paola; Aliberti, Stefano; Ezekiel, Clinton; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  11. Brain Research Findings May Improve Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, W. Henry

    1982-01-01

    Administrators cannot afford to remain ignorant of the work of neuroscientists over the last 30 years. The findings of brain research can help administrators gain a better understanding of decision making. The author lists four benefits to education that administrators can provide through greater knowledge of the brain. (WD)

  12. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  13. Changing Concepts and Findings on Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New research findings provide major challenges regarding our understanding of the concept of autism. These are critically discussed in relation to research relevant to classification, genetics, environmental risk factors, gene-environment interplay, animal models, biomarkers, clinical features, neuropathology, pharmacotherapy, behavioral…

  14. Counselor Training: Empirical Findings and Current Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Trevor J.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on counselor training has included attention to cognitive and interpersonal skill development and has reported on empirical findings regarding the relationship of training with client outcomes. This article reviews the literature on each of these topics and discusses empirical and theoretical underpinnings of recently developed…

  15. Assets and Barriers to Finding Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this intact-groups, quasi-experimental study, 115 unemployed job seekers who utilized federally funded labour market interventions were compared on program usage (long- or short-term), personality, personal meaning, employability skills, job search length, and pain and suffering. Results did not find significant differences in program usage or…

  16. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... (1) Yang, C.-S., Chuang, L.-Y., Ke, C.-H., Yang, C.-H., International Journal of Computer Science...., Baumgartner, C., Sittampalam, S., Lushington, G., International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the...

  17. Finding Green in the Green Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Julie A.

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the history of the environmental industry since 1970. Suggests that, although job growth is not as high as it was, the growth rate is now about 2% and those with proper training can find opportunities in environmental fields. (JOW)

  18. Aetiology of Autism: Findings and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Although there is good evidence that autism is a multifactorial disorder, an adequate understanding of the genetic and non-genetic causes has yet to be achieved. Methods Empirical research findings and conceptual reviews are reviewed with respect to evidence on possible causal influences. Results Much the strongest evidence concerns the…

  19. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  20. Problem Finding and Empathy in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, John F.

    This paper describes an investigation of problem finding in art. The concept of empathy with oneself is hypothesized as the means by which artists perceive problems. This concept is then used to analyze the origins of Faulkner's "The Sound and the Fury" and van Gogh's "The Starry Night" as well as the origins of art works…

  1. Orodental findings in postaxial acrofacial dysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B; Kumar, Priya; Nunia, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    We report a new case of postaxial acrofacial dysostosis (Miller) syndrome with expanded profile. The patient presented with unusual orofacial and digital anomalies along with mental retardation. This report emphasizes the recognized features of the syndrome as well as describes intraoral findings that could aid in the diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:24959059

  2. Overcrowding and Inmate Behavior: Some Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, Lee-Jan

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of data from four prisons of different types confirmed previous findings that overcrowding is positively related to disruptive behavior, and that the strength of this relationship varies with the type of correctional institution. Overcrowding and constructive behavior are negatively related. (Author)

  3. Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary…

  4. Helping Students Find a Sense of Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Susan

    2009-01-01

    William Damon, a professor of education at Stanford University, has long advocated "character education" as a key component of school reform. The author of several books on the subject, his latest is "The Path to Purpose: Helping Our Children Find Their Calling in Life". In this article, the author presents an interview with Damon. He discusses…

  5. Morphosyntax in Children with Word Finding Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Victoria A.; Dockrell, Julie; Messer, David; Farr, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    Children with word finding difficulties (CwWFDs) are slower and less accurate at naming monomorphemic words than typically developing children (Dockrell, Messer & George, 2001), but their difficulty in naming morphologically complex words has not yet been investigated. One aim of this paper was to identify whether CwWFDs are similar to typically…

  6. 15 CFR 971.301 - Required findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Certification of Applications § 971.301 Required findings. Before the Administrator may certify an application for a commercial... area is not a logical mining unit under § 971.501, or (2) commercial recovery activities in...

  7. 15 CFR 971.301 - Required findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Certification of Applications § 971.301 Required findings. Before the Administrator may certify an application for a commercial... area is not a logical mining unit under § 971.501, or (2) commercial recovery activities in...

  8. 15 CFR 971.301 - Required findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Certification of Applications § 971.301 Required findings. Before the Administrator may certify an application for a commercial... area is not a logical mining unit under § 971.501, or (2) commercial recovery activities in...

  9. 15 CFR 971.301 - Required findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Certification of Applications § 971.301 Required findings. Before the Administrator may certify an application for a commercial... area is not a logical mining unit under § 971.501, or (2) commercial recovery activities in...

  10. 15 CFR 971.301 - Required findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Certification of Applications § 971.301 Required findings. Before the Administrator may certify an application for a commercial... area is not a logical mining unit under § 971.501, or (2) commercial recovery activities in...

  11. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-12-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease.

  12. Art Works ... when Students Find Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Artworks are not produced in a vacuum, but by the interaction of experiences, and interrelationships of ideas, perceptions and feelings acknowledged and expressed in some form. Students, like mature artists, may be inspired and motivated by their memories and observations of their surroundings. Like adult artists, students may find that their own…

  13. Echocardiographic versus histologic findings in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoyan; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Han, Jiancheng; Chen, Jian; Nixon, J V Ian

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study attempted to establish the prevalence of multiple-valve involvement in Marfan syndrome and to compare echocardiographic with histopathologic findings in Marfan patients undergoing valvular or aortic surgery. We reviewed echocardiograms of 73 Marfan patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery from January 2004 through October 2009. Tissue histology was available for comparison in 29 patients. Among the 73 patients, 66 underwent aortic valve replacement or the Bentall procedure. Histologic findings were available in 29 patients, all of whom had myxomatous degeneration. Of 63 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 had thickened aortic valves. The echocardiographic findings in 18 patients with mitral involvement included mitral prolapse in 15. Of 11 patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 underwent mitral valve repair and 7 mitral valve replacement. Histologic findings among mitral valve replacement patients showed thickened valve tissue and myxomatous degeneration. Tricuspid involvement was seen echocardiographically in 8 patients, all of whom had tricuspid prolapse. Two patients had severe tricuspid regurgitation, and both underwent repair. Both mitral and tricuspid involvement were seen echocardiographically in 7 patients. Among the 73 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for Marfan syndrome, 66 had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, although their valves manifested few histologic changes. Eighteen patients had mitral involvement (moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, prolapse, or both), and 8 had tricuspid involvement. Mitral valves were most frequently found to have histologic changes, but the tricuspid valve was invariably involved.

  14. African Trypanosomes Find a Fat Haven

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The African trypanosome was thought to primarily develop in the bloodstream and interstitial spaces of its mammalian host. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Trindade et al. (2016) report the surprising finding that during ongoing persistent infections in mice, a major fraction of the parasites reside within fatty tissues. PMID:27281564

  15. Re-Establishing Broca's Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jessica D.; Fillmore, Paul; Rorden, Chris; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Fridriksson, Julius

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the left inferior pre-frontal cortex (LIPC) for speech production was first popularized by Paul Broca, providing a cornerstone of behavioral neurology and laying the foundation for future research examining brain-behavior relationships. Although Broca's findings were rigorously challenged, comprehensive contradictory evidence was…

  16. 77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Physiology, Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, UK, engaged in research misconduct in research supported... (NCRR), NIH, grant P20 RR105592. ] ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct...

  17. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... and Data Base Manager, CU, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of... Respondent's knowing and intentional falsification of data constitutes research misconduct as defined by...

  18. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... misconduct in grant applications 1 R01 DK072026-01 and 1 R01 DK072026-01A2 submitted to the National... Respondent engaged in misconduct in science, 42 CFR 50.102, in NIDDK, NIH, grant application 1 R01...

  19. 77 FR 46438 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., former Director of the Laboratory of Glycoimmunotheraphy, JWCI, engaged in research misconduct in... CA107316 and R03 CA107831. ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by...

  20. 76 FR 62807 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., Duke, engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data in a grant application submitted to...

  1. Staff Development: Finding the Right Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standerfer, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, when the author joined the staff of Agua Fria High School in Phoenix, Arizona, as an assistant principal, she was excited to find that the students' school day started an hour and a half later than normal each Wednesday to provide staff development time for the teaching staff. That first year, however, neither the principal, Bryce…

  2. Finding the Genesis for a Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroll, Joyce Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a prewriting heuristics strategy that can help students find the genesis of their thesis. The 3 functions of the heuristic procedure are that it aids in retrieving relevant information stored in the mind; draws attention to important information that can be further researched or accessed; and prepares the mind for the…

  3. Independent Study Looks beyond Rhetoric, Finds Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1991-01-01

    Last July, the New Initiatives Division of Sandia National Laboratory, a nuclear research center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, presented its findings on U.S. education to the U.S. Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education. Current dropout rates, test scores, college attendance, educational expenditures, educator status, work…

  4. Child Find Practices in Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Julie M.; Jones, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The 1997 Amendments of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children placed in private schools by their parents are no longer afforded the right to special education services. However, IDEA does state that child find activities between public school representatives and private schools are to remain intact. This study…

  5. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin; Han, Joungho; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Tae Sung

    2006-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  6. Curiosity Finds Calcium-Rich Deposits

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Curiosity rover finds calcium deposits on Mars similar to thoseseen on Earth when water circulates in cracks and rock fractures.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech    › Curiosity's mission site

  7. Finding More Joy in Teaching Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Apavaloaie, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood professionals are familiar with finding and appreciating daily moments of joy. Teachers smile inside and out when toddlers are able to pull up their own pants, preschoolers write their names for the first time, or kindergarteners figure out how to make complicated patterns with blocks. Working with young children can also be very…

  8. The Pleasure of Finding Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loxley, Peter

    2005-01-01

    "The pleasure of finding things out" is a collection of short works by the Nobel Prize winning scientist Richard Feynman. The book provides insights into his infectious enthusiasm for science and his love of sharing ideas about the subject with anyone who wanted to listen. Feynman has been widely acknowledged as one of the greatest physicists of…

  9. Find Your Voice: Eliminate Classroom Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    The academically underprepared community college student may also be psychosocially underprepared for college, a condition contributing to the development of classroom-specific social phobia and to the high attrition rate at community colleges. The "Find Your Voice Program" uses individual and group cognitive-behavioral techniques to develop…

  10. 34 CFR 300.111 - Child find.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find. 300.111 Section 300.111 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH... child with a disability under § 300.8 and in need of special education, even though they are...

