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Sample records for area consumer liquid

  1. Consumer behaviour in the waiting area.

    PubMed

    Mobach, Mark P

    2007-02-01

    To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each waiting area (brochures, books, illuminated new trailer, children's play area, etc.). Per patient each activity was registered, and at each pharmacy the behaviour was studied for 2 weeks. Most patients only waited during the waiting time at the studied pharmacies. Few consumers obtained written information during their wait. The waiting area may have latent possibilities to expand the information function of the pharmacy and combine this with other activities that distract the consumer from the wait. Transdisciplinary research, combining knowledge from pharmacy practice research with consumer research, has been a useful approach to add information on queueing behaviour of consumers.

  2. Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Lisa M; Roper, Catherine E; Hamilton, Bridget E; Tellez, Juan José; McSherry, Bernadette M

    2016-03-03

    Objective This paper examines the perspectives of consumers and their supporters regarding the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Methods Five focus groups for consumers and five focus groups for supporters were conducted in four Australian cities and in one rural location. The 66 participants were asked about strategies to reduce or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Results All participants supported the reduction of the use of seclusion and restraint. Barriers to reducing these practices related to the environment, the effects of drug and alcohol issues, lack of a human rights focus and poor recognition of trauma, stigma and discrimination. Strategies for reducing or eliminating seclusion and restraint included workforce development, environmental and cultural changes.Conclusions Participants clearly identified that the status quo needs to change and conveyed urgency for action. Participants suggested that the involvement of supporters and a range of consumer roles are integral to reducing the use of seclusion and restraint. The findings support the current policy emphasis of working towards the elimination of these practices.What is known about the topic? Mental health policies across many jurisdictions support the reduction and elimination of restraint and seclusion. Evidence suggests those subjected to restraint and seclusion largely experience a range of harmful consequences. No studies focus on the views of supporters of consumers regarding the reduction and elimination of seclusion and restraint, whereas the views of consumers appear in a minority of international studies.What does this paper add? The research enabled an opportunity to hear from people who have been personally affected by and/or have lived experience of these coercive practices. Participants identified local reforms that can uphold the human rights of consumers. They suggested practices to increase accountability, peer support and

  3. Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Pregenzer, Arian L.

    1988-01-01

    A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

  4. Quantitation of tetrabromobisphenol-A from dust sampled on consumer electronics by dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli-Davis, Gina; Owens, Janel E

    2013-09-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant used worldwide. Despite its widespread use, there are few data concerning environmental concentrations of TBBPA. Thus, the objective of this work was to optimize an ultrasound-assisted dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method to analyze swabbed surfaces of consumer electronics to determine TBBPA concentrations. Upon sample preparation with DLLME, TBBPA was derivatized with acetic anhydride and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using a (13)C12-TBBPA internal standard to improve precision and quantitation, a recovery study was performed. At concentrations of 250-1000 ng/mL, recoveries were 104-106%. Sample preparation with solid phase extraction had comparable recoveries, although overall, improved analyte recovery and precision were achieved with DLLME. In a small survey study, TBBPA concentrations in dust collected from 100 cm(2) areas on electronic surfaces (monitor, microwave, refrigerator, and TV) were determined to range from less than the LOQ to 523 ng/mL.

  5. Consumer nueroscience: a new area of study for biomedical engineers.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    In scientific literature, the most accepted definition of consumer neuroscience or neuromarketing is that it is a field of study concerning the application of neuroscience methods to analyze and understand human behavior related to markets and marketing exchanges. First, it might seem strange that marketers would be interested in using neuroscience to understand consumer's preferences. Yet in practice, the basic goal of marketers is to guide the design and presentation of products in such a way that they are highly compatible with consumer preferences. To understand consumers preferences, several standard research tools are commonly used by marketers, such as personal interviews with the consumers, scoring questionnaries gathered from consumers, and focus groups. The reason marketing researchers are interested in using brain imaging tools instead of simply asking people for their preferences in front of marketing stimuli, arises from the assumption that people cannot (or do not want to) fully explain their preference when explicitly asked. Researchers in the field hypothesize that neuroimaging tools can access information within the consumer's brain during the generation of a preference or the observation of a commercial advertisement. The question of will this information be useful in further promoting the product is still up for debate in marketing literature. From the marketing researchers point of view, there is a hope that this body of brain imaging techniques will provide an efficient tradeoff between costs and benefits of the research. Currently, neuroscience methodology includes powerful brain imaging tools based on the gathering of hemodynamic or electromagnetic signals related to the human brain activity during the performance of a relevant task for marketing objectives. These tools are briefly reviewed in this article.

  6. A large area liquid scintillation multiphoton detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, V. K.; Cain, M. P.; Caldwell, D. O.; Denby, B. H.; Eisner, A. M.; Joshi, U. P.; Kennett, R. G.; Lu, A.; Morrison, R. J.; Pfost, D. R.; Stuber, H. R.; Summers, D. J.; Yellin, S. J.; Appel, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 layer lead-liquid scintillator shower detector, which we call the SLIC, has been used for multiphoton detection in the Fermilab tagged photon spectrometer. The detector has an unimpeded active area which is 2.44 m by 4.88 m and is segmented, by means of teflon coated channels, into 3.17 cm wide strips. The 60 layers in depth are broken into three directions of alternating readouts so that three position coordinates are determined for each shower. At present the readouts are made by 334 photomultiplier tubes coupled to BBQ doped wavelength shifter bars which integrate the entire depth of the detector. It is relatively straightforward to increase the number of readouts to include longitudinal segmentation and to increase the segmentation of the outer region which are at present read out two strips to a readout. The energy and position resolutions of isolated showers are about {12%}/{√E} and 3 mm., respectively. The SLIC has been used to study the K-π+π0 decay of the D 0 [1], as well as for electron and muon identification in ψ → e +e - and ψ → μ+μ- plus π0 identification in γp → ψχ [8].

  7. Hybrid multiphase CFD simulation for liquid-liquid interfacial area prediction in annular centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, K.E.

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-liquid contacting equipment used in solvent extraction processes has the dual purpose of mixing and separating two immiscible fluids. Consequently, such devices inherently encompass a wide variety of multiphase flow regimes. A hybrid multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid method with VOF (volume of fluid) sharp interface capturing has been developed for application to annular centrifugal contactors. This solver has been extended to enable prediction of mean droplet size and liquid-liquid interfacial area through a single moment population balance method. Simulations of liquid-liquid mixing in a simplified geometry and a model annular centrifugal contactor are reported with droplet breakup/coalescence models being calibrated versus available experimental data. Quantitative comparison is made for two different housing vane geometries and it is found that the predicted droplet size is significantly smaller for vane geometries which result in higher annular liquid holdup.

  8. 20. DECOMMISIONED HYDROGEN TANK IN FORMER LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DECOMMISIONED HYDROGEN TANK IN FORMER LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE AREA, BETWEEN TEST STAND 1-A AND INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL BUILDING. Looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-03-13

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

  10. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue-endemic area in México.

    PubMed

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Keefe, Thomas J; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue-endemic area of México. A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City and other communities in Yucatán to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. A total of 86.6% of surveyed households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. The most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%) and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. Products were used daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%) and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to approximately 31 $US. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $US) for Mérida City alone. Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue endemic area in México

    PubMed Central

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N.; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue endemic area in México. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City or other communities in Yucatán State to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. Results Most (86.6%) households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. Among those households, the most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%), and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. During the part of the year when a given product type was used, the frequency of use was daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%), and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to ∼31 $U.S. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $U.S.) for Mérida City alone. Conclusion Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. PMID:25040259

  12. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for

  13. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Charoensiriwatana, Wiyada; Srijantr, Pongsant; Teeyapant, Punthip; Wongvilairattana, Jintana

    2010-12-20

    Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for Iodine Deficiency Endemic Areas at the

  14. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2011-07-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

  15. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  16. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  17. Consumers' perceptions of food risks: A snapshot of the Italian Triveneto area.

    PubMed

    Tiozzo, Barbara; Mari, Silvia; Ruzza, Mirko; Crovato, Stefania; Ravarotto, Licia

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the food risk perceptions of people living in the Triveneto area (Northeast Italy), a territory characterized by a particular interest in the production of quality foodstuffs, to determine what aspects people associate with food risk and to understand what beliefs underlie these perceptions. Four focus groups were conducted in the major towns of the target area (N = 45). A semi-structured interview was used that focused on beliefs about food risks, the use of information and media sources in relation to food risk, and the behaviours adopted when eating outside the home. A homogeneous view of food risk emerged among the respondents, and a common definition of risky food was identified. The concept of risk was in opposition to the quality and controllability of food, which emerged as major strategies to cope with food risks. Quality was linked to freshness and local origin, whereas controllability reflected a direct (e.g., checking labels, having a relationship with the vendor, cultivating one's own vegetable garden) or indirect (e.g., control guarantees provided by suppliers and the government) means to check the safety and quality of food. Although people seemed quite informed about food risks, a common sense of impotence with regard to one's own protection prevailed, together with a fatalistic sense of incomplete control over risk. The results identified food concerns for consumers living in this specific territory and might represent a starting point for public health authorities to increase compliance with responsible behaviours for risk mitigation and to define successful food policies for this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-1: Characteristics of Economically Depressed Areas Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on characteristics of economically depressed area families is the first in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  19. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module III-C-1: Food Availability in Economically Depressed Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on food availability in economically depressed areas (EDA) is the first in a set of three modules on foods and nutrition in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  20. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-2: The Child and the Economically Depressed Area Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boogaert, John

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on the child and the economically depressed area family is the second in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  1. Food groups consumed by infants and toddlers in urban areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pan; Denney, Liya; Zheng, Yingdong; Vinyes-Parés, Gerard; Reidy, Kathleen C.; Eldridge, Alison L.; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    Background Food consumption patterns of young children in China are not well known. Objective Characterised food groups consumed by infants and young children in urban China using data from the Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study. Design One 24-h dietary recall was completed for 1,350 infants and young children (436 infants aged 6–11 months and 914 young children aged 12–35 months), who were recruited from maternal and child care centres in eight cities via face-to-face interviews with the primary caregiver. All foods, beverages and supplements reported were assigned to one of 64 food groups categorised into the following: milk and milk products, grains, vegetables, fruits, protein foods and desserts/sweets. The percentage of infants and young children consuming foods from specific food groups was calculated, regardless of the amount consumed. Results Less than half of infants consumed breast milk (47%), whereas 59% of infants consumed infant formula and 53–75% of young children consumed growing-up (fortified) milk. Rice was the number one grain food consumed after 6 months (up to 88%) and the consumption of infant cereal was low. About 50% of infants did not consume any fruits or vegetables, and 38% of young children did not consume any fruits on the day of the recall. Only 40% of all children consumed dark green leafy vegetables and even fewer consumed deep yellow vegetables. Eggs and pork were the most commonly consumed protein foods. Conclusions The data provide important insight for developing detailed food consumption guidelines for this population group. Mothers of infants should be encouraged to continue breastfeeding after the first 6 months. Parents should be advised to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, particularly dark green leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. The consumption of fortified infant cereal should be advocated to improve the iron intake of Chinese infants. PMID:26864648

  2. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed.

  3. Effects of the 'Consumer Game' on Learning and Attitudes of Selected Seventh Grade Students in A Target-Area School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Karen C.

    The following report describes one teacher's use of the Consumer Game in a class of seventh grade students in a target area school. These students were not highly motivated and displayed poor attitudes toward school, and it was hoped that a game experience might interest them. Despite unusual administrative conditions, the game appears to have…

  4. Body Weight Gain in Rats Consuming Sweetened Liquids: Effects of Caffeine and Diet Composition

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely M.; Laboy, Alycia F.; Davidson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show that high-intensity sweeteners can stimulate weight gain in rats. The present studies examined whether caffeine, a stimulant commonly added to beverages consumed by humans, influences intake of saccharin- or glucose-sweetened solutions or body weight gain in rats and whether the nature of the maintenance diet influences the effects of caffeine. In two experiments, rats received glucose or saccharin solution mixed with 0.125 mg/g caffeine or no caffeine. Rats consumed significantly more caffeinated than noncaffeinated solutions when they were maintained on a low-fat chow diet (Experiment 1) and when maintained on a sweet, high-fat, high calorie chow diet (Experiment 2). Consumption of saccharin resulted in higher body weight gain in both experiments. Caffeine reversed this effect in Experiment 1 (low-fat diet) but not Experiment 2 (sweet, high-fat diet). The findings extend what is known about the conditions under which consumption of high intensity sweeteners promote energy dysregulation. PMID:20851725

  5. Growth of the surface area of separated liquid fragments during high-temperature fragmentation of an inhomogeneous liquid drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, M. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    We have experimentally studied the formation of a droplet cloud during intense heating and subsequent explosive fragmentation of an inhomogeneous liquid drop. The experiments were performed with water drops containing graphite particles, which were heated in a flow of combustion products at a temperature varied from 600 to 1100 K. Three regimes of fragmentation of the inhomogeneous liquid drops have been observed, which are characterized by different total areas of liquid phase surface in aerosol clouds. Dependence of these regimes on the water/inclusion volume ratio and the amount of supplied heat has been determined.

  6. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. )

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  7. 300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WRIGHT, E.J.; STORDEUR, R.T.

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.

  8. 200 area liquid effluent facility quality assurance program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.J.

    1995-10-10

    Direct revision of Supporting Document WHC-SD-LEF-QAPP-001, Rev. 0. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities Quality Assurance Program Plan. Incorporates changes to references in tables. Revises test to incorporate WHC-SD-LEF-CSCM-001, Computer Software Configuration Management Plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

  9. Dependence of the distribution constant in liquid-liquid partition equilibria on the van der Waals molecular surface area.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Serban C; David, Victor

    2013-09-01

    The direct calculation of free energy of interactions between a solute j and two immiscible liquids shows a linear dependence between the (logarithm of) the distribution constant in liquid-liquid partition equilibrium log K(j) and the van der Waals surface area of the solute. The study provides a thermodynamic proof for the formula log K(BA,j) = c1 log K(BC,j) + c2 that describes the linear dependence between (the logarithm of) the distribution constant for a solute j in a solvent system (B/A) and (the logarithm of) the distribution constant for the same solute in a different solvent system (B/C). This relation has been well proven by various experimental studies and it is frequently used in liquid chromatographic separations as well as in liquid-liquid extractions, but was not explained previously based on thermodynamic results. The theory was verified using the prediction of octanol/water distribution constants log K(ow) for a wide range of molecules, including hydrocarbons and compounds with a variety of functional groups. The results have also been verified for the distribution constants in other solvent systems. The expression for the distribution constant obtained in this study also gives a theoretical base for the additive fragment methodology used for the prediction of log K(ow). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Measurement and Estimation of Organic-Liquid/Water Interfacial Areas for Several Natural Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M.L.; Narter, M.; Schnaar, G.; Marble, J.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area between immiscible organic liquid and water residing within natural porous media. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional images of solid and liquid phases in packed columns. The image data were processed to generate quantitative measurements of organic-liquid/water interfacial area and of organic-liquid blob sizes. Ten porous media, comprising a range of median grain sizes, grain-size distributions, and geochemical properties, were used to evaluate the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area. The results show that fluid-normalized specific interfacial area (A{sub f}) and maximum specific interfacial area (A{sub m}) correlate very well to inverse median grain diameter. These functionalities were shown to result from a linear relationship between effective organic-liquid blob diameter and median grain diameter. These results provide the basis for a simple method for estimating specific organic-liquid/water interfacial area as a function of fluid saturation for a given porous medium. The availability of a method for which the only parameter needed is the simple-to-measure median grain diameter should be of great utility for a variety of applications.

  11. Life Insurance for Consumers: A Teacher's Guide. A Teacher Inservice Module for Secondary Level Consumer Education Units in Home Economics, Business Education, Social Studies and Related Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Judith

    This teacher-oriented learning module for secondary level consumer education teachers, the first in a series of three, was developed to provide information on life insurance and ideas for conveying this content to students. The module begins with a definition and general goals of consumer economics, an overview, a pre-test, a performance objective…

  12. Feasibility of measuring gastric emptying time, with a wireless motility device, after subjects consume fiber-matched liquid and solid breakfasts.

    PubMed

    Willis, Holly J; Thomas, William; Willis, David J; Slavin, Joanne L

    2011-08-01

    To explore the feasibility and sensitivity of a new technology for measuring gastric emptying time (GET) in appetite research, and also to compare appetite after subjects consumed macronutrient- and fiber-matched liquid and solid meals. Fourteen women (BMI of 21.2 ± 0.3) participated in this randomized, crossover study. On two separate days, fasted subjects consumed liquid (fruit juices and skim milk) and solid (oatmeal, blueberries, and apples) breakfasts. Both meals had 10 g of fiber and 410 kcal. GET was assessed with the SmartPill GI Motility System®, appetite was assessed with visual analog scales, and food intake was measured at lunch. Despite the same amount of fiber, GET was about 1h longer after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Subjects were less hungry after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Satisfaction and fullness were marginally improved with the oatmeal compared to the liquids. There was a negative association between GET and hunger. Lunchtime food and beverage intake did not differ between treatments. The SmartPill appears feasible and sensitive in appetite research, but has limitations. A solid meal with naturally occurring fiber from oatmeal and whole fruits increased GET and decreased hunger more than a liquid meal with added fiber.

  13. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2015-11-26

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km(2)) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species' abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area.

  14. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km2) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species’ abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area. PMID:27340314

  15. New nutritional composition data on selected traditional foods consumed in Black Sea Area countries.

    PubMed

    Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Hayran, Osman; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Traditional foods are an important part of the culture, history, identity and heritage of a region or country and are key elements in dietary patterns. In most countries there is limited information on the nutritional composition of such foods and therefore there is a need to investigate, register and promote traditional foods. One of the aims within the 'Sustainable exploitation of bioactive components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods' (BaSeFood) project is to generate for the first time new data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods from six Black Sea Area countries to promote their sustainable development and exploitation. Thirty-three traditional foods were analysed in an accredited laboratory to determine their nutritional composition, and the data were fully documented. The nutrient content varied widely because of the nature and variety of the analysed foods. The energy content ranged between 4 kcal per 100 g for kvass southern and 900 kcal per 100 g for mustard oil, with the exception of the analysed teas, which did not contribute to energy intake. The use of a common methodology for the study of traditional foods will enable countries to further investigate these foods. Moreover, a new nutritional knowledge base of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries will contribute to promote local biodiversity and sustainable diets by maintaining healthy dietary patterns within local cultures. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein.

  17. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  18. Fluoride in water consumed by children in remote areas of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuckpaiwong, S; Nakornchai, S; Surarit, R; Soo-ampon, S; Kasetsuwan, R

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze fluoride content in water for drinking and for use in remote areas of Thailand. Water was sampled from schools and villages along the border by Multiple Stratified Cluster Random Sampling. Fluoride levels of 214 water samples from 48 schools and 48 villages were assessed in triplicate by fluoride ion electrode. The fluoride content in different regions and types of water were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that fluoride in drinking water and water for use from the schools and villages were 0.01-0.37 ppm, 0.01-0.19 ppm, 0.01-0.87 ppm and 0.01-0.92 ppm, respectively. There was no difference in fluoride content in drinking water from various regions (p=0.23). However, there was a statistical difference in fluoride level in water for use (p=0.04, p=0.01) in various regions. The highest fluoride content was found in samples from the central and eastern region (0.19+/-0.24 ppm and 0.29+/-0.28 ppm respectively). When comparing types of water, ie ground water, surface water and rain water, there were differences in fluoride content (p=0.0). Underground water had the highest fluoride content (0.31+/-0.23 ppm).

  19. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; G. Gettelfinger; T. Gray; D. Hoffman; S. Jardin; H. Kugel; P. Marfuta; T. Munsat; C. Neumeyer; S. Raftopoulos; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; L. Delgado-Aparicio; R.P. Seraydarian; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; M. Baldwin; R.W. Conn; R. Maingi; M. Menon; R. Causey; D. Buchenauer; M. Ulrickson; B. Jones; D. Rodgers

    2004-06-07

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  20. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R; Jajeski, R; Boaz, M; Efthimion, P; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Hoffman, D; Jardin, S; Kugel, H; Marfuta, P; Munsat, T; Neumeyer, C; Raftopoulos, S; Soukhanovskii, V; Spaleta, J; Taylor, G; Timberlake, J; Woolley, R; Zakharov, L; Finkenthal, M; Stutman, D; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Seraydarian, R; Antar, G; Doerner, R; Luckhardt, S; Baldwin, M; Conn, R; Maingi, R; Menon, M; Causey, R; Buchenauer, D; Ulrickson, M; Jones, B; Rodgers, D

    2004-06-03

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  1. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...

  6. The Liquid Hydrogen System for the MuCool Test Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, C.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Norris, B.; Pei, L.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.

    2004-06-01

    A new MuCool test area (MTA) is under construction at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This facility will house a cryo-system composed of a liquid hydrogen absorber enclosed in a 5 Tesla magnet. The total volume of liquid hydrogen in the system is 25 liters. Helium gas at 14 K is provided by an in-house refrigerator and will sub-cool the hydrogen system to 17 K. Liquid hydrogen temperature in the absorber is chosen to satisfy the requirement of a density change smaller than +/- 2.5 %. To accommodate this goal and to remove the heat deposited by a beam, a pump will circulate liquid hydrogen at a rate of 450 g/s. The cooling loop was optimized with respect to the heat transport in liquid hydrogen and the pressure drop across the pump. Specific instrumentation will permit an intrinsically safe monitoring and control of the cryo-system. Safety issues are the main driver of the cryo-design. This paper describes the implementation of the liquid hydrogen system at MTA and the preliminary results of a finite element analysis used to size the LH2 absorber force-flow.

