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Sample records for area central japan

  1. Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2010-05-01

    Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide area is located on a socially very important place, where are major lifelines connecting east and west Japan: Tokaido railway, Tokaido Shinkansen, and Tomei highway. The Yui landslide area comprises many landslide units and has been causing many catastrophs. The lateral spreading is characterized by NS-trending multiple ridges and linear depressions as long as 1 to 2 km and up to 60 m deep. These features are observable on the aerial photographs and are clearly identified by using airborne laser scanner. Mountains subjected to the lateral spreading is 3 km wide in EW and 6 km long in NS and are 250 to 500 m high above sea level. These morphological features suggest that the NS trending ridges spread laterally to EW and their central parts settled down like the way by which horsts and grabens are made. The ridges are underlain by Miocene beds consisting of the alternating beds of mudstone and sandstone in the lower part and of sandstone and conglomerate in the upper part. The spreading ridge occupies the axial part of a NS-trending syncline, which has a half wave length longer than 2 km and comprises minor folds with a wavelength on the order of hundred meters. This structure, synclinorium, suggests that there could be decollements along the enveloping surface of the minor folds and that the lateral spreading could have a low-angle slip surface along the enveloping surface of the minor folds. There are many landslides along the side slopes of the laterally spread ridges and they have been moving many times by rainstorms and also by earthquakes. The movements are recorded since 1781, but the

  2. Structural Analysis of Serpentinite in the Jikkoku Pass Area, Northwestern Kanto Mountains, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirauchi, K.; Hisada, K.

    2004-12-01

    Serpentinite is a product made by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite. It has been understood that serpentinite along a fault or a plate boundary plays a role as a lubricant for rheological properties. However, it is unknown how serpentinite actually acts through its deformation processes. The study area is located on the Jikkoku Pass area, northwestern Kanto Mountains, central Japan. Serpentinite bodies are intermittently distributed along fault boundaries. In this study, we divided serpentinite into four deformation stages (D1-D4) based on meso- and microstructures. 1) D1 stage: It is represented by block-in-matrix structure. Block sizes are various, and their longest axis is about 1 m. Shapes of blocks are almost oblate type and rounded to subangular. The long axes of blocks nearly show a same orientation, and planar structures are nearly parallel to them. Inner structures of blocks are entirely deformed, and mesh texture as a pseudomorph of olivine and euhedral chromian spinels are observed. Serpentines consist mainly of lizardite and chrysotile. Fine-gained serpentines of various sizes are randomly scattered in the matrix. 2) D2 stage: It is represented by alternation in portions of different colors and textures. Colors consist mainly of dark green and yellowish green. Intervals of this alternation vary from 1 to 3 mm. In portions of dark green, needle-shaped antigorites have a preferred orientation. Antigorites are remarkably fine-grained in some cases, and are similar to characteristics of ultramylonite. Portions of yellowish green include opaque minerals such as magnetite, forming planar structures. A chromian spinel occurs as a porphyroclast (rounded shape) together with fine-grained recrystallized antigorites. 3) D3 stage: It is represented by fracture foliation. It is formed by foliation as fracture planes that are penetratively developed with a few hundreds of ƒEm intervals. Besides, intervals of this foliation also vary on

  3. Investigations of the Piezomagnetic Field in the Slow Slip Event Epicentral Area in Tokai Area, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Uyeshima, M.; Ogawa, T.; Koyama, S.

    2006-12-01

    The University of Tokyo has conducted continuous geomagnetic observations in the Tokai area, central Japan. In this area, large interplate earthquakes have occurred repeatedly due to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. The main objective of our geomagnetic observations is to detect tectonomagnetic signals accompanied with the subduction process. At each station, total forces of the geomagnetic field are measured every minute using proton precession magnetometers. Observed value at the reference station in Yatsugatake, several tens of km away from the investigated area, was subtracted from those at respective stations to establish daily mean simple differences. The data at one station show a characteristic variation. Until 2000, it had decreased at a rate of 1 nT/year. However, the decrease had stopped during a period from 2000 to 2004. And it started decreasing again in 2005. The period during which the decrease had stopped corresponds to the Tokai Slow Slip Event which was detected by geodetic observations. Therefore, the variation found in the total force differences may have some relation to the Slow Slip Event. To investigate the possible relation between the changes in the geomagnetic total force and the Tokai Slow Slip Event, we performed piezomagnetic modelings. In general, piezomagnetic field is generated by the heterogeneities of the initial magnetization of rocks and/or those of stress field in the crust. To clarify which heterogeneity is dominant for explaining the observational results in Tokai area, we conducted two types of numerical modelings, one for the uniformly magnetized crust with the realistic stress field, and one for the uniform regional stress field with the highly magnetized rock bodies near the station. In the former case, the stress field variation calculated from the slip distribution estimated by Ohta et al. (2004) was substituted to the calculation. Expected changes in the total intensity amount to only less than 1/100 nT. These

  4. Anomalous intra-plate high-Mg andesites in the Choshi area (Chiba, Central Japan) produced during early stages of Japan Sea opening?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Jun'ichi; Flower, Martin F. J.

    2009-10-01

    Geochemical and isotopic data are reported for 20 Ma high-magnesian andesite (HMA) lavas erupted on the forearc side of Central Japan in the Choshi coastal area (Chiba). Rarely olivine-phyric (< 3% vol), these rocks have ca. 56 wt.% SiO 2, Na 2O ranging between 3.9 and 4.2 wt.%, and relatively low K 2O/Na 2O ratios (ca. 0.44). Their Mg numbers are relatively high (ca. 0.64) and matched by high Cr (> 345 ppm), high Sr (> 520 ppm), high Sr/Y (ca. 30), and high [La/Yb] N (> 8), conforming to the definition of low-silica adakites, transitional in character to HMA. However, despite slight negative Nb and Ta 'troughs' in a few samples, their incompatible element distribution patterns appear closer to those of intra-plate basalts, apparently confirming previous suggestions that terms such as HMA and adakite cover a diverse range of compositions. Enriched in radiogenic Sr and Nd (ca. 0.7040 to 0.7043 and 0.5128 to 0.51275, respectively), the Choshi HMA shows relatively low 206Pb/ 204Pb (18.25 to 18.35) and 208Pb/ 204Pb (38.37 to 38.48) ratios, resembling those of late Miocene intra-plate basalts in the Japan Sea and SW Japan. In this regard the Choshi HMA differs from those of the 'classic' Middle Miocene (14 to 12 Ma) HMA described from the Setouchi volcanic belt (e.g. Tatsumi, 1981), a short distance to the west which also shows relative high K contents. Although HMAs have been generally attributed to subduction-related processes, the lack of high field strength element (HFSE) depletions cf. large ionic lithophile elements (LILE) in most Choshi HMA suggests an absence of so-called 'subduction signatures'. Accordingly, we suggest that the Choshi HMA probably tapped a fertile (asthenospheric) region of the convecting mantle wedge, primitive melt products having acquired HMA-like character as a result of shallow level modification by interaction with lithospheric components, aided by thermal input resulting from mantle extrusion, during the early stages of Japan Sea opening

  5. Density structure inferred from gravity anomalies in the eastern area of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komazawa, Masao

    2004-12-01

    A gravity survey was conducted between October 2002 and December 2003 in and around the eastern area of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). The total number of measurement points amounted to about 436 and 326 stations were taken at the same points as the seismic survey points. The location and altitude were decided by differential GPS and the accuracy is thought to be within several ten-centimeters. The data was compiled from existing data (Geological Survey of Japan, 2000), so the total number of compiled gravity maps is about 3,540 points. All measured gravity data were referred to the International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 (IGSN71) and the normal gravity values were estimated according to the gravity formula of 1980. Terrain corrections were conducted within a range of 60 km by approximating the real topography to an assemblage of annular prisms interpolated by mesh terrain data and random terrain data of the gravity points. The effect of the sinking of the topography due to the Earth's curvature was taken into consideration. Bouguer corrections within a range of 60 km in arc distances were made using a spherical cap crust formula. The density for both terrain correction and Bouguer corrections was chosen to be 2,670 kg/m3, because the mean surface density of the whole area is estimated to be a slightly large density by the CVUR method. The features of Bouguer anomalies is characterized by a low anomaly in Omachi city, in the northern parts of Matsumoto basin, and a high anomaly in the central highlands, Central Uplift Zone, about 10 km west of Ueda city. The low anomaly shows that the thickness of the sedimentary layer is more than 1 km from 2D/3D automatic analysis.

  6. Cross-checking groundwater age by 4He and 14C dating in a granite, Tono area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Tomioka, Yuichi; Goto, Kazuyuki; Kashiwaya, Koki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Takeda, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater dating was performed simultaneously by the 4He and 14C methods in granite of the Tono area in central Japan. Groundwater was sampled at 30 packed-off sections of six 1000-m boreholes. 4He concentrations increased and 14C concentrations decreased along a groundwater flow path on a topographic gradient. 4He ages were calculated by using the in situ 4He production rate derived from the porosity, density, and U and Th content of the rock, neglecting external flux. 14C ages were calculated with a noncorrected model in which the initial 14C content was 100 percent of the modern radiocarbon level (Co = 100 pmC), a statistical model using the average 14C content of tritium-bearing samples (Co = 46.4 pmC), and a δ13C model based on the isotopic mass balance. Although the absolute 14C ages calculated by the models were different, the relative 14C ages were almost identical. The relative 14C ages were considered reliable because dissolved inorganic carbon has no significant geochemical reactions in granite. The relation between the 4He ages and the noncorrected 14C ages was [4He age] = 1.15 [14C age] + 7200 (R2 = 0.81), except in the discharge area. The slope of this relation was equivalent to unity, which indicates that the 4He accumulation rate is confirmed by the relative 14C ages. Moreover, the accumulated 3He/4He ratio was equivalent to that derived from the 6Li(α,n)3H reaction in granite. These results show that the accumulated He is of crustal origin, produced in situ without external flux, except in the discharge area. The intercept value of 7200 a implies that the 14C concentrations were diluted due to geochemical reactions. Tritium-bearing samples supported this result. Simultaneous measurements make it feasible to estimate the accumulation rate of 4He and initial dilution of 14C, which cannot be done with a single method. Cross-checking groundwater dating has the potential to provide more reliable groundwater ages. The circulation time of the

  7. Long-term SSEs in the Tokai Area, Central Japan, and Their Relationships Between Released Moment and Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, T.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term slow slip event (LSSE) in the Tokai area, central Japan, had continued five years from mid-2000 to mid-2005 [Suito and Ozawa (2009)]. LSSEs detected along many subduction zones and were considered to have some relationship between the released moments and their durations [e.g. Schwartz and Rokosky (2007)]. The duration of the Tokai LSSE in the first half of 2000s, expressed 'the latest event' hereafter, is very long and it is interesting to find an answer whether the latest event in the Tokai area is anomalous or not. In order to reveal this question, I analyzed a leveling data from 1981 to 1999 -- before the era of GNSS -- and the length change data between 1974 and 1992.The deduced rates show two sorts of spatial patterns and the patterns appear alternately. One of them resembles the pattern during the latest event. Summing up the results and accounting for the estimation errors, it is clear that there are at least three events in the last thirty years; 2000-2005 (already and well known event), 1987-1990, and around 1983. The 2000-2005 event is the biggest and longest one, while 1983 event is the smallest and shortest one in the three events. It suggests that the duration of the event is longer, the interval to the next event becomes longer, and that there are some relationships between the size, duration time, and the recurrence interval of the events.The second event, from 1987 to 1990, made clearer signal in the leveling data than the the first one made. I examined a forward modeling for the second event, assuming uniform slip on a rectangular fault that located the same place as the latest SSE occurred on. The results of the modeling show that the amount of the slip during the second event was around 5 to 15 mm/yr and the corresponding released moment is about Mw 6.6, which was smaller than the latest SSE done. It suggests that the duration of LSSEs in the Tokai Area is longer than that was expected from the relationship between the released

  8. Possible Long-term SSEs in the Tokai Area, Central Japan, After 1981: Size, Duration, and Recurrence Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, T.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term slow slip event (LSSE) in the Tokai area, central Japan, from mid-2000 to mid-2005 [Suito and Ozawa (2009)], had continued five years, which was much longer than other LSSEs around the world [e.g. Schwartz and Rokosky (2007)]. After the termination of the SSE in 2005, no obvious long-term SSE was detected and that makes difficult to discuss a recurrence interval of the events. In order to reveal whether the event repeats or not, and if it repeats, to clarify the interval and a temporal and spatial change of the coupling and the LSSE, I analyzed a leveling data from 1981 to 1999 -- before the era of GNSS -- and deduced spatial patterns of the vertical crustal deformation rate.The deduced rates show two sorts of spatial patterns and the patterns appear alternately. One of them resembles the pattern during the LSSE between 2000 and 2005. Summing up the results and accounting for the estimation errors, it is clear that there are at least three events in the last thirty years; 2000-2005 (already and well known event), 1987-1990, and around 1983. The 2000-2005 event is the biggest and longest one, while 1983 event is the smallest and shortest one in the three events. It suggests that the duration of the event is longer, the interval to the next event becomes longer, and that there are some relationships between the size, duration time, and the recurrence interval of the events. These features are very unique for the Tokai LSSEs compared with those in the other regions such as the Bungo Channel and Cascadia.

  9. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  10. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  11. Ski slope vegetation in central Honshu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

    1995-09-01

    To determine the status of the vegetation of ski slopes in northeastern-central Honshu, Japan, 94 plots (2×2 m) were set up on five ski areas (101-520 m elevation) which were established between 1945 and 1985 by forest clear-cutting, land modification, and seeding. Six vegetation types were recognized: five grasslands dominated by Digitaria adscendens, Miscanthus sinensis, Zoysia japonica, Festuca rubra, and Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, respectively, and bare areas of very low to no vegetation cover. Of the dominant species, F. rubra is the only introduced species; it does not, however, appear to persist. After the introduced grassland declines M. sinensis or annual grasslands develop. Native plants, especially woody species, can establish in M. sinensis grassland but do not establish in the other grasslands. It is concluded that the introduction of exotic species is inappropriate to maintain ski slope vegetation, and the development of M. sinensis grassland is desirable to promote natural revegetation.

  12. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    of disturbance of the geothermal environment and groundwater flow caused by the use of GSHPs, therefore, would depend on the thickness of these gravels. Reference Funabiki, A., Nagoya, K., Kaneki, A., Uemura, K., Kurihara, M., Obara, H., Goto, A., Chiba, T., Naya, T., Ueki, T., and Takemura, T. (2011) Sedimentary facies and physical properties of the sediment core CRE-NUCHS-1 in Setagaya district, Tokyo, central Japan. Abstracts, The 118th Annual Meeting of theGeological Society of Japan. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).

  13. Crustal deformation model of the Beppu-Shimabara graben area, central Kyushu, Japan, based on inversion of three-component GNSS data in 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Kazuma; Mitsui, Yuta

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes, including an Mw-7 right-lateral earthquake on April 15 (UTC), occurred along faults within the Beppu-Shimabara graben in central Kyushu, Japan. Previous studies showed that the graben area was under heterogeneous stress conditions with north-south T-axes and spreading in a north-south direction. Here, we construct a detailed crustal deformation model using three-component Global Navigation Satellite System data in 2000-2010 and considering the distribution of geological fault traces in this area. Our inversion analysis suggests that the strain accumulation rate for the right-lateral seismic slip segment (corresponding to the Futagawa fault), where the largest of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes ruptured, was several times smaller than the other segments in the Beppu-Shimabara graben. Furthermore, we observe distinct subsidence along the Beppu-Shimabara graben. Our base model attributes the subsidence to deflation of magma reservoirs beneath volcanoes, but the observed vertical velocities are poorly fit. In order to improve the fitting results for the vertical deformation, we need more sophisticated volcano-deformation model (such as a sill-like deformation source for Mt. Aso) or graben model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Japan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  15. Seismic Attenuation beneath Tateyama Volcano, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, K.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface structures beneath active volcanoes have frequently been investigated (e.g., Oikawa et al., 1994: Sudo et al., 1996), and seismic attenuation beneath some active volcanoes are reported to be strong. On the other hand, few local subsurface structures beneath volcanoes whose volcanic activities are low have been investigated in detail, though it is important to study them to understand the potential of volcanic activity of these volcanoes. Then, we analyzed the seismic attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano (Midagahara volcano) located in central Japan, whose volcanic activity is quite low. We used seismograms obtained by Hi-net deployed by NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention). Hi-net is one of the densest seismic station networks in the world, and the spatial interval of their seismographs is about 20 km, which is suitable for investigating local structure beneath an individual volcano. We estimated S-wave attenuation using seismograms at five stations near Tateyama volcano for nineteen small, local, shallow earthquakes (M 2.7-4.0) that occurred from January 2012 to December 2013. We divided these earthquakes into six groups according to their hypocenter locations. We used twofold spectral ratios around the first S-arrivals to investigate the S-wave attenuation when S-waves passed through the region beneath Tateyama volcano. We focused on station pairs located on opposite sides of Tateyama volcano to each other, and earthquake pairs whose epicenters were located almost along the line connecting Tateyama volcano and the two stations, so that the spectral ratios reflect a local structure beneath Tateyama volcano. Twofold spectral ratios of all seismograms for S waves having northwestern or southeastern sources show strong attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano. On the other hand, those of seismograms having northeastern or southwestern sources show much weaker attenuation, which suggested that the region of strong

  16. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  17. Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility Project-(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Katoh, M.; Hosaka, M.; Takami, K.; Morimoto, H.; Hori, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Koda, S.; Ito, T.; Sakurai, I.; Hara, H.; Okamoto, W.; Watanabe, N.; Takeda, Y.

    2010-06-01

    A synchrotron radiation facility that is used not only for basic research, but also for engineering and industrial research and development has been proposed to be constructed in the Central area of Japan. The key equipment of this facility is a compact electron storage ring that is able to supply hard X-rays. The circumference of the storage ring is 72 m with the energy of 1.2 GeV, the beam current of 300 mA, and the natural emittance of about 53 nm-rad. The configuration of the storage ring is based on four triple bend cells, and four of the twelve bending magnets are 5 T superconducting ones. The bending angle and critical energy are 12 degree and 4.8 keV, respectively. For the top-up operation, the electron beam will be injected from a booster synchrotron with the full energy. Currently, six beamlines are planned for the first phase starting from 2012.

  18. Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan: Multidisciplinary Application of LANDSAT-2 Data to Marine Environment in Central Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Ochiai, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The multidisciplinary application of multispectral scanner data acquired over central Japan revealed several coastal features including pollution, river effluent, shorelines, red tide, etc. Supporting data were obtained by airborne remote sensing.

  19. Heavy rainfall in future climate around the central Japan by pseudo global warming experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, K.

    2012-12-01

    The central part of Japan sometimes suffers from heavy rainfall derived by a typhoon. In 2000, a severe heavy rainfall attacked the central Japan. The maximum hourly precipitation in Aichi prefecture during this event was 114 mm, and daily precipitation 492 mm. On the other hand, it is reported that, in future climate, tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will be stronger in IPCC AR4. In this study, variations in heavy rainfall around the central Japan are assessed by a pseudo global warming experiment using numerical weather prediction model. Based on the heavy rainfall event in 2000, pseudo global warming conditions are made from a reanalysis data and climate prediction in the 3rd phase of climate model intercomparison project (CMIP3), and simulations are made by the weather research forecasting model (WRF). The results of the control run of the heavy rainfall event in 2000 agree well with observed precipitation and same rainfall processes are found. In the pseudo global warming experiment using eight different CMIP3 output, five results show heavy rainfall around Aichi prefecture. Four results from the five heavy rainfalls show the larger maximum hourly precipitation, and the events continue longer than the control run. At the same time, using the same method, changes in precipitation characteristics around the central Japan are investigate for summer. The future climate conditions are obtained from dynamic downscaling by WRF using two pseudo global warming condition made with two CMIP3 projections (MPI ECHAM5 and CCCMA CGCM3.1 T47). The results show the opposite variation in future precipitation in the central Japan. In ECHAM5, summer precipitation increases in wide area, but the result with CCCMA shows decreasing precipitation especially in the Pacific side (see Figure). Such characteristics are found in the original CMIP3 output. Detail investigations of precipitation show that there are small variations in hourly precipitation in ECHAM5 and CCCMA

  20. Transient slip episode in central and southwest Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Segall, P.; McGuire, J. J.; Kato, T.; Hatanaka, Y.

    2007-05-01

    We have studied transient slip episodes in central and southwest Japan, where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting at the annual rate of ~ 6.5cm/yr. A slow thrust slip event occurred in Bungo Channel, in southwest Japan, and anomalous displacements were found in at multiple GPS time series for stations in Shikoku and Kyushu islands. We analyzed those GPS data with time-dependent inversion method, and found that the slip initiated at a deeper part (~ 40km) of the plate boundary. The acceleration and following decelelation took longer than one year. The second event is the 2000 Tokai slow slip event, which initialed in early 2000. We also applied the same time-dependent inversion method to infer the space-time distribution of slip and slip-rate at the plate boundary. The slip initiated at the deeper part of the plate boundary (~ 40km), and migrated upward to the depth of ~ 30km. This event lasted for longer than 5 years. Having cumulative slip at each epoch, we are able to calculate shear stress change with dislocation theory. We examined velocity-dependence of the shear stress change to compare with a numerical simulation based on rate-state friction. The observed stress-velocity path is similar to what obtained for high-speed rupture, suggesting that slow slip events occurred in velocity weakening friction. This makes a clear contrast to what we obtained for the afterslip for the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake.

  1. Mycorrhizal fungi associated with Monotropastrum humile (Ericaceae) in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yosuke; Okochi, Shun; Katayama, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ito, Shin-ichiro

    2011-08-01

    We explored the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Monotropastrum humile in the central part of Japan's main island. We collected 103 M. humile individuals from 12 sites with various forest types. We analyzed the DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region from fungal and plant nuclear ribosomal DNAs to assess the genetic diversity of the fungi associated with M. humile roots and to position the plant with respect to known Monotropoideae groups, respectively. The plants formed a monophyletic clade with other members of M. humile but were separated from M. humile var. glaberrimum and other monotropes (97% bootstrap support). Of the 50 fungal phylotypes, 49 had best matches with the Russulales, and the other had highest similarity with the Thelephoraceae. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that M. humile roots have a highly specialized association with fungal partners in the Russulaceae. Moreover, a few fungal phylotypes from the M. humile roots had positions neighboring those from Monotropa uniflora roots. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of mycorrhizal fungi of M. humile was highly specific to the Russulaceae, but with high diversity within that family, and that the fungi associated with M. humile differ from those associated with M. uniflora.

  2. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 1. Occurrence of massive flights of Tokunagayusurika akamusi].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    Adult Chironomidae (Diptera, particularly Chironomus plumosus and Tokunagayusurika akamusi) emerging from eutrophic lakes or polluted bodies of water in Japan have become intolerable because they pose a severe nuisance and cause economic problems. In the Lake Suwa area, massive flights of adult midges of T. akamusi have occurred frequently, and caused problems in the daily life of local residents or for the tourist business. The author tried to clarify the biological and hygienic problems involved in these massive flights. In order to control adult midges, the distribution of larvae in the lake, the period and quantity of emergence from water, the time of flight, and the dispersal range of T. akamusi midges were studied. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Larvae of T. akamusi are distributed over the whole lake, especially in the east and southeast part with high densities. Mean biomass was about 100 g wet weight/m2 in Lake Suwa. On the shore near these areas, dense swarms of adult midges were found. 2. Emergence of T. akamusi from Lake Suwa was observed at the end of September and lasted till the middle of November. The emergence peaked in the middle of October. The time of flight was mainly at 17: 30-19: 30. 3. The dispersal ranges of adult midges were confirmed with two methods, i.e. the ordinary light trap method and a questionnaire survey of 544 residents. The result obtained with the questionnaire survey was consistent with that of the light trap method and the questionnaire survey made it possible to collect information in a wider area than the usual one. 4. T. akamusi midges reached areas over 3 km from the lake, but more than 90 percent of the midges flew within 500 m of the lake's shoreline. However, even in the more distant places where there was a source of bright light there were many adult midges. 5. The wind (at 18: 30) was the main factor which expanded the dispersal range of adults. We observed that many adults appeared after a strong wind (6

  3. Active Tectonics of off-Hokuriku, Central Japan, by two ships seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Shiraishi, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    Along the southern to eastern margin of the Sea of Japan, active faults are densely distributed. These submarine active faults produced tsunami disasters, such as 1983 Nihonkai-chubu earthquake (M7.7) and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8). To estimate tsunami hazards, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling to obtain the information of tsunami source faults, off-Hokuriku area in the central part of Honshu, Japan. The survey is carried out as a part of research project named "the integrated research project on seismic and tsunami hazards around the Sea of Japan" funded by MEXT. To obtain long offset data in busy marine activity area, we used two vessels; a gun-ship with 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable with 156 channels and 480 cu. inch air-gun. Common-midpoint reflection data were acquired using two ships at 4 km offset. The survey area consists of stretched continental crust associated with rifting and opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene and is marked by densely distributed syn-rift normal faults. Fault reactivation of normal faults as reverse faults is common. Two phases of fault reactivation are identified from the seismic sections after termination of opening of the Sea of Japan. One is the late Miocene NS trending shortening deformation. This is produced by NS-trending convergence of the Shikoku basin (15 Ma), which belongs to the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) to SW Japan at Nankai trough (Kimura et al., 2005). After the initiation of the subduction of PHS at Nankai trough, the strong shortening deformation is terminated and the fold-and-thrust belt was unconformably covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. Some horizons of unconformities represent multiple events of shortening driven from the subduction interface. Some normal faults reactivated as active strike-slip and reverse faults in Quaternary. Well observed example is the 2007 Noto peninsula earthquake (M6.8). The 2007 Noto peninsula

  4. Urban climate in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Fujibe, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Long-term climate changes related with urbanization in Tokyo, Japan, and recent temperature and heavy rainfall distribution in the Tokyo metropolitan area are reviewed. A relatively high temperature increase in annual mean temperature at the rate of 3.0°C/century was detected in Tokyo for the period 1901-2015. Some observational evidence showed the existence of both thermal and mechanical effects of urbanization on recent heavy rainfall occurrences, and modeling studies also support precipitation enhancement. Urban influences were recognized in other climatological elements, such as number of fog days, relative humidity, and wind circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Survival strategies of male nurses in rural areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Ikue

    2011-12-01

    This study seeks to describe the survival strategies of male nurses in Japanese rural areas. Interviews were conducted with 12 male nurses who described their occupational experiences. The modified grounded theory approach was used for the data collection and analysis. The survival strategies of these male nurses can be categorized into four types: (i) giving priority to the achievement of financial security; (ii) agreeing to a dependent relationship with doctors; (iii) maintaining one's male identity through supporting the female nurses; and (iv) making an appeal to the significance of men in the female-dominated nursing profession. The survival strategies that were used by the male nurses were subtle, allowing them to influence indirectly both the female nurses and the doctors. These findings contribute to our understanding of the experiences of male nurses, a gendered minority in a female-dominated workplace, and encourage gender equality in the nursing profession. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, T

    1988-01-01

    Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan were investigated by means of a questionnaire. One hundred and sixty out of the 319 families residing on a small island were randomly chosen and 94 percent of them (average age 48 years, male 57 percent; living with parents 41 percent) responded. The respondents did not clearly distinguish the dead from the living in their life-styles. They seemed to recognize a continuity between living and death. They reported having confronted death as members of a family or small local community rather than individually. Community or family is seen as playing a more important role in determining respondents' attitudes toward death than their personal feelings.

  7. [The small halophilic zygopteric odonate, Mortonagrion hirosei, of central Japan, a predator utilizable against tiny stinging diptera of coastal salt marshes, especially Ceratopogonidae of the genera Culicoides and Oecacta, pests of sea shores in southwestern U.S.A. and Caribbean area].

    PubMed

    Vasserot, J

    1986-01-01

    Among stinging diptera pullulating in coastal salt marshes Ceratopogonidae gnats (mainly of genus Culicoides and Oecacta) are especially troublesome, particularly in Southeastern U. S. A. and Caribbean area, escaping attacks of most predators by their tiny size. But the zygopteric odonate insect Mortonagrion hirosei is well fitted for hunting those minute diptera, by its tiny size and its behaviour, seeking shelter between halophilic plants (2 facts explaining that it was not discovered in central Japan before 1971...). Its larvae, living in brackish waters of coastal lagoons, can devour those of Ceratopogonidae and at least young stages of those of Mosquitoes whose some halophilic species are dangerous vectors of diseases. According to similarity of climates M. hirosei can certainly thrive in Southeastern U. S. A., and probably in Southern Europe. At lower latitudes problems for completion of annual cycle could perhaps arise from lack of hivernal cooling. It is necessary to make at the world scale methodical researches for other species of zygopteric odonates of similar ecology which could exist in other countries, both for avoiding harmful competition of introduced M. hirosei with native species still unknown and for fulfilling the same ecological function in areas of climate no suitable for this Japanese insect. Introduction of M. hirosei in new geographic areas would be very useful, too, for protection of this interesting species threatened by human activities in its natural biotopes, made of discontinuous and rather little areas.

  8. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-01-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo. PMID:22084070

  9. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  10. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  11. Seismic imaging of arc magma and fluids under the central part of northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Akira; Zhao, Dapeng

    2001-11-01

    A dense seismic network was temporarily deployed during 1997-1999 in the central part of northeastern Japan by Japanese university research groups. Using the local earthquake arrival time data recorded by the network, we have determined high-resolution three-dimensional images of P-wave velocity ( Vp), S-wave velocity ( Vs) and Vp/ Vs ratio in this area. Our results show that low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are extensively distributed in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front. In the lower crust, low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are visible but they are confined to the individual volcanic areas. In contrast, the upper crust of volcanic areas shows low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs rather than high Vp/ Vs. These observations suggest that partial melting materials exist in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front and they spread up to the midcrust of the volcanic areas. Low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs in the upper crust of the volcanic areas suggest the presence of H 2O (rather than melt) there. Deep low-frequency microearthquakes, perhaps caused by the rapid movement of fluids, are located mostly at the edge of partial melting zones, particularly at their upper surface. Distinct S-wave reflectors (bright spots) with large reflection coefficients are distributed in the midcrust with slightly low Vp/ Vs, suggesting that most of them are filled with H 2O.

  12. An Evaluation of the Numazu Operating Area and Kagoshima Harbor, Japan, as Typhoon Havens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED An Evaluation of the Numazu Operating Area and Kagoshima Harbor, Japan as Typhoon Havens «. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT...HARBOR, JAPAN AS TYPHOON HAVENS by DECEMBER 1975 NAVAL ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTION RESEARCH FACIUTY MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA 93940 Qualified requestors...TROPICAL CYCLONES 10 2.4 INTENSITY 13 3. JAPAN 14 3.1 JAPANESE ISLANDS 14 3.2 HONSHU 14 4. NUMAZU OPERATING AREA -- GENERAL DESCRIPTION .... 17

  13. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  14. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  15. Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Lyles; Jenny Chapman; John Healey; David Gillespie

    2006-09-30

    Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses.

  16. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Giesbrecht, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  17. [Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan].

    PubMed

    Haneda, Jun; Shiobara, Yasumasa; Inui, Masami; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshinori; Takayama, Yoko; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Okuda, Shunji; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Sasahara, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C. tetani in topsoil samples collected from private gardens, public road shoulders, a university campus, mountains, and fields in Sagamihara. C. tetani occurred in 8 of 35 soil samples (22.9%) and tetanus toxin in 7 of the 8 C. tetani-positive samples (87.5%). Contamination was clearly higher in soils from mountains near Tsukui-gun (Kanagawa Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun, and Uenohara and Koshu cities (Yamanashi Prefecture) than in other regions. These findings suggest that tetanus toxin-producing strains of C. tetani tend to inhabit the topsoil of western Sagaminaha region, as a geographical feature.

  18. Channel initiation by groundwater sapping in Kanozan, Boso Peninsula of central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushi, Y.; Hattanji, T.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater sapping is known as one of the important processes for channel initiation. We examined hydro- geomorphic factors that affect channel initiation by groundwater sapping. The study site (Mt. Kanozan) is located in Boso Peninsula, 50-km southeast of Tokyo, central Japan. Unconfined sandstone with high permeability comprises the mountain. Some features of piping, boiling and seepage erosion were found along first and second-order channels. Runoff at a spring site (SS) kept a constant discharge throughout year, and did not show any responses to typhoon storms with over 100-mm total rainfall. We surveyed micro-topography of 12 channel heads. Most channel heads have steep head slope (35-45 deg.) and gentle gradient downstream (5-10 deg.). Gentle slope of groundwater table immediately above channel head (roughly 7 deg. at the spring site SS) controls channel gradient, and affects distinct gradient transition at channel heads. We could not found any significant correlation between source area and local slope at channel heads, probably due to a scattered relation between surface drainage area and spring discharge. All channel heads are located in an altitude zone of 50-100 m, while the altitude of mountain peak is 270 m. The limited altitude distribution of channel heads implies that channel initiation of this area should be controlled by a critical altitude associated with deep groundwater flow systems.

  19. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  20. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  1. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  2. Short-term cycle of eolian dust (Kosa) recorded in Lake Kawaguchi sediments, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyotani, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    The fluctuation during the last 100 yr of the eolian dust (Kosa aerosol) originating from arid and semi-arid areas of China has been reconstructed by using the sediments from Lake Kawaguchi, central Japan with high temporal resolution. The quantification of Kosa contribution to the sediments was carried out by a new method using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) proposed by us. The correlation plot of (Na 2O+K 2O) contents against SiO 2 was used for individual Si-rich particles having SiO 2 content over 80%. The Kosa fraction of Si-rich particles in Lake Kawaguchi sediments during the last 100 yr is approximately 10-30%. The fluctuation of the Kosa fraction during the last 100 yr does not coincide with that of the total amount of Si-rich particles, because detrital components from Japanese igneous rocks control the fluctuation of the total number of Si-rich particles. The discrimination method based on single particle analysis is more effective than that of bulk analysis for the lake sediments formed by complex matrix components. We can first show a short-term (approximately 10-20 yr scale) cycle in Kosa aerosol fluctuation. Higher sedimentation rates (5-10 yr-cm) of the Lake Kawaguchi sediments and the new analytical method using SEM-EDX revealed a remarkable fluctuation pattern of Kosa aerosol, suggesting climate cycles much shorter than glacial-interglacial. Such short-term cycles may be related to sun-spots. The number of days of Kosa events during the last 30 yr, obtained by visual observation by Meteorological Agency of Japan, also supports the presence of such a short-term cycle.

  3. High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan Trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Regalla, Christine; Takahashi, Narumi

    2013-05-01

    obtained high-resolution seismic data reveal the detailed structure of the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, Japan, in the region of large shallow slip during the 11 March 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. Correlation of seismic images with previous drilling results identifies a possible basal chert-rich layer and hemipelagic/pelagic mudstones overlying igneous Pacific crust. Mapping of acoustic basement depicts the subduction of horst-and-graben topography. The basement and basal chert are subducted beneath a seismically chaotic frontal prism, but the majority of overlying hemipelagic mudstones is offscraped and imbricated at the trench axis as a result of plate boundary compression. A possible décollement is imaged as a seaward dipping reflection at landward part of the trench graben and was likely generated by loading and failure of underthrust sediments. Collectively, these analyses provide a structural framework for understanding sedimentary inputs and the localization of shallow plate boundary slip at the Japan Trench.

  4. Seasonal variation of free tropospheric aerosol particles at Mt. Tateyama, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, K.; Kido, M.; Iida, H.; Matsunaga, K.; Iwasaka, Y.; Nagatani, M.; Nakada, H.

    2003-12-01

    Number-size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles and O3 concentration were measured at Murododaira (36.6N, 137.6E, 2450 m above sea level (asl)) on the western flank of Mt. Tateyama in central Japan from January 1999 to November 2002. This study used nighttime data from 2400 to 0500 hours (local time) on the basis of analysis of their diurnal variation to characterize free tropospheric aerosols and O3 over Japan. The O3 concentration shows small variability (standard deviation of 4 ppbv) with the mean value of 40 ppbv in winter (October to February), large variability (8 ppbv) with the higher mean value of 51 ppbv in spring (March to May), and large variability (14 ppbv) with the lower mean value of 32 ppbv in summer (June to September). Highest monthly mean volume concentration (2.7 μm3/cm3) of accumulation particles (0.3 μm < D < 1.0 μm) was observed in June, while the mean value in winter (October to February) was 0.7 μm3/cm3. On the basis statistics of backward air trajectory analyses, a stagnant airflow in summer over the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea and near Japan is inferred to be a suitable meteorological condition to form enhanced volume concentration of accumulation particles during transport. Associating with the seasonal changes in the dominant air trajectories, SO2 emission from Miyakejima volcano since August 2000 is also an important source of the summer enhancement of accumulation particles. Highest monthly mean volume concentration (11.2 μm3/cm3) of coarse particles (D > 1.0 μm) was found in April, which was about 10 times higher than the mean value of 1.2 μm3/cm3 from summer to winter. Variability of daily nighttime volume concentrations of the coarse particles was high (standard deviation of 13.6 μm3/cm3) in spring and low (about 2 μm3/cm3) in the rest of the year. High volume concentration with large variability of the coarse particles in spring is caused by frequent arrival of Kosa (yellow dust) particles from the Asian

  5. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  6. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  7. Comparison of wood-inhabiting myxomycetes in subalpine and montane coniferous forests in the Yatsugatake Mountains of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazunari; Harakon, Yuichi

    2012-05-01

    To demonstrate altitudinal gradients (and resulting temperatures) that affect myxomycete biodiversity and species composition, we statistically compared myxomycete assemblages between a subalpine coniferous forest and a montane pine forest within the region of the Yatsugatake Mountains, Nagano Prefecture, Central Japan. In summer and autumn field surveys during 2003-2010, 53 myxomycete taxa (with varieties treated as species) were observed from 639 records of fruiting bodies in the subalpine forest and 32 taxa were detected from 613 records in the montane forest. There were 20 species in common between the assemblages and the percentage similarity index was 0.400. Myxomycete biodiversity was higher in the subalpine than in the montane forest. Nine myxomycete species were statistically frequent occurrences in the subalpine forest and appeared in autumn: Lamproderma columbinum, Cribraria macrocarpa, Trichia botrytis, Physarum newtonii, Diderma ochraceum, Enteridium splendens, Elaeomyxa cerifera, Trichia verrucosa, and Colloderma oculatum. Five species were restricted to appear in the subalpine forest: Cribraria purpurea, Cribraria rufa, Cribraria ferruginea, Cribraria piriformis, and Lepidoderma tigrinum. Dead wood in the subalpine forest provided a breeding habitat for specific myxomycetes that inhabit cold areas; that is those areas having geographical features of decreasing temperature and increasing elevation, such as the temperate area of Central Japan.

  8. An integrated geophysical research for Atotsugawa fault system (AF), Central Japan - Relation between fault structure and surrounding crustal inhomogeneity -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, T.; NIIGATA-KOBE Tectonic Zone

    2007-12-01

    An integrated geophysical observations in and around the Atotsugawa fault system (AGF), central Japan, delineated the clear relationship of the fault characteristics and the surrounding inhomogeneous crustal structure. The AGF, located within a zone of high strain rate (the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone) running in the northern part of central Japan with ENE-WSW direction, is one of the prominent active faults in central Japan, and responsible for the 1858 Hietsu earthquake of M7.0. This observation project, which started from 2004, involves dense seismic observation, magnetotelluric survey, GPS measurement and refraction/wide-angle reflection experiment. Major finding so far obtained is a very low velocity anomaly (5 percents) located in the lower crustal part beneath the AGF. The upper crustal structure around the AGF is characterized by high velocity (6-6.3 km/s) patches with less seismic activity. They are 10-20 km in size and correlated with damaged area of the Hietsu event. These results strongly indicate that the high velocity patches represent asperities of this earthquake. Both edges of the AGF are bounded by low velocity areas probably representing the present volcanic activities. Probably, the anelasticity associated with the volcanism may determine the size of this fault. The low velocity body in the lower crust extends upward to a boundary part of the high velocity patches. This upwelling portion shows low resistivity, indicating the existence of fluid. The GPS measurement indicates almost the entire part of the AGF is locked although some ambiguity remains outside of our array. Present results suggest that the prominent lower crustal heterogeneity controls the stress loading process to the AGF and the stress concentration at the boundaries of asperity with aid of fluids.

  9. Pinonaldehyde and some other organics in rain and snow in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Satsumabayashi, H; Nishizawa, H; Yokouchi, Y; Ueda, H

    2001-11-01

    Solvent-extractable organic compounds in the rain and snow collected at local cities in the mountainous region in central Japan, were analyzed by GC/MS and GC. Pinonaldehyde (2,2-dimethyl-3-acetyl-cyclobutyl-ethanal), an atmospheric reaction product of alpha-pinene, was detected in the rain and snow for the first time, and n-alkanes (C17-C33), fatty acids (C8-C23), and benzoic acid were also detected as major organic components. Concentrations of pinonaldehyde, C17-C33 n-alkanes, C8-C11 fatty acids, C12-C23 fatty acids and benzoic acid ranged between <0.02-13, 0.10-35, 0.55-5.7, 4.2-19 and <0.02-6.0 microg/l, respectively. Their composition showed some difference in summer and winter. In summer, fatty acids and benzoic acid were more abundant, while pinonaldehyde and n-alkanes were much less. Higher photochemical reactivity and higher bioactivity in summer could explain these seasonal changes except for pinonaldehyde, which would suffer from further oxidation in the atmosphere after its photochemical production from alpha-pinene. Predominance of pinonaldehyde and C12-C23 fatty acids in the rain and snow showed a remarkable contrast to n-alkanes in aerosol phase, which were the most abundant components. It indicated that oxygenated products from biogenic compounds might be important as cloud condensation nuclei in forest areas.

  10. Filamentous microbial fossil from low-grade metamorphosed basalt in northern Chichibu belt, central Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tsuji, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have seen the reporting of microbial fossils within ancient oceanic basalts that could be identical to microbes within modern basalts. Here, we present new petrographic, mineralogical, and stable isotopic data for metabasalts containing filamentous structures in a Jurassic accretionary complex within the northern Chichibu Belt of the Yanadani area of central Shikoku, Japan. Mineralized filaments within these rocks are present in interstitial domains filled with calcite, pumpellyite, or quartz, and consist of iron oxide, phengite, and pumpellyite. δ13CPDB values for filament-bearing calcite within these metabasalts vary from -2.49‰ to 0.67‰. A biogenic origin for these filamentous structures is indicated by (1) the geological context of the Yanadani metabasalt, (2) the morphology of the filaments, (3) the carbon isotope composition of carbonates that host the filaments, and (4) the timing of formation of these filaments relative to the timing of low-grade metamorphism in a subduction zone. The putative microorganisms that formed these filaments thrived between eruption (Late Paleozoic) and accretion (Early Jurassic) of the basalt. The data presented here indicate that cryptoendolithic life was present within water-filled vesicles in pre-Jurassic intraplate basalts. The mineralogy of the filaments reflects the low-grade metamorphic recrystallization of authigenic microbial clays similar to those formed by the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments. These findings suggest that a previously unusual niche for life is present within intraplate volcanic rocks in accretionary complexes.

  11. Range expansion and lineage admixture of the Japanese evergreen tree Machilus thunbergii in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shuntaro; Kaneko, Yuko; Maesako, Yuri; Noma, Naohiko

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the range expansion histories of Machilus thunbergii populations in the Kinki region of central Japan on the basis of nuclear microsatellite data. In the Kinki region, M. thunbergii is typically found in the coastal area, with some fragmented populations inland, around Lake Biwa. Phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analysis (STRUCTURE analysis) revealed that the inland populations have different genetic components between the west and east sides of Lake Biwa. The population located on the north side of the lake has an admixture of the two genetically differentiated lineages, contributing to an increase in the genetic diversity of the population. Populations around Lake Biwa had lost rare alleles and the F value obtained from STRUCTURE analysis was lower in the coastal populations than in the lake populations. These results suggest that populations around Lake Biwa experienced a bottleneck due to a founder effect during the initial migration to the lake and that glacial refugia of M. thunbergii in the Kinki region existed along the coast.

  12. Survey of Francisella tularensis in Wild Animals in Japan in Areas Where Tularemia is Endemic.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chu-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Sharma, Neekun; Uda, Akihiko; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2016-09-21

    Samples taken from 428 wild animals and 126 ticks, collected from a tularemia-endemic area in Japan between 2005 and 2013, were analyzed for the presence of Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis was isolated from a Japanese hare carcass whereas the samples from live animals and ticks were negative for F. tularensis by real-time PCR. Our results suggest that F. tularensis is still present in Japan although its prevalence is considerably low even in areas where tularemia is endemic.

  13. A new species of salamander of the genus Hynobius from Central Honshu, Japan (Amphibia, Urodela).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Kokuryo, Yasuhiro; Misawa, Yasuchika; Nishikawa, Kanto

    2004-06-01

    We describe a small salamander from south Central Honshu, Japan, as a new species, Hynobius katoi. The genetic distances between this species and several named species, including sympatric H. kimurae, derived from allozyme data from a starch gel electrophoresis, proved to be sufficiently large to differentiate it at a specific rank. Distribution of this species is confined to the montane regions of Shizuoka and Nagano Prefectures, on the Akaishi Mountains of the Chubu District, central Japan. It is regarded as a member of the naevius group of Hynobius, characterized by small number of large, pigmentless ova. The species differs from the other species of the naevius group by the combination of relatively small body size, nearly spotless body, relatively few vomerine teeth forming moderately shallow series, and unique electrophoretic pattern of isozymes.

  14. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  15. Forecasters Handbook for Japan and Adjacent Sea Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    trenches (greatest depth over 6,000 m), belts of seamounts , deep basins, and a number of island arcs. The sea is separated on the east from the Pacific...horizontal. Projecting through the sediment of the plain near 42.5 0 N, 1360E is Bogorov Seamount , a north-south oriented, 45-mile (75-km) long...44 0 N where it is terminated by a 500-fathom (900-meter) drop to the Japan Basin. The large, flat-topped seamount at 440N, 138015’E and other small

  16. Decoupling of Pacific subduction zone guided waves beneath central Japan: Evidence for thin slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhy, Simanchal; Furumura, Takashi; Maeda, Takuto

    2014-11-01

    The fine-scale seismic structure of the northeast Japan subduction zone is studied based on waveform analyses of moderate-sized (M4.5-6), deep-focus earthquakes (h >350 km) and the finite difference method (FDM) simulation of high-frequency (up to 8 Hz) wave propagation. Strong regional S wave attenuation anomalies for specific source-receiver paths connecting the cluster of events occurring in central part of the Sea of Japan recorded at fore arc stations in northern and central Japanese Islands (Honshu) are used to model the deeper structure of the subducting Pacific Plate, where recent teleseismic tomography has shown evidence for a possible slab tear westward beneath the Sea of Japan. The character of the observed anomalous S wave attenuation and the following high-frequency coda can be captured with the two-dimensional (2-D) FDM simulation of seismic waves in heterogeneous plate model, incorporating the thinning of the plate at depth, which is also compared with other possible causes of dramatic attenuation of high-frequency S wave due to low-Q or much weaker heterogeneities in the slab. The results of simulation clearly demonstrate that the dramatic loss of high-frequency S wavefield from the plate into the surrounding mantle occurred due to the variation in the plate geometry (i.e., thinning of the plate) at depth near the source rather than due to variation in physical properties, such as due to the lowered-Q and weaker heterogeneities in the plate. The presence of such a thin zone defocuses the high-frequency slab-guided S wave energy from the subducting plate into the surrounding mantle and acts as a geometric antiwaveguide. Based on the sequence of simulation results obtained, we propose thinning of Pacific Plate at depth subducting beneath northeastern Japan, localized to central part of Honshu, in agreement with the observations.

  17. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  18. Growth, allometry and shade tolerance of understory saplings of four subalpine conifers in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Obata, Yoshiko

    2014-03-01

    The conifers Abies veitchii, A. mariesii, Picea jezoensis var. hondoensis, Tsuga diversifolia dominate in subalpine forests in central Japan. We expected that species differences in shade tolerance and in aboveground and belowground architecture are important for their coexistence. We examined net production and carbon allocation of understory saplings. Although the four species allocated similar amounts of biomass to roots at a given trunk height, the root-zone area of T. diversifolia was greater than that of the three other species. T. diversifolia often dominates shallow soil sites, such as ridge and rocky slopes, and, therefore, a wide spread of lateral roots would be an adaptation to such edaphic conditions. Crown width and leaf and branch mass were greatest for T. diversifolia and A. mariesii, followed in order by A. veitchii and P. jezoensis var. hondoensis. Although leaf mass of P. jezoensis var. hondoensis was lowest among the four species, species differences were not found in the net production per sapling because net production per leaf mass was greatest for P. jezoensis var. hondoensis. The leaf lifespan was longer in the order A. mariesii, T. diversifolia, P. jezoensis var. hondoensis and A. veitchii. The minimum rate of net production per leaf mass required to maintain the current sapling leaf mass (MRNP(LM)) was lowest in A. mariesii and T. diversifolia, and increased in the order of A. veitchii and P. jezoensis var. hondoensis. A. mariesii and T. diversifolia may survive in shade conditions by a lower MRNP(LM) than the two other species. Therefore, species differences in aboveground and belowground architecture and MRNPLM reflected their shade tolerance and regeneration strategies, which contribute to their coexistence.

  19. Wide-angle seismic survey in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Iwamaru, H.; Shirai, T.; Dannowski, A.; Thorwart, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Morgan, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Dehydration process within the subducting oceanic plate and expelled water from there affect various subduction-zone processes, including arc volcanism and generation of earthquakes. This implies that the degree of hydration within the incoming oceanic plate just prior to subduction might be a key control factor on the regional variations in subduction zone processes like interplate earthquakes and arc volcanism. Recent advances in seismic structure studies in the trench-outer rise region of the Japan Trench have revealed that seismic velocities within the incoming oceanic plate become lower owing to the plate bending-related faulting, suggesting the hydration of the oceanic plate. If the degree of the oceanic plate hydration is one of key factors controlling the regional variations of the interplate earthquakes, the degree of the oceanic plate hydration just prior to subduction is expected to show the along-trench variation because the interplate seismicity in the forearc region of the Japan Trench show along-trench variations. However, we cannot discuss the along-trench variation of the incoming plate structure because seismic structure studies have been confined only to the northern Japan Trench so far.In 2014 and 2015, JAMSTEC and GEOMAR conducted wide-angle seismic surveys in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench to reveal the detailed seismic structure of the incoming oceanic plate. The western extension of our survey line corresponds to the epicenter of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquakes. We deployed 88 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) at intervals of 6 km and shot a tuned air-gun array of R/V Kairei at 200 m spacing. In this presentation, we will show the overview of our seismic survey and present seismic structure models obtained by the data of mainly 2014 seismic survey together with the several OBS data from 2015 survey. The preliminary results show P-wave velocity (Vp) within the oceanic crust and mantle decreases toward the trench axis

  20. [Current state of central venous catheterization in the operating theater in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Chie

    2010-05-01

    Central venous catheterization is usually done in operating theater after general anesthesia. However, life-threatening complications can occasionally occur. Recently, application of ultrasound especially ultrasound-guided venipuncture has become popular for safe and reliable procedure. We investigated the current state of central venous catheterization by a questionnaire survey. 131 anesthesiologists answered the survey. The most common site for cathererization was internal jugular vein (85%). 97% of anesthesiologists use Seldinger's technique. Before internal jugular vein cathererization, 47% of anesthesiologists commonly and 19% of anethesiologists occasionally use ultrasound for checking the vein. Ultrasound-guided venipuncture was performed commonly by 19% and occasionally by 59% of anesthesiologists. The most common ultrasound device was iLook (37% of anesthesiologists, Japan Sherwood). The survey showed that 79% of anesthesiologists apply ultrasound for central venous catheterization in the operating theater. Establishing the standard technique and training methods will be the subsequent issue.