  11. 78 FR 60873 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... former Assistant Scientist, UW, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National...

  12. Land and people: finding a balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Land and People: Finding a Balance is an environmental study project that engages high school students in studying earth science resource issues. The project focuses on the interaction between people and the environment in three regions of the United States: Cape Cod, Los Angeles, and the Everglades. Each section of this project is devoted to one of the three regions.

  13. A Good Teacher Is Hard to Find.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    Although some suburban districts have surplus teacher applicants, many growing, rural, innercity, or low-paying districts are scrambling to find teachers. Nevada and Colorado face shortages, whereas Maine and Connecticut are oversupplied. There are too many elementary teachers and not enough math, science, and special-education teachers. High-tech…

  14. Generalization of Findings From Single Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mary M.

    Although single case studies might be useful to evaluators for a variety of purposes, there are no generally accepted ways for drawing inferences about the generality of findings from a case study. Single case studies are defined in this paper as either studies of single events, or disaggregated studies of multiple events. The data may be…

  15. Findings from the Reading First Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamse, Beth C.; Horst, Megan; Boulay, Beth; Unlu, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The Reading First Program is a central element of the No Child Left Behind legislation (No Child Left Behind Act, 2001). It builds on findings reported in a national consensus report (NICHD, 2000), about proven strategies to reduce the prevalence of reading difficulty in the early grades in order to help children read at or above grade level by…

  16. 10 CFR 800.201 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Findings. 800.201 Section 800.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND... minority business enterprise. (b) That the loan will assist the enterprise to participate in the...

  17. 10 CFR 800.201 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Findings. 800.201 Section 800.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND... minority business enterprise. (b) That the loan will assist the enterprise to participate in the...

  18. 10 CFR 800.201 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Findings. 800.201 Section 800.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND... minority business enterprise. (b) That the loan will assist the enterprise to participate in the...

  19. 10 CFR 800.201 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Findings. 800.201 Section 800.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND... minority business enterprise. (b) That the loan will assist the enterprise to participate in the...

  20. 10 CFR 800.201 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings. 800.201 Section 800.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND... minority business enterprise. (b) That the loan will assist the enterprise to participate in the...

  1. An interesting finding in sup 229 Th

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Work at INEL has recently established that the first excited states of {sup 229}Th forms a closely spaced doublet with the ground state, the separation being 1 {plus minus} 4 electron volts. A discussion of the data and the reasoning supporting this unprecedented finding is given. Some potential applications are briefly mentioned. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Ferdinando; Gambi, Beatrice; Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized.

  3. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S.

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  4. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  5. 76 FR 7568 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... experiments done in 2005 that were falsely labeled as if from different experiments to construct Figure 4A in... data provided are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the...

  6. 77 FR 22320 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... results of a pilot experiment in which he claimed to have injected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells... and no adverse effects. Respondent admitted that this experiment had not been conducted either by...

  7. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... reporting the results from previous experiments as the actual results, when the experiments had not been... of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral loads in whole blood patient samples by falsely...

  8. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... intentionally tampered with research materials related to five (5) immunoprecipitation/Western blot experiments and switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of...

  9. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived, and that the...

  10. Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lv, X-F; Qiu, Y-W; Zhang, X-L; Han, L-J; Qiu, S-J; Xiong, W; Wen, G; Zhang, Y-Z; Zhang, J

    2010-11-01

    PICCC is the rarest, most malignant primary intracranial GCT. The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the MR imaging findings in a series of 7 patients (6 males and 1 female; mean age, 11.9 years) with pathologically proved PICCC in our institution from 2004 to 2009. All tumors were located within the pineal (n = 6) or suprasellar (n = 1) regions. On T2-weighted MR imaging, the lesions appeared markedly heterogeneous with areas of both hypointensity and hyperintensity reflecting the histologic heterogeneity, including hemorrhage, fibrosis, cysts, or necrosis. Heterogeneous (n = 7), ringlike (n = 4), and/or intratumoral nodular (n = 3) enhancement was noted on T1-weighted images with gadolinium. These MR imaging findings, combined with patient age and serum β-HCG levels, may prove helpful in distinguishing PICCC from the more common primary brain tumors, thereby avoiding biopsy of this highly vascular tumor.

  11. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  12. Island-finding ability of marine turtles.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

    2003-08-07

    Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island.

  13. Findings of interest from immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Alford, Les

    2007-05-01

    The biopsychosocial paradigm is now the main model when dealing with most human health disorders. One of the strengths of this model is that it encourages broader thinking when assessing and managing patients. It also encourages broader reading into areas not traditionally associated with manual therapy. Immunology and neuroscience are amongst the fastest growing medical sciences. These fields come together in the relatively new area of psychoneuroimmunolgy. This article examines some findings from these fields that are not widely discussed in the physical therapy professions. These findings are of relevance to many of the disciplines within the physical therapies. It is the authors aim to stimulate further interest in the relevant, yet often under explored areas of immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

  14. Island-finding ability of marine turtles.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. PMID:12952621

  15. Dermal and Ophthalmic Findings in Pseudohypoaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Sabriye; Gökalp, Emir; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Demirtaş, Şafak; Gül, Ülkü; Baştuğ, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is defined as a state of resistance to aldosterone, a hormone crucial for electrolyte equilibrium. The genetically transmitted type of PHA is primary hypoaldosteronism. Secondary hypoaldosteronism develops as a result of hydronephrosis or hydroureter. PHA patients suffer from severe hyponatremia and a severe clinical condition due to severe loss of salt can be encountered in the neonatal period. Dermal findings in the form of miliaria rubra can also develop in these patients. With the loss of salt, abnormal accumulation of sebum in the eye due to a defect in the sodium channels can also occur. In this paper, a case of PHA in a newborn showing typical dermatological and ophthalmological findings is presented. PMID:26316441

  16. Subgroup finding via Bayesian additive regression trees.

    PubMed

    Sivaganesan, Siva; Müller, Peter; Huang, Bin

    2017-03-09

    We provide a Bayesian decision theoretic approach to finding subgroups that have elevated treatment effects. Our approach separates the modeling of the response variable from the task of subgroup finding and allows a flexible modeling of the response variable irrespective of potential subgroups of interest. We use Bayesian additive regression trees to model the response variable and use a utility function defined in terms of a candidate subgroup and the predicted response for that subgroup. Subgroups are identified by maximizing the expected utility where the expectation is taken with respect to the posterior predictive distribution of the response, and the maximization is carried out over an a priori specified set of candidate subgroups. Our approach allows subgroups based on both quantitative and categorical covariates. We illustrate the approach using simulated data set study and a real data set. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Parasitic diseases in the abdomen: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the liver and biliary tract include echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis, clonorchiasis, and opisthorchiasis, affecting millions people in some endemic areas. Amebiasis and ascariasis are believed to be the most common bowel lumen indwelling parasitic diseases, affecting billions people worldwide, but sometimes these parasites migrate inadvertently to the liver and biliary tract, resulting in liver abscess or obstructive jaundice. Imaging findings of these parasitic diseases are fairly characteristic and easy to recognize if radiologists are aware of the findings, especially in endemic areas. Because of increased immigration and frequent travelling, some patients with "exotic" parasitic diseases may be encountered in non-endemic areas, and the diagnosis may be delayed or difficult, and it is often made only after operation. This feature section was designed to provide the detailed imaging features of common parasitic diseases affecting the abdominal organs and peritoneal cavity, based on pathology-image correlation.

  18. Interferometric direction finding with a metamaterial detector

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, Suresh; Schurig, David; Shrekenhamer, David; Padilla, Willie; Xu, Wangren; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2013-12-16

    We present measurements and analysis demonstrating useful direction finding of sources in the S band (2–4 GHz) using a metamaterial detector. An augmented metamaterial absorber that supports magnitude and phase measurement of the incident electric field, within each unit cell, is described. The metamaterial is implemented in a commercial printed circuit board process with off-board back-end electronics. We also discuss on-board back-end implementation strategies. Direction finding performance is analyzed for the fabricated metamaterial detector using simulated data and the standard algorithm, MUtiple SIgnal Classification. The performance of this complete system is characterized by its angular resolution as a function of radiation density at the detector. Sources with power outputs typical of mobile communication devices can be resolved at kilometer distances with sub-degree resolution and high frame rates.

  19. Stercoral colitis: diagnostic value of CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Balcı, Sinan; Görmez, Ayşegül; Akpınar, Erhan; Böge, Medine

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the CT findings of stercoral colitis (SC). METHODS Forty-one patients diagnosed with SC between February 2006 and April 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Rectosigmoid colon was the most frequently involved segment (100%, n=41). CT findings can be summarized as follows: dilatation >6 cm and wall thickening >3 mm of the affected colon segment (100%, n=41), pericolonic fat stranding (100%, n=41), mucosal discontinuity (14.6 %, n=6), presence of free air (14.6%, n=6), free fluid (9.7%, n=4), and pericolonic abscess (2.4%, n=1). The sign most related with mortality was the length of the affected colon segment >40 cm. CONCLUSION CT has an important role in SC, since life-threatening complications can be easily revealed by this imaging modality. Increased length of involved colon segment (>40 cm) is more likely to be associated with mortality. PMID:27910814

  20. First find of srilankite in the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korinevsky, V. G.; Blinov, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    The first find of srilankite (very rare Zr and Ti oxide, Ti2ZrO6) in the Urals and the third find in Russia is reported. Srilankite forms very small (0.5-20 μm) inclusions in some rutile grains. These minerals are observed in the rare rock variety, corundum-bearing spinel-saphirine hornblendite forming a block in serpentinized amphibolizied peridotite of the Ilmeny-Vishnevogorsk Complex, near the village of Taiginka, Chelyabinsk oblast. Srilankite has not been observed in such an association yet. The composition of the host rock provides evidence for its deep (the lowermost crust of the Earth) origin. Srilankites of the Urals are distinguished from all others by the high concentrations of UO2, ThO2, HfO2, and Nb2O5, which provides additional evidence for their crustal origin. Srilankite may indicate high-temperature and high-pressure conditions of rock formation.