  7. Human health risk assessment of chloroxylenol in liquid hand soap and dishwashing soap used by consumers and health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Lisa J; Rodricks, Joseph D; Turnbull, Duncan; DeLeo, Paul C; Nash, J Frank; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Carlson, Pete A

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative human risk assessment of chloroxylenol was conducted for liquid hand and dishwashing soap products used by consumers and health-care workers. The toxicological data for chloroxylenol indicate lack of genotoxicity, no evidence of carcinogenicity, and minimal systemic toxicity. No observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) were established from chronic toxicity studies, specifically a carcinogenicity study that found no cancer excess (18 mg/kg-day) and studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (100 mg/kg-day). Exposure to chloroxylenol for adults and children was estimated for two types of rinse-off cleaning products, one liquid hand soap, and two dishwashing products. The identified NOAELs were used together with exposure estimates to derive margin of exposure (MOE) estimates for chloroxylenol (i.e., estimates of exposure over NOAELs). These estimates were designed with conservative assumptions and likely overestimate exposure and risk (i.e., highest frequency, 100% dermal penetration). The resulting MOEs ranged from 178 to over 100, 000, 000 indicating negligibly small potential for harm related to consumer or health-care worker exposure to chloroxylenol in liquid soaps used in dish washing and hand washing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioactivity levels in the mostly local foodstuff consumed by residents of the high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, Nasrin; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Naddafi, Kazem; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Shooshtari, Molood Gooniband; Hosseini, Saeedeh Sadat; Karimi, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the (226)Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents. About 150 different samples, which all are local and have the highest consumption, were collected during the four seasons. In these samples, after washing and drying and pretreatment, the radionuclide was determined by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of (226)Ra ranged between 5 ± 1 mBq kg(-1) wet weight (chino and meat) to 725 ± 480 mBq kg(-1) for tea dry leaves. The (226)Ra activity concentrations compared with the reference values of UNSCEAR appear to be higher in leafy vegetables, milk and meat product. Of the total daily dietary (226)Ra exposure for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from eggs. The residents consuming eggs from household chickens may receive an elevated dose in the diet.

  9. Large Area Microencapsulated Reflective Guest-Host Liquid Crystal Displays and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masao; Enomoto, Shintaro; Iwanaga, Hiroki; Hotta, Aira; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Oka, Toshiyuki; Kizaki, Yukio; Kidzu, Yuko; Naito, Katsuyuki

    2002-07-01

    We have developed reflective liquid crystal displays using microencapsulated guest-host liquid crystals, whose size was sufficiently large for viewing documents. A high-brightness image can be realized because there is no need for polarizers. Easy fabrication processes, consisting of screen-printing of microencapsulated liquid crystal and film adhesion, have enabled the realization of thinner and lighter cell structures. It has been confirmed that the display is tolerant of the pressures to which it would be subject in actual use. The optimization of fabrication processes has enabled the realization of reflectance uniformity in the display area and reduction of the driving voltage. Our developed display is suitable for portable information systems, such as electronic book applications.

  10. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  11. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Riley, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe).

  12. A model to relate wind tunnel measurements to open field odorant emissions from liquid area sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucernoni, F.; Capelli, L.; Busini, V.; Sironi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Waste Water Treatment Plants are known to have significant emissions of several pollutants and odorants causing nuisance to the near-living population. One of the purposes of the present work is to study a suitable model to evaluate odour emissions from liquid passive area sources. First, the models describing volatilization under a forced convection regime inside a wind tunnel device, which is the sampling device that typically used for sampling on liquid area sources, were investigated. In order to relate the fluid dynamic conditions inside the hood to the open field and inside the hood a thorough study of the models capable of describing the volatilization phenomena of the odorous compounds from liquid pools was performed and several different models were evaluated for the open field emission. By means of experimental tests involving pure liquid acetone and pure liquid butanone, it was verified that the model more suitable to describe precisely the volatilization inside the sampling hood is the model for the emission from a single flat plate in forced convection and laminar regime, with a fluid dynamic boundary layer fully developed and a mass transfer boundary layer not fully developed. The proportionality coefficient for the model was re-evaluated in order to account for the specific characteristics of the adopted wind tunnel device, and then the model was related with the selected model for the open field thereby computing the wind speed at 10 m that would cause the same emission that is estimated from the wind tunnel measurement furthermore, the field of application of the proposed model was clearly defined for the considered models during the project, discussing the two different kinds of compounds commonly found in emissive liquid pools or liquid spills, i.e. gas phase controlled and liquid phase controlled compounds. Lastly, a discussion is presented comparing the presented approach for emission rates recalculation in the field, with other approaches

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 300 area facility liquid effluent monitoring: 1994 and 1995 field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Thompson, C.J.; Damberg, E.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Effluent Management Services manages liquid waste streams from some of the 300 Area buildings on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to ensure liquid discharges to the Columbia River are in compliance with permit requirements. The buildings are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 and FY 1995, three field tests were conducted to gather information that could be used to (1) increase the understanding of 300 Area building liquid waste streams based on the characterization and monitoring data collected during calendar year (CY) 1994 and CY 1995 and (2) establish improved methods for evaluating facility releases. The three field tests were (1) an evaluation of a continuous monitoring/event-triggered sampling system, (2) a volatile organic compound hold-time study, and (3) an investigation of the dilution and retention properties of the 300 Area process sewer. The results from the first field test showed that future characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams could benefit significantly from augmenting continuous monitoring with event-triggered sampling. Current continuous-monitoring practices (i.e., monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow) cannot detect discharges of organic pollutants. Effluent control effectiveness would be enhanced by incorporating a continuous total organic carbon analyzer in the system to detect events involving releases of organic compounds. In the second field test, sample hold times were shown to have a significant effect on volatile organic compound data. Samples analyzed in the field within 1 hour of collection generally had 1.5 to 3 times higher volatile organic compound concentrations than those analyzed 1.5 to 4 weeks later at on-site and off-site laboratories, respectively. The number of volatile organic compounds detected also decreased with increasing hold times.

  14. Highly Selective Screening of Estrogenic Compounds in Consumer-Electronics Plastics by Liquid Chromatography in Parallel Combined with Nanofractionation-Bioactivity Detection and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Willem; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Hamers, Timo; Somsen, Govert W; Lamoree, Marja H; Kool, Jeroen

    2016-11-15

    The chemical safety of consumer products is an issue of emerging concern. Plastics are widely used, e.g. as casings of consumer electronics (TVs, computers, routers, etc.), which are present in houses and offices in continuously increasing numbers. In this study, we investigate the estrogenic activity of components of plastics coming from electronics' casings. A recently developed fractionation platform for effect-directed analysis (EDA) was used. This platform combines reversed-phase liquid chromatography in parallel with bioassay detection via nanofractionation and with online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) for the identification of bioactives. Four out of eight of the analyzed plastics samples showed the presence of estrogenic compounds. Based on the MS results these were assigned to bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and a possible bisphenol A analog. All samples contained flame retardants, but these did not show any estrogenicity. The observed BPA, however, could be an impurity of tetrabromo-BPA (TBBPA) or TBBPA-based flame retardants. Due to the plausible migration of additives from plastics into the environment, plastics from consumer electronics likely constitute a source of estrogenic compound contamination in the indoor environment.

  15. 76 FR 4207 - Orderly Liquidation Authority Provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ..., and the potential to increase excessive risk taking; a Federal regulatory agency has ordered the... defines the policy goals of the liquidation proceedings and provides the powers and duties of the FDIC as... that the FDIC normally exercises in a bank receivership. The provisions of Title II governing the...

  16. Investigation of one inverse problem in case of modeling water areas with "liquid" boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheloput, Tatiana; Agoshkov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    In hydrodynamics often appears the problem of modeling water areas (oceans, seas, rivers, etc.) with "liquid" boundaries. "Liquid" boundary means set of those parts of boundary where impermeability condition is broken (for example, straits, bays borders, estuaries, interfaces of oceans). Frequently such effects are ignored: for "liquid" boundaries the same conditions are used as for "solid" ones, "material boundary" approximation is applied [1]. Sometimes it is possible to interpolate the results received from models of bigger areas. Moreover, approximate estimates for boundary conditions are often used. However, those approximations are not always valid. Sometimes errors in boundary condition determination could lead to a significant decrease in the accuracy of the simulation results. In this work one way of considering the problem mentioned above is described. According to this way one inverse problem on reconstruction of boundary function in convection-reaction-diffusion equations which describe transfer of heat and salinity is solved. The work is based on theory of adjoint equations [2] and optimal control, as well as on common methodology of investigation inverse problems [3]. The work contains theoretical investigation and the results of computer simulation applied for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, conditions and restrictions that should be satisfied for solvability of the problem are entered and justified in the work. Submitted work could be applied for the solution of more complicated inverse problems and data assimilation problems in the areas with "liquid" boundaries; also it is a step for developing algorithms on computing level, speed, temperature and salinity that could be applied for real objects. References 1. A. E. Gill. Atmosphere-ocean dynamics. // London: Academic Press, 1982. 2. G. I. Marchuk. Adjoint equations. // Moscow: INM RAS, 2000, 175 p. (in Russian). 3. V.I. Agoshkov. The methods of optimal control and adjoint equations in problems of

  17. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  18. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Housing. Module III-B-2: Government Housing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennings, Patricia

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on government housing programs is the second in a set of three modules on housing in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see CE 019 901-967.)…

  19. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Housing. Module III-B-1: Low-Income Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennings, Patricia

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on low income housing is the first in a set of three modules on housing in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see CE 019 901-967.) Following…

  20. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management. Module III-F-3: Marketing Practices in Relation to Low Income Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on marketing practices in relation to low income clientele is the third in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas (EDAs). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  1. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management. Module III-F-3: Marketing Practices in Relation to Low Income Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on marketing practices in relation to low income clientele is the third in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas (EDAs). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  2. Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

    2002-01-18

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

  3. Impact of a nurse practitioner role on metabolic monitoring completion and referrals for consumers admitted to the intensive care area of an acute inpatient psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Brown, Trudy; McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham

    2017-03-16

    Mental illness increases a person's risk of physical health issues, including cardiovascular disease, leading to premature morbidity and mortality. Screening for cardiovascular disease through metabolic monitoring is recommended to aid in early detection. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether consumers admitted to an inpatient mental health unit receive routine metabolic monitoring, and to explore the contribution of a nurse practitioner to metabolic monitoring and the actioning of abnormal results. The present study used a retrospective mirror image cohort method to look at clinical consumer files for two separate 6-month periods before and after a nurse practitioner role commenced. Metabolic monitoring variables were computed as completion frequencies and percentages. Univariate analyses were computed to describe differences among metabolic monitoring variables. A total of 497 consumers were admitted to the mental health inpatient unit's intensive care area across the two 6-month data-collection periods. Prior to the nurse practitioner role, only 2% of consumers had their body mass index (BMI) risk calculated; less than 1% had their waist circumference measured, and no abnormal results were referred to a general practitioner (GP). After the nurse practitioner role commenced, BMI risk was calculated for 67% of consumers, waist circumference recorded for 68%, and referrals for abnormal results were forwarded to 37 consumers' GPs. A nurse practitioner on the inpatient mental health unit has allowed for a considerable increase in the metabolic screening of admitted consumers resulting in a number of referrals being forwarded to consumers' GPs to be acted upon. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. Characterization of large area photomultiplier ETL 9357FLB for liquid argon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ying-Shuai; Yue, Qian; Liu, Yi-Bao; Chen, Qing-Hao; Li, Jin; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Li, Yu-Lan; Ma, Hao; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-07-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) Collaboration will carry out a direct search for weakly interacting massive particles with germanium detectors. Liquid argon will be utilized as an anti-Compton and cooling material for the germanium detectors. A low-background and large-area photomultiplier tube (PMT) immersed in liquid argon will be used to read out the light signal from the argon. In this paper we have carried out a careful evaluation on the performance of the PMT operating at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Based on the single photoelectron response model, the absolute gain and resolution of the PMT were measured. This has laid a foundation for PMT selection, calibration and signal analysis in the forthcoming CDEX experiments.

  5. Bubble size and gas-liquid interfacial area measurements using molten paraffin waxes in bubble columns

    SciTech Connect

    Bukur, D.B.; Patel, S.A.; Daly, J.G.; Raphael, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in 0.05 m ID and 0.23 m ID by 3 m tall bubble columns with different types of molten waxes as the liquid medium and nitrogen as the gas, under processing conditions typical or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron catalysts (i.e. gas velocities up to 0.15 m s, and temperatures between 200 and 270/sup 0/C) to estimate gas liquid interfacial area from measured values of average gas hold-up and Sauter mean bubble diameter. The gas hold-up was estimated from visual observations of the expanded and static liquid heights, and the Sauter was estimated from bubble size measurements obtained by photography and dynamic gas disengagement. The paraffin wax (FT-300) used in the authors' studies is non-coalescing and has a tendency to foam. The amount of foam is greater for runs conducted in the order of increasing gas velocities, than in runs with decreasing velocities. Thus, two values of hold-up are possible and the start-up procedure determines which one will be attained. At higher gas velocities (> 0.05 m/s) the foam disappears and a transition to the slug flow, churn-turbulent regime takes place. Reactor waxes are coalescing in nature and do not produce foam. Despite similar hold-ups for the different waxes at higher gas velocities, the Sauters are significantly different and this is reflected in the specific gas-liquid interfacial areas, with larger values obtained with the paraffin wax compared to values with reactor waxes.

  6. Engaging consumers living in remote areas of Western Australia in the self-management of back pain: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Western Australia (WA), health policy recommends encouraging the use of active self-management strategies as part of the co-care of consumers with persistent low back pain (LBP). As many areas in WA are geographically isolated and health services are limited, implementing this policy into practice is critical if health outcomes for consumers living in geographically-isolated areas are to be improved. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 51 consumers (mean (SD) age 62.3 (±15.1) years) participated in an evidence-based interdisciplinary pain education program (modified Self Training Educative Pain Sessions: mSTEPS) delivered at three geographically isolated WA sites. Self report measures included LBP beliefs and attitudes (Back Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ); Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ)), use of active and passive self-management strategies, and health literacy, and global perceived impression of usefulness (GPIU) recorded immediately pre-intervention (n = 51), same day post-intervention (BBQ; GPIU, n = 49) and 3 months post-intervention (n = 25). Results At baseline, consumers demonstrated adequate health literacy and elements of positive health behaviours, reflected by the use of more active than passive strategies in self-managing their persistent LBP. Immediately post-intervention, there was strong evidence for improvement in consumers’ general beliefs about LBP as demonstrated by an increase in BBQ scores (baseline [mean (SD): 25.8 (7.6)] to same day post-intervention [28.8 (7.2); P < 0.005], however this improvement was not sustained at 3 months post-intervention. The majority of consumers (86.4%) reported the intervention as very useful [rated on NRS as 7–10]. Conclusions To sustain improved consumer beliefs regarding LBP and encourage the adoption of more positive health behaviours, additional reinforcement strategies for consumers living in remote areas where service access and skilled workforce

  7. Exposure assessment of consumer products: human body weights and total body surface areas to use, and sources of data for specific products

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, P.J.; Kelling, C.K.; Callender, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    A thorough understanding of the routes and magnitudes of chemical exposures that consumers experience during the use of a household product is needed as part of a well-founded risk assessment for that product and its components. This review describes some sources of generic consumer data (eg, relevant body weight or total body surface area for a given human age), and exposure-related data (eg, task frequency and duration) for specific product types needed for exposure assessments. The review also contains a discussion of the importance of statistical characterization of the consumer data (eg, does its range follow a normal, log-normal, or other type of distribution ). The importance of examining these data for correlative interactions is emphasized.25 references.

  8. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  9. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-10-02

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  10. The particle size distribution, density, and specific surface area of welding fumes from SMAW and GMAW mild and stainless steel consumables.

    PubMed

    Hewett, P

    1995-02-01

    Particle size distributions were measured for fumes from mild steel (MS) and stainless steel (SS); shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) consumables. Up to six samples of each type of fume were collected in a test chamber using a micro-orifice uniform deposit (cascade) impactor. Bulk samples were collected for bulk fume density and specific surface area analysis. Additional impactor samples were collected using polycarbonate substrates and analyzed for elemental content. The parameters of the underlying mass distributions were estimated using a nonlinear least squares analysis method that fits a smooth curve to the mass fraction distribution histograms of all samples for each type of fume. The mass distributions for all four consumables were unimodal and well described by a lognormal distribution; with the exception of the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS comparison, they were statistically different. The estimated mass distribution geometric means for the SMAW-MS and SMAW-SS consumables were 0.59 and 0.46 micron aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED), respectively, and 0.25 micron AED for both the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS consumables. The bulk fume densities and specific surface areas were similar for the SMAW-MS and SMAW-SS consumables and for the GMAW-MS and GMAW-SS consumables, but differed between SMAW and GMAW. The distribution of metals was similar to the mass distributions. Particle size distributions and physical properties of the fumes were considerably different when categorized by welding method. Within each welding method there was little difference between MS and SS fumes.

  11. Large-Flow-Area Flow-Selective Liquid/Gas Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Bradley, Karla F.

    2010-01-01

    This liquid/gas separator provides the basis for a first stage of a fuel cell product water/oxygen gas phase separator. It can separate liquid and gas in bulk in multiple gravity environments. The system separates fuel cell product water entrained with circulating oxygen gas from the outlet of a fuel cell stack before allowing the gas to return to the fuel cell stack inlet. Additional makeup oxygen gas is added either before or after the separator to account for the gas consumed in the fuel cell power plant. A large volume is provided upstream of porous material in the separator to allow for the collection of water that does not exit the separator with the outgoing oxygen gas. The water then can be removed as it continues to collect, so that the accumulation of water does not impede the separating action of the device. The system is designed with a series of tubes of the porous material configured into a shell-and-tube heat exchanger configuration. The two-phase fluid stream to be separated enters the shell-side portion of the device. Gas flows to the center passages of the tubes through the porous material and is then routed to a common volume at the end of the tubes by simple pressure difference from a pumping device. Gas flows through the porous material of the tubes with greater ease as a function of the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of the water and gas. By careful selection of the dimensions of the tubes (wall thickness, porosity, diameter, length of the tubes, number of the tubes, and tube-to-tube spacing in the shell volume) a suitable design can be made to match the magnitude of water and gas flow, developed pressures from the oxygen reactant pumping device, and required residual water inventory for the shellside volume.

  12. Investigating the Relationship Between Liquid Water and Leaf Area in Clonal Populus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar; Brown, K.; Green, R.; Ustin, S.; Hinckley, T.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of the most commonly employed biophysical parameters used to characterize vegetation canopies and scale leaf physiological processes to larger scales. For example, LAI is a critical parameter used in regional scale estimates of evapotranspiration, photosynthesis, primary productivity, and carbon cycling (Running et al., 1989; Dorman and Sellers, 1989; Potter et al., 1993). LAI is typically estimated using ratio-based techniques, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI: e.g. Tucker 1979; Asrar et al., 1989; Sellers 1985, 1987). The physical basis behind this relationship depends on the high spectral contrast between scattered near-infrared (NIR) and absorbed red radiation in canopies. As the number of leaves present in a canopy increases over a unit area, NIR reflectance increases, while red reflectance decreases, resulting in an increase in the ratio. Through time series and image compositing, NDVI provides an additional temporal measure of how these parameters change, providing a means to monitor fluxes and productivity (Tucker et al., 1983). NDVI, while highly successful for agriculture and grassland ecosystems has been found to be less successful in evergreen chaparral and forested ecosystems (Badhwar et al., 1986; Gamon et al., 1993; Hall et al., 1995). Typically, the relationship between NDVI and LAI becomes progressively more asymptotic at LAI values above three (Sellers, 1985), although linear relationships have been observed in conifers at LAis as high as 13 (Spanner et al., 1990). In this paper, we explore an alternative approach for estimating LAI for remotely sensed data from AVIRIS based on estimates of canopy liquid water. Our primary objective is to test the hypothesis that the depth of the liquid water bands expressed in canopy reflectance spectra at 960, 1200, 1400 and 1900 nm increases with increasing LAI in canopies. This study builds from work by Roberts et al. (1997), in which liquid water was shown

  13. Investigating the Relationship Between Liquid Water and Leaf Area in Clonal Populus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar; Brown, K.; Green, R.; Ustin, S.; Hinckley, T.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of the most commonly employed biophysical parameters used to characterize vegetation canopies and scale leaf physiological processes to larger scales. For example, LAI is a critical parameter used in regional scale estimates of evapotranspiration, photosynthesis, primary productivity, and carbon cycling (Running et al., 1989; Dorman and Sellers, 1989; Potter et al., 1993). LAI is typically estimated using ratio-based techniques, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI: e.g. Tucker 1979; Asrar et al., 1989; Sellers 1985, 1987). The physical basis behind this relationship depends on the high spectral contrast between scattered near-infrared (NIR) and absorbed red radiation in canopies. As the number of leaves present in a canopy increases over a unit area, NIR reflectance increases, while red reflectance decreases, resulting in an increase in the ratio. Through time series and image compositing, NDVI provides an additional temporal measure of how these parameters change, providing a means to monitor fluxes and productivity (Tucker et al., 1983). NDVI, while highly successful for agriculture and grassland ecosystems has been found to be less successful in evergreen chaparral and forested ecosystems (Badhwar et al., 1986; Gamon et al., 1993; Hall et al., 1995). Typically, the relationship between NDVI and LAI becomes progressively more asymptotic at LAI values above three (Sellers, 1985), although linear relationships have been observed in conifers at LAis as high as 13 (Spanner et al., 1990). In this paper, we explore an alternative approach for estimating LAI for remotely sensed data from AVIRIS based on estimates of canopy liquid water. Our primary objective is to test the hypothesis that the depth of the liquid water bands expressed in canopy reflectance spectra at 960, 1200, 1400 and 1900 nm increases with increasing LAI in canopies. This study builds from work by Roberts et al. (1997), in which liquid water was shown

  14. Liquid temperature determination in a seasonal heat storage at joint operation with a solar collector and thermal energy consumer

    SciTech Connect

    Sivoraksha, V.E.; Zolotko, K.E.; Markov, V.L.; Petrov, B.E.; Lyagushyn, S.F.