  1. Geochemistry of arsenic and other trace elements in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Shahadat; Hosono, Takahiro; Shimada, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Total arsenic (As), As(III) species, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate (δ34SSO4), major ions and trace elements were measured in groundwater collected from boreholes and wells along the flow lines of western margins of Kumamoto basin, at central part of Kyushu island in southern Japan. Kumamoto city is considered as the largest groundwater city in Japan. 100% people of this city depends on groundwater for their drinking purpose. In this study, we used trace elements data and δ34SSO4 values to better understand the processes that are likely controlling mobilization of As in this area. Arsenic concentrations ranges from 1 to 60.6 μg/L. High concentrations were found in both shallow and deep aquifers. The aquifers are composed of Quaternary volcanic (pyroclastic) flow deposits. In both aquifers, groundwaters evolve along the down flow gradient from oxidizing conditions of recharge area to the reducing conditions of stagnant area of Kumamoto plain. 40% samples from the Kumamoto plain area excced the maximum permissible limit of Japan drinking water quality standard (10 μg/L). In the reducing groundwater, As(III) constitutes typically more, however; 50% samples dominated with As(III) and 50% samples dominated with As(V) species. High As concentrations occur in anaerobic stagnant groundwaters from this plain area with high dissolved Fe, Mn, moderately dissolved HCO3, PO4, DOC and with very low concentrations of NO3 and SO4 suggesting the reducing condition of subsurface aquifer. Moderately positive correlation between As and dissolved Fe, Mn and strong negative correlation between As(III)/As(V) ratio and V, Cr and U reflect the dependence of As concentration on the reductive process. The wide range of δ34SSO4 values (6.8 to 36.1‰) indicate that sulfur is undergoing redox cycling. Highly enriched values suggesting the process was probably mediated by microbial activity. It also be noted from positive values of sulfur

  2. Measurement of Indoor Radon-222 and Radon-220 Concentrations in Central Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Mitsuaki; Shimo, Michikuni; Tokonami, Shinji; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2008-08-07

    A passive-type radon/thoron detector was used for measuring indoor radon and thoron concentrations at 90 dwellings in Aichi and Gifu prefectures in central Japan during 90 days from December, 2006 to March, 2007. The radon and thoron concentrations were 21.1 Bq/m3 and 25.1 Bq/m3, respectively. The dose due to radon and thoron in dwellings was roughly evaluated as 0.7 mSv/y and 2.4 mSv/y, respectively. The examination of the geological factor and house condition having an effect on indoor radon concentration was performed.

  3. Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen input on the aquatic food webs of river ecosystem in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohte, N.; Togashi, H.; Tokuchi, N.; Yoshimura, M.; Kato, Y.; Ishikawa, N. F.; Osaka, K.; Kondo, M.; Tayasu, I.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of the anthropogenic nitrogen input to the river ecosystem, we conducted the monitoring on nutrient status of river waters and food web structures of aquatic organisms. Especially, changes of sources and concentration of nitrate (NO3-) in river water were focused to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic nitrogen loadings from agricultural and residential areas. Stable nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) of aquatic organisms has also intensively been monitored not only to describe their food web structure, but also to detect the influences of extraneous nitrogen inputs. Field samplings an observation campaigns were conducted in the Arida river watershed located in central part of Japan at four different seasons from September 2011 to October 2012. Five observation points were set from headwaters to the point just above the brackish waters starts. Water samples for chemical analysis were taken at the observation points for each campaign. Organisms including leaf litters, benthic algae, aquatic insects, crustacean, and fishes were sampled at each point quantitatively. Results of the riverine survey utilizing 5 regular sampling points showed that δ15N of nitrate (NO3-) increased from forested upstream (˜2 ‰) to the downstream (˜7 ‰) due to the sewage loads and fertilizer effluents from agricultural area. Correspondingly the δ15N of benthic algae and aquatic insects increased toward the downstream. This indicates that primary producers of each reach strongly relied on the local N sources and it was utilized effectively in their food web. Simulation using a GIS based mixing model considering the spatial distributions of human population density and fertilizer effluents revealed that strongest impacts of N inputs was originated from organic fertilizers applied to orchards in the middle to lower parts of catchment. Differences in δ15N between primary producers and predators were 6-7 ‰ similarly at all sampling points. Food web structural

  4. Dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, estimated by eigenvectors of gravity gradient tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2016-09-01

    We estimated the dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, by using the dip of the maximum eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor. A series of earthquakes in Kumamoto and Oita beginning on 14 April 2016 occurred along this tectonic line, the largest of which was M = 7.3. Because a gravity gradiometry survey has not been conducted in the study area, we calculated the gravity gradient tensor from the Bouguer gravity anomaly and employed it to the analysis. The general dip distribution of the Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line was found to be about 65° and tends to be higher towards its eastern end. In addition, we estimated the dip around the largest earthquake to be about 60° from the gravity gradient tensor. This result agrees with the dip of the earthquake source fault obtained by Global Navigation Satellite System data analysis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Restoration of the depression structure at the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan by means of dislocation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Takemura, Keiji; Fukuda, Yoichi; Takemoto, Shuzo

    1999-02-01

    We have attempted to restore a subsurface structure in the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan, by combining fault motions which were modeled as dislocation planes embedded in an elastic isotropic half space. The simulated crustal deformation pattern was compared with the subsurface structures estimated from gravity anomalies and/or seismic prospecting. The modeling procedure successfully restored all tectonic basins in the area without any need for motive forces for uplift or subsidence. The results also suggest that two major tectonic events have occurred in this region. Those are (1) the formation of half-graben caused by north-south extension, and (2) the formation of the pull-apart basin caused by east-west compression.

  6. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose of the goal. This annual goal for the purchase by each GSE of mortgages on housing located in central...

  7. Precursory Slope Deformation around Landslide Area Detected by Insar Throughout Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Wada, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Kamiya, I.; Nakajima, H.

    2016-06-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique is able to detect a slope deformation around landslide (e.g., Singhroy et al., 2004; Une et al., 2008; Riedel and Walther, 2008; Sato et al., 2014). Geospatial Information Authority (GSI) of Japan has been performing the InSAR analysis regularly by using ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data throughout Japan. There are a lot of small phase change sites except for crustal deformation with earthquake or volcano activity in the InSAR imagery. Most of the phase change sites are located in landslide area. We conducted field survey at the 10 sites of those phase change sites. As a result, we identified deformation of artificial structures or linear depressions caused by mass movement at the 9 sites. This result indicates that InSAR technique can detect on the continual deformation of landslide block for several years. GSI of Japan will continue to perform the InSAR analysis throughout Japan. Therefore, we will be able to observe and monitor precursory slope deformation around landslide areas throughout Japan.

  8. Building areas of hospitals in Japan and distribution of areas by department--1980's.

    PubMed

    Itoh, M; Nakayama, S; Liu, Y Y; Kawaguchi, Y

    1993-07-01

    (1) Areas of entire hospitals which have been continuously increasing in the past 30 years are finally showing signs for slowing down. The areas of the hospitals completed in the 1980's were generally 50 to 80 m2 per bed. (2) The distribution of the nursing department to the entire hospitals in area ratio ranges from 30 to slightly more than 40%, or higher than 35% in most cases. The actual areas of the nursing department has surpassed 20 m2 per bed in a considerably large number of hospitals. (3) The area ratio of the outpatient department tends to concentrate to about 12%. Of this percentage, in almost all hospitals, the proportion of the emergency division was less than 2%. (4) As in the 1970's, the diagnostic and treatment facilities were within the range of 18 to 22% in the majority of the hospitals. The distribution shifted to ratios higher than the previous survey. The distributions for the various sections are as follows: 1) Specimen test rooms 3 to 5% 2) Physiological examination rooms slightly below 1% to slightly above 2% 3) X-ray diagnosis rooms about 4% 4) Radiation therapy rooms about 1% 5) Nuclear medicine rooms about 1% 6) Operating department 3 to 5%, 2 to 3 m2/bed 7) Delivery suite less than 1% 8) Rehabilitation department 1 to 4% 9) Hemodialysis suite about 1% (5) The area ratios of the supply department dispersed substantially between 12 and 25%. About 70% of the hospitals remained in the range of 15 to 20%. The ratios of the various sections in the department are as follows: 1) Pharmacy: slightly less than 2% to slightly less than 3% 2) Central sterile and supply department: about 2% 3) Blood bank: installed in hospitals with more than 500 beds 4) Kitchen: slightly more than 2% to slightly more than 3%, 1.5 to 2.5 m2/bed 5) Laundry: less than 1% 6) Central storage and material hundling unit: about 1% 7) Mechanical plant: 5 to 13% (6) The administration department allocates 7 to 14% of its area to the management division and 2 to 6% to the

  9. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  14. Lower air temperature is associated with ambulance transports and death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochimasu, Kazumi Dokai; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Naoko; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and air temperature in Takamatsu area, Japan. Monthly data of ambulance transports (total and acute disease) and the number of death from 2004 to 2012 were obtained from Fire Department Service in Takamatsu and Takamatsu city official website, Japan. Climate parameters for required period were also obtained from Japan Meteorological Agency. Population data in Takamatsu area were also used to adjust ambulance transports and the number of death. The linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and climate parameters was evaluated by ecological analysis. Total ambulance transports (/a hundred thousand people/day) and ambulance transports due to acute disease (/a hundred thousand people/day) were 12.3 ± 0.9 and 6.8 ± 0.7, respectively. The number of death (/a hundred thousand people/day) was 2.5 ± 0.4. By quadratic curve, ambulance transports due to acute disease and the number of death were significantly correlated with the parameters of air temperature. However, the number of death was the highest in January and the lowest in August. Although higher air temperature was only associated with higher ambulance transports, lower air temperature was associated with both higher ambulance transports and the number death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

  15. Estimation of sediment yield from subsequent expanded landslides after heavy rainfalls : a case study in central Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimizu, K.; Uchida, T.

    2015-12-01

    Initial large-scale sediment yield caused by heavy rainfall or major storms have made a strong impression on us. Previous studies focusing on landslide management investigated the initial sediment movement and its mechanism. However, integrated management of catchment-scale sediment movements requires estimating the sediment yield, which is produced by the subsequent expanded landslides due to rainfall, in addition to the initial landslide movement. This study presents a quantitative analysis of expanded landslides by surveying the Shukushubetsu River basin, at the foot of the Hidaka mountain range in central Hokkaido, Japan. This area recorded heavy rainfall in 2003, reaching a maximum daily precipitation of 388 mm. We extracted the expanded landslides from 2003 to 2008 using aerial photographs taken over the river area. In particular, we calculated the probability of expansion for each landslide, the ratio of the landslide area in 2008 as compared with that in 2003, and the amount of the expanded landslide area corresponding to the initial landslide area. As a result, it is estimated 24% about probability of expansion for each landslide. In addition, each expanded landslide area is smaller than the initial landslide area. Furthermore, the amount of each expanded landslide area in 2008 is approximately 7% of their landslide area in 2003. Therefore, the sediment yield from subsequent expanded landslides is equal to or slightly greater than the sediment yield in a typical base flow. Thus, we concluded that the amount of sediment yield from subsequent expanded landslides is lower than that of initial large-scale sediment yield caused by a heavy rainfall in terms of effect on management of catchment-scale sediment movement.

  16. High-resolution Imaging of the Philippine Sea Plate subducting beneath Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhy, S.; Furumura, T.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal models predict that the oceanic crust of the young (<20 Ma) and warmer Philippine-sea plate (PHP) is more prone to melting. Deriving a high-resolution image of the PHP, including slab melting and other features of the subduction zone, is a key to understand the basics of earthquake occurrence and origin of magma in complex subduction zone like central Japan, where both the PHP and Pacific (PAC) Plates subduct. To this purpose, we analyzed high-resolution waveforms of moderate sized (M 4-6), intermediate-to-deep (>150 km) PAC earthquakes occurring in central Japan and conducted numerical simulation to derive a fine-scale PHP model, which is not constrained in earlier studies. Observations show spindle-shaped seismograms with strong converted phases and extended coda with very slow decay from a group of PAC events occurring in northern part of central Japan and recorded by high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) stations in the region. We investigate the mechanism of propagation of these anomalous waveforms using the finite difference method (FDM) simulation of wave propagation through the subduction zone. We examine the effects on waveform changes of major subduction zone features, such as the melting of oceanic crust in PHP, serpentinized mantle wedge, hydrated layer on the PAC due to slab dehydration, and anomaly in upper mantle between the PAC and PHP. Simulation results show that the waveform anomaly is primarily explained by strong scattering and absorption of high-frequency energy by the low-velocity anomalous mantle structure, with a strong coda excitation yielding spindle-shaped waveforms. The data are secondarily explained by melting of PHP in the basaltic crust. The location of the mantle anomaly is tightly constrained by the observation and evidence of PAC thinning in the region; these localized low-velocity structures aid in ascending the slab-derived fluids around the slab thinning. We expect that the results of this study will enhance our

  17. A new quadrannulate species of Orobdella (Hirudinida, Arhynchobdellida, Orobdellidae) from central Honshu, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new quadrannulate species of Orobdella, Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n., from the mountainous region of central Honshu, Japan is described. This is only the second small species known within this genus, with a body length of less than 4 cm for mature individuals. Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear 18S rDNA and histone H3 as well as mitochondrial COI, tRNACys, tRNAMet, 12S, tRNAVal, 16S, and ND1 markers showed that Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n. is the sister species of the quadrannulate Orobdella whitmani Oka, 1895. Phylogenetic relationships within Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n. conducted using mitochondrial markers reveled a distinction between eastern and western phylogroups. PMID:25349507

  18. Tubiphytes-archaeolithoporella-girvanella reefal facies in Permian buildup, Mino terrane, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hiroyoshi; Horibo, Kenji; Kumamoto, Yasuko

    1990-10-01

    The Lower to Middle Permian Okumino buildup of the Mino terrane, central Japan, formed a carbonate cap on a seamount which was sitting in an open-ocean realm. Microscopic examination reveals considerable amounts of Tubiphytes, Archaeolithoporella, and Girvanella in these rocks. These low laminar encrusting organisms together with cystopore bryozoa and syndepositional radial-fibrous cements formed bindstones. The bindstones are interpreted as having formed wave-resistant algal reefal mounds on the marginal terrace of the Okumino buildup which also has the lagoonal flat, sand bar or shoal, and foreslope facies. The Okumino buildup is closer in its biotic association of major encrusting organisms to the Trogkofel buildup in southern Alps than to the Capitan Reef Complex in New Mexico and Texas. The similarity implies that Tubiphytes and Archaeolithoporella were the most predominant and significant rock-forming encrusting organisms in Early to early Middle Permian times.

  19. Dolomitization of Permian reef carbonates in a Jurassic subduction complex, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoura, Koji

    1992-09-01

    A 100-m thick sequence of dolomite occurs within reef carbonates of the Permian Nabeyama Formation, central Japan. Analyses of sediments, fossils, minerals, and geochemical ingredients of a dolomitized sequence reveal that dolomitization was the consequence of active seawater circulation through the carbonate column. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic data, precluding dolomitizing fluids of freshwater or hybridized seawater origin, provide arguments for atoll dolomitization by seawater. Thermal gradients between the atoll and the underlying volcanic structure caused the convection flow of interstitial water. Upwelling oceanic water, supersaturated with dolomite but undersaturated with respect to calcite, was subjected to thermal convection through the porous and permeable sediment column, leading to massive dolomitization of the oceanic atoll.

  20. Crustal deformation measurements in central Japan determined by a Global Positioning System fixed-point network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, Seiichi; Bock, Yehuda

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from temporally dense measurements of crustal deformation associated with the convergence of the Eurasian (EUR), Pacific, North American, and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates, carried out in April 1988 by a 10-station GPS fixed-point network established in central Japan. Using regional orbit relaxation methods, the analysis of the first 17-month data revealed significant horizontal deformation across the Suruga trough. Namely, it was found that a site in the northern tip of PHS plate moved nearly westward with a velocity of 28 +/-5 mm per year, and a site at the southeastern tip of EUR plate moved south-southwestward with a velocity of 18 +/-5 mm per year. A significant vertical uplift with a velocity of 20 mm/yr was detected at a site inland of the Tokai district located in the Akaishi uplift zone and at a site on the Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay.

  1. Shallow crustal permeability enhancement in central Japan due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Chihiro; Kano, Yasuyuki; Ito, Hisao

    2015-02-01

    Pore pressure decreased at the Kamioka mine in central Japan after the Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) on 11 March 2011, which can be attributed to a permeability increase. We focus on the Earth's tidal response before and after the earthquake to evaluate rock permeability change through hydraulic diffusivity change. If we assume a constant elastic modulus, hydraulic diffusivity is found to increase from 3.3 to 6.7 m2/s after the Tohoku earthquake. We also analyzed data before and after the 2007 Noto Hanto (M6.9) and 2008 Suruga Bay (M6.5) earthquakes, which yield no significant tidal response changes. We examined the amount of dynamic and static stress changes caused by these earthquakes and show that it is difficult to attribute the permeability enhancement solely to dynamic stress, and static stress change may also affect the permeability enhancement.

  2. Interseismic Crustal Deformation in and around the Atotsugawa Fault System, Central Japan, Detected by InSAR and GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Y.; Sagiya, T.; Nishimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Interseismic crustal deformation of active faults provides crucial information to understand the stress accumulation process on the fault planes. Recently, the interseismic surface movements are detected with very high spatial resolution using combination of InSAR and GNSS survey. Most of the successful reports, however, addressed the fault creep in less vegetated area which enables C-band SAR interferometry. In this study, we report the interseismic crustal deformation in and around the Atotsugawa fault system, a strike-slip active fault in central Japan. This area is covered with dense vegetation in summer and with heavy snow in winter. We created a series of InSAR images acquired by ALOS/PALSAR and applied SBAS based time-series analysis (Berardino et al., 2002) to extract small deformation. Next, we corrected the long wave-length phase trend by GNSS network maintained by Japanese University Group (e.g, Ohzono et al., 2011) and GSI, Japan. The mean velocity field thus obtained shows a strain concentration zone along the Ushikubi fault, a major strand of the Atotsugawa fault system. The Ushikubi fault is seismically less active than the Atotsugawa fault, but it shows good correlation with a zone of large spatial gradient of Bouguer gravity anomaly. We further discuss on the deformation style at the junction between the Atotsugawa fault and the Hida mountain range (Tateyama volcano). Acknowledgement: The PALSAR level 1.0 data were provided by JAXA via the PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface (PIXEL) based on a cooperative research contract between JAXA and the ERI, the University of Tokyo. The PALSAR product is owned by JAXA and METI.

  3. Life history and reproductive ecology of the endangered Itasenpara bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis (Cyprinidae) in the Himi region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishio, M; Kawamoto, T; Kawakami, R; Edo, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-09-01

    The life history, reproductive ecology and habitat utilization of the Itasenpara (deepbody) bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis were investigated in a lowland segment of the Moo River in Toyama Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Analysis of 1285 individuals revealed that the study population comprised a single size class, an age at maturation of 3 months and a life span of 1 year. On the basis of the growth pattern, the life cycle was divided into two stages: the juvenile stage, characterized by rapid growth, and the adult stage at which growth ceased. Spawning by A. longipinnis was recorded between early September and late October. Female A. longipinnis in the 0+ year age class began to mature when they reached a standard length (LS ) of 56·4 mm. Mature females had a large clutch size (maximum 273 eggs) and deposited highly adhesive and relatively large eggs (2·55 mm(3) ; major axis, 3·12 mm; minor axis, 1·22 mm) via a short ovipositor (mean length, 21·5 mm) into freshwater mussels. The embryos remained in the gill cavities of the freshwater mussels (used as a spawning substratum) and emerged as juveniles (LS , 9 mm). Habitat utilization during spawning was analysed using a generalized linear model. The best-fit model showed that three environmental factors (freshwater mussel availability, water depth and vegetation cover) were important variables for habitat utilization by A. longipinnis. Shallow areas (water depth, 250-330 mm) created for rice paddy management and areas with an abundance of cover were particularly effective for predator avoidance. These results suggest that maintenance of water level fluctuations corresponding with rice cultivation and the abundance of vegetation on the river bank (particularly avoidance of concrete revetments) is essential for conservation of this species under current practices for rice cultivation in Japan. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. An Experiment on GPS/A Seafloor Positioning in the Central Part of Kumano-nada, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Sweeney, A.; Miura, S.; Kido, M.; Osada, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Kumano-nada, northeast of Kii Peninsula in the central part of Japan, is a seismogenic zone of the M-8 class Tonankai earthquakes that occurred repeatedly at an interval of about 100 years. The MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) initiated a 5-year program in 2003 for seafloor observations in and around Kumano-nada. Nagoya and Tohoku Universities initiated experiments on GPS/A seafloor positioning to monitor crustal deformation in the subduction zone with a focus on investigation of the effect of sound velocity structure in the ocean on seafloor positioning (e.g., Tadokoro et al., this meeting). Tohoku group deployed five precision acoustic transponders (PXPs) jointly developed with Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the central part of Kumano-nada at depths of about 2,000m. The deployed PXPs A, B, C, and D form a diamond on the seafloor, and PXPs C, D, and E form a triangle. Although three typhoons were in the way of our 12-day cruise in August this year, we carried out GPS/A observation for several days. After an observation for locating the precise position of each PXP, we tried to keep the buoy near the center of the diamond or the triangle. The vessel held the position within 20-30m from the center, and the buoy_fs position was kept with 100m from the center. Kinematic GPS positioning is now under processing with GEONET data observed in Kii Peninsula. We also tried monitoring the sound velocity structure with 3 sets of inverted echo sounders (IESs) deployed near the PXPs C, D, and E. The IESs can monitor temporal and spatial variation in the sound velocity structure in the triangle array of PXPs. We plan to carry out the second GPS/A observation in November. The result is worthy of notice. Strange earthquakes of magnitude 6.9, 7.4, and 6.4 occurred on the nearest Nankai Trough axis on September 5-7, 2004. Co-seismic crustal deformation observed by the GEONET was about 4 cm near the coast of Kii Peninsula. The

  5. Slab dehydration and earthquake distribution beneath southwestern and central Japan based on three-dimensional thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yingfeng; Yoshioka, Shoichi

    2017-03-01

    We developed a 3-D thermal convection model to estimate the thermal regime, water content distribution, and slab dehydration beneath southwestern and central Japan, where deep tectonic tremors and short-term slow slip events (S-SSEs) are frequently observed on the plate interface extending from the western Shikoku to the Tokai district. The results showed that the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the S-SSEs, deep tectonic tremors, and regular earthquakes indicate that they probably originated from slab dehydration in association with subduction, resulting in a phase transformation from prehnite-actinolite/lawsonite blueschist to amphibolite with a large thermal gradient. Slab dehydration and the thermal gradient in the dip direction are considered key factors for controlling the seismogenesis of slow and regular earthquakes in the Philippine Sea plate beneath southwestern and central Japan, although the deep tectonic tremors are more complicated because they are likely favored by a comparatively low temperature gradient in southwestern Japan.

  6. Extirpation of Hediste japonica (Izuka, 1908) (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in central Japan, evidenced by a museum historical collection.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masanori; Sattmann, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    A total of 11 specimens of a nereidid polychaete, which had been collected from the inner part ("Bay of Miya" is the old place name) of lse Bay in central Japan and preserved in the Natural History Museum Vienna, were taxonomically examined. They were all identified as the brackishwater nereidid, Hediste japonica (Izuka, 1908), which was previously known only from the Ariake Sea and Seto Inland Sea in western Japan and the western coast of Korea. The new information indicates that this species formerly had a wider distribution extending to at least lse Bay in central Japan, though all Japanese populations of this species seem to have been extirpated except for a population remaining in the Ariake Sea.

  7. 15. CENTER ENTRY (central area of barn), SHOWING NORTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CENTER ENTRY (central area of barn), SHOWING NORTH WALL (right) OF SOUTH CENTRAL PEN WITH LADDER AND HARNESS CLOSET. NORTHEAST CORNER OF PEN TO THE LEFT. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST. Date: July 10, 1937; negative #10632 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  8. 39. CENTRAL SECTION, TELEPHOTO VIEW FROM AREA OF PORTER PLOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. CENTRAL SECTION, TELEPHOTO VIEW FROM AREA OF PORTER PLOT LOOKING EAST TO WEST (NOTE SAME OBELISK CAPPED BY A FUNERAL URN SEEN IN HABS No. PA-1811-38) - Laurel Hill Cemetery, 3822 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 6. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CENTRAL OFFICE AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CENTRAL OFFICE AREA ON BASEMENT LEVEL. LOOKING WEST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  10. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  11. Persistent inelastic deformation in central Japan revealed by GPS observation before and after the Tohoku-oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Gutierrez, Angela; Sagiya, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    We analyze strain rate distribution in central-northeastern Japan based on continuous GPS data before and after the occurrence of the Great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) on March 11th, 2011, focusing on the far-field response in the Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ), an E-W contraction region along the Japan seacoast of central Japan. Wavelength decomposition of the strain rate on the E-W direction, calculated from GPS data, indicates that the long-wavelength pattern changed from preseismic E-W contraction to postseismic E-W extension, representing elastic response to plate interaction at the Japan Trench. However, the short wavelength patterns reveal a persistent localized contraction zone around northern NKTZ before and after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. The persistent localized deformation pattern can be reproduced by an aseismic slip on a fault cutting the lower crust and a part of the upper crust. These results demonstrate that an inelastic process plays an essential role in the deformation of the Japan island arc.

  12. Seismic Reflection Image of Lithospheric Structure Beneath Shidara, Using Explosive Sources from the 2001 Deep Seismic Profiling in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Ito, T.; Miller, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Hirata, N.; Ohishi, M.; Kaip, G.; Kato, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Kwiatkowski, A.; Kurashimo, E.; Kawamura, T.

    2001-12-01

    Central Honshu lies above an active subduction zone where the Philippine Sea plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. A better understanding of the lithospheric structure of this region is important for assessing the risk of large mega-thrust earthquakes and also for understanding processes of continental growth. In order to define the deep geometry of major structures within the crust as well as the down-going slab, a deep seismic reflection profile was collected in the central part of Honshu, Japan. This experiment was performed as a piggy-back on a larger scale seismic experiment conducted by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center and Joint Japanese University teams in late August, 2001. In the Shidara area, a 27-km seismic line was deployed perpendicular to the trench axis and major geologic boundaries. In the central part of the seismic line, 10-Hz vertical geophones, connected by a digital telemetry cables, were deployed over 15 km at a 50 m spacing. In addition, 100 TEXAN (Reftek 125) recorders with 4.5 Hz geophones were deployed at ca. 120 m-intervals for 12 km. A total of six shots with a maximum offset of 210 km, were clearly recorded by this dense receiver array. Near-vertical incidence data were obtained with recordings of a 500 kg shot at the northern end of this receiver array and a 100 kg shot at the southern end. The shots were recorded for 60 to 64 s at a 4 ms sampling rate. Records from these shots exhibit strong, layered reflections from 6 to 9.5 s, which we interpret as being derived from the lower crust. North-dipping reflections at 10.5 to 11.5 s can be interpreted as reflections from the down-going slab. Some north-dipping events from the middle and upper crust probably correspond to the deeper extension of the Median Tectonic Line and Butsuzo Tectonic Line, both of which extend for more than 1000 km along western Honshu and Kyushu Islands.

  13. Unequal Accessibility of Nurseries for Sick Children in Over- and Under-Populated Areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Infants and toddlers are prone to rapidly contracting illnesses, which are usually attributed to infectious diseases. Most nurseries and schools in Japan, however, refuse to accept children even with mild illnesses. For working parents, a sick child may therefore create new problems as the situation requires new day-care arrangements. To support such families, the Japanese government subsidizes construction and management of nurseries that operate especially for sick children. However, it has not been known whether most families are able to access such nurseries. To clarify the accessibility of these services, I calculated the distance to the nurseries from each of the 211,012 "blocks" (small residential areas with a median of 0.18 km(2)) in Japan and determined the proportion of children aged 0-4 years who lived within 3, 5, 10, 20 or 30 km of the nearest such nursery. Overall, 82.1% of these children lived within 10 km. However, the proportion was lower in northern parts of Japan such as Hokkaido and Tohoku, which have expansive land areas and low population and pediatric department densities. The proportion of children who lived within that same distance of the nearest nursery was also much lower in small towns and villages with 10,000 or fewer residents. Nurseries for sick children were not evenly distributed, and children and their caregivers in under-populated areas had to travel further to access these facilities. As the national government subsidizes such services, children and caregivers throughout Japan should have equal access to them.

  14. Source rupture process of the 2016 central Tottori, Japan, earthquake ( M JMA 6.6) inferred from strong motion waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hisahiko; Suzuki, Wataru; Aoi, Shin; Sekiguchi, Haruko

    2017-09-01

    The source rupture process of the 2016 central Tottori, Japan, earthquake ( M JMA 6.6) was estimated from strong motion waveforms using a multiple-time-window kinematic waveform inversion. A large slip region with a maximum slip of 0.6 m extends from the hypocenter to the shallower part, caused by the first rupture propagating upward 0-3 s after rupture initiation. The contribution of this large slip region to the seismic waves in the frequency band of the waveform inversion is significant at all stations. Another large slip region with smaller slips was found in north-northwest of the hypocenter, caused by the second rupture propagating in the north-northwest direction at 3-5 s. Although the contribution of this slip region is not large, seismic waveforms radiating from it are necessary to explain the later part of the observed waveforms at several stations with different azimuths. The estimated seismic moment of the derived source model is 2.1 × 1018 Nm ( M w 6.1). The high-seismicity area of aftershocks did not overlap with large-slip areas of the mainshock. Two wave packets in the high frequency band observed at near-fault stations are likely to correspond to the two significant ruptures in the estimated source model.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Change of atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan from the viewpoint of rainfall intensity.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan was examined from the viewpoint of a 14-year trend in the rainfall intensity. To cancel the wide-area meteorological phenomena such as a typhoon and a front, the rainfall datasets obtained not only in an urban area but also in a rural area was studied. The rainfall datasets collected on a 0.5 mm rainfall basis was used. The rainfall intensity dominantly increased in urban area, while that in rural area neither increased nor decreased. An increasing trend was clearly observed for rainfall with precipitation amounts of 5 and 10 mm. Rainfall with precipitation amounts of 15 and 20 mm showed neither an increasing nor a decreasing trend. The results of this study show that there is a high probability of a connection between the urbanization and the change of rainfall intensity.

  16. Estimation of total discharged mass from the phreatic eruption of Ontake Volcano, central Japan, on September 27, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, Shinji; Oikawa, Teruki; Furukawa, Ryuta; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Itoh, Jun'ichi; Geshi, Nobuo; Miyagi, Isoji

    2016-08-01

    The total mass discharged by the phreatic eruption of Ontake Volcano, central Japan, on September 27, 2014, was estimated using several methods. The estimated discharged mass was 1.2 × 106 t (segment integration method), 8.9 × 105 t (Pyle's exponential method), and varied from 8.6 × 103 to 2.5 × 106 t (Hayakawa's single isopach method). The segment integration and Pyle's exponential methods gave similar values. The single isopach method, however, gave a wide range of results depending on which contour was used. Therefore, the total discharged mass of the 2014 eruption is estimated at between 8.9 × 105 and 1.2 × 106 t. More than 90 % of the total mass accumulated within the proximal area. This shows how important it is to include a proximal area field survey for the total mass estimation of phreatic eruptions. A detailed isopleth mass distribution map was prepared covering as far as 85 km from the source. The main ash-fall dispersal was ENE in the proximal and medial areas and E in the distal area. The secondary distribution lobes also extended to the S and NW proximally, reflecting the effects of elutriation ash and surge deposits from pyroclastic density currents during the phreatic eruption. The total discharged mass of the 1979 phreatic eruption was also calculated for comparison. The resulting volume of 1.9 × 106 t (using the segment integration method) indicates that it was about 1.6-2.1 times larger than the 2014 eruption. The estimated average discharged mass flux rate of the 2014 eruption was 1.7 × 108 kg/h and for the 1979 eruption was 1.0 × 108 kg/h. One of the possible reasons for the higher flux rate of the 2014 eruption is the occurrence of pyroclastic density currents at the summit area.

  17. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 1282.13 Section 1282.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities...

  19. Numerical modeling of the three-layered hydrothermal system in the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araragi, K.; Ehara, S.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical modeling of hydrothermal systems beneath active volcanoes has been conducted. Their purposes were, however, confined to interpret individual geothermal systems. We constructed a numerical model of the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan using 3-D finite-difference code HYDROTHERM ver.2.2 (Hayba and Ingebritsen, 1994). The central part of Kuju volcano is categorized as an active magmatic hydrothermal system. Otake-Hatchobaru geothermal area, where two geothermal power plants are in operation, is known as a typical liquid dominated hydrothermal system. These two types of geothermal systems are closely located in the region. Moreover, subsurface horizontal temperature distributions in the Kuju volcanic region consist of a three-layered structure. A horizontal temperature anomaly at a depth of -2000m separates into two anomalies at depths of about 0m. Five anomalies appear in the horizontal temperature distribution of 80m depth. Geothermal systems or such characteristics of the thermal structure should be related to the influence of the magma chamber in the region. Existence of molten magma was suggested from seismic observations (Yoshikawa et al., 2005). Therefore, we presumed that the geothermal systems in Otake- Hatchobaru geothermal area and in the central part of Kuju volcano can be explained by a common magma chamber. We determined the calculation time as 40000 based on the age of the latest large pyroclastic flow deposit (Kamata, 1997). The temperature of the magma chamber in the model was maintained at a constant value during the calculation. Parameter studies of crustal permeabilities were conducted to reproduce temperature profiles obtained by logging at shallow depths (NEDO, 1987). The calculated results show that temperature anomalies in the basement rock seemed to be directly affected by the magma chamber. The results also indicate that molten materials have been continuously supplied from the bottom of the magma chamber of Kuju volcano

  20. Magnetic Surveys for Mapping of Ultramafic Bodies on the Site of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, S.; Makino, M.; Miyakawa, A.; Nakatsuka, T.; Iwamori, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Kudo, S.; Yanagida, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sugimori, T.; Kitao, H.; Asahi, N.; Shiomi, T.; Higashida, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Ohi nuclear power station is located at the northern Oshima Peninsula in the Wakasa Bay on the coast of Japan Sea, central Japan. The geology of the site of the power station is composed mainly of shales, diabases, gabbros and ultramafic rocks of the Paleozoic Yakuno Ophiolite. An evaluation of the power station on conformity to the new regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants has been conducted. Various surveys such as tectonic geomorphological, trenching and drilling were conducted to better understand the fracture zones in the gabbro and ultramafic complex. As a result, the fracture zones can be classified into two types: faults found only in the complex and landslides seen in the upper parts of the ultramafic bodies. Whereas, magnetic susceptibilities were measured for whole cores from drilling and the upper parts of the ultramafic bodies showed high magnetic susceptibilities (> 10-2 SI). To map the distribution of ultramafic bodies, we conducted magnetic surveys on ground and at sea around Daibahama beach in December 2015. A ground magnetic survey was carried out on a grid and along a specified line on a small peninsula and some reeves by using a proton magnetometer. A seaborne magnetic survey was also conducted by a small rubber boat on which a Cesium magnetometer was mounted. Both observed data were merged and an IGRF residual magnetic anomaly map was compiled. According to the map, several positive magnetic anomalies lie over the southeastern edge of the estimated distribution area of ultramafic bodies on land, while negative magnetic anomalies are dominant at the northwestern edge. Magnetic susceptibility and NRM measurements were carried out for columnar specimens sampled from drill cores. As a preliminary analysis, we conducted 2D modeling of the specific survey line on a basis of the rock magnetic measurements. A thin dipping-dike with a reverse magnetization can account for the observed magnetic anomalies. However there still remain

  1. Four Sporadic Pediatric Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infection in a Rural Area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kisei; Yasuda, Ryu; Terakawa, Runa; Koike, Yumi; Takeuchi, Koichi; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Horiuchi, Ayaka; Kubota, Noriko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-24

    In the spring of 2015, we experienced a cluster of 4 sporadic cases of yersiniosis in children in Nagano prefecture, a rural area of Japan. Two patients developed appendicitis-like episodes; one had acute gastroenteritis, and the other had bacteremia associated with liver abscess. The causative agent of these infections was Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:8. None of the patients had an underlying illness, and all have recovered completely. The patients were neither socially nor geographically related to each other. These 4 consecutive cases suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:8 has spread substantially in the middle part of Japan, and that this virulent strain might be more common than previously reported in our country.

  2. Temporal behavior of the background seismicity rate in central Japan, 1998 to mid-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Shimazaki, Kunihiko

    2006-04-01

    We studied the temporal behavior of the background shallow seismicity rate in 700 circular areas across inland Japan. To search for and test the significance of the possible rate changes in background seismicity, we developed an efficient computational method that applies the space-time ETAS model proposed by Ogata in 1998 to the areas. Also, we conducted Monte Carlo tests using a simulated catalog to validate the model we applied. Our first finding was that the activation anomalies were found so frequently that the constant background seismicity hypothesis may not be appropriate and/or the triggered event model with constraints on the parameters may not adequately describe the observed seismicity. However, quiescence occasionally occurs merely by chance. Another outcome of our study was that we could automatically find several anomalous background seismicity rate changes associated with the occurrence of large earthquakes. Very significant seismic activation was found before the M6.1 Mt. Iwate earthquake of 1998. Also, possible seismic quiescence was found in an area 150 km southwest of the focal region of the M7.3 Western Tottori earthquake of 2000. The seismicity rate in the area recovered after the mainshock.

  3. Tephrostratigraphy during 3000 years recorded in the sedimentary sequence of Beppu Bay, central Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Yamada, K.; Kuwae, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Danhara, T.

    2012-12-01

    The tephrostratigraphy around Beppu Bay, central Japan, is investigated using a 9m-long sedimentary core (KT09-3) collected in 2009 with a piston corer. Beppu Bay is located to the east of active volcanic region in Kyushu Island in southwest Japan. Eruptive history of their active volcanoes and widespread tephra records may be preserved in the sedimentary sequence in bay environment. A method to determine the down-hole content of volcanic glass was used in this study. This method consists of four steps: (1) continuous measurement of magnetic susceptibility with lithological observation of sediments, (2) systematic separation of the volcanic glass particles from samples taken at close intervals, and the determination of relative concentration; (3) mineral assemblages counted in the size of 63-125 micro meter fraction; (4) precise measurement of the refractive indices of the separated glass particles. A refractive index measuring system (RIMS) based on the thermal immersion method permitted quick and accurate measurement of the refractive index of a large number of samples. Core (KT09-3) is one of fourteen piston and gravity cores which were retrieved at the center of the basin. Correlation of cores was conducted using sand and silt seams related by events such as turbidite or flood or volcanic ash air fall, and the age-depth model was created by wiggle-matching of forty-two AMS radiocarbon dates from bivalve mollusk shells and excess Pb-210 and Cs-137 concentrations (Kuwae et al., 2012). The sedimentation rates were 230-300 cm/ky. Core is composed of massive diatomaceous clays with 18 event sediments of coarse fractions. Two distinct volcanic ash horizons and several cryptically deposited horizons are found within the sequence. Upper distinct volcanic ash of 509.2 cm depth is composed of many volcanic glasses and heavy minerals of Opx and Cpx with GHb and BHb. Most of volcanic glasses have characteristic high refractive index of about 1.559. This tephra is

  4. Altitudes of residential areas affect salt intake in a rural area in Japan: a Shimane CoHRE Study.

    PubMed

    Ferdaus, Sonia I; Kohno, Kunie; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Miwako; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Isomura, Minoru; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Nabika, Toru

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between residential environments and hypertension. As shown in our previous study, the inconvenience of the locations of residential areas may be one of the factors influencing the blood pressures of inhabitants. Salt intake is one of the likely mediators between inconvenience and hypertension. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between the altitudes of residential areas and salt intake in a rural Japanese region because altitude may be one of the proxies for inconvenience. In this cross-sectional study, 1016 participants living in a mountainous region in Japan were recruited during health examinations. The altitude of each participant's residence was estimated using a geographic information system. Subjects were divided into quartile groups according to the altitudes of their residences. To evaluate salt intake, we employed the 24-h salt intake estimation of Kawano et al. (e24-h salt intake) and the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (uNa/K). Linear regression analyses indicated that altitude was an independent factor influencing both e24-h salt intake and uNa/K after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, triglycerides and county of residence. The same result was observed when the subjects who did not take antihypertensive medications were analyzed (N=633). The present study indicated that altitude of residence had a significant positive influence on salt intake in a rural area of Japan.

  5. Effect of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the 2016 Central Tottori Earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Takao; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Shohei; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    On October 21, 2016, an earthquake with Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) magnitude 6.6 hit the central part of Tottori Prefecture, Japan. This paper demonstrates two notable effects of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the earthquake. One is a predominant period issue observed over a large area. A seismic intensity of 6 lower on the JMA scale was registered at three sites in the disaster area. However, the peak ground acceleration ranged from 0.3 to 1.4 G at the three sites because of the varying peak periods of observed strong ground motions. The spectral properties of the observations also reflect the damage around the sites. Three-component microtremors were observed in the area; the predominant ground period distributions based on horizontal to vertical spectral ratios were provided by the authors. The peak periods of the strong motion records agree well with predominant periods estimated from microtremor observations at a rather hard site; however, the predominant periods of the microtremors are slightly shorter than those of the main shock at the other two soft sites. We checked the nonlinear effect at the sites by comparing the site responses to small events and the main shock. The peak periods of the main shock were longer than those of the weak motions at the sites. This phenomenon indicates a nonlinear site effect due to large ground motions caused by the main shock. A horizontal component of the accelerogram showed rather pulsating swings that indicate cyclic mobility behavior, especially at a site close to a pond shore; ground subsidence of 20 cm was observed around the site. The peak periods of weak motions agree well with those of the microtremor observations. This implies an important issue that the predominant periods estimated by microtremors are not sufficient to estimate the effect of surface geology for disaster mitigation. We have to estimate the predominant periods under large ground motions considering the nonlinear site

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection by birth year and geographic area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Junko; Gosho, Masahiko; Inui, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Toru; Sakakibara, Masatoshi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Nakajima, Shigemi; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Yasuda, Mitsugi; Kawai, Takashi; Murakami, Kazunari; Kamada, Tomoari; Mizuno, Motowo; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong; Kato, Mototsugu

    2014-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related diseases are responsible for a tremendous amount of morbidity and mortality in Japan. We estimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection by sex, birth year, and geographic area among Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 14,716 subjects aged 20 years or more who underwent a health checkup between May 1997 and March 2013 in seven geographic areas throughout Japan. Relevant information on the demographics and status of H. pylori infection was retrieved from the electronic database. The univariate log-binominal regression model was used to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection, taking birth year into consideration. The multivariate log-binominal regression model was used to compare the prevalence of H. pylori infection between seven geographic areas. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 37.6% in women and 43.2% in men. Among seven geographic areas, Hokkaido showed the lowest prevalence (29.4%), while Yamagata Prefecture represented the highest (54.5%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was highest in the 1940-1949 birth cohort and then decreased in the ensuing birth cohorts; the risk ratio (RR) was 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.87) for changes in the 10-year birth cohort. Individuals in Yamagata Prefecture had the highest RR of acquiring H. pylori infection in all three birth cohorts (RR = 1.53 for 1940, RR = 1.69 for 1950, and RR = 1.85 for 1960) when compared with those in Hokkaido. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age and exhibits geographic variation in Japan. There has been a striking decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, especially in younger Japanese populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciolini, R; Mazed, D

    2010-09-01

    The indoor radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration was measured between January and June in the schools of two geothermal areas in Tuscany, central Italy. One of these areas (the Larderello area) is characterized by a large number of geothermal power plants, covering about 9% of the world's geothermal power production. In contrast, the other area, Monte Pisano, has not any such facilities. About 250 measurements were made using track etch detectors. Only a slight difference in the concentrations between the two major sampling areas (98 Bq m(-3) for Larderello area and 43 Bq m(-3) for Monte Pisano area) was found, and this was related to different geological characteristics of the ground and not the presence of the geothermal plants. The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial community in sclerotia of Cenococcum species and soil in sub-alpine forest, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonoyama, Y.; Narisawa, K.; Ohta, H.; Watanabe, M.

    2009-04-01

    Species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, may be particularly abundant in cold- or nutrient-stressed habitats. The fungus is easily recognized by its jet-black hyphae, and distinct compact masses of fungal mycelium called sclerotia. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and can provide sufficient inoculums for several years. The purpose of this study is to investigate bacterial community inside sclerotia, with an interest on contribution of sclerotia to microbial diversity in rhizosphere. To investigate bacterial community inside of the fungal sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from sub-alpine forest soil in central Japan. Furthermore, three sclerotium grains were applied to investigate internal bacteria community by culture method. The isolated bacterial strains were then proceeded to determine their 16S rDNA partial sequences. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes with DNA from the sclerotia was Acidobacteria in both sclerotia and soil. Bacterial community of sclerotia showed higher diversity compared to soil. On the contrary, bacterial flora isolated from single sclerotium differed each other. Additionally, the bacterial community was composed by limited species of related genus.

  9. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan

    PubMed Central

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters. PMID:27677769

  10. Geothermal structure of the Miura-Boso plate subduction margin, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Hamada, Yohei; Kamiya, Nana; Ojima, Takanori; Chiyonobu, Shun; Saito, Saneatsu

    2017-07-01

    We have constrained the geothermal structure of the Miura-Boso plate subduction margin, located in central Japan, using maximum paleo-temperature data derived from vitrinite reflectance measurements. We established that higher maximum paleo-temperatures are restricted to the western part of the early Miocene Hota accretionary complex (Hota and Hayama groups), indicating a spatial difference in the amount of slip upon the out-of-sequence thrust potentially associated with the Izu-Bonin Island Arc collision. The weakly deformed sedimentary sequences overlying the highly deformed Hota Group strata have much lower vitrinite reflectance values than the latter. This variation indicates that the sedimentary sequences of the trench slope experienced a markedly lower maximum burial depth than the relatively deep-buried and uplifted Hota accretionary complex. Conversely, maximum paleo-temperatures obtained for tectonic blocks hosted by the neighboring Mineoka ophiolite complex are very high: ca. 140 °C for the large, early Miocene Haccho Formation blocks, and 65-90 °C for the other blocks. This result suggests that the individual tectonic blocks enclosed in the ophiolite complex were subjected exhumation from depths of 3-5 km.

  11. Characteristics of the surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, central Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahama, Yoshiki; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Awata, Yasuo; Maruyama, Tadashi; Azuma, Takashi; Miyashita, Yukari; Mori, Hiroshi; Imanishi, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Naoto; Ochi, Tadafumi; Otsubo, Makoto; Asahina, Daisuke; Miyakawa, Ayumu

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence started with a M J (Japan Meteorological Agency magnitude) 6.5 event on April 14, and culminated in a M J 7.3 event on April 16. Associated with the sequence, approximately 34-km-long surface ruptures appeared along the eastern part of the Futagawa fault zone and the northernmost part of the Hinagu fault zone. We carried out an urgent field investigation soon after the earthquake to map the extent and displacement of surface ruptures with the following results. (1) The rupture zone generally consisted of a series of left-stepping en echelon arrays of discontinuous fault traces of various lengths. (2) Slip exceeding 100 cm occurred on previously unrecognized fault traces in the alluvial lowland of the Kiyama plain and on the western rim of the Aso volcano caldera. (3) Large slip with maximum dextral slip of 220 cm was measured throughout the central section of the rupture zone along the Futagawa segment, and the slip gradually decreased bilaterally on the adjoining northeastern and southwestern sections. (4) The surface rupture mostly occurred along fault traces mapped in previous active fault investigations. (5) Most of the surface ruptures were produced by the mainshock, and significant postseismic slip occurred after the mainshock.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Geology of the Idonnappu Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan: Evolution of a Cretaceous Accretionary Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi

    1992-12-01

    The Cretaceous Idonnappu Belt, located along the western Hidaka Mountains of central Hokkaido Island in Japan, records evidence of west to northwest directed underthrusting of oceanic crust. The Idonnappu fault divides the Idonnappu Belt into two subbelts; the western Oku-niikappu (ON) subbelt and the eastern Koiboku (KO) subbelt. The ON subbelt is dominated by a melange facies. It includes various thicknesses of pillow basalts, bedded radiolarian cherts, limestones, and greenish siliceous shales, all of which are intermixed with a highly sheared shaley matrix that displays a scaly cleavage. The KO subbelt is dominated by a thick flysch sequence and alternations of sandstone and shale with thin tectonic melange. The stratigraphic sequences within these belts usually young toward the west and display westward vergent structures. Outcrop- to microscopic-scale structures in the melange zone of the Idonnappu Belt, however, suggest eastward vergence. Detailed biostratigraphic studies show that structural packages young toward the east ranging in age from Lower to Upper Cretaceous. These observations are consistent with an accretionary prism model in which oceanic crust is underthrust toward the west or north west. In the middle Miocene, a change to westward vergence was caused by uplift of the Hidaka Mountains.

  13. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.

    2016-09-01

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters.

  14. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E

    2016-09-28

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters.

  15. Application of InSAR and GIS Techniques to Ground Subsidence Assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992–1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications. PMID:24385028

  16. Continuity of subsurface fault structure revealed by gravity anomaly: the eastern boundary fault zone of the Niigata plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Shigeki; Sawada, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Nayuta; Okada, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Honda, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated gravity anomalies around the Niigata plain, which is a sedimentary basin in central Japan bounded by mountains, to examine the continuity of subsurface fault structures of a large fault zone—the eastern boundary fault zone of the Niigata plain (EBFZNP). The features of the Bouguer anomaly and its first horizontal and vertical derivatives clearly illustrate the EBFZNP. The steep first horizontal derivative and the zero isoline of the vertical derivative are clearly recognized along the entire EBFZNP over an area that shows no surface topographic features of an active fault. Two-dimensional density structure analyses also confirm a relationship between the two first derivatives and the subsurface fault structure. Therefore, we conclude that the length of the EBFZNP as an active fault extends to 56 km, which is longer than previously estimated. This length leads to an estimation of a moment magnitude of 7.4 of an expected earthquake from the EBFZNP.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Magnetotelluric observations around the focal region of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake ( M j 6.9), Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Ryokei; Oshiman, Naoto; Uyeshima, Makoto; Ogawa, Yasuo; Mishina, Masaaki; Toh, Hiroaki; Sakanaka, Shin'ya; Ichihara, Hiroshi; Shiozaki, Ichiro; Ogawa, Tsutomu; Miura, Tsutomu; Koyama, Shigeru; Fujita, Yasuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yu; Imai, Mikihiro; Honda, Ryo; Yabe, Sei; Nagaoka, Shintaro; Tada, Mitsuhiro; Mogi, Toru

    2008-02-01

    On 25 March 2007, a damaging earthquake ( M j 6.9) occurred near the west coast of the Noto Peninsula, Central Japan. A wideband magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in the onshore area of the source region immediately after the mainshock, with the aim of imaging the heterogeneity of the crustal resistivity structure. The final observation network had consisted of 26 sites. As a preparatory step for imaging three-dimensional features of the resistivity around the focal region, we constructed two-dimensional resistivity models along five profiles using only the TM mode responses, in order to reduce three-dimensional effects. Four profiles are perpendicular to the fault strike, and a fifth profile is parallel to the strike through the mainshock epicenter. Significant characteristics of the resistivity models are: (1) beneath the mainshock hypocenter, there is a conductive body which spreads to the eastern edge of the active aftershock region; (2) a resistive zone is located in the gap of the aftershock distribution between the mainshock hypocenter and the largest eastern aftershock; (3) one of the largest aftershock occurred at the boundary of the resistive zone described above. These results suggest that the deep conductors represent fluid-filled zones and that the lateral heterogeneity could have controlled the slip distribution on the fault plane.

  18. Application of InSAR and GIS techniques to ground subsidence assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    2013-12-31

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992-1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications.

  19. 3D seismic Interpretation of Methane-Hydrate-Concentrated Zone Offshore Japan -Noto Sado area-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Fujii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Kotera, T.

    2016-12-01

    JOGMEC, as a member of research group for resources assessment of Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), has been conducting resources assessment of methane hydrate (MH) offshore surrounding Japan. This study aims to assess the distribution of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) and methane hydrate concentrated zones (MHCZ) offshore Japan. In terms of resources assessment, it is important that MH concentrated in pore-filling sand . The interpretation of 3-D seismic data acquired by geophysical vessel `Shigen', which is owned by Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, were carried out. We interpreted the distribution of MHCZ in Noto Toho and Sado Seiho areas, which are located in the southwest Sado Island, using high density velocity analysis and channel analysis. The characteristic of 3-D seismic data in this study area showed several folds and faults which does not show the large displacement. The BSR was very visible continuously. Clear velocity contrast in the boundary between above and below of BSR, and the high velocity anomaly above BSR were confirmed in the high density velocity analysis profile. MHs were assumed to exist in sand heterogeneously because the velocity distribution in the extracted zones is inhomogeneous. In the results of geomorphological analysis, channel deposits and mid submarine fan deposits, which are located above BSR, were presumed sandy sediment. As above, even the area has not been drilled, the extraction of MHCZ can be conducted by the interpretation of the seismic data, the result of the high density velocity analysis, and the distribution of sand by geomorphological analysis. These results will be useful for the plan of the future drilling programme.