  1. Medial medullary infarction: abnormal ocular motor findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Soo; Choi, K-D; Oh, S-Y; Park, S-H; Han, M-K; Yoon, B-W; Roh, J-K

    2005-10-25

    In 20 consecutive patients with isolated medial medullary infarction, abnormal ocular motor findings included nystagmus (n = 8), ocular contrapulsion (n = 5), and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (n = 2). The nystagmus was ipsilesional (n = 4), gaze-evoked (n = 5), upbeating (n = 4), and hemiseesaw (n = 1). The ocular motor abnormalities may be explained by involvements of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial longitudinal fasciculus or efferent fibers from the vestibular nuclei, climbing fibers, and cells of the paramedian tracts.

  2. Epidemiological findings in Indonesia of orthodontic interest.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, K D; Satravaha, S

    1986-01-01

    Of the 110 Sundanese girls and boys we examined anthropometrically 99% were hyper- or brachycephalic, in 75.5% of the population this was combined with hyper-eury- or euryprosopy. From a dentist's standpoint, the following findings were noted: Primary crowding in 85%, deep-bite in 55%, bi-alveolary protrusion in 22% and canine-like upper lateral incisors in 20% of the cases examined.

  3. Imaging findings of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Ghadirpour, Ali; Ataie-Oskuie, Reza; Kontzialis, Marinos; Nezami, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was referred to a dentist complaining of parageusia, bad taste in the mouth, which started 9 months ago. Panoramic X-ray and non-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed multiple bilateral unilocular cysts in the mandible and maxilla, along with calcification of anterior part of the falx cerebri. She was eventually diagnosed with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on imaging and histopathologic finding of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

  4. Abdominal CT findings in small bowel perforation.

    PubMed

    Zissin, R; Osadchy, A; Gayer, G

    2009-02-01

    Small bowel perforation is an emergent medical condition for which the diagnosis is usually not made clinically but by CT, a common imaging modality used for the diagnosis of acute abdomen. Direct CT features that suggest perforation include extraluminal air and oral contrast, which are often associated with secondary CT signs of bowel pathology. This pictorial review illustrates the CT findings of small bowel perforation caused by various clinical entities.

  5. 76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... Specifically, ORI found that Respondent: Fabricated RT-PCR and ChIP experiments represented in Figures 1b, 2b, 3a,b, 4b,c, 6a,b, 7c in Mol. Endocrinol. 23(12):2075- 85, 2009; RT-PCR and/or ChIP experiments...

  6. Changing concepts and findings on autism.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-08-01

    New research findings provide major challenges regarding our understanding of the concept of autism. These are critically discussed in relation to research relevant to classification, genetics, environmental risk factors, gene-environment interplay, animal models, biomarkers, clinical features, neuropathology, pharmacotherapy, behavioral treatments, and functioning in adult life. It is concluded that, although there have been major research advances; there is a need for a reconceptualization and an avoidance of claims that go beyond the evidence.

  7. CT Findings in Temporal Bone Osteoradionecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salmaan; Gupta, Nakul; Hamilton, Jackson D.; Garden, Adam S.; Gidley, Paul W.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study is to describe CT findings in patients with clinically proven temporal bone osteoradionecrosis (TB-ORN). Methods and materials CT scans of twenty patients were retrospectively evaluated for bony and soft tissue abnormalities. Clinical severity was graded based on level of therapy administered: mild (observation), moderate (antibiotics/hyperbaric oxygen), or severe (surgery). Results Radiation dose to the primary tumor ranged from 30 to 75.6 Gy. Time to onset of ORN from completion of radiation therapy was 2 to 22 years (median=7yrs). Clinical findings: Exposed bone=20/20, otorrhea=17/20, hearing loss=11/20, otalgia=10/20, facial nerve paralysis=2/20, gait imbalance=2/20. CT findings: EAC erosions=18/20, mastoid effusion=18/20, mastoid bony coalescence=5/20, enhancing soft tissue=6/20, soft tissue gas=6/20, temporomandibular joint/condylar erosion=3/20. 3 patients developed an abscess. Conclusion Mastoid effusion and EAC erosions are commonly seen with TB-ORN. Clinically moderate or severe cases of TB-ORN are more likely to demonstrate enhancing soft tissue (p=0.002), soft tissue gas (p=0.002), and temporomandibular joint involvement (p=0.07). PMID:24834883

  8. Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in goats with paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively. PMID:23543924

  9. Health effects of uranium: new research findings.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Recent plans for a nuclear renaissance in both established and emerging economies have prompted increased interest in uranium mining. With the potential for more uranium mining worldwide and a growth in the literature on the toxicology and epidemiology of uranium and uranium mining, we found it timely to review the current state of knowledge. Here, we present a review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005-2011). Uranium mining can contaminate air, water, and soil. The chemical toxicity of the metal constitutes the primary environmental health hazard, with the radioactivity of uranium a secondary concern. The update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects. Additional novel toxicologic findings, including some at the molecular level, are now emerging that raise the biological plausibility of adverse effects on the brain, on reproduction, including estrogenic effects, on gene expression, and on uranium metabolism. Historically, most epidemiology on uranium mining has focused on mine workers and radon exposure. Although that situation is still overwhelmingly true, a smaller emerging literature has begun to form around environmental exposure in residential areas near uranium mining and processing facilities. We present and critique such studies. Clearly, more epidemiologic research is needed to contribute to causal inference. As much damage is irreversible, and possibly cumulative, present efforts must be vigorous to limit environmental uranium contamination and exposure.

  10. Lung ultrasound findings in meconium aspiration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; Yousef, Nadya; Brat, Roselyne; Manzoni, Paolo; Mokhtari, Mostafa; De Luca, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a rare and life-threatening neonatal lung injury induced by meconium in the lung and airways. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a quick, easy and cheap imaging technique that is increasingly being used in critical care settings, also for newborns. In this paper we describe ultrasound findings in MAS. Six patients with MAS of variable severity were examined by LUS during the first hours of life. Chest X-rays were used as reference. The following dynamic LUS signs were seen in all patients: (1) B-pattern (interstitial) coalescent or sparse; (2) consolidations; (3) atelectasis; (4) bronchograms. No pattern was observed for the distribution of signs in lung areas, although the signs varied with time, probably due to the changing localisation of meconium in the lungs. LUS images corresponded well with X-ray findings. In conclusion, we provide the first formal description of LUS findings in neonates with MAS. LUS is a useful and promising tool in the diagnosis and management of MAS, providing real-time bedside imaging, with the additional potential benefit of limiting radiation exposure in sick neonates.

  11. EEG in Sarcoidosis Patients Without Neurological Findings.

    PubMed

    Bilgin Topçuoğlu, Özgür; Kavas, Murat; Öztaş, Selahattin; Arınç, Sibel; Afşar, Gülgün; Saraç, Sema; Midi, İpek

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease affecting nervous system in 5% to 10% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is accepted as the most sensitive method for detecting neurosarcoidosis. However, the most common findings in MRI are the nonspecific white matter lesions, which may be unrelated to sarcoidosis and can occur because of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and other inflammatory or infectious disorders, as well. Autopsy studies report more frequent neurological involvement than the ante mortem studies. The aim of this study is to assess electroencephalography (EEG) in sarcoidosis patients without neurological findings in order to display asymptomatic neurological dysfunction. We performed EEG on 30 sarcoidosis patients without diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis or prior neurological comorbidities. Fourteen patients (46.7%) showed intermittant focal and/or generalized slowings while awake and not mentally activated. Seven (50%) of these 14 patients with EEG slowings had nonspecific white matter changes while the other half showed EEG slowings in the absence of MRI changes. We conclude that EEG slowings, when normal variants (psychomotor variant, temporal theta of elderly, frontal theta waves) are eliminated, may be an indicator of dysfunction in brain activity even in the absence of MRI findings. Hence, EEG may contribute toward detecting asymptomatic neurological dysfunction or probable future neurological involvement in sarcoidosis patients.

  12. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Louhelainen, Anne-Mari; Aho, Joonas; Tuomisto, Sari; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Pessi, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5%) were free of coronary artery disease (CAD), 7 (31.8%) had mild and 5 (22.7%) had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra) and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes). Results Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6%) were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4%) for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035). Conclusions Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes. PMID:25412607

  13. Arthroscopic Findings in Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hantes, Michael; Raoulis, Vasilios

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the last years, basic research and arthroscopic surgery, have improved our understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. It is a fact that arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability has evolved considerably over the past decades. The aim of this paper is to present the variety of pathologies that should be identified and treated during shoulder arthroscopy when dealing with anterior shoulder instability cases. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding arthroscopic shoulder anatomy, anatomic variants, and arthroscopic findings in anterior shoulder instability, is presented. In addition, correlation of arthroscopic findings with physical examination and advanced imaging (CT and MRI) in order to improve our understanding in anterior shoulder instability pathology is discussed. Results: Shoulder instability represents a broad spectrum of disease and a thorough understanding of the pathoanatomy is the key for a successful treatment of the unstable shoulder. Patients can have a variety of pathologies concomitant with a traditional Bankart lesion, such as injuries of the glenoid (bony Bankart), injuries of the glenoid labrum, superiorly (SLAP) or anteroinferiorly (e.g. anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion, and Perthes), capsular lesions (humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament), and accompanying osseous-cartilage lesions (Hill-Sachs, glenolabral articular disruption). Shoulder arthroscopy allows for a detailed visualization and a dynamic examination of all anatomic structures, identification of pathologic findings, and treatment of all concomitant lesions. Conclusion: Surgeons must be well prepared and understanding the normal anatomy of the glenohumeral joint, including its anatomic variants to seek for the possible pathologic lesions in anterior shoulder instability during shoulder arthroscopy. Patient selection criteria, improved surgical techniques, and implants available have contributed to the enhancement of

  14. Search strategies for finding systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Grindlay, D

    2017-03-13

    I have read with interest the 2017 article by F Gómez-García and colleagues called "Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis: role of funding sources, conflict of interest, and bibliometric indices as predictors of methodological quality" published in the BJD. This study makes a very important point about the influence of funding sources and conflicts of interests on the methodological quality of systematic reviews. However, I have some concerns about the search strategy used to find systematic reviews for this analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Finding brands and losing your religion?