    1998-07-01

    Usual solar thermal systems include a solar collector providing solar power conversion into the thermal form and a heat storage accumulating thermal energy, the great capacity of storage systems allows heating and hot water supply during the cold season. The joint operation of the solar collector and a seasonal heat storage has a cyclic mode day by day. The following operation scheme is analyzed in the paper: in night liquid (water) does not circulate; after sunrise the solar collector is warmed up and after its temperature reaching the temperature of water in the thermal energy storage TTS circulation is switched on and thermal power is transferred to the heat storage; after midday water temperature in the solar collector decreases and circulation stops when it becomes equal to the heat storage temperature. TTS increase results in the reduction of the duration of the joint operation of the solar collector and the energy storage and in the decrease of the heat power input. A functional connection between the daily input of power from the solar collector and an average temperature in the heat storage is of importance for technological calculations. The moments of the beginning and end of circulation and daily heat input from the solar collector are determined under the assumption of the sinusoidal law of solar radiation coming in the day-time. Then the heat balance equation is solved for the whole power system with taking into account power consumption and heat losses. The polynomial approximation for the dependence of heat input upon heat carrier temperature permits obtaining an analytical solution for the seasonal behavior of the liquid temperature in the thermal energy storage. The obtained dependence of TTS upon time allows calculation of this parameter with admissible accuracy at the stage of the project development proceeding from the performance of the solar collector and heat storage and from the averaged meteorological data.

  15. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  16. Be a Smart Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Elizabeth Ann

    This book was prepared especially for the students of the Marie Katzenbach School for the Deaf as a one-year course in consumer education. The purpose of the book is to provide students with necessary information and skills to make wise decisions as consumers in the areas of realizing consumer values and goals; evaluating advertising; managing…

  17. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  18. Minnesota Consumer Education Program. "Consumers of the 90s."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Council on Economic Education, Minneapolis.

    This teacher's guide on consumer literacy for grades 9-12 is designed for use in the following subject areas: business education, consumer law, economics, home economics, and social studies. Four units are included: (1) consumer decision making--consumer law and protection; (2) major shopping areas--transportation dilemma; (3) housing; and (4)…

  19. Large-area optoelastic manipulation of colloidal particles in liquid crystals using photoresponsive molecular surface monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Angel; Mireles, Hector C.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2011-01-01

    Noncontact optical trapping and manipulation of micrometer- and nanometer-sized particles are typically achieved by use of forces and torques exerted by tightly focused high-intensity laser beams. Although they were instrumental for many scientific breakthroughs, these approaches find few technological applications mainly because of the small-area manipulation capabilities, the need for using high laser powers, limited application to anisotropic fluids and low-refractive-index particles, as well as complexity of implementation. To overcome these limitations, recent research efforts have been directed toward extending the scope of noncontact optical control through the use of optically-guided electrokinetic forces, vortex laser beams, plasmonics, and optofluidics. Here we demonstrate manipulation of colloidal particles and self-assembled structures in nematic liquid crystals by means of single-molecule-thick, light-controlled surface monolayers. Using polarized light of intensity from 1,000 to 100,000 times smaller than that in conventional optical tweezers, we rotate, translate, localize, and assemble spherical and complex-shaped particles of various sizes and compositions. By controlling boundary conditions through the monolayer, we manipulate the liquid crystal director field and the landscape of ensuing elastic forces exerted on colloids by the host medium. This permits the centimeter-scale, massively parallel manipulation of particles and complex colloidal structures that can be dynamically controlled by changing illumination or assembled into stationary stable configurations dictated by the “memorized” optoelastic potential landscape due to the last illumination pattern. We characterize the strength of optically guided elastic forces and discuss the potential uses of this noncontact manipulation in fabrication of novel optically- and electrically-tunable composites from liquid crystals and colloids. PMID:22160673

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Black Tea-Derived Catechins and Theaflavins in Tissues of Tea Consuming Animals Using Ultra-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Souradipta; G., Taposh Kumar; Mantha, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of the major tea polyphenols, catechins and theaflavins as well as their gallated derivatives are yet to be precisely elucidated on a single identification platform for assessment of their relative bioefficacy in vivo. This is primarily due to the lack of suitable analytical tools for their simultaneous determination especially in an in vivo setting, which continues to constrain the evaluation of their relative health beneficiary potential and therefore prospective therapeutic application. Herein, we report a rapid and sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the simultaneous determination of the major catechins and theaflavins in black tea infusions as well as in different vital tissues and body fluids of tea-consuming guinea pigs. This method allowed efficient separation of all polyphenols within seven minutes of chromatographic run and had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of ~5 ng/ml. Using this method, almost all bioactive catechins and theaflavins could be simultaneously detected in the plasma of guinea pigs orally administered 5% black tea for 14 days. Our method could further detect the majority of these polyphenols in the lung and kidney as well as identify the major catechin metabolites in the urine of the tea-consuming animals. Overall, our study presents a novel tool for simultaneous detection and quantitation of both catechins and theaflavins in a single detection platform that could potentially enable precise elucidation of their relative bioavailability and bioefficacy as well as true health beneficiary potential in vivo. Such information would ultimately facilitate the accurate designing of therapeutic strategies utilizing high efficacy formulations of tea polyphenols for effective mitigation of oxidative damage and inflammation in humans as well as prevention of associated diseases. PMID:27695123

  1. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of hallucinogenic drugs in hair of psychedelic plants and mushrooms consumers.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Marchei, Emilia; García-Algar, Oscar; Gomez, Arelis; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-11-01

    A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin, psilocybin, salvinorin A in hair of consumers of psychedelic vegetal material such peyote or trichocereus cacti, psilocybe mushrooms, Salvia divinorum or psychedelic beverage ayahuasca. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of mescaline-d9 and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standards, hair samples were treated with 250μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C. After cooling, 100μl M3 extract were diluted with 400μl water and a volume of 10μl was injected into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse-phase column and a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 0.3% formic acid in acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium formate pH 3. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, using multiple reaction monitoring via positive electrospray ionization. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (0.03-0.05ng/mg depending on analyte under investigation) to 10ng/mg hair, with an intra- and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy always less than 15% and an analytical recovery between 79.6% and 97.4%, depending on the considered analyte. Using the validated method, mescaline was found in concentration range of 0.08-0.13ng/mg in hair of peyote smokers, 3.2ng salvinorin A per mg hair were determined in hair from a S. divinorum smoker, 5.6ng N,N-dimethyltryptamine per mg hair from an ayahuasca user and finally 0.8ng psilocybin per ng hair of a psilocybe consumer.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Black Tea-Derived Catechins and Theaflavins in Tissues of Tea Consuming Animals Using Ultra-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Souradipta; G, Taposh Kumar; Mantha, Sudarshan; Panda, Koustubh

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of the major tea polyphenols, catechins and theaflavins as well as their gallated derivatives are yet to be precisely elucidated on a single identification platform for assessment of their relative bioefficacy in vivo. This is primarily due to the lack of suitable analytical tools for their simultaneous determination especially in an in vivo setting, which continues to constrain the evaluation of their relative health beneficiary potential and therefore prospective therapeutic application. Herein, we report a rapid and sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the simultaneous determination of the major catechins and theaflavins in black tea infusions as well as in different vital tissues and body fluids of tea-consuming guinea pigs. This method allowed efficient separation of all polyphenols within seven minutes of chromatographic run and had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of ~5 ng/ml. Using this method, almost all bioactive catechins and theaflavins could be simultaneously detected in the plasma of guinea pigs orally administered 5% black tea for 14 days. Our method could further detect the majority of these polyphenols in the lung and kidney as well as identify the major catechin metabolites in the urine of the tea-consuming animals. Overall, our study presents a novel tool for simultaneous detection and quantitation of both catechins and theaflavins in a single detection platform that could potentially enable precise elucidation of their relative bioavailability and bioefficacy as well as true health beneficiary potential in vivo. Such information would ultimately facilitate the accurate designing of therapeutic strategies utilizing high efficacy formulations of tea polyphenols for effective mitigation of oxidative damage and inflammation in humans as well as prevention of associated diseases.

  3. Subjectively healthy elderly consuming a liquid nutrition supplement maintained body mass index and improved some nutritional parameters and perceived well-being.

    PubMed

    Krondl, M; Coleman, P H; Bradley, C L; Lau, D; Ryan, N

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate regular use of a liquid nutrition supplement by subjectively healthy elderly persons in terms of body mass index, nutrient intake, selected biochemical parameters, and perceived quality-of-life changes, and to identify advantages and limitations of use. A 16-week intervention study in which subjects were assigned randomly to either a supplemented group or a control group and compared in terms of intergroup and intragroup differences in weight, food intake, blood values, and quality-of-life indexes. Adherence to protocol was monitored by monthly visits with an interviewer and food intake records. Seventy-one independent living, older Canadian adults (mean age = 70 +/- 7 years) consuming on average less than 4 servings of fruit and vegetables daily and a supplement-free diet before the study. Subjects were without functional limitations and did not require therapeutic diets or medical treatments that affect nutritional status. Data were collected in home interviews. Blood for analysis was obtained from a subsample of 36 subjects. Inclusion of six 235-mL cans of liquid nutrition supplement weekly into the self-selected dietary patterns of the supplemented group. Results were analyzed by Student t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum test, analysis of variance, and multiple stepwise regression. Body mass index, energy intake, and consumption of fruit and vegetables did not change throughout the study. In the supplemented group, statistically significant increases occurred from baseline to termination of the study in these nutrients: protein, calcium, iron, magnesium, and folate. Serum albumin, folate, ferritin, hemoglobin, and zinc values were within the normal range for the supplemented and control groups. Scores for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Status scales increased for the supplemented group from baseline to termination for vitality and general health perception. Values for the General Well-Being Questionnaire improved for anxiety and

  4. Simultaneous determination of sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose in food consumed in Korea using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngsun; Do, Byungkyung; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2017-05-01

    Four artificial sweeteners, i.e., sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose, are permitted for use in Korea, and recent regulatory changes have expanded the number of food categories in which they may be used. Four artificial sweeteners were determined simultaneously in more than 900 food items from 30 food categories that are commercially available in Korean markets, including both domestic and imported products, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). A new procedure using 75% acetone to remove fat was applied for sample preparation. The levels detected in all samples were below the maximum permitted use levels established in Korea. Despite the increased number of categories, the only one in which sodium saccharin was newly found was takju, an alcoholic beverage. Sodium saccharin was not found in other beverages in the food analysis or in the food label survey, even though its use was reported in a previous study, suggesting that consumer preference outweighs regulatory decisions. When the analytical results were combined with food-consumption data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-14, the estimated daily intakes of all the sweeteners were considered safe.

  5. Characterizing the Impact of Enhanced Solubilization Reagents on Organic-Liquid Morphology and Organic-Liquid/Water Interfacial Area Using Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narter, M.; Brusseau, M.

    2010-12-01

    A primary goal of enhanced solubilization reagents is to increase contaminant mass transfer into the aqueous phase in order to achieve faster and more efficient mass removal from the subsurface. The rate of mass transfer depends on the degree of contact between the aqueous phase and the contaminant, and thus is dependent upon the interfacial area between the two phases. It is therefore important to understand the impact of enhanced solubilization reagents on organic-liquid distribution and morphology. This was accomplished using synchrotron X-ray microtomography to examine entrapped organic liquid in a natural porous medium. Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monooleate (tween 80), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and ethanol were used as the solubilization agents. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) was used as the entrapped organic immiscible liquid. Microtomography images were collected prior to and after successive floods with three concentrations of each reagent. The results were compared to those obtained from equivalent experiments conducted with water flooding.

  6. Design and validation of a wind tunnel system for odour sampling on liquid area sources.

    PubMed

    Capelli, L; Sironi, S; Del Rosso, R; Céntola, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the methods adopted for the design and the experimental validation of a wind tunnel, a sampling system suitable for the collection of gaseous samples on passive area sources, which allows to simulate wind action on the surface to be monitored. The first step of the work was the study of the air velocity profiles. The second step of the work consisted in the validation of the sampling system. For this purpose, the odour concentration of some air samples collected by means of the wind tunnel was measured by dynamic olfactometry. The results of the air velocity measurements show that the wind tunnel design features enabled the achievement of a uniform and homogeneous air flow through the hood. Moreover, the laboratory tests showed a very good correspondence between the odour concentration values measured at the wind tunnel outlet and the odour concentration values predicted by the application of a specific volatilization model, based on the Prandtl boundary layer theory. The agreement between experimental and theoretical trends demonstrate that the studied wind tunnel represents a suitable sampling system for the simulation of specific odour emission rates from liquid area sources without outward flow.

  7. Formulation and study some inverse problems in modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agoshkov, Valery

    2017-04-01

    There are different approaches for modeling boundary conditions describing hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries. Variational data assimilation may also be considered as one of such approaches. Development of computer equipment, together with an increase in the quantity and quality of data from the satellites and other monitoring tools proves that the development of this particular approach is perspective. The range of connected the problems is wide - different recording forms of boundary conditions, observational data assimilation procedures and used models of hydrodynamics are possible. In this work some inverse problems and corresponding variational data assimilation ones, connected with mathematical modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas (seas and oceans) with "liquid" ("open") boundaries, are formulated and studied. Note that the surface of water area (which can also be considered as a "liquid" boundary) is not included in the set of "liquid" boundaries, in this case "liquid" boundaries are borders between the areas "water-water". In the work, mathematical model of hydrothermodynamics in the water areas with "liquid" ("open") part of the boundary, a generalized statement of the problem and the splitting method for time approximation are formulated. Also the problem of variational data assimilation and iterative algorithm for solving inverse problems mentioned above are formulated. The work is based on [1]. The work was partly supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 14-11-00609, the general formulation of the inverse problems) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 16-01-00548, the formulation of the problem and its study). [1] V.I. Agoshkov, Methods for solving inverse problems and variational data assimilation problems of observations in the problems of the large-scale dynamics of the oceans and seas, Institute of Numerical Mathematics, RAS, Moscow, 2016 (in Russian).

  8. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-02-20

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150-249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy.

  9. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748

  10. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

  11. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  12. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  13. Experimental Performance of Area Ratio 200, 25 and 8 Nozzles on JP-4 Fuel and Liquid Oxygen Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, J. Calvin; Samanich, Nick E.; Barnett, Donald O.

    1960-01-01

    The performance of an area ratio 200 bell-shaped nozzle, an area ratio 25 bell-shaped nozzle, and an area ratio 8 conic nozzle on a JP-4 fuel and liquid-oxygen rocket engine has been determined. Tests were conducted using a nominal 4000-pound-thrust rocket in the Lewis 10- by 10-foot supersonic tunnel, which provided the altitude environment needed for fully expanded nozzle flow. The area ratio 200 nozzle had a vacuum thrust coefficient of 1.96, compared with 1.82 and 1.70 for the area ratio 25 and 8 nozzles, respectively. These values are approximately equal to those for theoretical frozen expansion. The measured value of vacuum specific impulse for the area ratio 200 nozzle was 317 seconds for a combustion-chamber characteristic velocity of 5200 feet per second. The vacuum-specific-impulse increase for the area-ratio increase from 8 to 200 was 46 seconds.

  14. Consumer Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESCUE, Litchfield, CT.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide classroom teachers with an easily adaptable consumer education program that is appropriate for use with students in grades K-adult. In the first part of the guide, various consumer educational concepts are listed by grade and then by subject area. Discussed next are the suggested scope and sequence of…

  15. Disequilibrium crystal-liquid processes at Hamblin-Cleopatra volcano, Lake Mead area, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel S.; Thompson, Keith G.; Smith, Eugene I.; McDowell, Fred W.

    2012-09-01

    The 60 km3 Hamblin-Cleopatra stratovolcano produced shoshonite, latite, and trachyte lavas throughout its Miocene eruptive history. Low-silica rhyolite and silica-undersaturated hawaiite erupted before and after lavas of the Hamblin-Cleopatra volcano. Shoshonite, latite, and trachyte resulted from contamination of felsic (trachyte to low-silica rhyolite) anatectic liquids with crystals from hawaiite. Most of the entrained crystals were not in equilibrium with liquid represented by groundmass, but were mingled with liquid shortly before eruption. Crystal aggregates are common inclusions in the lavas, and are sources of the contaminating minerals. The resulting bulk compositions of these porphyritic lavas form a continuum that resembles a liquid line of descent, as dictated by mass balance.

  16. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  17. Survey of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 in Instant Noodles and Bread Consumed in Thailand by Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pralatnet, Sasithorn; Poapolathep, Saranya; Giorgi, Mario; Imsilp, Kanjana; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2016-07-01

    One hundred wheat product samples (50 instant noodle samples and 50 bread samples) were collected from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in these products was analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The limit of quantification values of DON and AFB1 in the instant noodles and bread were 2 and 1 ng g(-1), respectively. The survey found that DON was quantifiable in 40% of collected samples, in 2% of noodles (0.089 μg g(-1)), and in 78% of breads (0.004 to 0.331 μg g(-1)). AFB1 was below the limit of quantification of the method in all of the tested samples. The results suggest that the risk of DON exposure via noodles and breads is very low in urban areas of Thailand. No risk can be attributable to AFB1 exposure in the same food matrices, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm these data.

  18. Large area projection liquid-crystal video display system with inherent grid pattern optically removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A relatively small and low-cost system is provided for projecting a large and bright television image onto a screen. A miniature liquid crystal array is driven by video circuitry to produce a pattern of transparencies in the array corresponding to a television image. Light is directed against the rear surface of the array to illuminate it, while a projection lens lies in front of the array to project the image of the array onto a large screen. Grid lines in the liquid crystal array are eliminated by a spacial filter which comprises a negative of the Fourier transform of the grid.

  19. Magadiite Templated High Surface Area Graphene-Type Carbons from Metal-Halide based Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Fulvio, Pasquale F; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Bauer, John C; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng; Arend, Nikolas

    2013-01-01

    Freestanding silicon films with a thickness ranging from 1 nm to several micrometers were prepared by Cat-CVD onto ionic liquid ([BMIM][BF4]) surfaces for the first time. The films, obtained without a solid substrate, can be facilely characterized by TEM and AFM to study the film formation and growth process.

  20. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Continuous Liquid Feed Czochralski Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiegl, G.

    1979-01-01

    A process for the continuous growth of crystals by the Czochralski method, suitable for producing single silicon crystals for use in solar cells was studied. Continuous growth is the growth of 100 Kg of single silicon crystals, 10 cm in diameter, from one container. A furnace with continuous liquid replenishment of the growth crucible, accomplished by a melt-down system and a liquid transfer mechanism, with associated automatic feedback controls was developed. Elements of the transfer system were further developed and tested during actual transfer runs. Considerable simplification of the heating element of the transfer tube was achieved. Accuracy and reliability of the temperature sensor, which is part of the power input control system for the transfer tube, was improved. Electrical and thermal effectiveness were increased while assembly of the transfer tube system was further simplified.

  1. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task. Continuous Liquid Feed Czochralski Growth. [for solar cell fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiegl, G.

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of equipment and processes to demonstrate continuous growth of crystals by the Czochralski method suitable for producing single silicon crystals for use in solar cells is presented. The growth of at least 150 kg of mono silicon crystal, 150 mm in diameter is continuous from one growth container. A furnace with continuous liquid replenishment of the growth crucible, accomplished by a meltdown system with a continuous solid silicon feed mechanism and a liquid transfer system, with associated automatic feedback controls is discussed. Due to the silicon monoxide build up in the furnace and its retarding effect on crystal growth the furnace conversion for operation in the low pressure range is described. Development of systems for continuous solid recharging of the meltdown chamber for various forms of poly silicon is described.

  2. Specific interface area in a thin layer system of two immiscible liquids with vapour generation at the contact interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Gazdaliev, Ilias M.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2017-06-01

    For well-stirred multiphase fluid systems the mean interface area per unit volume, or “specific interface area” SV, is a significant characteristic of the system state. In particular, it is important for the dynamics of systems of immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. We estimate the value of parameter SV as a function of the heat influx {\\dot{Q}}V to the system or the average system overheat <Θ> above the interfacial boiling point. The derived results can be reformulated for the case of an endothermic chemical reaction between two liquid reagents with the gaseous form of one of the reaction products. The final results are restricted to the case of thin layers, where the potential gravitational energy of bubbles leaving the contact interface is small compared to their surface tension energy.

  3. Consumer behavior: a quadrennium.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.

  4. Upgrade of the MEG liquid xenon calorimeter with VUV-light sensitive large area SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieki, K.

    2016-07-01

    The MEG experiment searches for the muon lepton flavor violating decay, μ+ →e+ γ. An upgrade of the experiment is ongoing, aiming at reaching a sensitivity of Br(μ+ →e+ γ) = 4 ×10-14, an order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of the current MEG. To achieve this goal, all of the detectors are being upgraded. In MEG, the energy, position and timing of the gamma ray were measured by a liquid Xe calorimeter, which consists of 900 l of liquid Xe and 846 2-in. round-shaped photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In the upgrade, the granularity at the gamma ray incident face will be improved by replacing 216 PMTs with 4092 SiPMs (MPPCs) with an active area of 12×12 mm2 each. The energy resolution for the gamma ray is expected to improve by a factor of 2, because the efficiency to collect scintillation light will become more uniform. The position resolution is also expected to improve by a factor of 2. In collaboration with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., we have successfully developed a high performance MPPC for our detector. It has excellent photon detection efficiency for the liquid xenon scintillation light in VUV range. The size of the chips is large so that it can cover large area with a manageable number of readout channels. The characteristics of the MPPCs are being tested in liquid Xe, and also at the room temperature. The results of the tests will be presented, together with the expected performance of the upgraded detector.

  5. California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences Program Plan, 1996. Including: Directory of Professional and Trade Organizations, Directory of Family and Consumer Sciences and Related Program Areas and Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    Intended as a resource for California community colleges and districts in assessing and improving family and consumer science (FCS) programs, this program plan provides information on current trends affecting the delivery of FCS programs and guidelines for assessing and developing new comprehensive or specialized programs. Following letters of…

  6. [Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence in Senegalese children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming a poor fluoridated drinking water].