  20. Changes in radiocarbon concentration in modern wood from Nagoya, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej; Nakamura, Toshio; Pazdur, Anna

    2004-08-01

    Recently radiocarbon (14C) concentration in the atmospheric CO2 has decreased over time due to the exchange of CO2 between atmosphere and ocean, but also due to emission of 14C free-CO2 from burning fossil fuels. The second contribution, known as the Suess effect, can be observed in the highly industrialized and/or urban area. 14C concentrations in annual rings of a pine tree from the urban area in Nagoya, Japan, that grew over the last 24 years were measured with AMS to be remarkably lower than those observed in “clear air” of corresponding years at Schauinsland station in Germany. The measured data were used to estimate the rate of the fossil component in atmospheric CO2 that was derived from fossil fuel burning. Exponential and linear functions were fitted to the secular variations of 14C concentration in annual rings to calculate the decay constant and an average decreasing rate of 14C concentration. The result suggests that the use of annual rings of trees to obtain the secular variations of 14C concentration of atmospheric CO2 can be useful and efficient for environmental monitoring and modeling of the carbon distribution in local scale.

  1. Resilience in schizophrenia: A comparative study between a remote island and an urban area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Suzuki, Takefumi; Imasaka, Yasushi; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Mizuno, Yuya; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The resilience levels between patients with schizophrenia residing in a rural island and a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan, was compared and the factors associated with resilience were explored. The Resilience Scale (RS) and EuroQol were assessed, together with biological markers and multiple demographic variables. No significant difference was found in the RS scores between the two groups (40 subjects each). However, longer duration of illness and higher EuroQol score were significantly associated with a greater RS score, which indicates that potentially successful adaptation and subjective perspectives appear more pertinent than the degree of urbanicity in determining resilience levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multichannel seismic profiles crossing source regions of megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events off-Boso, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; No, T.; Kodaira, S.; Nozaki, K.; Kobayashi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Off-Boso is a southeastern coastal region of Boso peninsula neighboring Tokyo metropolitan, locating central Japan. This region is one of the most complex plate configuration regions on the earth because the Pacific Plate (PAP) and the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) are subducting beneath off-Boso reigon, which is a part of North American Plate (NAP) (or Okhotsk Plate). Associated with the subduction, magnitude eight-class large earthquakes have occurred historically (e.g. 1703 Genroku and 1923 Taisho earthquakes) bringing serious damages to Tokyo metropolitan. Moreover, slow-slip events have been observed with 5-7 year interval off Boso region. To reveal the structural characteristics associated with the various seismogenesis off-Boso region, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has conducted multichannel seismic (MCS) surveys. The MCS data is important information for the drilling of Kanto Asperity Project (KAP), which is one of IODP proposal. A 7800 cu. in. (140 liter) tuned airgun array was shot with 50-m interval, detected by a 444-ch hydrophone streamer with 12.5 m group interval. In 2008, three NE-SW lines were conducted for revealing the subduction images of the PSP crossing the regions of stable sliding, slow-slip and slip deficit. In 2009, a NW-SE long line and a NE-SW short line were carried out to obtain the structural images of PSP and PAP perpendicular to trench axis and the 1703 Genroku asperity in the vicinity of Boso peninsula, respectively. From NE-SW lines of 2008, the morphology of the top of PSP is not smooth but rugged below the NAP. The northeastern end of PSP is confirmed by the MCS data combined with previous MCS profiles. Moreover, deep events interpreted as the top of PAP are recognized below the reflections of the PSP. The shallow part above the top of PSP can be divided into four blocks based on the MCS images and bathymetries: 1) trough deposits block, 2) thrust block, 3) thick sediments covered block, and 4) thin

  3. Soil volume estimation in debris flow areas using lidar data in the 2014 Hiroshima, Japan rainstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-10-01

    Debris flows triggered by the rainstorm in Hiroshima, Japan on August 20th, 2014 produced extensive damage to the built-up areas in the northern part of Hiroshima city. In order to consider various emergency response activities and early-stage recovery planning, it is important to evaluate the distribution of the soil volumes in the debris flow areas immediately after the disaster. In this study, automated nonlinear mapping technique is applied to light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) observed before and after the disaster to quickly and accurately correct geometric locational errors of the data. The soil volumes generated from the debris flows are estimated by subtracting the pre- and post-event DEMs. The geomorphologic characteristics in the debris flow areas are discussed from the distribution of the estimated soil volumes.

  4. Occurrence of arsenic in sediment pore waters in the central Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, Shoichi; Hamamoto, Hideki; Ishiyama, Takashi; Hossain, Sushmita; Oguchi, Chiaki T.

    2014-05-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where marine sediments are widely developed because of cyclic iteration of global sea-level changes even 50 km or more inland from the present shoreline. In this area, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular, around 40 % of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. Arsenic levels greater than that permitted by the environmental standards of Japan have been detected in groundwater in this area. Therefore, to evaluate occurrences of arsenic and other related elements in pore waters contained in natural sediment layers, we measured the levels of various inorganic chemical substances such as arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and sulfur (S) and major dissolved ions such as sulfate (SO42-), calcium (Ca2+), and sodium (Na+). Pore waters were collected from sediment samples that were obtained by a drilling from the river bottom down to 44 m depth; pore water samples were obtained immediately after extraction of sediments. The sedimentary facies in the vertical profile are continental, transitional, and marine, including two aquifers. The upper aquifer (15-20 m) contains fine to medium sand, whereas the lower aquifer (37-44 m) contains medium to coarse and gravelly sand. Arsenic and other inorganic elements were measured by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP/MS) and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), and major dissolved ions were measured by an ion chromatograph analyzer. The total content of chemical elements was measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis using solid sediment samples. We obtained the following results. The arsenic concentrations in pore waters in marine silt and clay sediments (approximately 0.04 mg/L) were about five times higher than that in continental sediments (approximately 0.008 mg/L). The highest concentration of arsenic (0.074 mg/L) was detected at a depth of 13 m, which is immediately above the

  5. Cadmium levels in the urine of female farmers in nonpolluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    About 1200 urine samples were collected, mostly in winter seasons in 1982-1984, from adult women in 7 nonpolluted areas in widely separated parts of Japan, and analyses for cadmium (Cd-U) were conducted in a single laboratory. The geometric mean (GM) by decades of age groups of Cd-U, after adjustment for a specific gravity of urine of 1.016, increased from 0.88 microgram/l in the twenties to reach a maximum of 1.78 micrograms/l in the fifties followed by gradual decrease to 1.31 micrograms/l in the eighties. The effect of smoking (about 8 cigarettes/d as a mean) was absent. Analyses of additional 125 urine samples from men revealed that Cd-U in men was not higher than that in women. When classified geographically, Cd-U was higher in the area on the coast of the Sea of Japan, as suspected in preceding studies on blood cadmium levels and dietary cadmium intakes. The Cd-U levels observed in the present study are similar to the values in previous publications on the Japanese and are apparently higher than the counterpart values from Europe, the United States, and New Zealand.

  6. Is global dimming and brightening in Japan limited to urban areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Ohmura, Atsumu; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Ohkawara, Nozomu

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide observations indicate secular trends of all-sky surface solar radiation on a decadal time scale, termed global dimming and brightening. Accordingly, the observed surface radiation in Japan generally shows a strong decline until the end of the 1980s and then a recovery until around 2000. Because a substantial number of measurement stations are located within or close to populated areas, one may speculate that the observed trends are strongly influenced by local air pollution and are thus not of large-scale significance. This hypothesis poses a serious question as to what regional extent the global dimming and brightening are significant: are the global dimming and brightening truly global phenomena, or regional, or even only local? Our study focused on 14 meteorological observatories that measured all-sky surface solar radiation, zenith transmittance, and maximum transmittance. On the basis of municipality population time series, historical land use maps, recent satellite images, and actual site visits, we concluded that eight stations have been significantly influenced by urbanization, with the remaining six stations being left pristine. Between the urban and rural areas, no marked differences were identified in the temporal trends of the aforementioned meteorological parameters. Our findings suggest that global dimming and brightening in Japan occurred on a large scale, independently of urbanization.

  7. Seismological Features of the Subducting Slab Beneath the Kii Peninsula, Central Japan, Revealed by Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Park, J.

    2007-12-01

    We report seismological evidence that the subducting Philippine Sea slab (PHS) beneath the Kii Peninsula, central Japan, can be divided into three segments. Offshore the Kii Peninsula, the "Tonankai" and "Nankai" fault segments suffer mega-thrust earthquakes that repeat every 100 to 150 years. The structure of the young, thin, contorted PHS is important to the seismo-tectonics in this region. We apply the receiver function (RF) analysis to 26 Hi-net short-period and 4 F-net broad-band seismographic stations. In the case that dipping velocity discontinuities and/or anisotropic media exist beneath seismometer, both radial RFs and transverse RFs contain useful information to estimate underground structure. For isotropic media with a dipping-slab interface, back- azimuthal variation in RFs depends largely on three parameters, the downdip azimuth, dip angle and the depth of the interface. We stack both radial and transverse RFs with allowance a time-shift caused by the dipping interface, searching for optimal parameters based on the grid-search technique at each station. At some stations located near the eastern coastline of the Kii Peninsula, the dip angle of the interface inferred from RF stacking is much steeper than that estimated by the local seismicity. This discrepancy arises from the interference of two slab-converted phases, suggesting a layer atop the slab. In these cases we refine the stack to distinguish two slab phases and estimate three parameters of each dipping interface separately. Two interfaces with the same dip direction and low dip angle are estimated at these stations, with depth difference near 6 km. Thus, the shallower interface may be related to the layer within the oceanic crust and the deeper one is the slab Moho. These double-layered interfaces are detected only at stations located up-dip of a belt-like distribution of non- volcanic low-frequency tremor. Comparing the interface dips estimated in this study with the direction of slab motion

  8. The ISO 14001 EMS implementation process and its implications: A case study of Central Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Matouq

    2000-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Bhubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms towards other firms working for the same group, or branches--mainly small and medium sized enterprises--in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the environment. In other words, attention is given to life cycle analysis (LCA) among certified firms.

  9. The ISO 14001 EMS Implementation Process and Its Implications: A Case Study of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed

    2000-02-01

    / This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan (known as Chubu in Japanese, which literally means center) was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Chubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental activities. It also helps to enhance the environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms (head offices) towards other firms working for the same group, or branches-mainly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)-in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the

  10. Surface rupturing earthquakes repeated in the 300 years along the ISTL active fault system, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, Aya; Kondo, Hisao; Kurosawa, Hideki

    2017-06-01

    Surface rupturing earthquakes produced by intraplate active faults generally have long recurrence intervals of a few thousands to tens of thousands of years. We here report the first evidence for an extremely short recurrence interval of 300 years for surface rupturing earthquakes on an intraplate system in Japan. The Kamishiro fault of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) active fault system generated a Mw 6.2 earthquake in 2014. A paleoseismic trench excavation across the 2014 surface rupture showed the evidence for the 2014 event and two prior paleoearthquakes. The slip of the penultimate earthquake was similar to that of 2014 earthquake, and its timing was constrained to be after A.D. 1645. Judging from the timing, the damaged area, and the amount of slip, the penultimate earthquake most probably corresponds to a historical earthquake in A.D. 1714. The recurrence interval of the two most recent earthquakes is thus extremely short compared with intervals on other active faults known globally. Furthermore, the slip repetition during the last three earthquakes is in accordance with the time-predictable recurrence model rather than the characteristic earthquake model. In addition, the spatial extent of the 2014 surface rupture accords with the distribution of a serpentinite block, suggesting that the relatively low coefficient of friction may account for the unusually frequent earthquakes. These findings would affect long-term forecast of earthquake probability and seismic hazard assessment on active faults.

  11. Earthquake Scenarios of a Multi-Segment Fault Systems along the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, M.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.; Iwasaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is a major active fault system with about 250 km length, which divides the Japan islands into northeast and southwest. The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion reports that the central part of the ISTL with the Gofukuji fault, will cause a M8-class earthquake with 14% in the next 30 years. It is particularly perilous area in Japan which has been suffered from a number of earthquake disasters. Thus, it is important to assess the strong ground motions for the forthcoming earthquake along the ISTL. In this study, we have constructed four source fault models for the earthquake scenarios along the ISTL based on the seismic profiling and the geomorphological observations obtained from the Integrated Research Project for Active Fault System along the ISTL (2005-2009). Since the results of the surveys offer multiple possibilities for the fault shape, we prepared two sets of outer fault parameters; one is based on the seismic profiles, and the other is based on the geomorphology and structural geology data. Both of them show the existence of segment boundary around the Suwa lake. The former consists of six segments with three east-dipping and three west-dipping faults, where the dips are turned over at the Suwa lake. Most segments are characterized by low-angle reverse faulting. On the other hand, the latter has different fault system around the Suwa lake where strike slip faults are defined. We assumed four earthquake scenarios for the seismic hazard assessment around the ISTL. (1) all the fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with Mw 7.7, (2) all the fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the geomorphological observations with Mw 7.6, (3) three northern east-dipping fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with Mw 7.1, (4) three southern west-dipping fault segments ruptured with the source model based on the seismic profiling with

  12. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    We studied occurence and source parameters of several recent intermediate depth earthquakes. We concentrated on the Mw=7.7 salvadorian earthquake which took place on January 13, 2001. It was a good example of the high seismic risk associated to such kind of events which occur closer to the coast than the interplate thrust events. The Salvadorian earthquake was an intermediate depth downdip extensional event which occured inside the downgoing Cocos plate, next to the downdip flexure where the dip increases sharply before the slab sinks more steeply. This location corresponds closely to the position of the Mw=5.7 1996 and Mw=7.3 1982 downdip extensional events. Several recent intermediate depth earthquakes occured in subduction zones exhibiting a ``flat slab'' geometry with three distinct flexural bends where flexural stress may be enhanced. The Mw=6.7 Geiyo event showed a downdip extensional mechanism with N-S striking nodal planes. This trend was highly oblique to the trench (Nankai Trough), yet consistent with westward steepening at the SW lateral termination of the SW Japan flat slab. The Mw=6.8 Olympia earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone occured at the downdip termination of the Juan de Fuca slab, where plate dip increases from about 5o to over 30o. The N-S orientation of the focal planes, parallel to the trench indicated downdip extension. The location at the downdip flexure corresponds closely to the estimated positions of the 1949 M7.1 Olympia and 1965 M6.5 Seattle-Tacoma events. Between 1994 and 1999, in Central Mexico, an unusually high intermediate depth seismicity occured where several authors proposed a flat geometry for the Cocos plate. Seven events of magnitude between Mw=5.9 and Mw=7.1 occured. Three of them were downdip compressional and four where down-dip extensional. We can explain these earthquakes by flexural stresses at down-dip and lateral terminations of the supposed flat segment. Even if intermediate depth earthquakes occurence could

  13. The 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes and lessons learned for large earthquakes in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Kato, Aitaro; Nakamura, Kouji; Hiyama, Yohei

    2017-04-01

    A series of devastating earthquakes hit the Kumamoto districts in Kyushu, Japan, in April 2016. A M6.5 event occurred at 21:26 on April 14th (JST) and, 28 hours later, a M7.3 event occurred at 01:25 on April 17th (JST) at almost the same location at a depth of 10 km. Both earthquakes were felt at the town of Mashiki with a seismic intensity of 7 according to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale. The intensity of 7 is the highest level in the JMA scale. Very strong accelerations were observed by the M6.5 event with 1,580 gal at KiKnet Mashiki station and 1,791 gal for the M7.3 event at Ohtsu City station. As a result, more than 8,000 houses totally collapsed, 26,000 were heavily damaged, and 120,000 were partially damaged. More than 170 people were killed by the two earthquakes. The important lesson from the Kumamoto earthquake is that very strong ground motions may hit within a few days after a first large event. This can have serious impacts to houses already damaged by the first large earthquake. In the 2016 Kumamoto sequence, there were also many strong aftershocks including M5.8-5.9 events until April 18th. More than 180,000 people had to take shelter because of ongoing strong aftershocks. We discuss both the natural and human aspects of the Kumamoto earthquake disaster caused by inland shallow large earthquakes. We will report on the lessons learned for large earthquakes hitting the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan.

  14. Central area for induction of anesthesia and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Foehre, B; von Heymann, C; Deja, M; MacGuill; Lange, L F; Krampe, H; Wernecke, K-D; Spies, C

    2011-01-01

    A central area for induction of anesthesia (CAIA) is supposed to optimize processes of preoperative patient preparation for anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the separation of the anesthesia process into anesthesia induction and anesthesia maintenance is associated with residents' job satisfaction. The central area for induction of anesthesia model (CAIA model) was prospectively compared to the conventional model of anesthesia being induced, maintained and ended by the same anesthetist. Quality of senior staff supervision for each day as well as workday satisfaction was additionally graded by a Likert-scale. More than 80% of residents considered their workday as satisfying or very satisfying, regardless of the model applied. Furthermore, work day satisfaction was significantly associated with the quality of supervision provided by the teaching staff. It was concluded that time and attention provided by the teaching staff rather than the anesthesia organisational model were the major determinants of workday satisfaction.

  15. Synthesis of subsurface temperature information and evaluation of the potential for setting up borehole heat exchanger in the central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Hideki; Shiraishi, Hidetaka; Hachinohe, Shoichi; Ishiyama, Takashi; Satake, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Akinobu

    2014-05-01

    Borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is an economical and environmentally friendly technology that is widely used in Europe and North America, but rarely used in Japan. One of the reasons for this is the relatively complex topography and geological structure in Japan compared with those in Europe and North America. Complex structures produce regional differences in subsurface thermal properties and temperature structures, leading to regional variation in the efficiency of BHE. It is thus important to evaluate the available subsurface heat energy through thermal response tests and/or numerical simulations and to design appropriate systems (depth and number of boreholes for heat exchange). Geological structures, groundwater properties, and subsurface temperatures are essential input data for numerical simulations. However, there is little information available concerning subsurface temperatures. Thus, we have decided to construct a database of subsurface temperatures in the Saitama region, which is in the central part of the Kanto Plain in Japan. The Kanto Plain contains the capital city of Japan and has a population of more than 40 million. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy potential of BHE in a part of this area. We have performed measurements of subsurface temperatures at 23 stations in the Saitama region. We have illustrated a numerical simulation for BHE using the recent subsurface temperature data. Furthermore, we have discussed the regional characteristics of potential assessments for BHE. The results are expected to be utilized as information prior to the installation of BHE. For evaluating the potential assessments, we have developed a new method using an existing geological model with a high spatial resolution and applied this method to the southeastern part of the Saitama region. The results show that the potential of the plateau area in the central part of the region is higher than that of the lowland area in the eastern part. Furthermore, the

  16. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 101 marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. In particular, to determine the degree of PCB contamination in the fish, we investigated the concentration of total PCB (∑PCB) and the proportions of 209 individual PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ∑PCB concentration was 1.7-33 ng/g in fat greenling (n = 29), 0.44-25 ng/g in flounder (n = 36), and 1.6-86 ng/g in mackerel (n = 36), all values being much lower than the provisional regulatory limit in Japan. In the congener analysis, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners dominated in all samples (comprising over 86% of the ∑PCB). The proportions of the chlorinated PCB congeners were similar to the contamination patterns derived from Kanechlor in the environment, implying that the marine fish were not contaminated with fresh PCBs.

  17. The study of mesoscale phenomena, winter monsoon clouds and snow area. [Sea of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The clouds under a moderate winter monsoon situation taken with S190A camera reveal existence of clouds with band structure of various wavelengths. The wavelength ranges from 0.4 to 3.5 kms. There was a good relationship between the longitudinal cloud band and vertical wind shear. There was a distinct difference in size of clouds between the Japan Sea side or upwind side and the Pacific Ocean side or downwind side of the Japanese mainland. Large solid cumulus clusters have the size of 20 x 35 sq km over the Japan Sea off the coast of Hokuriku District. It was found that S190A aerial color pictures showing shadows of fair weather cumuli over the sea could be successfully used in estimating cloud height while S190A station 1 picture was more useful over the land since it could more clearly distinguish shadow from vegetation. The height of fair weather cumuli estimated from shadows agree with the lifted condensation level. It was also found that these pictures were effectively used in delineating snow cover area. S192 data, especially IR channel, were found to be effective in finding topography of nimbostratus.

  18. Analyzing a relationship between climate change and terrestrial carbon fluxes over Japan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Setoyama, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, terrestrial vegetation undergoes dramatic change in climate. Areal difference of climate change has been gradually large, and ecosystem differ in response to climate change, leading that terrestrial carbon exchange between atmosphere and biosphere has also undergone much change for each region. A purpose of this study is to examine a relationship between climate parameter and terrestrial carbon flux over Japan region. The carbon flux data used are GPP, NPP, and NEP at 1km grid resolution, they were estimated by the satellite-driven biosphere model, BEAMS. The climate data are the MODIS land products and NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data set. We calculated annual and seasonal anomalies, and correlation coefficient between climate parameters and carbon fluxes from 2001 to 2010. The study area is Japan region (125°-150°E, 30°-50°N). We found in inter-annual change anomalies that NEP plays a role of sizable carbon sink in 2004 and 2007, and carbon source in 2003 and 2006. In 2004 and 2007, as full-year air temperature is high, an end of plant growing season might be delayed. In 2003 and 2006, low solar radiation due to rainy season front decreases NEP. By analyzing a relationship between climate parameters and carbon fluxes for each region, we could understand a characteristic of climate change and ecosystem, and a mechanism of terrestrial carbon cycle.

  19. The Central San Joaquin Valley Area Health Education Center

    PubMed Central

    Rosinski, Edwin F.

    1978-01-01

    With federal financial support, an area health education center was established in the central San Joaquin Valley of California. The center is a cooperative health sciences education and health care program organized by the University of California and some of the educational and health care institutions of the valley. The center's goals include providing and improving primary health care education, and improving the distribution of health personnel. These goals are achieved through the cooperative development of a number of independent and interdependent activities. An extensive evaluation of the Area Health Education Center has shown that it is a highly effective program. PMID:664636

  20. GT-9A - EARTH SKY - CENTRAL COASTAL AREA OF PERU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38298 (5 June 1966) --- The central coastal area of Peru as seen from the Gemini-9A spacecraft during its 35th revolution of Earth. The body of water is the Pacific Ocean. The mountains are in the Cordillera Blanca range of the Andes. The 22,205-feet Huascaran is the highest peak in the area. The image was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film Photo credit: NASA

  1. Validation of S-wave Velocity beneath the Ise Bay, Central Japan, Using Continuous Short-period Ambient Noise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    We have applied seismic interferometry to three-component ambient noise data recorded around the Ise bay area, central Japan, to validate published three-dimensional S-wave velocity models. For the bay area, detailed seismic velocity structure models have been constructed based on P-wave reflection surveys. There is no direct information on the S-wave velocities beneath the bay and the parameters are assigned by reference to those in a land area. We used one-year continuous data from 20 permanent stations of the NIED Hi-net (High-sensitivity seismograph network) to obtain stacked cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of ambient noise between station pairs that cross the bay. The CCFs were calculated, using one-hour data in the radial-radial (R-R), transverse-transverse (T-T) and vertical-vertical (Z-Z) directions for time lags of ±500s. Horizontal distances between the stations range form 15 km to 103 km. Although the Hi-net stations deploy seismometers with the natural period of 1 s, we found that the yearly stacked CCFs for selected 101 Hi-net station pairs are comparable with those derived from neighboring broadband seismic stations in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz, by deconvolving the instrument response. The CCFs shows clear Rayleigh waves from all directions in the R-R and Z-Z components, and clear Love waves in the T-T component with reasonable signal-to-noise ratios. The derived group velocities and waveforms of the wave trains are variable in the higher frequency range (> 0.2 Hz), indicating deep sedimentary basin beneath the bay. We compared obtained group velocities with theoretical ones to find systematic differences between the expected structure model from the CCFs and the published models in the northwest part of the bay, while the agreements are generally good for many other station pairs. This result indicates that the seismic interferometry technique provides valuable information for validation and improvement of a velocity structure

  2. Mid-crustal fluid related to the Matsushiro earthquake swarm (1965-1967) in northern Central Japan: Geochemical reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Yasuko; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Takashi; Takamoto, Naohiko; Tosha, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    The Matsushiro district in the northern part of Ngano Prefecture, Central Japan, experienced a severe earthquake swarm associated with ground uplift and groundwater outflow during a period from 1965 to 1967. Geochemistry and isotope geochemistry of surface water and groundwater in the swarm area have been investigated. Water samples for the analyses were obtained from saline springs and streams, fresh water from streams and a shallow well, and, from seven wells of up to 600 m deep drilled in the Matsushiro fault zone. The results of analyses of water from the deep wells in the fault zone indicate a linear increase in dissolved Na, K, Al, Cl, Br, B and SiO4, and isotopic ratios of δD, δ18O and δ13C. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of the well water indicate a mixing between the surface water and isotopically heavy water exemplified by the "andesitic water" of Giggenbach (1992). Assuming that the isotopically heavy water has δD similar to the "andesitic water", the geochemistry of deep-seated brine is reproduced from the analytical data of well water. The reproduced composition of deep-seated brine is enriched in Na, Ca, Cl and HCO3 and has total dissolved solids comparable to seawater. The water of the reproduced composition is estimated to occupy a deep part (> 3 km below surface) of the fault zone. Available data show that the geochemical regime in the Matsushiro fault zone has remained unchanged since the swarm event. The reproduced composition of water is concluded to be similar to the brine triggering the swarm of earthquakes. The composition of the reproduced water is not as saline as the deep-seated fluid derived from dehydration of a subducting oceanic plate which results in water having a Cl content about twice that of the seawater. The relatively low-salinity nature comparable to seawater is one of the characteristics of mid-crustal fluid in volcanic fields.

  3. Temporal change in attenuation intensity before and after the Eastern Yamanashi Earthquake of 1983 in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1986-02-01

    A crutal earthquake of magnitude 6.0 took place on August 8, 1983, in the middle of the Kanto-Tokai microearthquake observation network of the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention in central Japan. By analyzing vertical seismograms of microearthquakes occurring in a small volume in the aftershock region, we measured temporal change in attenuation intensity for a period from 22 months before to 9 months after the main shock. Attenuation change was estimated by using two different kinds of analyses. In the first analysis, station magnitude calculated from the maximum amplitude at each station was compared with the average of station magnitudes. Deviations of station magnitude from the average magnitude at five stations in the vicinity of the aftershock area are found to have increased after the main shock compared with that before. In the second analysis, S coda duration from the origin time was measured and was compared with the average magnitude. The increase of S coda duration for the same average magnitude is found after the main shock at two stations close to the main shock epicenter. The simplest interpretation of the results is that the attenuation intensity in the upper crust in the close vicinity of the focal region decreased after the main shock for frequencies f from 2 to 20 Hz: ΔQs-1 = -1.4×10-2f-1. Since other precursors appeared in the preparation stage, it is possible to interpret the change in Qs-1 as a precursor. The attenuation intensity would have been anomalously large before the main shock.

  4. Sedimentary environment and paleosols of middle Miocene fluvial and lacustrine sediments in central Japan: Implications for paleoclimate interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Nozomi; Yoshida, Kohki

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary facies analysis and description of paleosols were carried out for the middle Miocene Tokiguchi Porcelain Clay Formation (PCF) in central Japan in order to interpret the soil-forming environments during a long hiatus in the Japanese Islands. The sedimentary facies suggests that deposition occurred mainly in a lacustrine environment, with minor channel-fill and debris-flow deposits associated with alluvial fan environments. The coarse-grained sediments, which are inferred to have been deposited in channel-bar and debris-flow deposits, are present only in the marginal area of the sedimentary basin. Mature paleosols are identified in the Tokiguchi PCF, characterized by illuviated clay, identifiable soil horizons including Bt horizons and many in situ plant fossils, and are then similar to Ultisols. Most tree trunk fossils, however, were preserved by burial beneath debris-flow deposits. Most of paleosols formed on lacustrine deposits and were covered by lacustrine clay and silt deposits, without intervening coarse-grained deposits, such as flood-flow deposits. This change of sedimentary facies indicates a dramatic change of hydrologic environment, from stagnant water to entirely desiccated conditions, promoting weathering and soil formation. The relationship between sedimentary facies and Pedotypes, consequently, implies the repetition of specific events, i.e., submergence and emergence of lake bottom, most likely due to formation and drainage of a dammed lake. These isolated events and development of mature paleosols might suggest specific characteristics of middle Miocene weathering conditions, such as seasonally heavy rainfall and/or warm climatic conditions in the Japanese Islands.

  5. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Komagata, Osamu; Yonejima, Mayuko; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Hirabayashi, Kimio; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Nihei, Naoko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2014-09-01

    A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV) infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12°C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Sedimentary imprints of tsunami and storm deposits on the Shizuoka coastline, south central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Fujiwara, Osamu; Brückner, Helmut; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Riedesel, Svenja; Miyairi, Yosuke; Shishikura, Masanobu; De Batist, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Differentiating between the deposits left by extreme wave events - including tsunamis and storms - presents a major challenge for the palaeotsunami and palaeotempestology communities. The coast of Shizuoka Prefecture, south central Japan, is impacted by typhoons and by tsunamis triggered by great subduction zone earthquakes along the adjacent Nankai Trough. A low-lying organic swale close to the town of Shirasuka is well-placed to preserve sedimentary layers left by both event types. The swale lies between a 5 to 10 metre high beach ridge and a 60 to 80 m high riser of the mid-Pleistocene Tenpakubara marine terrace. Investigating the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the site, Komatsubara et al. (2008) identified seven sand layers and attributed these to four tsunamis and one storm, with two sand layers identified as of terrestrial origin. Revisiting the site, we adopted a multi-proxy approach to further analyse the characteristics of selected deposits. We visualise the stratigraphy of retrieved vibrocores in 2D with linescan photography and in 3D with X-ray computed tomography. While problems remain in attempting to fully correlate all sedimentary layers with the published stratigraphy, we suggest that this reflects the difficulties of using a vibrocoring system in an environment characterised by alternating units of unconsolidated sand and compressible humic mud. Nevertheless, by focussing on sand units that are entirely contained within single core sections and by applying Bayesian age models based on new radiocarbon dates, we are able to identify and correlate selected sand layers. Radiocarbon ages, derived from terrestrial plant macrofossils and the acid-insoluble organic fraction of bulk samples sieved to <180 μm, constrain the timing of sand sheet emplacement, facilitating correlation with the historical record. We combine X-ray diffraction, geophysical characterisation and particle size analysis to provide a comprehensive assessment of the variations

  7. Transportation and Consumption Processes of Atmospheric Nitrate in Forested Watershed in Shiga Prefecture, Central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugo, T.; Osaka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nishida, K.; Nagafuchi, O.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify transportation and consumption processes of atmospheric nitrate deposited into forested ecosystems, and the influences on downstream aquatic ecosystem. We collected rainfall, throughfall, surface water, soilwater (10cm, 30cm), groundwater, spring water and streamwater at a forested watershed planted with Japanese cypress in Shiga prefecture, central Japan at about biweekly. Samples were analyzed for dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, nitrite, and oxygen isotope of nitrate. Isotope analysis was conducted at ICRE in University of Yamanashi. We also collected soil at several month intervals, and measured nitrate, ammonium in soil and net mineralization and nitrification rate. Precipitation in winter (from December 2012 to April 2013) was 602mm. Atmospheric nitrate deposition by throughfall during this period was 4.13 kgN/ha. Atmospheric nitrate flux by surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm were 0.005, 0.58 and 0.99 kgN/ha, respectively. Nitrified nitrate flux in this period by surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm were 0.0005, 0.27 and 0.32 kgN/ha, respectively. On the other hand, precipitation in summer (from May 2013 to October) was 1199mm. Atmospheric nitrate deposition by throughfall during the period was 4.10 kg/ha. Atmospheric nitrate flux in surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm were 0.038, 0.51 and 0.99 kgN/ha, respectively at this period. Nitrified nitrate flux by surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm 0.020, 1.31, 1.57 kgN/ha, respectively at this period. These results suggested that the amount of atmospheric nitrate leaching in soil water was influenced by not the amount of precipitation but atmospheric nitrate deposition by throughfall. On the other hand, nitrified nitrate leaching by soil water had seasonality that it was larger in summer than winter.

  8. Estimation of Seismic Attenuation beneath Tateyama Volcano, Central Japan by Using Peak Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, K.; Kawakata, H.; Hirano, S.; Doi, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Hida Mountain Range located in central Japan has a lot of active volcanoes. Katsumata et al. (1995, GJI) suggested the presence of regions with low-velocity and low-density as well as low Qanomaly at 5-15 km deep beneath the range. Tateyama volcano is located in the northern part of the range. Iwata et al. (2014, AGU Fall Meeting) quantitatively estimated strength of S-wave attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano using twofold spectral ratios and suggested that regions with high seismic attenuation exist in the south or the southeast of Tateyama volcano. However, it is difficult to estimate the contribution of scattering loss and intrinsic absorption to total attenuation on the basis of this method. In the present study, we focused on the peak delay (Takahashi et al., 2007, GJI) in seismic envelopes. We used seismograms observed at five NIED Hi-net stations near Tateyama volcano for 31 local earthquakes (MJMA2.5-4.0). We found seismograms recorded after passing below the southern part of the Hida Mountain Range show longer peak delay than those recorded before passing below the region, while there are no clear difference in peak delay for pairs of seismograms before and after passing below Tateyama volcano. It suggests that causes of the attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano and the southern part of the Hida Mountain Range are different. We used the peak delay values to evaluate the strength of intrinsic absorption. We assumed that the difference of whole peak delay between two seismograms for the same earthquake was caused by intrinsic absorption beneath the region between the two seismic stations. Wecalculated the change in amplitude and peak delay on the basis of a theory suggested by Azimi et al. (1966, Izvestia, Earth Physics). In case of the two envelopes are quite similar to each other, we conclude that intrinsic absorption is a major cause of total attenuation

  9. Sedimentary Environment Changes between Tsunami Events in the Central Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, S.; Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Yoneda, M.; Omori, T.; Ozaki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many tsunami deposits were found in the Tohoku region, Japan from recent and past tsunamis. Study of tsunami deposits is particularly important in the central to southern Fukushima Prefecture, which is the southern limit of the distributions of tsunami deposits of the 869 Jogan, 1454 Kyotoku and 1611 Keicho-Sanriku earthquakes. Previous studies reported that there were at least five tsunami deposits (EV1-EV5) consisted of fine-middle sand and the sedimentary environment was inner-bay or lagoon for the past 2,600 years (Goto and Aoyama, 2005; JpGU, Oikawa et al., 2011; JpGU, Oota and Hoyanagi, 2014; GSJ, Kusumoto et al., 2016; JpGU). However, the sedimentary environment changes between or across historical tsunamis have not been examined. In this study, we try to estimate the sedimentary environment changes using Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN) concentrations and organic Carbon-to-Nitrogen (C/N) ratio. We took 13 geological core samples of length 2.0-2.5 m at 11 locations 0.6-2.7 km from the coast. The deposits consisted of silt and massive sand with graded beddings, laminas and rip-up clasts. For samples, we performed grain-size analysis, radiocarbon age measurement and CN elemental analysis. We found three interesting characteristics. First, grain size of ordinary deposits between EV4 and EV5 tend to fine upward slightly. It suggests that tidal current became gradually weak. Second, C/N ratio is about 5-10 at every depth, meaning that organic material source was phytoplankton or zooplankton (Müller, 1977; GCA). Finally, TOC and TN concentrations slowly increase between EV4 and EV5, and they rapidly decrease across EV3 and EV4. Their slow increases correspond to sedimentary environment change from anaerobic to aerobic, whereas rapid decreases correspond to sedimentary environment change from aerobic to anaerobic. These characteristics might indicate development of sand bar between tsunami events and sudden collapse of sand bar by historical

  10. Rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals sampled from the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohno, M.; Tsunakawa, H.; Maruyama, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals, which are essential for future work establishing the paleointensity method using single zircon crystals. Zircon crystals used in this study were sampled from the Nakagawa River, which crosses the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton in central Japan. Rock-magnetic measurements were conducted on 1037 grains of zircons, but many of these measurements are below the limits of the sensitivity of the magnetometers employed. Isothermal remanent magnetizations (IRMs) of 876 zircon crystal are below the practical resolution of this study; we infer that these crystal contain no or only minute quantities of ferromagnetic minerals. The other zircon crystals contain enough magnetic minerals to be measured in the DC SQUID magnetometer. For 81 zircon crystals, IRM intensity (MIRM) are larger than 4 × 10-12 Am2, while natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity (MNRM) are below 4 × 10-12 Am2, indicating that these crystals are inappropriate for the paleomagnetic study. For the samples that had values of MNRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2 and MIRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2, combining the rock-magnetic parameter, we proposed the sample selection criteria for future study of paleointensity experiments using single zircon crystals. In the case that the samples had high Bc values (>10 mT) or high MNRM/MIRM values (>~0.1), main remanence carriers are probably pyrrhotite and these samples are inappropriate for the paleointensity study. In the case that the samples had low Bc values (<10 mT) and low MNRM/MIRM values (<~0.1), main remanence carrier seem to be nearly pure magnetite with PSD grain sizes and these samples are expected to appropriate for the paleointensity study. Total thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) acquisition experiments were also carried out for 12 samples of the zircon crystals satisfying the above criteria. The TRM intensity was comparable with that of NRM, and a rough estimation of the paleointensity using NRM

  11. Rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals sampled from the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Okada, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Masao; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals, which are essential for future work establishing the reliable paleointensity method using single zircon crystals. Zircon crystals used in this study were sampled from the Nakagawa River, which crosses the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton in central Japan. Rock-magnetic measurements were conducted on 1037 grains of zircons, but many of these measurements are below the limits of the sensitivity of the magnetometers employed. Isothermal remanent magnetizations (IRMs) of 876 zircon crystal are below the practical resolution of this study; we infer that these crystals contain no or only minute quantities of ferromagnetic minerals. The other zircon crystals contain enough magnetic minerals to be measured in the DC SQUID magnetometer. For 81 zircon crystals, IRM intensities ( M IRM) are larger than 4 × 10-12 Am2, while natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities ( M NRM) are below 4 × 10-12 Am2, indicating that these crystals are inappropriate for the paleomagnetic study. For the samples that had values of M NRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2 and M IRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2 (80 zircons), combining the rock-magnetic parameter, we proposed the sample-selection criteria for future study of paleointensity experiments using single zircon crystals. In the case that the samples had high coercivity ( B c) values (>10 mT) or high M NRM/ M IRM values (>~0.1), main remanence carriers are probably pyrrhotite and these samples are inappropriate for the paleointensity study. In the case that the samples had low B c values (<10 mT) and low M NRM/ M IRM values (<~0.1), main remanence carriers seem to be nearly pure magnetite with pseudo-single-domain grain sizes, and these samples are expected to appropriate for the paleointensity study. Total thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) acquisition experiments were also carried out for 12 samples satisfying the above criteria. The TRM intensity was comparable with that of NRM, and a

  12. Emission of Nitrous Oxide in Temperate Forests with Different Stages of Nitrogen Saturation in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaoyan, F.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term nitrogen deposition has caused a problem called nitrogen saturation in forest ecosystems globally. Aber et al. (1989) suggested that nitrogen saturation activate soil nitrification in forest systems, which is the main process of N2O production in aerobic condition. Thus, nitrogen saturation may affect significantly the N2O emission from forests, while the impact on flux has not been quantitatively evaluated yet. In the present study, 3-year monitoring of N2O emission was performed in an N-saturated forests (Tama Hill, Tokyo): the emission rate of N2O was measured monthly by a closed chamber method at 12 plots along a slope, and the net nitrification rate of surface soil (0-10 cm) was measured 4 times in situ. In addition, a comparative research was conducted in summer in eight temperate forests with different stages of nitrogen saturation in central Japan; the N2O flux, soil moisture, nitrogen availability and stream water NO3- concentration were measured at each site. In an N-saturated forests, the annual N2O emission was estimated to be 0.88 kg N ha-1year-1 , showing a typical seasonal variation . The seasonal patterns of N2O emission were significantly related to soil moisture and ambient temperature. We also found high spatial variation of N2O flux among 12 plots along the slope, which was generally higher at the bottom. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the rate of N2O emission and the net nitrification rate with WFPS<60%, while it was unclear in some humid spots with WFPS>60% , probably due to the effect of denitrification. In comparison sites, the N2O emission rate ranged nearly 16-fold from 0.13-2.11 g N ha-1day-1 was linearly related to the stream water NO3- concentration ranged 10-fold from 0.14 to 1.4 mg N/L. Our results revealed N enrichment in forest obviously stimulate soil N2O emission. Keywords: Nitrous oxide, nitrogen saturation, nitrification, temperate forest

  13. Tremor Hypocenters Form a Narrow Zone at the Plate Interface in Two Areas of SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The tremor detectors developed for accurately locating tectonic tremor in Cascadia [Armbruster et al., JGR 2014] have been applied to data from the HINET seismic network in Japan. In the overview by Obara [Science 2002] there are three strong sources of tectonic tremor in southwest Japan: Shikoku, Kii Pen. and Tokai. The daily epicentral distributions of tremor on the HINET web site allow the identification of days when tremor in each source is active. The worst results were obtained in Shikoku, in spite of the high level of tremor activity observed there by others. This method requires a clear direct arrival of the S and P waves at the stations for coherence to be seen, so scattering and shear wave splitting are possible reasons for poor results there. Relatively wide station spacing, 19-30 km, is another possible reason. The best results were obtained in Tokai with stations STR, HRY and TYE spacing 18-19 km, and Kii Pen. with stations KRT, HYS and KAW spacing 15-22 km. In both of those areas the three station detectors see strong episodes of tremor. If detections with three stations are located by constraining them to the plate interface, a pattern of persistent sources is seen, with some intense sources. This is similar to what was seen in Cascadia. Detections with four stations give S and P arrival times of high accuracy. In Tokai the hypocenters form a narrow, 2-3 km thick, zone dipping to the north, consistent with the plate interface there. In Kii Pen. the hypocenters dip to the northwest in a thin, 2-3 km thick, zone but approximately 5 km shallower than a plate interface model for this area [Yoshioka and Murakami, GJI 2007]. The overlap of tremor sources in the 12 years analyzed here suggests relative hypocentral location errors as small as 2-3 km. We conclude that the methods developed in Cascadia will work in Japan but the typical spacing of HINET stations, ~20 km, is greater than the optimum distance found in analysis of data from Cascadia, 8 to 15 km.

  14. Landslide and debris-flow hazard analysis and prediction using GIS in Minamata Hougawachi area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Esaki, Tetsuro; Xie, Mowen; Qiu, Cheng

    2006-10-01

    On July 20, 2003, following a short duration of heavy rainfall, a debris-flow disaster occurred in the Minamata Hougawachi area, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. This disaster was triggered by a landslide. In order to assess the landslide and debris-flow hazard potential of this mountainous region, the study of historic landslides is critical. The objective of the study is to couple 3D slope-stability analysis models and 2D numerical simulation of debris flow within a geographical information systems in order to identity the potential landslide-hazard area. Based on field observations, the failure mechanism of the past landslide is analyzed and the mechanical parameters for 3D slope-stability analysis are calculated from the historic landslide. Then, to locate potential new landslides, the studied area is divided into slope units. Based on 3D slope-stability analysis models and on Monte Carlo simulation, the spots of potential landslides are identified. Finally, we propose a depth-averaged 2D numerical model, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be a uniform continuous, incompressible, unsteady Newtonian fluid. The method accurately models the historic debris flow. According to the 2D numerical simulation, the results of the debris-flow model, including the potentially inundated areas, are analyzed, and potentially affected houses, river and road are mapped.

  15. Geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.; Shimada, J.

    2013-12-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area (103 Km2) in southern Japan. The modeling was based on flow paths proposed by different researcher using different techniques, and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in hydrochemical data of groundwater, mineralogical data, and saturation indices data of minerals in groundwater. Hydrochemical data from a total of 180 spring, river and well water samples were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control groundwater chemistry. The samples from the area were classified as recharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 type), lateral flow to discharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type) and stagnant zone water (Na-Cl type). The inverse geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive water chemistry in the area. The downstream changes in groundwater chemistry could be largely explained by the weathering of plagioclase to kaolinite, with possible contributions from weathering of biotite and pyroxene. In a broad sense, the reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the area fall into three categories (1) silicate weathering reactions (2) precipitation of amorphous silica and clay minerals and (3) Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ to Na+.

  16. Seismic interferometry imaging of subducting Philippine Sea plate and crustal structure in Tokai region, central Japan using natural earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, M.; Watanabe, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Ikuta, R.; Tsumura, N.; Okubo, M.; Suzuki, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic interferometry is an imaging method of subsurface structures using passive seismic records without artificial energy sources. Using natural earthquake records, seismic reflection imaging of deep crustal structures and plate boundaries is expected. We applied seismic interferometry to natural earthquake records, acquired by a wide-aperture linear seismometer array called Tokai Array, to image the P- and S-wave seismic structures in the Tokai region, central Japan. The Tokai Array observation was conducted from April to August 2008 with 81 three-component seismometers spanning about 100km in length. Records of 8 Hi-net stations near the array were also used. At first, we applied auto-correlation analysis to the record of deep earthquakes. Since the auto-correlation analysis assumes one-dimensional wave propagation, we searched deep earthquakes that could be considered as normal incidence using Fresnel zone concept. We selected 13 events of deep earthquakes for the P-wave and 10 events for the S-wave analysis, which occurred along subducting Pacific Sea plate at 200 - 300km in depth. After correcting seismometer response, we applied the band-pass filter from 1.0 to 2.5 Hz and 0.5 to 1.0 Hz for P- and S-wave, respectively, corresponding to the dominant frequency of the seismic records. Then we removed the records showing low S/N ratio. Afterwards, we calculated the auto-correlation to obtain virtual shot record, which is equivalent to zero-offset shot record. We applied a filter that transforms source functions into the simple Ricker wavelet, to remove the effects associated with source functions. After whitening deconvolution to remove multiples, we stacked auto-correlation of every earthquake record, and applied Kirchoff depth migration using the velocity model estimated by seismic tomography method (Kato et al., 2010). The result of auto-correlation analysis shows good agreement with previous researches in the area, such as seismic tomography, receiver

  17. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns of clustered and non-clustered seismic activity in the Shin-etsu and Tokai regions, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akio; Maeda, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroyuki

    1994-05-01

    We investigated spatiotemporal patterns of seismicity in the Shin-etsu region and Tokai region, central Japan, by separating the seismicity into clustered and non-clustered activity. We found that clustered activity occurred at various sites during short periods in each investigated region and that an alternation of active and quiet periods was clear for the clustered activity. In contrast, non-clustered earthquakes occur at an almost constant rate, and active or quiet periods can not be distinguished in the non-clustered activity. Some evidence suggests that an increase of clustered activity indicates a buildup of the regional stress field.

  19. Geology of the central Roan Plateau area, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, W.J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The geology of the central Roam Plateau area in the south-central part of the Piceance Creek basin, comprising four 7.5-minute quadrangles, is described. Subsurface rocks penetrated by drill holes include the Mancos Shale and Mesaverde Formation of Later Cretaceous age, and parts of the Wasatch Formation of Paleocene and Eocene age, and Green River Formation of Eocene age. Exposed rocks, aggregating as much as 4,550 feet in thickness, are all Eocene in age and include the upper part of the Wasatch Formation , and the Green River and Uinta formations. The Green River and Uinta formations are extensively intertongued. Surficial deposits of Quaternary age include alluvium, talus, slopewash, and landslides. Two northwesterly trending folds, the Clear Creek Syncline and the Crystal Creek anticlinal nose, are present in the northern part of the area. There are no major faults. The area contains large potentially important oil-shale resources, mostly in the Parachute Creek member of the Green River Formation.

  20. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Saori; Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster) and 2012 (post-disaster), we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics. The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (-5.3%) and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%). The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture's population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: -1.9% and 3.2%, respectively). Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20-50 km and 50-100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.7) and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8) more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area.

  1. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Methods Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster) and 2012 (post-disaster), we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics. Results The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (–5.3%) and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%). The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture’s population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: –1.9% and 3.2%, respectively). Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20–50 km and 50–100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6–5.7) and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.8) more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusions The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area. PMID:28046089

  2. Tributyltin contamination of bivalves in coastal areas around northern Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Suguru; Abe, Shin-ichiro; Oshima, Yuji; Kai, Norihisa; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2006-06-01

    We determined tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in bivalve samples of blue mussel (Myitlus edulis), Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and pen shell (Atrina pectinata) collected from coastal areas around northern Kyushu in 1998 and 2001. TBT was detected in all bivalve samples collected, ranging in concentration from 0.008 to 0.135 microg/g wet wt. In Hakata Port, which is an industrial area, high TBT concentrations were detected in bivalves (blue mussel, maximum concentration of 0.135 microg/g wet wt). In the Ariake Sea, which is an important bivalve habitat, TBT concentrations in Manila clams ranged from 0.062 to 0.125 microg/g wet wt in 1998 and from 0.008 to 0.033 microg/g wet wt in 2001. In addition, concentrations of TBT in pen shells collected from the Ariake Sea in 2001 ranged from 0.009 to 0.095 microg/g wet wt. These results clearly demonstrate that, despite the regulation of TBT usage since 1990 in Japan, contamination of bivalves by TBT has persisted in coastal areas around northern Kyushu. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anthropogenic changes due to partial dike removal in the Honjo Area of Nakaumi Lagoon, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.; Dettman, D. L.; Kurata, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Irizuki, T.; Takata, H.

    2009-12-01

    Nakaumi Lagoon is a coastal brackish water lake formed by the Yumigahama peninsula in Shimane and Tottori Prefectures, Southwest Japan. In 1981 the Honjo Area, approximately the northern quarter of Nakaumi Lagoon, was almost completely isolated by the Moriyama, O-misaki and West Dikes constructed by the Nakaumi Reclamation and Desalination Project. A connection remained with Nakaumi Lagoon via one shallow channel in the West Dike. In 2002, the reclamation project was canceled and restoration work has been undertaken and planned during 2007-2009, such as the opening of 60 meters of the Moriyama Dike and the removal of West Dike. The inflow of high salinity water allowed by this restoration work is expected to have a large impact on the present ecosystem of the Honjo Area. In May 2009 the opening of Moriyama Dike was carried out and the water chemistry of the Honjo Area changed drastically. In this study, we document changes in the water environment resulting from the opening of Moriyama Dike. The monitoring program is made up of 60 water quality measurement sites and 12 detailed sampling localities in a traverse line through the lake system and observations were made at monthly intervals from May 2006 to present. At detailed sampling locations we measured standard water quality variables, collected water samples for biomass and stable isotope chemistry, and collected surface sediment samples for geochemistry and benthos censusing. Before the Moriyama Dike was opened, the salinity difference between surface and bottom water remained between 2 and 4 psu except during winter when strong winds mix the Honjo Area waters vertically. For most of the year the water was stratified and bottom water in the Honjo Area showed oxygen depletion. The dissolved oxygen of bottom water decreased early in the year on the Moriyama Dike side of the Honjo Area. This oxygen-poor water was easily up-welled by winds because the vertical salinity difference was small. At times the observed

  4. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant phenological observations in rural and industrial central Italy areas.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Ruga, L; Bonofiglio, T; Aguilera, F; Ranfa, A; Bodesmo, M; Fornaciari, M

    2016-12-01

    The physiological stress caused by particular pollution conditions can result in phenological phase shifts that can include a block in vegetative or reproductive development. The main aim of the present study was to determine and analyse the mean development trends of some winter deciduous species in comparison to the climate tendencies, as calculated within two phenological gardens in the Arezzo and Perugia areas of central Italy. Moreover, a phenological comparison between the guide species of the two phenological gardens, one located in an industrial area, and the other in a farming area, was carried out. The phenological evidences showed significant phase displacements for the common guide species present in both the gardens which however may be explained by the meteorological performances above all in the Perugia not polluted area. In these terms, there were no evident phenological effects on the plants from the industrial area pollutants in the Arezzo garden. Moreover, also the temperature reduction tendencies at the end of spring not influenced significantly the phenological behaviours of the plant species not inducing them toward a predictable delay of reproductive and adult leaves phases.