    PubMed

    Cutright, Keisha M; Erdem, Tülin; Fitzsimons, Gavan J; Shachar, Ron

    2014-12-01

    Religion is a powerful force in many people's lives, impacting decisions about life, death, and everything in between. It may be difficult, then, to imagine that something as seemingly innocuous as the usage of brand name products might influence individuals' commitment to religion. However, we demonstrate across 6 studies that when brands are a highly salient tool for self-expression, individuals are less likely to report and demonstrate strong religious commitment. We suggest that a desire to maintain consistency among self-identities is one important driver of this relationship and find that the effect is mitigated when the perceived distance between brands and religious values is minimized.

  16. Radial tears of the menisci: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, G A; Miller, W J; Remo, J W; Fritts, H M; Rozansky, M I

    1994-08-01

    Radial meniscal tears have a plane of cleavage oriented across the short axis of the meniscus in the same plane in which radial images are oriented. These tears are important to recognize, because they have clinical implications different from those of other meniscal tears with respect to meniscal function, orthopedic treatment, and clinical course. Depending on their size, location, and orientation, radial tears can have different appearances on standard MR images. Certain types can be fairly subtle to diagnose. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the varied appearances of radial tears on MR images and the findings commonly associated with radial tears.

  17. Angiographic and scintigraphic findings in fibrosing mediastinitis

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Weismann, I.; Billingsley, J.L.; Lundy, M.N.; Brown, J.M.; Graham, G.D.; Brown, T.J.

    1983-04-01

    The clinical and morphologic findings in the case of a 47-year-old man with fibrosing mediastinitis, most probably due to histoplasmosis, are described. Radionuclide angiography demonstrated obstruction of the superior vena cava with collateral vascularization. Computed tomography demonstrated a large calcific mass interposed between the pulmonary artery and superior vena cava suggesting potential pulmonary vasculature involvement. For this reason, pulmonary scintigraphy was performed which showed right lung perfusion and ventilation defects. Radionuclide angiography and pulmonary scintigraphy complement each other in determining the extent of vascular involvement with fibrosing mediastinitis. However, contrast venography is necessary to correctly delineate the anatomy of the obstructed superior vena cava and its collaterals.

  18. Finding Structure in the ArXiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemi, Alexander; Chachra, Ricky; Ginsparg, Paul; Sethna, James

    2014-03-01

    We applied machine learning techniques to the full text of the arXiv articles and report a meaningful low-dimensional representation of this big dataset. Using Google's open source implementation of the continuous skip-gram model, word2vec, the vocabulary used in scientific articles is mapped to a Euclidean vector space that preserves semantic and syntactic relationships between words. This allowed us to develop techniques for automatically characterizing articles, finding similar articles and authors, and segmenting articles into their relevant sections, among other applications.

  19. Direction finding measurements of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Baumback, M. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Direction finding measurements with plasma wave experiments onboard the Hawkeye-1 and IMP-8 satellites were used to locate the source region of auroral kilometric radiation. The radiation exhibits peak intensities between about 100 kHz and 300 kHz, and emits intense sporadic bursts lasting for between one half hour to several hours. The total power emitted in this frequency range exceeds 10 to the 9th power watts at peak intensity. The occurrence of the radiation is known to be closely associated with bright auroral arcs which occur in the local evening auroral regions.

  20. Study finds damage from toxics is heavy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-23

    According to a recent study by the US Library of Congress, toxic-chemical damage in the US is ''substantial and enduring''. Among the findings were 128 incidents of groundwater pollution, which lead to the closing of 1363 wells and in which the most frequently found contaminant was trichloroethylene, often from an unknown source; that 90% of Adirondack lakes above 2000 ft elevation are barren because of acid-rain contamination; and that cultivation of 18 different crops has become unprofitable in various parts of California as a result of air pollution. The study was mainly a literature survey in which known incidents of damage to natural resources by toxic contamination were catalogued.

  1. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in cyhalothrine poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Keivan; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Reza; Teimouri, Somayyeh Sadat; Okhovat, Ali Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Acute onset bulbar symptoms with respiratory failure and descending paralysis may occur in several neuromuscular disorders including variants of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), diphtheria, botulism and toxins. We present a 51-year-old man who presented with complains of ptosis and dyspnea following pyrethroids spraying in an enclosed area for eradication of flea. Within 5-6 days of admission limb weakness, dysphagia, dysarthria, blurred vision, diplopia, tremor and respiratory distress added to previous symptoms. Temporal profile of events after exposure, development of similar symptoms in patient's son, electrodiagnostic findings and exclusion of other etiologies confirms intoxication etiology. We reviewed the literature and provide an extensive electrodiagnostic overview. PMID:27099845

  2. Finding important sites in protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Peter J.; Kechris, Katherina J.; Spector, Philip C.; Wedemayer, Gary J.; Glazer, Alexander N.

    2002-01-01

    By using sequence information from an aligned protein family, a procedure is exhibited for finding sites that may be functionally or structurally critical to the protein. Features based on sequence conservation within subfamilies in the alignment and associations between sites are used to select the sites. The sites are subject to statistical evaluation correcting for phylogenetic bias in the collection of sequences. This method is applied to two families: the phycobiliproteins, light-harvesting proteins in cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptomonads, and the globins that function in oxygen storage and transport. The sites identified by the procedure are located in key structural positions and merit further experimental study. PMID:12417758

  3. Intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial trauma: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, D.B.; Hertzanu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Three patients with delayed frontal intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial injury are presented. In one patient an unusual appearance of bilateral and symmetrical frontal lobe pneumatoceles was demonstrated. While diagnosis is not difficult on routine radiographs, CT is valuable for determining effects on the brain and clearly delineating the fracture site; CT shows the location of the pneumatocele and may show an associated air-fluid level, mass effect or surrounding edema, or rim enhancement following administration of contrast material. The radiological appearances in conjunction with the clinical findings are highly characteristic and should not be mistaken for gas-forming cerebral abscesses.

  4. Mesentery neurilemmoma: CT, MRI and angiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Lao, Wilson T; Yang, Shih-Hung; Chen, Chi-Long; Chan, Wing P

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric neurilemmoma is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old man with mesenteric neurilemmoma, with CT, MRI and angiographic findings. The patient was healthy and had had no symptoms previously. CT and MRI images revealed a 2.2-cm well-defined, soft-tissue mass adjacent to the posterior border of the left lobe of the liver. The tumor mass displayed a heterogenous low signal on T2-weighted image and peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration. Angiography showed a hypervascular mass beneath the tail of pancreas, which was supplied by small branches of middle splenic artery. Histopathology revealed a mesentery neurilemmoma composed of spindle tumor cells.

  5. The Trident III radio position finding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, J.-C.; Chantome, M.

    1980-07-01

    The Trident III radio position finding system is based on the precise and simultaneous measurement of the distances between an interrogator and two, three or four responding markers at perfectly determined geodesic points. Attention is given to the pulse duration (0.35 to 0.5 microsec) and emission and reception frequencies of the marker and interrogator, as well as to the structure of the data and information. It is noted that when associated with a programmable calculator, the system is capable of use as a guiding system.

  6. Uncommon scintigraphic findings of multiple hepatic hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    el-Desouki, M.; Joharjy, I.A.; al-Muzrakchi, A.M.; Bashi, S.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Tc-99m labeled red blood cell scintigraphy is a valuable, noninvasive technique for differentiating hepatic hemangioma from other lesions by demonstrating a 'perfusion blood pool mismatch.' The characteristic finding on dynamic CT scan of peripheral and subsequent central enhancement is not usually seen on Tc-99m RBC angiography, probably due to rapid mixing and dilution of the radionuclide and low resolution of the gamma camera. A case of multiple hepatic hemangioma is presented in which Tc-99m RBC dynamic angiography demonstrated peripheral enhancement with subsequent central filling. In addition, delayed static images showed more hepatic lesions.

  7. Pathognomonic scintigraphic finding of hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.M.; Park, C.H.; Yang, S.L.; Rosato, F.

    1987-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. An accurate diagnosis of such tumor is essential for proper management of patients with hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH). Noninvasive diagnosis of HCH can be made using sequential Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy by demonstrating a perfusion-blood pool mismatch. In addition, a case of HCH was observed which demonstrated peripheral enhancement with subsequent central enhancement on a sequential Tc-99m RBC blood pool scintigraphy. It is felt that this scintigraphic finding is pathognomonic for HCH.

  8. Is finding something good in the bad always good? Benefit finding among women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomich, Patricia L; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2004-01-01

    The correlates and consequences of benefit finding on quality of life were examined for 364 women (93% Caucasian, 6% African American, and 1% Hispanic) diagnosed with Stage I, II, and III breast cancer. Benefit finding and quality of life were measured 4 months postdiagnosis (Tl), 3 months after Tl (T2), and 6 months after T2 (T3). Women with lower socioeconomic status, minorities, and those with more severe disease perceived more benefits at baseline. Benefit finding was associated with more negative affect at baseline and also interacted with stage of disease, such that negative relations to quality of life across time were limited to those with more severe disease. Findings suggest there are qualifiers as to whether "finding something good in the bad" is good or bad.