    PubMed

    Faye, M; Diawara, C K; Ndiaye, K R; Yam, A A

    2008-01-01

    The role of fluoride in dental caries prevention when applied at optimal levels is well established. However, ingestion of excessive fluoride during tooth development can cause structural changes in tooth enamel named fluorosis. At Gandiaye a city situated in the Senegalese endemic fluorosis area, the main water supply provided by a unique drilling with highly fluoridated water has broken down in 1996. Since then, the drinking water comes from wells which have poor levels of fluorides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and tooth decays in children born and reared continuously at Gandiaye after the stoppage of the drills and who were drinking water well. Water samples were collected from two wells and analyzed using a spectrometer and a specific fluoride electrode. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis was evaluated according to Dean's method, and the caries experience was measured using the DMF teeth index in 150 children aged from 6 to 8 years. The fluoride levels in the water well were comprised between 0.03 ppm and 0.09 ppm according to the method used. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 39.33% with the predominance of the very low to low fluorosis forms. The tooth decay prevalence was 48.66% and the mean DMF tooth was 0.98. A significant relationship was found between the dental fluorosis and the low caries levels. A low to moderate dental fluorosis associated with a significant decrease of caries prevalence was found in children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming poorly fluorided water.

  7. Credit: Using Other People's Money. A Teacher Inservice Module for Secondary Level Consumer Education Units in Home Economics, Business Education, Social Studies and Related Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Judy

    This teacher-oriented learning module for secondary level consumer education teachers, the second in a series of three, was developed to provide information on credit and ideas for conveying this content to students. The module begins with a definition and general goals of consumer education, an overview and rationale, five performance objectives…

  8. Numerical simulation of liquid phase electro-epitaxial selective area growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khenner, M.; Braun, R. J.

    2005-05-01

    A computational model for semiconductor crystal growth on a partially masked substrate under simplified liquid phase electroepitaxy conditions is developed. The model assumes isothermal diffusional growth, which is enhanced by applied DC current through crystal-solution interface. A finite-difference, front-tracking method is used to numerically evolve the interface. Computed examples show strong influence of the electromigration on growth rates in vertical and lateral directions and the dependence of growth on electrical resistance of mask material, and on the wetting contact angle.

  9. Experimental Altitude Performance of JP-4 Fuel and Liquid-Oxygen Rocket Engine with an Area Ratio of 48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, Anthony; Hendrix, Charles D.; Huff, Vearl N.

    1959-01-01

    The performance for four altitudes (sea-level, 51,000, 65,000, and 70,000 ft) of a rocket engine having a nozzle area ratio of 48.39 and using JP-4 fuel and liquid oxygen as a propellant was evaluated experimentally by use of a 1000-pound-thrust engine operating at a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute. The altitude environment was obtained by a rocket-ejector system which utilized the rocket exhaust gases as the pumping fluid of the ejector. Also, an engine having a nozzle area ratio of 5.49 designed for sea level was tested at sea-level conditions. The following table lists values from faired experimental curves at an oxidant-fuel ratio of 2.3 for various approximate altitudes.

  10. Consumer Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The module deals mainly with some of the service problems experienced by consumers, examines the causes of some problems, and suggests some solutions, attempting to present the standpoint of the producer as well as the buyer and user. The module may be presented as a semester or part semester course. Organized by expected student understandings,…

  11. Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Amy D., Comp.

    The curriculum guide is intended as a source to help teachers plan consumer education classes in Nevada, from junior high school through the adult level. Developed for a semester's (18 weeks) separate course of study, using individual or group instruction, the guide may be expanded to meet the needs of a full year. Each unit can be taught as an…

  12. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    This guide to consumer health contains two parts, the first of which covers consumerism, cosmetics (aids for skin problems, dandruff, deodorants, dentifrices), food shopping, and clothes shopping. Part 2 discusses health quackery, including arthritis quackery, and mail-order "doctoring", food quackery, weight-reducing products, and how…

  13. Consumer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gindele, John; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Consumer education activities for secondary, adult, and special needs students are described in "What Does It Cost to Run a Home?" by John and Joseph Gindele; "Taking the Show on the Road" by Linda Lewis; "Special Home Ec Program" by Marty Nelson; and "Understanding Civil Law" by Michael Weis. (SK)

  14. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    This guide to consumer health contains two parts, the first of which covers consumerism, cosmetics (aids for skin problems, dandruff, deodorants, dentifrices), food shopping, and clothes shopping. Part 2 discusses health quackery, including arthritis quackery, and mail-order "doctoring", food quackery, weight-reducing products, and how…

  15. Cumulative area of peaks in a multidimensional high performance liquid chromatogram.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Paul G; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-09-20

    An algorithm was developed to recognize peaks in a multidimensional separation and calculate their cumulative peak area. To find the retention times of peaks in a one dimensional chromatogram, the Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter was used to smooth and find the first through third derivatives of the experimental profiles. Close examination of the shape of these curves informs on the number of peaks that are present and provides starting values for fitting theoretical profiles. Due to the nature of comprehensive multidimensional HPLC, adjacent cut fractions may contain compounds common to more than one cut fraction. The algorithm determines which components were common in adjacent cuts and subsequently calculates the area of a two-dimensional peak profile by interpolating the surface of the 2D peaks between adjacent peaks. This algorithm was tested by calculating the cumulative peak area of a series of 2D-HPLC separations of alkylbenzenes, phenol and caffeine with varied concentrations. A good relationship was found between the concentration and the cumulative peak area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors.

  17. CDX-U Operation with a Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiter

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; M. Boaz; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R.W. Conn; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Maingi; and M. Ulrickson

    2002-07-12

    The Current Drive experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has begun experiments with a fully toroidal liquid lithium limiter. CDX-U is a compact [R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B(subscript)toroidal = 2 kG, I(subscript)P = 100 kA, T(subscript)e(0) {approx} 100 eV, n(subscript)e(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}] short-pulse (<25 msec) spherical torus with extensive diagnostics. The limiter, which consists of a shallow circular stainless steel tray of radius 34 cm and width 10 cm, can be filled with lithium to a depth of a few millimeters, and forms the lower limiting surface for the discharge. Heating elements beneath the tray are used to liquefy the lithium prior to the experiment. Surface coatings are evident on part of the lithium. Despite the surface coatings, tokamak discharges operated in contact with the lithium-filled tray show evidence of reduced impurities and recycling. The reduction in recycling is largest when the lithium is liquefied by heating to 250 degrees Celsius.

  18. Consumer Education: Consumer Education I and Consumer Education II. Course Objectives, Content Analysis, Supporting Objectives and Content Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Karen, Comp.; Martin, Joan, Ed.

    Consumer education course objectives, content analysis, supporting objectives, and content generalizations are presented in this teacher's guide for Consumer Education 1 and 2 for the San Diego Unified School District. Course objectives are aimed at several areas of consumer and family studies: consumer education, cultural awareness, human…

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Carbon Coated Alumina as a High Surface Area Packing Material for High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Changyub; McCormick, Alon V.; Carr, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    The retention of polar compounds, the separation of structural isomers and thermal stability make carbonaceous materials very attractive stationary phases for Liquid Chromatography (LC). Carbon clad zirconia (C/ZrO2), one of the most interesting, exhibits unparalleled chemical and thermal stability, but its characteristically low surface area (20 – 30 m2/g) limits broader application as a second dimension separation in two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2DLC) where high retentivity and therefore high stationary phase surface area are required. In this work, we used a high surface area commercial HPLC alumina (153 m2/g) as a support material to develop a carbon phase by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at elevated temperature using hexane vapor as the carbon source. The loading of carbon was varied by changing the CVD time and temperature, and the carbon coated alumina (C/Al2O3) was characterized both physically and chromatographically. The resulting carbon phases behaved as a reversed phase similar to C/ZrO2. At all carbon loadings, C/Al2O3 closely matched the unique chromatographic selectivity of carbon phases, and as expected the retentivity was increased over C/ZrO2. Excess carbon – the amount equivalent to 5 monolayers - was required to fully cover the oxide support in C/Al2O3, but this was less excess than needed with C/ZrO2. Plate counts were 60,000 – 76,000/meter for 5 μm particles. Spectroscopic studies (XPS and FT-IR) were also conducted; they showed that the two materials were chemically very similar. PMID:20850126

  20. Consumer Education. Spanish Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    The teacher directed manual suggests lesson plans in the area of consumer education and is designed to provide appropriate basic educational materials for Spanish speaking, educationally disadvantaged students. Originally designed for use in adult basic education classes, each unit contains background material for the teacher, a detailed lesson…

  1. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  2. Observation of interaction-induced modulations of a quantum Hall liquid's area

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, I.; Choi, H. K.; Park, Jinhong; Rosenblatt, A.; Gefen, Yuval; Mahalu, D.; Umansky, V.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of electronic interferometers, based on edge-channel transport in the quantum Hall effect regime, have been stimulated by the search for evidence of abelian and non-abelian anyonic statistics of fractional charges. In particular, the electronic Fabry–Pérot interferometer has been found to be Coulomb dominated, thus masking coherent Aharonov–Bohm interference patterns: the flux trapped within the interferometer remains unchanged as the applied magnetic field is varied, barring unobservable modulations of the interference area. Here we report on conductance measurements indicative of the interferometer's area ‘breathing' with the variation of the magnetic field, associated with observable (a fraction of a flux quantum) variations of the trapped flux. This is the result of partial (controlled) screening of Coulomb interactions. Our results introduce a novel experimental tool for probing anyonic statistics. PMID:27396234

  3. Observation of interaction-induced modulations of a quantum Hall liquid's area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, I.; Choi, H. K.; Park, Jinhong; Rosenblatt, A.; Gefen, Yuval; Mahalu, D.; Umansky, V.

    2016-07-01

    Studies of electronic interferometers, based on edge-channel transport in the quantum Hall effect regime, have been stimulated by the search for evidence of abelian and non-abelian anyonic statistics of fractional charges. In particular, the electronic Fabry-Pérot interferometer has been found to be Coulomb dominated, thus masking coherent Aharonov-Bohm interference patterns: the flux trapped within the interferometer remains unchanged as the applied magnetic field is varied, barring unobservable modulations of the interference area. Here we report on conductance measurements indicative of the interferometer's area `breathing' with the variation of the magnetic field, associated with observable (a fraction of a flux quantum) variations of the trapped flux. This is the result of partial (controlled) screening of Coulomb interactions. Our results introduce a novel experimental tool for probing anyonic statistics.

  4. Pure wurtzite GaP nanowires grown on zincblende GaP substrates by selective area vapor liquid solid epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Halder, Nripendra Narayan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-09-08

    We report on the growth of single phase wurtzite (WZ) GaP nanowires (NWs) on GaP (111) B substrates by metal organic molecular beam epitaxy following the selective area vapor-liquid-solid (SA-VLS) approach. During the SA-VLS process, precursors are supplied directly to the NW sidewalls, and the short diffusion length of gallium (or its precursors) does not significantly limit axial growth. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal that no stacking faults are present along a 600 nm long NW. The lattice constants of the pure WZ GaP obtained from the TEM images agree with values determined previously by x-ray diffraction from non-pure NW ensembles. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. The Integration of Consumer Research and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Rader

    1989-01-01

    The author explains how consumer research can be incorporated as subject matter in consumer education. A sample research-based class project entails observation and data collection at area salad bars. Unsanitary practices by both restaurant personnel and customers were noted. Data were analyzed and class members wrote short papers summarizing…

  6. Functional requirements for the Liquid Waste Transfer and Distribution Station at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tulay, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    A new facility will be constructed near the Bethel Valley storage tanks to receive process waste liquids generated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory during closure activities at Waste Area Grouping 6. The facility will unload trucks and distribute the liquid waste to other treatment facilities. It will be able to handle eight 5000-gal transfers per 8-h shift. No waste categorized as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or liquid low-level is expected, but is such waste is encountered, it will cause transfer rate restrictions.

  7. Evaluation and Report on Consumer and Homemaking Program in Depressed Areas. Utterback Junior High School Program. Wakefield Junior High School Program. June and July, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noon, Madeline Estella; Hanson, Connie

    The document describes the consumer and home economics summer programs for grade 7 and grade 8 girls in two junior high schools. The programs provided opportunities to learn basic sewing and cooking skills, as well as personal improvement such as grooming, hygiene, posture, and modeling. A number of field trips to supplement the class instruction…

  8. Strontium concentrations in chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal area in Bayo Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Foxx, T.S.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal site Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003(c) in Bayo Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were collected and analyzed for strontium ({sup 90}Sr) and total uranium. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than a control plant -- one plant, in particular, contained 90, 500 pCi {sup 90}Sr g{sup {minus}1} ash in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained {sup 90}Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels; this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving {sup 90}Sr to the soil interspace area. Although some soil surface migration of {sup 90}Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of {sup 90}Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the Bayo Canyon/State Road 5 intersection was still within regional (background) concentrations.

  9. Contribution of power and desalination plants to the levels of volatile liquid hydrocarbons in the nearby coastal areas of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, T.; Khordagui, H.; Al-Hashash, H.

    1999-07-01

    The levels and distribution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons (VLHs) were determined in Kuwait`s coastal areas in the vicinity of outlets of power and desalination plants. About 230 samples were collected from the selected sampling locations over the 4 seasons. The VLHs in the samples were analyzed using Grob`s closed-loop stripping technique and GC with FID and confirmed by GC/MS. The results showed that significant levels of VLHs were present. The levels ranged from 307 to 6,500 ng/L and from 2,880 to 7,811 ng/L in Kuwait Bay and Sulaibekhat Bay, respectively. The annual average for VLHs near Al-Zor power plant ranged from 465 to 4,665 ng/L. Benzenoids formed the bulk (about 80%) of the VLHs present. Comparison with the levels in the outlets indicated that Doha West power plant contributed much higher levels of VLHs to the coastal areas than Al-Zor plant.

  10. Simultaneous determination of pregnenolone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone and allopregnanolone in rat brain areas by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rustichelli, Cecilia; Pinetti, Diego; Lucchi, Chiara; Ravazzini, Federica; Puia, Giulia

    2013-07-01

    Neurosteroids (NSs) are well known modulators of neuronal activity and by binding to different neuronal receptors are responsible for a broad spectrum of biological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, a sensitive liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination in rat brain areas of three NSs, i.e. pregnenolone sulphate (PS), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and allopregnanolone (AP). NSs were extracted with methanol-formic acid, purified by Hybrid-SPE cartridges and subjected to LC-ESI-MS/MS without any preliminary derivatization or deconjugation procedure. Quantitation was performed by multiple reaction monitoring mode with the internal standard method, using deuterium-labelled analogues of the analyzed NSs. The proposed method provided for the first time a direct quantitative determination of PS without hydrolysis; in particular, PS concentrations were found significantly (p<0.01) higher in hippocampus, the brain area associated primarily with memory, than in cortical tissue of control rats, suggesting the important role of this NS in the process of memory formation. The developed method could be successfully applied to quantify simultaneously PS, DHEA and AP levels in brain tissue in order to study their changes during various neurodegenerative diseases and to investigate the role of PS in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Shadowing and mask opening effects during selective-area vapor-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Kelrich, A; Calahorra, Y; Greenberg, Y; Gavrilov, A; Cohen, S; Ritter, D

    2013-11-29

    Indium phosphide nanowires were grown by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy using the selective-area vapor-liquid-solid method. We show experimentally and theoretically that the size of the annular opening around the nanowire has a major impact on nanowire growth rate. In addition, we observed a considerable reduction of the growth rate in dense two-dimensional arrays, in agreement with a calculation of the shadowing of the scattered precursors. Due to the impact of these effects on growth, they should be considered during selective-area vapor-liquid-solid nanowire epitaxy.

  12. Consumer Statistics: Who Gardens? Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ivan

    1995-01-01

    According to a recent study, gardening is America's most popular outdoor leisure-time activity. Examines this trend and identifies growth areas in the gardening market and consumer spending habits. (LZ)

  13. Comparison between solid phase microextraction (SPME) and hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) for determination of extractables from post-consumer recycled PET into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Éder Costa; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Cruz, Sandra Andrea; Nerin, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) methods for pre-concentration of contaminants (toluene, benzophenone, tetracosane and chloroform) in food simulants were investigated. For HFLPME 1-heptanol, 2-octanone and dibutyl-ether were studied as extracting solvents. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame ionization (GC-FID) and electron capture detectors (GC-ECD) were carried out. In addition, the methods were employed to evaluate the safety in use of a PET material after the recycling process (comprising washing, extrusion and solid state polymerization (SSP)) through extractability studies of the contaminants using 10% (v/v) ethanol in deionized water and 3% (w/v) acetic acid in deionized water as food simulants in different conditions: 10 days at 40°C and 2h at 70°C. The HFLPME preconcentration method provided increased sensitivity when compared to the SPME method and allowed to analyze concentration levels below 10 µg surrogate per kg food simulant. The results of the extractability studies showed considerable reductions after the extrusion and SSP processes and indicated the compliance with regulations for using recycled PET in contact with food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interfacial partitioning tracer test measurements of organic-liquid/water interfacial areas: application to soils and the influence of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Brusseau, Mark L; Narter, Matt; Janousek, Hilary

    2010-10-01

    Interfacial areas between an organic immiscible liquid and water were measured for two natural soils using the aqueous-phase interfacial partitioning tracer test method. The measured values were compared to measured values for silica sands compiled from the literature. The data were compared using the maximum specific interfacial area as a system index, which is useful for cases wherein fluid saturations differ. The maximum specific interfacial areas measured for the soils were significantly larger than the values obtained for the sands. The disparity between the values was attributed to the impact of surface roughness on solid surface area and hence film-associated interfacial area. A good correlation was observed between maximum specific interfacial area and specific solid surface area measured with the N(2)/BET method. The correlation may serve as a means by which to estimate maximum specific organic-liquid/water interfacial areas. Interfacial areas measured with the interfacial partitioning tracer method were compared to interfacial areas measured with high-resolution microtomography. Values measured with the former method were consistently larger than those measured with the latter, consistent with the general inability of the microtomography method to characterize roughness-associated surface area.

  15. High abundance and diversity of consumers associated with eutrophic areas in a semi-desert macrotidal coastal ecosystem in Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetto, Paulina; Daleo, Pedro; Escapa, Mauricio; Alberti, Juan; Isacch, Juan Pablo; Fanjul, Eugenia; Botto, Florencia; Piriz, Maria Luz; Ponce, Gabriela; Casas, Graciela; Iribarne, Oscar

    2010-07-01

    Here we evaluated the response to eutrophication in terms of abundance and diversity of flora and fauna in a semi-desert macrotidal coastal system (San Antonio bay, Patagonia, Argentina, 40° 48' S) where signs of eutrophication (high nutrient concentration, seaweed blooms, high growth rate of macroalgae) have been reported. We compared abundances and species composition of macroalgae, small infaunal and epifaunal invertebrates, and birds associated with tidal channels of the San Antonio Bay subject to contrasting anthropogenic influence. Macroalgae were more abundant and diverse in the channel closer to human activity where nutrient concentrations were also higher. In contrast to what others have observed in eutrophic sites, small invertebrates and birds were also more abundant and diverse in the channel with macroalgal blooms and high nutrient concentration. The large water flushing during the tidal cycle could prevent anoxic or hypoxic events, making the environment suitable for consumers. Thus, this could be a case in which eutrophication supports high densities of consumers by increasing food availability, rather than negatively affecting the survival of organisms.

  16. From ionic-liquid@metal-organic framework composites to heteroatom-decorated large-surface area carbons: superior CO2 and H2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Aijaz, Arshad; Akita, Tomoki; Yang, Hui; Xu, Qiang

    2014-06-21

    For the first time, high surface area uniformly nitrogen (N)- and boron-nitrogen (BN)-decorated nanoporous carbons have been successfully fabricated by impregnation of ionic liquids (ILs) within a metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-100(Al), followed by carbonization, which exhibit remarkable CO2 and H2 adsorption capacities.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Numerical Simulation of Vapor Bubble Growth and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu-Jia; Huai, Xiu-Lan; Li, Zhi-Gang

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubble growth in a thin liquid film, movement of the interface between two fluids and the surface heat transfer characteristics. The model takes into account the effects of phase change between the vapor and liquid, gravity, surface tension and viscosity. The details of the multiphase now and heat transfer are discussed for two cases: (1) when a water micro-droplet impacts a thin liquid film with a vapor bubble growing and (2) when the vapor bubble grows and merges with the vapor layer above the liquid film without the droplet impacting. The development trend of the interface between the vapor and liquid is coincident qualitatively with the available literature, mostly at the first stage. We also provide an important method to better understand the mechanism of nucleate spray cooling.

  18. Guidelines for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield.

    Consumer Education is not intended to direct consumer choices. It does provide an awareness of alternatives and opportunities and assists the consumer in making the choice which is best for his purposes in light of his values. It is not the purpose of consumer education to indoctrinate values. Consumer education should provide the experiences that…

  19. The two-phase flow IPTT method for measurement of nonwetting-wetting liquid interfacial areas at higher nonwetting saturations in natural porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hua; El Ouni, Asma; Lin, Dan; Wang, Bingguo; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2016-07-01

    Interfacial areas between nonwetting-wetting (NW-W) liquids in natural porous media were measured using a modified version of the interfacial partitioning tracer test (IPTT) method that employed simultaneous two-phase flow conditions, which allowed measurement at NW saturations higher than trapped residual saturation. Measurements were conducted over a range of saturations for a well-sorted quartz sand under three wetting scenarios of primary drainage (PD), secondary imbibition (SI), and secondary drainage (SD). Limited sets of experiments were also conducted for a model glass-bead medium and for a soil. The measured interfacial areas were compared to interfacial areas measured using the standard IPTT method for liquid-liquid systems, which employs residual NW saturations. In addition, the theoretical maximum interfacial areas estimated from the measured data are compared to specific solid surface areas measured with the N2/BET method and estimated based on geometrical calculations for smooth spheres. Interfacial areas increase linearly with decreasing W-phase (water) saturation over the range of saturations employed. The maximum interfacial areas determined for the glass beads, which have no surface roughness, are 32 ± 4 and 36 ± 5 cm-1 for PD and SI cycles, respectively. The values are similar to the geometric specific solid surface area (31 ± 2 cm-1) and the N2/BET solid surface area (28 ± 2 cm-1). The maximum interfacial areas are 274 ± 38, 235 ± 27, and 581 ± 160 cm-1 for the sand for PD, SI, and SD cycles, respectively, and ˜7625 cm-1 for the soil for PD and SI. The maximum interfacial areas for the sand and soil are significantly larger than the estimated smooth-sphere specific solid surface areas (107 ± 8 cm-1 and 152 ± 8 cm-1, respectively), but much smaller than the N2/BET solid surface area (1387 ± 92 cm-1 and 55224 cm-1, respectively). The NW-W interfacial areas measured with the two-phase flow method compare well to values measured using the

  20. Evaluating consumer preferences for healthy eating from Community Kitchens in low-income urban areas: A discrete choice experiment of Comedores Populares in Peru.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Trujillo, Antonio J; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Many low-income individuals from around the world rely on local food vendors for daily sustenance. These small vendors quickly provide convenient, low-priced, tasty foods, however, they may be low in nutritional value. These vendors serve as an opportunity to use established delivery channels to explore the introduction of healthier products, e.g. fresh salad and fruits, to low-income populations. We sought to understand preferences for items prepared in Comedores Populares (CP), government-supported food vendors serving low-income Peruvians, to determine whether it would be feasible to introduce healthier items, specifically fruits and vegetables. We used a best-worst discrete choice experiment (DCE) that allowed participants to select their favorite and least favorite option from a series of three hypothetical menus. The characteristics were derived from a series of formative qualitative interviews conducted previously in the CPs. We examined preferences for six characteristics: price, salad, soup, sides, meat and fruit. A total of 432 individuals, from two districts in Lima, Peru responded to a discrete choice experiment and demographic survey in 2012. For the DCE, price contributed the most to individual's utility relative to the other attributes, with salad and soup following closely. Sides (e.g. rice and beans) were the least important. The willingness to pay for a meal with a large main course and salad was 2.6 Nuevos Soles, roughly a 1 Nuevo Sol increase from the average menu price, or USD $0.32 dollars. The willingness to pay for a meal with fruit was 1.6 Nuevo Soles. Overall, the perceived quality of service and food served in the CPs is high. The willingness to pay indicates that healthier additions to meals are feasible. Understanding consumer preferences can help policy makers design healthier meals in an organization with the potential to scale up to reach a considerable number of low-income families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Conference CFPB Researchers Consumer Complaint Database Mortgage Database (HMDA) Consumer Credit Trends Credit Card Surveys & Agreements Financial Well-Being Survey Help advance financial well-being ...