  6. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  7. A Paleozoic Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Tian, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    Magmatic arcs ascribed to oceanic lithosphere subduction played a dominant role in the construction of the accretionary Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan orogenic collage, situated between the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Inner Mongolia Orogen to the east, is a key area to understanding the subduction and accretionary processes of the southern CAOB. However, the nature of magmatic arcs in the Beishan and the correlation among different tectonic units along the southern CAOB are highly ambiguous. In order to investigate the subduction-accretion history of the Beishan and put a better spatial and temporal relationship among the tectonic belts along the southern CAOB, we carried out detailed field-based structural geology and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological as well as geochemical studies along four cross-sections across crucial litho-tectonic units in the central segment of the Beishan, mainly focusing on the metamorphic assemblages and associated plutons and volcanic rocks. The results show that both the plutonic and volcanic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to those of subduction-related rocks, which favors a volcanic arc setting. Zircons from all the plutonic rocks yield Phanerozoic ages and the plutons have crystallization ages ranging from 464 ± 2 Ma to 398 ± 3 Ma. Two volcanic-sedimentary rocks yield zircons with a wide age range from Phanerozoic to Precambrian with the youngest age peaks at 441 Ma and 446 Ma, estimated to be the time of formation of the volcanic rocks. These new results, combined with published data on ophiolitic mélanges from the central segment of the Beishan, favor a Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Cambrian to Carboniferous in this part of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Xichangjing-Niujuanzi ophiolite probably represents a major suture zone separating different tectonic units across the Beishan orogenic collage, while the Xiaohuangshan-Jijitaizi ophiolitic mélange may represent a

  8. Exploration and monitoring geothermal activity using Landsat ETM + images. A case study at Aso volcanic area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md. Bodruddoza; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Thermal activity monitoring in and around active volcanic areas using remote sensing is an essential part of volcanology nowadays. Three identical approaches were used for thermal activity exploration at Aso volcanic area in Japan using Landsat ETM + images. First, the conventional methods for hydrothermal alteration mapping were applied to find the most active thermal region after exploring geothermal indicator minerals. Second, we found some thermally highly anomalous regions around Nakadake crater using land surface temperature estimation. Then, the Stefan-Boltzmann equation was used for estimating and also monitoring radiative heat flux (RHF) from the most active region of about 8 km2 in and around Nakadake crater in the central part of the Aso volcano. To fulfill the required parameter in the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiative heat flux, the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method was used for spectral emissivity, and the mono-window algorithm was used for land surface temperature of this study area. The NDVI value was used to divide land-cover in the study area into four types: water, bare ground, mixed and vegetated land. The bare land was found within the most active region. Vegetation coverage area showed an inverse relationship with total RHF in this study as health of thermally stressed vegetation supports this relationship. The spatial distribution of spectral emissivity ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 in our study. Land surface temperature was estimated using a mono-window algorithm and was highest LST in 2008 and lowest in 2011. The results of RHF showed that the highest pixel RHF was found to be about 296 W/m2 in 2008. Total RHF was obtained of about 607 MW in 2002 and the lowest was about 354 MW in 2008. The RHF anomaly area was found the highest in 2002 and was lowest in 2011. The highest total heat discharge rate (HDR) obtained about 3918 MW in 2002 and lowest total HDR about 2289 MW in 2008 from this study area. But in the case of

  9. Geological Structure of the Itoigawa - Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Northern Fossa Magna, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Iwasaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Geological structure of two different natures is recognized in the Northern Fossa Magna (NFM). NFM is situated near the zone where the central Japan Island bent geographically and a graben zone formed between the North Alps and the Kanto highland. NFM is characterized by thick Neogene deposits and with active tilting of the crustal blocks and active folding bloc. At the present the sedimentary basin is the Saigawa hill due to the active faulting and folding in the Fossa Magna. Active fault system of Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is an eastward - dip of reverse fault which strikes N-S along the western margin of the NFM. The vertical displacement rate of ISTL is estimated to be maximum 9 mm/yr from the offset amount and the formation age of flexure scarp which appeared in the fluvial terrace [ex. Ikeda et al., (2002)]. Besides, the last event and the reccurrence interval are presumed to be about about 1,500 years aga and 2,000 years, respectively [Okumura (2001)]. In addition the western margin fault of the Nagano basin (NBF) strikes NNE-SSW along the east edge of NFM. The NBF is an eastward-dip of reverse fault, and the Zenkoji earthquake (M7.4) in 1847 was occurred. The purpose of present study is to discuss the geometry of ISTL and geological process of NFM based on the geomorphological and geological survey using the geological dip and strike already obtained at the more than 1,500 data points. Based on these geological data, the geological structure provinceis divided into two types those are a tilt block and a folding belt at west and east sides, respectively. The Western tilting block and an Eastern folding belt trend NS strike and NNE-SSW strike, respectively. As a result of the geomorphic decipherment in alignment with ISTL using the air photograph, flexure scarp of east side upheaval is formed in the fluvial terrace side and it is difficult for the terrace riser which crosses flexure scarp and a valley to observe lateral offset. The tilt block,

  10. Converted Ps amplitude variations on the dipping slab Moho beneath the Kii Peninsula, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Park, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Receiver function (RF) analysis is a very useful method to detect seismic velocity discontinuities beneath a seismic station. One can estimate the depth of interfaces using the delay time of Ps converted phases in RFs. One can also evaluate elastic properties at an interface from changes of Ps polarity and Ps amplitude. Ps amplitude depends primarily on the impedance contrast at an interface, but the variation of Ps amplitude on back azimuth (BAZ) of the incoming P wave is affected if the interface is dipping and/or anisotropic rock surrounds the interface. Moreover, variation in the incidence angle of incoming P waves also causes variation in Ps amplitude. Shiomi and Park (2009; AGU FM) defined 'standard amplitude' of a converted phase at a dipping interface beneath a station, based on back azimuth dependence of the Ps amplitude. They did not consider ray parameter dependence to the Ps amplitude evaluation, but it affects the accuracy of the standard amplitude estimate. In this study, we check ray parameter dependence, and apply the method to the stations in the Kii Peninsula, central Japan. We select earthquakes with high signal-to-noise ratio observed from October 2000 to August 2010 with magnitudes 6.0 or greater. Checking distribution of BAZs and incidence angles of teleseismic waveforms observed at each station, we confirm that 80% of the selected events are located to the south of stations. Ray parameters of 10% of the events are larger than 0.077. In the case of dipping interface, Ps amplitude variation with BAZ is larger for incoming P waves with larger ray parameters. Since events located in the west or northeast of stations are fewer than other directions, the contribution of events with large ray parameter is not small in these directions. These directions correspond to the dipping direction of the subducting Philippine Sea slab, thus the Ps amplitudes tend to become large. This means the Ps amplitude may be overestimated when we do not take ray

  11. The lithosphere in the central-eastern Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, G.; D'Ingeo, F.; Farrugia, P.; Panza, G. F.

    1982-03-01

    The lithosphere beneath the central-eastern Mediterranean area has been investigated by the inversion of the regional dispersion relations derived from analysis of surface waves. It is possible to distinguish several types of crust with average S-wave velocities in the range 3.0 3.8 km/sec, and thicknesses varying from a minimum of about 30 km, which corresponds to the Apennines, Crete and Otranto Channel regions, to a maximum of about 51 km beneath the Ionian Sea, which can be considered as a submerged continent. Associated with these crustal features, large lateral variations have been detected in the lithosphere thickness, which varies from a minimum of about 30 km corresponding to the Tyrrhenian Sea and south of Crete to a maximum of about 130 km corresponding to south-eastern Alps and north-central Greece, while the sub-Moho S-wave velocity varies in the range 4.2 4.8 km/sec. The constraint furnished by our results to the geological-tectonic setting of the investigated area, characterized by the continent continent collision between Africa and Europe, is pointed out.

  12. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  13. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  14. The preliminary results of new submarine caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, Central Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigane, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Shimoda, G.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Ryukyu Arc occurs between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan with approximately 1200 km in the full length. This volcanic arc is caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Eurasia Plate along the Ryukyu trench, and is composed of forearc islands, chains of arc volcanoes, and a back-arc rift called Okinawa Trough. The Ryukyu Arc is commonly divided into three segments (northern, central and southern) that bounded by the Tokara Strait and the Kerama Gap, respectively (e.g., Konishi 1965; Kato et al., 1982). Sato et al. (2014) mentioned that there is no active subaerial volcano in the southwest of Iotori-shima in the Central Ryukyu Arc whereas the Northern Ryukyu Arc (i.e., the Tokara Islands) has active frontal arc volcanoes. Therefore, the existence of volcanoes and volcanotectonic history of active volcanic front in the southwestern part of the Central Ryukyu Arc are still ambiguous. Detailed geophysical and geological survey was mainly conducted using R/V Kaiyou-maru No.7 during GK12 cruise operated by the Geological Survey of Japan/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan. As a result, we have found a new submarine volcanic caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, where located the southwestern part of Central Ryukyu Arc. Here, we present (1) the bathymetrical feature of this new submarine caldera for the first time and (2) the microstructural and petrological observations of volcanic rocks (20 volcanic samples in 13 dredge sites) sampled from the small volcanic cones of this caldera volcano. The dredged samples from the caldera consist of mainly rhyolite pumice with minor andesites, Mn oxides-crust and hydrothermally altered rocks. Andesite has plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts. Key words: volcanic rock, caldera, arc volcanism, active volcanic front, Kume-jima island, Ryukyu Arc

  15. Landslide properties Controlled by the Denudation degree on Granite area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Makoto; Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Ishizuka, Tadanori

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, numerous shallow landslides were induced in a cretaceous granite region by heavy rainstorms in the area of the city of Hofu, Yamaguchi Prefecture, in western Japan. Fourteen people were killed by the debris flow. This area has a widely distributed plantation surface, and topography formed by denudation processes such as the 2009 landslides. The plantation surface area is known for the frequent occurrence of landslides in the past. However, the relation between the landslide properties and the degree of mountain denudation, which is important for predicting the landslide risk, has not been clarified. We examined the relation between the degree of mountain denudation and the shallow landslide properties [landslide density (number/km2), landslide form, and soil layer structure]. First, we classified the slopes based on the degree of mountain denudation and interpretation of the 2009 landslide scars, using 1-m resolution DEMs, aerial photographs, and field surveys. As a result, the slopes were classified into three types as follows: (1) lightly denuded slopes (L-slope), (2) moderately denuded slopes (M-slope), and (3) heavily denuded slopes (H-slope). The landslide numbers were 23, 54, and 21 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope regions, respectively. Next, we analyzed the landslide properties using ESRI ArcGIS10. The landslide densities were 77/ km2, 115/ km2, and 41/ km2 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. The investigation area experienced heavy precipitation (about 250-300 mm per day). The landslide average volumes were 423 m3, 401 m3, and 173 m3 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. The landslide average angles were 28.5° , 33.2° , and 40.4° in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. Finally, we surveyed the landslide form and soil layer structure using detailed field surveys. The landslide form in the L-slope and M-slope areas was that of an 'arc shape type', and in the H-slope area was that of

  16. 41 CFR 102-83.85 - What is a central business area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a central business area? 102-83.85 Section 102-83.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.85 What is a central business area? Central business area (CBA...

  17. Grouping and representativeness of monitoring stations based on wind speed and wind direction data in urban areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    Data on wind speed and wind direction from 27 air pollution monitoring stations in an urban area of Japan were analyzed and studied for the future assessment of the urban heat island phenomenon. A cluster analysis clarified the regionality of the wind speed and wind direction. In the study area, land and sea breeze developed and controlled the wind direction. On the other hand, the mountain and valley wind should be studied to determine their typical behavior.

  18. Laramide structures in the Matchless Mountain area, central Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, N.W. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Paleozoic strata and Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Matchless Mountain area northeast of Gunnison in Central Colorado, show deformation unique among Laramide structures in Colorado. These structures are part of a northeast-striking belt of deformed crystalline and sedimentary rocks recognizable for 25 miles along strike in the West Elk, and eastern Sawatch Ranges. Field and geometric studies show the area contains at least five southwest verging thrust faults which root into Precambrian rocks, separated by basement cored, shallowly plunging, northeast-trending recumbent folds. Folding shows a roughly east-west gradient with intensity increasing towards the east. Within the overturned limbs of these folds, Paleozoic strata show up to 70% shortening. Microstructural studies show some small cataclastic shear zones and some evidence for pressure solution in the quartzite samples examined. However, the observed mechanisms cannot account for the stratigraphic attenuation. Field relationships indicate that recumbent folding was followed by and probably coeval with thrusting and associated drag folding, followed by extensional faulting. Deformed 72 Ma andesitic porphyries define a probable minimum age for initiation of contraction while cross-cutting Tertiary rhyolite porphyries define a minimum age for deformation. These observations are consistent with the localized involvement of upper Cretaceous Dakota Formation in the structurally highest thrust sheet of the area. These data indicate that the rocks of the Matchless Mountain area were complexly deformed by southwest-northeast contraction during Laramide times. The nature of the roughly west to east gradient of increasing deformation indicates that this area is transitional from typical Laramide drape fold deformation to the west.

  19. Planktonic foraminiferal zonation in the Cretaceous Yezo Group, Central Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Hiroshi; Takashima, Reishi; Hatsugai, Takayuki; Saito, Tsunemasa; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Ennyu, Atsuhito; Sakai, Toshiaki

    2003-06-01

    The mudstone of the Yezo Group exposed in Central Hokkaido yields abundant microfossils of calcareous nannofossils, foraminifers, radiolarians and dinoflagellates. Benthic foraminifers consisting of both agglutinated and calcareous species occur abundantly and consistently throughout the sequence, while specimens of planktonic foraminifers are generally fewer than benthics in all samples. We recognized the following 13 planktonic foraminiferal zones assigned to the late Aptian to early Campanian in the Oyubari and Haboro-Kotanbetsu areas; (1) Globigerinelloides spp., (2) Ticinella primula, (3) Biticinella breggiensis, (4) Rotalipora subicinensis- Rotalipora ticinensis, (5) Rotalipora appenninica, (6) Rotalipora globotruncanoides, (7) Rotalipora cushmani (8), Whiteinella archaeocretacea (9) Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica, (10) Marginotruncana pseudolinneiana, (11) Marginotruncana sinuosa, (12) Contusotruncana fornicata, (13) Globotruncana arca. The Globigerinelloides spp. to H. helvetica Zones (late Aptian to early Turonian) can be correlated with standard zones in the Tethyan regions, whereas the assemblages from the M. pseudolinneiana to G. arca zones lack tropical zonal markers of Dicarinella concavata, D. asymetrica and Globotruncanita elevata in many studied sections. The scarcity or lack of tropical zonal species during the late Turonian to early Campanian suggests that the Oyubari and Haboro-Kotanbetsu regions in Hokkaido were located in the Transitional to Boreal biogeographical provinces.

  20. Geomorphic process and vegetation diversity in the active riverbed and the floodplain in the Kamikochi valley, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Kamikochi valley is located in a mountainous area in central Japan. The R. Azusa in this valley is a braided river with floodplains. Dense riparian forests cover the floodplains and fragmented small pioneer plant patches and isolated old pioneer trees are distributed in the active riverbed. This study aims to discuss the relationships between geomorphic processes of the river and vegetation diversity. Yearly mapping of the riverbed micro-landforms revealed that channel migrations and landform changes in the active riverbed occurs once every one or several years during a bankfull flood in the rainy season. Germination ages of riparian trees using a dendrochronological technique, their established layers and landform structure were examined to reconstruct floodplain dynamics. Major channel migrations destroyed the riparian forest repeatedly and the recent event occurred about 100 years ago. This caused a longitudinal zonal structure of the riparian forest vegetation, elm-fir forest, mature pioneer forest and young pioneer forests. The young pioneer forest is located alongside the present riverbed. The mature pioneer forest lies between the older elm-fir forests. The pioneer plants germinated simultaneously on the abandoned channel after channel migration. These trees became the mature pioneer forest. Ditches and lobes including boulders are found in the floodplain. The ditches extend parallel to the direction of the present and former channels. The lobes are distributed alongside them. Younger trees under the canopy grow on the lobes in the inner part of the floodplain. These young trees and lobes show that dominant sedimentation process in the floodplain is not lateral flooding, but longitudinal flooding. Sediments from the present channel flew downward through the ditches and were overflowed on the floodplain. This process destroyed the vegetation in and alongside the ditches causing vegetation diversity in the inner part of the riparian forest. Several species

  1. Increasing of Gas Bubbling at Wariishi Flowing Spring, Central Japan, before and after the 2014 Ontake Volcano Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, F.; Tasaka, S.; Asai, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wariishi Spa is locating at Atotsugawa active fault, and it is an flowing spring from the 850m depth by the bore hole. The spring is coming from the rain fall through the geological boundary. Discharge was measured 100L/minute by manual every week in 1977. In 1990, measurement system was updated to 1Hz by electromagnetic flowmeter system. Co-seismic discharge rises are measured for about 100 examples of the earthquake occurrence in around area. The discharge rise is decreasing asymptotic convergence with time. In 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, the discharge of spring is a rise of 30 L/minutes, and it took 1 and half year to return to 20 L/minute. Ontake Volcano is one of the active volcanoes in same mountain range, but it is located about 50 km south from the Wariishi spa. There are three active volcanoes between Wariishi Spa and Ontake Volcano. The volcano was erupted in a phreatic explosion on September 27, 2014. There is no observation of the discharge change at the eruption in the hot spring. There are other hot spring systems in Wariishi spa. The spa has a periodic spring with one to two-hour frequencies. The periodic frequencies are depended on the discharge volume. Therefore, at the co-seismic discharge rise, the shortenings of periodic frequencies are observed. Hence, the mechanism of main discharge and periodic spring is located at the depth of 850 m. Based on discussion on time series of discharge spa, there are observed many pulsed noises between the periodic springs. The noises are caused by gas bubbling from the precise examinations. It is suggested that gas bubbling is different mechanism with periodic spring, because no effects on the periodic spring frequency. Bubbling is sourced from more deep than 850 m. Gas bubbling was observed about 50 times between the periodic spa around the Ontake volcano eruption. There is no report on such gas bubbling rise since 2012. Discussed above, it is suggested some changes of strain field at central Japan, especially in

  2. A New Automatic Subsurface Gas Monitoring System for Seismogeochemical Studies, Installed in Haruno Borehole, Shizuoka Prefecture, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Kazuya; Takama, Ruka; Kawabe, Iwao; Kariya, Shinnichi; Yamauchi, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The results of subsurface gas monitoring by application of gas chromatography (GC) to the gas composition of bubbles associated with groundwater for seismogeochemical studies are reported. An automated gas monitoring system was used to determine gas compositions in a 500-m borehole at the Haruno Crustal Movement Observation Site (HOS), central Japan during period 1, from December 1999 to December 2000. The average ± two standard deviation (2SD) compositions of gases in this period were He = 82 ± 29 ppmV, H2 = 170 ± 62 ppmV, Ar = 0.05 ± 0.07%, N2 = 50 ± 8%, and CH4 = 45 ± 6%. A new automated gas monitoring system equipped with a micro-GC was installed in the borehole at the HOS, and gas bubbles from the borehole were monitored during period 2, from December 2006 to March 2007. The average ± two standard deviation (2SD) compositions of gases in this period were He = 8 ± 7 ppmV, H2 = 13 ± 15 ppmV, Ar = 0.6 ± 0.3%, N2 = 66 ± 7%, and CH4 = 14 ± 14%. The gas concentration ratios (He/Ar, H2/Ar, N2/Ar, and CH4/Ar) fluctuated significantly over time and repeatedly showed abrupt spike-like increases during period 2. The gas compositions obtained in period 1 and 2 were markedly different. Over the period from 2006 to 2007, the gas bubbles were depleted in He, H2, and CH4 of deep origin, but enriched in Ar and N2 of atmospheric origin. This difference can be interpreted as being due to an irreversible change of the aquifer/gas system. The present deep component in the HOS gas is estimated to have composition He = 63 ppmV, H2 = 37 ppmV, Ar = 0.17%, N2 = 63%, and CH4 = 37%. The new monitoring system is able to analyze the gas composition using a smaller volume of sample gas and with greater precision than the previous system. During the 3-month monitoring period 2, the separation capacity of the capillary column of the micro-GC was sufficiently maintained to determine gas-chromatographic peak areas for the five gaseous species examined. This study confirms that the

  3. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59-9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95-6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31-2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05-2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17-2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06-3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25-0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40-0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood.

  4. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  5. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Σ endosulfan > Σ HCH > Σ heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Σ HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ≤ 0.05). PMID:18777151

  6. Wind speed forecasting in the central California wind resource area

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, E.F.

    1997-12-31

    A wind speed forecasting program was implemented in the summer seasons of 1985 - 87 in the Central California Wind Resource Area (WRA). The forecasting program is designed to use either meteorological observations from the WRA and local upper air observations or upper air observations alone to predict the daily average windspeed at two locations. Forecasts are made each morning at 6 AM and are valid for a 24 hour period. Ease of use is a hallmark of the program as the daily forecast can be made using data entered into a programmable HP calculator. The forecasting program was the first step in a process to examine whether the electrical energy output of an entire wind power generation facility or defined subsections of the same facility could be predicted up to 24 hours in advance. Analysis of the results of the summer season program using standard forecast verification techniques show the program has skill over persistence and climatology.

  7. Organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton, Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Siriwong, W; Thirakhupt, K; Sitticharoenchai, D; Borjan, M; Robson, M

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10-3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Sigma endosulfan > Sigma HCH > Sigma heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Sigma HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p

  8. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Miyahara, Masaya; Fujii, Kazushi; Machiyama, Asako; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year. PMID:28848519

  9. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  10. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  11. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Miyahara, Masaya; Fujii, Kazushi; Machiyama, Asako; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  12. Associations of street layout with walking and sedentary behaviors in an urban and a rural area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Sugiyama, Takemi; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Liao, Yung; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-03-10

    We examined whether street layout -a key urban design element- is associated with walking and sedentary behaviors in the context of a non-Western country; and, whether such associations differ between an urban and a rural area. In 2011, 1076 middle-to-older aged adults living in an urban and a rural area of Japan reported their walking and sedentary (sitting) behaviors. Two objective measures of street layout (intersection density and street integration) were calculated. Participants exposed to more-connected street layouts were more likely to walk for commuting and for errands, to meet physical activity recommendations through walking for commuting, and less likely to drive. These relationships differed between the urban and the rural area. This shows that previous findings from Western countries on associations of street connectivity with travel behaviors may also be applicable to Japan.

  13. Lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary Magma of central Northeastern Japan arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, I.; Matsu'ura, T.; Itoh, J.; Morishita, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Water plays a key role in the genesis and eruptive mechanisms of subduction zone volcanoes. We estimated bulk rock water content of both frontal and back arc volcanoes from Northeastern Japan arc in order to understand the lateral variation of magmatic H2O contents in the island arc magma. Our analytical targets are the Adachi volcano located near the volcanic front and the Hijiori volcano located on back arc side. In this study, the bulk magmatic H2O content is estimated by a simple mass balance calculation of the chemistry of bulk rock and melt inclusions in phenocrysts; the melt H2O contents of melt inclusions analyzed by SIMS or EPMA are corrected according to the difference in K2O content between melt inclusions and bulk rock. The bulk magmatic H2O we obtained is 8 wt. % or even more for Adachi and is 2-3 wt. % for Hijiori. Thus, the frontal volcano has higher H2O than the back arc volcano. Although our data are opposed to the previous estimation on the lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary volcanoes of Northeastern Japan arc (e.g., Sakuyama, 1979), thermodynamic computations using MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) suggest that the amount of bulk magmatic H2O we estimated is consistent with petrographical observations. Our data imply a regional characteristics in the type of eruption that the H2O rich frontal volcanoes will erupt explosively and those H2O poor back arc ones will be effusive, which implication is consistent with actual geological observations that volcanoes located on back arc side of the Northeastern Japan arc generally comprise lava flow (e.g., Iwaki, Kanpu, Chokai, Gassan), in contrast to the frontal ones that produced voluminous tephra (e.g., Osorezan, Towada, Narugo, Adachi). This research project has been conducted under the research contract with Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA).

  14. Migration area of the Tsushima Warm Current Branches within the Sea of Japan: Implications from transport of 228Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Shirotani, Y.; Furusawa, Y.; Fujimoto, K.; Kofuji, H.; Yoshida, K.; Nagao, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hamajima, Y.; Honda, N.; Morimoto, A.; Takikawa, T.; Shiomoto, A.; Isoda, Y.; Minakawa, M.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated lateral profiles of 228Ra (half-life; 5.75 years) activity and 228Ra/226Ra (1600 years) activity ratio using 241 surface water samples collected in/around the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea (ECS) during June-October of 2009-2014. In the ECS, the 228Ra/226Ra ratio in the surface waters exhibited markedly wide variation (<0.05-3.5) in June, predominantly reflecting the mixing between the 228Ra-rich continental shelf water and the 228Ra-depleted Kuroshio Current water. In July, the surface waters of the central Sea of Japan (135-138°E) became separated into three currents: the Offshore Branch of the Tsushima Warm Current (OBTWC) (228Ra/226Ra =0.7-1.2) at 39-41°N, the Coastal Branch of the TWC (CBTWC) ( 0.7) on the southern side, and sub-Arctic Current ( 0.7) on the northern side. From the central to northeastern Sea of Japan, the 228Ra/226Ra ratio at the surface (0.8-1.0) was within a range between that of the CBTWC and OBTWC. The fraction of continental shelf water in the CBTWC, OBTWC, and in their combined current was estimated to be 11-16%, 8%, and 10-11%, respectively.

  15. Taxonomic Richness of Yeasts in Japan within Subtropical and Cool Temperate Areas

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Masako; Sugita, Takashi; Van, Bui Hong; Nakamura, Megumi; Endoh, Rikiya; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the role of yeasts in the environment has been uncertain because estimates of population size and diversity have often been based on species identifications that were determined from a limited number of phenotypic characteristics. DNA-based species identification has now become widely used, allowing an accurate assessment of species in different habitats. However, there are still problems in classification because some genera are polyphyletic. Consequently, the identification of yeasts and measurement of their diversity at the genus level remains difficult, as does assignment of genera to higher taxonomic ranks. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1021 yeast strains was isolated from soil samples and plant materials collected from Japan’s subtropical Iriomote Island and the cool temperate Rishiri Island. Based on sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene, these 1021 strains were tentatively classified into 183 species, with apparent new species accounting for approximately half of the total species isolated (60 and 46, Iriomote and Rishiri, respectively). The yeast species composition was statistically different between the two sites with only 15 species in common. Rarefaction curves of respective sources/areas gave distinctive patterns when the threshold of sequence identity became broader, indicating that the yeast diversity was distinct at the different taxonomic levels compared. Conclusions/Significance Our isolation study of yeasts in Japan has enabled us to expand the inventory of species diversity because a large number of new species was observed in the sampling areas. Further, we propose use of a particular diversity threshold as an “indicator” to recognize species, genera and higher taxonomic ranks. PMID:23226383

  16. Dissolved zinc and its speciation in the coastal hydrothermal area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, H.; Kim, T.; Gamo, T.; Takeda, S.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for marine bacteria and phytoplankton. Previous studies indicated that organic complexes of dissolved zinc in surface waters account for about 98% of the total dissolved zinc in the open ocean (e.g., Bruland, 1989; Ellwood and van den Berg, 2000). However, distributions of dissolved Zn and its speciation were not clarified yet in the coastal areas. In this study, we have investigated dissolved Zn distribution and its speciation in the Tachibana Bay (Japan), where an active hydrothermal activity was reported at the coastal areas. Seawater samples were collected from surface to near bottom (D=36 m) in the Tachibana Bay, Nagasaki Prefecture, by using acid-cleaned samplers in May 2012 and 2013. Total dissolved Zn was determined by using CSV after UV-digestion. For the Zn speciation, ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants were obtained from a titration using competitive ligand equilibrium / adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (van den Berg, 1985). In the Tachibana Bay, total dissolved Zn (D-Zn) ranged from 0.33 to 3.1 nM, which were similar concentration levels to those in the open ocean. D-Zn was sharply decreased toward the bottom. High sulfide concentration (94 nM) in coastal bottom waters was observed, reflecting active hydrothermal system near the bottom of Tachibana Bay coast. Zn is seemingly removed as Zn-sulfides from the water column. Also, relatively high total ligand concentration was calculated near the bottom. The biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the Tachibana Bay is considerably affected by hydrothermal system.

  17. Mineralization of Fe/Mn-precipitates From Hot Springs in the Sanbe Volcanic Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Kimura, H.

    2007-12-01

    Mt. Sanbe is an active volcano located in western Japan. At southwest slope of Mt.Sanbe, hot springs are discharged with flow rate of 2000 liter per minute, which are accomapnied by iron and manganese precipitates. We studied chemical composition of hot spring waters by IC, ICP-AES and AA analysis, and of precipitates by XRF analysis. Water chemistry of the main hot spring (t= 30-39 °C) is Na-Cl type and contains significant iron (= 5.6-7.5 mg/l) and manganese (= 1.1-1.6 mg/l). Around the main spring discharge, both ferrihydrites (contains 67-76% of Fe) and manganese oxides (contains 71-79% of Mn) are precipitated. About 30 to 100m east from the main hot spring, black precipitates mainly consists of manganese oxides (contains 5-83% of Mn) are distributed in the area of 90 m × 45 m. Cold spring waters (t= 12-20 °C) in this area also contains Mn (0.1-0.6 mg/l), but their Fe concentration was under detection limit. Relative chemical comoposition of the cold spring waters are similar to that of the main hot spring, which implies dilution with groundwater. Total bacterial count measured by DAPI staining was 16,000-37,000 cells/ml in these waters. In order to estimate microbial activity, we conducted manganese oxidizing experiments. The oxidation rate was estiamted as 4-5 nM per hour for the experiment in which 5 g of fresh manganese wad was added to 200ml of the 0.20 μm filtered hot spring water. This rapid oxidation rate would suggest that microbial activity plays important role in manganese precipitation from the Sanbe hot/cold spring waters.

  18. Effects of urbanization on local winds and thermal environment in Nohbi Plain, coastal region of Central Japan - a numerical analysis by meso-scale meteorological model with k-{epsilon} turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Setsu

    1996-12-31

    Japanese large cities, mostly located in coastal region, have rapidly expanded in the last three decades. People in the region now experience warmer and unpleasant thermal environment in summer season, supposedly because of the extensive urbanization. Especially, under fine weather with light synoptic-scale gradient wind, the highest temperature often appears in rather inland area. An explanation to this phenomenon is horizontal transport of heat by the sea breeze which is strongly heated during its passage over the coastal urban area. This study investigated how and how much urbanization in Nohbi Plain of central Japan influences local wind and temperature distribution over the plain and its surrounding region, Nohbi Plain which faces to the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Japanese Alps, and thus is in a typical topographic situation in Japan. For the study we performed numerical simulations using our meso-scale meteorological model which includes k-c model for turbulence. One of the major results obtained is to have clarified a hierarchy in natural and artificial topography of various scales on their contributions to formation of characteristic diurnal pattern of wind and temperature distributions in the plain area. The Japanese Alps, the largest topographic feature in central Japan and often called the roof of Japan, gave the most important influence on the wind, although the mountains are located quite far, around 200 km, from Nohbi Plain. The way for the influence of the high mountains was to warm air mass in upper layer but below 2 km in altitude, over the Nohbi Plain through heat transport due to a large scale circulation consisting of the {open_quotes}flows from plain to plateau in lower layer and plateau to plain in upper layer{close_quotes}. Urbanization in the coastal Nohbi Plain showed little effect on the flow pattern, but caused large temperature rises at surface level in the inland area because of horizontal heat transfer by the sea breeze.

  19. Outbreak of Culex inatomii in disaster areas of the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami in 2011, with ecological notes on their larval habitats, biting behavior, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Kim, Kyeong Soon

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of Culex inatomii occurred widely in disaster areas of the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011. Mosquitoes were collected in southern Miyagi Prefecture and northern Fukushima Prefecture in August and September 2011, respectively. In southern Miyagi Prefecture, the average number of adult Cx. inatomii collected by a suction trap baited with 1 kg of dry ice ranged between 69.3 and 132.8 per day in locations within 2.6 km from the coast in tsunami areas, while no Cx. inatomii individuals were collected 8.3 km from the coast, where seawater did not reach, and which therefore escaped the tsunami disaster. There were many ground pools of brackish water of various sizes, and larvae of Cx. inatomii were collected in 48% and 36% of the pools examined in Miyagi Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture, respectively. Ecological notes on the larval habitats, biting behavior, seasonal prevalence, and reproduction of Cx. inatomii are presented for reference based on ecological studies conducted in Sakata Wetland, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan, in June and August 2011. Ecological factors relating to the current outbreak and the potential medical importance of Cx. inatomii are discussed.

  20. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  1. Hydrology of the Oakley Fan Area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Oakley Fan area is a broad, crescent-shaped lowland along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. Intensive groundwater development for irrigation has resulted in rapid water-level declines and, as a consequence, designation by the State of four Critical Groundwater Areas. Principal aquifers are in limestone, rhyolite, basalt, and alluvium. Annual water-level declines range from 3 ft to about 5 ft. Recharge to the groundwater system is from infiltration of surface water used for irrigation, precipitation on the surrounding mountains, infiltration of localized runoff, and upward movement of thermal water. Groundwater pumpage during the period 1979-84 averaged 173,000 acre-ft/yr. Surface and groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with variable concentrations of dissolved solids. Comparisons of silica and chloride concentrations and isotopic composition of groundwater were useful in determining areal extent of aquifers and movement of groundwater. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the Oakley Fan area was developed. The aquifer system was simulated in three phases: (1) Average 1979-84 hydrologic conditions, (2) 1910 hydrologic conditions, and (3) 1910-84 hydrologic conditions. Model simulation indicated that, for the period 1945-79, subsurface outflow declined from 327,000 acre-ft/yr to 215,000 acre-ft/yr. Simulated groundwater pumpage during the period 1945-79 was 3,000,000 acre-ft; simulated change in storage was 250,000 acre-ft. Simulations with the model approximate natural conditions and probably can be used to evaluate future changes in the hydrologic system.

  2. Growth and reproduction of the sea snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the central Ryukyus, Japan: a mark and recapture study.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Gen; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2003-04-01

    A mark and recapture study was carried out for three years on a population of the Ijima's sea snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the coastal shallow water of Zamamijima Island, central Ryukyus, Japan. The relatively high recapture (47% of 167 marked snakes) suggests that E. ijimae is a particularly philopatric, sedentary species among the sea snakes. The sex ratio (male: female), approximately 1.6:1, significantly skewed from 1:1. The growth rate in SVL declined with growth, with females thoroughly growing better than males. Males and females were estimated to begin reproductive activity in the second or third summer and the third spring after birth, respectively. Frequency of female reproduction is guessed to vary from annual to biennial, or even less frequent.

  3. Thyroid lesions in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) of Niigata, central Japan: a possible association with dioxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Akira; Oguma, Kazuo; Hatakeyama, Hiroshi; Inomata, Katsuichi; Honma, Ryuhei

    2009-01-01

    Necropsy and histopathologic examination of three Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) shot in Niigata, central Japan, revealed goitrous changes in the thyroids. Thyroids had a hypertrophic follicular epithelium, loss or deficiency of luminal colloid, occasional small follicles suggesting hyperplasia, and occasional collapsed follicles. Irregularly shaped follicles were frequent, and hyperemia, deposition of dark pigment, and sporadic lymphoid aggregates were also seen. Chemical analysis simultaneously conducted showed higher than normal levels of dioxins in the liver, muscle, and fat, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls. The present results, together with those of relevant previous studies, strongly suggest an association between these pollutants and thyroid lesions in the Great Cormorant.

  4. The Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) colony as a "hot spot" of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Noborio, Kosuke; Mori, Yoshiaki

    2012-09-01

    Unusual high soil fluxes up to ca. 500 mg N2O m-2 h-1 emission were associated with a continued breeding/roosting colony of Great Cormorant in central Japan. This flux is nearly two-orders of magnitude higher than those hitherto documented. The flux was markedly dependent upon the soil surface temperature, i.e., higher in April-October during the prevailing high air temperatures, as compared with November to March. Integrated input of fecal N at rearing and fledging stages of chicks followed by coupled mineralization, nitrification and subsequently denitrification processes under humid and temperate regimes is responsible for such an unusual flux. The Great Cormorant colony serves as a "hot spot" of N2O emission of natural origin.

  5. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  6. A record of the upper Olduvai geomagnetic polarity transition from a sediment core in southern Yokohama City, Pacific side of central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusu, Chie; Okada, Makoto; Nozaki, Atsushi; Majima, Ryuichi; Wada, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic record of the upper Olduvai polarity transition was obtained from a 106.72 m-long sediment core drilled in southern Yokohama City, located on the northern Miura Peninsula, on the Pacific side of central Japan. The core spans the upper part of the Nojima Formation and the lowermost part of the Ofuna Formation, both of which correspond to the middle Kazusa Group (Lower Pleistocene forearc basin fill). The record was reconstructed using discrete specimens taken throughout mudstone and/or sandy mudstone sequences in the Nojima Formation. In this record, the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) fluctuation accompanying the polarity transition was determined to occur between depths of 66.99 and 63.60 m. These depths have been dated at 1784.4 and 1779.9 ka, respectively, and the duration of the polarity transition is estimated to be 4.5 kyr using an age model based on a δ18O record from that core. The VGP paths during the transition do not appear to show any preferred longitudinal bands. However, the VGP positions cluster in five areas: (A) eastern Asia near Japan, (B) the Middle East, (C) eastern North America (North Atlantic), (D) off southern Australasia, and (E) the southern South Atlantic off South Africa. The primary locations of the observed VGP clusters coincide with the areas on the Earth's surface that possess a strong downward flux of the vertical component of the present geomagnetic non-axial dipole field. The relative paleointensity rapidly decreased approximately 1 kyr before the beginning of the polarity transition and gradually recovered to its initial level in 12 kyr.

  7. Major variation of paleo-maximum temperature and consolidation state within post Miocene forearc basin, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takemura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Since forearc-basin evolve associated with development of the accretionary prisms, their geologic structures have clues to understanding the tectonic processes associated with plate subduction. We found a major difference in paleo-geothermal structure and consolidation states between the unconformity in the forearc basin in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan. The geology of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan is divided into three parts; Early Miocene and Late Miocene accretionary prisms in the southern part, the Hayama-Mineoka tectonic belt mainly composed of ophiolite in the middle part, and post-Middle Miocene forearc basin in the northern part. Sediments in the forearc basin are composed of 15-3Ma Miura Group and 3-0.6Ma Kazusa Group. Boundary of the two groups is the Kurotaki Unconformity formed about 3Ma, when convergent direction of the Philippine Sea Plate has been changed (Takahashi, 2006). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) analyses were conducted and revealed that major variation of paleo-maximum temperature between the Miura and Kazusa groups. The maximum paleo-temperature in the Miura Group is estimated as 70-95˚C, whereas in the lower part of the Kazusa Group is less than 10-35˚C. Given 20˚C/km (Sakai et al, 2011) paleo-geothermal gradient, approximately 2000 m uplifting/erosion of the Miura Group is expected when the unconformity formed. To verify the amount of this uplifting/erosion, we are performing consolidation test of mudstone. [Reference] Takahashi, M., 2006, Tectonic Development of the Japanese Islands Controlled by Philippine Sea Plate Motion, Journal of Geography, 115, 116-123. Sakai R., Munakata M., Kimura H., Ichikawa Y., and Nakamura M., 2011, Study on Validation Method of Regional Groundwater Flow Model : Case Study for Boso Peninsula, JAEA-research 2010(66), 1-20, 1-2.

  8. Measurements of atmospheric hydroperoxides over a rural site in central Japan during summers using a helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Koichi; Yachi, Chinatsu; Nishibe, Miyuki; Michigami, Serina; Saito, Yukiko; Eda, Nagisa; Yamazaki, Nobuhiro; Hirai, Taiki

    2016-12-01

    The concentrations of hydroperoxides (H2O2 and MHP), O3, SO2 and NOX* over Imizu City, Toyama Prefecture, Japan were measured during summers using a helicopter. The concentrations of hydroperoxides were analyzed by an HPLC system within 5-10 min after the sampling. The H2O2 concentration was lowest at the surface, and the highest concentration was detected at altitudes of 6000 and 8000 ft. The MHP was also higher in the high-altitude atmosphere. Significantly high concentrations of hydroperoxides were observed when air pollutants were transported from China. The concentration of H2O2 was higher than that of SO2 above 4000 ft where the potential capacity of SO2 oxidation in the aqueous phase is large. A helicopter is useful for measuring of hydroperoxides in the high-altitude atmosphere using an HPLC system in a laboratory.

  9. Microbial Diversity in Sediments Collected from the Deepest Cold-Seep Area, the Japan Trench.

    PubMed

    Li; Kato; Horikoshi

    1999-07-01

    : The Japan Trench land slope at a depth of 6,400 m is the deepest cold-seep environment with Calyptogena communities. Sediment samples from inside and beside the Calyptogena communities were collected, and the microbial diversity in the sediment samples was studied by molecular phylogenetic techniques. From DNA extracted directly from the sediment samples, 16S rDNAs were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method. The sequences of the amplified 16S rDNAs selected by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were determined and compared with sequences in DNA databases. The results showed that 33 different bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the two samples analyzed fell into similar phylogenetic categories, the alpha-, gamma-, delta-, and varepsilon-subdivisions of Proteobacteria, Cytophaga, and gram-positive bacteria; some of the 16S rDNA sequences were common to both samples. delta- and varepsilon-Proteobacteria-related sequences were abundant in both sediments. These sequences are mostly related to sulfate-reducing or sulfur-reducing bacteria and epibionts, respectively. Eight different archaeal 16S rDNA sequences were cloned from the sediments. The majority of the archaeal 16S rDNA sequences clustered in Crenarchaeota and showed high similarities to marine group I archaeal rDNA. A Methanococcoides burtonii-related sequence obtained from the sediment clustered in the Euryarchaeota indicating that M. burtonii-related strains in the area of Calyptogena communities may contribute to production of methane in this environment. From these results, we propose a possible model of sulfur circulation within the microbial community and that of Calyptogena clams in the cold-seep environment.

  10. Seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan based on adjoint tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, T.; Obayashi, M.; Tono, Y.; Tsuboi, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained a three-dimensional (3D) model of seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan. We applied the spectral-element method (e.g. Komatitsch and Tromp 1999) and adjoint method (Liu and Tromp 2006) to the broadband seismograms in order to infer the 3D model. We used the travel-time tomography result (Matsubara and Obara 2011) as an initial 3D model and used broadband waveforms recorded at the NIED F-net stations. We selected 147 earthquakes with magnitude of larger than 4.5 from the F-net earthquake catalog and used their bandpass filtered seismograms between 5 and 20 second with a high S/N ratio. The 3D model used for the forward and adjoint simulations is represented as a region of approximately 500 by 450 km in horizontal and 120 km in depth. Minimum period of theoretical waveforms was 4.35 second. For the adjoint inversion, we picked up the windows of the body waves from the observed and theoretical seismograms. We used SPECFEM3D_Cartesian code (e.g. Peter et al. 2011) for the forward and adjoint simulations, and their simulations were implemented by K-computer in RIKEN. Each iteration required about 0.1 million CPU hours at least. The model parameters of Vp and Vs were updated by using the steepest descent method. We obtained the fourth iterative model (M04), which reproduced observed waveforms better than the initial model. The shear wave-speed of M04 was significantly smaller than the initial model at any depth. The model of compressional wave-speed was not improved by inversion because of small alpha kernel values. Acknowledgements: This research was partly supported by MEXT Strategic Program for Innovative Research. We thank to the NIED for providing seismological data.

  11. A serological survey of minute virus of canines (MVC; canine parvovirus type-1) in dogs in the Tokai area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, A; Takiguchi, M; Hirai, K; Kida, H; Carmichael, L E

    2001-11-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to minute virus of canines (MVC) by use of a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test was performed on sera collected from dogs in the Tokai area of Japan. Forty-one of 266 (15.4%) sera had positive titers of 1:40 or higher against the MVC. Results suggest that MVC may have been present in dogs in Japan since, at least, 1990. From this serosurvey, MVC appears to be established in the dog population in Japan. MVC may have a role as a newly recognized viral pathogen of dogs in Japan.

  12. Re-evaluation of the regional tectonic stress fields and faulting regimes in central Kyushu, Japan, behind the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    To re-evaluate the regional tectonic stress fields in central Kyushu, Japan, the region in which the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes occurred on 14 April 2016 (Mw 6.2) and 16 April (Mw 7.0), the faulting regimes in central Kyushu were analyzed using the focal mechanisms of this earthquake sequence. Results show that almost all of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring along the active Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone fall into two spatial faulting regimes: a strike-slip (SS) regime along this fault zone and a pure normal faulting (NF) regime without or with minor strike-slip component in the northern part of this fault zone. In terms of the relationship between the two horizontal principal stresses acting on Kyushu Island, these two regimes are regarded as a set of tectonics stress fields. The highly accumulated strain energy along this fault zone and asymmetrically unbalanced stress condition for the maximum horizontal principal stress acting on the east-west sides of the crustal blocks in this area expected from a pair of these two regimes might explain the relatively large number of aftershocks following the Kumamoto Earthquake as compared to other recent inland earthquakes in the Japanese Islands. From the results of the present analyses, it is considered that the regional stress field of Honshu Island could be extended to Kyushu Island and that the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate may have been affecting the stress field in Kyushu since the late Miocene.

  13. Assessing Groundwater Model Uncertainty for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman; Todd Mihevc

    2002-06-14

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the flow and transport model uncertainty for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). Six parameters were identified as uncertain, including the specified head boundary conditions used in the flow model, the spatial distribution of the underlying welded tuff unit, effective porosity, sorption coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficient, and the geochemical release function which describes nuclear glass dissolution. The parameter uncertainty was described by assigning prior statistical distributions for each of these parameters. Standard Monte Carlo techniques were used to sample from the parameter distributions to determine the full prediction uncertainty. Additional analysis is performed to determine the most cost-beneficial characterization activities. The maximum radius of the tritium and strontium-90 contaminant boundary was used as the output metric for evaluation of prediction uncertainty. The results indicate that combining all of the uncertainty in the parameters listed above propagates to a prediction uncertainty in the maximum radius of the contaminant boundary of 234 to 308 m and 234 to 302 m, for tritium and strontium-90, respectively. Although the uncertainty in the input parameters is large, the prediction uncertainty in the contaminant boundary is relatively small. The relatively small prediction uncertainty is primarily due to the small transport velocities such that large changes in the uncertain input parameters causes small changes in the contaminant boundary. This suggests that the model is suitable in terms of predictive capability for the contaminant boundary delineation.

  14. The susceptibility analysis of landslides induced by earthquake in Aso volcanic area, Japan, scoping the prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tsuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Kumamoto earthquake on April 16th 2016 in Kumamoto prefecture, Kyushu Island, Japan with intense seismic scale of M7.3 (maximum acceleration = 1316 gal in Aso volcanic region) yielded countless instances of landslide and debris flow that induced serious damages and causalities in the area, especially in the Aso volcanic mountain range. Hence, field investigation and numerical slope stability analysis were conducted to delve into the characteristics or the prediction factors of the landslides induced by this earthquake. For the numerical analysis, Finite Element Method (FEM) and CSSDP (Critical Slip Surface analysis by Dynamic Programming theory based on limit equilibrium method) were applied to the landslide slopes with seismic acceleration observed. These numerical analysis methods can automatically detect the landslide slip surface which has minimum Fs (factor of safety). The various results and the information obtained through this investigation and analysis were integrated to predict the landslide susceptible slopes in volcanic area induced by earthquakes and rainfalls of their aftermath, considering geologic-geomorphologic features, geo-technical characteristics of the landslides and vegetation effects on the slope stability. Based on the FEM or CSSDP results, the landslides occurred in this earthquake at the mild gradient slope on the ridge have the safety factor of slope Fs=2.20 approximately (without rainfall nor earthquake, and Fs>=1.0 corresponds to stable slope without landslide) and 1.78 2.10 (with the most severe rainfall in the past) while they have approximately Fs=0.40 with the seismic forces in this earthquake (horizontal direction 818 gal, vertical direction -320 gal respectively, observed in the earthquake). It insists that only in case of earthquakes the landslide in volcanic sediment apt to occur at the mild gradient slopes as well as on the ridges with convex cross section. Consequently, the following results are obtained. 1) At volcanic

  15. Crustal anatexis and melt migrations in the Higo metamorphic terrane, west-central Kyushu, Kumamoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagakawa, K.; Odawara, S.; Osanai, Y.

    1994-03-01

    This paper deals with the anatectic migmatites and leucogranites developed in a high- T, low- P metamorphic terrane, Kyushu, Japan. The migmatites in this terrane are divided into metatexites and diatexites and they occur at and above the garnet-cordierite grade. Layers, lenses and pods of leucogranite (a few centimeters up to 6 m in thickness) are wide-spread in the metamorphic terrane and are most abundant, not in the highest grade zone, but in intermediate grade zones, in which migmatites do not develop. The migmatite leucosomes are typically depleted in orthoclase component, while many leucogranites contain abundant orthoclase. It is suggested that the leucogranites are crystal cumulates precipitated from peraluminous melts, that had been generated and ascended from deeper levels in the crust and that the zone of metatectic migmatites represents both the source region and passage region for the anatectic melts. It is thus clear that the anatectic melts had segregated and ascended on the order of 5 km in the crust of this region. Diatexites on the other hand represent solid-melt mixtures at more advanced stages of partial melting, dominated by biotite breakdown. Implications of the observations made in the Higo terrane are discussed in reference to an evolutionary scheme for crustal anatexis and granite magma genesis.

  16. Recurrence interval of big earthquakes along the Atotsugawa fault system, central Japan: Results of seismo-geological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Ongirad, Hasbaator; Akimitsu, Takebe

    2003-03-01

    The Atotsugawa fault system (AFS), characterized by high seismicity of micro-earthquakes, is an active zone of right-lateral strike-slip faults in central Japan. We carried out seismo-geological studies of three sites on the system. One is in the middle of the master Atotsugawa fault (AGF), one is at the end, and another is on a branching Mozumi-Sukenobe fault (MSF). Trenching surveys demonstrated a maximum recurrence interval of 3,000 years, which is similar to that of the central AGF (2,500 years). This might indicate a uniform behavior in the seismogenic zone, despite the apparent segmentation in the shallower AGF. Another geo-slicing survey at MSF depicted a scarce interval of 13,500 years, about six times longer than that of the master fault. Two simultaneous events on both AGF and MSF occurred in 1858 A.D. and at about 17,300 years ago, suggesting an intermittent cooperation between the master and branch faults of AFS.

  17. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  18. A Review of HRD Research in Three Areas of East Asia: Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Jie; Paprock, Kenneth E.; Lynham, Susan A.; Li, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research focusing on Human Resource Development (HRD) in East Asia is attracting increasing attention. The purpose of the study is to explore the definition and practice of HRD, together with influencing cultural factors, in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. The results indicate a difference in the definition and implementation of HRD…

  19. Estimation of Timing and Coseismic Seafloor Displacement along Enshu Fault, off Tokai, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, W.; Machiyama, H.; Kanamatsu, T.; Ashi, J.; Matsumoto, H.; Oguri, K.

    2004-12-01

    Enshu Fault is an active submarine fault, running over 120 km long, from off Hamaoka, Shizuoka, to off Shima Peninsula, Mie, Japan. General geomorphologic feature of the fault is reconstructed based on high resolution bathymetry and seismic profiles, to date the Enshu fault is known to be a transpressional fault to be a right-lateral slip component with a landward uplift component, parallel to the Nankai Trough (Tokuyama et al., 1999). The Enashu fault runs along the escarpment but the several submarine channels dissect the escarpment to cross the fault. The seepage driven, white-colored sea floor mat had been directly observed by submersible Shinkai 2000 (No.1601 cruise), right above the fault. Taking new ROV (NSS), the piston cores to be precisely positioned were obtained from both between the hanging- and foot-wall sides of the fault. The both core samples are consisted of thin-bedded turbidites. The result of bulk magnetic susceptibilities analysis enables to make the core-to-core correlation whereas the correlation based on the sand layer intercalated was not succeeded. In addition, the comparative study of the both cores in AMS fabrics and CAT image help us to identify the internal structure of the fault-displacement induced chaotic deposit to fill the depression in the hanging wall side. 14C age method taking foraminifer test in the cores tells us the accumulation time of the deposit due to the earthquake event. These data sets suggest the time when the most recent earthquake took place, and thickness of the deposit suggest us the amount of sea floor displacement in the time. In this study case, for example, the vertical displacement in the last single event reaches more than 40 cm. We calculated magnitude of the tsunami and way of the propagation as one of basic data of the hazard map.

  20. Utilizing the Cyberforest live sound system with social media to remotely conduct woodland bird censuses in Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ueta, Mutsuyuki; Kurosawa, Reiko; Fujiwara, Akio; Kobayashi, Hill Hiroki; Nakayama, Masaya; Toko, Ayako; Nagahama, Kazuyo

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a system that streams and archives live sound from remote areas across Japan via an unmanned automatic camera. The system was used to carry out pilot bird censuses in woodland; this allowed us to examine the use of live sound transmission and the role of social media as a mediator in remote scientific monitoring. The system has been streaming sounds 8 h per day for more than five years. We demonstrated that: (1) the transmission of live sound from a remote woodland could be used effectively to monitor birds in a remote location; (2) the simultaneous involvement of several participants via Internet Relay Chat to listen to live sound transmissions could enhance the accuracy of census data collection; and (3) interactions through Twitter allowed members of the public to engage or help with the remote monitoring of birds and experience inaccessible nature through the use of novel technologies.