  9. How does Dicty find its way?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rericha, Erin; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    As a cell chemotaxes, moves towards a chemical signal, it transduces external chemical signals into mechanical motion. Efficient chemotaxis is crucial for many biological processes from wound healing to the spread of cancer. We present our experimental investigations on Dictyostelium discodeum a model organism for chemotaxis. We expose cells to three types of external signals: a shallow background gradient of the signaling molecule cyclic-AMP a localized signal composed of cyclic-AMP attached to beads and a mechanical stimulus caused by pushing beads against the exterior of the cell. For each stimulus we ask: what is the stability of the gradient sensing pathway and how does it influence the mechanical response. We find that the cell speed increases with increasing concentration of cyclic-AMP. In addition, Dictyostelium cells relay the signal by releasing internally manufactured cyclic-AMP out of the back of the cell. A collection of cells moves in streams, where cells follow closely behind one another. We find that the cells moving in a stream move slower towards a source of attractant than cells that are chemically treated such that they do not stream.

  10. Finding approximate gene clusters with Gecko 3

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Sascha; Jahn, Katharina; Wehner, Stefanie; Kuchenbecker, Leon; Marz, Manja; Stoye, Jens; Böcker, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Gene-order-based comparison of multiple genomes provides signals for functional analysis of genes and the evolutionary process of genome organization. Gene clusters are regions of co-localized genes on genomes of different species. The rapid increase in sequenced genomes necessitates bioinformatics tools for finding gene clusters in hundreds of genomes. Existing tools are often restricted to few (in many cases, only two) genomes, and often make restrictive assumptions such as short perfect conservation, conserved gene order or monophyletic gene clusters. We present Gecko 3, an open-source software for finding gene clusters in hundreds of bacterial genomes, that comes with an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The underlying gene cluster model is intuitive, can cope with low degrees of conservation as well as misannotations and is complemented by a sound statistical evaluation. To evaluate the biological benefit of Gecko 3 and to exemplify our method, we search for gene clusters in a dataset of 678 bacterial genomes using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a reference. We confirm detected gene clusters reviewing the literature and comparing them to a database of operons; we detect two novel clusters, which were confirmed by publicly available experimental RNA-Seq data. The computational analysis is carried out on a laptop computer in <40 min. PMID:27679480

  11. Acute small bowel ischemia: CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Enrica; Mortelé, Koenraad J; Ji, Hoon; Wiesner, Walter; Ros, Pablo R

    2003-10-01

    Small bowel ischemia is a disorder related to a variety of conditions resulting in interruption or reduction of the blood supply of the small intestine. It may present with various clinical and radiologic manifestations, and ranges pathologically from localized transient ischemia to catastrophic necrosis of the intestinal tract. The primary causes of insufficient blood flow to the small intestine are various and include thromboembolism (50% of cases), nonocclusive causes, bowel obstruction, neoplasms, vasculitis, abdominal inflammatory conditions, trauma, chemotherapy, radiation, and corrosive injury. Computed tomography (CT) can demonstrate changes because of ischemic bowel accurately, may be helpful in determining the primary cause of ischemia, and can demonstrate important coexistent findings or complications. However, common CT findings in acute small bowel ischemia are not specific and, therefore, it is often a combination of clinical, laboratory and radiologic signs that may lead to a correct diagnosis. Understanding the pathogenesis of various conditions leading to mesenteric ischemia and being familiar with the spectrum of diagnostic CT signs may help the radiologist recognize ischemic small bowel disease and avoid delayed diagnosis. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the pathogenesis and various causes of acute small bowel ischemia and to demonstrate the contribution of CT in the diagnosis of this complex disease.

  12. Perceptual approaches to finding features in data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.

    2013-03-01

    Electronic imaging applications hinge on the ability to discover features in data. For example, doctors examine diagnostic images for tumors, broken bones and changes in metabolic activity. Financial analysts explore visualizations of market data to find correlations, outliers and interaction effects. Seismologists look for signatures in geological data to tell them where to drill or where an earthquake may begin. These data are very diverse, including images, numbers, graphs, 3-D graphics, and text, and are growing exponentially, largely through the rise in automatic data collection technologies such as sensors and digital imaging. This paper explores important trends in the art and science of finding features in data, such as the tension between bottom-up and top-down processing, the semantics of features, and the integration of human- and algorithm-based approaches. This story is told from the perspective of the IS and T/SPIE Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging (HVEI), which has fostered research at the intersection between human perception and the evolution of new technologies.

  13. Unusual MRI Findings in a Polio Survivor

    PubMed Central

    Kubosawa, Hitoshi; Ishii, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old male consulted our institution due to worsening of right hip pain for approximately one month. The patient had no apparent functional disorders besides rigidity of the right ankle secondary to childhood poliomyelitis. Plain radiographs demonstrated narrowing of the right hip joint space. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed unusual findings in the right gluteus medius muscle, suspecting a malignant musculoskeletal tumor. Further examinations clarified acute inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus with no atypia. After treatment, serum inflammatory markers normalized and MRI showed homogeneous fat signal intensity in the muscle, which was consistent with poliomyelitis. Total hip arthroplasty was performed due to progression of osteoarthritis. Intraoperative findings showed flaccidity of the gluteus medius muscle, and histological examination of the specimen also was compatible with poliomyelitis. Postoperatively there was no hip instability and the patient has been able to resume his previous physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding polio survivors combined with septic arthritis, and sole MRI examination was unable to lead to the diagnosis. The current patient demonstrates the possibility that the involved muscles in poliomyelitis exist even in asymptomatic regions, which will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and life guidance in polio survivors. PMID:27069705

  14. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  15. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  16. Audiological findings in aphasic patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193

  17. Finding Optimal Apertures in Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeffrey C.; Morris, Robert L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Girouard, Forrest R.

    2016-12-01

    With the loss of two spacecraft reaction wheels precluding further data collection for the Kepler primary mission, even greater pressure is placed on the processing pipeline to eke out every last transit signal in the data. To that end, we have developed a new method to optimize the Kepler Simple Aperture Photometry (SAP) photometric apertures for both planet detection and minimization of systematic effects. The approach uses a per cadence modeling of the raw pixel data and then performs an aperture optimization based on signal-to-noise ratio and the Kepler Combined Differential Photometric Precision (CDPP), which is a measure of the noise over the duration of a reference transit signal. We have found the new apertures to be superior to the previous Kepler apertures. We can now also find a per cadence flux fraction in aperture and crowding metric. The new approach has also been proven to be robust at finding apertures in K2 data that help mitigate the larger motion-induced systematics in the photometry. The method further allows us to identify errors in the Kepler and K2 input catalogs.

  18. Heterogeneous Intravascular Ultrasound Findings of Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Morofuji, Toru; Inaba, Shinji; Aisu, Hiroe; Takahashi, Kayo; Saito, Makoto; Higashi, Haruhiko; Yoshii, Toyofumi; Sumimoto, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The underlying mechanisms of stent thrombosis are not completely understood. Methods We experienced 12 definite stent thrombosis cases (1 early, 1 late, and 10 very late) at our hospital from July 2011 to April 2016 and evaluated the possible causes of stent thrombosis by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results Five different potential morphological causes of stent thrombosis (neoatherosclerosis, stent malapposition, stent fracture, edge dissection, and stent underexpansion) were detected by IVUS in 10 cases (83.3%); in 1 of the remaining 2 cases, the discontinuation of antithrombotic drugs resulted in early stent thrombosis without abnormal IVUS findings. Of the 12 stent thrombosis cases, 4 occurred at a bare-metal stent (average time from stent implantation, 106 months); in all 12, significant neointimal hyperplasia was observed on IVUS, and 2 had plaque ruptures at an in-stent or proximal reference. Malapposed stent struts were observed in three very-late stent thromboses, and all of these underwent sirolimus-eluting stent implantation. Stent thrombosis due to mechanical (stent fracture) or procedure-related complications (edge dissection and stent underexpansion) was observed in three cases. Conclusion In patients with stent thrombosis, heterogeneous findings were observed in IVUS. This IVUS case series illustrates the possible mechanisms of stent thrombosis. PMID:28154268

  19. An interim overview of LDEF materials findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Brad A.

    1992-01-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effects (SEE) on materials that is unparalleled in the history of the U.S. Space Program. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of various individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials on the same space vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the Principal Investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group. In general, the LDEF data is remarkably consistent; LDEF will provide a 'benchmark' for materials design data bases for satellites in low-Earth orbit. Some materials were identified to be encouragingly resistant to LEO SEE for 5.8 years; other 'space qualified' materials displayed significant environmental degradation. Molecular contamination was widespread; LDEF offers an unprecedented opportunity to provide a unified perspective of unmanned LEO spacecraft contamination mechanisms. New material development requirements for long-term LEO missions have been identified and current ground simulation testing methods/data for new, durable materials concepts can be validated with LDEF results. LDEF findings are already being integrated into the design of Space Station Freedom.

  20. Image Findings in Brain Developmental Venous Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are benign anatomic variations; therefore, they are usually discovered incidentally. The aim of this article was to describe radiological findings of DVAs. Methods A retrospective search for DVAs of the brain was performed in 1899 patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement between January 1, 2005 and April 25, 2011. We also reviewed the results of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), CT angiography, and transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) studies performed in patients with DVAs. Results Thirty-two DVAs were identified in 31 of the 1899 patients (1.63%). These 31 patients underwent five enhanced CTs, three MRAs, two CT angiographies, and two TFCAs. Thirty of the 32 DVAs were supratentorial (ST) and two were infratentorial (IT). All enhanced MRI studies exhibited excellent resolution of DVAs. All DVAs had only one draining vein. The venous drainage system was an IT vein in three DVAs and an ST vein in 29 DVAs. Two out of five enhanced CTs presented good visualization of the draining vein. None of the MRAs, including the source image, revealed the presence of DVAs. The two CT angiographies exhibited good resolution of DVAs. One of the two TFCAs yielded an excellent illustration of the DVA. Conclusion CT angiography and MRI with contrast enhancement yielded detailed findings of DVAs. In contrast, MRA did not identify the DVAs. Enhanced CT presented only the draining vein of DVAs. PMID:23210028

  1. Finding the Electromagnetic Counterparts of Standard Sirens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, B.; Frei, Z.; Haiman, Z.; Menou, K.