  2. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

  3. Marriage Preparation: Factors Associated with Consumer Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Mary N.; Lyster, Rosanne Farnden

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated marriage preparation program to determine overall consumer satisfaction with the program, satisfaction with specific content areas, and extent to which consumer characteristics affected satisfaction ratings. Results of survey of 196 couples revealed high overall satisfaction levels, variability in satisfaction by content area, and…

  4. Daily urine iodine excretion while consuming a low-iodine diet in preparation for radioactive iodine therapy in a high iodine intake area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Soo Youn; Lee, Ji In; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Chung, Hye Soo; Tan, Alice Hyun Kyung; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2011-12-01

    Recommended durations of low-iodine diet (LID) in preparation for radioactive iodine therapy (RAIT) vary among major guidelines and are important for patients in areas where iodine intake is high. The aim of this study was to investigate daily changes in urine iodine excretion after starting a LID. The daily iodine/creatinine (I/Cr) ratios and simple iodine concentration (simple I) of morning spot urine from 19 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were measured for 2 weeks from the start of LID for RAIT preparation. We set the cut-off of I/Cr and simple I for poor LID preparation at >66·2 μg/gCr and >150 μg/l, respectively. The day when daily I/Cr or simple I became equal to or below the cut-off both by 95% CI and 90th percentile was defined as the end-point for the appropriate duration of LID for RAIT. On day 6 of LID, the I/Cr ratio decreased below the cut-off (≤66·2 μg/gCr) both by 95% CI (0-60·8) and by 90th percentile (51·9). Simple I reached the cut-off (≤150 μg/l) on day 3 by both parameters (95%CI: 2·3-90·5; 90th percentile: 126·5). The morning spot-urine I/Cr and simple I on day 7 and day 14 were significantly lower than on day 0 (P < 0·05). One week of a strict LID is enough to decrease the level of urine iodine excretion in preparation for RAIT even in high iodine intake areas. These results provide essential data for future outcome studies regarding LID preparation for RAIT. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Anticipatory Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Anticipatory consumer socialization is the learning of consumer roles and perceptions, which will be assumed at a later time, such as those that children acquire before they become adult consumers. A survey of 784 adolescents was conducted in a southern state to examine the anticipatory consumer socialization effects of such factors as the mass…

  6. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  7. Secondary Level Consumer Education. Consumer Education Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Charlotte; And Others

    Programs to help teachers take advantage of their secondary level students' consumer experiences, to add practical dimension to various subject areas, and to prepare students to function effectively and responsibly in today's complex marketplace are described in this publication, one of a series of six prepared by the Educational Division of…

  8. First results of a large-area cryogenic gaseous photomultiplier coupled to a dual-phase liquid xenon TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Erdal, E.; Israelashvili, I.; Rappaport, M. L.; Shchemelinin, S.; Vartsky, D.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Breskin, A.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss recent advances in the development of cryogenic gaseous photomultipliers (GPM), for possible use in dark matter and other rare-event searches using noble-liquid targets. We present results from a 10 cm diameter GPM coupled to a dual-phase liquid xenon (LXe) TPC, demonstrating—for the first time—the feasibility of recording both primary (``S1'') and secondary (``S2'') scintillation signals. The detector comprised a triple Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) structure with cesium iodide photocathode on the first element; it was shown to operate stably at 180 K with gains above 105, providing high single-photon detection efficiency even in the presence of large α particle-induced S2 signals comprising thousands of photoelectrons. S1 scintillation signals were recorded with a time resolution of 1.2 ns (RMS). The energy resolution (σ/E) for S2 electroluminescence of 5.5 MeV α particles was ~ 9%, which is comparable to that obtained in the XENON100 TPC with PMTs. The results are discussed within the context of potential GPM deployment in future multi-ton noble-liquid detectors.

  9. The role of consumers.

    PubMed

    Raats, Monique M

    2010-01-01

    It is particularly important that in areas of strategic public health significance, e.g. infant feeding, the processes used to extract robust scientific findings are timely, rigorous and transparent. Low rates of breastfeeding, poor weaning practices and variability within and between countries have been reported by many authors and resulted in a call for more consistency of recommendations across regions. The adoption of consumer behaviors in line with recommendations is of course not guaranteed. The consumers in this instance are both the infant and their mother or other carers. As infants completely depend on their carers to make food choices for them, it is important that they understand nutrition, and the importance of food choices for health of the baby and in future life. Parents obtain information from a variety of sources, the quality of which may vary, and is not necessarily evidence-based. Although carers decide what is offered or withheld, the infant may contribute to this decision by expressing dissatisfaction or refusing food. At the heart of all feeding choices lies this interplay between carer and child, influenced by the environment at household, community and societal level. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Consumer perceptions and concerns about food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, C M

    1999-01-01

    More consumers are concerned about microbiological hazards than any other area. Pesticide residues generate concern, especially among low income consumers with less formal education. Use of antibiotics and hormones in animal production is considered a serious hazard by fewer consumers. Consumer attitudes are influenced by media coverage. An increasing number of consumers expect food producers and retailers to assume a major role in providing safe food. A majority of consumers express interesting in purchasing irradiated food when specific benefits are described and the percentage increases when irradiation is more fully described. In actual market experiences, irradiated produce and poultry have been well received. Similarly, most consumers are positive toward biotechnology, with greatest support for environmental applications. The scientific community should use the media to reach the public with information identifying risks and protective strategies, including the use of new technology.

  11. Promoting the consumer voice in palliative care: exploring the possibility of using consumer impact statements.

    PubMed

    McConigley, Ruth; Shelby-James, Tania; Currow, David C

    2015-10-01

    It can be difficult to engage consumers in health decision making. This is particularly so in the area of palliative care, where consumers are very unwell and are unlikely to become involved in long-term programmes that promote consumer input. This paper explores the possibility of using 'Consumer Impact Statements' to facilitate the inclusion of the viewpoint of people at the end of life in the process of policy and decision making, particularly in the area of subsidy of pharmaceuticals used in palliative care. A broad search was conducted to find information about the use of impact statements in any health field. The health literature and grey literature were searched to explore the use of Consumer Impact Statements to date. No papers were found describing the use of Consumer Impact Statements in the palliative care setting. Health impact assessment is used in the areas of environmental health and community health. Impact statements are less commonly used in other areas of health, especially policy development, and no formal description of a Consumer Impact Statement was found. There is considerable scope for developing the use of Consumer Impact Statements to promote the consumer viewpoint in health decision making, because it will allow people who are otherwise unlikely to contribute to the public debate to have their views heard by decision makers. The use of Consumer Impact Statements is particularly suited to palliative care, given that consumers are often otherwise unable to contribute to the public debate. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... which included the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission was appointed by President Bill Clinton, ... role in making sure they have rights and responsibilities with regard to health improvement. The Consumer Bill ...

  13. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  14. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Susan

    1976-01-01

    With the emphasis on consumer involvement in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, changes in the counseling relationship must occur. This article discusses new interaction patterns for consumer and counselor. (Author)

  15. Determination of the specific area of liquid gas and the velocity of weak pressure waves in aqueous foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint-Cloud, Jean; Guerraud, Claude; Moreau, Michel; Manson, Numa

    1988-01-01

    The specific area of an aqueous foam contained in a tube is obtained by determining the fraction of the quantity of light emitted by a source and diffused by the specific area of the column of the foam. The velocity of the waves of weak pressure (which propagate in the air with the velocity of sound) is measured by noticing the moment when the wave penetrates the column and the moment when, having reached the opposite side, it determines a variation of the light diffused by the area of the latter.

  16. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…

  17. Law and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  18. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  19. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…

  20. Michigan Consumer Education Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Consumers Council, Lansing.

    The booklet identifies consumer skills which a committee of the Michigan Consumers Council believes are essential for students to master prior to graduation from high school. The purpose of the document is to give direction to school districts and teachers on which consumer education skills are needed. The booklet does not contain teaching methods…

  1. Self-consuming materials

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Grubelich, Mark C; Celina, Mathias C.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-05-23

    A self-consuming structure is disclosed that is formed from a self-consuming composition based on an epoxy or polyurethane having fuel and/or oxidizer molecularly dispersed and/or as particulates in the epoxy or polyurethane. The composition may be used to form self-consuming structural components.

  2. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  3. Specific interface area and self-stirring in a two-liquid system experiencing intense interfacial boiling below the bulk boiling temperatures of both components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldobin, Denis S.; Pimenova, Anastasiya V.

    2017-04-01

    We present an approach to theoretical assessment of the mean specific interface area (δ S/δ V) for a well-stirred system of two immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. The assessment is based on the balance of transformations of mechanical energy and the laws of the momentum and heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer. The theory yields relations between the specific interface area and the characteristics of the system state. In particular, this allows us to derive the equations of self-cooling dynamics of the system in the absence of external heat supply. The results provide possibility for constructing a self-contained mathematical description of the process of interfacial boiling. In this study, we assume the volume fractions of two components to be similar as well as the values of their kinematic viscosity and molecular heat diffusivity.

  4. Specific interface area and self-stirring in a two-liquid system experiencing intense interfacial boiling below the bulk boiling temperatures of both components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldobin, Denis S.; Pimenova, Anastasiya V.

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach to theoretical assessment of the mean specific interface area (δS/δV) for a well-stirred system of two immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. The assessment is based on the balance of transformations of mechanical energy and the laws of the momentum and heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer. The theory yields relations between the specific interface area and the characteristics of the system state. In particular, this allows us to derive the equations of self-cooling dynamics of the system in the absence of external heat supply. The results provide possibility for constructing a self-contained mathematical description of the process of interfacial boiling. In this study, we assume the volume fractions of two components to be similar as well as the values of their kinematic viscosity and molecular heat diffusivity.

  5. Rhode Island Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This consumer curriculum guide is divided into 10 component areas: basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison shopping, advertising, responsible budgeting, insurance, taxes, and conservation of energy and resources. Each component is accompanied by a goal statement that identifies key concepts…

  6. An Approach to Consumer Education for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to assist educators in establishing and organizing consumer education programs for Americans beyond the high school years. It is primarily a tool for tailoring basic consumer curricula to the special characteristics and needs of adult students. Suggestions are given for possible content areas, illustrations are given of…

  7. Rhode Island Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This consumer curriculum guide is divided into 10 component areas: basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison shopping, advertising, responsible budgeting, insurance, taxes, and conservation of energy and resources. Each component is accompanied by a goal statement that identifies key concepts…

  8. Wheeling & Dealing: A Guide for Handicapped Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Cheryl

    The resource guide is intended to aid disabled persons develop independence by presenting consumer information on all areas of the United States. A preface explains the need for consumer education by the disabled and the introduction describes the guide's purpose and format. Each subject is introduced with a 4-question self quiz and an explanation…

  9. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  10. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  11. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  12. Large-area graphene-based nanofiltration membranes by shear alignment of discotic nematic liquid crystals of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Abozar; Sheath, Phillip; Martin, Samuel T.; Shinde, Dhanraj B.; Shaibani, Mahdokht; Banerjee, Parama Chakraborty; Tkacz, Rachel; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Majumder, Mainak

    2016-03-01

    Graphene-based membranes demonstrating ultrafast water transport, precise molecular sieving of gas and solvated molecules shows great promise as novel separation platforms; however, scale-up of these membranes to large-areas remains an unresolved problem. Here we demonstrate that the discotic nematic phase of graphene oxide (GO) can be shear aligned to form highly ordered, continuous, thin films of multi-layered GO on a support membrane by an industrially adaptable method to produce large-area membranes (13 × 14 cm2) in <5 s. Pressure driven transport data demonstrate high retention (>90%) for charged and uncharged organic probe molecules with a hydrated radius above 5 Å as well as modest (30-40%) retention of monovalent and divalent salts. The highly ordered graphene sheets in the plane of the membrane make organized channels and enhance the permeability (71+/-5 l m-2 hr-1 bar-1 for 150+/-15 nm thick membranes).

  13. Determining the effect of solid and liquid vectors on the gaseous interfacial area and oxygen transfer rates in two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Guillermo; Rocha-Ríos, José; Hernández, Maria; Villaverde, Santiago; Revah, Sergio; Muñoz, Raúl; Thalasso, Frédéric

    2010-03-15

    The effect of liquid and solid transfer vectors (silicone oil and Desmopan, respectively) on the gaseous interfacial area (a(g)) was evaluated in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using fresh mineral salt medium and the cultivation broth of a toluene degradation culture (Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E cultures continuously cultivated with and without silicone oil at low toluene loading rates). Higher values of a(g) were recorded in the presence of both silicone oil and Desmopan compared to the values obtained in the absence of a vector, regardless of the aqueous medium tested (1.6 and 3 times higher, respectively, using fresh mineral salt medium). These improvements in a(g) were well correlated to the oxygen mass transfer enhancements supported by the vectors (1.3 and 2.5 for liquid and solid vectors, respectively, using fresh medium). In this context, oxygen transfer rates of 2.5 g O(2)L(-1)h(-1) and 1.3 g O(2)L(-1)h(-1) were recorded in the presence of Desmopan and silicone oil, respectively, which are in agreement with previously reported values in literature. These results suggest that mass transfer enhancements in TPPBs might correspond to an increase in a(g) rather than to the establishment of a high-performance gas/vector/water transfer pathway.

  14. Large-area graphene-based nanofiltration membranes by shear alignment of discotic nematic liquid crystals of graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Abozar; Sheath, Phillip; Martin, Samuel T.; Shinde, Dhanraj B.; Shaibani, Mahdokht; Banerjee, Parama Chakraborty; Tkacz, Rachel; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Majumder, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based membranes demonstrating ultrafast water transport, precise molecular sieving of gas and solvated molecules shows great promise as novel separation platforms; however, scale-up of these membranes to large-areas remains an unresolved problem. Here we demonstrate that the discotic nematic phase of graphene oxide (GO) can be shear aligned to form highly ordered, continuous, thin films of multi-layered GO on a support membrane by an industrially adaptable method to produce large-area membranes (13 × 14 cm2) in <5 s. Pressure driven transport data demonstrate high retention (>90%) for charged and uncharged organic probe molecules with a hydrated radius above 5 Å as well as modest (30–40%) retention of monovalent and divalent salts. The highly ordered graphene sheets in the plane of the membrane make organized channels and enhance the permeability (71±5 l m−2 hr−1 bar−1 for 150±15 nm thick membranes). PMID:26947916

  15. Consumer Education Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forkner, Jerry; Schatz, Gail

    This handbook contains model lessons on consumer education for use with intermediate, junior high, and high school students. The handbook was developed as a result of a grant which the Social Science Education Consortium received to conduct three consumer education workshops for approximately 100 Colorado teachers and school administrators. Many…

  16. Consumers + Questions = Confusion?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the rise of the “Google generation”, consumers can easily access information with a simple click. Unfortunately, this information is not always accurate or honest. This can pose many problems if consumer perception of your product is swayed by erroneous information. Being able to factually a...

  17. Consumer's Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook was designed to help persons avoid consumer problems, handle their own complaints if they occur, and guide them to additional sources of help if necessary. The book can also be helpful to complaint handlers when they attempt to direct consumers to the appropriate source of assistance. The guide contains three general sections. The…

  18. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  19. Information for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Credit Union National Association, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This revised pamphlet was developed by a national association of credit unions for the purpose of directing consumer complaints to appropriate agencies or heads of agencies for action. Suggestions to aid the consumer are included, such as trying to solve problems at the local level before complaining to top officials. Addresses and phone numbers…

  20. Consumer Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This second edition, annotated bibliography contains over 4,000 books, pamphlets, periodical articles, audiovisual aids, and teacher materials relating to consumer interests and consumer education. The recent proliferation of materials has made it impossible to produce an exhaustive listing. The authors instead have attempted to provide an…

  1. New Consumer Online Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinge, Brian; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Four conference presenters involved in consumer online services present information on new products both under development and in the process of implementation, commenting on technological, content, distribution, and consumer service issues. Products and companies discussed are eWorld (Apple Computer Europe); Olivetti Telemedia; CompuServe; and…

  2. Working for the Consumer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabecoff, Alice

    1976-01-01

    In response to the concerns of the consumer movement, the Department of Labor (DOL) is instituting new procedures and improving existing ones to draw its clients more fully into the policy-setting and decision-making process. The Department is also adding the viewpoint of the consumer to its plans. (WL)

  3. Consumer Economics Education Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Muriel; And Others

    These guidelines are designed to assist school districts in the development and implementation of new programs or in strengthening existing programs in consumer economics education at all levels. A variety of resources are included. The need for consumer economics education is discussed and a definition is provided. Goals are listed. Objectives,…

  4. Starting Smart Consumers Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, Myrtle

    1980-01-01

    The Saint Louis Urban Consumers' Education Project involves community resource persons in the preparation and teaching of consumerism in fifth-grade classrooms. A demonstration program supported by the Office of Consumer Education, the project has improved attendance, math and reading scores, and school-community relations. (SK)

  5. Consumer's Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways. It shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; it is a self-help manual for resolving individual consumer complaints; and it lists helpful sources of assistance. The handbook has two sections. Part…

  6. Kentucky Consumer & Homemaking Education. Management-Consumer Education. Curriculum Guide, Comprehensive Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Suzanne H.

    Intended for use by teachers on the junior high and high school levels, this curriculum guide, which is one in a series of guides for consumer and homemaking education in Kentucky, outlines three courses in the area of management-consumer education. The junior high unit acquaints the student with the concepts of decision making and assessing…

  7. Hypercrosslinked large surface area porous polymer monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of small molecules featuring zwitterionic functionalities attached to gold nanoparticles held in layered structure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-10-16

    A novel approach to porous polymer monoliths hypercrosslinked to obtain large surface areas and modified with zwitterionic functionalities through the attachment of gold nanoparticles in a layered architecture has been developed. The capillary columns were used for the separation of small molecules in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. First, a monolith with a very large surface area of 430 m(2)/g was prepared by hypercrosslinking from a generic poly(4-methylstyrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolith via a Friedel-Crafts reaction catalyzed with iron chloride. Free radical bromination then provided this hypercrosslinked monolith with 5.7 at % Br that further reacted with cystamine under microwave irradiation, resulting in a product containing 3.8 at % sulfur. Clipping the disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl) phosphine liberated the desired thiol groups that bind the first layer of gold nanoparticles. These immobilized nanoparticles were an intermediate ligand enabling the attachment of polyethyleneimine as a spacer followed by immobilization of the second layer of gold nanoparticles which were eventually functionalized with zwitterionic cysteine. This layered architecture, prepared using 10 nm nanoparticles, contains 17.2 wt % Au, more than twice than that found in the first layer alone. Chromatographic performance of these hydrophilic monolithic columns was demonstrated with the separation of mixtures of nucleosides and peptides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mode. A column efficiency of 51,000 plates/m was achieved for retained analyte cytosine.

  8. Consumer Education for Families with Limited Incomes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    Designed as an aid for those teaching disadvantaged adults, this guide for consumer education for families with limited incomes consists of an overview for preparing teachers to teach consumer education to disadvantaged adults as well as English and Spanish instructional materials in 10 areas of consumer education. In the overview of teaching…

  9. Education of the Consumer: A Review of Historical Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, L. Gayle; Nolf, Nancy Ellen

    This paper traces the development of consumer education and of the two closely related areas of the consumer movement and economic education. It is intended for use by graduate students in the three fields, teachers of consumer and economic education, material producers, education administrators, and other policymakers, including government,…

  10. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  11. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  12. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Influence of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability on Liquid Propellant Reorientation in a Low-Gravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhang-Guo; Liu, Qiu-Sheng; Liu, Rong; Hu, Wei; Deng, Xin-Yu

    2009-11-01

    A computational simulation is conducted to investigate the influence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability on liquid propellant reorientation flow dynamics for the tank of CZ-3A launch vehicle series fuel tanks in a low-gravity environment. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) method is used to simulate the free surface flow of gas-liquid. The process of the liquid propellant reorientation started from initially flat and curved interfaces are numerically studied. These two different initial conditions of the gas-liquid interface result in two modes of liquid flow. It is found that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can be reduced evidently at the initial gas-liquid interface with a high curve during the process of liquid reorientation in a low-gravity environment.

  13. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  14. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  15. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  16. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  17. [Consumer health-care information technology].