  1. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease.

  2. PiSAR-L2 observation of agricultural area damaged by seawater during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Manabu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Naoki, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Masanobu

    2012-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, a massive earthquake occurred on the eastern coast of Japan. The magnitude 9.0 quake was the most powerful ever recorded in Japan. The height of the tsunami that followed the earthquake was estimated to be more than 10 m. The water reached a few kilometers inland and resulted in thousands of casualties as well as serious damage to buildings and agricultural areas along the coastline. Several PiSAR-L2 observations were carried out in these tsunamiaffected areas from April to September in 2012, and field experiments were performed in agricultural areas that had been damaged by seawater. The complex dielectric constant and the electrical conductivity of the soil were measured to estimate the soil's salinity. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant for a tsunami-damaged area 0.7 km from the coastline was shown to be 37.1 at 1 GHz, and the electric conductivity was shown to be 7.8 mS/cm. These values exceeded those from non-damaged inland areas. One of the full polarimetric parameters, co-polarization backscattering ratio (σ0HH/σ0VV) derived from PiSAR-L2 data, were examined and compared for damaged/non-damaged areas. The analysis indicates that the higher-salinity area was well detected by σ0HH/σ0VV. However, water areas and flat surfaces covered by gravel exhibit similar characteristics, and this may result in the false detection of salt-affected agricultural areas.

  3. Spatially heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2011 Mw 6.6 Fukushima-Hamadori earthquake, NE Japan, probably caused by static stress change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    In order to know whether principal stress orientations in the source area rotated after the 2011 April 11 Mw 6.6 Fukushima-Hamadori earthquake in NE Japan, we investigated detailed spatial distributions of stress orientations for both the pre- and post-main shock periods using a large amount of focal mechanism data. We applied stress tensor inversions to focal mechanism data from Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's F-net broadband seismic network and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The σ3-axes estimated for the pre-main shock period are predominantly oriented WSW-ENE, and are relatively homogeneously in space. In contrast, the orientations of the σ3-axes show a significantly heterogeneous distribution in space for the post-main shock period. In the northern subarea of the focal region, the σ3-axes are oriented NW-SE. In the east and west portions of the central subarea, they are oriented NNW-SSE and WNW-ESE, respectively, almost perpendicular to each other. In the southern subarea, the σ3-axes are oriented WSW-ENE. On the whole, the σ3-axis orientations show concentric circle-like distribution surrounding the large slip area of the Mw Mw 6.6 main shock rupture. The change of principal stress axis orientations after the earthquake is not significant because of the sparse data set for the pre-main shock period. We calculated static stress changes from the Mw 6.6 main shock and three Mw > 5.5 earthquakes to compare with the observed stress axis orientations in the post-main shock period. The σ3-axis orientations of the calculated total static stress change show a concentric circle-like distribution surrounding the large slip area of the main shock, similar to that noted above. This observation strongly suggests that the spatially heterogeneous stress orientations in the post-main shock period were caused by the static stress change from the Mw 6.6 main shock and other large earthquakes. In order to estimate the

  4. Multi-component Magnetization Of The Late Pliocene Pyroclastic Flow Deposit In Central Japan, Indicating Early Early Pleistocene Fault Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Funaki, M.; Hoshi, H.

    2003-12-01

    The Late Pliocene Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed in central Japan acquired three magnetization components. All of primary reverse intermediate temperature component, and secondary normal low and high temperature components show positive fold tests, indicating that fault-related folding structure postdated the Olduvai normal subchron. The northern segment of Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line that bounds the North American and Eurasian Plates in central Japan, comprises the geological Otari-Nakayama and active Kamishiro faults. The Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed intruded by the 2.1 Ma Taro-yama Andesite is subjected to the NE-SW trending folding structure adjacent to the Otari-Nakayama fault. PAFD and PThD were performed to the drilled samples of Taro-yama Andesite and the Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed at three and five sites on both limbs of the syncline, respectively. Positive fold test for the tilt-corrected site-mean directions of the andesite indicates prefolding magnetization. The fresh welded tuff bed at one site yields similar reverse direction. Whereas the greenly altered beds at four sites shows normal tilt-corrected site-mean directions by PAFD, and following three temperature-dependent directional components by PThD: normal below 350 degree, reverse from 350 to 530 degree, and normal above 530 degree, all which show positive fold test. IRM acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three orthogonal IRM, thermomagnetic analysis with VSM, and low temperature magnetization measurements with MPMS indicate that the Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed with single and three magnetization components contains titanomagnetites, and both titanomagnetites and magnetite, respectively. Magnetization of the Taro-yama Andesite is dominated by titanomagnetites under high temperature oxidation state and minor proportion of titanomaghemites. The Taro-yama Andesite and the Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed exhibit primary reverse magnetism corresponding to the Matsuyama Chron. The Ichiuda Welded Tuff Bed additionally

  5. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  6. Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan: a cross-sectional ecological study.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kimiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Oshima, Akira

    2005-10-01

    Cancer mortality is generally high in people of low socioeconomic status compared with people of high socioeconomic status (SES). Although these differences in mortality may be caused by differences in cancer incidence and survival, analysis of these factors has rarely been conducted. The objective of our cross-sectional ecological study was to analyze socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence, mortality and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, age-adjusted mortality rates, relative 5-year survival, and proportions of early stage cancer were calculated for 67 municipalities in Osaka, Japan. For area-based socioeconomic variables, we used the percentages of male unemployment, college or graduate school graduates, home ownership, households receiving government assistance, and households below the subsistence habitation level in each municipality. We performed linear regression taking each municipality's population as weight to examine the relationships between measurements relating cancer and socioeconomic variables. Factor analysis of socioeconomic variables was carried out to determine whether a particular socioeconomic variable tended to be associated with another. Cancer incidence, cancer mortality, 5-year cancer survival, and proportion of early stage cancer were highly correlated with each socioeconomic variable at the municipality level. Five area-based socioeconomic variables could be explained by three factors: economic status, housing characteristics and educational attainment. Despite the major limitation of a lack of individual information about socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes related to cancer, we hypothesize that a municipal area's socioeconomic status might be a predictor of individual incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer.

  7. Current and future activities in the area of optical space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Araki, Ken'ichi; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Furuhama, Yoji

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of current and prospective activities in Japan in the field of optical space communications (OSC) and its associated optical technologies. These activities are conducted by NASDA, the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute, and the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Attention is given to such initiatives as high-precision tracking, bidirectional OSC, laser beam propagation, optical ground stations, and a free-space simulator for laser transmission.

  8. Trends of second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Japan: a multicenter study in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Kawai, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kurihara, Naoto; Ito, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Omata, Fumio; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Torii, Akira; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the eradication rate of first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) has been decreasing because of a high prevalence of CAM resistance. A possible decrease of the eradication rate for second-line therapy with a PPI, AMPC and metronidazole (MNZ) is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the trends in second-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Japan. We accumulated data retrospectively on patients administered second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori with a PPI, AMPC, and MNZ for 1 week after failure of first-line eradication therapy with a PPI, AMPC and CAM at 15 facilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan from 2007 to 2011. Trends for second-line eradication rates in modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were investigated. Second-line eradication rates were categorized by three PPIs (rabeprazole (RPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OMZ)) and evaluated. We accumulated data on 1373 patients. The overall second-line eradication rate was 92.4%. Second-line eradication rates in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were 97.7, 90.6, 94.5, 91.8 and 91.8%, respectively, with no significant trends revealed. Second-line eradication rates categorized by three PPIs for the entire 5-year period were 91.6, 93.4 and 92.4% (RPZ, LPZ and OPZ, respectively) with no significant differences among the three PPIs. From 2007 to 2011, there were no significant trends in the second-line eradication rates and the rates remained consistently high. From the viewpoint of high prevalence of CAM resistance in Japan, triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and MNZ may be a better strategy for first-line therapy compared to triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and CAM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of the Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in Coastal Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Uehara, Keita; Shah, Md Mahfuzur Rahman; Suda, Shoichiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Background The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP): one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. Methods/Principal Finding A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006–2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8–D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2), two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi) and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8–D10 as

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from vaccinated commercial poultry farms in non-epidemic areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Umali, Dennis Villaseñor; Ito, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Terumasa; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu; Ito, Toshihiro

    2013-11-09

    Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of poultry. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available regarding the causes of ND outbreaks in vaccinated commercial poultry farms. Knowing the genomic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infecting commercial poultry operations in spite of vaccination might give important insights on the infection dynamics of these viruses. In addition, molecular analyses at the subgenotype level and studies on the relationship of Japanese NDVs with other isolates from around the world are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterize nine NDVs isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry flocks in five different Prefectures in non-epidemic areas of Japan between 1969 and 2002. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic studies were performed to characterize the complete fusion (F)-protein gene, 3-prime end of the nucleoprotein (NP)-gene and 5-prime end of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L)-gene. Sequence data were compared with 180 NDV strains from GenBank representing different NDV genotypes and subgenotypes from different regions of the world at different time periods. Deduced amino acids were analyzed for homologies, recombination and mutation. Recombination events were estimated using Recombination Detection Program (RDP) version 3.44. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine evolutionary relationships among strains. Mean death time (MDT: 48-56 hr), Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI: 1.7-1.9) and deduced amino acid sequences of the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (112RRQKR116) revealed that all nine field isolates were velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates could be classified into two genetic lineages and three sublineages namely genotypes VIa (lineage 4a), VId (lineage 4d) and VIId (lineage 5d). No recombination events were observed but a point mutation in one of

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from vaccinated commercial poultry farms in non-epidemic areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of poultry. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available regarding the causes of ND outbreaks in vaccinated commercial poultry farms. Knowing the genomic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infecting commercial poultry operations in spite of vaccination might give important insights on the infection dynamics of these viruses. In addition, molecular analyses at the subgenotype level and studies on the relationship of Japanese NDVs with other isolates from around the world are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterize nine NDVs isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry flocks in five different Prefectures in non-epidemic areas of Japan between 1969 and 2002. Methods Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic studies were performed to characterize the complete fusion (F)-protein gene, 3-prime end of the nucleoprotein (NP)-gene and 5-prime end of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L)-gene. Sequence data were compared with 180 NDV strains from GenBank representing different NDV genotypes and subgenotypes from different regions of the world at different time periods. Deduced amino acids were analyzed for homologies, recombination and mutation. Recombination events were estimated using Recombination Detection Program (RDP) version 3.44. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine evolutionary relationships among strains. Results Mean death time (MDT: 48-56 hr), Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI: 1.7-1.9) and deduced amino acid sequences of the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (112RRQKR116) revealed that all nine field isolates were velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates could be classified into two genetic lineages and three sublineages namely genotypes VIa (lineage 4a), VId (lineage 4d) and VIId (lineage 5d). No recombination events were observed but

  12. Starnet, a fiber optic metropolitan area network with centralized control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacilieri, P.; Caccia, B.; Cardarelli, R.; Carlucci, G. P.; Ciaffoni, O.; Coli, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ghiselli, A.; Martini, A.; Medici, G.; Mirabelli, G.; Pace, E.; Santonico, R.; Trasatti, L.; Valente, E.; Valentini, S.

    1989-12-01

    We present here a project involving a new long distance, high speed, fiber optic network with a passive star topology. The medium access mechanism is based on a centralized controller allowing channel reservation. This controller is connected to each station through an independent pair of optical fibers. It grants access using a deterministic scheme (DAMA/ICCC, demand assignment multiple access by independent centrally controlled channel) by means of a Round Robin algorithm allowing a simple implementation of priority levels and very high data channel efficiency. An overview of the first implementation design is given and some experimental results are presented.

  13. Quasi-periodic slow slip events in the afterslip area of the 1996 Hyuga-nada earthquakes, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarai, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Shinzaburo

    2013-05-01

    The time evolution of afterslip on a plate boundary experiencing interplate earthquakes is expected to show logarithmic decay. The global positioning system network in Japan has been monitoring transient deformation since the occurrence of two large interplate earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 6.8 and 6.7 in the Hyuga-nada area, southwest Japan, in 1996. The spatial and temporal evolution of aseismic interplate slip based on crustal deformation data indicates that afterslip followed the two earthquakes and gradually declined to background rates by around 2004 with total moment magnitude of 7.3. However, quasi-periodic slow slip events suddenly began within the afterslip area in 2005 with approximately one year duration and two-year recurrence interval. The moment magnitudes of the three slow slip events since January 2005 range from 6.7 to 6.8. This differs greatly from the expected behavior of logarithmic decay over time. Both velocity-strengthening and velocity-weakening rate-and-state modes have been implicated as the cause of afterslip, whose location is complementary to the main shock area of velocity-weakening, while a slow slip event occurs in the velocity-weakening area with different frictional properties from those of an afterslip area. In light of the seemingly different frictional properties, the coexistence of afterslip and slow slip events in the same area would provide additional information about precisely how the plate interface is behaving. The monitoring of these slow slip events should give the clues to understanding the coexistence of long-term afterslip and slow slip events and the increasing risk of earthquakes in neighboring areas.

  14. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10

    A new fossil filefish, Aluterus shigensis sp. nov., with a close resemblance to the extant Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck), is described from the Middle Miocene Bessho Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. It is characterized by: 21 total vertebrae; very slender and long first dorsal spine with tiny anterior barbs; thin and lancet-shaped basal pterygiophore of the spiny dorsal fin, with its ventral margin separated from the skull; proximal tip of moderately slender first pterygiophore of the soft dorsal fin not reaching far ventrally; soft dorsal-fin base longer than anal-fin base; caudal peduncle having nearly equal depth and length; and tiny, fine scales with slender, straight spinules. The occurrence of this fossil filefish from the Bessho Formation is consistent with the influence of warm water currents suggested by other fossils, but it is inconsistent with the deep-water sedimentary environment of this Formation. This is the first fossil occurrence of a filefish in Asia; previously described fossil filefishes are known from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Italy, the Pliocene of Greece, and the Miocene and Pliocene of North America. These fossil records suggest that the genus Aluterus had already been derived and was widely distributed during the Middle Miocene with taxa closely resembling Recent species.

  15. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-04-16

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for (239+240)Pu activity concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that (239+240)Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g(-1), and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of (241)Pu using the (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released (241)Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited (241)Pu in the last decades.

  16. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969–1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 –1.46 mBq g−1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

  17. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g-1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 +/- 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades.

  18. Chlorine stable isotope evidence for salinization processes of confined groundwater in southwestern Nobi Plain aquifer system, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masaru; Bottrell, Simon H.; Wu, Jiahong; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kazuki; Satake, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A confined aquifer system, isolated from modern seawater, is developed in argillaceous marine and freshwater sediments of Pliocene-Holocene age in southwestern Nobi Plain (SWNP), central Japan. A tongue of brackish confined groundwater (Cl- >1000 mg/L), which extends from the shoreline of Ise Bay inland, mostly has negative δ37Cl values with -0.90‰ to 0.21‰. The Cl isotopic compositions are negatively correlated with paleo seawater Cl- concentrations discriminated by a Rayleigh distillation model with δ34S values, while they are not correlated with either total Cl- concentrations or δ34S values. Furthermore, Cl- concentrations from modern seawater are positively correlated with δ37Cl values. In addition to these observations, diffusion model calculations suggest that paleo seawater Cl- has diffused out from argillaceous marine sediments whereas modern seawater Cl- has not been affected by preferential diffusion of Cl isotopes because it has migrated by advection via both an unconfined aquifer and non-pumping wells. Moreover, the brackish groundwater is characterized by an excess of Na/Cl ratio and deficits of Mg/Cl and Ca/Cl ratios compared to those predicted from simple mixing of freshwater with seawater. This would be caused by cation exchange reactions in the confined aquifer system in which groundwater is freshening after salinization by both paleo seawater and/or modern seawater.

  19. Hydrological response to earthquakes in the Haibara well, central Japan - II. Possible mechanism inferred from time-varying hydraulic properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsumoto, N.; Roeloffs, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    28 coseismic groundwater level decreases have been observed at the Haibara well, Shizuoka prefecture, central Japan, from 1981 to 1997. These groundwater level changes cannot be explained as the poroelastic response to coseismic static strain. We use the atmospheric pressure and tidal responses of the well, rock properties measured on core samples from the same formation and pumping test results to characterize the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the aquifer. The responses of the Haibara well to the M2 Earth tide constituent and to atmospheric pressure have varied over time. In particular, increasing amplitude and decreasing phase lags were observed after the 1993 pumping test, as well as after earthquakes that caused coseismic water level changes. The tidal response, together with the surface load efficiency derived from the atmospheric pressure response, is used to estimate the mechanical properties of the aquifer. The largest amplitude of the M2 constituent, 2.2 mm, is small enough to imply that pore fluid in this system is approximately twice as compressible as water, possibly due to the presence of a small amount of exsolved gas. Diffusion of a coseismic pressure drop near the well could account for the observed time histories of the water level changes. The time histories of the water level drops are well matched by the decay of a coseismic pressure drop at least 80 m away from the well. Removal of a small amount of gas from the formation in that location might in turn explain the coseismic pressure drops.

  20. Occurrence and effects of the parasitic copepod Salmincola carpionis on salmonids in the Nikko District, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Kazuya; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Shikama, Toshio; Kitamura, Shoji

    1998-06-01

    Salmincola carpionis (Krøyer, 1837) occurred on brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and whitespotted charr ( Salvelinus leucomaenis) reared at a fisheries research institute in the Nikko District, central Japan, and also on a wild population of the latter species that had returned for spawning from a lake to streams near the institute. Its infection levels on these salmonids were associated with age and size of fish and the location of rearing ponds, older (larger) fish reared in the lower-located ponds being more frequently and heavily infected than smaller (younger) fish from the upper-located ponds. Swellings were observed at sites where the bulla of S. carpionis was deeply implanted. The condition factor of heavily infected (>50 copepods) fish was lower than those of lightly infected fish (1-18 copepods). Salmincola carpionis did not occur on lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) which belong to the subgenus Cristivomer, as well as on salmonids of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salmo, possibly due strict host specificity.

  1. Quaternary strike-slip crustal deformation around an active fault based on paleomagnetic analysis: a case study of the Enako fault in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Haruo; Itoh, Yasuto; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate cumulative strike-slip deformation around an active fault, we carried out tectonic geomorphic investigations of the active right-lateral strike-slip Enako fault in central Japan and paleomagnetic investigations of the Kamitakara pyroclastic flow deposit (KPFD; 0.6 Ma welded tuff) distributed around the fault. Tectonic geomorphic study revealed that the strike-slip displacement on the fault is ca. 150 m during the past 600 ka. We carried out measurements of paleomagnetic directions and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) within the pyroclastic flow deposit. Stable primary magnetic directions at each sampling site are well clustered and the AMS fabric is very oblate. We then applied tilt correction of paleomagnetic directions at 15 sites using tilting data obtained by the AMS property and orientations of eutaxitic structures. Within a distance of about 500 m from the fault trace, differential clockwise rotations were detected; the rotation angle is larger for zones closer to the fault. Because of this relation and absence of block boundary faults, a continuous deformation model explains the crustal deformation in the study area. The calculated minimum value of strike-slip displacement associated with this deformation detected within the shear zone is 210 m. The sum of this and offset on the Enako fault is 360 m and the slip rate is estimated at 0.6 mm/year.

  2. Groundwater and surface water interaction in a basin surrounded by steep mountains, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Kaeriyama, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    Mountainous headwaters and lower stream alluvial plains are important as water recharge and discharge areas from the view point of groundwater flow system. Especially, groundwater and surface water interaction is one of the most important processes to understand the total groundwater flow system from the mountain to the alluvial plain. We performed tracer approach and hydrometric investigations in a basin with an area 948 square km surrounded by steep mountains with an altitude from 250m to 2060m, collected 258 groundwater samples and 112 surface water samples along four streams flowing in the basin. Also, Stable isotopes ratios of oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) and strontium (Sr) were determined on all water samples. The 18O and D show distinctive values for each sub-basin affected by different average recharge altitudes among four sub-basins. Also, Sr isotope ratio shows the same trend as 18O and D affected by different geological covers in the recharge areas among four sub-basins. The 18O, D and Sr isotope values of groundwater along some rivers in the middle stream region of the basin show close values as the rivers, and suggesting that direct recharge from the river to the shallow groundwater is predominant in that region. Also, a decreasing trend of discharge rate of the stream along the flow supports this idea of the groundwater and surface water interaction in the basin.

  3. Thick massive gas hydrate deposits were revealed by LWD in Off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of Japan Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    GR14 and HR15 survey cruises, which were dedicated to the LWD (Logging While Drilling), were carried out in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the "gas chimney" structures in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drilling were performed in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas along eastern margin of Japan Sea during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION were used during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR14. The data quality was generally good. "Gas chimney" structures with acoustic blanking columns on the high frequency seismic sections with mound and pockmark morphologic features on the sea bottom, are well developed within survey areas. Every LWD records taken from gas chimney structures during the cruises show high resistivity and acoustic velocity anomalies which suggest the development of gas hydrate. Characteristic development of massive gas hydrate was interpreted at the Umitaka CW mound structure, Off-Joetsu. The mound lies at 890-910m in water depth and has very rough bottom surface, regional high resistivity, regional high heat flow, several natural seep sites, 200m x 300m area, and 10-20m height. 8 LWD holes, J18L to J21L and J23L to J26L, were drilled on and around the mound. There are highly anomalous intervals which suggest the development of massive gas hydrate at J24L, with high resistivity, high Vp and Vs, high neutron porosity, low natural gamma ray intensity, low neutron gamma density, low NMR porosity, low NMR permeability, low formation sigma, from 10 to 110m-bsf with intercalating some thin less hydrate layers. It is interpreted that there is several tens of meter thick massive gas hydrate in the gas chimney mound. It is partly confirmed by the later nearby coring result which showed the repetition of

  4. Temporal variations of groundwater tables and implications for submarine groundwater discharge: a 3-decade case study in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Yoshida, Takafumi

    2017-07-01

    Fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the key pathway of flux and nutrients for the groundwater from land to the ocean. SGD flux is a current issue of discussion and a means to clarify the coastal marine system under climate change. SGD flux accounts for about one-quarter of the river runoff in the Katakai alluvial fan in Uozu, Toyama, Japan, which is an ideal area to study SGD flux considering the need for a rapid response to climate change and the prior research on SGD there. In this paper, the monthly groundwater table's condition over 30 years is analyzed using monthly rainfall, snowfall, and the climate change index. Rainfall has been on an upward trend, but the snowfall has decreased over 40 years. Furthermore, the groundwater table at monitoring wells in the coastal area increased, as a result of the increased rainfall. However, the relationship between snowfall and groundwater is negative. As expected by Darcy's law, SGD flux was controlled by the hydraulic gradient of the coastal groundwater. The estimated historic SGD flux by groundwater table variation shows an upward trend of SGD. Considering the increase in precipitation and the groundwater table, SGD flux may increase under climate change.

  5. Institutional care versus home care for the elderly in a rural area: cost comparison in rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Naomi, Akiyama; Shiroiwa, Takeru; Fukuda, Takashi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in institutional care costs, such as that associated with care in chronic hospitals or nursing homes, is a serious social concern in Japan, and this is particularly so in rural areas which are more rapidly aging than others. This has led to a proposal to reduce costs by deinstitutionalizing the disabled elderly. However, the actual financial benefit of deinstitutionalizing the disabled elderly is unclear. To examine the effectiveness of deinstitutionalizing the disabled elderly with the aim of cost reduction. This study utilized a cross-sectional design and complete census survey. The participants were 139 residents of a rural town in Hokkaido who were institutionalized as of 1 July 2007, and whose Care Needs Levels were classified according to Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) in Japan. Of these, 87 participants were considered candidates for deinstitutionalization. Participants who were considered unable to stay alone at home, such as those with behavioral problems, at risk of falling, or in need of hospital medical care, were excluded. Data were collected on institutional care costs, and an original questionnaire was distributed asking institutional staff about participant characteristics and physical function levels. Existing costs were collected and costs were calculated if participants were discharged from institutions to their homes. Approximately 20% of participants lived alone, and 80% had a severe disability. The estimated costs of discharging patients to their homes were higher than existing institutional care costs for 98% of participants. The gap in cost tended to be greater in patients with higher care needs. The deinstitutionalization of disabled elderly is not an effective measure to help reduce healthcare costs in rural areas of Japan.

  6. Determination of temporal changes in seismic velocity caused by volcanic activity in and around Hakone volcano, central Japan, using ambient seismic noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Yohei; Ueno, Tomotake; Miyaoka, Kazuki

    2016-12-01

    Autocorrelation functions (ACFs) for ambient seismic noise are considered to be useful tools for estimating temporal changes in the subsurface structure. Velocity changes at Hakone volcano in central Japan, where remarkable swarm activity has often been observed, were investigated in this study. Significant velocity changes were detected during two seismic activities in 2011 and 2013. The 2011 activity began immediately after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, suggesting remote triggering by the dynamic stress changes resulting from the earthquake. During the 2013 activity, which exhibited swarm-like features, crustal deformations were detected by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations and tiltmeters, suggesting a pressure increment of a Mogi point source at a depth of 7 km and two shallow open cracks. Waveforms that were bandpass-filtered between 1 and 3 Hz were used to calculate ACFs using a one-bit correlation technique. Fluctuations in the velocity structure were obtained using the stretching method. A gradual decrease in the velocity structure was observed prior to the 2013 activity at the KOM station near the central cone of the caldera, which started after the onset of crustal expansion observed by the GNSS stations. Additionally, a sudden significant velocity decrease was observed at the OWD station near a fumarolic area just after the onset of the 2013 activity and the tilt changes. The changes in the stress and strain caused by the deformation sources were likely the main contributors to these decreases in velocity. The precursory velocity reduction at the KOM station likely resulted from the inflation of the deep Mogi source, whereas the sudden velocity decrease at the OWD station may reflect changes in the strain caused by the shallow open-crack source. Rapid velocity decreases were also detected at many stations in and around the volcano after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The velocity changes may reflect the redistribution of hydrothermal

  7. Evaluation of GPS/Acoustic Seafloor Positioning at Suruga Bay, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, S.; Ikuta, R.; Ando, M.; Tadokoro, K.; Okuda, T.; Besana, G. M.; Nagao, T.; Sayanagi, K.

    2005-12-01

    Observations of seafloor crustal deformation is very important to understand the dynamics of plate boundary that include the strain accumulation processes, great interplate earthquakes mechanisms, and submarine volcanic activities. We have been developing an observation system with GPS/Acoustic combination technique to monitor seafloor crustal deformation at Suruga Bay from 2002 [Tadokoro et al., 2003]. In this system, repeated measurements of seafloor transponders could reveal directly the seafloor crustal deformation in focal area of the subduction zone. The Suruga Bay is an appropriate site to evaluate the seafloor positioning because we can set the reference GPS station with short baseline (< 20 km). Such distance could produce an error on kinematic GPS positioning of about 1-2 cm. In addition, the convergence rate at Suruga Trough is 2-4 cm/year. For the above reasons, this study would evaluate the results of seafloor positioning using our observation system FY 2005 undertaken at Suruga Bay area. In our observation area, three acoustic transponders are installed as an array on the seafloor at depths of about 800 m. These transponders are located within radius of about 300 m. Using the low-engine-noise vessel from 2005, we can control and keep the distribution of acoustic measurements for each transponder. In parallel with the acoustic measurements, the_@sound speed profile was also measured in seawater using a CTD profiler three times per observation that lasted for about 5 hours. The data analysis consists of three main components; (1) kinematic GPS analysis, (2) cross-correlation of acoustic waves to calculate round-trip travel time between the transducer attached on the side of the vessel and the seafloor transponder, and (3) a combination of results from (1) and (2) to estimate positions of seafloor transponders. Assuming the sound speed is constant for a given length of time and undergoes changes during some certain time span throughout the observation

  8. Spatio-temporal stress states estimated from seismicity rate changes in the Tokai region, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Shinji; Matsumura, Shozo

    2006-04-01

    Since unprecedented large-scale silent slip was detected by GPS in 2001 in the Tokai region, evaluating whether such movement is uniquely connected to the expected Tokai earthquake or repeatedly occurs in this area becomes vitally important. Because of short history of GPS observations and the limited areal coverage surrounding the Suruga trough, we take advantage of continuously recorded seismicity that is presumed to be sensitive to the deformation at seismogenic depth. Together with the well-maintained NIED earthquake data, we employ the seismicity-to-stress inversion approach of rate/state friction to infer the spatio-temporal stress changes in and around the presumed hypocentral zone of the future Tokai earthquake. Mapping stress changes inverted from microseismicity year by year, we find that the stress under Lake Hamana, the western expected future Tokai source, has been decreasing since 1999, during which the GPS data showed a normal trend of plate coupling. In contrast, stresses in the surrounding regions are calculated to have increased by transfer from Lake Hamana region. We interpret that this continuous process is associated with the 2000-2004 Tokai slow slip event. The characteristic patterns related to aseismic stress-release are also identified in the early 1980s and during 1987-1989, when slow events are inferred to have occurred on the basis of conventional geodetic measurements. Revisiting the seismotectonics and taking into account the mechanical implications of the inversion results, we argue that the transition zone situated between a deep stable creeping zone and a locked zone undergoes episodic creep and plays an important role in the transfer of stress to the locked zone. Consequently, even though we speculate that the current (2000 to present-day) silent slip event might be one of the repeating events, the inferred enlargement of the stress releasing area is significant and possibly raises the likelihood of the next Tokai earthquake.

  9. Prevalence of anemia among healthy women in 2 metropolitan areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Eiji; Shoji, Midori; Endou, Shigeyuki; Kishi, Yukiko; Shibata, Taro; Murashige, Naoko; Hamaki, Tamae; Matsumura, Tomoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kami, Masahiro

    2006-10-01

    Anemia is common among young women, and iron deficiency is one of the leading causes. In Europe and the US, the iron fortification of flour increased oral iron intake and decreased anemia prevalence from 30% to 10%. The National Nutrition Survey in Japan revealed that anemia prevalence among young Japanese women is increasing; however, no nationwide preventive policy has been aimed at iron deficiency anemia. The endpoint of this study was the estimation of anemia prevalence among healthy Japanese woman, based on a large sample size. We collected data from the consecutive check-up examination records of apparently healthy women (n = 13,147). We defined hemoglobin lower than 12 g/dL as anemia, hemoglobin lower than 10 g/dL as severe anemia, and a mean corpuscular volume lower than 80 fl as microcytic anemia. Of the 13,147 persons, anemia was identified in 2331 (17.3 %), and severe and microcytic anemia in 438 (3.3 %) and 700 (5.2 %), respectively. Among women younger than 50 years, anemia was identified in 22.3 %, and 25.2 % of them had severe anemia. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia and severe anemia among young women is high in Japan. Some action needs to be considered to improve women's quality of life.

  10. The origin of muddy sand sediments associated with mud volcanism in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Kazuya; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Murakami, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    The origin of muddy sand and gas in muddy sand sediments in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan, was investigated by analyzing the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the sediments and the chemical/isotopic compositions of the gas. X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that chemically, the muddy sand is derived from a mixing of components from the Hakobuchi and overlying formations, and that the characteristic mineral of the muddy sand is heulandite, which, in the study area, has been detected only in the Hakobuchi Formation. These results suggest that the sediments ascended from depths of at least 2200-2400 m. The δ13CCH4 values and the methane/(ethane + propane) ratios of the gas indicate that the primary origin of the methane is by thermogenic decomposition of coal-bearing beds in the Haboro or Hakobuchi formations, or further deep sources. This study provides new data on processes of onshore mud volcanism in Japan, and contributes to an understanding of processes of subsurface mass transport in regions of mud-volcanic activity.

  11. Submarine landslide identified in MD179 cores, off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuwa, Yoshitaka; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2014-08-01

    Gas hydrate is exposed on the sea floor and is buried in shallow sediments in the off-Joetsu area at the eastern margin of the Sea of Japan. Sediment cores recovered from topographic highs of the Joetsu Knoll and Umitaka Spur show pockmarks and mounds formed by gas hydrate dissociation, but those from the Un-named ridge have no such topographic features. All topographic highs and pockmarks mainly comprise bioturbated layers interbedded with thinly laminated (TL) layers, which are common Sea of Japan sediments. Recovered sediments are, however, mostly disturbed by submarine landslides, showing tilted horizons, faults, slump folds, and breccia, except that from the Un-named ridge. The timing of events is well constrained by identification of the number of TL layers in some sediment cores. Landslides occurred both during the cold glacial period of the late MIS3 to the last glacial maximum (LGM) and during the warm interglacial period of the post-LGM. All were caused by the explosive rise of gas hydrate formed at very shallow depths of the sea bottom by the supply of gas from the depth of the gas hydrate stability zone through gas chimney passages developed under the pockmarks. Seismic activity demands consideration as a factor because the off-Joetsu area is tectonically active.

  12. Trends in the incidences of acute myocardial infarction in coastal and inland areas in Japan: The Yamagata AMI Registry.

    PubMed

    Wanezaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Arimoto, Takanori; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kawasaki, Ryo; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that there are regional differences in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in regional differences in AMI incidence and dyslipidemia between coastal and inland areas. We investigated trends in AMI incidence and risk factors in 5325 first-ever AMI patients residing in a coastal area (n=1817), a rural inland area (n=1959), or an urban inland area (n=1549) for the periods 1994-2002, and 2003-2010, using data from the Yamagata AMI Registry. Patients in the coastal area were significantly older than those in rural and urban inland areas and had a lower prevalence of dyslipidemia. The age-adjusted incidence rate of AMI was significantly lower in coastal and rural inland areas patients than those from urban inland area (males: 43.3, 42.2, and 51.3/10(5) person-years; females: 17.4, 20.0, and 23.7/10(5) person-years, respectively) during 2 observation periods. Due to a large increase in AMI incidence in younger males of the coastal area and a decrease in AMI incidence in late elderly females of the urban inland area, no significant regional differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates of AMI were observed during the 2003-2010 period in both genders. The increase in AMI incidence in males in the coastal area was associated with an increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia. There were no longer any regional differences observed in AMI incidence, which was considered to be associated with increased dyslipidemia especially in the coastal area. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  14. S-wave reflection and surface wave surveys in liquefaction affected areas: a case study of the Hinode area, Itako, Ibaraki, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Toshiyuki; Jinguuji, Motoharu; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Murata, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    Property damage results from liquefaction that occurs easily in soft sandy layers. Moreover, liquefaction damage tends to be more serious at locations where earthquake ground motions are locally amplified. It is commonly understood that ground stiffness is correlated with S-wave velocity (Vs); in addition, the structure of the local subsurface is important for predicting local earthquake ground motion. Surface wave and S-wave reflection surveys are efficient, non-destructive techniques used to obtain two-dimensional S-wave velocity distributions and to map subsurface structures. In this study, we performed surface wave and S-wave reflection surveys to investigate the Hinode area of Itako, Ibaraki, Japan. This area suffered serious liquefaction damage during the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011. Using subsurface boundaries imaged by the reflection surveys and the Vs structures obtained by surface wave analyses, it is possible to extrapolate geological and hydraulic information obtained by boring and cone penetration tests (CPTs). The combined information was used to delineate the layer in which liquefaction occurred, identified as an artificial layer of sandy dredged material, formed after 1970. The results of this study confirmed the effectiveness and applicability of geophysical surveys to the evaluation of the liquefaction potential. These methods enable us to predict the spatial distribution of liquefiable soils for future large earthquakes.

  15. A study of the morphology of winter sprites in the Hokuriku area of Japan in relation to cloud charge height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myokei, K.; Matsudo, Y.; Asano, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hobara, Y.; Michimoto, K.; Hayakawa, M.

    2009-04-01

    Continuous observations of sprites in the Hokuriku area of Japan were performed from two optical sites during the three winter periods. The purpose of this observation is to study the major effect in the appearance of sprites and in determining the morphology of sprites (columns or carrots). Detailed analysis is performed based on the estimation of the height of -10 °C at the time of sprite occurrence. When the height of -10 °C is lower than 1800 m, the occurrence of sprites is infrequent, and the dominant shape is column. Then when it is increased (1800-3000 m), a new situation takes place, namely the occurrence of sprites is very enhanced and more spectacular shapes like carrots tend to be frequently observed in addition to column sprites. These sprite characteristics are first compared with those of parent lightning in the Hokuriku area and with our latest computer simulations on sprite initiation.

  16. Event sand layers suggesting the possibility of tsunami deposits identified in the upper Holocene sequence nearby the Kuwana fault, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Y.; Sugai, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Kuwana fault is located on coastal area situated on inner part of the Ise Bay, central Japan, which opens to the Nankai Trough. This reverse fault displaces a late Pleistocene terrace surface with 1 to 2 mm/yr of average vertical slip rate, and a topset of delta at several meters, respectively. And, this fault is estimated to have generated two historical earthquakes (the AD 745 Tempyo and the AD 1586 Tensho earthquakes). We identified two event sand layers from upper Holocene sequence on the upthrown side of the Kuwana fault. Upper Holocene deposits in this study area show prograding delta sequence; prodelta mud, delta front sandy silt to sand, and flood plain sand/mud, respectively, from lower to upper. Two sand layers intervene in delta front sandy silt layer, respectively. Lower sand layer (S1) shows upward-coarsening succession, whereas upper sand layer (S2) upward-fining succession. These sand layers contain sharp contact, rip-up crust, and shell fragment, indicating strong stream flow. Radiocarbon ages show that these strong stream flow events occurred between 3000 and 1600 years ago. Decreasing of salinity is estimated from decreasing trend of electrical conductivity (EC) across S1. Based on the possibility that decreasing of salinity can be occurred by shallowing of water depth caused by coseismic uplift, and that S1 can be correlated with previously known faulting event on the Kuwana fault, S1 is considered to be tsunami deposits caused by faulting on the Kuwana fault. On the other hand, S2, which cannot be correlated with previously known faulting events on the Kuwana fault, may be tsunami deposits by ocean-trench earthquake or storm deposits. In the presentation, we will discuss more detail correlation of these sand deposits not only in the upthrown side of the Kuwana fault, but also downthrown side of the fault.

  17. An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Takeshi; Sugawara, Hirotaka; Tado, Miyuki; Nishitani, Takuma; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Oumi, Shohei; Katsuren, Seiki; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki

    2013-07-31

    Anderson's crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4%) became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5%) hatched normally, 213 (56.3%) metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3%) became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live Tubifex. Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

  18. Community structures and activity of denitrifying microbes in a forested catchment in central Japan: survey using nitrite reductase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohte, N.; Aoki, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Suwa, Y.; Tange, T.

    2012-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of denitrification processes in the forested catchment, microbial ecological approaches have been applied in an experimental watershed that has previously investigated its hydrological processes. The study catchment is located in the Chiba prefecture in central Japan under the temperate Asian monsoon climate. Potential activities of denitrification of soil samples were measured by incubation experiments under anoxic condition associated with Na15NO3 addition. Existence and variety of microbes having nitrite reductase genes were investigated by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencings of nirK and nirS fragments after DNA extraction. Contrary to our early expectation that the potential denitrification activity was higher at deeper soil horizon with consistent groundwater residence than that in the surface soil, denitrification potential was higher in shallower soil horizons than deeper soils. This suggested that the deficiency of NO3- as a respiratory substrate for denitrifier occurred in deeper soils especially in the summer. However, high denitrification activity and presence of microbes having nirK and nirS in surface soils usually under aerobic condition was explainable by the fact that the majority of denitrifying bacteria have been recognized as a facultative anaerobic bacterium. This also suggests the possibility of that denitrification occurs even in the surface soils if the wet condition is provided by rainwater during and after a storm event. Community structures of microbes having nirK were different between near surface and deeper soil horizons, and ones having nirS was different between saturated zone (under groundwater table) and unsaturated soil horizons. These imply that microbial communities with nisK are sensitive to the concentration of soil organic matters and ones with nirS is sensitive to soil moisture contents.

  19. Dissimilar receiver functions observed at very close stations in the Kii Peninsula, central Japan: features and causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Receiver function analysis is one of the most powerful methods for modeling the subsurface structure beneath a seismograph station. Based on the assumption that similar receiver functions should be observed at stations located close to each other, we can construct a spatial distribution of a seismic velocity interface, such as the Moho discontinuity, to trace the distribution of P-to- S ( Ps) converted phases in receiver functions. After more than 15 years of observation by the seismograph networks, we confirmed that receiver functions observed at two stations very close to each other in the Kii Peninsula, central Japan, show significantly different characteristics from each other. The backazimuth dependence of later phase arrivals within 4 s after the direct P wave was strong, especially for transverse components. Because the Ps converted phases at the Moho discontinuity arrived around 4 s after the direct P wave, we assume that the dissimilarity is caused by a localized structural anomaly in the crust. This assumption is supported by the fact that only the cross-correlation coefficients for the short-period transverse component of teleseismic waveforms were small. According to the geological map, the two stations are located in the accretionary complex along the Pacific coast, and the strikes of the geological boundaries show an abrupt change around the stations. Based on forward modeling with the anisotropic subsurface models, we confirmed that the characteristics of the observed receiver functions can be explained roughly by considering a localized anomaly in the upper and middle crust.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Channel geometry change of a first-order stream after a small debris flow in Ashio Mountains of central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattanji, T.; Wasklewicz, T.

    2006-12-01

    We examined geometry change of a steep first-order channel with a laserscanner before and after a small debris flow. The study site is located in chert area, Ashio Mountains, Japan. On August 12, 2005, a 20-year storm event with maximum 1-hour rainfall of 75.4 mm/h triggered a small landslide at a steep channel head. The sliding material moved as a debris flow along the first-order channel (C3) to the mouth. We successfully measured high-resolution channel topography with the Leica Geosystems High-Definition Surveying Laser Scanner before (April 30) and after the debris-flow event (October 9-11). Width, depth and other related parameters were measured for 30 selected cross sections. Bankfull stage of this first-order channel after the debris-flow event is much higher than two-year flood stage. The magnitude of channel geometry change varies non-linearly in downstream direction. The non-linear variability is attributed to differences in stream bed and bank characteristics. Bedrock-channel reach is less impacted by the debris flow. The largest magnitude changes in the channel geometry parameters occur along colluvially confined channel reaches.

  1. Analysis of the interdecadal variability of summer precipitation in central Japan using a reconstructed 106 year long oxygen isotope record from tree ring cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Naoyuki; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Keiko; Mitsutani, Takumi; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2016-10-01

    We present a unique proxy for reconstructing the interannual variability of summer precipitation associated with the quasi-stationary front (Baiu front) in central Japan. The rainfall from the Baiu front has a relatively lower oxygen isotopic composition than other types of nonfrontal precipitation. The variability in the oxygen isotopes in summer rainfall is closely related to the Baiu frontal activity. In this study we used a mechanistic tree ring isotope model to reconstruct a 106 year long oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation during the early rainy season (June) based on the oxygen isotopic compositions of the annual rings of Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl trees from central Japan. The year-to-year variations of the isotopes over the most recent 25 years are associated with several teleconnection patterns that often lead to the Baiu precipitation anomalies in central Japan (such as the Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern, Silk Road pattern, and wave train pattern along the polar jet). Yet none of these external forcing mechanisms apply further back in time. From the 1950s to 1980s, the interannual isotopic variability is predominantly related to local factors such as anomalous intensification/weakening of the Bonin High. Before the 1950s, the variability of the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation is mainly associated with a wave train pattern along the polar jet. The isotopic variability is predominantly linked to the PJ pattern, while the PJ index is correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation. These findings suggest that the teleconnection patterns influencing Baiu precipitation variability vary according to interdecadal time scales during the twentieth century.

  2. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  3. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.; Hanson, R.L.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is

  4. Cadmium and other metal levels in autopsy samples from a cadmium-polluted area and non-polluted control areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chiyo; Koizumi, Naoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Koizumi, Naoru; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and other metals in kidney and liver in autopsy samples and to compare the levels between those in an area with heavy Cd exposure and those in no-polluted areas in Japan. Data on Cd and other metals in kidney (cortex and medulla) and liver in 95 cases (87 women and eight men; the exposed) in a Cd-polluted area and 43 cases (21 women and 22 men; the controls) in non-polluted areas were cited from 15 previous publications to be summarized together with six unpublished cases. Cd levels in kidney cortex and medulla were significantly lower in the exposed (31.5 and 23.8 μg/g wet tissue as GM, respectively) than in the controls (82.7 and 36.4 μg/g, respectively), whereas Cd levels in liver was higher in the exposed (60.2 μg/g) than in the controls (8.1 μg/g). Exposed women had lower Cd in the cortex (29.9 μg/g) and medulla (22.7 μg/g) than exposed men (55.4 and 38.1 μg/g, respectively) as well as in cortex of control women (92.9 μg/g). Comparison with worldwide data other than Japan for non-exposed populations [19.1, 9.3, and 1.3 μg/g in cortex, medulla, and liver, respectively, as the inverse variance-weighted averages (IVWA) of GM values for each of 22 reports] suggests that the levels for the non-exposed Japanese (123.3, 33.5, and 3.9 μg/g as IVWA) tended to be higher than the levels in other countries, possibly reflecting high dietary Cd intake in the past.

  5. Childhood Leprosy in an Endemic Area of Central India.

    PubMed

    Gitte, Sunil Vilasrao; Sabat, Ramanath N; Kamble, K M

    2016-03-01

    To study clinical-epidemiological aspects of children affected with leprosy in a high-endemicity area. Hospital-based study (April 2010 to March 2015) of newly diagnosed children (=18 years) with leprosy, from a leprosy research institute in Chhattisgarh, India. 551 new childhood cases were diagnosed constituting 16% of the total newly leprosy cases examined; 221 (40.1%) were multibacillary cases with 11.2% smear positivity. 243 (44.1%) had known contact history of leprosy, 17.6% of children developed Lepra reaction, and 17.4% had visible deformity. 68% of subjects completed treatment within the prescribed time. Transmission of leprosy is still continuing in the area, and high disability and deformity rates are seen in children.

  6. Terrestrial heat flow distribution in Japan area based on the temperature logging in the borehole of NIED Hi-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of heat flow and geothermal gradient using boreholes on land are often concentrated in specific areas such as geothermal region, so the measured heat flow data in non-volcanic area is poorly mapped. We newly measured thermal gradients and heat flow all over Japanese Islands by using the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's (NIED) high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) boreholes. NIED Hi-net is composed of about 800 borehole stations installed almost homogeneously over the Japanese Islands with an average spacing of 20km. Although majority of the Hi-net stations have the boreholes of 100- 200m in depth, 55 deep (300-1000m) and 29 very deep (1000-3500m) observation wells were constructed at some specific sites if necessary. Because these Hi-net boreholes are designed for a long-term observation, these are structurally stable with using casing pipe. These borehole temperature profiles contain an influence of climate change, so we correct temperature profile for climatic change, the rapid warming of 1950-2000A.D. Comprehensive heat flow distribution in Japan is as follows: low heat flow in forearc region, high heat flow in back-arc region, and there seems to be the correlation between the seismogenic layer thickness in upper crust and terrestrial heat flow. In the volcanic chain area, very high terrestrial heat flow over 200mW/m2 are observed. In the fore-arc area, low heat flow under 50mW/m2 are observed. In the South Kanto area where is metropolitan Tokyo and the Hokkaido Hidaka area, very low heat flow under 40 mW/m2 are observed. In the southern Kii Peninsula, there are many non-volcanic hot springs, so around this area high heat flow over 150mW/m2 are observed. In Shikoku area also high heat flow over 100mW/m2 are observed. Geographical distributions of terrestrial heat flow show that high heat flow stations are observed along the region where non-volcanic long-period tremors occur about 30km deep. In SW Japan

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  8. Extraction of Flooded Areas due the 2015 Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall in Japan Using PALSAR-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, F.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    Triggered by two typhoons, heavy rainfall hit Kanto and Tohoku regions of Japan from September 9 to 11, 2015. Increased river water by the continuous rainfall overflowed and destroyed several river banks and caused damaging floods in wide areas. PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 satellite carried out emergency observation for the impacted areas during and after the heavy rainfall. In this study, two pre-event and four co- and post-event PALSAR-2 images were used to extract the inundation area in Joso city, Ibaraki prefecture. First, using the pre-event SAR intensity image and a detailed topographic map, the backscattering coefficient of river water was investigated. Then the flooded areas were extracted by a common threshold value of backscatter for water bodies in the six temporal images. The colour composite of the sigma naught values was also made to visualize pixels that had been converted from ground to water. Finally, the extracted results were compared with those from the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey reports. This comparison revealed that the accuracy of the flood extraction was fairly good for agricultural lands and non-urban land uses. But for built-up urban areas, it was not easy to extract water body since radar illumination did to reach the ground (water) surface.

  9. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy using oral fluorinated pyrimidines for curatively resected gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, K; Morita, S; Tsuburaya, A; Kodera, Y; Kobayashi, M; Sakamoto, J

    2006-06-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer has been extensively explored in Japan since the 1950s, and a combination of oral fluorinated pyrimidines (o-FP) and mitomycin C (MMC) has been mainly utilized for adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is no sufficient evidence for the efficacy of adjuvant therapy. Therefore, we assessed the efficacy of o-FPs over surgery alone (control) by means of a meta-analysis of Japanese centrally randomized controlled clinical trials conducted between 1980 and 2005. For inclusion in this study, studies had to compare adjuvant chemotherapy for curatively resected gastric cancer with surgery alone, mainly targeting o-FP, and central randomization designed to comply with contemporary standards for clinical trials in Japan. For the 4 trials that met the eligibility criteria, the estimated hazard ratio was 0.73 (95%CI=0.60-0.89). Our findings show that in Japan adjuvant chemotherapy using o-FP for long-term maintenance therapy appears to be effective for gastric cancer patients after curative resection.

  10. Geologic factors contributing to landslide generation in a pyroclastic area: August 1998 Nishigo Village, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro

    2002-07-01

    Vertical contrasts in permeability, particularly where permeable surface materials overlie impermeable materials that prohibit the downward infiltration of groundwater, concentrate the groundwater and become an important focus of landslides that are triggered by intense rainfall. Just such a hydrogeological structure is present within the pyroclastics in Nishigo Village in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, where intense rainfall of 1200 mm in 6 days generated more than 1000 landslides in August 1998. Three types of landslides occurred. The first type occurred along the edges of small plateaus, where horizontal beds of permeable ash, scoria, and pumice overlie impermeable mudflow deposits consisting of tuffaceous fines and andesite blocks, and massive, weakly consolidated ignimbrites. The rainfall on the plateaus infiltrated downward first, then laterally within the permeable beds, finally gushing out at the plateau edges and triggering landslides. The second type of landslide occurred where weathered tuff of the same ignimbrite was present with a slip surface at the base of the heavily weathered zone. Within this heavily weathered zone, the tuff exfoliated into thin weak plates running parallel to the slope surface. The third type of landslide involved failure of colluvium or ash that filled hollows. This type occurred as a result of subsurface erosion caused by the groundwater infiltrating the superficial beds above the impermeable tuff.

  11. Service-mix in general dental practice in Japan: a survey in a suburban area.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, M; Sasaki, T; Imai-Tanaka, T; Yamasaki, Y; Iwamoto, Y

    1998-12-01

    Overseas investigations have reported the amount and variety of dental services provided. An understanding of the current service-mix in private general practice is important in the anticipation of the future practice of dentistry. The main purpose of this study was to describe the service-mix of private general practitioners in Japan, which was recorded using the Australian Dental Association Dental Procedure Code. Some comparisons with previous studies were offered. The youngest age group and adolescents formed only a small percentage of the total patients, while the greatest percentage of patients occurred in the 45-64 year age group. The services provided were mainly restorative, diagnostic advanced restorative and endodontic services. Preventive services represented a minority of dental activity, especially for young patients. Periodontic and orthodontic services were also remarkable for their low percentage in all age groups. In comparison with an Australian study, the percentage of preventive services was considerably lower. Movement toward a preventive emphasis in Japanese dentistry requires a change in the clinical model, de-emphasizing biomedical and aetiological approaches and placing greater emphasis on the patient and factors affecting dental practice.