    The gravitational waves (GWs) emitted during the coalescence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will be detectable with the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA). The direction and distance can be determined from the accumulated GW signal with a precision that increases rapidly in the final stages of the inspiral. We find that for M = (105 - 107)M⊙ near z = 1 the angular uncertainty decreases under 1° at least several hours before the plunge, allowing a targeted electromagnetic (EM) observation of the final stages of the merger with a wide field instrument. We then calculate the size of the final, three dimensional error volume. Under the plausible assumption that SMBH-SMBH mergers are accompanied by gas accretion leading to Eddington-limited quasar activity, we find that many cases this error volume will contain at most a single quasar for M = (105 - 107) M⊙ near z = 1. This will allow a straightforward test of the hypothesis that GW events are accompanied by bright quasar activity. The identification and observation of counterparts would allow unprecedented tests of the physics of MBH accretion, such as precision-measurements of the Eddington ratio. They would clarify the role of gas as a catalyst in SMBH coalescences, and would also offer an alternative method to constrain cosmological parameters.

  2. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  3. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  4. CT findings of small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongjun; Rho, Ji Young; Kang, Seunghun; Yoo, Koun Joy; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to clarify the recognizable computed tomography (CT) features of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Contrast enhanced CT scans were reviewed retrospectively for mass location, mediastinal extension, and other concomitant findings in 142 patients with pathologically proven SCLC. SCLC was classified into hilar mass only (type I), hilar mass with ipsilateral mediastinal extension (type II), hilar mass with bilateral mediastinal extension (type III), and peripheral mass (type IV). When mediastinal lymphadenopathy (m-LAP) was indistinguishable from a hilar mass, we defined it as a mediastinal conglomerate mass (m-CM). Type IIa or IIIa had ipsilateral or bilateral m-LAP and type IIb, IIIb or IIIc had ipsilateral or bilateral m-CM. Type I (n = 8, 5.6%), type II (n = 58, 40.8%), type III (n = 55, 38.8%), and type IV (n = 21, 14.8%) were manifested. The combination of a hilar mass and m-CM was found in 68 patients (47.9%). Type IV masses showed lobulation in 11, microlobulation in 4, both lobulated and irregular margins in 4, and spiculation in 2. A total of 120 patients (84.5%) had a bronchial stenosis/obstruction; single (n = 52) and 2 or more (n = 68). Ninety-five patients (67.0%) had vascular invasion including main/lobar pulmonary artery and superior vena cava, and 55 (38.7%) had pleural effusion and/or pleural nodules. Concomitant parenchymal findings (n = 92, 64.8%) were noted: contiguous consolidation/nodule (n = 45), hematogeneous spread (n = 32), lymphangitic spread (n = 21), obstructive pneumonia (n = 22), and obstructive atelectasis (n = 14). In conclusion, the recognizable CT features of SCLC were a hilar mass with m-CM. Most of the hilar masses showed 2 or more bronchial stenoses/obstructions. Most cases of peripheral SCLC manifested as a lobulated mass rather than a spiculated mass. Vascular invasion and concomitant parenchymal findings were observed commonly. PMID:27893684

  5. Cretaceous-Tertiary findings, paradigms and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Officer, C. B.; Drake, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The asteroid hypothesis has stimulated numerous studies of the paleontological record at Cretaceous/Tertiary time as well as of geological indicators of environmental crisis preserved in the rock record. Both extinctions and geological anomalies often occur at times that do not appear to be synchronous or instantaneous. The record includes paleontological indicators of dinosaurs, terrestrial flora, marine planktonic organisms, and shallow water marine macrofauna and geological phenomena include occurrences of iridium and other platinum metals, trace elements, clay mineralogy, shocked minerals, soot, microspherules, and isotopes of osmium, strontium and carbon. These findings are reviewed in the context of the alternate hypotheses of an exogenic cause, involving either a single asteroid impact or multiple commentary impacts, and an endogenic cause, involving intense global volcanism and major sea level regression.

  6. Atopic dermatitis. Findings of skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Piloto Valdés, L; Gómez Echevarría, A H; Valdés Sánchez, A F; Ochoa Ochoa, C; Chong López, A; Mier Naranjo, G

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-eight adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (according to the criteria of Hanifin and Lobitz) were studied at the Allergy Outpatient Service, the Dermatology Service and the Pathological Anatomy Service of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital, from January to September 1986. The patients were submitted to a quantification of total serum IgE by means of the ELISA enzymatic ultramicromethod, developed at the Radioimmunoassay National Center, and skin biopsies were carried out by means of the paraffin and direct immunofluorescence methods. The most frequent histopathological findings were acanthosis, espongiosis, parakeratosis and exocitosis, as a chronic inflammatory infiltrate, mainly composed of lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. In the skin direct immunofluorescence method we found depots of IgE in all the patients, having no relation in intensity to total serum IgE values.

  7. Folding and Finding RNA Secondary Structure

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, David H.; Moss, Walter N.; Turner, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Optimal exploitation of the expanding database of sequences requires rapid finding and folding of RNAs. Methods are reviewed that automate folding and discovery of RNAs with algorithms that couple thermodynamics with chemical mapping, NMR, and/or sequence comparison. New functional noncoding RNAs in genome sequences can be found by combining sequence comparison with the assumption that functional noncoding RNAs will have more favorable folding free energies than other RNAs. When a new RNA is discovered, experiments and sequence comparison can restrict folding space so that secondary structure can be rapidly determined with the help of predicted free energies. In turn, secondary structure restricts folding in three dimensions, which allows modeling of three-dimensional structure. An example from a domain of a retrotransposon is described. Discovery of new RNAs and their structures will provide insights into evolution, biology, and design of therapeutics. Applications to studies of evolution are also reviewed. PMID:20685845

  8. Finding a niche for seam cells?

    PubMed Central

    Brabin, Charles; Woollard, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The C. elegans neuroectodermal seam cells provide a tractable and well-established model for studying the stem cell mode of division, due to the reiterative asymmetric divisions occurring during larval development. They are, however, not generally considered to be ‘true’ stem cells, owing to their eventual terminal differentiation and the lack of a defined stem cell niche—a microenvironment that promotes the proliferation and prevents the differentiation of the stem cells that reside within. Here, we discuss the concept of the niche in relation to the seam, with reference to our recent findings suggesting that the stem-like properties of the seam cells are maintained at least in part through protection from differentiation signals emanating from the surrounding hypodermal syncytium. Determining the applicability of the niche concept will require definition of these signals and will have important implications for the status of seam cells in the context of stem cell biology. PMID:24058832

  9. Multimodality Imaging Findings of a Renal Aspergilloma

    PubMed Central

    Bulakçı, Mesut; Kartal, Merve Gülbiz; Çelenk, Erhan; Tunçer, Sena; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal aspergillosis is a rare infection that usually occurs in persons with a predisposition for this condition. Its differential diagnosis includes primary and metastatic renal malignancies, pyelonephritis and secondary abscess formation, granulomatous disorders, and renal infarction. We aim to stress the role of multimodality imaging and percutaneous biopsy in the diagnosis of this condition. Case Report We present diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings in addition to conventional imaging modalities in a 55-year-old man with secondary renal aspergilloma. Conclusion Radiological imaging methods are an integral part of diagnostic workup for renal aspergillosis. A definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological and/or microbiological examination of the material obtained via percutaneous biopsy under guidance of imaging methods. PMID:27994929

  10. Scrotal inflammatory disease: color Doppler US findings.

    PubMed

    Horstman, W G; Middleton, W D; Melson, G L

    1991-04-01

    A study of 45 patients with 51 cases of hemiscrotal inflammatory disease was done to determine the color Doppler ultrasonographic appearance of scrotal inflammatory disorders. The diagnosis was ultimately established by means of appropriate response to antibiotic treatment (47 cases) or surgery (four cases). In all cases, there was evidence of hyperemia: an increased number and concentration of detectable vessels in the affected portion of the scrotum. In 17 cases, the gray scale images were normal, and the only evidence of inflammation was the presence of hypervascularity. Abnormally decreased epididymal vascular resistance was detected in 14 cases of epididymitis; abnormally decreased testicular vascular resistance was detected in six cases of orchitis. Spontaneous venous flow was present in 18 patients. The authors conclude that color Doppler can demonstrate the hyperemic response to scrotal inflammatory disease and that, in the proper clinical setting, it can supplement the gray scale findings and increase diagnostic confidence.

  11. A compilation of jet finding algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; Meier, K.

    1992-12-31

    Technical descriptions of jet finding algorithms currently in use in p{anti p} collider experiments (CDF, UA1, UA2), e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} experiments and Monte-Carlo event generators (LUND programs, ISAJET) have been collected. For the hadron collider experiments, the clustering methods fall into two categories: cone algorithms and nearest-neighbor algorithms. In addition, UA2 has employed a combination of both methods for some analysis. While there are clearly differences between the cone and nearest-neighbor algorithms, the authors have found that there are also differences among the cone algorithms in the details of how the centroid of a cone cluster is located and how the E{sub T} and P{sub T} of the jet are defined. The most commonly used jet algorithm in electron-positron experiments is the JADE-type cluster algorithm. Five various incarnations of this approach have been described.

  12. Gastroduodenal lesions of ingested acids: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-12-01

    Abdominal radiographs and barium studies of the stomach and duodenum of 27 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCl) in suicidal attempts were reviewed. Eleven patients were studied in the acute phase (1-10 days), nine in the subacute phase (11-20 days), and 15 in the chronic phase (21 days or more). Extensive gastric and duodenal mucosal and submucosal damage was radiographically demonstrated in all patients studied in the acute and subacute phase. Four patients had gastric perforation. The radiographic findings in the chronic phase were characterized by marked contraction of the lesser curvature, antral stenosis, irregular gastric contours, and deformed duodenal bulb. Esophageal mucosal and submucosal lesions were radiographically demonstrated in all these patients.