    PubMed

    Sunyaev, A

    2013-06-01

    Consumer health-care information technology is intended to improve patients' opportunities to gather information about their own health. Ideally, this will be achieved through an improved involvement of existing data bases and an improved communication of information to patients and to care providers, if desired by patients. Additionally, further interconnection of existing and new systems and pervasive system design may be used. All consumer health-care information technology services are optional and leave patients in control of their medical data at all times. This article reflects the current status of consumer health-care information technology research and suggests further research areas that should be addressed.

  18. Softgels: consumer perceptions and market impact relative to other oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Jones, W J; Francis, J J

    2000-01-01

    Softgels, which contain a liquid formulation of a drug, often provide clinical benefit over other solid oral dosage forms and may represent an attractive alternative to them. A consumer preference survey of softgels versus other solid forms investigated four areas: (1) identification of various dosage forms; (2) perception of therapeutic benefit (easiest to swallow, faster-acting, work longer); (3) impact of individual product characteristics on overall product selection; and (4) market impact in terms of premiums consumers would pay on the basis of dosage form. The 300 survey participants strongly preferred clear softgels over other dosage forms in virtually every area. Softgels were perceived as easy to swallow and fast-acting, with a duration of action second only to that of a two-piece capsule. Overall preference was driven by ease of swallowing, and softgels were rated first by the majority of respondents. Consumers would be interested in various products if these were available as softgels rather than in their current oral dosage forms and may be willing to pay a premium for softgel products. This survey confirms consumer preferences for particular dosage forms and for softgels over other solid forms. Pharmaceutical scientists and marketers should consider softgels as alternative dosage forms when developing new compounds or considering life-cycle management of existing products.

  19. Theory of acoustic propagation in a multi-phase stratified liquid flowing within an elastic-walled conduit of varying cross-sectional area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M. A.

    2000-08-01

    A theoretical solution is derived for the sound field in an arbitrarily layered viscous fluid moving with the non-negligible Mach number within a duct with elastic walls and varying cross-sectional area. The solution is applied to the interpretation of infrasonic and seismic signals preceding and accompanying volcanic eruptions, and can be used to study the acoustic response of various types of volcanic fluids, including magma-gas mixtures, ash-gas mixtures, and bubble-rich liquids. The acoustic field in a magma conduit can be propagated into the atmosphere through an open vent, and coupled into the ground through the displacement of the magma conduit walls. The theoretical solutions predict that fluids moving with the non-negligible Mach number will exhibit significant attenuation in the upstream direction, thereby reducing the quality factor of the conduit resonance. Thus, acoustic energy generated during an eruption may be preferentially radiated downstream, exacerbating the acoustic decoupling between the upper and lower parts of a stratified magma column. A source model for a repeated cavitation process is introduced as a possible excitation mechanism for tremor signals.

  20. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  1. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  2. Consumer Energy Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  3. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  4. Liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Apolzan, John W; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Iglay, Heidi B; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-07-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macronutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a "comfortable level of fullness." Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.

  5. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  6. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  7. Liquid-impregnated porous polypropylene surfaces for liquid repellency.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2017-02-01

    Polypropylene is a popular plastic material used in consumer packaging. It would be desirable if such plastic containers were liquid repellent and not so easily fouled by their contents. Superomniphobic surfaces typically work by keeping the fouling liquid in a metastable state, with trapped pockets of air between the substrate and the liquid. An alternative method with greater long-term stability utilizes liquid-impregnated surfaces, where the liquid being repelled slides over an immiscible liquid immobilized on a porous surface. Here, we report a method for creating porous polypropylene surfaces amenable to liquid-impregnation. A solvent-nonsolvent polypropylene solution was deposited at high temperature to achieve the necessary porosity. Such surfaces were further functionalized with fluorosilane and dipped in the lubricating liquid to result in a durable, liquid-repellent surface. It is believed these liquid-impregnated surfaces will be more industrially viable than previous examples due to the ease of fabrication and their durability. These surfaces were found to exhibit repellency towards water, oils, shampoo, and laundry detergent with extremely low tilt angles due to the smooth liquid-liquid contact between the lubricating liquid and the liquid being repelled.

  8. Facilitating consumer participation: an approach to finding the 'right' consumer.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.

  9. The relationship between consumer insight and provider-consumer agreement regarding consumer's quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Kravetz, Shlomo; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Meir, Taly

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between insight and mental health consumers and providers agreement regarding consumers rated quality of life (QoL). Seventy mental health consumers and their 23 care providers filled-out parallel questionnaires designed to measure consumer QoL. Consumers' insight was also assessed. For most QoL domains, agreement between consumers and providers was higher for persons with high insight. For the Psychological well being dimension a negative correlation was uncovered for persons with low insight indicating disagreement between consumer and provider. These findings are discussed within the context of the literature on insight and agreement between consumer and provider as related to the therapeutic alliance.

  10. Consumer Competency Means High School Diploma in Omaha School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlock, LaNeta L.

    1977-01-01

    Westside High School in Omaha, Nebraska, developed a series of minimum competencies in seven areas as standards for their graduates. One of the seven areas, consumerism, covers money management, credit, insurance, taxes, buying decisions, and consumer protection. (BM)

  11. Quality of care: giving consumers a say.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    In this era of market-driven health care, there's a lot of talk about quality, but low-income consumers and their advocates have not always been part of that discussion. In recent years, many have focused more attention on expanding coverage and promoting enrollment. Now that's shifting, and those who've long advocated consumer involvement as a way to improve health care for all are focusing more on the quality issue. They're discovering that what health plans mean by quality often overlooks just those quality-of-care areas that most concern consumers. This issue of States of Health looks at quality, and shows how an initiative funded by the Nathan B. Cummings Foundation could contribute to a health care system in which a fuller, more consumer-oriented definition of quality actually counts.

  12. Consumer Rights in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vago, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Attempts in both academia and the legal arena to delineate the concepts of academic fraud and malpractice and to develop the positive implications of the student as a responsible consumer may lead to the establishment of a more appropriate student-institution relationship for today's highly diversified and demanding college learners. (Author/EB)

  13. Educating Tomorrow's Culture Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1979-01-01

    In light of the fact that young Americans spend hundreds of dollars each year on the arts yet have little training in developing critical skills, this writer outlines what must be done in school arts programs to educate culture consumers. (Author/JM)

  14. Consumer Product Category Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  15. Savvy Consumers through Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sami

    2005-01-01

    Is Bounty the "quicker picker-upper?" Are expensive shampoos better? Are all antacids the same? The authors' fourth-grade students posed and answered these questions and many more during their recent "Consumer Product Testing" unit in which they designed experiments to assess these products' qualities and learned to question the advertising that…

  16. Consumer Education Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. State Agency for Title I.

    This manual contains information for consumer education, which is defined as the process of imparting to an individual the skills, concepts, knowledges, and insights required to help each person evolve his or her own values, evaluate alternative choices in the marketplace, manage personal resources effectively, and obtain the best buys for his or…

  17. Consumer-Referenced Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behuniak, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Argues for improving the quality of education assessment by focusing on the needs of the educational consumers. These needs require more carefully designed assessment systems, better professional development, improvements in students' testing experiences, expanded use of technology, and an open public dialogue about assessment means and ends. (PKP)

  18. Social Studies: Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Charles W.

    The course outlined in this curriculum guide, modified to fit the quinmester organization of schools, focuses on the role of the individual as a consumer. The aim of this elective, grades 7-9 course is to help the student develop sound decision-making habits for functioning more effectively in the marketplace and best fulfilling his role as a…

  19. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  20. Consumer Information. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    One of three projects reported by the Central Midwestern Regional Educational Laboratory included analysis of 178 existing consumer information products. Steps in the analytical scheme were preparation of an annotated bibliography and development of a plan for providing objective, comparative information on such products. These were found in the…

  1. Understanding the Child Consumer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  2. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  3. CONSUME: users guide.

    Treesearch

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  4. Producer/Consumer Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Meryl E.; Marsh, John

    1977-01-01

    The work ethic and the success of a system based increasingly upon consumerism has created an image of man in which the quality of life is measured in terms of quantity and ownership of goods; in ethics and attitude, our system of education is creating an ideally receptive population for the producer-consumer society. (JD)

  5. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thursz, Daniel

    A new approach to rehabilitation of the disabled and disadvantaged is necessary, but the problem of how to involve consumers and how to organize groups for community action is a big one. Moreover, citizen participation cannot be a substitute for basic improvement in the quality of service. Service agencies need to be decentralized and staff…

  6. Savvy Consumers through Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sami

    2005-01-01

    Is Bounty the "quicker picker-upper?" Are expensive shampoos better? Are all antacids the same? The authors' fourth-grade students posed and answered these questions and many more during their recent "Consumer Product Testing" unit in which they designed experiments to assess these products' qualities and learned to question the advertising that…

  7. Understanding the Child Consumer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  8. Youth Explore Consumer World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Charla B.

    1974-01-01

    A series of five short-term, special interest Four-H projects on the consumer world (banking, money management, shopping, supermarket, and credit) are being used in cooperative efforts with schools throughout Florida. The materials can be used for various courses in grades seven through twelve and also are applicable to disadvantaged youth. (EA)

  9. Consumer Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonkers Public Library, NY.

    This annotated bibliography is a listing of more than 2,000 books, booklets, pamphlets, films, filmstrips, and other materials in the field of consumer interests and education. It is intended for use by educators, librarians, executives and other personnel in business and industry, researchers, writers, and housewives. Major categories are: (1)…

  10. Science and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author defines his concept of science and the practice of nutrition. Discusses the problems of nutritional educators and those of the consumer. Describes how the scientific method should provide a sound basis for nutritional education and discusses its appropriateness in evaluating diet and disease theories. (SMB)

  11. Apollo experience report: Consumables budgeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The procedures and techniques used in predicting the consumables usage for the Apollo mission are discussed. Because of the many interfaces and influences on the consumables system, it is impractical to document all facets of consumables budgeting; therefore, information in this report is limited to the major contributions to the formulation of a consumables budget.

  12. Teacher's Kit for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide on Consumer Education, designed for high school seniors, was developed to help students become aware of and knowledgeable about their role as consumers in today's society. The following key concepts for study are emphasized: general principles of consumer purchasing; consumer credit; general principles of fraud, quackery,…

  13. 76 FR 18349 - Consumer Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... CFR Part 213 RIN No. 7100-AD60 Consumer Leasing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve... Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA) by increasing the threshold for exempt consumer leases from $25,000 to $50,000. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act provides that, on...

  14. 75 FR 78632 - Consumer Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 213 RIN 7100-AD60 Consumer Leasing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the..., 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA) by increasing the threshold for exempt consumer leases from $25,000 to $50,000...

  15. The consumer movement in India.

    PubMed

    Girimaji, P

    1993-10-01

    It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and support by voluntary health groups.

  16. Consumer representation for transportation energy conservation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Programs for conserving energy in the transportation sector have been designed and, in some cases, implemented by various levels of government and in the private sector. Important considerations in the ultimate success of such programs are obtaining consumer support for the programs themselves and encouraging consumers to make energy efficient choices. Since these considerations are similar to factors leading to successful introduction of consumer products and services, consumer research approaches in the two areas should be similar. This report develops and tests various approaches for obtaining consumer input into transportation energy conservation programs.

  17. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances of "Prohibition on Certain Hazardous Substances in Consumer Products" instruction using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiaozhen; Du, Zhenxia; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jinhua; Yu, Wenlian

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances by accelerated solvent extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established. Samples, heated for 5 min, were extracted by toluene/methanol (10:1, v/v) under the pressure 1500 psi at 100°C, and were extracted 3 static cycles with 20 min per cycle. And then 15 mL extractant solvent was used to wash the samples, and at last the sample was purged by nitrogen for 100 s. The partial extractant (10 mL) was concentrated by nitrogen and re-dissolved with 1 mL methanol/water (1:1, v/v). The three compounds were separated by BEH C18 column effectively in 3 min and detected by electrospray ionization mode mass spectrometry. The linear ranges for bisphenol A, perfluorooctanoic acid, and tetrabromobisphenol A were 1-100, 10-1000 ng/mL, and 0.1-10 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.996. The LOD and limit of quantitation for three compounds were 0.1, 10, 1 ng/mL, and 0.5, 50, 5 ng/mL, respectively. And the recoveries were 84-92, 76-82, and 72-74%, respectively, with RSD < 5%. The method was successfully used in determining the real samples. The method and the result were confirmed by liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry.

  18. Consumer drop-in centers: operations, services, and consumer involvement.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Carol T; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Holter, Mark C

    2002-11-01

    Interest in involvement of consumers in mental health and psychiatric rehabilitation services delivery has expanded in recent years, encompassing self-help approaches, consumers employed as providers in formal agencies, and consumers operating their own services. This study reports results from in-depth phone surveys conducted with 32 consumer drop-in centers in Michigan. Results indicate that centers operate in many ways like other human services businesses, albeit with much smaller budgets. Funding levels, salaries, and services showed great heterogeneity among the centers and in comparison with reports in the literature. Centers autonomously run by consumers and centers with consumer involvement (operated by a non-consumer agency) were found to differ significantly on several variables, including consumer control, funding and service levels, and challenges. Implications for the growth and increased use of consumer drop-in centers are discussed.

  19. What do consumer surveys and experiments reveal and conceal about consumer preferences for genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Colson, Gregory; Rousu, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Assessing consumer perceptions and willingness to pay for genetically modified (GM) foods has been one of the most active areas of empirical research in agricultural economics. Researchers over the past 15 years have delivered well over 100 estimates of consumers' willingness to pay for GM foods using surveys and experimental methods. In this review, we explore a number of unresolved issues related to three questions that are critical when considering the sum of the individual contributions that constitute the evidence on consumer preferences for GM foods.

  20. Consumer's Choice. A Manual of Supplemental Consumer Education Teaching Strategies. Developed for Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny Intermediate Unit, Pittsburgh, PA.

    Designed for grades K-4, this manual contains suggested teaching strategies for infusing consumer education into the academic areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science/health, and social studies. Each of the twenty to thirty learning activities provided for each of the academic areas is based on competencies related to one of four…

  1. Consumer Education in the Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Stephen W.

    In this monograph, the implementation of consumer education topics into the science curriculum of secondary schools is advocated. Not only is the need for such activities explained, but several suggested instructional topics are provided. One area of recommended study is that of product comparison. A model outline of operation is provided, along…

  2. Consumables data base workbook: Formulation of consumables management models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamora, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Activity consumables data specifications and data applications are presented. The data are structured in a series of "Consumable Data Worksheets" for each activity that includes a profile of its operations and the rate of each consumable required to support the given activity. The data worksheets provide for the uniform specification of consumables data, allows for the ready identification of the consumables affected by a given activity, and facilitates the updating process. An activity is defined and the data that must be included in the data worksheets are specified. An example of its use and application is given, i.e. consumables data requirements for the performance of the EVA. The consumables data for the activities currently identified for the shuttle spacecraft are included. The consumables data sources are identified and information to facilitate the maintenance process is detailed.

  3. How consumers view hospital advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by hospitals; (b) which media consumers feel are appropriate for hospital advertising; and (c) whether consumers are seeing hospital advertisements, and if so, through which media. It was found that consumers indeed have a favorable attitude toward hospitals that advertise. It was also found that consumers feel that most media are appropriate for hospital advertising. Finally, it was found that most consumers have seen hospitals advertise their services, especially on television and radio and in the newspaper.

  4. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  5. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  6. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    PubMed

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  7. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  8. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  9. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  10. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau)....

  11. Product Manuals: A Consumer Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Linda S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of insights from consumer focus groups on product manual usage reveals consumer perceptions and preferences regarding manual and safety message format. Results can be used to improve manual design and content. (JOW)

  12. The Mystery of Consumer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carol P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares processes used to investigate issues in consumer chemistry to the solving of a puzzle in a mystery story. Suggests using similar methods to teach problem solving in consumer chemistry classes. Describes how such a process might progress. (CW)

  13. Consumer discourse in assisted living.

    PubMed

    Carder, Paula C; Hernandez, Mauro

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the cultural construction of the assisted living consumer. Based on theories of consumer studies, it focuses on organizational strategies employed by assisted living practitioners to promote consumer choice and independence while mediating potential risks. Data include field notes, participation in manager-training programs, and interviews with residents and family members during a 22-month study of three Oregon facilities. Consumer discourse is evident in four primary sources, including the state rules, manager-training programs, organizational practices, and an institutional belief in specific consumer demands like independence and choice. Personal care is a complex consumer "good" further complicated by residents with cognitive impairments, family demands, payment sources, and the very novelty of the assisted living philosophy. We conclude with a discussion of benefits and pitfalls based on the use of consumer discourse that represents older persons as active consumers, rather than recipients, of long-term care services.

  14. Sustained hunger suppression from stable liquid food foams.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Sergey M; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Kovacs, Eva M R; Arnaudov, Luben; de Groot, Peter; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Wiseman, Sheila A; Mela, David J; Peters, Harry P F

    2014-10-01

    Simple aeration of food matrices with gas has previously been shown to generate immediate suppression of appetite, though duration of effects has not been shown. This research tested whether liquids aerated with nitrous oxide (N2 O) to achieve high in-body stability could produce enhanced and sustained effects on eating motivations. In two randomized cross-over studies, appetite ratings were collected for 240 min. In Study 1, 24 volunteers consumed a full portion liquid (325 ml, 190 kcal) or aerated (1,000 ml, 190 kcal) drink at 0 min, or half portions of liquid (162 ml, 95 kcal) or aerated (500 ml, 95 kcal) drink at 0 and 120 min. In Study 2, assessing the effect of N2 O itself, 23 volunteers consumed water saturated with N2 O or with CO2 10 min after a mini-drink (180 kcal). Appetite was quantified by area-under-the curve (AUC) and time-to-return-to-baseline (TTRTB). Full- and half-size aerated drinks decreased hunger AUC over 4 h by 26 and 50% (P < 0.0001) versus the respective liquid versions. Effects were also sustained significantly longer (TTRTB from 203 to 335 and from 173 to 286 min, respectively). In Study 2, N2 O and CO2 had similar effects on appetite ratings. Aeration of foods using appropriate microstructural design has a powerful effect on eating motivations. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  15. Liquid sample processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Campen, C. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Processor is automatic and includes series of extraction tubes packed with fibrous absorbent material of large surface area. When introduced into these tubes, liquid test samples become completely absorbed by packing material as thin film.

  16. One School's Consumer Survival Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charlotte

    1978-01-01

    The Chairman of the Business Education Department at Oak Park-River Forest High School in Illinois and head of the school's consumer education program speaks of the development of consumer awareness among his students over the past seven years and suggests some possible directions for consumer education in the future. (Editor/RK)

  17. Consumer's Resource Handbook. 1992 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook for consumers begins with information on its use, content, and other sources of help. The handbook is then divided into two sections. Part I, How to Be a Smart Consumer, lists tips on getting the most for your money, handling your own complaint, and writing a complaint letter. It provides information on the following consumer issues:…

  18. Approaches to Consumer Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains how students in high school social studies should benefit from participation in an economic education program. Presents objectives relating to the consumer in society, consumer rights and responsibilities, and consumer law. A directory of materials and resources concludes the article. (Author/DB)

  19. A Guide to Consumer Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Helen E.; And Others

    Designed for individuals and groups seeking to organize consumer activities, this guide focuses on how to build consumer competence, how to organize others, where to get training, and how to influence policy makers. Chapter I discusses how to educate oneself for consumerism by using product-rating periodicals, libraries, public consumer agencies,…

  20. Consumer Perceptions of Service Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Donald W.; Garman, E. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    A study tried to distinguish between consumers (n=440) who bought and did not buy an extended service contract, to find out why a consumer would buy an extended service contract, and to profile those most likely to purchase one. Results showed that most consumers felt such contracts were worthwhile and offered peace of mind. (JOW)

  1. Making Space for Consuming Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Donna; Manidis, Marie; Scheeres, Hermine

    2016-01-01

    This empirically driven paper is about workplace learning with specific focus on the "work" of "consuming practices." By "consuming" we refer to the eating, and the drinking, and (at times) to the smoking that workers, in most organisations, do on a daily basis. Indeed, it is the quotidian nature of consuming, coupled…

  2. Guide to Federal Consumer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This publication lists the consumer services of every Federal agency or bureau that is either directly of indirectly concerned with consumer issues. Services covered include agricultural research service, consumer and marketing service, extension service, food and nutrition service, rural development and conservation, farm credit, environmental…

  3. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Consumer Leasing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule, staff... requirements of Regulation M, which implements the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the CLA by increasing...

  4. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  5. Expert Panels, Consumers, and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the attributes, properties, and consumer acceptance of antiperspirant products through responses of 400 consumers (consumer data), expert panel data, and analytical data about the products. Results show how the Rasch model can provide the tool necessary to combine data from several sources. (SLD)

  6. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  7. How Resource Phenology Affects Consumer Population Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Sharon; Cantrell, R Stephen; Cosner, Chris; Fagan, William F

    2016-02-01

    Climate change drives uneven phenology shifts across taxa, and this can result in changes to the phenological match between interacting species. Shifts in the relative phenology of partner species are well documented, but few studies have addressed the effects of such changes on population dynamics. To explore this, we develop a phenologically explicit model describing consumer-resource interactions. Focusing on scenarios for univoltine insects, we show how changes in resource phenology can be reinterpreted as transformations in the year-to-year recursion relationships defining consumer population dynamics. This perspective provides a straightforward path for interpreting the long-term population consequences of phenology change. Specifically, by relating the outcome of phenological shifts to species traits governing recursion relationships (e.g., consumer fecundity or competitive scenario), we demonstrate how changes in relative phenology can force systems into different dynamical regimes, with major implications for resource management, conservation, and other areas of applied dynamics.

  8. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N

    2013-01-01

    Consumers make many decisions in everyday life involving finances, food, and health. It is known from behavioral economics research that people are often driven by short-term gratification, that is, people tend to choose the immediate, albeit smaller reward. But choosing the delayed reward, that is, delaying the gratification, can actually be beneficial. How can we motivate consumers to resist the "now" and invest in their future, leading to sustainable or healthy habits? We review recent developments from behavioral and neuroimaging studies that are relevant for understanding consumer decisions. Further, we present results from our field research that examined whether we can increase the perceived value of a (delayed) environmental benefit using tailored communication, that is, change the way it is framed. More specifically, we investigated whether we can boost the value of an abstract, long-term "green" claim of a product by expressing it as a concrete, short-term benefit. This is a new application area for behavioral economics.