  12. Clinical features of Vibrio vulnificus infections in the coastal areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kouichi; Ohshige, Kenji; Fujita, Naohiro; Tomita, Yukiko; Mitsumizo, Shinji; Nakashima, Mikio; Oishi, Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection can result in necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis and is associated with high mortality. Most patients infected with this microbe have liver dysfunction as an underlying disease. However, because of the sporadic nature of outbreaks and unidentified cases, extensive evaluation of clinical features and identification of factors affecting prognosis have not been performed. We retrospectively analyzed 37 cases in Japan from 1984 to 2008 to review clinical features and to identify risk factors associated with prognosis. Statistical differences between clinical features (patient's characteristics, initial clinical laboratory data, symptoms upon admission, and other risk indicators) and prognosis were analyzed by use of the chi(2) test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed to assess factors which potentially affect hospital mortality. The mortality rate was 64.9%. An underlying liver disease was observed in 91.6% of the patients. The presence of liver cirrhosis tended to be related to hospital mortality; however, statistical significance was not achieved. Advanced age, lower platelet counts, and the presence of extensive skin lesions at onset affected outcomes with statistical significance. The prognosis of this disease is poor, because septic shock and necrotizing fasciitis often develop within a few days. Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to improve the prognosis of V. vulnificus infection.

  13. Social experience influences the development of a central auditory area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Mathelier, Maryvonne; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Laurence; Hausberger, Martine

    2006-12-01

    Vocal communication develops under social influences that can enhance attention, an important factor in memory formation and perceptual tuning. In songbirds, social conditions can delay sensitive periods of development, overcome learning inhibitions and enable exceptional learning or induce selective learning. However, we do not know how social conditions influence auditory processing in the brain. In the present study, we raised young naive starlings under different social conditions but with the same auditory experience of adult songs, and we compared the effects of these different conditions on the development of the auditory cortex analogue. Several features appeared to be influenced by the social experience, among which the proportion of auditory neuronal sites and the neuronal selectivity. Both physical and social isolation from adult models altered the development of the auditory area in parallel to alterations in vocal development. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that social deprivation has as much influence on neuronal responsiveness as sensory deprivation.

  14. Social experience influences the development of a central auditory area.

    PubMed

    Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Mathelier, Maryvonne; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Laurence; Hausberger, Martine

    2006-12-01

    Vocal communication develops under social influences that can enhance attention, an important factor in memory formation and perceptual tuning. In songbirds, social conditions can delay sensitive periods of development, overcome learning inhibitions and enable exceptional learning or induce selective learning. However, we do not know how social conditions influence auditory processing in the brain. In the present study, we raised young naive starlings under different social conditions but with the same auditory experience of adult songs, and we compared the effects of these different conditions on the development of the auditory cortex analogue. Several features appeared to be influenced by the social experience, among which the proportion of auditory neuronal sites and the neuronal selectivity. Both physical and social isolation from adult models altered the development of the auditory area in parallel to alterations in vocal development. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that social deprivation has as much influence on neuronal responsiveness as sensory deprivation.

  15. Comparison of eating habits in obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chu Hyang; Saito, Emiko

    2015-04-01

    This study compares eating habits among obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan. We used self-report questionnaires to study 635 Filipinos. Body mass index (BMI) and eating/lifestyle habits were noted. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Seventeen percent (24/140) were obese. Results of the age-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis show that the following responses were associated with obesity: "frequency of eating high green and yellow vegetables" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) [OR 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-14.8] and "frequency of eating high fruits" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) (OR .2; 95% CI .1-.7). We suggest strategies to prevent obesity and improve eating habits among this Filipina population.

  16. Quantitative PCR assay for detection and enumeration of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Gonyaulacales) in coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Hariganeya, Naohito; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2016-02-01

    In Japan, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been increasingly reported not only in subtropical areas but also in temperate areas in recent years, causing a serious threat to human health. Ciguatera fish poisoning is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated toxins produced by an epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate, genus Gambierdiscus. Previous studies revealed the existence of five Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes in Japan: Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus, Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, Gambierdiscus sp. type 3, and Gambierdiscus (Fukuyoa) cf. yasumotoi. Among these, G. australes, G. scabrosus, and Gambierdiscus sp. type 3 strains exhibited toxicities in mice, whereas Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 strains did not show any toxicity. Therefore, it is important to monitor the cell abundance and dynamics of these species/phylotypes to identify and characterize CFP outbreaks in Japan. Because it is difficult to differentiate these species/phylotypes by observation under a light microscope, development of a rapid and reliable detection and enumeration method is needed. In this study, a quantitative PCR assay was developed using a TaqMan probe that targets unique SSU rDNA sequences of four Japanese Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes and incorporates normalization with DNA recovery efficiency. First, we constructed standard curves with high linearity (R(2)=1.00) and high amplification efficiency (≥1.98) using linearized plasmids that contained SSU rDNA of the target species/phylotypes. The detection limits for all primer and probe sets were approximately 10 gene copies. Further, the mean number of SSU rDNA copies per cell of each species/phylotype was determined from single cells in culture and from those in environmental samples using the qPCR assay. Next, the number of cells of each species/phylotype in the mixed samples, which were spiked with cultured cells of the four species/phylotypes, was calculated by division of the total number of rDNA copies

  17. Morphology of Gambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales): a new epiphytic toxic dinoflagellate from coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2014-06-01

    A new epiphytic dinoflagellate is described, G ambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov., from tidal pools and rocky shores along the coastal areas of Japan. Cells are 63.2 ± 5.7 μm in depth, 58.2 ± 5.7 μm in width, and 37.3 ± 3.5 μm in length. The plate formula of G . scabrosus is Po, 4', 0a, 6'', 6c, ?s, 5''', 0p, and 2''''. Morphologically, G . scabrosus resembles G . belizeanus as follows: anterioposteriorly compressed cell shape, narrow 2'''' plate, and areolated surface. Despite this similarity, the cells of G . scabrosus can be distinguishable by the presence of the asymmetric shaped 3'' plate and the rectangular shaped 2' plate.

  18. Comparison of fecal microflora of elderly persons in rural and urban areas of Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Benno, Y; Endo, K; Mizutani, T; Namba, Y; Komori, T; Mitsuoka, T

    1989-01-01

    The Fecal microflora of 15 healthy elderly persons with a median age of 84 years in a rural area whose inhabitants tend to be long-lived (Yuzurihara-area, Uenohara, Yamanashi Prefecture) was compared with the microflora of individuals with a median age of 68 years in an urban area (Tokyo). The diet of the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area is characterized by a high intake of dietary fiber. Total numbers of anaerobic bacteria were significantly smaller in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area than those in the Tokyo area. A significantly large number of bifidobacteria, but not of lecithinase-negative clostridia, was observed in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area. Large numbers and high incidences of bacilli and lecithinase-positive clostridia (mainly Clostridium perfringens) were found in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Twenty-five genera and over 81 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area, and 25 genera and over 92 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Furthermore, significantly larger numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Fusobacterium mortiferum strains were found in the Yuzurihara group, but significant reductions in the Bacteroides buccae-oris group, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides spp., C. coccoides, C. paraputrificum, and Clostridium spp. were observed in the same group. A significantly higher isolation rate of Bacillus subtilis was observed in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. The difference in the fecal microflora between elderly persons in Yuzurihara and those in the Tokyo area might be due to a difference in the intake of dietary fiber. PMID:2547333

  19. Clinical characteristics of healthcare-associated pneumonia in a public hospital in a metropolitan area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Midori; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Aki; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Shingu, Akiko; Narato, Ritsuko; Nomura, Koichiro

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new category that is essential in the present aging society. Knowing the different characteristics and outcomes between patients with HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) would help physicians manage and treat HCAP patients. Although HCAP is thought to be heterogeneous in regions, there are no reports from a metropolitan area in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings of all consecutive pneumonia patients who required hospitalized care in our hospital between April 2006 and March 2010. There were 184 (35.0%) patients with HCAP and 342 (65.0%) patients with CAP. Previous hospitalization within 90 days of the infection was the most common criterion for HCAP (63.0%). HCAP patients were significantly older than CAP patients (82.5 vs. 70.0 years, P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with poor functional status was higher in HCAP than CAP (64.0% vs. 26.6%, P < 0.001). Hospital mortality was significantly higher in HCAP patients than in CAP patients (15.8% vs. 5.0%, P < 0.001). Low levels of serum albumin (odds ratio, 0.126; 95% CI, 0.025-0.640; P = 0.012) and high scores in the ADROP (age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation, and blood pressure) system (odds ratio, 2.846; 95% CI, 1.449-5.587; P = 0.002) were the risk factors for HCAP mortality. In conclusion, patients with HCAP have different epidemiological characteristics compared with those with CAP in a metropolitan area of Japan. Outcomes and risk factors for mortality of patients with HCAP included poor nutritional status and high severity scores on the pneumonia severity scoring system.

  20. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. T. N.; Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Yashiro, H.; Sudo, K.; Tomita, H.; Murata, R.; Masaki, S.

    2016-12-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. In this study, we investigated the surface ozone concentration over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for summer 2010 simulated by online coupling of a chemical transport model (CHASER) with a stretched NICAM model. The simulation was conducted at high resolution, with 10 km grids in the target area of the Kanto Plain. Simulation results were compared with observed data for model validation. The model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles, the general distribution and meteorological fields over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69 - 0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of local meteorological conditions such as precipitation, pressure, wind field, humidity and temperature in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and bias was lower (<35%) when meteorological conditions was settled. In contrast, wind field and the dominance of local pressure system were main reasons for overestimated surface ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. Uncertainty of emission inventories for ozone precursors and existence of high ozone concentration of upper regions in the boundary layer mainly contributed to surface ozone at night in this study. Therefore, adding proper factors of CO and NOx emission strength as well as reducing VOC emission strength to overcome uncertainty of emission inventories was effective on decreasing the overestimated ozone concentrations. The model facilitated for long time simulation of air pollution transport in regional scale without nesting technique which helped to reveal ozone distribution and precursors as well as an important relation of location and topography to ozone concentration. It can be applied as a semi regional model useful for air pollution prediction in Japan.

  1. Diversity of Triggering Mechanisms in the Northern Nagano Region, Central Japan, Following the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, K.; Enescu, B.; Yagi, Y.; Takeda, T.

    2013-12-01

    The seismicity in several inland regions of northeast and central Japan changed dramatically after the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake (e.g., Hirose et al., 2011). For example, in the Northern Nagano region, a relatively large event (Mw6.2) occurred about 13 hours after the megathrust earthquake. However, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) earthquake catalogue does not list any event in Northern Nagano for the first 7 hours after the Tohoku-oki earthquake, although there is some evidence of dynamic triggering (Miyazawa, 2012) in the region due to the M9.0 event. As seismic catalogues are usually incomplete after large earthquakes, we have applied the Matched Filtered Technique (Peng and Zhao, 2009) to detect missing events within the first 13 hours after Tohoku-oki earthquake, using continuous waveforms and template events recorded at Hi-net seismic stations in Northern Nagano. As a result, we have identified 138 new events in the study area, with M1.0~3.0. Few of these events are located close to the hypocenter of the Mw6.2 earthquake, and many others locate about 10km to the south, in an area where an Mw5.4 earthquake occurred about one month later. In the northern area (around the Mw6.2 hypocenter) the activation of seismicity is relatively weak and there is no detection in the first 3h after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. However, a few earthquakes (foreshocks) occur very close to the hypocenter of the Northern Nagano earthquake, at short times before the Mw6.2 event. In the southern area, around the hypocenter of the Mw5.4 quake, the seismicity starts immediately after the megathrust event and shows episodic activation that consists in small events occurring in tight spatio-temporal clusters. In several of these clusters we have identified events that occur within the incoming surface-wave train from the Tohoku-oki earthquake, so were likely triggered dynamically. The seismicity in the south is shallower and shows an overall swarm-type behavior, although no

  2. Fluvial response to sea-level changes since the latest Pleistocene in the near-coastal lowland, central Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Takeshi; Sugai, Toshihiko; Hachinohe, Shoichi

    2012-04-01

    This paper addresses the influence of sea level changes on the stratigraphy and basal topography of latest Pleistocene-Holocene incised valley fill of the Arakawa and Menuma Lowlands in central Japan by using sedimentary drill cores and columnar geologic sections. In the study area, four buried fluvial terrace surfaces (I to IV) formed in response to sea-level fall during the last glacial period. Surface III is covered with As-YP tephra (15-16.5 ka) and extends at least 65 km landward from the present mouth of the Arakawa River. A buried valley named surface V that extends from at least 85 km upstream from the present river mouth to about 120 m below present sea level on the continental slope was incised in response to the sea-level lowstand of the Last Glacial Maximum. The incised valley fill can be divided into three units: unit A (gravelly river channel sediments including valley-bottom gravels), unit B (fluvial sediments), and unit C (marine sediments), which intertongues within unit B and pinches out up to 60 km upstream from the present river mouth. Unit C marks the landward limit of Holocene transgression. The lower part of unit B is a fining-upward succession formed during rising sea level and indicates retrogressive aggradation of floodplain sediments during transgression, whereas the upper part of unit B was formed during a sea-level highstand. The floodplain migrated more than 85 km upstream from the modern shoreline in response to sea-level rise until the middle Holocene and extends over several tens of kilometers beyond the landward limit of the Holocene marine transgression.

  3. Relationship between temperatures and fault slips on the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto district, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shoichi; Takagi, Rumi; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2015-05-01

    To elucidate the relationship between interplate temperatures and generation mechanisms for megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events (SSEs) in the Kanto district, central Japan, we performed numerical simulations on the thermal state. For this purpose, we newly developed a 2-D box-type thermal convection model that is able to handle the subduction of two oceanic plates: the young oceanic Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts following subduction of the old oceanic Pacific (PAC) plate beneath it. To constrain temperatures on the upper surface of the PHS plate, we used high-density Hi-net heat flow data on land. We found that low heat flow in the Kanto district was caused mostly by subduction of the cold PHS plate. To explain the heat flow distribution in the Kanto district in more detail, we needed to incorporate frictional heating at the plate interface on the seaward side of the corner of the mantle wedge, and temperature changes due to surface erosion and sedimentation associated with crustal deformation during the Quaternary on land into the models. The most suitable pore pressure ratio to explain the heat flow data was 0.98. The thermally estimated seismogenic zone corresponded well to the fault planes of the 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake and the western half of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake. The eastern half of the fault plane of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake could be divided into two areas; the northwestern fault plane corresponded to the thermally estimated seismogenic zone, whereas the relationship between the southeastern fault plane and interplate temperatures was ambiguous. The off-Boso SSEs occurred on the plate interface at temperatures lower than approximately 250 °C, and the slipped region passed through the 150 °C isotherm, corresponding to the clay mineral phase transformation from smectite to illite. This might suggest that the SSEs occurred in relation to a dehydration process.

  4. Analysis of crustal movement in the Central Andes Aconcagua area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Lenzano, L.; Smalley, R.; Raffo, A.

    2013-05-01

    A Continuous Operation Reference Station was installed at the top of Aconcagua Mountain (ACON) in 2006 in order to monitor the movement of the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere. Due to adverse weather conditions, this GPS station wasn't operating consistently and in the summer of 2012 a replacement GPS station was installed at 5500 meters above sea level, also at Aconcagua Mountain (NICO). The new GPS station achieved continuous operation throughout 2012. Based on current records, the new GPS station is the highest in the world. With data collected by NICO and other GPS stations in the area over 2012, it was possible to calculate the time series of crustal movements at Aconcagua Mountain, part of the Andes Mountain Range. This paper shows the development of the calculation process based on scientific software and the analysis of crustal movements in geodetic and geophysical terms. The analysis of this data contributes concrete results regarding the development process of the crust following the earthquake of February 27, 2010 in the Maule region.

  5. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  6. Contamination and biomethylation of organotin compounds in pearl/fish culture areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Tao, Hiroaki; Hojo, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Uwakai of Japan is famous for pearl and yellowtail fish culture. Recently, pearl culture farming in that region has suffered from a low production of pearls. An illegal use of organotin antifouling paints on fishing nets was reported. In the line of pollution studies, thus, the present investigation was carried out to examine the contamination status and fate of organotin compounds. Totally, 23 water, 10 sediment and 8 pearl oyster tissue samples were analyzed for tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPT), and their breakdown products (di- and mono compounds) by gas chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/ICP-MS). The results show that the TBT concentrations in water, sediment and biota were in the range from 0.11 to 10.6 ng Sn l(-1), 0.35 to 2500 ng Sn g(-1), and 50.4 to 181 ng Sn g(-1), respectively. The values for sediment and biota are expressed on the dry-weight basis. Triphenyltin in water, sediment and biota were in the range from 0.009 to 0.108 ng l(-1), non-detect to 12.7 ng g(-1), and non-detect to 6.83 ng g(-1), respectively. Although the TBT concentration in seawater is below the tentative assessment level of 10 ng l(-1) set by the Japanese Environment Agency in 1992, it may cause endocrine disruption/other effects in aquatic organisms. Octyltin compounds (mono-, di- and trioctyltin) were also quantified in seawater and sediment. The detection of dibutyldimethyltin (DBDMT) and tributylmonomethyltin (TBMMT) in sediment (methylated butyltins comprised 2.8-31% of total butyltins), and TBMMT in seawater suggested that biomethylation of anthropogenic tributyltins is a significant transformation pathway in the coastal environment.

  7. Long-range atmospheric transport of volatile monocarboxylic acids with Asian dust over a high mountain snow site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Aoki, Kazuma; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2016-11-01

    To understand the long-range transport of monocarboxylic acids from the Asian continent to the Japanese islands, we collected snowpack samples from a pit sequence (depth ca. 6 m) at the Murodo-Daira snowfield near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, in 2009 and 2011. Snow samples (n = 16) were analyzed for normal (C1-C10), branched chain (iC4-iC6), aromatic (benzoic and toluic acid isomers), and hydroxyl (glycolic and lactic) monocarboxylic acids, together with inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Acetic acid (C2) was found to be a dominant species (average 125 ng g-1), followed by formic acid (C1) (85.7 ng g-1) and isopentanoic acid (iC5) (20.0 ng g-1). We found a strong correlation (r = 0.88) between formic plus acetic acids and non-sea-salt Ca2+ that is a proxy of Asian dust. Contributions of total monocarboxylic acids to DOC in 2009 (21.2 ± 11.6 %) were higher than that in 2011 (3.75 ± 2.62 %), being consistent with higher intensity of Asian dust in 2009 than in 2011. Formic plus acetic acids also showed a positive correlation (r = 0.90) with benzoic acid that is a tracer of automobile exhaust, indicating that monocarboxylic acids and their precursors are largely emitted from anthropogenic sources in China and/or secondarily produced in the atmosphere by photochemical processing. In addition, the ratio of formic plus acetic acids to nss-Ca2+ (0.27) was significantly higher than those (0.00036-0.0018) obtained for reference dust materials of Chinese loess deposits from the Tengger and Gobi deserts. This result suggests that volatile and semi-volatile organic acids are adsorbed on the alkaline dust particles during long-range atmospheric transport. Entrainment of organic acids by dusts is supported by a good correlation (r = 0.87) between formic plus acetic acids and pH of melt snow samples. Our study suggests that Asian alkaline dusts may be a carrier of volatile monocarboxylic acids.

  8. An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igawa, Takeshi; Sugawara, Hirotaka; Tado, Miyuki; Nishitani, Takuma; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Oumi, Shohei; Katsuren, Seiki; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We naturally bred the endangered Anderson’s crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) and tested a laboratory farming technique using near-biotopic breeding cages with several male and female pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species, and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species. Abstract Anderson’s crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4%) became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5%) hatched normally, 213 (56.3%) metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3%) became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live

  9. Interannual Variability in Growing Season Carbon Budget at a Customarily Cultivated Rice Paddy Field in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, M.; Miyata, A.; Nagai, H.; Yamada, T.; Ono, K.; Han, G.; Yoshikoshi, H.; Saito, M.

    2004-12-01

    Rice paddy fields in eastern Asian countries are irrigated during most of the growing season. Since flooded paddy fields are favorable for methanogenesis, it is necessary to measure both carbon dioxide flux and methane flux in order to estimate carbon budget of the paddy fields. As one of AsiaFlux network sites we continue long-term measurements of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes at a customarily cultivated paddy field in central Japan. At the study site rice is transplanted in early May and harvested in early or middle September. We are measuring carbon dioxide flux by the eddy covariance method and methane flux by the gradient method. In 2003 we had the coolest summer in these 10 years, while the 2004 summer was the third warmest since 1946: Air temperatures averaged from June to August in 2003 and 2004 were 0.6 ° C below and 1.3 ° C above the 30-year average, respectively. Carbon dioxide flux showed distinct seasonal variation with rice growth. In 2004, net daily carbon dioxide uptake by the ecosystem became obvious in late May, increased to the maximum daily uptake of 11 gC m-2 d-1 in July, and then decreased to nearly zero at the end of August. In 2003, carbon dioxide uptake showed temporary decrease in mid-growing season because of small amount of solar radiation and low temperature. The sum of carbon dioxide uptake by the ecosystem from the transplanting to the end of August was 443 gC m-2 in 2003, and 553 gC m-2 in 2004. Methane emission in 2004 started a month after transplanting, increased gradually and reached midsummer peak of 331 mgC m-2 d-1 in late July with a flush of methane at the final drainage. The seasonal variation of methane flux in 2003 was generally similar to that in 2004, but flushes of methane at midsummer drainages as well as final drainage were observed more distinctly than in 2004. Despite small amount of methane flushes, seasonal methane emission in 2004 was greater than that in 2003 by 2 gC m-2. Higher soil temperature and larger

  10. Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Growing Season Carbon Budget at a Rice Paddy Field in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, M.; Miyata, A.; Nagai, H.; Yamada, T.; Ono, K.; Han, H. G.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Rice paddy in eastern Asia emits methane because it is irrigated during most of the growing season. Therefore it is necessary to measure carbon dioxide and methane fluxes simultaneously in order to estimate the carbon budget of the rice paddy. We continue a long-term flux measurement using micrometeorological methods at a customarily cultivated rice paddy in Central Japan. In this study we examine seasonal and interannual variability of carbon budget of the rice paddy by comparing fluxes in two years, 2004 and 2005, which had quite different water managements. At the study site rice is transplanted in early May and harvested in early or middle September. Midsummer drainage is conducted to remove unfavorable gases in the soil and compact the soil to prevent fall down of rice and so on. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were measured by the eddy covariance and the gradient method respectively. We analyzed data obtained from May 2nd, which was the transplanting day in both years, to the end of August. The 2004 summer was the third warmest since 1945, while the 2005 summer was similar to the normal. There were no major differences in the maximum daily uptake of carbon dioxide between the years. Accumulated carbon dioxide, however, showed differences: the net uptake of C during the season in 2004 was 538 g C m-2, that was 28 % greater than that in 2005. This is because of high temperature and large amount of solar radiation in 2004. The daily methane emission in 2004 became obvious in late May, increased to 0.2 g C m-2 d-1 in June and 0.4 g C m-2 d-1 in August, and then decreased to near zero. In 2005, although the seasonal variation of the methane emission was almost same until late June, the emission decreased to 0.1 g C m-2 d-1 in late July. This may have resulted from a decline of methane production by methanogens owing to soil aeration because the longer midsummer drainage was conducted (22 days in 2005 and 9 days in 2004). The total methane emission in 2005 (11

  11. How the timberline formed: altitudinal changes in stand structure and dynamics around the timberline in central Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hirosawa, Tatsuru; Morishima, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Altitudinal timberlines are thought to move upward by global warming, a crucial topic in ecology. Tall tree species (the conifer Abies mariesii and the deciduous broad-leaved Betula ermanii) dominate the sub-alpine zone between 1600 and 2500 m a.s.l., the timberline, on Mount Norikura in central Japan. Dwarf pine Pinus pumila dominates above the timberline to near the summit (3026 m a.s.l.). This study evaluated how the timberline formed on Mount Norikura by examining altitudinal changes in stand structure and dynamics around the timberline. Methods One hundred and twenty-five plots of 10 m × 10 m were established around the timberline (2350–2600 m a.s.l.). Trunk diameter growth rate during 6 years was examined for A. mariesii, B. ermanii and P. pumila. Mortality during this period and mechanical damage scars on the trunks and branches due to strong wind and snow were examined for A. mariesii only. Key Results The density, maximum trunk height and diameter of A. mariesii in plots decreased with altitude. The maximum trunk height of B. ermanii decreased with altitude, but density and maximum trunk diameter did not decrease. In contrast, the density of P. pumila abruptly increased from around the timberline. A strong negative correlation was found between the densities of P. pumila and tall tree species, indicating their interspecific competition. Trunk diameter growth rates of A. mariesii and B. ermanii did not decrease with altitude, suggesting that these two tall tree species can grow at the timberline. The ratio of trees with mechanical damage scars increased with altitude for A. mariesii, a tendency more conspicuous for larger trees. The mortality of larger A. mariesii was also greater at higher altitude. Tall tree species may not increase their trunk height and survive around the timberline because of mechanical damage. Conclusions This study suggests that the altitudinal location of the timberline is mainly affected by mechanical damage

  12. Interpretation of the concentrations of aldehydes in rainwater over a wide area and local areas of Japan by some dominant factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Shigeru; Murai, Keita; Takamatsu, Mizuho; Hayakawa, Yukari; Tamizu, Shinya; Kuwata, Makoto; Katayama, Yuuki; Kuramitz, Hideki; Hata, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Rainwater pollution with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aliphatic aldehydes was investigated from May 2008 to June 2011 at 19 locations over a wide area in Japan to survey the pollution level. The pollution level was remarkably controlled by the amount of precipitation. The concentrations of total aliphatic aldehydes and formaldehyde sometimes exceeded 0.6 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1 when the rainfall was small, and decreased rapidly with increasing the amount of rainfall. And in larger rainfall, the concentrations were converged to ca. 0.09 mg L-1 and 0.06 mg L-1 respectively. It was found that the concentration of the pollutants collected in a bottle for a single rainfall event is expressed by an equation based on a dilution model where heavy deposition occurred only at early rainfall followed by continuous dilution of the water with less polluted rainwater. These results were interpreted that the aldehydes in air were washed out very quickly due to their high solubility in water. As progressing of rainfall, the pollution level attained to an equilibrium state between influx and outflux of the pollutants. Precise investigation through a sequential sampling of rainwater by 1 mm during a rainfall event was also performed at several sites. It was found that a break of rainfall is another dominant factor to control the pollution level. A break of rainfall quickly enhanced the pollution level of the resumed rain. Regional difference on rainwater pollution level was observed only at the early stage throughout a rainfall event. The air-pollution levels were high just before beginning rainfall, and they decreased quickly with increasing the amount of rainfall, but never converged to zero. These results suggest that continuous influx of the pollutants occurs in a wide area in Japan besides regional influx.

  13. Green-tuff landslide areas are beneficial for rice nutrition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tazaki, Kazue

    2006-12-01

    Japanese Islands are covered with weathered volcanic rocks and soils. Terraced rice field are located in green-tuff areas which are very fertile but where landslides occur associated to strong earthquakes. The Xray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses of the soils in landslide area identified predominant smectite and Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, Mn and Fe are main components. The rice leaf showed that S, Cl, K and Ca play important roles for nutrients in the area. Drainpipe systems have set up in the green- tuff areas to reduce the risks of landslides. Reddish brown microbial mats inhabited bacteria and diatom in the drainpipe outlets. The microbial mats are rich in Fe and PO4(3-). The iron bacteria in the ground water have a high metabolic rate suggesting that the weathering materials were produced by not only physical and chemical influence but also by microorganism. Many microorganisms attach to mineral surfaces and show their high impact in the water mineral chemistry in the landslide area. Bacteria in the green-tuff over landslide area play important roles for sustainable agriculture including rice nutrition.

  14. The slow slip event in the Tokai region, central Japan, since 2013 as seen from GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaue, H.; Fukuda, J.; Kato, T.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    In the Tokai region, cetral Japan, the previous long-term slow slip event (SSE) occurred on the subducting Philippine Sea plate from 2000 to 2005, the longest SSE ever found. In addition, many short-term SSEs have been observed in the Tokai region since 2004. Ozawa et al. (2016) reported that a slow slip event seems to have started in the similar area of the previous Tokai long term SSE in the beginning of 2013. We analyzed GPS data in the Tokai region to estimate the temporal evolution of the current event. GPS data from 1 Jan. 2008 to 30 Apr. 2015 were used in this study. The GIPSY-OASIS II software was used to estimate daily coordinates of 226 GPS stations from the GEONET in the Tokai district. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on 11 Mar. 2011 and post-seismic deformation has also been observed in the Tokai region since then. Therefore, the effects of the post-seismic deformation due to the Tohoku-oki earthquake were removed by fitting the data from 11 Mar. 2011 to 31 Dec. 2012 with simple mathematical functions. We approximate the post-seismic deformations by the sum of exponential and logarithmic functions and subtract the estimated post-seismic deformation from the GPS time series. After removing this compornent, we applied a time-dependent inversion method to the data to obtain the spatio-temporal evolution of slip on the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Tokai region. For this purpose, we used a modified Network Inversion Filter (NIF) (Fukuda et al., 2008). The original NIF (Segall and Matthews, 1997) assumes a constant hyperparameter for the temporal smoothing of slip rate and thus results in oversmoothing of slip rate. The modified NIF assumes a time variable hyperparameter, so that changes in slip rate are effectively extracted from GPS time series. The results indicate that maximum slip for the long-term SSE from 1 Jan. 2013 to 30 Apr. 2015 was estimated to be about 6 cm and the large slip was located in nearly the same area as or slightly

  15. Three Kanto Earthquakes Inferred from the Tsunami Deposits and the Relative Sea Level Change in the Miura Peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Chiba, T.; Ishibe, T.; Okamura, M.; Matsuoka, H.; Tsuji, Y.; Satake, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Kanto earthquake is a great interplate earthquake caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Japan Island along the Sagami Trough. The 1923 Kanto earthquake (M=7.9) and the 1703 Kanto earthquake (M~8.0) are two of the most devastating earthquake those struck Tokyo Metropolitan area, respectively. These earthquakes brought large (~5 m) tsunami to the coast area and uplifted the Miura peninsula by ~1.4 m. The tide gauge station, moreover, records the subsidence during the interseismic period before and after the 1923 earthquake. Present study clarifies the past Kanto earthquake prior to the 1703 earthquake based on the sedimentary analysis in the Koajiro bay of the southern Miura Peninsula. The continuous samples of inner bay fine sediments were taken by the boring survey using 3-m-long geoslicer. Three layers of coarse sediments, T1, T2, and T3 units from top toward bottom, are observed in the bay sediments at almost all the sites. These units are composed of mixture of materials such as shell fragments, rock clasts and gravel, and some of units have eroded the lower fine sediments, indicating the event deposits by the strong traction flow. The grain sizes of the bay sediments are grading upward and abruptly become larger after the deposition of the T1, T2 and T3 units. Very little diatom is observed in these units, but the total number of diatoms increase in the bay sediments. The ratio of the marine planktonic species against the benthic species gradually rises from the lower part to the upper part in the bay sediment. In the tidal flat sediment, the freshwater planktonic species appear in place of the marine planktonic diatom. The changes of grain size and diatom species make a presumption that the sea depth suddenly becomes shallow by the event and deeper during the interseismic period. The T1, T2 and T3 units, thus, are correlated with the tsunami deposits conveyed by the Kanto earthquake. The T1 and T2 units are inferred to be the tsunami

  16. Effects of subsurface structures of source regions on long-period ground motions observed in the Tokyo Bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, Tomiichi

    2017-05-01

    We compared the long-period ground motion observed in the Tokyo Bay area during two shallow M6.7 earthquakes that occurred in northern Nagano Prefecture, Japan, on March 12, 2011, and November 22, 2014. The magnitudes, focal depths, and source mechanisms of these events were almost identical, but their seismograms were quite different. Significant long-period later arrivals with a predominant period of 5 s were recognized in the velocity traces of the 2011 event, but there were no such remarkable later arrivals in the 2014 event traces. The ground motions at stations located outside the basin area were studied as incident waves to the Kanto Basin. A large wave packet with a predominant period of 5 s was recognized in the velocity traces of the 2011 event, but there was no significant wave packet in the 2014 event traces. Based on particle motion, this wave packet was hypothesized to be a Rayleigh wave. The source regions of the two events have quite different subsurface structures. The different characteristics in long-period ground motion in the Tokyo Bay area during the two events were due to different Rayleigh wave excitations in the source regions.

  17. Standardization of the body surface area (BSA) formula to calculate the dose of anticancer agents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tsutomu; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Mukai, Hirofumi; Ando, Masashi; Watanabe, Toru

    2003-06-01

    The importance of deciding the appropriate dose of anticancer agents cannot be overemphasized. Body surface area (BSA) has been used to calculate the dose in anticancer therapy since the 1950s. Japanese oncologists, often use their own Japanese BSA formula instead of western BSA formulae. However, it is not widely known that some discrepancies exist between the BSA products of the Japanese and western styles. On the other hand, recently dose-calculations according to BSA were criticized from the standpoint of pharmacokinetics (PK). Lately, we have had many opportunities for international collaborations, which make it necessary to review these BSA formulae, and the BSA-based dosing method. A unified BSA formula in cancer therapy is needed in Japan. We searched and compiled frequently used BSA formulae across the world using the MEDLINE search, oncology text, a web search on cancer clinical trial groups, and personally communicated with medical oncologists from western countries. Using these formulae, we calculated BSA for a typical Japanese individual, and compared their products. We calculated BSA using these formulae for individuals of widely varying physique, from 140 to 185 cm in height, and from 30 to 96 kg in weight, and estimated the amount of discrepancies among them. Among the various BSA formulae used in western countries, the DuBois formula is the standard. In Japan, the Fujimoto formula has been used frequently. The Fujimoto formula was based on a study of 201 Japanese subjects in 1949. For the average Japanese individual, the BSA calculated using the Fujimoto formula was about 3% lower than that which was calculated by western formulae. The BSA calculated for all heights and body weights using the Fujimoto formula, ranged between 0.7 and 4.8% less than those calculated by using the DuBois formula. The other western formulae showed larger discrepancies than the Fujimoto and DuBois formulae. BSA-based dosing has failed to standardize the variation in PK

  18. Streamlining of medical relief to areas affected by the Great East Japan earthquake with the "area-based/line-linking support system".

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ishii, Tadashi; Morino, Kazuma; Furukawa, Hajime; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ochi, Sae; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    When disasters that affect a wide area occur, external medical relief teams play a critical role in the affected areas by helping to alleviate the burden caused by surging numbers of individuals requiring health care. Despite this, no system has been established for managing deployed medical relief teams during the subacute phase following a disaster. After the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the Ishinomaki Medical Zone was the most severely-affected area. Approximately 6,000 people died or were missing, and the immediate evacuation of approximately 120,000 people to roughly 320 shelters was required. As many as 59 medical teams came to participate in relief activities. Daily coordination of activities and deployment locations became a significant burden to headquarters. The Area-based/Line-linking Support System (Area-Line System) was thus devised to resolve these issues for medical relief and coordinating activities. A retrospective analysis was performed to examine the effectiveness of the medical relief provided to evacuees using the Area-Line System with regards to the activities of the medical relief teams and the coordinating headquarters. The following were compared before and after establishment of the Area-Line System: (1) time required at the coordinating headquarters to collect and tabulate medical records from shelters visited; (2) time required at headquarters to determine deployment locations and activities of all medical relief teams; and (3) inter-area variation in number of patients per team. The time required to collect and tabulate medical records was reduced from approximately 300 to 70 minutes/day. The number of teams at headquarters required to sort through data was reduced from 60 to 14. The time required to determine deployment locations and activities of the medical relief teams was reduced from approximately 150 hours/month to approximately 40 hours/month. Immediately prior to establishment of the Area-Line System, the variation

  19. Spatial distribution of microbial populations and carbon cycle in the subsurface environment of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Y.; Ise, K.; Terashima, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Amamiya, H.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms are widely distributed in the subsurface environments. However, the distribution, role and rate of metabolisms, and the source of their activity are not well known. In this study, we investigated deep groundwater samples from sedimentary rocks, containing saturated methane and CO2, using boreholes at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL), northern Hokkaido, Japan. The hydrochemical conditions of groundwaters, such as in-situ water pressure, temperature, electric conductivity, pH, redox potential, were monitored without degassing at multiple intervals along the borehole. Groundwater samples were taken periodically and chemical composition was analyzed using ICP-MS, etc. Cell counts were in the range of 103 to 105 cells ml-1. Molecular analyses revealed the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the microbial population. Abundant methanogens were detected in the groundwater, and 80% of them were related to either Methanoregula boonei or Methanobacterium flexile that can utilize H2/CO2 by methanogenesis. Phylotypes clustered within the phylum Firmicutes, beta-Proteobacteria, delta-Proteobacteria and candidate division TM7 were dominant in the groundwater samples. Laboratory experiments using a culture technique showed that humic substances purified from the groundwater at Horonobe area appear to be degraded by microorganisms. Our results suggest that microbial spatial distributions in the subsurface environment were correlated closely with geochemical conditions, such as redox condition and carbon sources. In addition, it is inferred that humic substances are one of the important carbon sources for the subsurface microbial redox processes in the environment. This study was partly funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan.

  20. Upper Mantle Structure and the 660-km Discontinuity beneath Japan Sea and its adjacent Areas Determined from Waveform Triplication data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C.; Ning, J.; Niu, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Grand, S. P.; Kawakatsu, H.; Tanaka, S.; Necessarray Project Team

    2011-12-01

    We applied a forward waveform modeling method to determine upper mantle structure mainly in the transition zone beneath Japan Sea area. A propagation matrix method proposed by Wang (1999) was used to compute synthetic seismograms. According to the analysis of the difference between the synthetic results and real observations, we adjusted the one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and found the best fitting one at last. Concretely speaking, the time interval between arrivals that turns near the top and the bottom of the transition zone could constrain the velocity gradient in the transition zone. Relative timing and amplitudes between arrivals turning just above and below a discontinuity constrain both the contrast and the depth of the discontinuity. The data we used in this work are mainly from the NorthEast China Extended SeiSmic Array (NECESSArray) in northeast China. NECESSArray is a large deployment of 120 broadband seismographs from September 2009 to August 2011 operated by an international collaboration of China, United States and Japan. It is designed to study the behavior of the Pacific subducting slab in the mantle transition zone, the cause of intraplate continental magmatism and tectonics in Northeast China, as well as the evolution of ancient Archean lithosphere. Preliminary result shows that the best fitting velocity model is rather close to the global average model IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). The depth of the 660-km discontinuity and the structure below it are the same with IASP91. The velocity gradient from 520 km to 660 km is slightly larger and makes the velocity jump at 660-km discontinuity 0.1043 km/s smaller. This result may come from the special ray paths and the subduction geometry. At the time of the AGU fall meeting, we will show the detailed images and discuss their correlation with other observations.

  1. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities-Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama-were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  2. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities—Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama—were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95 % confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  3. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  4. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species.

  5. Improving the interpretability of climate landscape metrics: An ecological risk analysis of Japan's Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    García Molinos, Jorge; Takao, Shintaro; Kumagai, Naoki H; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Burrows, Michael T; Fujii, Masahiko; Yamano, Hiroya

    2017-10-01

    Conservation efforts strive to protect significant swaths of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems from a range of threats. As climate change becomes an increasing concern, these efforts must take into account how resilient-protected spaces will be in the face of future drivers of change such as warming temperatures. Climate landscape metrics, which signal the spatial magnitude and direction of climate change, support a convenient initial assessment of potential threats to and opportunities within ecosystems to inform conservation and policy efforts where biological data are not available. However, inference of risk from purely physical climatic changes is difficult unless set in a meaningful ecological context. Here, we aim to establish this context using historical climatic variability, as a proxy for local adaptation by resident biota, to identify areas where current local climate conditions will remain extant and future regional climate analogues will emerge. This information is then related to the processes governing species' climate-driven range edge dynamics, differentiating changes in local climate conditions as promoters of species range contractions from those in neighbouring locations facilitating range expansions. We applied this approach to assess the future climatic stability and connectivity of Japanese waters and its network of marine protected areas (MPAs). We find 88% of Japanese waters transitioning to climates outside their historical variability bounds by 2035, resulting in large reductions in the amount of available climatic space potentially promoting widespread range contractions and expansions. Areas of high connectivity, where shifting climates converge, are present along sections of the coast facilitated by the strong latitudinal gradient of the Japanese archipelago and its ocean current system. While these areas overlap significantly with areas currently under significant anthropogenic pressures, they also include much of the MPA

  6. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-09-23

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  7. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieu, Tran Thi Ngoc; Goto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Hisashi; Murata, Ryo; Sudo, Kengo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-03-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. The spatial distribution of the air pollution has been estimated by chemical transport models, but still there are large uncertainties depending on detailed condition of the region. In this study, we extended Goto et al. (2015a) for implementing a chemical transport model to simulate short-lived gases such as ozone over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for August 2010. Comparison of simulation results with observed data indicated that the model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69-0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of meteorological conditions in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and biases were lower (<35%) when the meteorological conditions were stable. In contrast, dominance of local pressure system and an associated complex wind field were main reasons for overestimated surface ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. This study helped achieve a better understanding of the chemistry transport model performance under unstable meteorological conditions in the Kanto area. Maximal association between meteorological factors and surface ozone distribution was revealed. In addition, uncertainty of emission inventories of ozone precursors especially the underestimate NOx level certainly contributed to high level surface ozone during nighttime in this study.

  8. Delineating Focus Areas for Bird Conservation in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region

    Treesearch

    Jane A. Fitzgerald; C. Diane True; David D. Diamond; Troy Ettel; Laurel Moore; Timothy A. Nigh; Shawchyi Vorisek; Greg Wathen

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a process used to identify landscape-scale focus areas for the conservation of priority grassland, grass-shrubland, wetland and forest-woodland birds in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region (CHBCR). The areas were delineated by biologists and other technical staff of partner agencies and organizations in the CHBCR with the use of...

  9. Lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake: The need for disaster preparedness in the area of disaster mental health for children.

    PubMed

    Kozu, Shuei; Homma, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 brought unprecedented challenges to individuals, families, and communities of the Tohoku region in Japan. Children are especially vulnerable to the postdisaster risk factors that impact their ability to heal. The destruction of the infrastructure by the disasters made it more challenging to reach out to children in an area where the stigma against mental illness is persistent. The authors share their experiences, what they heard from patients, and their reflections on lessons learned. The authors recommend the development of a coordinated mental health response system in preparation for the next disaster.

  10. Occurrence of PSP-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamiyavanichii in Bingo-Nada, the central coastal water of the Seto Inland Sea, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Rieko; Nojima, Kanako; Tsuruda, Shintaro; Gomez-Delan, Gloria; Barte-Quilantang, Mercy; Taniyama, Shigeto; Sagara, Takefumi; Nishio, Sachio; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Asakawa, Manabu

    2008-04-01

    During surveillance of the distribution of the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate in 2003, 2004 and 2005 along the coastlines of the Seto Inland Sea, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, some species of toxic phytoplankton were isolated from the eastern coasts, Bingo-Nada, the central regions of the Seto Inland Sea. It was rather unexpectedly revealed from the basis of the morphological characteristics that they were unambiguously identified as Alexandrium tamiyavanichii and Alexandrium catenella. Two strains (ATY041106, ATY051018) of A. tamiyavanichii showed a specific toxicity of 38.7 x 10(-6) and 111.5 x 10(-6)MU/cell, respectively. These values seemed to be several times or much higher than that of A. catenella (AC030816, AC040614), having a specific toxicity of 4.5 x 10(-6) and 4.1 x 10(-6)MU/cell, respectively, isolated in the same area. From the results of HPLC-furuorometric analysis, it revealed that the toxins in ATY041106 exist almost exclusively as beta-epimers (C2, GTX3, GTX4), which accounted for 72.7 mol%. The toxin profiles of this strain are featured by the presence of a large amount of GTX3 (59.1 mol%) and a small amount (20.6%) of C1 and 2 in comparison with the PSP compositions of A. tamarense, which is isolated as the main responsible species in Hiroshima Bay, a western part of coastal sea in Hiroshima Prefecture. On the other hand, it revealed that the toxin profiles of two strains (AC030816, AC040614) of A. catenella exist almost exclusively as beta-epimers (C2, GTX3, GTX4), which accounted for 81.8 and 56.5 mol%, as the same manner. The toxin profiles of these two strains are featured by the presence of a large amount of C2 (80.5 and 46.3 mol%) in comparison with the PSP compositions of A. tamiyavanichii. To our knowledge, this is the first record to show the distribution and harmful influence of A. tamiyavanichii and A. catenella in Bingo-Nada in Hiroshima Prefecture. Though contamination of bivalves with these PSP

  11. Transformation of juvenile Izu-Bonin-Mariana oceanic arc into mature continental crust: An example from the Neogene Izu collision zone granitoid plutons, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Satoshi; Tani, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    Granitic rocks (sensulato) are major constituents of upper continental crust. Recent reviews reveal that the average composition of Phanerozoic upper continental crust is granodioritic. Although oceanic arcs are regarded as a site producing continental crust material in an oceanic setting, intermediate to felsic igneous rocks occurring in modern oceanic arcs are dominantly tonalitic to trondhjemitic in composition and have lower incompatible element contents than the average upper continental crust. Therefore, juvenile oceanic arcs require additional processes in order to get transformed into mature continental crust enriched in incompatible elements. Neogene granitoid plutons are widely exposed in the Izu Collision Zone in central Japan, where the northern end of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc (juvenile oceanic arc) has been colliding with the Honshu arc (mature island arc) since Middle Miocene. The plutons in this area are composed of various types of granitoids ranging from tonalite to trondhjemite, granodiorite, monzogranite and granite. Three main granitoid plutons are distributed in this area: Tanzawa plutonic complex, Kofu granitic complex, and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton. Tanzawa plutonic complex is dominantly composed of tonalite and trondhjemite and characterized by low concentration of incompatible elements and shows geochemical similarity with modern juvenile oceanic arcs. In contrast, Kofu granitic complex and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton consists mainly of granodiorite, monzogranite and granite and their incompatible element abundances are comparable to the average upper continental crust. Previous petrogenetic studies on these plutons suggested that (1) the Tanzawa plutonic complex formed by lower crustal anatexis of juvenile basaltic rocks occurring in the IBM arc, (2) the Kofu granitic complex formed by anatexis of 'hybrid lower crust' comprising of both basaltic rocks of the IBM arc and metasedimentary rocks of the Honshu arc, and (3) the

  12. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... considered the factors in 12 U.S.C. 4564(b). A statement documenting HUD's considerations and findings with... of mortgages financing housing in areas that are underserved in terms of mortgage credit. (b)...

  13. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... considered the factors in 12 U.S.C. 4564(b). A statement documenting HUD's considerations and findings with... of mortgages financing housing in areas that are underserved in terms of mortgage credit. (b)...

  14. Spatial distribution of precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms in the Izu-Honshu collision zone, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Y.; Takeda, T.; Honda, R.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Tanzawa region, central Japan, where the Izu-Bonin arc collides into the Honshu crust, the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts intricately and the seismicity is particularly high. The configuration of the PHS plate in the region has been estimated based on the hypocenter distribution, seismic velocity tomography, and seismic profile (e.g. Ishida, 1992; Matsubara et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2005). However, the relationship between the structure of the PHP and the seismicity in the collision zone is still not clearly understood. To elucidate the seismotectonics, it is essential to get precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms. We used data from 107 permanent online stations operated by Hot Springs Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, NIED Hi-net and JMA, which are located within 80-km from the epicenters. We relocated hypocenters of 4351 events that occurred in and around the Tanzawa region with the double-difference relocation algorithm (DD method) (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000), using the differential arrival time obtained by both manual picking and waveform cross-correlation analysis. Then, we determined the focal mechanisms of 420 events using the absolute P- and SH-wave amplitudes by adding the P-wave polarities. We found that the earthquakes in the eastern Tanzawa region are distributed along the planar zone slightly dipping toward east. On the other hand, the earthquakes in the western region spread out in the volume of approximately 10 km × 10 km × 10 km. We examined similarity between the focal mechanisms of earthquakes and a reference of focal mechanism that is inferred from the configuration and relative motion of the PHP. We assumed the fault plane direction of the reference focal mechanism based on the fault model of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake (Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The slip direction is assumed so as to be consistent with the relative motion of the PHP with respect to the Eurasian plate in the Kanto region (Seno, 1993). The

  15. How Japan Might Counter the Anti-Access/Area Denial Environment in the Western Pacific?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-02

    stretches as long as 2,000 miles from Sea of Okhotsk in the north to Taiwan and the East China Sea in the south, continental nations need to pass through...bases, air and sea assets, and the networks that support them.Ŗ In other words, 1 China’s rapidly developing anti-access/area denial (A2/AD...1,600 nm~·¥ It has been reported that the H-6K can carry Kh-31A, a sea -skimming supersonic cruise missile with an attack range of over 50 nm. They

  16. Re-examination of the damage distribution and the source of the 1828 Sanjo Earthquake in central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, A.; Satake, K.; Yata, T.; Urabe, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Sanjo earthquake occurred in the mid-Niigata Prefecture, Japan, at around 6 or 7 a.m. on 18 December, 1828, and caused serious damage especially in the town of Sanjo. The epicenter and source fault were previously investigated by Usami (2003) and Uetake et al. (2005). Usami (2003) also estimated the magnitude as 6.9. According to historical records, the number of completely collapsed houses is 2418 in Sanjo town, in the flood plain of Shinano river, and 305 in Yoita town, on the western edge of Nagaoka plain. These two towns were the large population centers in those days. However, it is erroneous to conclude that the source of this earthquake is around Sanjo or Yoita town from the number of collapsed houses, because large population towns yield more collapsed houses. Therefore, we investigate damages in the other areas, and also estimate damage ratio in order to specify the focal region of the Sanjo Earthquake. We selected three reliable historical records which describe the original population and number of houses, as well as casualties or damages caused by this earthquake. The first document, compiled by Kuwana feudal clan, records the numbers of total houses and damaged houses at 54 villages. The second historical document seems to be based on a report which compiled damages and casualties to a public office of the Nagaoka feudal clan, and records the numbers of houses and of non-collapsed houses. The third document describes the number of houses and damages of each house (burned, collapsed or partially collapsed) in each region of Yoita town. The collapse ratio of houses at each village estimated from the above three historical documents is then converted into Japanese seismic intensity scale based on Usami (1986)'s table, i.e. Seismic intensity 7 (XII on MM scale) : 81 - 100 % collapse ratio of houses. Seismic intensity 6 (X - XI on MM scale): 71 - 80 % collapse ratio of houses. Seismic intensity 5+ (IX on MM scale) : 1 - 70 % collapse ratio of houses

  17. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

    2010-04-01

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  18. Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild Deer and Ticks on Two Major Islands in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Makoto; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Lin, Quan; Isogai, Emiko; Tahara, Kenji; Itagaki, Asao; Hiramitsu, Yoshimichi; Tajima, Tomoko

    2006-01-01

    Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma naturally infect deer in Japan. Blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major Japanese islands, Hokkaido and Honshu, were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by PCR assays and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, major outer membrane protein p44 genes, and groESL. DNA representing four species and two genera of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma was identified in 33 of 126 wild deer (26%). DNA sequence analysis revealed novel strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a novel Ehrlichia sp., Anaplasma centrale, and Anaplasma bovis in the blood samples from deer. None of these have been found previously in deer. The new Ehrlichia sp., A. bovis, and A. centrale were also detected in Hemaphysalis longicornis ticks from Honshu Island. These results suggest that enzootic cycles of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species distinct from those found in the United States or Europe have been established in wild deer and ticks in Japan. PMID:16461655

  19. Impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with cardiac origin in non-disaster areas [corrected].

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Nishiyama, Chika; Kawamura, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    To examine changes in the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with cardiac origin in the non-disaster areas of Japan before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. The 35 prefectures in Japan with no dead or missing caused directly by the earthquake were defined as the non-disaster areas. Data of adult OHCA patients in the non-disaster areas from March 4 to 24 each year from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. Risk ratios (RRs) of OHCA incidence and 95% CIs were estimated for three specific weeks in 2011 (1 week before and 2 weeks after the earthquake) by applying multivariable Poisson regression model. Incidence in the corresponding periods of March 4-24 from 2005 to 2010 was set as the baseline risk. In the analyses from a total of 17,353 OHCA patients, the incidence statistically significantly increased in the first week after the earthquake in all adults (adjusted-RR=1.13, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.22, p=0.001) and in elderly women (adjusted-RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.11 to 1.37, p<0.001). The Great East Japan Earthquake caused the increase of OHCA among elderly women even in the non-disaster areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central sphere. Farming regions are in the 'tires.' Mirrors reflect sunlight into the habitat and farms. The large flat panels radiate away extra heat into space, and panels of solar cells provide electricity. Factories and docks for spaceships are at either end of the long central tube. (NOTE: art printed in Book 'Space Colony - Frontier of the 21st Century by Franklyn M. Branley)

  1. Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central sphere. Farming regions are in the 'tires.' Mirrors reflect sunlight into the habitat and farms. The large flat panels radiate away extra heat into space, and panels of solar cells provide electricity. Factories and docks for spaceships are at either end of the long central tube. (NOTE: art printed in Book 'Space Colony - Frontier of the 21st Century by Franklyn M. Branley)

  2. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Spontaneous elimination of hepatitis C virus RNA in individuals with persistent infection in a hyperendemic area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Uto, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kusumoto, Kazunori; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Kodama, Mayumi; Ido, Akio; Kohara, Michinori; Stuver, Sherri O; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    The natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers is not well understood. We examined the clinical characteristics of individuals exhibiting spontaneous elimination of HCV as part of a cohort study of residents of a HCV hyperendemic area in Japan. In individuals who were judged to have persistent HCV infection in 1995, 302 had at least 4 annual ALT measurements between 1993 and 2000, and had not been treated with IFN. They were tested for the presence of HCV RNA in 2001 and/or 2002 and HCV RNA could not be detected in 20 of the 302 individuals. In these 20 individuals, 7 were confirmed to have detectable HCV RNA and 13 were not until 2000. Thus, 2.4% (7/289) were judged to have spontaneously eliminated the HCV infection during that 6-year period. Although there were no differences in age, sex, ALT levels, or serologically defined HCV genotype between individuals with and without exhibiting spontaneous elimination, there was a significant relationship between the elimination of HCV RNA and a low level of HCVcAg (<20pg/mL) (P<0.001) upon testing in 1995. These results suggest that spontaneous elimination of HCV RNA following persistent infection is rare and appears to be related to viral load.