  13. Muscle biopsy findings in inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2002-11-01

    The inflammatory myopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of acquired muscle diseases characterized clinically, by muscle weakness, and histologically, by inflammatory infiltrates within the skeletal muscles. The group of these myopathies comprise three major and discrete subsets: polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Each subset retains its characteristic clinical, immunopathologic, and morphologic features regardless of whether it occurs separately or in connection with other systemic diseases. Although the diagnosis of these disorders is based on the combination of clinical examination, electromyographic data, serum muscle enzyme levels, various autoantibodies, and the muscle biopsy findings, the muscle biopsy offers the most definitive diagnostic information in the majority of the cases. This article summarizes the main histologic features that characterize PM, DM, or IBM and emphasizes the main pitfalls associated with interpretation of the biopsies.

  14. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    PubMed Central

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  15. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  16. Bases of Radio Direction Finding, Part II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-22

    FTD-ID(RS)T-2232-77 Part 2 of 2 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION BASES OF RADIO DIRECTION FINDING by I. S. Kukes, M. Ye. Starik -3- 0DAM Approved for...FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DI- FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION I VISION. j WP.AFB, OHIO. FTD- ID(RS)T-2232-77 Date22 Dec 1977 Table of Contents U.S. Board on...2939, Nt 8, LTI). 3. 11.2 WI ir-p x( o a~ B. B OcitowiwN -punpcKi:. si’Hovim’ paAisonve.1CI* MONil . PCJA.-.It3A. OTA. A9JI1041-1oTS, .1943. 11.3. C a R

  17. Food entrainment: major and recent findings.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Breno T S; Araujo, John F

    2012-01-01

    Mammals exhibit daily anticipatory activity to cycles of food availability. Studies on such food anticipatory activity (FAA) have been conducted mainly in nocturnal rodents. They have identified FAA as the behavioral output of a food entrained oscillator (FEO), separate of the known light entrained oscillator (LEO) located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of hypothalamus. Here we briefly review the main characteristics of FAA. Also, we present results on four topics of food anticipation: (1) possible input signals to FEO, (2) FEO substrate, (3) the importance of canonical clock genes for FAA, and (4) potential practical applications of scheduled feeding. This mini review is intended to introduce the subject of food entrainment to those unfamiliar with it but also present them with relevant new findings on the issue.

  18. Computed tomography findings in bilateral perinephric lymphangiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Aijaz; Gojwari, Tariq A; Reyaz, Sheikh; Rasool, Shubana; Shafi, Hakim; Mufti, Shahida

    2010-01-01

    Perinephric lymphangioma is rare disorder that may be confused with various forms of renal cystic diseases and urinomas. In this disorder a developmental malformation results in failure of developing lymphatic tissue to establish normal communication with the rest of lymphatic system. Once there is restricted drainage of lymphatic fluid the lymphatic channels dilate to form cystic masses that may be unilocular or multilocular and may be seen unilaterally or bilaterally .This condition presents with various signs and symptoms or can be just an incidental finding which in presence of misleading clinical history may be confused with other diseases. CT scan with delayed cuts and USG guided aspiration with biochemical analysis of fluid will help us in arriving to final diagnosis.

  19. Computed tomography findings in bilateral perinephric lymphangiomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Hakeem, Aijaz; Gojwari, Tariq A; Reyaz, Sheikh; Rasool, Shubana; Shafi, Hakim; Mufti, Shahida

    2010-01-01

    Perinephric lymphangioma is rare disorder that may be confused with various forms of renal cystic diseases and urinomas. In this disorder a developmental malformation results in failure of developing lymphatic tissue to establish normal communication with the rest of lymphatic system. Once there is restricted drainage of lymphatic fluid the lymphatic channels dilate to form cystic masses that may be unilocular or multilocular and may be seen unilaterally or bilaterally .This condition presents with various signs and symptoms or can be just an incidental finding which in presence of misleading clinical history may be confused with other diseases. CT scan with delayed cuts and USG guided aspiration with biochemical analysis of fluid will help us in arriving to final diagnosis. PMID:20842254

  20. Finding corners in images by foveated search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnow, Thomas L.; Bovik, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new approach to finding corners in images that combines foveated edge detection and curvature calculation with saccadic placement of foveal fixations. Each saccade moves the fovea to a location of high curvature combined with high edge gradient. Edges are located using a foveated Canny edge detector with spatial constant that increases with eccentricity. Next, we calculate a measure of local corner strength, based on a product of curvature and gradient. An inhibition factor based on previous visits to a region of the image prevents the system from repeatedly returning to the same locale. A long saccade is move thes fovea to previously unexplored areas of the image. Subsequent short saccades improve the accuracy of the location of the corner approximated by the long saccade. The system is tested on two natural scenes and the results compared against subjects observing the same test images through an eyetracker. Results show that the algorithm is a good locator of corners.

  1. Finding missing proofs with automated reasoning.

    SciTech Connect

    Fitelson, B.; Wos, L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

    2001-08-01

    This article features long-sought proofs with intriguing properties (such as the absence of double negation and the avoidance of lemmas that appeared to be indispensable), and it features the automated methods for finding them. The theorems of concern are taken from various areas of logic that include two-valued sentential (or propositional) calculus and infinite-valued sentential calculus. Many of the proofs (in effect) answer questions that had remained open for decades, questions focusing on axiomatic proofs. The approaches we take are of added interest in that all rely heavily on the use of a single program that offers logical reasoning, William McCune's automated reasoning program OTTER. The nature of the successes and approaches suggests that this program offers researchers a valuable automated assistant. This article has three main components. First, in view of the interdisciplinary nature of the audience, we discuss the means for using the program in question (OTTER), which flags, parameters, and lists have which effects, and how the proofs it finds are easily read. Second, because of the variety of proofs that we have found and their significance, we discuss them in a manner that permits comparison with the literature. Among those proofs, we offer a proof shorter than that given by Meredith and Prior in their treatment of Lukasiewicz's shortest single axiom for the implicational fragment of two-valued sentential calculus, and we offer a proof for the Lukasiewicz 23-letter single axiom for the full calculus. Third, with the intent of producing a fruitful dialogue, we pose questions concerning the properties of proofs and, even more pressing, invite questions similar to those this article answers.

  2. Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

  3. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings.

    PubMed

    Plomin, R; Deary, I J

    2015-02-01

    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for 'positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century-Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)-which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture

  4. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  5. Astronomers Find Rare Beast by New Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, astronomers have found a supernova explosion with properties similar to a gamma-ray burst, but without seeing any gamma rays from it. The discovery, using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, promises, the scientists say, to point the way toward locating many more examples of these mysterious explosions. "We think that radio observations will soon be a more powerful tool for finding this kind of supernova in the nearby Universe than gamma-ray satellites," said Alicia Soderberg, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The telltale clue came when the radio observations showed material expelled from the supernova explosion, dubbed SN2009bb, at speeds approaching that of light. This characterized the supernova, first seen last March, as the type thought to produce one kind of gamma-ray burst. "It is remarkable that very low-energy radiation, radio waves, can signal a very high-energy event," said Roger Chevalier of the University of Virginia. When the nuclear fusion reactions at the cores of very massive stars no longer can provide the energy needed to hold the core up against the weight of the rest of the star, the core collapses catastrophically into a superdense neutron star or black hole. The rest of the star's material is blasted into space in a supernova explosion. For the past decade or so, astronomers have identified one particular type of such a "core-collapse supernova" as the cause of one kind of gamma-ray burst. Not all supernovae of this type, however, produce gamma-ray bursts. "Only about one out of a hundred do this," according to Soderberg. In the more-common type of such a supernova, the explosion blasts the star's material outward in a roughly-spherical pattern at speeds that, while fast, are only about 3 percent of the speed of light. In the supernovae that produce gamma-ray bursts, some, but not all, of the ejected material is accelerated to nearly the speed of light. The superfast

  6. A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shenton, Martha E.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Frumin, Melissa; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    After more than 100 years of research, the neuropathology of schizophrenia remains unknown and this is despite the fact that both Kraepelin (1919/1971: Kraepelin,E., 1919/1971. Dementia praecox. Churchill Livingston Inc., New York) and Bleuler (1911/1950: Bleuler, E., 1911/1950. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. International Universities Press, New York), who first described ‘dementia praecox’ and the ‘ schizophrenias’, were convinced that schizophrenia would ultimately be linked to an organic brain disorder. Alzheimer (1897: Alzheimer, A., 1897. Beitrage zur pathologischen anatomie der hirnrinde und zur anatomischen grundlage einiger psychosen. Monatsschrift fur Psychiarie und Neurologie. 2, 82–120) was the first to investigate the neuropathology of schizophrenia, though he went on to study more tractable brain diseases. The results of subsequent neuropathological studies were disappointing because of conflicting findings. Research interest thus waned and did not flourish again until 1976, following the pivotal computer assisted tomography (CT) finding of lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia by Johnstone and colleagues. Since that time significant progress has been made in brain imaging, particularly with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), beginning with the first MRI study of schizophrenia by Smith and coworkers in 1984 (Smith, R.C., Calderon, M., Ravichandran, G.K., et al. (1984). Nuclear magnetic resonance in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Psychiatry Res. 12, 137–147). MR in vivo imaging of the brain now confirms brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The 193 peer reviewed MRI studies reported in the current review span the period from 1988 to August, 2000. This 12 year period has witnessed a burgeoning of MRI studies and has led to more definitive findings of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia than any other time period in the history of schizophrenia research. Such progress in defining the

  7. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of ARDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... collapsed lung). This is a condition in which air or gas collects in the space around the lungs. This can cause one or both lungs to collapse. The air pressure from a ventilator can cause this condition. ...