  9. Family and Consumer Sciences. Middle-Level Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Diane H.; And Others

    This document is a curriculum guide for middle school and junior high school family and consumer sciences courses in North Dakota. The guide is organized in 16 sections. The first section provides a rationale for a middle-level family and consumer sciences curriculum and identifies nine major areas of study to be covered by the curriculum. It is…

  10. The Assertive Consumer: Credit and Warranties. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara; Veraska, Wanda

    This instructor's guide contains materials to be used in a workshop designed to train members of action organizations (consumer, community, educational) in techniques such as role playing, modeling, and developing strong communications skills for assertively securing legal consumer rights in the areas of credits and warranties, and to prepare the…

  11. The Loose Cannon Syndrome: University as Business & Students as Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Considine, Damien

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that, if Australian universities are seen as businesses and students as consumers of their services, universities must address the legal consequences of the business/consumer relationship. Two areas of law affecting possible liability in higher education--misleading/deceptive conduct and the requirements of natural justice and…

  12. The Assertive Consumer: Credit and Warranties. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara; And Others

    This student manual contains materials to be used in a workshop designed to train members of action organizations (consumer, community, educational) in techniques such as role playing, modeling, and developing strong communication skills for assertively securing legal consumer rights in the areas of credits and warranties and to prepare the…

  13. Consumer Education Curriculum Modules: A Spiral-Process Approach. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia D.; And Others

    The introductory guide and the four related consumer education curriculum modules were developed by North Dakota State University in response to the U. S. Office of Education's request for materials to help learners function in their roles as consumers. The modules are adaptable to various content areas and for use with learners of varying…

  14. The Assertive Consumer: Credit and Warranties. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara; And Others

    This student manual contains materials to be used in a workshop designed to train members of action organizations (consumer, community, educational) in techniques such as role playing, modeling, and developing strong communication skills for assertively securing legal consumer rights in the areas of credits and warranties and to prepare the…

  15. Do "savanna" chimpanzees consume C4 resources?

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, M; Loudon, J E; Codron, D; Howells, M E; Pruetz, J D; Codron, J; de Ruiter, D J; Lee-Thorp, J A

    2006-08-01

    Several stable carbon isotopic studies have shown that South African australopiths consumed significant quantities of C(4) resources (tropical grasses, sedges, or animals that eat those foods), but relatively little is known about the consumption of such resources by chimpanzees. Here, we present stable carbon isotopic data for 36 chimpanzee hair samples from Fongoli, one of the driest and most open areas inhabited by chimpanzees. These data suggest that the Fongoli chimpanzees consume little in the way of C(4) vegetation or animals that eat such vegetation, even though these resources are locally abundant and preferred fruits are more widely scattered than at most chimpanzee study sites. The homogeneity of the Fongoli results is especially striking and recalls the narrow isotopic distribution of stenotopic savanna mammals. This is in stark contrast to what has been observed for australopiths, which had highly variable diets and consumed about 35% C(4) vegetation on average. Carbon isotope data for modern and fossil Papio depict a dietarily variable genus with a tendency to consume C(4) vegetation. This trophic flexibility, or willingness to consume C(4) savanna resources, may make Papio a more profitable ecological analog for australopiths than chimpanzees.

  16. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  17. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  18. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  19. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  20. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  1. Development of a System for Survey of Radon Concentration of the Dayton Area Using a Liquid Scintillation Counter and Analysis of the Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    conversion, a calibration factor, an elution time constant, and adsorption time constant were calculated . The procedure for handling the vials...the vials were done on Packard Tri- Carb 2200CA Liquid Scintillation Analyzer. To calculate radon concentration in pCi/l from net counts per minute...started to set up a system for a large scale survey of radon concentration. He used one of Sharp’s protocol for calculating the radon concentration. Using

  2. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures.

    PubMed

    Tulve, Nicolle S; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Vance, Marina E; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-05-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children's potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children's potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs.

  3. Bringing the DERP to consumers: 'Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs'.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.

  4. Are Ionic Liquids Chemically Stable?

    PubMed

    Wang, Binshen; Qin, Li; Mu, Tiancheng; Xue, Zhimin; Gao, Guohua

    2017-02-27

    Ionic liquids have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years, illustrated by their applications in a variety of areas involved with chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. Usually, the stabilities of ionic liquids are highlighted as one of their outstanding advantages. However, are ionic liquids really stable in all cases? This review covers the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids. It focuses on the reactivity of the most popular imidazolium ionic liquids at structural positions, including C2 position, N1 and N3 positions, and C4 and C5 positions, and decomposition on the imidazolium ring. Additionally, we discuss decomposition of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids and hydrolysis and nucleophilic reactions of anions of ionic liquids. The review aims to arouse caution on potential decomposition of ionic liquids and provides a guide for better utilization of ionic liquids.

  5. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  6. Models of consumer value cocreation in health care.

    PubMed

    Nambisan, Priya; Nambisan, Satish

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, consumer participation in health care has gained critical importance as health care organizations (HCOs) seek varied avenues to enhance the quality and the value of their offerings. Many large HCOs have established online health communities where health care consumers (patients) can interact with one another to share knowledge and offer emotional support in disease management and care. Importantly, the focus of consumer participation in health care has moved beyond such personal health care management as the potential for consumers to participate in innovation and value creation in varied areas of the health care industry becomes increasingly evident. Realizing such potential, however, will require HCOs to develop a better understanding of the varied types of consumer value cocreation that are enabled by new information and communication technologies such as online health communities and Web 2.0 (social media) technologies. This article seeks to contribute toward such an understanding by offering a concise and coherent theoretical framework to analyze consumer value cocreation in health care. We identify four alternate models of consumer value cocreation-the partnership model, the open-source model, the support-group model, and the diffusion model-and discuss their implications for HCOs. We develop our theoretical framework by drawing on theories and concepts in knowledge creation, innovation management, and online communities. A set of propositions are developed by combining theoretical insights from these areas with real-world examples of consumer value cocreation in health care. The theoretical framework offered here informs on the potential impact of the different models of consumer value cocreation on important organizational variables such as innovation cost and time, service quality, and consumer perceptions of HCO. An understanding of the four models of consumer value cocreation can help HCOs adopt appropriate strategies and practices to

  7. Youth Related Family and Consumer Science References for Consumer and Family Living Agents and Teachers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 307 references to magazine articles that relate to the subject areas covered by family and consumer sciences courses. The references are grouped into five categories: (1) clothing and textiles; (2) foods and nutrition; (3) home improvement; (4) child development and fun things to do with children; and (5) camp crafts.…

  8. Orbital spacecraft consumables resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.; Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Tracey, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    The capability to replenish spacecraft, satellites, and laboratories on-orbit with consumable fluids provides significant increases in their cost and operational effectiveness. Tanker systems to perform on-orbit fluid resupply must be flexible enough to operate from the Space Transportation System (STS), Space Station, or the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and to accommodate launch from both the Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV's). Resupply systems for storable monopropellant hydrazine and bipropellants, and water have been developed. These studies have concluded that designing tankers capable of launch on both the Shuttle and ELV's was feasible and desirable. Design modifications and interfaces for an ELV launch of the tanker systems were identified. Additionally, it was determined that modularization of the tanker subsystems was necessary to provide the most versatile tanker and most efficient approach for use at the Space Station. The need to develop an automatic umbilical mating mechanism, capable of performing both docking and coupler mating functions was identified. Preliminary requirements for such a mechanism were defined. The study resulted in a modular tanker capable of resupplying monopropellants, bipropellants, and water with a single design.

  9. Consumer Demand Management

    SciTech Connect

    Borlase, Stuart; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Mohagheghi, Salman; Woychik, Eric; Zheng, Alex

    2012-10-24

    The title of the book is: Smart Grids: Infrastructure, Technology, and Solutions. The publisher is CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group). The book will be marketed, distributed and sold by CRC Press. The intended audiences for the book are utilities, vendors, regulators, consumers, educators and other parties interested in learning more about the drivers and technologies of smart grid initiatives in the electric utility industry. The book is based on author contributions. Authors contributing to the book will be doing so on a volunteer basis and will not be financially compensated for their contributions. Contributing authors will be recognized in each chapter of the book, but only my name will be listed as the editor of the book. The responsibility of the editor of the book is to include a broad cross-section of material from vendors, utilities and other industry partners and organizations while providing as much of an unbiased and global perspective on Smart Grid as possible. The editor works for General Electric, but the book is an independent publication and does not belong to, nor is represented, affiliated with, or sponsored by, GE, in any form or fashion. This is a book chapter that Dave Chassin is required to send to the publisher by the end of the April 2011. The ERICA submission should indicate that it is copyrighted material and will be distributed by the publisher (CRC). It is getting an external editorial review, which should be done by tomorrow.

  10. Altair Lunar Lander Consumables Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Button, Robert; Linne, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Altair lunar lander is scheduled to return humans to the moon in the year 2020. Keeping the crew of 4 and the vehicle functioning at their best while minimizing lander mass requires careful budgeting and management of consumables and cooperation with other constellation elements. Consumables discussed here include fluids, gasses, and energy. This paper presents the lander's missions and constraints as they relate to consumables and the design solutions that have been employed in recent Altair conceptual designs.

  11. Elementary Level Consumer Education. Consumer Education Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Charlotte; And Others

    In this publication, one of a series of six for the Consumer Education Materials (CEMP), form and focus are given to skills emphasized at the elementary school level which parallel consumer competencies. The case studies are organized in two sections. The first section, case studies of interdisciplinary programs, examines a variety of approaches…

  12. Consumer Information. NASFAA Task Force Report. Consumer Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid and Administrators (NASFAA) Consumer Information Task Force was convened to conduct a thorough review of the current student consumer information requirements and propose ways to streamline both the content and delivery of those requirements. The proposals in the this report were produced for…

  13. Simulations in the Consumer Economics Classroom. Consumer Education Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachaturoff, Grace

    This inservice manual provides guidelines to help elementary, secondary, and adult education teachers select, use, and design simulation experiences for consumer education. Four example simulations provide students with opportunities to develop decision-making skills as consumers. Simulations may be used as an introductory, developmental, or…

  14. Consumer Behavior: Developing Skills for Assertiveness. Consumer Education Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lou

    The goal of this inservice guide for teaching consumer education at the secondary and adult level is to help consumers become more assertive when buying goods and services. A major section in the guide defines assertiveness. The four basic components of assertive behavior are the ability to express emotions openly, the capacity to exercise one's…

  15. Elementary Level Consumer Education. Consumer Education Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Charlotte; And Others

    In this publication, one of a series of six for the Consumer Education Materials (CEMP), form and focus are given to skills emphasized at the elementary school level which parallel consumer competencies. The case studies are organized in two sections. The first section, case studies of interdisciplinary programs, examines a variety of approaches…

  16. Simulations in the Consumer Economics Classroom. Consumer Education Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachaturoff, Grace

    This inservice manual provides guidelines to help elementary, secondary, and adult education teachers select, use, and design simulation experiences for consumer education. Four example simulations provide students with opportunities to develop decision-making skills as consumers. Simulations may be used as an introductory, developmental, or…

  17. Consumer Health Informatics: Health Information Technology for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimison, Holly Brugge; Sher, Paul Phillip

    1995-01-01

    Explains consumer health informatics and describes the technology advances, the computer programs that are currently available, and the basic research that addresses both the effectiveness of computer health informatics and its impact on the future direction of health care. Highlights include commercial computer products for consumers and…

  18. [Ways of improving the education of specialists from the health care organizations, agencies, and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, in the area of parasitology].

    PubMed

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    The intensive modern Russian reforms in professional education require that stafftraining in medicine should be also improved. The main directions and ways of improving education in the specialty of Parasitology are as follows:--to update professional education, by applying a competence approach, in terms of which the main focus is on mastering the activity and obtaining the experience in make this activity in different situations;--to apply the modular principle in the design of educational programs and a teaching process;--to improve the fundamental training of staff in the area ofparasitology;--to enhance the integration of special, related, and basic disciplines in stafftraining.

  19. A Navajo health consumer survey.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; May, P; Muneta, A

    1980-12-01

    The findings of a health consumer survey of 309 Navajo families in three areas of the Navajo Reservation are reported. The survey shows that access to facilities and lack of safe water and sanitary supplies are continuing problems for these families. The families show consistent use of Indian Health Service providers, particularly nurses, pharmacists and physicians, as well as traditional Navajo medicine practitioners. Only incidental utilization of private medical services is reported. Extended waiting times and translation from English to Navajo are major concerns in their contacts with providers. A surprisingly high availability of third-party insurance is noted. Comparisons are made between this data base and selected national and regional surveys, and with family surveys from other groups assumed to be disadvantaged in obtaining health care. The comparisons indicate somewhat lower utilization rates and more problems in access to care for this Navajo sample. The discussion suggests that attitudes regarding free health care eventually may be a factor for Navajo people and other groups, that cultural considerations are often ignored or accepted as truisms in delivering care, and that the Navajo Reservation may serve as a unique microcosm of health care in the U.S.

  20. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  1. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  2. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer information. 1215.5 Section 1215.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means information and programs that will assist consumers...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1215.5 Section 1215.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means information and programs that will assist consumers...

  4. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.

  5. Home Management and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Designed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas, this curriculum guide is on the subject of home management and consumer education. An introduction to the guide, covering its use and program and curriculum planning, provides a list of suggested reading. Information on teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students follows. The…

  6. Newspaper Activities for Young Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenup, Tess

    Designed for intermediate and junior high level students, the handbook gives 11 lessons using newspaper activities for teaching consumer education. The activities help students (1) define consumer education terms and distinguish between wants and needs; (2) define the term "caveat emptor" and understand the concept of consumer…

  7. Consumer Concerns: Newcomer's Guide. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jean

    A bilingual pamphlet containing practical law-related information for recent Russian Jewish immigrants to New York City, this document addresses consumer concerns. Following a brief description of the Newcomer series, 15 questions are listed, each followed by an answer. Questions asked include the meaning of the terms consumer and contract;…

  8. Bright Ideas for Consumer Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Nancy Z.

    The bibliography lists 56 K-adult multimedia materials relating to various aspects of consumer education. The objective is to provide curriculum planners and educators with possible audiovisual aids for teaching consumer awareness and skill development to all ages. Materials such as cassettes, filmstrips, posters, charts, slides, films, ditto…

  9. Consumer Education for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This experimental course of study for high school students was designed to prepare teenage consumers to understand the choice of products and services offered in the marketplace and to make their choices wisely. Billions of dollars annually are spent by teenagers on merchandise and services. The need for a course in consumer education is so…

  10. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Jerrie L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  11. A Creed for Consumer Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, William R.; Garman, E. Thomas

    1973-01-01

    Consumerism is now accepted with dignity, leading to a burgeoning forth of interest in and nationwide approval of consumer education. A creed is presented which offers some suggestions and guidelines by which the consumer educator can evaluate his own effectiveness, modify his criteria for excellence, and continue to make the course relevant. (SC)

  12. How consumers view physician advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1989-01-01

    In this study, it was found that consumers generally favor advertising by physicians. They felt that newspaper and professional magazines were more appropriate media for such advertising than television, radio, billboards, telephones, direct mail, and popular magazines. Finally, most consumers have not seen physicians advertise, but of those who have, most have noticed such advertising in a newspaper.

  13. Teaching Environmental Consumer Education Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cude, Brenda J.

    1993-01-01

    Effective strategies include (1) helping consumers see how lifestyles and consumer behavior are related; (2) limiting amount of new terminology used; (3) dispelling myths and misperceptions; (4) doing product life-cycle analysis; and (5) emphasizing long-term goals for behavior change. (JOW)

  14. Consumer behavior and energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ester, P.

    1985-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a number of behaviour modification instruments aimed at teaching consumers how to use energy in a more efficient way. The following instruments were tested: energy conservation information, bi-weekly and monthly energy consumption feedback and self-monitoring by consumers of their household energy consumption. This study tries to combine psychological paradigms, experimental approaches and policy relevance.

  15. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  16. Bright Ideas for Consumer Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Nancy Z.

    The bibliography lists 56 K-adult multimedia materials relating to various aspects of consumer education. The objective is to provide curriculum planners and educators with possible audiovisual aids for teaching consumer awareness and skill development to all ages. Materials such as cassettes, filmstrips, posters, charts, slides, films, ditto…

  17. Consumer's Resource Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways: (1) it shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; (2) it is a self-help manual for resolving in dividual consumer complaints; and (3) it lists helpful sources of assistance. The handbook has two…

  18. Health, Quackery, and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Warren E.; Carroll, Charles R.

    This book is concerned with the health care delivery system in the United States and the use of that system by the consumer. It is intended to help the consumer identify, understand, and utilize those components of the health care system that are considered legitimate, nonlife threatening, and productive in terms of promoting health and in…

  19. Home Management and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Designed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas, this curriculum guide is on the subject of home management and consumer education. An introduction to the guide, covering its use and program and curriculum planning, provides a list of suggested reading. Information on teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students follows. The…

  20. Travel and the Consumer 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The State Education Department of New York has prepared a series of modules--Expanded Programs in Consumer Education. "Travel and the Consumer" is the most recently produced module. It can be used as a discrete unit or with others in the series. The module stresses the importance of making travel creative, getting the most for one's…

  1. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  2. Senior Adult Consumer Advisory Manual,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ater, E. Carolyn, Ed.

    This manual is intended for use by senior adult peer advisors (age 60 and over) engaged in helping relationships in providing consumer education to other senior adults. The advisory procedures are based on a problem solving approach which incorporates the development of a self-help concept. Chapter 1 provides information on consumer advising. It…

  3. How consumers choose health insurance.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, G; Ettenson, R; Gaeth, G

    1994-01-01

    The authors used choice-based conjoint analysis to model consumers' decision processes when evaluating and selecting health insurance in a multiplan environment. Results indicate that consumer choice is affected by as many as 19 attributes, some of which have received little attention in previous studies. Moreover, the importance of the attributes varies across different demographic segments, giving marketers several targeting opportunities.

  4. Beauty Products and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: High school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer education especially as it concerns the consumer's desire for beauty. Included are considerations of cosmetics, health spas, reducing salons, wigs, and jewelry. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is discursively organized through the topics listed above. The physical appearance of…

  5. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  6. Newspaper Activities for Young Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenup, Tess

    Designed for intermediate and junior high level students, the handbook gives 11 lessons using newspaper activities for teaching consumer education. The activities help students (1) define consumer education terms and distinguish between wants and needs; (2) define the term "caveat emptor" and understand the concept of consumer…

  7. Consumer Leadership in Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inge, Katherine J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue provides rehabilitation professionals with various information pieces concerning consumer leadership in supported employment of people with disabilities. First, a chart lists five questions concerning self advocacy and supported employment, and provides consumer responses to the questions. A second item describes…

  8. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  9. Consumer and Homemaking Education Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Anza Coll., Cupertino, CA.

    Six contributions from the Consumer and Homemaking Education Symposium (March 1, 1974) are included. Elaine Shudlick discussed the role of the consumer education teacher, particularly in relation to a management of personal and family finance course, illustrated by a course outline including course description, prerequisities, text and references,…

  10. Consumers' Attitude Towards Fish Meat.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-08-28

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers' attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers' decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper's topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers' demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers' attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  11. Applications of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-06-01

    Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas.

  12. Consumer Education: A Teaching-Learning Unit on the Rights and Responsibilities of all Consumers and Special Problems of Elderly Consumers, Poor Consumers, Handicapped Consumers, Non-English Speaking Consumers and Nonreaders, Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville.

    To help high school students understand the role of consumers in the everyday world, the teaching guide presents objectives and activities related to seven consumer topics. Topics are rights and responsibilities of all consumers, common transportation concerns of consumers with special problems, and problems which particularly affect consumers who…

  13. Consumer Education: A Teaching-Learning Unit on the Rights and Responsibilities of all Consumers and Special Problems of Elderly Consumers, Poor Consumers, Handicapped Consumers, Non-English Speaking Consumers and Nonreaders, Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville.

    To help high school students understand the role of consumers in the everyday world, the teaching guide presents objectives and activities related to seven consumer topics. Topics are rights and responsibilities of all consumers, common transportation concerns of consumers with special problems, and problems which particularly affect consumers who…

  14. Triboelectric Charging at the Nanostructured Solid/Liquid Interface for Area-Scalable Wave Energy Conversion and Its Use in Corrosion Protection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Zhu, Guang; Fan, You Jun; Li, Hua Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-07-28

    We report a flexible and area-scalable energy-harvesting technique for converting kinetic wave energy. Triboelectrification as a result of direct interaction between a dynamic wave and a large-area nanostructured solid surface produces an induced current among an array of electrodes. An integration method ensures that the induced current between any pair of electrodes can be constructively added up, which enables significant enhancement in output power and realizes area-scalable integration of electrode arrays. Internal and external factors that affect the electric output are comprehensively discussed. The produced electricity not only drives small electronics but also achieves effective impressed current cathodic protection. This type of thin-film-based device is a potentially practical solution of on-site sustained power supply at either coastal or off-shore sites wherever a dynamic wave is available. Potential applications include corrosion protection, pollution degradation, water desalination, and wireless sensing for marine surveillance.

  15. From rhetoric to reality: consumer engagement in 16 multi-stakeholder alliances.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jessica; Farley, Diane C; Christianson, Jon B; Scanlon, Dennis P; Shi, Yunfeng

    2016-08-01

    A key component of the Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) program was engaging consumers in their health and healthcare. We examined the extent to which the alliances embraced 4 areas of consumer engagement: self-management, consumer friendliness of reports of healthcare provider quality, involvement of consumers in alliance governance, and the integration of consumers into quality improvement teams. We used a largely qualitative approach. The evaluation team conducted 1100 in-depth interviews with alliance stakeholders. Two authors reviewed the consumer engagement data for each alliance to assess its level of embrace in the 4 consumer engagement areas. For consumer friendliness of public reporting websites, we also assessed alliance public reports for reading level, technical language, and evaluable displays. Population-level effects were also examined for self-management and public reporting. Consumer engagement was new to most alliances, and few had staff with consumer engagement expertise or existing consumer constituencies. For each area of consumer engagement, some alliances enthusiastically embraced the work, other alliances made a concerted but limited effort to develop programs, and a third group of alliances did the minimum work required. Integrating consumers into governance was the area most often embraced, followed by making public reports consumer friendly. Two alliances strongly embraced both self-management and integrating patients into quality improvement efforts. The AF4Q program did not have greater population level effects from self-management or public reporting than were those observed in a national comparison sample. The AF4Q program sparked a few alliances to develop robust consumer engagement programming, while most alliances tried consumer engagement efforts for the first time and developed an appreciation for integrating consumer perspectives into their work.