  4. Monitoring heat losses using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data — a case study at Kuju fumarolic area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2013-10-01

    To monitor heat losses using Landsat 7 thermal infrared data from 2002 to 2010 within the active fumarolic region of Kuju volcano in Japan, we used the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiative heat flux (RHF) estimation. Heat discharge rate (HDR) was calculated by using the relationship coefficient of RHF and HDR, obtained from two previous studies. The highest total RHF was found to be about 57.7 MW in 2002 and the lowest was about 21.1 MW in 2010. We found the highest HDR, of about 384.5 MW, in 2002 and the lowest, of about 140.8 MW, in 2010. The RHF anomalous areas were showing a declining trend during our study period. The relationship between the land surface temperature (LST) above ambient and RHF was, as expected, in a strong correlation for each result during our study period. Overall, our study was able to delineate the declining trend of heat losses that supports a previous study of similar declining trend of HDR using steam maximum diameter method from the active fumarolic region of Kuju volcano.

  5. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  6. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  7. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  8. Relationships among temperature, dehydration of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, and the occurrence of a megathrust earthquake, low-frequency earthquakes, and a slow slip event in the Tokai district, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Shoichi; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of temperature distribution associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate, and estimated the dehydration process of hydrous mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) in the oceanic crust in the Tokai district, central Japan. We discuss the relationship among temperature, dehydration, and a seismogenic zone of an expected megathrust Tokai earthquake, and the occurrence of a slow slip event (SSE) and deep low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs). The depth range of the seismogenic zone for the megathrust earthquake was estimated to be 8-22 km, narrowing toward the east. The most suitable value of the pore pressure ratio on the plate interface was estimated to be 0.97, indicating minimal frictional heating there. The temperatures of the upper surface of the PHS plate, where the Tokai SSE occurred from 2000 to 2005, were estimated to be 350-450 °C. Therefore, the Tokai SSE is considered to have occurred at the transition zone between unstable and stable sliding. In addition, hydrous MORB was transformed from blueschist into greenschist near the region where the Tokai SSE occurred. The temperatures of the upper surface of the PHS plate, where LFEs occur, were estimated to be 450-500 °C. Therefore, LFEs are considered to occur near the down-dip limit of the transition zone. The amount of dehydration from the oceanic crust of the subducting PHS plate near the region where LFEs are distributed in a belt-like form decreases toward the east with deepening of the hypocenters of the LFEs. Thus, the mechanisms of generation of LFEs in the Tokai district might differ from those in southwest and central Japan where LFEs generally occur at depths between 27 and 35 km. In summary, we consider that the occurrence of LFEs is related to both temperature conditions and dehydration process. However, there is an exceptional area in the eastern part of the Tokai district where the occurrence of LFEs is restricted by

  9. A STUDY ON EMERGENCYWATER DELIVERY IN WIDE-AREA EARTHQUAKE DISASTER - A CASE STUDY OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yoji; Kuwata, Yasuko

    The Great East Japan earthquake disaster caused water outage to 2. 25 million customers in all the eastern part of Japan. It was so-called "wide-area earthquake disaster". Japanwater supply authorities have improved disaster assistant system after the lessons learned from the Kobe earthquake. This study focuses on the emergency response capacity on water delivery in such a wide-area earthquake disaster reviewing the activity in assisting and assisted municipalities during the latest earthquake. The total of 355 water trucks dispatched is thought to be the maximum from the availablemunicipalities. It is turned out that the objective amount of 3 litters per person by the water delivery cannot be reached in the wide-area earthquake disaster.

  10. Sediment records of historical and pre-historical tsunamis in the last 4000 years in the Tonankai area, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, S.; Kimura, H.; Shishikura, M.; Komatsubara, J.; Namegaya, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal tsunami history of thousands of years that complement and extend existing past tsunami records along the Nankai Trough, Pacific coast of western Japan. It is certainly noted that tsunamis inundated the study site in the Tonankai area in AD 1096, 1498, 1605, 1707, 1854 and 1944. The study site in the Shima Peninsula is a coastal lowland formed by filling of a drowned valley behind a barrier spit. Wetland lower than 1 m above sealevel distributes more than 700 m inland at the site. Hand coring and drilling survey exposed at least 9 sand layers in the 3-4 m thick marsh deposit of organic-rich silt. All of the sand layers contain bioclasts of marine and brackish water organisms such as gastropod, bivalve, calcareous algae and foraminifera. In most cases, these sand layers are few centimeters thick and have sharp basal contacts. Soft x-ray imaging shows that some of the sand layers includes rip-up clasts and are composed of two or more sub-layers of paired sand and silt. It is considered from the sedimentary features and geomorphological setting that these sand layers were deposited by past tsunamis which provably occurred off the study area. There is no record of sand layer deposition and significant seawater inundation at the study site even at the time of one of the biggest typhoon in recorded history. The AD 1944 Showa-Tonankai earthquake tsunami exceeded the height of the barrier spit, but those of the AD 1946 Showa-Nankai earthquake tsunami occurred in the Nankai area and the AD 1960 Chilean tsunami were lower than the barrier spit. Radiocarbon ages of seeds and leaves indicate that the shell-rich sand layers deposited in the last 4000 years, and that younger three sand layers were deposited by the historical tsunamis in AD 684, 1096 and 1498 respectively. This result supports archaeological studies, which suggest that the rupture of the AD 684 earthquake extended to the Tonankai area. We do not see traces of the AD 887 and 1361

  11. May 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on May 10-11, 2011, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  12. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  13. May 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 7-9, 2010, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  14. Reproductive parameters and cub survival of brown bears in the Rusha area of the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimozuru, Michito; Yamanaka, Masami; Nakanishi, Masanao; Moriwaki, Jun; Mori, Fumihiko; Tsujino, Masakatsu; Shirane, Yuri; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Kasai, Shinsuke; Nose, Takane; Masuda, Yasushi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the reproductive characteristics of a species is essential for the appropriate conservation and management of wildlife. In this study, we investigated the demographic parameters, including age of primiparity, litter size, inter-birth interval, reproductive rate, and cub survival rate, of Hokkaido brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, based on a long-term, individual-based monitoring survey. A total of 15 philopatric females were observed nearly every year from 2006 to 2016, and these observations were used to estimate reproductive parameters. The mean age of primiparity was 5.3 ± 0.2 (SE) years (n = 7, 95% CI = 5.0-5.6). We observed 81 cubs in 46 litters from 15 bears. Litter size ranged from one to three cubs, and averaged 1.76 ± 0.08 (SE) cubs/litter (95% CI = 1.61-1.91). Inter-birth intervals ranged from 1 to 4 years, and the mean value was estimated as 2.43 (95% CI = 2.16-2.76) and 2.53 (95% CI = 2.26-2.85) years in all litters and in litters that survived at least their first year, respectively. The reproductive rate was estimated from 0.70 to 0.76 young born/year/reproductive adult female, depending on the method of calculation. The cub survival rate between 0.5 and 1.5 years ranged from 60 to 73%. Most cub disappearances occurred in July and August, suggesting that cub mortality is mainly due to poor nutrition in the summer. All reproductive parameters observed in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula fell within the range reported in Europe and North America, and were among the lowest or shortest age of primiparity, litter size, and inter-birth intervals, and ranked at a high level for reproductive rate.

  15. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Lindsey, David A.; Bruce, R.M.; Soulliere, Sandra J.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of geologic studies in the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area in the Rio Grande and San Isabel National Forests, south-central Colorado. The area was designated as a wilderness study area under Public Lay 96-560 in 1980. 

  16. Temporal variations of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio in marine brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria longissima, collected in coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takami; Fujimoto, Ken; Kasai, Hiromi; Yamada, Haruya; Nishiuchi, Kou

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides, 90Sr and 137Cs, were measured in two marine algal species, wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) and edible kelp (Laminaria longissima), collected in four coastal areas of Japan during 1998-2008. Although 90Sr and 137Cs could be detected at all sampling sites, the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were at low levels and those in some samples were below the detection limit. These low concentrations and the small variation of both concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio indicate that the source of 90Sr and 137Cs detected in this study originated from the global fallout deposition following atmospheric nuclear-bomb tests in the past. There were no significant differences in both concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in wakame seaweed among three sampling sites. Although wakame seaweed is extensively distributed in southern and central Japan, it does not occur in northern areas and so edible kelp was monitored. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in edible kelp were significantly different from those in wakame seaweed in some sampling sites. These differences could be due to the difference in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the surrounding seawater or the difference in species. The combined data with data from the previous report and the preexisting database showed that wakame seaweed incorporated 137Cs through a different pathway from that of 90Sr. The combined data also suggested that wakame seaweed responded differently to the source of 137Cs.

  17. Acid deposition and air quality related values in north central Colorado wilderness areas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem response to atmospheric acid, sulfur, and nitrate deposition has been studied only in a very limited way in Colorado wilderness areas. However, the observed deposition rates in north central Colorado remain low relative to affected areas in the eastern United States and well within a range where no adverse ecological effects are expected. This report presents a survey of scientific information describing acid deposition and air quality related values, which may have implications for utility plant operations.

  18. Those Left Behind: Recent Social Changes in a Heavy Emigration Area of North Central New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen E.; Hannon, John H.

    1977-01-01

    Examining social and economic change associated with a recent mass exodus of Spanish surnamed populations from rural villages in north-central New Mexico, this article addresses attitudes of those left behind and postulates that while the impact of migration has been felt throughout the area, its intensity has fluctuated among villages. (Author/JC)

  19. Those Left Behind: Recent Social Changes in a Heavy Emigration Area of North Central New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen E.; Hannon, John H.

    1977-01-01

    Examining social and economic change associated with a recent mass exodus of Spanish surnamed populations from rural villages in north-central New Mexico, this article addresses attitudes of those left behind and postulates that while the impact of migration has been felt throughout the area, its intensity has fluctuated among villages. (Author/JC)

  20. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California.

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multi-resource inventory. The inventory...

  1. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  2. Geology and ground-water resources of the Grand Rapids area, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, Edward L.

    1970-01-01

    This report is one of a series of studies of geology and ground-water availability conducted in and near selected communities on the Mesabi Iron Range, north-central and northeastern Minnesota. This report describes the geology and ground-water conditions in the 303 square-mile Grand Rapids area.

  3. Host preference and species richness of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi in a cool temperate area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Tsutomu; Abe, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    We examined the species richness and host utilization patterns of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi (polypores and related fungi) in an old-growth beech and oak forest in a cool, temperate area of Japan. Coarse woody debris (CWD) > or = 20 cm diam within a 6 ha plot was surveyed in Sep 2002. Tree genus, diameter, decay class and tree part of CWD samples were recorded. Fruiting bodies of aphyllophoraceous fungi that arose from the CWD were surveyed three times and identified to species. In total 256 CWD samples from 12 tree genera were surveyed with Quercus being the most frequent followed by Castanea and Fagus. From 196 CWD samples we recorded 436 wood-inhabiting fungi belonging to 63 species. Fifteen fungal species had at least 10 records, with Hymenochaete rubiginosa, Daedalea dickinsii, Xylobolus frustulatus, Rigidoporus cinereus and the small form of Fomes fomentarius being the most frequent. The number of fungal species that appeared on Fagus was significantly larger than that on Castanea, when the number of fruiting bodies collected was at least 50. The occurrences of the 15 dominant fungal species, except Trametes versicolor, were related to traits of the CWD. Tree genus was a predictor variable that affected the appearance of 11 of the 15 species of wood-inhabiting fungi. Only the tree part was selected for the models of Rigidoporus eminens, Schizopora flavipora and Stereum ostrea. Our results suggest that tree genus and tree part are important factors determining fungal community structure because these were selected as complementary predictor variables. Both oak and beech appear to be the most important tree genera for maintaining wood-inhabiting fungal species richness because the fungal flora formed on oak CWD is nearly complementary to those on chestnut, with low fungal species richness.

  4. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A quantitative evaluation method of flood risks in low-lying areas associated with increase of heavy rainfall in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in flood risk, especially in low-lying areas, is predicted as a consequence of global climate change or other causes. Immediate measures such as strengthening of drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more-frequent flooding. Typically, drainage pump capacities of in paddy areas are planned by using a result of drainage analysis with design rainfall (e.g. 3-day rainfall amount with a 10-year return period). However, the result depends on a hyetograph of input rainfall even if a total amount of rainfall is equal, and the flood risk may be different with rainfall patterns. Therefore, it is important to assume various patterns of heavy rainfall for flood risk assessment. On the other hand, a rainfall synthesis simulation is useful to generate many patterns of rainfall data for flood studies. We previously proposed a rainfall simulation method called diurnal rainfall pattern generator which can generate short-time step rainfall and internal pattern of them. This study discusses a quantitative evaluation method for detecting a relationship between flood damage risk and heavy rainfall scale by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. In addition, we also approached an estimation of flood damage which focused on rice yield. Our study area was in the Kaga three-lagoon basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. There are two lagoons in the study area, and the low-lying paddy areas extend over about 4,000 ha in the lower reaches of the basin. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level on channels and paddies. Next, the heavy rainfall data for drainage analysis were generated. Here, the 3-day rainfalls amounts with 9 kinds of different return periods (2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 50-, 100-, and 200-year) were derived, and three hundred hyetograph patterns were generated for each rainfall amount by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. Finally, all data

  6. High Background Ozone Events in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Area: Effects from Central American Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, R.; Wang, S. C.; Yang, S.; Wang, Y.; Talbot, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    The policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the surface ozone mixing ratio that would occur over the U.S. without North American anthropogenic emission influences. PRB ozone over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area may be affected by foreign sources due to its unique geographical location and meteorology. Our monitoring data revealed several high ozone events over HGB area which might be caused by Central American fire during the years of 2013-2015. To qualify the effects from Central American fire, we estimated the US, Central American and worldwide background over HGB area during those events using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model. Anomalies in fire emissions leading to high PRB ozone were mapped through spatiotemporal sampling of the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) along background trajectories of air masses affecting the HGB area prior to and during the selected high PRB ozone days. Daily HGB PRB ozone estimated by researchers at the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was used as the data source to validate model results. Results showed that contribution of emission from Central American to HGB PRB ozone could be tripled during fire events compared to non-impacted fire days. Besides fire emissions from Central American, different types of meteorological events (e.g., cold fronts and thunderstorms) and high local photochemical production (e.g., heat waves and stagnation) are also found associated with high PRB ozone in HGB area during these events. Thus we imply that synthetic contribution from foreign sources and local meteorology to HGB PRB ozone warrants further investigated.

  7. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a state-wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The national Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Los Padres National Forest. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of period change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  8. Assessing wildfire exposure in the Wildland-Urban Interface area of the mountains of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, J P; Radeloff, V C; Bar-Massada, A; Gavier-Pizarro, G I; Scavuzzo, C M; Bellis, L M

    2017-03-24

    Wildfires are a major threat to people and property in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) communities worldwide, but while the patterns of the WUI in North America, Europe and Oceania have been studied before, this is not the case in Latin America. Our goals were to a) map WUI areas in central Argentina, and b) assess wildfire exposure for WUI communities in relation to historic fires, with special emphasis on large fires and estimated burn probability based on an empirical model. We mapped the WUI in the mountains of central Argentina (810,000 ha), after digitizing the location of 276,700 buildings and deriving vegetation maps from satellite imagery. The areas where houses and wildland vegetation intermingle were classified as Intermix WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km(2) and wildland vegetation cover > 50%), and the areas where wildland vegetation abuts settlements were classified as Interface WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km(2), wildland vegetation cover < 50%, but within 600 m of a vegetated patch larger than 5 km(2)). We generated burn probability maps based on historical fire data from 1999 to 2011; as well as from an empirical model of fire frequency. WUI areas occupied 15% of our study area and contained 144,000 buildings (52%). Most WUI area was Intermix WUI, but most WUI buildings were in the Interface WUI. Our findings suggest that central Argentina has a WUI fire problem. WUI areas included most of the buildings exposed to wildfires and most of the buildings located in areas of higher burn probability. Our findings can help focus fire management activities in areas of higher risk, and ultimately provide support for landscape management and planning aimed at reducing wildfire risk in WUI communities.

  9. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  10. Earthquake-induced submarine sliding on the trench-slope basin within the Late Pliocene to Pleistocene Chikura Group, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil example of large-scale sediment mass wasting occurred on the trench-slope-basin was identified. A large-scale chaotic sedimentary body within Late Pliocene to Pleistocene trench-slope cover sediments of the Chikura Group, Central Japan, can be traced E×W over a distance of 5 km. A recently excavated road cutting has exposed a cross-section through the entire chaotic sedimentary body, including its upper and lower contacts with coherent sediments. Evidence of sand intrusions and block rotation within the body indicates that the chaotic nature of the sediments arose from earthquake-induced liquefaction and subsequent submarine sliding (liquefied sediment flow). It is possible that the formation of such a large-scale submarine slide body generated a large tsunami. We will report a detailed description of the occurrence and structural characteristics of this recently exposed outcrop of chaotically mixed sediments.

  11. Earthquake-induced submarine sliding on the trench-slope basin within the Late Pliocene to Pleistocene Chikura Group, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2007-12-01

    Fossil example of large-scale sediment mass wasting occurred on the trench-slope-basin was identified. A large-scale chaotic sedimentary body within Late Pliocene to Pleistocene trench-slope cover sediments of the Chikura Group, Central Japan, can be traced E-W over a distance of 5 km. A recently excavated road cutting has exposed a cross-section through the entire chaotic sedimentary body, including its upper and lower contacts with coherent sediments. Evidence of sand intrusions and block rotation within the body indicates that the chaotic nature of the sediments arose from earthquake-induced liquefaction and subsequent submarine sliding (liquefied sediment flow). It is possible that the formation of such a large-scale submarine slide body generated a large tsunami. We will report a detailed description of the occurrence and structural characteristics of this recently exposed outcrop of chaotically mixed sediments.

  12. Lessons for major system change: centralization of stroke services in two metropolitan areas of England

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Angus; Perry, Catherine; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Morris, Stephen; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony; Tyrrell, Pippa; Wolfe, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to identify the factors influencing the selection of a model of acute stroke service centralization to create fewer high-volume specialist units in two metropolitan areas of England (London and Greater Manchester). It considers the reasons why services were more fully centralized in London than in Greater Manchester. Methods In both areas, we analysed 316 documents and conducted 45 interviews with people leading transformation, service user organizations, providers and commissioners. Inductive and deductive analyses were used to compare the processes underpinning change in each area, with reference to propositions for achieving major system change taken from a realist review of the existing literature (the Best framework), which we critique and develop further. Results In London, system leadership was used to overcome resistance to centralization and align stakeholders to implement a centralized service model. In Greater Manchester, programme leaders relied on achieving change by consensus and, lacking decision-making authority over providers, accommodated rather than challenged resistance by implementing a less radical transformation of services. Conclusions A combination of system (top-down) and distributed (bottom-up) leadership is important in enabling change. System leadership provides the political authority required to coordinate stakeholders and to capitalize on clinical leadership by aligning it with transformation goals. Policy makers should examine how the structures of system authority, with performance management and financial levers, can be employed to coordinate transformation by aligning the disparate interests of providers and commissioners. PMID:26811375

  13. Lessons for major system change: centralization of stroke services in two metropolitan areas of England.

    PubMed

    Turner, Simon; Ramsay, Angus; Perry, Catherine; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Morris, Stephen; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony; Tyrrell, Pippa; Wolfe, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to identify the factors influencing the selection of a model of acute stroke service centralization to create fewer high-volume specialist units in two metropolitan areas of England (London and Greater Manchester). It considers the reasons why services were more fully centralized in London than in Greater Manchester. In both areas, we analysed 316 documents and conducted 45 interviews with people leading transformation, service user organizations, providers and commissioners. Inductive and deductive analyses were used to compare the processes underpinning change in each area, with reference to propositions for achieving major system change taken from a realist review of the existing literature (the Best framework), which we critique and develop further. In London, system leadership was used to overcome resistance to centralization and align stakeholders to implement a centralized service model. In Greater Manchester, programme leaders relied on achieving change by consensus and, lacking decision-making authority over providers, accommodated rather than challenged resistance by implementing a less radical transformation of services. A combination of system (top-down) and distributed (bottom-up) leadership is important in enabling change. System leadership provides the political authority required to coordinate stakeholders and to capitalize on clinical leadership by aligning it with transformation goals. Policy makers should examine how the structures of system authority, with performance management and financial levers, can be employed to coordinate transformation by aligning the disparate interests of providers and commissioners. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Seismic wavefield imaging in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, based on the replica exchange Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Masayuki; Nagao, Hiromichi; Nagata, Kenji; Ito, Shin-ichi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hori, Muneo; Hirata, Naoshi

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes sometimes cause serious disasters not only directly by ground motion itself but also secondarily by infrastructure damage, particularly in densely populated urban areas. To reduce these secondary disasters, it is important to rapidly evaluate seismic hazards by analyzing the seismic responses of individual structures due to the input ground motions. Such input motions are estimated utilizing an array of seismometers that are distributed more sparsely than the structures. We propose a methodology that integrates physics-based and data-driven approaches in order to obtain the seismic wavefield to be input into seismic response analysis. This study adopts the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which is one of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, for the estimation of the seismic wavefield together with one-dimensional local subsurface structure and source information. Numerical tests show that the REMC method is able to search the parameters related to the source and the local subsurface structure in broader parameter space than the Metropolis method, which is an ordinary MCMC method. The REMC method well reproduces the seismic wavefield consistent with the true one. In contrast, the ordinary kriging, which is a classical data-driven interpolation method for spatial data, is hardly able to reproduce the true wavefield even at low frequencies. This indicates that it is essential to take both physics-based and data-driven approaches into consideration for seismic wavefield imaging. Then the REMC method is applied to the actual waveforms observed by a dense seismic array MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), in which 296 accelerometers are continuously in operation with several kilometer intervals in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The estimated wavefield within a frequency band of 0.10-0.20 Hz is absolutely consistent with the observed waveforms. Further investigation suggests that the seismic wavefield is successfully

  15. The Philippine Sea slab is in contact with the crust at the source region of M 8.0 Nobi earthquake, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iidaka, T.; Igarashi, T.; Kato, A.; Iwasaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the cause of inland earthquakes, as such earthquakes have long recurrence cycles (from several hundred to several thousand years) that hamper our understanding of the processes that give rise to such events. However, these earthquakes can cause major disasters, primarily as their sources are closes to population centers. As such, understanding the mechanisms that cause inland earthquakes is an important step in the mitigation of disasters, and it requires knowledge of the mechanisms of strain accumulation and stress concentration along the source faults of such events. The Nobi earthquake which occurred in 1891 was one of the largest inland earthquakes in Japan. The magnitude of the 1891 Nobi earthquake was 8. The magnitude is much larger than those of other inland earthquakes in Japan. To know cause of the Nobi earthquake and crustal structure of the area, the temporary seismic observation was conducted. We researched receiver function analysis to obtain seismic image around the 1891 Nobi earthquake area. The earthquakes which occurred from August, 2002 to March 10, 2011 are used. The seismic stations of Hi-net and temporary seismic network were used for the receiver function analysis. A clear image of the seismic structure was obtained in this area. The configuration of the subducting Philippine Sea slab is distorted at the western part of the Japan. The Philippine Pea plate is horizontally layered from Ise Bay to Wakasa Bay. In this area, a seismic experiment with artificial sources was done in November, 2012. We compared the results of the receiver function analysis and that of refraction analysis. The Philippine Sea slab is distorted up-ward at the area of the 1891 Nobi earthquake. The up-ward distorted Philippine Sea slab is in contact with the crust. The shallowest point of the subducting Philippine Sea slab is shallower than Moho boundaries at the both sides. The fault plane of the 1891 Nobi earthquake is located in parallel to the iso

  16. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Inadomi, John M.; Takayama, Michiyo; Makino, Kanako; Iwao, Yasushi; Sugino, Yoshinori; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. Methods Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46) and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40). Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41) and the presence of Barrett’s esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56). Conclusion Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett’s esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. PMID:26225858

  17. Speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, Japan, from the viewpoint of the contradictory phylogenetic trees generated from chloroplast and nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Sudarmono; Okada, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    To understand the speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to a special environment (serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, central Honshu, Japan), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were employed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of S. isensis with related species in Japan. Allozymic polymorphisms were also used to analyze genetic relationships among Salvia species. A contradiction in the phylogenetic positions of species studied was detected when phylogenetic trees were constructed using cpDNA or nrDNA, i.e., S. isensis was a sister to the other species in phylogenetic trees generated from cpDNA, while S. japonica was a sister to the other species in the case of nrDNA. Genetic relationships between Salvia species estimated from allozymic polymorphisms did not contradict to the topology for nrDNA. Using the present results, the speciation process of S. isensis is discussed with regard to introgressive gene exchanges between related species.

  18. Potential bioindicator plant species for ambient ozone in forested mountain areas of central Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B; Musselman, R

    2002-01-01

    From 1993 to 2000, trees, shrubs, forbs and vines were evaluated for symptoms of probable ozone injury in the vicinity of passive ozone samplers or active ozone monitors in forest condition assessment networks in mostly mountainous regions, principally the Carpathian Mountain Range, in the central European countries Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine. Each country was visited at least twice during the time period. Over the course of eight seasons, 29 species of native plants were identified as potential bioindicators of ozone. This is the first report of probable ozone injury on native plants in central Europe. Forbs and shrubs made up the bulk of the species (21 of 29). Potential bioindicators that are widely distributed include the forbs Centaurea nigra. and Impatiens parviflora and the shrubs Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Sambucus racemosa. Ozone concentrations in forcsted areas of central Europe appear to be high enough and of sufficient duration to cause foliar injury on a wide variety of native plants.

  19. Opening of the closed water area and consequent changes of ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra activity ratios in coastal lagoon Nakaumi, southwest Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ritsuo; Nakamura, Kosaku; Seto, Koji; Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki

    2013-11-01

    In Lake Nakaumi, the second largest coastal lagoon in Japan, artificially closed (Honjyo) area, which was left untouched for 28 years, was partly opened in May, 2009. (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of waters in Honjyo area and Lake Nakaumi showed a well-tuned seasonal variation exhibiting high value in summer. After the opening event, however, the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in the Honjyo water showed an unclear seasonal variation in both surface and deep water. This opening event caused the change of active movement of lake and marine water.

  20. Magnetic properties of Japan Sea sediments in areas which host shallow gas hydrates and in relation to the the amount of gas hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, T.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    Shallow gas hydrate is known to occur as massive nodular aggregates in subsurface and/or shallow marine sediments (e.g. Matsumoto et al. 2009). We conducted a rock magnetic study of marine core sediments to clarify the relationship between shallow gas hydrate and the surrounding sediments. The core samples were taken from around Oki area and offshore Joetsu, the eastern margin of Japan Sea, during PS15 cruise in 2015. We mainly report magnetic susceptibility measurement of whole-round core samples. From the onboard measurements, the magnetic susceptibilities of gas hydrates indicated diamagnetic mineral like water or ice ( -0.9 x 10-5 vol. SI). Moreover, we introduce a method to assess the amount of gas hydrate present within marine sediments using magnetic susceptibility and rock magnetic analyses. This study was conducted under the commission from AIST as a part of the methane hydrate research project of METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  1. Ground-water data in the Harrisburg-Halsey area, central Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.; Johnson, Nyra A.

    1975-01-01

    THE HARRISBURG-HALSEY AREA COVERS ABOUT 350 SQUARE MILES IN THE CENTRAL WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OREG., AND IS PART OF A BROAD ALLUVIAL PLAIN THAT LIES BETWEEN THE CASCADE AND COAST RANGES IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY. MOST OF THE DATA FOR THE 506 WELLS IN THIS REPORT WERE OBTAINED FROM WELL DRILLERS' REPORTS. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM 36 WELLS ARE TABULATED. MOST OF THE HIGH-YIELD WELLS IN THE AREA PRODUCE WATER FROM ALLUVIAL (SAND AND GRAVEL) AQUIFERS THAT UNDERLIE THE VALLEY PLAIN OR THAT ARE COEXTENSIVE WITH THE PRESENT FLOOD PLAIN OF THE WILLAMETTE RIVER. THE WATER TABLE IN THE ALLUVIAL AQUIFER IS GENERALLY ONLY A FEW FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE. PUMPING LIFTS ARE RELATIVELY SMALL, AND WELLS PRODUCE MODERATE TO LARGE QUANTITIES OF GROUNDWATER OF GOOD CHEMICAL QUALITY.

  2. Residential moves by elderly persons to U.S. central cities, suburbs, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Golant, S M

    1987-09-01

    The 1975-1980 migration stream and net migration patterns of persons younger than 65 and 65 + were examined using data from the 1980 U.S. Census. Central cities and suburbs of metropolitan areas (SMSAs) and nonmetropolitan areas (NonSMSAs) were distinguished as origins and destinations. Most elderly movers relocated within a fairly limited geographic context and revealed strong preferences for metropolitan living. Suburban locations were more favored than central city locations. Net migration findings may provide misleading interpretations of older movers' locational choices. The migration patterns of the 65 + population were similar to those of the 45- to 64-year-old population but differed from those of the more youthful U.S. populations. These findings highlight migration streams of elderly movers who likely have experienced changed in their life styles or personal resources.

  3. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  4. Climate of Remote Areas in North-Central Alaska: 1975-1979 Summary,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1.REPR LMBRpot83 GrVT ACCESSION NO. 1. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (wad Subtitle) S . TYPE OF REPORT...PERIOD COVERED CLIMATE OF REMOTE AREAS IN NORTH-CENTRAL ALASKA: 1975-1979 SUMMARY 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S . CONTRACT OR GRANT...throughout much of the year. Although winds elements. The Interior is predominantly a forested rarely exceed 17 m/ s (32 knots), they are seldom region with

  5. Paired, facing monoclines in the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several major monoclines that trend northward through the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area of central Utah are paired and face one another. This pairing of monoclines may have occurred when near-horizontal sedimentary and volcanic strata subsided into voids created as salt was removed from a salt diapir concealed beneath valley fill. Removal was mostly by dissolution or extrusion during Neogene time. The paired monoclines, thus, are viewed as collapse features rather than as normal synclinal folds. -from Author

  6. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Laboratory, Idaho National

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State ofldaho Division of Environmental Quality (DEQ) issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit (WLAP) for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL, now the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [INEEL]) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The permit expires August 7, 1999. In addition to the renewal application, this report was prepared to provide the following information as requested by DEQ.

  7. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-10

    The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world at 1991 m. The total length of the bridge is 3911 m. It links the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island, crossing the busy Akashi Strait. The image was acquired April 26, 2014, covers an area of 8.1 by 11.2 km, and is located at 34.6 degrees north, 135 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19747

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  9. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  10. THE IMPACT OF THE DRASTIC DECLINE IN RAW SILK UPON LAND USE AND INDUSTRY IN SELECTED AREAS OF SERICULTURAL SPECIALIZATION IN JAPAN.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AGRICULTURE, *JAPAN), (*SILK, JAPAN), NATURAL RESOURCES, TERRAIN, SITE SELECTION, TEXTILE INDUSTRY , IMPACT, TREES, INSECTICIDES, SPRAYS, PRODUCTION, LEPIDOPTERA, FOOD, RIVERS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION, MAPS

  11. Analysis of the population genetics of clades of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- isolated in three areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirai, S; Yokoyama, E; Etoh, Y; Seto, J; Ichihara, S; Suzuki, Y; Maeda, E; Sera, N; Horikawa, K; Yamamoto, T

    2014-10-01

    The genetic differences of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strains isolated from humans in three widely-separated areas in Japan were analysed to provide information on possible geographic aspects of O157 pathogenicity. Epidemiologically unlinked O157 strains were isolated in Chiba (300 strains), Fukuoka (260 strains) and Yamagata (81 strains) prefectures. These strains were classified in clades by single nucleotide polymorphism in seven loci and lineage-specific polymorphism assay-6, and differences between the strains in each clade were compared by population genetic analyses using the IS-printing system. Analysis of the clades from the three areas showed linkage disequilibrium of the strains in each clade. Comparison of the genetic differences of strains from the three areas in each clade, from calculated ΦPT values, indicated that the strains in each clade were the same population in all three areas, except possibly the clade 12 strains. Population genetics analyses confirmed that the distribution of O157 strains in the clades isolated in three areas in Japan were similar and stable. The pathogenicity of O157 strains infecting humans was comparable due to the similar, stable geographic distribution of O157 clades. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  13. Two-dimensional basement modeling of central loop transient electromagnetic data from the central Azraq basin area, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogeshwar, P.; Tezkan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Thick sedimentary sequences are deposited in the central area of the Azraq basin in Jordan consisting mostly of hyper-saline clay and various evaporates. These sediment successions form the 10 km × 10 km large Azraq mudflat and are promising archives for a palaeoclimatical reconstruction. Besides palaeoclimatical research, the Azraq area is of tremendous importance to Jordan due to groundwater and mineral resources. The heavy exploitation of groundwater has lead to a drastic decline of the water table and drying out of the former Azraq Oasis. Two 7 and 5 km long transects were investigated from the periphery of the mudflat across its center using a total of 150 central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The scope of the survey was to detect the thickness of sedimentary deposits along both transects and to provide a basis for future drilling activities. We derive a two-dimensional model which can explain the TEM data for all soundings along each profile simultaneously. Previously uncertain depths of geological boundaries were determined along both transects. Particularly the thickness of the deposited mudflat sediments was identified and ranges from 40 m towards the periphery down to approximately 130 m at the deepest location. Besides that, the depth and lateral extent of a buried basalt layer was identified. In the basin center the groundwater is hyper-saline. The lateral extent of the saline water body was determined precisely along both transects. In order to investigate the detectability of the basement below the high conductive mudflat sediments an elaborate two-dimensional modeling study was performed. Both, the resistivity and depth of the basement were varied systematically. The basement resistivity cannot be determined precisely in most zones and may range roughly between 1 and 100 Ωm without deteriorating the misfit. In contrast to that, the depth down to the basement is detected accurately in most zones and along both transects. Varying

  14. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  15. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; P<.01). No difference was observed in overall PDD rates between DBHs and general hospitals (GHs); however, when analysis was limited to cases with an in-hospital cause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; P<.05). The most common causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at

  16. Hydroxy fatty acids in snow pit samples from Mount Tateyama in central Japan: Implications for atmospheric transport of microorganisms and plant waxes associated with Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Poonam; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Bikkina, Srinivas; Mochizuki, Tomoki; Aoki, Kazuma

    2016-11-01

    We report here the source apportionment of atmospheric soil microorganisms and higher plant metabolites based on chemical markers (hydroxy fatty acids: FAs) in the snowpack samples collected from Mount Tateyama in central Japan during spring 2009 (N = 6) and 2011 (N = 7). A homologous series of β-hydroxy FAs (C9-C20), constituents of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), in snowpacks clearly suggest a long-range atmospheric transport of dust-associated bacteria followed by scavenging by snowflakes. Similarly, higher atmospheric abundances of α-(C16-C32) and ω-(C9-C30)-hydroxy FAs in the snow layers containing Asian dust revealed contributions from soil microbes and higher plant epicuticular waxes. Moreover, covariation between the concentrations of hydroxy FAs and water-soluble Ca2+ (dust tracer), together with calculated air mass backward trajectories, demonstrated their source regions such as the Taklamakan Desert, Gobi Desert, and Loess Plateau. A close match of molecular distributions of hydroxy FAs (with the predominance of ω- and β-isomers) is noteworthy between snowpack (present study) and springtime aerosols from Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific (WNP). This observation suggests a "below-cloud scavenging" of transported dust particles and associated soil microbes in the East Asian outflow by snowflakes. These distributions are, however, contrary to those observed in the fresh snow samples from Sapporo, northern Japan (predominance of α-hydroxy FAs), which could be explained by "in-cloud" microbial oxidation processes. This comparison, therefore, provides additional insights regarding the aeolian transport of soil microbes in the East Asian outflow to the WNP, which has not been available.

  17. The history of paleoenvironmental change and its cyclic change during the Common Era in the Lake Hiruga, Fukui Prefecture, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.; Irisawa, S.; Kitagawa, J.; Katsuki, K.; Yamada, K.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Hiruga, is one of the Five Lakes of Mikata, is a small lake of less than 1 km2, which is located in the Japan Sea side of central Japan. This lake is in contact with the Japan Sea by Hiruga channel, and with Lake Suigetsu by artificial Saga Tunnel. Although the salinity of lake water is close to the seawater, the bottom water shows the low water temperature (about 10°C) in the summer season, and shows the constantly anoxic environments, because the water depth of lake basin is deep (about 38m). In order to clarify the history of paleoenvironmental change at the Lake Hiruga, the coring was carried out around the center of lake. In this time, we report on the result of the analysis for 15HG-2C and 3C cores. 15HG-2C and 3C cores consist of mud sediments with the lamination at the integrated core length of 251cm. The distinct lamina (probably varve) is observed from core top to 50cm in core depth. AMS14C dating is carried out in 4 horizons. Based on the results, the age of core bottom is about 3300 years ago. Lake Hiruga was a freshwater lake until AD150, and changed to oligohaline lake from that time. Around the 10th century, the bottom water of this lake became to mixoeuhaline water. Judging from the bottom water exhibits a euxinic environment, it might have had a distinct stratified structure in water column. This change is considered to be due to the opening of Hiruga channel with the development of paddy fields at that time. From the 19th century, the lake basin shows high sedimentation rate, and varve is formed. It is considered that this is caused by the construction of the Saga tunnel. During the last 200 years, the 5 cyclic fluctuation of total organic carbon (TOC) contents, and the 10 cyclic fluctuation of total sulfur (TS) contents were recognized. It is considered that the cyclic fluctuation of TS contents is caused by different level of reduced environment due to differences in inflow of seawater with cyclic sea-level change. The 5 cyclic fluctuation

  18. Sulfur isotope geochemistry of the central Japan Sea sediments (IODP Exp. 346) 20 150 kyr ago: Implications for the evolution of Asian Monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshio, S.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Takahashi, S.; Naraoka, H.; Ikehara, M.

    2016-12-01

    Asian monsoon climate system has started about 50 Ma, after the collision of the Indian and Eurasian continents followed by uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. It has influenced sediments in the Japan Sea, where cm-scale alternation of Corg-rich dark layers and Corg-poor light layers occurs. This is most likely due to temporal changes in the nutrient status and/or oceanic redox conditions, which are likely caused by the fluctuations in the intensity of continental weathering and ocean currents, both of which were ultimately caused by the variable monsoon system. In order to obtain insights into the evolving oceanic redox state and the monsoon system, we conducted sulfur speciation and isotope study for the marine sediment core samples recovered in the central Japan Sea by IODP Exp. 346. The light layers have lower Spy (0.03-0.25 wt.%) contents when compared to the dark layers (0.26-1.49 wt.%). The Corg contents have similar distribution (0.34-1.10 wt.% for light layers and 1.16-3.38 wt.% for dark layers). However, the SSO4 contents (0.02-.64 wt.%) and the δ34S values (-34 to -38‰) did not show such light-dark distinction. Elevated Spy/Corg ratios (0.03-1.00) in the dark layers are interpreted to represent sulfide formation in the anoxic water column by bacterial sulfate reduction. During deposition of light layers, oxidation of sulfide minerals could have resulted in formation of sulfate minerals without significant isotope fractionation, as observed in this study. Regardless of the type of the sediments (dark vs. light), sulfate was not limiting during bacterial sulfate reduction, as reflected in the sulfur isotope compositions. We speculate that, during deposition of dark layers, enhanced summer monsoon activity caused heavy rainfall and increased source-rock weathering, runoff of the Yangtze River, and nutrient input into the East China Sea and the Tsushima Warm Current. Inflow of nutrient-rich and less salty water into the Japan Sea triggered

  19. Erosion of mountain hiking trail over a seven-year period in Daisetsuzan National Park, central Hokkaido, Japan

    Treesearch

    Akemi Yoda; Teiji Watanabe

    2000-01-01

    Erosion of mountain hiking trails was investigated in Daisetsuzan National Park over a seven-year period. The amount and rate of erosion were different in the two typical landscape components. Cross-section diagrams revealed that trail depth became deeper in snowy vegetated areas than in wind-beaten bare ground areas. The existence and timing of runoff from snowmelt...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 ...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 ...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 ...

  3. 78 FR 27863 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary because the 2013 total allowable catch of big...

  4. 41 CFR 102-83.35 - Are Executive agencies required to consider whether the central business area will provide for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required to consider whether the central business area will provide for adequate competition when acquiring... central business area will provide for adequate competition when acquiring leased space? In accordance with the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (41 U.S.C. 253(a)), Executive agencies...

  5. 76 FR 7228 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Central Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau...- 2017 oil and gas leasing proposals in the Western and Central Planning Areas of the GOM, off the States... Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 in the draft proposed Outer Continental Shelf Oil and...

  6. Epidemiologic study of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis and anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibodies in central Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Several reports have found the onset or activity of inflammatory myopathies to show spatial clustering and seasonal association. We recently detected autoantibodies against melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) in more than 20% of patients with dermatomyositis. Anti-MDA-5 antibodies were associated with the presence of rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM). The present study aims to assess the growing prevalence of CADM and the geographical incidence of anti-MDA-5-positive patients. Methods We reviewed medical charts and examined the presence of anti-MDA-5 antibodies in 95 patients, including 36 CADM patients. Sera were obtained from 1994 through 2011. Statistical analyses were performed to assess whether CADM development and the presence of anti-MDA-5 antibodies were associated with various parameters, including age at disease onset, season of onset, annual positivity, and population of resident city. Results Tertiles based on the year when the sera were collected showed increasing tendencies of CADM and anti-MDA-5-positive patients among all of the dermatomyositis patients. From 1994 to 2010, the relative prevalence of CADM and anti-MDA-5 antibody-positive patients significantly increased. Interestingly, the presence of anti-MDA-5 antibodies in 26 patients was inversely associated with the population of their city of residence. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the distribution of anti-MDA-5-positive dermatomyositis phenotypes in Japan. Regional differences in the incidences of these phenotypes would suggest that environmental factors contribute to the production of antibodies against MDA-5, which triggers innate antiviral responses. PMID:22192091

  7. Effects of roads on alpine and subalpine plant species distribution along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Norikura, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Miyajima, Yutaka

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the effects of roads on alpine and subalpine plant species distribution along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Norikura (3026 m a.s.l.), Japan. We examined the vegetation of herb and tree species shorter than 1.3 m along roadsides and adjacent natural vegetation at 200 m intervals between 1600 and 3000 m a.s.l. The timberline was at 2500 m a.s.l. Although the canopy opening was greater at the roadsides than in the natural vegetation, it was similar above the timberline. Soil cover and litter depth of the soil surface were less at roadsides than the natural vegetation, and gravel and rock cover were greater at roadsides. Species composition changed in similar directions from natural vegetation to roadsides along the altitudinal gradient. This direction was related to canopy opening and litter depth. Liliaceae, Ericaceae and Pinaceae were dominant families in the natural vegetation, and Asteraceae and Poaceae were greatest at the roadsides. Roadside plants were mostly herb species, while tree species increased in natural vegetation. Five exotic species were also observed at the roadsides. Sunny plant species gradually increased with altitude in the natural vegetation, indicated by the increase in canopy opening. By contrast, roadside plants were mostly sunny plant species irrespective of altitude. The number of lowland and montane species increased at the roadsides in the subalpine zone. Thus, roads strongly altered species composition of the natural vegetation along the altitudinal gradient probably because of changes in light and soil-surface conditions for growth and seedling establishment.

  8. Spatial patterns of leprosy in an urban area of central Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, C. M.; Moraes Neto, O. L.; Andrade, A. L.; Silva, S. A.; Silva, I. M.; Zicker, F.

    1995-01-01

    Reported is the spatial variation of leprosy in an urban area of Brazil and its correlation with socioeconomic indicators. From November 1991 to October 1992 a total of 752 newly diagnosed leprosy patients who were attending all outpatient clinics in Goiânia city, central Brazil, were identified. A database o leprosy cases was set up linking patients' addresses to 64 urban districts. Leprosy cases were detected in 86% of the districts and three risk strata were identified. The highest-risk area for leprosy was in the outskirts of the city and detection rates increased on moving from more developed to poorer areas. The risk of detecting leprosy cases was 5.3-fold greater (95% CI: 3.8-7.4) in the outskirts of the town than in the central zone. Discussed are the methodological issues related to leprosy case ascertainment, completeness and reliability of information, and the interpretation of the spatial distribution of leprosy per unit area. Highlighted also are the lack of leprosy control activities in primary health care units and the usefulness of geographical analysis in planning health services. PMID:7614663

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a transport model of radionuclide release

  10. The tradeoff between centralized and decentralized health services: evidence from rural areas in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of centralized and decentralized health care providers in rural Mexico. It compares provider performance since both centralized and decentralized providers co-exist in rural areas of the country. The data are drawn from the 2003 household survey of Oportunidades, a comprehensive study of rural families from seven states in Mexico. The analyses compare out-of-pocket health care expenditures and utilization of preventive care among rural households with access to either centralized or decentralized health care providers. This study benefits from differences in timing of health care decentralization and from a quasi-random distribution of providers. Results show that overall centralized providers perform better. Households served by this organization report less regressive out-of-pocket health care expenditures (32% lower), and observe higher utilization of preventive services (3.6% more). Decentralized providers that were devolved to state governments in the early 1980s observe a slightly better performance than providers that were decentralized in the mid-1990s. These findings are robust to decentralization timing, heterogeneity in per capita government health expenditures, state and health infrastructure effects, and other confounders. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  12. Phenology in central Europe--differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Roetzer, T; Wittenzeller, M; Haeckel, H; Nekovar, J

    2000-08-01

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  13. An Estimation of Change in Forest Area in Central Siberia Using Multi Temporal SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase, Mihai; Le Toan, Thuy; de la Riva, Juan; Santoro, Maurizio

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study is forest cover change quantification in Central Siberia, using ALOS-PALSAR data and forest/biomass map product of SIBERIA project. Two sites (Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk), covering around 50,000 km2 each are studied. The classification algorithm is developed in the Irkutsk site and applied without further modification to the Krasnoyarsk site. Classification accuracy is assessed for the Krasnoyarsk site using as reference data from the Russian forest inventory. Over the studied period, a net forest cover loss of 9 to 11.5 % is estimated, depending on the site. Deforestation affects 12.2% to 16% of the area while forest regrowth is registered for only 3.2 to 4.5% of the studied area. Among the different causes that could explain forest area loss (e.g. natural disasters, clear cuts etc.) the geometric shape of the detected forest cover changes suggests an active deforestation process.

  14. Ground-water resources of the St. James area, South-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ropes, L.H.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the quality and quantity of the ground-water resources in the area of St. James, Minnesota. St. James is located in the center of Watonwan County in south-central Minnesota. The area is covered by a thick layer of glacial drift which is underlain by Cretaceous, Cambrian, and Precambrian rocks. St. James presently obtains its water supply from two aquifers. One is a Cretaceous sandstone 160 feet below the surface, in which two wells are completed. This aquifer yields abundant water but it is of poor quality and is expensive to treat. The second source, tapped by three municipal wells, is a surficial sand and gravel deposit less than 40 feet thick at the well field. This aquifer produces water of better quality, but its extent and capacity are not known. There are other wells in the area completed at depths ranging from 15 to 500 feet.

  15. From modular to centralized organization of synchronization in functional areas of the cat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Zamora-López, Gorka; Moreno, Yamir; Arenas, Alex

    2010-08-26

    Recent studies have pointed out the importance of transient synchronization between widely distributed neural assemblies to understand conscious perception. These neural assemblies form intricate networks of neurons and synapses whose detailed map for mammals is still unknown and far from our experimental capabilities. Only in a few cases, for example the C. elegans, we know the complete mapping of the neuronal tissue or its mesoscopic level of description provided by cortical areas. Here we study the process of transient and global synchronization using a simple model of phase-coupled oscillators assigned to cortical areas in the cerebral cat cortex. Our results highlight the impact of the topological connectivity in the developing of synchronization, revealing a transition in the synchronization organization that goes from a modular decentralized coherence to a centralized synchronized regime controlled by a few cortical areas forming a Rich-Club connectivity pattern.

  16. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  17. Report on expedited site characterization of the Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhr, L.; Wonder, J.D.; Bevolo, A.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents data collection, results, and interpretation of the expedited site characterization (ESC) pilot project conducted from September 1996 to June 1997 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nye County, Nevada. Characterization activities were limited to surface sites associated with deep well drilling and ancillary operations at or near three emplacement well areas. Environmental issues related to the underground nuclear detonation (Project Faultless) and hydrologic monitoring wells were not addressed as a part of this project. The CNTA was divided into four functional areas for the purpose of this investigation and report. These areas include the vicinity of three emplacement wells (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) and one mud waste drilling mud collection location (Central Mud Pit; CMP). Each of these areas contain multiple, potentially contaminated features, identified either from historic information, on-site inspections, or existing data. These individual features are referred to hereafter as ``sites.`` The project scope of work involved site reconnaissance, establishment of local grid systems, site mapping and surveying, geophysical measurements, and collection and chemical analysis of soil and drilling mud samples. Section 2.0 through Section 4.0 of this report provide essential background information about the site, project, and details of how the ESC method was applied at CNTA. Detailed discussion of the scope of work is provided in Section 5.0, including procedures used and locations and quantities of measurements obtained. Results and interpretations for each of the four functional areas are discussed separately in Sections 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. These sections provide a chronological presentation of data collected and results obtained, followed by interpretation on a site-by-site basis. Key data is presented in the individual sections. The comprehensive set of data is contained in appendices.

  18. Processing insect abundance: trading and fishing of zazamushi in Central Japan (Nagano Prefecture, Honshū Island).

    PubMed

    Césard, Nicolas; Komatsu, Seiji; Iwata, Akihisa

    2015-11-11

    This article presents the links between technique, commerce and consumption in fishing for zazamushi, a mixture of aquatic insect larvae sold as food souvenirs in Japan. Since zazamushi are mainly collected for economic reasons, we suggest that demand for them has incited technical development among collectors in order to fish more insects. Several fishermen and traders were interviewed in semi-directed interviews about their practices and knowledge. To understand the passage from a faunal composition to a commercial composition, our research follows a fishing session closely, as well as the selection of insects that follows it. The insects collected were separated from inanimate matter, then identified, counted and weighed at each stage of the process. Our results suggest that the current technique corresponds to an evolution in subsistence and recreational collecting towards a more systematic fishing of the insects, the aim of which is commercial. In their response to trade issues, the collectors have moved away from the banks to fish the insects in the river current, thus increasing the amount of one species captured compared to another. Although the technique is efficient (and similar to other harvesting techniques), it requires the thorough sorting of organic debris and insects (in our example, the catch contains approximately 78 % of inanimate matter and 22 % of insects, of which 3.29 % are retained for consumption, i.e., less than 2 out of 100 insects). The selection of insects to be consumed takes place mainly during cleaning. This stage depends on traders and reflects the different compositions sold as souvenirs. Our research shows that the consumption of insects is not explained just by ecological factors that are favourable or unfavourable, but also by technological and economic factors related to their commerce. It suggests that the traders have gradually established the insects that are currently sold as zazamushi and that this commercial development

  19. Social Ties May Play a Critical Role in Mitigating Sleep Difficulties in Disaster-Affected Communities: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Ishinomaki Area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Inoue, Machiko; Muto, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the association between social factors and sleep difficulties among the victims remaining at home in the Ishinomaki area after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and identified potentially modifiable factors that may mitigate vulnerability to sleep difficulties during future traumatic events or disasters. Design: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012 (6-12 mo after the disaster) in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between social factors and sleep difficulties. Participants: We obtained data on 4,176 household members who remained in their homes after the earthquake and tsunami. Interventions: N/A. Results: Sleep difficulties were prevalent in 15.0% of the respondents (9.2% male, 20.2% female). Two potentially modifiable factors (lack of pleasure in life and lack of interaction with/visiting neighbors) and three nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable factors (sex, source of income, and number of household members) were associated with sleep difficulties. Nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences caused directly by the disaster (severity of house damage, change in family structure, and change in working status) were not significantly associated with sleep difficulties. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the lack of pleasure in life and relatively strong networks in the neighborhood, which are potentially modifiable, might have stronger associations with sleep difficulties than do nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences of the disaster (e.g., house damage, change in family structure, and change in work status). Citation: Matsumoto S; Yamaoka K; Inoue M; Muto S. Social ties may play a critical role in mitigating sleep difficulties in disaster-affected communities: a cross-sectional study in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. SLEEP 2014;37(1):137-145. PMID:24470703

  20. Ground-water areas and well logs, central Sevier Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard A.

    1960-01-01

    Between September 1959 and June 1960 the United States Geological Survey and the Utah State Engineer, with financial assistance from Garfield, Millard, Piute, Sanpete, and Sevier Counties and from local water-users’ associations, cooperated in an investigation to determine the structural framework of the central Sevier Valley and to evaluate the valley’s ground-water potential. An important aspect of the study was the drilling of 22 test holes under private contract. These data and other data collected during the course of the larger ground-water investigation of which the test drilling was a part will be evaluated in a report on the geology and ground-water resources of the central Sevier Valley. The present report has been prepared to make available the logs of test holes and to describe in general terms the availability of ground water in the different areas of the valley.