  8. An Accelerated Radioactive Decay (ARD) Model for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Bert W.; Leventhal, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    In 1975, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 255, 690-692] presented a radioactive decay model 56N i --> 56Co --> 56Fe for the post-peak luminosity decay of Type I supernovae light curves, in which the two decay rates are both accelerated by a common factor. In 1976, Rust, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 262, 118-120] used sums of exponentials fitting to confirm the acceleration hypothesis, but their result was nevertheless rejected by the astronomical community. Here, we model Type Ia light curves with a system of ODEs (describing the nuclear decays) forced by a Ni-deposition pulse modelled by a 3-parameter Weibull pdf, with all of this occuring in the center of a pre-existing, optically thick, spherical shell which thermalizes the emitted gamma rays. Fitting this model to observed light curves routinely gives fits which account for 99.9+% of the total variance in the observed record. The accelerated decay rates are so stable, for such a long time, that they must occur in an almost unchanging environment -- not it a turbulent expanding atmosphere. The amplitude of the Ni-deposition pulse indicates that its source is the fusion of hydrogen. Carbon and oxygen could not supply the large energy/nucleon that is observed. The secondary peak in the infrared light curve can be easily modelled as a light echo from dust in the back side of the pre-existing shell, and the separation between the peaks indicates a radius of ≈15 light days for the shell. The long-term stability of the acceleration suggests that it is a kinematic effect arising because the nuclear reactions occur either on the surface of a very rapidly rotating condensed object, or in a very tight orbit around such an object, like the fusion pulse in a tokomak reactor.

  9. Variational inference with ARD prior for NIRS diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuho; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2015-05-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) reconstructs 3-D tomographic images of brain activities from observations by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) that is formulated as an ill-posed inverse problem. This brief presents a method for NIRS DOT based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach introducing the automatic relevance determination prior and the variational Bayes technique. Although the sparseness of the estimation strongly depends on the hyperparameters, in general, our method has less dependency on the hyperparameters. We confirm through numerical experiments that a schematic phase diagram of sparseness with respect to the hyperparameters has two regions: in one region hyperparameters give sparse solutions and in the other they give dense ones. The experimental results are supported by our theoretical analyses in simple cases.

  10. CASE STUDY OF AN INTEGRATED PASSIVE BIOLOGICAL ARD TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  11. Finding organic vapors - a Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuollekoski, Henri; Boy, Michael; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols have an important role in regulating the climate both directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, as well as indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. While it is known that their net effect on radiative forcing is negative, several key aspects remain mysterious. There exist plenty of known primary sources of particles due to both natural and man-made origin - for example desert dust, volcanic activity and tire debris. On the other hand, it has been shown that the formation of secondary particles, by nucleation from precursor vapors, is a frequent, global phenomenon. However, the very earliest steps in new particle formation - nucleation and early growth by condensation - have many big question marks on them. While several studies have indicated the importance of a sufficient concentration of sulphuric acid vapor for the process, it has also been noted that this is usually not enough. Heads have therefore turned to organic vapors, which in their multitude could explain various observed characteristics of new particle formation. But alas, the vast number of organic compounds, their complex chemistry and properties that make them difficult to measure, have complicated the quantifying task. Nevertheless, evidence of organic contribution in particles of all size classes has been found. In particular, a significant organic constituent in the very finest particles suggests the presence of a high concentration of very low-volatile organic vapors. In this study, new particle formation in the boreal forest environment of Hyytiälä, Finland, is investigated in a process model. Our goal is to quantify the concentration, to find the diurnal profile and to get hints of the identity of some organic vapors taking part in new particle formation. Previous studies on the subject have relied on data analysis of the growth rate of the observed particles. However, due to the coarse nature of the methods used to calculate growth rates, this approach has its

  12. Gallbladder metastasis: spectrum of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Barretta, Maria Luisa; Catalano, Orlando; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Granata, Vincenza; Marone, Ugo; D'Errico Gallipoli, Adolfo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to report the diagnostic features of hematogenous gallbladder metastasis using various imaging modalities. We carried out a single-center retrospective analysis of 13 patients with gallbladder metastasis. The primary malignancy was cutaneous melanoma (11 cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (1 case), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1 case). All patients underwent sonography (US), with color-power-Doppler assessment in 11 cases. Contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) was performed in 8 patients, MDCT in 8, and MR imaging in 1. Four subjects studied by whole-body PET. The gallbladder lesions were first detected with US in 9 cases and with MDCT in 3 cases. The remaining patient was investigated because of hepatic fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at PET; CEUS failed to detect any liver metastasis in this subject but identified a gallbladder lesion. Typical findings included multiplicity of gallbladder vegetations, broad base, limited mural thickening, presence of contrast enhancement, absence of gallstones and gallbladder bed infiltration, presence of combined lesions within other organs. Only two patients presented an isolated location in the gallbladder and were successfully treated with surgery. Gallbladder metastasis is a rare but possible occurrence. Knowledge of the typical imaging features and careful evaluation of the gallbladder may avoid an incorrect or false negative diagnosis.

  13. Mesozoic folds, fossil fields, and future finds ( )

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.W.; Witter, G.G.

    1988-02-01

    Drilling and surface geologic mapping have shown that pre-Tertiary, post-Triassic folds and upthrusted anticlines in an eastern Nevada fold-belt have accumulated major oil columns. This Mesozoic foldbelt involves a Cambrian through Triassic section, which has hundreds of feet of porosity in Ordovician sandstones, Silurian and Devonian carbonates, and Mississippian sandstones. In addition to the Devonian Pilot and Mississippian Chainman shales, source rocks are found in Cambrian and Ordovician shales and in some Paleozoic carbonates. The occurrence of live and dead oil shows in hundreds of vertical feet of porosity in wells drilled on several of these Mesozoic structures is interpreted as evidence that these structures were giant oil fields prior to being breached by Tertiary Basin and Range extensional faulting, which allowed vertical hydrocarbon leakage. Noting that undrilled Mesozoic structures still exist in the foldbelt and noting that natural processes are seldom 100% efficient - including, probably, the disruptive effects of Basin and range extensional faulting - the authors suggest that there is a very good chance of finding one or more giant fields in the remaining structures of this foldbelt.

  14. How to find the best evidence.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, Robert L

    2009-10-01

    The Internet has made finding evidence for clinical practice fairly easy. Many different types of databases that can be searched for relevant key terms are available for free or for subscription. Bibliographic or library databases contain books, book chapters, reports, citations, abstracts, and either the full text of the articles indexed or links to the full text. Citation databases are specially designed so that you can track the progress of an idea or research topic by searching the published works that cite a particular author or article. Synthesized databases are pre-filtered records for particular topics. They are usually subscription-based, with relatively large fees (but you can get free access in libraries). This type of database may provide the "best" evidence without extensive searches of standard bibliographic databases. Portals are Web pages that act as a starting point for using the Web or Web-based services and links to books, journals, patient-education resources, and images. Many medical journals, including Respiratory Care, are now available online. Finally, even generalized search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Ask, and Dogpile can provide a wealth of information on medical topics.

  15. ORAL FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH APERT SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Dalben, Gisele da Silva; Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das; Gomide, Marcia Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Apert syndrome is a rare disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the FGFR2 gene at locus 10q26; patients with this syndrome present severe syndactyly, exophthalmia, ocular hypertelorism and hypoplastic midface with Class III malocclusion, besides systemic alterations. Most investigations available on the Apert syndrome address the genetic aspect or surgical management, with little emphasis on the oral aspects. Objective: to investigate the oral findings, including dental anomalies, ectopic eruption of the maxillary permanent first molars and soft tissue alterations, in subjects with Apert syndrome. Material and methods: clinical and radiographic examination of nine patients with Apert syndrome, aged 6 to 15 years, not previously submitted to orthodontic or orthognathic treatment. Results: dental anomalies were present in all patients, with one to eight anomalies per individual. The most frequent anomalies were tooth agenesis, mainly affecting maxillary canines, and enamel opacities (44.4% for both). Ectopic eruption of maxillary first molars was found in 33.3% of patients; lateral palatal swellings were observed in 88.8% of patients. Conclusions: The occurrence of typical lateral palatal swellings agrees with the literature. The high prevalence of dental anomalies and ectopic eruption may suggest a possible etiologic relationship with the syndrome. PMID:19089249

  16. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Results Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. PMID:27828629

  17. Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, Ryan; Lombriser, Lucas; Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar field profile, one can then further evaluate whether these limits can be attributed to a genuine screening effect. For illustration, we apply the analysis to both a cubic galileon and a chameleon model as well as to Brans-Dicke theory. Finally, we emphasise that the scaling method also provides a natural approach for performing post-Newtonian expansions in screened regimes.

  18. Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Briani, Chiara; Dalla Torre, Chiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo; Pompanin, Sara; Binotto, Gianni; Adami, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD), is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established. PMID:24248213

  19. Bayesian Hypothesis Testing for Planet Finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braems, I.; Kasdin, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most important performance metrics of any space planet finding system is integration time. The time needed to make a positive detection of an extrasolar planet determines the number of systems we can observe for the life of the mission and the stability requirements of the spacecraft and optical control systems. Most astronomical detection approaches rely on fairly simple signal-to-noise calculations and a threshold determined by the ability of the human eye to extract the planet image from the background (usually a signal-to-noise ratio of five). In this paper we present an alternative approach to detection using Bayesian hypothesis testing. This optimal approach provides a quantitative measure of the probability of detection under various conditions and integration times (such as known or unknown background levels) and under different prior assumptions. We also show how the technique allows for a much higher probability of detection for shorter integration times than the previous photometric approaches. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for this work and Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA) for its support of Ms. Braems.

  20. Computed tomographic findings in orbital Mucor

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.R.; Lippman, S.M.; Grinnell, V.S.; Colman, M.F.; Edwards, J.E. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly important infection in immunocompromised patients; knowledge regarding the variability of its clinical manifestations is expanding steadily. The infection is of paranasal sinus origin and may involve the orbit secondarily via freely communicating foramina and venous channels. Death often ensues when the infection spreads either into the cavernous sinus or the central nervous system. Early diagnosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis is crucial for a successful outcome. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning is used to visualize many intraorbital pathologic abnormalities. The patient discussed in this paper had extensive orbital Mucor that appeared minimal on a CT scan. This inability of the scan to reflect the severity of infection prompted a review of the literature describing the use of CT scans for detecting this potentially fatal, opportunistic infection. The search showed that a disparity between scan findings and the severity of the disease is the rule rather than the exception. Recognition of this disparity has significant implications for appropriate diagnosis and management of orbital Mucor.