  1. Different Behaviour of Heat Flow and Helium Anomalies Through the Geothermal Areas of Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellani, S.; Magro, G.

    2005-12-01

    The high enthalpy geothermal areas and more than 30% of the Italian spas are concentrated in central Italy (Tuscany and Latium regions). A wide part of this area is affected by a large heat-flow anomaly, with maxima corresponding to the geothermal fields of Larderello, Mt. Amiata and Latera. Mt.Amiata and Latera are located in areas of quaternary quiescent volcanism, while there are no outcrops of extrusive rocks in the Larderello geothermal field. Surface heat flow in a continental area has an average value of 50-60 mW/m2. The background regional value in these geothermal areas is 120-150 mW/m2, with peaks up to 1000 mW/m2 at Larderello, 600 mW/m2 at Mt. Amiata and 300 mW/m2 at Latera. Anomalous heat flow is very often related to the presence of 3He-enriched fluids. In central Italy the He isotopic ratio (3He/4He expressed as R/Ra), in gases from cold and thermal manifestations and in geothermal wells ranges from 0.2 to 3.2 R/Ra. In particular, Larderello fluids range between 0.5 and 3.2, while the interval for Mt. Amiata and Latera fluids spans from 0.2 to 0.6. The R/Ra and heat flow profiles through central Italy, NW-SE trending, show no straightforward correlation between the two parameters. A phased correlation exists between heat flow and R/Ra relative maxima at Larderello, while they are decoupled at Mt. Amiata and Latera geothermal fields. Different heat and He transport mechanisms through the crust are the most likely explanation: mantle 3He-enriched fluids move upwards mainly via fluid filled conduits, while heat diffuses faster than He throughout the entire bulk rock. At Larderello, the almost constant values of R/Ra in geothermal wells and paleo-fluids (fluid inclusions) indicate that the contribution of hot 3He-enriched fluids must have occurred through deeply rooted faults at least in the last 1 Ma. In the Mt. Amiata area the presence of several spas, marked by low R/Ra ratios down to crustal values, could indicate the addition of radiogenic 4He. Rock

  2. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  3. Differences in diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of patients with dementia living in the peripheral areas compared with the central areas of Israel.

    PubMed

    Merims, D; Shemesh, D Golan; Nahari, H; Arharov, O; Ari, G Ben; Israel, J Ben

    2015-07-01

    We compared data regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with dementia in the central and the peripheral areas of Israel. Data were collected from the medical records of 164 patients with advanced dementia, all residents of dementia special care units - 97 patients from a central nursing home and 67 patients from the peripheral areas. The data collected related to the period prior to hospitalization and included: demographic data, imaging tests, follow-up by a memory clinic and drug treatment prior to admission. Mini Mental State Examination on admission was also recorded. Patients in the peripheral areas were hospitalized while having better cognitive function, as demonstrated by the Mini Mental State Examination (p < 0.05). More patients in the central areas versus the peripheral areas were aided by an in-house worker prior to admission (p < 0.001). More patients with dementia in the central areas were followed up by a memory clinic (p < 0.001) and underwent brain imaging (p < 0.01) compared with patients with dementia living in the peripheral areas. Although not significant, patients from the central areas were more commonly treated with atypical neuroleptics for behavioral problems (p = 0.05). On the basis of the current data, we suggest that there are differences in the diagnosis, follow-up and drug treatment among patients with dementia living in the central areas versus those living in the peripheral ones. Patients in the peripheral areas are hospitalized while their cognitive abilities are relatively better than those of the patients in central areas.

  4. Committed to working for the community: experiences of a public health nurse in a remote area during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mari; Atogami, Fumi; Nakamura, Yasuka; Kusaka, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    We examined the experiences of a public health nurse (PHN) in a rural area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. We used an ethnographic method to obtain in-depth information about her experiences, from which six themes were developed. The PHN risked her life to protect members of the community, but she remained anxious to see her own young children as soon as possible. Nevertheless, she was strongly committed to helping community members and continued to work for them. We suggest creating a practical system to allow PHNs to obtain information about the safety of their own families during a disaster.

  5. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The input from these sources aided in the identification of significant issues, possible alternatives to the proposed actions, and potential mitigating measures.

  6. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. This volume, Volume 2, reports on impacts from Sales 142 and 143.

  7. Utility of Assessing Nerve Morphology in Central Cornea Versus Whorl Area for Diagnosing Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Nicola; Dehghani, Cirous; Edwards, Katie; Burgin, Edward; Cheang, Nick; Kim, Hannah; Mikhaiel, Merna; Stanton, Gemma; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    To compare small nerve fiber damage in the central cornea and whorl area in participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and to examine the accuracy of evaluating these 2 anatomical sites for the diagnosis of DPN. A cohort of 187 participants (107 with type 1 diabetes and 80 controls) was enrolled. The neuropathy disability score (NDS) was used for the identification of DPN. The corneal nerve fiber length at the central cornea (CNFLcenter) and whorl (CNFLwhorl) was quantified using corneal confocal microscopy and a fully automated morphometric technique and compared according to the DPN status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to compare the accuracy of the 2 corneal locations for the diagnosis of DPN. CNFLcenter and CNFLwhorl were able to differentiate all 3 groups (diabetic participants with and without DPN and controls) (P < 0.001). There was a weak but significant linear relationship for CNFLcenter and CNFLwhorl versus NDS (P < 0.001); however, the corneal location × NDS interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was similar for CNFLcenter and CNFLwhorl (0.76 and 0.77, respectively, P = 0.98). The sensitivity and specificity of the cutoff points were 0.9 and 0.5 for CNFLcenter and 0.8 and 0.6 for CNFLwhorl. Small nerve fiber pathology is comparable at the central and whorl anatomical sites of the cornea. Quantification of CNFL from the corneal center is as accurate as CNFL quantification of the whorl area for the diagnosis of DPN.

  8. Paleoclimate from Tree Rings of Picea morrisonicola in Ta-Ta-Chia Area of Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Wright, W. E.; Wei, K.; Cook, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost no dendrochronology has been reported internationally from Taiwan, despite the existence of many dendrochronologically appropriate tree species. In this study, we reconstruct the regional paleoclimate using a multi-century tree ring-width chronology developed from Picea morrisonicola ( the endemic Taiwan Spruce), a subtropical species growing in the Ta-Ta-Chia subalpine mountain areas of central Taiwan. Picea morrisonicola in Taiwan is the only member of the Picea genus whose distribution crosses the Tropic of Cancer. Statistical analysis of the climate signal demonstrates that both the temperature and precipitation have significant effects on tree growth.

  9. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  10. Outline of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquakes and lessons for a large urban earthquake in Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.

    2016-12-01

    A series of devastating earthquakes hit Kumamoto districts in Kyushu, Japan, in April, 2016. The M6.5 event occurred at 21:26 on April 14th (JST) and, 28 hours later, the M7.3 event occurred at 01:25 on April 17th (JST) at almost the same location with a depth of 10 km. The both earthquakes were felt with a seismic intensity of 7 in Japan Metrological Agency (JMA) scale at Mashiki Town. The intensity of 7 is the highest level by definition. Very strong accelerations are observed by the M6.5 event with 1,580 gal at KiK-net Mashiki station and 1,791 gal by the M7.3 event at Ohtsu City station. As a result, more than 8,000 houses are totally collapsed, 26,000 are heavily collapsed, and 120,000 are partially damaged. There are 49 people directly killed and 32 are indirectly killed by the quakes. The most important lesson from the Kumamoto earthquake is that a very strong ground motion may hit immediately after the first large event, say in a few days. This has serious impact to a house damaged by the first large quake. In the 2016 Kumamoto sequence there are also many strong aftershocks including 4 M5.8-5.9 events till April 18th. More than 180,000 people, at most, took shelter because of scaring many strong aftershocks. I will discuss both natural and human aspects of the Kumamoto earthquake disaster by the in-land shallow large earthquakes suggesting lessons for the large Metropolitan Earthquakes in Tokyo, Japan.

  11. Evaluation of Line Immunoassay to Detect HTLV-1 Infection in an Endemic Area, Southwestern Japan; Comparison with Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western Blot.

    PubMed

    Umeki, Kazumi; Umekita, Kunihiko; Hashikura, Yuuki; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been recognized as a cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and HTLV-1-associated uveitis. HTLV-1 infection is normally detected by screening for HTLV-1 antibodies, and positive samples are confirmed by Western blot (WB). However, WB fails to confirm some samples that were positive for HTLV-1 antibodies on screening. Line immunoassay (LIA) is commonly used in Europe and Brazil, but not in Japan. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of LIA as a method of confirming HTLV-1 antibodies using samples in Japan. LIA was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and WB using 50 negative and 70 positive samples tested by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) in Miyazaki, Japan, an HTLV-1 endemic area. LIA (INNO-LIA HTLVI/II Score) and WB (Problot HTLV-I) were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Real-time PCR for HTLV-1 pX region was performed using DNA derived from white blood cells. The samples that tested negative by real-time PCR were further tested by nested PCR. All 50 CLEIA negative samples were determined to be negative by LIA and PCR. Of the 70 positive samples, 66 tested positive by both of LIA and PCR. Three samples tested negative by LIA and PCR, and the remaining sample (PCR negative) showed non-specific staining in LIA and WB. WB showed more indeterminate results than LIA. Gp21 antibody in LIA demonstrated a high ability to discriminate between positive and negative PCR results. Furthermore, the degree of gp21 antibody reaction by LIA showed correlation with HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs). Our results indicate that LIA performs well in confirming HTLV-1 seropositivity by showing a low incidence of indeterminate results and good agreement with PCR using samples in Japan, although the number of samples tested was small. In addition, semi-quantitative antibody titer to gp21 correlated well with HTLV-1 PVLs. Further study

  12. Quality of ground water in agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick; Buckles, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ground water in the principal agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado was evaluated using chemical analyses of water collected from 57 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer and from 25 wells completed in the confined aquifer. Ground water in both aquifers generally contains dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 500 milligrams per liter. In most areas, calcium is the principal cation in the ground water. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations expressed as nitrogen, are generally less than 1 milligram per liter. However, the quality of ground water in certain areas may pose health and agricultural hazards. Water in the unconfined aquifer near Center contains high nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The highest measured concentration in this area was 33 milligrams per liter. Water containing more than 1 milligram per liter of nitrite as nitrogen, or 10 milligrams per liter nitrate, as nitrogen, poses a potential health hazard for infants and should not be used for drinking. In addition, dissolved-solids concentration in the ground water in some areas is greater than 500 milligrams per liter and, if used for irrigation may reduce crop yields. (USGS)

  13. Frictional properties of saponite-rich gouge from a serpentinite-bearing fault zone along the Gokasho-Arashima Tectonic Line, central Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sone, Hiroki; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Moore, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    We studied a serpentinite-bearing fault zone in Gokasho-Arashima Tectonic Line, Mie Prefecture, central Japan, characterizing its internal structures, mineral assemblage, permeability, and frictional properties. The fault core situated between the serpentinite breccia and the adjacent sedimentary rocks is characterized by a zone locally altered to saponite. The clayey gouge layer separates fault rocks of serpentinite origin containing talc and tremolite from fault rocks of sedimentary origin containing chlorite but no quartz. The minerals that formed within the fault are the products of metasomatic reaction between the serpentinite and the siliceous rocks. Permeability measurements show that serpentinite breccia and fault gouge have permeability of 10−14–10−17 m2 and 10−15–10−18 m2, respectively, at 5–120 MPa confining pressure. Frictional coefficient of the saponite-rich clayey fault gouge ranged between 0.20 and 0.35 under room-dry condition, but was reduced to 0.06–0.12 when saturated with water. The velocity dependence of friction was strongly positive, mostly ranging between 0.005 and 0.006 in terms of a–b values. The governing friction law is not constrained yet, but we find that the saponite-rich gouge possesses an evolutional behavior in the opposite direction to that suggested by the rate and state friction law, in addition to its direct velocity dependence.

  14. Plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange, central Japan: Fragments of middle to lower crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ito, Hisatoshi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji

    2017-06-01

    A Paleogene accretionary complex, the Mineoka-Setogawa Belt, is distributed around the Izu Collision Zone, central Japan. Plutonic rocks of gabbro, diorite and tonalite compositions are included as fragments and dykes in an ophiolitic mélange in this belt. Zircon U-Pb dating of the plutonic rocks indicates that they were formed at ca. 35 Ma simultaneously. These ages are consistent with Eocene-Oligocene tholeiite and calc-alkaline arc magmatism in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc and exclude several previous models for the origin of the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic rocks. The geochemical characteristics of these plutonic rocks are similar to those of the Eocene-Oligocene IBM tholeiite and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks as well as to the accreted middle crust of the IBM Arc, the Tanzawa Plutonic Complex. Moreover, their lithology is consistent with those of the middle and lower crust of the IBM Arc estimated from the seismic velocity structure. These lines of evidence strongly indicate that the plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange are fragments of the middle to lower crust of the IBM Arc. Additionally, the presence of the Mineoka-Setogawa intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks supports the hypothesis that intermediate magma can form continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs.

  15. Hydrological response to earthquakes in the Haibara well, central Japan - I. Groundwater level changes revealed using state space decomposition of atmospheric pressure, rainfall and tidal responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsumoto, N.; Kitagawa, G.; Roeloffs, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the groundwater level observed at the Haibara well, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, time series analysis using state-space modelling is applied to extract hydrological anomalies related to earthquakes. This method can decompose observed groundwater level time series into five components: atmospheric pressure, tidal, and precipitation responses, observation noise, and residual water level. The decomposed responses to atmospheric pressure and precipitation are independently determined and are consistent with the expected response to surface loading. In the groundwater level at the Haibara well, 28 coseismic changes can be discerned during the period from 1981 April to 1997 December. There is a threshold in the relationship between earthquake magnitude and the well-hypocentre distance, above which earthquakes cause coseismic changes in the residual water level. All of the coseismic water level changes at the Haibara well are decreases, although 33 per cent of the estimated coseismic volumetric strain steps are contraction, which would be expected to cause water level increases. The coseismic changes in groundwater level are more closely proportional to the estimated ground motion than to coseismic volumetric strain steps, suggesting that ground motion due to earthquakes is the major cause of the coseismic water level drops and that the contribution from static strain is rather small. Possible pre- or inter-earthquake water level changes have occurred at the Haibara well and may have been caused by local aseismic crustal deformation.

  16. Numerical simulation of water circulation in the central part of the Sea of Japan and study of its long-term variability in 1958-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, D. V.; Diansky, N. A.; Novotryasov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The response of circulation in the Sea of Japan (SJ) to the CORE-calculated real atmospheric forcing for 1958-2006 is reconstructed using the general ocean circulation model developed at the Institute of Computational Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences (ICM RAS). Features of the interannual variability of the circulation in the intermediate and deep layers of the central part of SJ are studied from the numerical simulation results. For this, the spatiotemporal variability of the relative vorticity is calculated. Frequency spectra of this variability are calculated at depths of 500 and 800 m and the layer-average between these levels. The spectra have a quasi-discrete structure with maxima in vicinities of 4-5, 7, and 10-year periods. Coincidence is ascertained between frequencies corresponding to these periods and earlier determined frequencies of the inter-annual variability of the temperature field observed in the intermediate layer of the SJ in the second half of the 20th century.

  17. Major variations in vitrinite reflectance and consolidation characteristics within a post-middle Miocene forearc basin, central Japan: A geodynamical implication for basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Nana; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Wang, Qian; Kurimoto, Yuhei; Zhang, Feng; Takemura, Takato

    2017-07-01

    Forearc basin sediments near the ocean-ward margin preserve tectonic information related to plate subduction. The post-middle Miocene Boso forearc basin, central Japan, records major differences in structure, paleo-maximum temperature, and consolidation state between below (Miura Group) and above (Kazusa Group) the Kurotaki Unconformity, which formed at ca. 3 Ma. Many fault systems below the unconformity are characterized by a disaggregation-band-like inner fabric that apparently formed soon after sedimentation, whereas there are few of this type of fault system above the unconformity. Vitrinite reflectance values (Ro) are 0.38%-0.44% and 0.22%-0.25% below and above the unconformity, respectively. The consolidation yield stress (pc) in the Miura Group (23.7 MPa in the Anno Formation; 31.0 MPa in the Amatsu Formation) is much greater than that in the Kazusa Group (7.5, 7.6 and 9.6 MPa in the Umegase, Ohtadai and Kiwada formations, respectively). These clear differences in vitrinite reflectance and consolidation characteristics above and below the unconformity are attributed to a forearc basin evolution, which resulted in the Miura Group being geothermally matured, tectonically compacted, uplifted, and eroded (500 m in maximum) before sedimentation of the Kazusa Group. The forearc basin, especially near the trench-slope break, records structural and physical properties reflecting the plate-tectonic environment and the development of the trench-slope.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships, genetic divergence, historical biogeography and conservation of an endangered gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae), from the Central Ryukyus, Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masanao; Kurita, Takaki; Toda, Mamoru; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2014-05-01

    The Kuroiwa's eyelid gecko Goniurosaurus kuroiwae is an endangered species in a state of relict endemism in the Central Ryukyus, Japan, and is divided into five subspecies. We analyzed variations in sequence data for approximately 1900 base positions of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from samples representing all recognized subspecies of G. kuroiwae together with those from congeneric species in order to test the relevant previous phylogenetic hypotheses and discuss biogeographical implications in the degree and pattern of genetic divergence within G. kuroiwae. Our results, while confirming a previous molecular phylogenetic hypothesis proposed on the basis of much smaller data set, negate the relationships hypothesized on morphological grounds by explicitly supporting: 1) the primary dichotomy, with substantial genetic divergence, between G. k. splendens from the Amami Island Group and the remaining subspecies all from the Okinawa Island Group; and 2) the presence of at least six independent lineages within the latter, indicating non-monophyly for two of the subspecies, G. k. kuroiwae and G. k. orientalis, in the current taxonomic definitions. The marked genetic divergence between populations of the two island groups seems to have initiated in the middle Miocene, i.e., prior to formation of straits that have consistently been separating these two island groups since the early Pleistocene. All populations of G. kuroiwae are regarded as endangered from the viewpoint of conservation genetics.

  19. Effects of climatic conditions on annual shoot length and tree-ring width of alpine dwarf pine Pinus pumila in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Aoki, Keigo

    2015-07-01

    This study compared the effects of climatic conditions on annual shoot length (ASL) and tree-ring width (TRW) of alpine dwarf pine Pinus pumila in central Japan, by using dendrochronological techniques. Chronologies of ASL (1951-2009) and TRW (1972-2009) were standardized to remove non-climatic signals, and correlation tests were done for non-standardized observed values and standardized indices with monthly temperatures and precipitation. Monthly mean temperatures from March to October, except for July, increased during 1951‒2009; observed values and a standardized index of ASL increased during this period. For the rate of increase in ASL, the standardized index was lower than the observed values. However, these values of TRW showed no trends. The observed values and standardized index of TRW positively correlated with temperatures of the beginning of the growing season of the current year. The observed values of ASL positively correlated with temperatures during the growing season of the previous and current years. However, the standardized index of ASL positively correlated with only June temperatures of the previous and current years. The different results of ASL between observed values and standardized indices indicate that many significant correlations of observed values were attributable to increasing trends of temperature and ASL. This study suggests that standardized ASL of P. pumila tended to increase greater than TRW, that high temperatures at the beginning of the growing season increases ASL and TRW, and that analyzing observed values of ASL may overestimate the effects of temperature on ASL of P. pumila.

  20. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area

  1. Application of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumida, Atsuto; Uchiyama, Shoichiro; Sugai, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September 2015 and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models (DSMs) of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan. The DSMs were based on pre-flood (resolution: 2 m) and post-flood (resolution: 1 m) aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data from January 2007 and September 2015, respectively, and on structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry data (resolution: 3.84 cm) derived from aerial photos taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in December 2015. After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of 10-1 m - including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works - were detected. Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within 300-500 m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods.

  2. Vascular plant species richness along environmental gradients in a cool temperate to sub-alpine mountainous zone in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Riyou; Yumoto, Takakazu

    2013-03-01

    In order to clarify how vegetation types change along the environmental gradients in a cool temperate to sub-alpine mountainous zone and the determinant factors that define plant species richness, we established 360 plots (each 4 × 10 m) within which the vegetation type, species richness, elevation, topographic position index (TPI), slope inclination, and ground light index (GLI) of the natural vegetation were surveyed. Mean elevation, TPI, slope inclination, and GLI differed across vegetation types. Tree species richness was negatively correlated with elevation, whereas fern and herb species richness were positively correlated. Tree species richness was greater in the upper slope area than the lower slope area, whereas fern and herb species richness were greater in the lower slope area. Ferns and trees species richness were smaller in the open canopy, whereas herb species richness was greater in the open canopy. Vegetation types were determined firstly by elevation and secondary by topographic configurations, such as topographic position, and slope inclination. Elevation and topography were the most important factors affecting plant richness, but the most influential variables differed among plant life-form groups. Moreover, the species richness responses to these environmental gradients greatly differed among ferns, herbs, and trees.

  3. Current situation regarding central venous port implantation procedures and complications: a questionnaire-based survey of 11,693 implantations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to understand the current situation regarding central venous port implantation in order to identify the ideal procedure. Questionnaire sheets concerning the number of implantation procedures and the incidence of complications for all procedures completed in 2012 were sent to 397 nationwide designated cancer care hospitals in Japan in June 2013. Venipuncture sites were categorized as chest, neck, upper arm, forearm, and others. Methods were categorized as landmark, cut-down, ultrasound-mark, real-time ultrasound guided, venography, and other groups. We received 374 responses (11,693 procedures) from 153 centers (38.5 %). The overall complication rates were 7.4 % for the chest (598/8,097 cases); 6.8 % for the neck (157/2325); 5.2 % for the upper arm (54/1,033); 7.3 % for the forearm (9/124); and 6.1 % for the other groups (7/114). Compared to the chest group, only the upper arm group showed a significantly lower incidence of complications (P = 0.010), and multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio 0.69; 95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.91; P = 0.008) also showed similar findings. Real-time ultrasound-guided puncture was most commonly used in the upper arm group (83.8 %), followed by the neck (69.8 %), forearm (53.2 %), chest (41.8 %), and other groups (34.2 %). Upper arm venipuncture with ultrasound guidance seems the most promising technique to prevent complications of central venous port implantation.

  4. Holocene pedogenesis in the Black soil area of southern Central Germany - a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Lauer, Tobias; Tinapp, Christian; Müller, Susann; Eckmeier, Eileen; Glaser, Bruno; Goldmann, Lisa; Zielhofer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Black soils (chernozems, phaeozems) cover some areas in the driest parts of Central Germany and are especially found on loessic material. However, time and causes of formation of these soils as well as their former distribution in the region have been a matter of debate for many decades: Accordingly, hypotheses about their age range from the Latest Pleistocene until the Neolithic period, and the assumed formation processes vary from natural (steppic vegetation, properties of parent material) to anthropogenic factors (forest-clearance, fire activity). In order to shed light on some of these open questions, several sites with black soil material (recent black soils, black soil colluvia, black soil material at archaeologic sites) in southern Central Germany were investigated. We applied a multi-proxy approach that combined intensive field work with the analysis of geochemical and environmental magnetic proxies with micromorphology as well as with OSL and archaeological dating. We tried to obtain information about the intensity of the development of black soils during different periods of the past and to look at their transformation during the Late Holocene. Finally, we tried to link this information with the known hypotheses about the formation of black soils as well as with landscape and palaeoclimatic development in Central Germany.

  5. First autochthonous cases of canine thelaziosis in Slovakia: a new affected area in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Čabanová, Viktória; Kocák, Peter; Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina

    2017-04-13

    The spirurid nematode Thelazia callipaeda, also called the "Oriental eyeworm", is the causative agent of canine and human ocular thelaziosis. In the past few years it has started to spread across central Europe and new endemic areas have been established. The present study reports on the first four autochthonous cases of canine ocular thelaziosis in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe. All cases were recorded in dogs living in eastern Slovakia, near the border with the Ukraine. All worms collected were investigated morphologically and their identification further confirmed at the molecular level by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Nucleotide sequences of partial T. callipaeda cox1 and 28S rDNA gene fragments isolated from Slovak dogs were submitted to the GenBank database under accession numbers KY476400 and KY476401, respectively. Considering that all four cases were diagnosed in animals that had never travelled abroad, there is clear evidence of an autochthonous occurrence and thereby the further spread of T. callipaeda across Europe. Moreover, at latitude of 48°N, these cases might be considered as the northernmost recorded cases of autochthonous in western and Central Europe.

  6. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  7. Open Skies aerial photography of selected areas in Central America affected by Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1999-01-01

    Between October 27 and November 1, 1998, Central America was devastated by Hurricane Mitch. Following a humanitarian relief effort, one of the first informational needs was complete aerial photographic coverage of the storm ravaged areas so that the governments of the affected countries, the U.S. agencies planning to provide assistance, and the international relief community could come to the aid of the residents of the devastated area. Between December 4 and 19, 1998 an Open Skies aircraft conducted five successful missions and obtained more than 5,000 high-resolution aerial photographs and more than 15,000 video images. The aerial data are being used by the Reconstruction Task Force and many others who are working to begin rebuilding and to help reduce the risk of future destruction.

  8. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Water in the Elizabethtown area; a study of a limestone terrane in North Central Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of the water resources of a 240-square-mile area in north-central Kentucky is reported. It includes water distribution, chemical quality, water use, and principles of water occurrence and availability, and references. Nolin River is the only major stream in the area. Two of its tributaries, Valley Creek and North Fork Nolin River, have water withdrawn for public supply by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville. The quality of the water from the streams is typical of a limestone terrane. Ground water is also used for public supplies by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville and by two industrial plants. Many springs have flows of more than 0.25 cubic foot per second. Except for stock water, only three springs serve as a water source. Water from wells and springs is typical of limestone terrane. (USGS)

  10. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  11. Interplate locking condition derived from seafloor geodetic observation in the shallowest subduction segment at the Central Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Kenji; Tadokoro, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Sota; Kimura, Hiroshi; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro

    2017-04-01

    We monitored seafloor crustal deformation at two observation stations on opposite sides of the Nankai Trough from 2013 to 2016 in order to investigate the interplate locking condition along the Central Nankai Trough. We estimated the seafloor crustal deformation with respect to the Amurian Plate based on five observations. The results for two stations, TCA and TOA, were 38±25 mm/yr toward N78°W and 57±21 mm/yr toward N69°W (1σ), respectively. The displacement rate at TOA is consistent with the motion of the Philippine Sea Plate with respect to the Amurian Plate using the Euler vector of the REVEL model. The displacement rate at TCA is similar to that at other seafloor geodetic stations, e.g., 48±10 mm/yr at KUM2 station, on the Kumano Basin. The interplate coupling rate was estimated to be roughly 70±40% (1σ) in the shallowest segment of the Nankai Trough.

  12. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  13. Central Java Southern part area deformation analysis by using GPS-CORS 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusfania, Meiriska; Anjasmara, Ira Mutiara; Hadi, Avrilina Luthfil; Pramudya, Bima

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia located on the convergence area of four active tectonic plates. Eurasia plate collides with Indo-Australia plate which forms subduction zone at the south of Java Island and forms the java island. Indo-Australia plate moving north by 7cm/year subducting under tectonic plate of Eurasia that relatively stated. As the results, tectonics and volcanic earthquakes are commonly occured at the boundary. In 2006, 5.9 Richter's scale earthquake, took place in Jogjakarta its surrounding, causing severe damage to the infrastructures. Therefore, Central Java has been marked as the seventh area which has high possibilities of earthquake in Indonesia. The aim of this research is to investigate deformation that happened at the South of Central Java using data of Continously Operating Reference Station of Indonesia (Ina-CORS) from 2013-2015. The deformation result is represented in the form of vectors and shifting velocity. Based on the result, it can be analysed that all six stations observed have the similar moving direction that is to the southeast with the horisontal velocity valued from 0.00910 to 0.01203 m/year. The vertical velocity of six stasions range from -0.01147 to 0.04354 m/year. From strain calculation using triangle segment it is found thet the value of compression bigger than extention value. Dominant extention value is in CSLO-CMGL-CBTL segment. The Value ɛ1: 0.01879 μstrain and ɛ2: -0.00997μstrain

  14. Social ties may play a critical role in mitigating sleep difficulties in disaster-affected communities: a cross-sectional study in the Ishinomaki area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Inoue, Machiko; Muto, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between social factors and sleep difficulties among the victims remaining at home in the Ishinomaki area after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and identified potentially modifiable factors that may mitigate vulnerability to sleep difficulties during future traumatic events or disasters. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012 (6-12 mo after the disaster) in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between social factors and sleep difficulties. We obtained data on 4,176 household members who remained in their homes after the earthquake and tsunami. N/A. Sleep difficulties were prevalent in 15.0% of the respondents (9.2% male, 20.2% female). Two potentially modifiable factors (lack of pleasure in life and lack of interaction with/visiting neighbors) and three nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable factors (sex, source of income, and number of household members) were associated with sleep difficulties. Nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences caused directly by the disaster (severity of house damage, change in family structure, and change in working status) were not significantly associated with sleep difficulties. Our data suggest that the lack of pleasure in life and relatively strong networks in the neighborhood, which are potentially modifiable, might have stronger associations with sleep difficulties than do nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences of the disaster (e.g., house damage, change in family structure, and change in work status).

  15. Host-feeding habits of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at the urban and suburban residential areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Kyoko; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Sasaki, Toshinori; Roychoudhury, Sudipta; Higa, Yukiko; Kasai, Shinji; Tsuda, Yoshio; Nishiumi, Isao; Hisai, Nobuo; Hamao, Shoji; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes for viruses in Japan, the host-feeding habits of the mosquitoes were analyzed by sequencing polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments of the cytochrome b and 16S ribosomal RNA regions of the mitochondrial DNA of 516 mosquitoes of 15 species from seven genera that were collected from residential areas during 2003-2006. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse were the most commonly collected species in urban and suburban residential areas. Anautogenous Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett was distinguished from the autogenous Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskal using a polymerase chain reaction-based identification method. Both Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. form molestus exhibited similar host-feeding habits, broadly preferring avian (50.0 and 42.5% of avian, respectively) and mammalian (38.6 and 45.0% of avian, respectively) hosts, such as tree sparrows, ducks, and humans. Conversely, Ae. albopictus exhibited a highly mammalophilic and anthropophilic feeding pattern, with 84.2% feeding on mammalian hosts and 68.5% of these on humans. We concluded that in Japan, Cx. pipiens might play a significant role in the avian-to-mammal transmission of viruses, such as West Nile virus, whereas Ae. albopictus might play a role in the human-human transmission of dengue and Chikungunya viruses.

  16. Prospective study of peripheral panretinal photocoagulation of areas of nonperfusion in central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Spaide, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect that panretinal photocoagulation to peripheral areas of retinal vascular nonperfusion has on the visual acuity and injection frequency of ranibizumab in eyes with previous central retinal vein occlusion. Patients enrolled in a prospective study of ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion were imaged with wide-field angiography using the Optos P200 system. Laser photocoagulation was carried out and the extent of laser photocoagulation was evaluated with repeat wide-field angiography. Injection of ranibizumab was based on an as needed strategy throughout the study. The injection frequency in the 6 months before laser was compared with a 6-month period starting 2 months after the laser photocoagulation. The visual acuity was measured by Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol refraction at both the end of the 6-month follow-up period and at the time of laser photocoagulation. There were 10 patients treated in this study with a mean number of 1,757 spots of laser photocoagulation in the peripheral retina. The injection frequency in the 6-month lead-in period was 3.4 and in the 6-month follow-up period was 3.1, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.26). The visual acuity at the time of laser photocoagulation was 54.2 letters (approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/80) and at the end of the observation period was 51.4 letters, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.33). In this small study, laser photocoagulation to peripheral areas of nonperfusion as visualized by wide-field angiography did not result in either decreased injection frequency or improved visual acuity in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion treated with ranibizumab.

  17. Area of peripheral retinal nonperfusion and treatment response in branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael; Tan, Colin S; Bell, Darren; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the extent of peripheral retinal nonperfusion in retinal vein occlusion and to determine its effect on the severity of macular edema and response to treatment. This prospective clinic-based cohort study included 32 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion and refractory macular edema evaluated using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and wide-field fluorescein angiography. Areas of ischemia were calculated as a percentage of the total visible retina (ischemic index), which was evaluated when macular edema was present (foveal central subfield >300 μm) and when edema had resolved (foveal central subfield ≤ 300 μm). Ischemic index was the main outcome measure. The mean ischemic index at study enrollment was 14.8% and was larger when macular edema was present compared with when edema had resolved (14.8 vs. 10.3%, P < 0.001). Compared with those with less nonperfusion, patients with ischemic index >10% had thicker mean foveal central subfield on optical coherence tomography (520.8 vs. 424.5 μm, P = 0.029) and worse visual acuity (56.3 vs. 59 letters) with the presence of macular edema and experienced greater decrease in optical coherence tomography (296.1 vs. 165.3 μm, P = 0.019) and gain in visual acuity (12.4 vs. 0.9 letters, P = 0.036) in response to treatment. The area of peripheral retinal nonperfusion is variable in patients with retinal vein occlusion and affects its clinical course and response to treatment.

  18. Gamma radiation-induced thermoluminescence, trace element and paramagnetic defect of quartz from the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, Central Shikoku, Japan.

    PubMed

    Chuenpee, T; Nishikawa, O; Kon, Y; Ninagawa, K; Toyoda, S; Ogata, T; Uchida, T; Takashima, I

    2017-02-01

    This study analyzes the Thermoluminescence (TL) emissions for five emission bands, trace element concentrations and defects in quartz grains extracted from metamorphic rocks and quartz veins in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku. An emission of 500nm with 195, 245, and 320-325°C glow peaks are observed through the lowest to highest grade samples. A 450nm emission band with intense 195 and 245°C glow peaks and a 320-325°C shoulder peak is found in the higher grade samples. A 570nm emission band with a 170°C glow peak is observed in the samples derived from the lower grade zones. These characteristics of TL emissions of quartz suggest that they can be an indicator for the identification of rock derived from different metamorphic grades. The higher metamorphic grade samples with 450nm emission bands in particular show higher intensities of the E1' center. This relation indicates that the activation of the E1' center in higher metamorphic conditions possibly contributed to the 450nm emission band. Also, the 500nm emission band is generally observed in the samples with the signal intensities of the Aluminum hole center, suggesting that the center is the source of this emission band. We also observed that the lower metamorphic grade samples contain lower signal intensities of the Aluminum hole center, despite higher aluminum concentrations. This inconsistency indicates that the formation of interstitial aluminum ions cause local lattice distortion regions, where self-trapped excitons can be formed and presumably provide the 570nm emissions.

  19. Active Fault Topography and Fault Outcrops in the Central Part of the Nukumi fault, the 1891 Nobi Earthquake Fault System, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Ueta, K.; Inoue, D.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Ichikawa, K.; Goto, N.

    2010-12-01

    It is important to evaluate the magnitude of earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults are often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for known these paleoseismic records. We have been studied the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. Geomorphological, geological and reconnaissance microearthquake surveys are concluded. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. The study area of this work is the southeastern Nukumi fault and the northwestern Neodani fault. We interpret DEM using shaded relief map and stereoscopic bird's-eye view made from 2m mesh DEM data which is obtained by airborne laser scanner of Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd. Aerial photographic survey is for confirmation of DEM interpretation using 1/16,000 scale photo. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault . From Ogotani 2km southeastern of Nukumi pass which is located at the southeastern end of surface rupture along the Nukumi fault by previous study to Neooppa 9km southeastern of Nukumi pass, we can interpret left lateral topographies and small uphill-facing fault scarps on the terrace surface by detail DEM investigation. These topographies are unrecognized by aerial photographic survey because of heavy vegetation. We have found several new

  20. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area, CAU No. 417

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). This CAIP addresses the surface investigation and characterization of 15 identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs). In addition, several other areas of the CNTA project area have surface expressions that may warrant investigation. These suspect areas will be characterized, if necessary, in subsequent CAIPs or addendums to this CAIP prepared to address these sites. This CAIP addresses only the 15 identified CASs as shown in Table 2-1 that are associated with the drilling and construction of a number of testing wells designed as part of an underground nuclear testing program. The purpose of the wells at the time of construction was to provide subsurface access for the emplacement, testing, and post detonation evaluations of underground nuclear devices. If contamination is found at any of the 15-surface CASs, the extent of contamination will be determined in order to develop an appropriate corrective action.

  1. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rice growing area of central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Baliraine, Frederick N; Musani, Solomon; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert J

    2010-03-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme and surrounding areas in Central Kenya, under different agricultural systems. This study was motivated by observed differences in malaria transmission indices of An. arabiensis within the scheme compared with adjacent nonirrigated areas. Agricultural practices can modify local microclimate and influence the number and diversity of larval habitats and in so doing may occasion subpopulation differentiation. Thirty samples from each of the three study sites were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Seven microsatellite loci showed high polymorphism but revealed no genetic differentiation (FST = 0.006, P = 0.312) and high gene flow (Nm = 29-101) among the three populations. Genetic bottleneck analysis showed no indication of excess heterozygosity in any of the populations. There was high frequency of rare alleles, suggesting that An. arabiensis in the study area has a high potential of responding to selective pressures from environmental changes and vector control efforts. These findings imply that An. arabiensis in the study area occurs as a single, continuous panmictic population with great ability to adapt to human-imposed selective pressures.

  2. Distribution of S-wave reflectors in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the source regions of large inland earthquakes in southwest and central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, I.; Nishigami, K.

    2008-12-01

    It is important to estimate detailed heterogeneous structures beneath active fault zones, which will give us clues to understand the generating processes of large inland earthquakes. We estimated detailed seismic reflection properties in the crust and uppermost mantle in the Chugoku region, southwest Japan, and also in the Hokuriku region, central Japan, where several large (M>6) crustal earthquakes occurred within a few hundreds of years. In the Chugoku Region, we first analyzed the source region of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake with Mj 6.6, using dense aftershock observation data. Then, we extended the analysis to the whole Chugoku region, using routine network data. From the analyses of these two steps, we delineated the Conrad and the Moho discontinuities and also the top surface of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Chugoku region, at depths of 15-25 km, 30-45 km, and 50-70 km, respectively. We found that the strengths of seismic reflections have remarkable contrast between the two sides of the fault plane of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. This suggests that the mainshock fault plane is located at the boundary of medium properties and that the fault plane has near-vertical extension down to the lower crust. In the Hokuriku Region, we conducted the same reflection analysis using waveforms from local earthquakes, including the source region of the 1948 Fukui Earthquake (Mj 7.1). We found two reflection zones at depths of 20-25 km and 40-50 km. Comparing with past studies of receiver function analyses, theses two reflection zones are thought to correspond to the Conrad and the Moho discontinuities, respectively. Reflection strength in the upper crust is higher on the ENE side of the fault plane of the 1948 Fukui Earthquake, while lower on the WSW side. In the source region of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake, crustal thickness changed along the fault strike just beneath the source. We will further look into such a relation between heterogeneous

  3. [Introduction of the psychoprophylactic method and its influence on the prenatal care program for institutional parturition in Japan: the practice in the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, 1953-1964].

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Satoko; Tsukisawa, Miyoko

    2014-03-01

    The psychoprophylactic method is one of the methods for providing 'painless childbirth without drugs' and was invented by applying I. Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity. In 1951, it was adopted as a national policy in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This method was then introduced in the People's Republic of China in 1952. In 1953, it was brought to Japan by Masatomo SUGAI, an obstetrician, and was introduced into the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society with the support of the director, Naotarou KUJI. The practice of this method by the research team, which consisted of the obstetricians and midwives of the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, resulted in the initiation and characterization of the prenatal care program to encourage the autonomy of the pregnant women for normal parturition in the institutions of Japan.

  4. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  5. Estimation of Daily Area-Average Rainfall during the CaPE Experiment in Central Florida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchon, Claude E.; Renkevens, Thomas M.; Crosson, William L.

    1995-12-01

    The principal component of the water cycle over land areas is precipitation. Knowledge of the accuracy of areal precipitation estimates, therefore, is imperative. The manifold observations of hydrometeorological quantities in the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE) that took place in central Florida during the summer of 1991 have provided an opportunity to examine the various water fluxes. This paper deals with only one of them, the daily area-average rainfall as derived from rain gauges. The theory for spatial sampling errors for random gauge design is extended to include rain gauge bias and random errors. The requirement for randomly located gauges turns out to be quite well met with the approximately 100 gauges available each day over the 17 300-km2 CaPE study area. Rain gauge bias, due mainly to wind effects, is estimated to be 6% based on a previous study and random measurement error is calculated from seven pairs of collocated gauges. For the category of daily area-average rainfall less than 1 mm, the standard error was found to be 0.27 mm or a 53% variation with respect to the category mean. For the highest rainfall category, 11 15 mm, the standard error was 1.49 mm or 11%. For this application, the standard error is essentially a consequence of the limited number of gauges. Given that the rain gauges are randomly distributed and arithmetic averaging is used to estimate the daily area-average rainfall, application of the appropriate standard error provides a useful measure of the best accuracy achievable in assessing the daily water budget of this area.

  6. Geochemical Characteristics of Metavolcanics in the Area from Slate Formations of Southern Central Range, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, W.-S.; Lo, W.; Song, S.-R.

    2012-04-01

    The Central Range of Taiwan located at the convergent boundary of the Eurasia Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate accounts for 60% of total area of Taiwan. The rock types of Central Range include slates, phyllites, schists, gneisses, amphibolites, marbles, and some metaigneous rocks. In recent years, much attention has been given to the tectonic history in the Central Range of Taiwan. This notwithstanding, before the arc-continent collision began tectonic evolution that either passive continental margin of the South China Sea or active continental margin of the East China Sea has been a subject of much debate. Therefore, the petrogenesis of the metavolcanic rocks has the inseparable relation with the tectonic evolution of the Taiwan. According to previous studies, these metavolcanic rocks are exposed at widely scattered places in the Central Range of Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to present petrological, geochemical data (major and trace elements) and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses of the metavolcanic rocks of Shinkangshan area and the nearby associated Hsiangyangshan area. According to the chemical compositions, the metavolcanic rocks from the Shinkangshan area have SiO2 contents in the range of 48.29-51.35 wt.%. On the other hand, the metavolcanic rocks from the Hsiangyangshan area are characterized by SiO2 contents from 49.79 to 65.93 wt.%. On the Chondrite-normalized REE patterns, the Shinkangshan metavolcanic rocks show (La/Sm)N =1.88-2.87 and (La/Yb)N =3.41-5.89 and minor positive to non-existent Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.89-1.00), similar to the oceanic island basalts. The Hsiangyangshan metavolcanic rocks show fractionated REE patterns with (La/Sm)N=1.23-2.07, (La/Yb)N=1.42-2.68 slightly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.59-1.18). Primitive mantle-normalized abundance patterns and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions show that the Shinkangshan metavolcanic rocks have geochemical patterns characterized by enrichment in HFSE and LREE relative to HREE, as well as depletion

  7. Meningitis associated with strongyloidiasis in an area endemic for strongyloidiasis and human T-lymphotropic virus-1: a single-center experience in Japan between 1990 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Taniguchi, T; Kinjo, M; McGill, R L; McGill, A T; Tsuha, S; Shiiki, S

    2013-12-01

    Meningitis caused by enteric flora is a known complication of strongyloidiasis, and human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) predisposes individuals to severe strongyloidiasis. We reviewed the clinical features of bacterial meningitis associated with strongyloidiasis seen at a single center in subtropical Japan, in an area endemic for both strongyloidiasis and HTLV-1. We found 33 episodes in 21 patients between 1990 and 2010. The results were remarkable for the high incidence of meningitis due to Gram-positive cocci (27.3 %), especially Streptococcus bovis, and culture-negative cases (42.4 %). Given the high incidence of Gram-positive meningitis, a modified approach to corticosteroid use would be advisable in areas where strongyloidiasis is endemic, due to the potentially adverse consequences of glucocorticoid therapy.

  8. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  9. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  10. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Sales 139 and 141: Central and western planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 139 and 141, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1992 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Approximately 9700 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 432 blocks in the Central Gulf and 279 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and will likely result in subsequent production. The analytical methods used in this EIS have been formulated over a period of years and are based on the methodology outlined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The first step of the analysis is the identification of significant environmental and socioeconomic resources through the scoping process. A range of impact levels is then defined for each of the significant resources to be analyzed. A range of energy resource estimates is derived from geologic and economic assumptions and a range of alternatives to the proposed action is established. Estimated levels of exploration and development actively are assumed for the purposes of the analysis. A scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals.

  12. Assessment of runout path and deposition area of potential landslide in Lushan Settlement, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Ying-Hung; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Our study focused on the Lushan Settlement, located in the slate belt of Central Range in Taiwan. We adopted L-band ALOS SAR data to generate the line of sight (LOS) velocities in study area using PS-InSAR technique constrained by continuous GPS data in the period from 2007 to 2010. The result revealed a subsidence rate in LOS up to -15 mm/yr. In addition, the borehole inclinometers, installed by Central Geological Survey, recorded a slip depth more than 120 m just in the northeastern of the village. Based on the results of PS-InSAR, records of inclinometers and field geological study, we adopt 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations by using Particle Flow Code to investigate scenario-based runout paths, particle velocities and landslide-affected area, which are useful information for decision support and future landslide hazard assessment. We analyzed different scenarios based on a dipping of the potential sliding surface varying from 20 to 5 degree. In each scenario, sliding of the unstable slope with a high frictional coefficient of the subsurface implied that the sliding surface of this creeping slope has still been developing. Furthermore, with 3-dimentaion models we analyzed the runout paths of rock mass, velocities of movement, and catastrophic landslide-impact area in the scenario that once the sliding surface fully develops or shear failure happens. Generally, the total runout distance could be more than 400 m, and the largest debris thickness might reach 100 m. Because of a low dipping angle of the sliding surface, the movement could last several minutes with a maxima velocity about 2 m/s. Moreover, a landslide-dam will form and capacity of dam could be predicted. In the worst case, the settlement, which is on the slope crown, might be destroyed and buried by debris.

  13. Double subduction of the Philippine Sea plate and its implication in large earthquake occurrence in southern Kanto, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, S.; Yoshida, A.; Hosono, K.; Kobayashi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Thickness of seismogenic layer beneath the Kanto region exceeds 60 km excepting the Pacific slab that lies underneath. A popular idea to explain the thick seismic zone which has been commonly regarded as the Philippine Sea slab is that it is due to subduction of the forearc of the Izu-Ogasawara volcanic arc (e.g., Seno, 2006). Here, we propose a different idea. If we look at a cross section of the hypocenter distribution in a narrow zone around longitude 139.5°E, for example, two seismic planes both of which deepen toward north are recognized. The upper seismic plane is considered to be responsible for the occurrence of the 1923 Kanto earthquake with M7.9 (e.g., Sato et al., 2005). Then, what does the underlying seismic plane indicate? To consider tectonic meaning of the underlying seismic plane, we point out two observational facts. One is that the seismic plane is seen not only beneath the Kanto region and Sagami Bay, but beneath the sea area to the south of the Boso Peninsula. The plane inclines steeply east-northeastward and contacts with the Pacific slab at a depth of about 60 km beneath the southern sea area and about 90 km beneath the Kanto region, i.e., the plane tends to become shallower toward the south. The other is that many earthquakes in the seismic plane show thrust-type mechanism with the P axis in the northwest-southeast direction, i.e., the direction of the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate under the North-American plate. Based on these observations we propose that the underlying seismic plane is subducting beneath the upper part of the Philippine Sea plate, i.e., there occurs double subduction of the Philippine Sea plate in southern Kanto. In making this proposition we stand on the following viewpoints: 1) A seismic plane exhibits existence of a rigid slab. 2) A steep inclination of the slab does not necessarily show subduction in that direction at the present time, though it may be a trace of subduction in the past time. 3) A slab is

  14. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD) on a Final... and Gas Lease Sale: 2012 Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 216/222 Authority: This NOA...

  15. Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effects of duration of stay in a temperate area on the thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure of residents from tropical areas, particularly to clarify whether they would lose their heat tolerance during passive heat exposure through residence in a temperate country, Japan. Methods We enrolled 12 males (mean ± SE age 25.7 ± 1.3 years) from south-east Asian countries who had resided in Japan for a mean of 24.5 ± 5.04 months, and 12 Japanese males (age 24.1 ± 0.9 years). Passive heat exposure was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C) for 60 minutes under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. Results Compared with the Japanese group, the tropical group displayed a higher pre-exposure rectal temperature (P < 0.01) and a smaller increase in rectal temperature during 60 minutes of leg immersion (P = 0.03). Additionally, the tropical group showed a tendency towards a lower total sweat rate (P = 0.06) and lower local sweat rate on the forehead (P = 0.07). The tropical group also had a significantly longer sweating onset time on the upper back (P = 0.04) compared with the Japanese groups. The tropical group who stayed in Japan for > 23 months sweated earlier on the forehead and upper back than those who stayed in Japan < 11 months (P < 0.01 and P = 0.03 for the forehead and upper back, respectively). There was a positive correlation between duration of stay in Japan and total sweat rate (r = 0.58, P <0.05), and negative correlations between duration of stay and sweating onset time on the forehead (r = −0.73, P = 0.01) and on the upper back (r = −0.66, P = 0.02). Other physiological indices measured in this study did not show any difference between the subjects in the tropical group who had lived in Japan for a shorter time and those who had lived there for a longer time. Conclusions We

  16. Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-09-13

    In this study, we investigated the effects of duration of stay in a temperate area on the thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure of residents from tropical areas, particularly to clarify whether they would lose their heat tolerance during passive heat exposure through residence in a temperate country, Japan. We enrolled 12 males (mean ± SE age 25.7 ± 1.3 years) from south-east Asian countries who had resided in Japan for a mean of 24.5 ± 5.04 months, and 12 Japanese males (age 24.1 ± 0.9 years). Passive heat exposure was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C) for 60 minutes under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. Compared with the Japanese group, the tropical group displayed a higher pre-exposure rectal temperature (P < 0.01) and a smaller increase in rectal temperature during 60 minutes of leg immersion (P = 0.03). Additionally, the tropical group showed a tendency towards a lower total sweat rate (P = 0.06) and lower local sweat rate on the forehead (P = 0.07). The tropical group also had a significantly longer sweating onset time on the upper back (P = 0.04) compared with the Japanese groups. The tropical group who stayed in Japan for > 23 months sweated earlier on the forehead and upper back than those who stayed in Japan < 11 months (P < 0.01 and P = 0.03 for the forehead and upper back, respectively). There was a positive correlation between duration of stay in Japan and total sweat rate (r = 0.58, P <0.05), and negative correlations between duration of stay and sweating onset time on the forehead (r = -0.73, P = 0.01) and on the upper back (r = -0.66, P = 0.02). Other physiological indices measured in this study did not show any difference between the subjects in the t