  16. Use of nanosilver in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Lem, K W; Choudhury, A; Lakhani, A A; Kuyate, P; Haw, J R; Lee, D S; Iqbal, Z; Brumlik, C J

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP; many other names such as nanosilver and colloidal silver) have already been used in everyday consumer products requiring broad spectrum antibiotic performance because of their enormous surface area and reactivity. Faunce and Watal [1] recently have critically analyzed the international regulatory issues for medical and domestic use in USA, EU, UK, and Australia. They found that in spite of the fact numerous studies have been made in the past decades, but many scientists are still uncertain of its safety. Very recently, Powers mentioned in her dissertation that her results showed positive that Ag+ and AgNP are developmental neurotoxicants in vitro and in vivo [2]. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a study to identify a global landscape of AgNPs and their products, and their manufacturers. A market- based intellectual property (IP) study has been conducted to examine the current global patent landscape of companies using AgNP in their consumer product development and production from 1980 to 2010. Detailed information in the compositions and formulations is extracted using a "two-stage" stage-gate process from the IP activity in the use of nanosilver. The first stage is in commercial products and the second stage is in consumer products. In the first stage for AgNP and AgNP-based commercial products, there were 7,422 patent families from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2010. In the second stage for AgNP-based consumer products, 932 patent families from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2010 were found. Korea, China and USA were found to be the major players in AgNP and AgNP-based commercial and consumer products. However, the recent patenting downturn was observed probably due to rising price in silver metal, regulatory uncertainty, public perception, and health safety & environmental (HS&E) issues.

  17. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  18. Aging and consumer decision making

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  19. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques.

  20. Consumer Valuation of National Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Vincent P.

    1983-01-01

    Indicates that consumers place little value on advertisements in nationally circulated magazines and on television as sources of information. Television commercials seem to be valued even less than print advertisements. (FL)

  1. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  2. MAKING THE PATIENT-CONSUMER IN MARGARET THATCHER'S BRITAIN

    PubMed Central

    MOLD, ALEX

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role played by patient organizations in the making of the patient as consumer during Margaret Thatcher's term as prime minster. It details a crucial moment in the reconstitution of the relationship between state and citizen, as universal entitlements to welfare gave way to individualistic rights to, and choice of, services. Though patients had been regarded as consumers prior to this period, it was during the 1980s that the patient-consumer moved from the margins to centre-stage. By examining the activities of patient groups around three key themes – the provision of information, the development of patients' rights, and the notion of patient choice – this article shows that ideas about what it meant to be a patient-consumer came initially from patient groups. Through their work in these areas, patient groups built up a kind of patient consumerism that was concerned with the needs of the wider population, as well as representing demands made by individual patient-consumers. By the end of the 1980s, however, the patient-consumer was reconfigured by the Conservative government, and emphasis moved from the collective needs of patient-consumers to the rights of individuals within increasingly marketized services. This development thus raises questions not only about who speaks for the consumer, but also about the relationship between citizenship and consumption in contemporary Britain. PMID:22826610

  3. Website Quality Indicators for Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Background The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. Objective This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. Results There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P < .001). Consumer and health professional DISCERN ratings were significantly correlated (r = 0.77, P < .001). The evidence-based quality score correlated with Google PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. Conclusions DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality

  4. Identity theft and consumers' reaction to preventive technological innovations.

    PubMed

    Ainscough, Thomas L; Brody, Richard G; Trocchia, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    The use of identification technology by commercial entities has broad and, for some consumers, disturbing social implications. This two-phase study was done to specify consumers' concerns regarding various identification technologies which may be encountered in retail environments. From the qualitative findings, a 26-item survey was constructed to quantify identified areas of concern with 303 survey participants (147 women and 156 men), whose mean age category was 30 to 39 years. Using exploratory factor analysis (principal components with varimax rotation), five dimensions of consumers' concern emerged: privacy, ethics, health, humanity, and complexity.

  5. Assessing consumer program needs: advantages of a brief unstructured format.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, Laura; Hazem, Denis

    2002-08-01

    To be empowered, consumers must provide feedback on services so that modifications can be made. The most frequently used method to attain such information is consumer satisfaction measures. However, often the measures are not useful because they have a strong positive response bias or because they do not contain items that reflect consumer needs. An alternative brief unstructured assessment was piloted with individuals served by four Community Treatment Teams in Delaware. The high number of needs expressed suggests that further work should be done in this area.

  6. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns…

  7. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns…

  8. Ames Energy: A Consumer's Guide to Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Support Network, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA.

    Presented is an annotated bibliography of energy-related materials for the consumer. Materials (which include books, videotape recordings, magazines, pamphlets, and other media) are arranged by subject area. These area include: (1) earth sheltered buildings; (2) fuels; (3) general (including general energy conservation and insulation); (4) heat…

  9. Ames Energy: A Consumer's Guide to Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Support Network, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA.

    Presented is an annotated bibliography of energy-related materials for the consumer. Materials (which include books, videotape recordings, magazines, pamphlets, and other media) are arranged by subject area. These area include: (1) earth sheltered buildings; (2) fuels; (3) general (including general energy conservation and insulation); (4) heat…

  10. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  11. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea; Warner, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb "globesity" has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general.

  12. Marketing analysis of a maternity service by a consumer.

    PubMed

    Crowley-Murphy, M

    1996-07-01

    Marketing analysis is a means of identifying consumer satisfaction, thus providing a means of exploiting weaknesses in competitors. As part of a graduate midwifery programme a small study was undertaken analysing marketing activities used by one competitor provider of maternity care services. The Marketing mix, Ansoff matrix and Gap analysis were the marketing tools used. Recommendations to midwifery service providers suggest using market research to identify consumer expectations and explore areas of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  13. 7 CFR 1230.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer information. 1230.5 Section 1230.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means an activity intended to broaden the understanding of the...

  14. 24 CFR 3286.7 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer information. 3286.7... Requirements § 3286.7 Consumer information. (a) Manufacturer's consumer manual. In each consumer manual... manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser or lessee with a consumer disclosure....

  15. 24 CFR 3286.7 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer information. 3286.7... Requirements § 3286.7 Consumer information. (a) Manufacturer's consumer manual. In each consumer manual... manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser or lessee with a consumer disclosure. This...

  16. 24 CFR 3286.7 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer information. 3286.7... Requirements § 3286.7 Consumer information. (a) Manufacturer's consumer manual. In each consumer manual... manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser or lessee with a consumer disclosure. This...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.105 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer information. 1220.105 Section 1220.105... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.105 Consumer information. The term consumer information means information that will assist consumers and other persons in making...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer information. 1230.5 Section 1230.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means an activity intended to broaden the understanding of the sound...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.105 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer information. 1220.105 Section 1220.105... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.105 Consumer information. The term consumer information means information that will assist consumers and other persons in making...

  20. 7 CFR 1230.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer information. 1230.5 Section 1230.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means an activity intended to broaden the understanding of the sound...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.105 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer information. 1220.105 Section 1220.105... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.105 Consumer information. The term consumer information means information that will assist consumers and other persons in making...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.105 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer information. 1220.105 Section 1220.105... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.105 Consumer information. The term consumer information means information that will assist consumers and other persons in making...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer information. 1230.5 Section 1230.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means an activity intended to broaden the understanding of the sound...

  4. 24 CFR 3286.7 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer information. 3286.7... Requirements § 3286.7 Consumer information. (a) Manufacturer's consumer manual. In each consumer manual... manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser or lessee with a consumer disclosure. This...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.3 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1209.3 Section 1209.3..., AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.3 Consumer information. Consumer information means information and programs that will...

  6. 78 FR 70193 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... CFR Part 213 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board); and Bureau of Consumer Financial...' regulations that implement the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). The Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1230.5 Section 1230.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means an activity intended to broaden the understanding of the...

  8. 24 CFR 3286.7 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer information. 3286.7... Requirements § 3286.7 Consumer information. (a) Manufacturer's consumer manual. In each consumer manual... manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser or lessee with a consumer disclosure....

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  10. Effect of internal pressure and gas/liquid interface area on the CO mass transfer coefficient using hollow fibre membranes as a high mass transfer gas diffusing system for microbial syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Jeong, Yeseul; Lee, Eun Yeol; Lee, Jinwon; Chang, In Seop

    2014-10-01

    This study proposed a submerged hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMBR) system capable of achieving high carbon monoxide (CO) mass transfer for applications in microbial synthesis gas conversion systems. Hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fibres were used to fabricate a membrane module, which was used for pressurising CO in water phase. Pressure through the hollow fibre lumen (P) and membrane surface area per unit working volume of the liquid (A(S)/V(L)) were used as controllable parameters to determine gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) values. We found a k(L)a of 135.72 h(-1) when P was 93.76 kPa and AS/VL was fixed at 27.5m(-1). A higher k(L)a of 155.16 h(-1) was achieved by increasing AS/VL to 62.5m(-1) at a lower P of 37.23 kPa. Practicality of HFMBR to support microbial growth and organic product formation was assessed by CO/CO2 fermentation using Eubacterium limosum KIST612.

  11. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Stafleu, Annette; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-06-01

    The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n = 63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n = 39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n = 4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n = 32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n = 1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n = 17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods.

  12. Dewatering equipment recommendations for the solids/liquid separation project at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    The final closure of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will include the plugging and abandonment of many existing wells and boreholes and the installation of diversion trenches for groundwater control. These activities will generate soil that must be dewatered before it can be disposed of. Three different types of dewatering equipment{emdash}rotary vacuum drum filters, automatic discharge pressure filters, and centrifuges{emdash}have been evaluated to assess their suitability for the WAG 6 project. Because of its lower cost and minimal prescreening requirements, it is recommended that a centrifuge be used to dewater the WAG 6 soils.

  13. Dewatering equipment recommendations for the solids/liquid separation project at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    The final closure of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will include the plugging and abandonment of many existing wells and boreholes and the installation of diversion trenches for groundwater control. These activities will generate soil that must be dewatered before it can be disposed of. Three different types of dewatering equipment{emdash}rotary vacuum drum filters, automatic discharge pressure filters, and centrifuges{emdash}have been evaluated to assess their suitability for the WAG 6 project. Because of its lower cost and minimal prescreening requirements, it is recommended that a centrifuge be used to dewater the WAG 6 soils.

  14. Liquid level controller

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  15. Ionic liquids in tribology.

    PubMed

    Minami, Ichiro

    2009-06-24

    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  16. Influence of wettability on interfacial area during immiscible liquid invasion into a 3D self-affine rough fracture: Lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Z.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the influence of wettability on the fluid-fluid interfacial area (anw) in a three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rough fracture during non-wetting phase invasion was studied using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw)-interfacial area (Pc - Sw - anw) relationship, irreducible water saturation, and anw at non-wetting phase breakthrough time and at irreducible water saturation were determined for four different contact angles. The lower contact angles led to increases in both Pc and anw for a given water saturation. The irreducible saturation increased as contact angle decreased and the corresponding anw at irreducible saturation also increased as contact angle decreased. Decreasing the contact angle and the corresponding increase in non-wetting phase entry pressures increased the number of fracture regions in which water became surrounded by NAPL and isolated. This consequently increased anw for a given water saturation and increased the irreducible water saturation. The anw-Sw curves from LBM for different contact angles were compared with a thermodynamically based model for the anw-Sw relationship. The energy dissipation factors varied with contact angle, and were higher than typical values for porous media, indicating predictions of less energy dissipation in the fractures modeled than for previously studied porous media.

  17. Issues in consumer mental health information.

    PubMed

    Angier, J J

    1984-07-01

    Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment fads. The development of a community education pamphlet illustrates how one organization addressed these issues.

  18. 77 FR 55214 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee... within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate the participation of all consumers...

  19. 76 FR 3633 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document announces the rechartering of the Consumer Advisory Committee (hereinafter ``the... ``Commission'') regarding consumer issues within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate...

  20. 76 FR 45570 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces appointment of members and chairperson to its Consumer Advisory Committee... consumers in proceedings before the Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Committee will take place...

  1. 76 FR 65726 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee... within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate the participation of all consumers...

  2. Food irradiation and the consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  3. 7 CFR 1209.3 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order..., preparation, and use of mushrooms. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.3 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order..., preparation, and use of mushrooms. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.3 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order..., preparation, and use of mushrooms. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1209.3 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order..., preparation, and use of mushrooms....

  7. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5... popcorn. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5... popcorn. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5... popcorn. ...

  10. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children’s potential exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tulve, Nicolle S.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Vance, Marina E.; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children’s potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children’s potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

  11. Consumers' misunderstanding of health insurance.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, George; Friedman, Joelle Y; McGill, Barbara; Ahmad, Sarah; Linck, Suzanne; Sinkula, Stacey; Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Kolstad, Jonathan; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; List, John A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-09-01

    We report results from two surveys of representative samples of Americans with private health insurance. The first examines how well Americans understand, and believe they understand, traditional health insurance coverage. The second examines whether those insured under a simplified all-copay insurance plan will be more likely to engage in cost-reducing behaviors relative to those insured under a traditional plan with deductibles and coinsurance, and measures consumer preferences between the two plans. The surveys provide strong evidence that consumers do not understand traditional plans and would better understand a simplified plan, but weaker evidence that a simplified plan would have strong appeal to consumers or change their healthcare choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. News and the overloaded consumer: factors influencing information overload among news consumers.

    PubMed

    Holton, Avery E; Chyi, Hsiang Iris

    2012-11-01

    News producers continue to increase their volume of production and delivery platforms in an effort to reach and maintain news consumers. However, consumers may not necessarily find more news desirable. Previous studies have suggested that information surplus can lead to negative outcomes for consumers, but research of outcomes related to news production and consumption has been scant. This study explores novel areas of news surplus and overload, empirically examining factors associated with the degree of perceived overload across a broad spectrum of news delivery platforms. The findings reveal that the majority of today's news consumers feel overloaded with the amount of news they are confronted with. Gender, news interest, and the use of specific news platforms and outlets predict the degree of that overload. News access through platforms and outlets such as computers, e-readers, and Facebook is positively associated with overload, whereas other platforms such as television and the iPhone are negatively associated with overload. Implications for media psychology and news consumption are discussed.

  13. Formulation of consumables management models. Consumables flight planning worksheet utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The updated and reformatted consumables flight planning worksheet is documented. An instruction set for applying the worksheet, and a sample application of the worksheet is disclosed. The particular application is for the STS interfacing with sortie payloads and typifies the interfacing of the delivery system and payloads.

  14. Innovations in Consumer Education: How Do We Teach Consumer Ecology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ann Smith

    1974-01-01

    Innovations in teaching consumer ecology (environmental preservation vs. satisfaction of current demands), possible unit topics, causes and possible solutions for environmental problems, and teaching through filmstrips, audio tapes and games simulating real life decision-making situations are described. A seven-item bibliography accompanies the…

  15. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  16. [The genome and the consumer].

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Gunna

    2014-11-10

    Consumergenetics has developed so fast that it became possible for consumers to obtain genome risk information based on single nucleotide polymorphisms data of over 250 diseases/conditions for just 99 USD. In November 2013, the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ordered the company 23andMe to stop returning health results because they found a lack of scientific evidence of the reposted disease risks. The ethical dilemmas associated with this are reviewed, and the recommendations are described in genome testing. Ethical dilemmas in relation direct-to-consumer testing are discussed.

  17. Beliefs about using consumer consultants in inpatient psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Baird, John; Clark, Eileen; Lu, Sai

    2006-12-01

    A key recommendation of consumer organizations and governments has been the employment of consumer consultants in inpatient psychiatric facilities, but the attitudes of mental health clinicians towards this measure remain inconsistent. The aims of this study were to examine mental health clinicians' attitudes about the role of mental health consumer consultants in inpatient psychiatric units, and to ascertain if participants' age, type of inpatient unit, or grade of staff influenced their attitudes towards consultants. The Consumer Participation and Consultant Questionnaire was used, which was adapted from the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire. A convenience sample of 47 mental health professionals from two adult inpatient psychiatric units located in a large Australian public general hospital participated in the study. The findings, overall, showed that participants supported the inclusion of consumer consultants in psychiatric units in areas that indirectly impinged on their current roles. Age, level of nurses, and place of employment did not affect their beliefs, but type of occupation was influential. Nurses were less supportive of aspects of consumer consultants' roles that overlapped with the traditional roles of the nurse. The findings have implications for clinical practice, education, and further research, and these are discussed.

  18. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  19. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  20. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience.

  1. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  2. Carbon nanotubes as liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanju; Kumar, Satish

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are the best of known materials with a combination of excellent mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties. To fully exploit individual nanotube properties for various applications, the grand challenge is to fabricate macroscopic ordered nanotube assemblies. Liquid-crystalline behavior of the nanotubes provides a unique opportunity toward reaching this challenge. In this Review, the recent developments in this area are critically reviewed by discussing the strategies for fabricating liquid-crystalline phases, addressing the solution properties of liquid-crystalline suspensions, and exploiting the practical techniques of liquid-crystal routes to prepare macroscopic nanotube fibers and films.

  3. A liquid propulsion panorama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caisso, Philippe; Souchier, Alain; Rothmund, Christophe; Alliot, Patrick; Bonhomme, Christophe; Zinner, Walter; Parsley, Randy; Neill, Todd; Forde, Scott; Starke, Robert; Wang, William; Takahashi, Mamoru; Atsumi, Masahiro; Valentian, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    Liquid-propellant rocket engines are widely used all over the world, thanks to their high performances, in particular high thrust-to-weight ratio. The present paper presents a general panorama of liquid propulsion as a contribution of the IAF Advanced Propulsion Prospective Group. After a brief history of its past development in the different parts of the world, the current status of liquid propulsion, the currently observed trends, the possible areas of future improvement and a summarized road map of future developments are presented. The road map includes a summary of the liquid propulsion status presented in the "Year in review 2007" of Aerospace America. Although liquid propulsion is often seen as a mature technology with few areas of potential improvement, the requirements of an active commercial market and a renewed interest for space exploration has led to the development of a family of new engines, with more design margins, simpler to use and to produce associated with a wide variety of thrust and life requirements.

  4. Nonmetropolitan consumers attitudes toward physician advertising.

    PubMed

    Kviz, F J

    1978-01-01

    The debate over whether physicians should be allowed to advertise their services has not yet included a consideration of consumer attitudes based upon empirical data. The results of a telephone survey of residents of a nonmetropolitan area reveal that the respondents are almost evenly divided between opposition to and support of physician advertising. Most respondents do not specify a reason for their position. Attitudes do not differ when several background variables, including residence, age, education, sex, usual source of care, and preferred source of care, are controlled. However, a significant negative association is observed between attitude toward physician advertising and length of residence. This finding suggests that if physician advertising is permitted it may have its greatest impact in areas with high rates of residential turnover.

  5. Consumer participation: ensuring suicide postvention research counts for end users.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anne

    2010-02-01

    Primary health-care research is about working with those who have a vested interest in the outcomes of that research, including consumers, service providers and service organizations. This article describes how consumers were included in the research processes of a South Australian study into suicide postvention services, and illustrates important principles to consider when including consumers in research. A concurrent mixed-method approach facilitated the collection of mixed data through the application of questionnaires. The study was conducted in an Australian metropolitan area. Because of media releases, a large number of people rang to enquire and volunteer their participation. From over 200 expressions of interest, 161 individuals participated. The participation of consumers in the research process ensured the findings were relevant for end users. A number of recommendations for the care and support of those bereaved through suicide were developed as a result.

  6. Consumer Education through Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, M. Barbara

    The active learning approach promotes student achievement of higher-order skills such as independent reasoning, problem solving, and critical assessment. Active learning has been shown to foster student retention and encourage a more positive attitude toward school. The goal of the consumer decision-making class for university students and adults…

  7. Sources of Consumer Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Teacher of Home Economics, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Lists publications issued by the federal government, universities, and commercial sources on consumer education with ordering information and prices. Subjects include foods, water conservation, money management, and auto defects, as well as general consumerism. Some of the materials contain lesson ideas and teaching activities. (MF)

  8. Consumer Education: Questions and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Peter R.; Binkley, Joanne L.

    Increasing complexity in the marketplace, and changing interests in consumption have led to an expansion of consumer education. One result of this expansion has been a shift away from the traditional place where the subject has been taught, home economics, into business, distributive education, and social studies. Joseph N. Uhl's Survey and…

  9. Home Management and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    Developed by an instructional materials center, this teaching guide was prepared to present home management and consumer education in the perspective of family living. Arranged in four major sections the section on Homemaking I introduces the student to management in everyday living, while Homemaking II emphasizes the management of household…

  10. Consumer Reports--Classroom Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Barbara C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a set of activities for testing consumer products to encourage students to learn how to use scientific investigations in their everyday lives. Describes the penny flip experiment and testing a detergent. Students learn in a hands-on manner the importance of completing accurate laboratory reports, which allows them to analyze results and…

  11. Metrication: A Guide for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer and Corporate Affairs Dept., Ottawa (Ontario).

    The widespread use of the metric system by most of the major industrial powers of the world has prompted the Canadian government to investigate and consider use of the system. This booklet was developed to aid the consuming public in Canada in gaining some knowledge of metrication and how its application would affect their present economy.…

  12. Connecting with assisted living consumers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kathleen A; Pinkowitz, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Connecting with residents and their family members should be considered an integral part of medication therapy management services that pharmacists provide to assisted living communities. This article provides suggestions on how pharmacists can better connect and communicate with current and future assisted-living consumers and staff to optimize medication use, maintain resident function, and help residents age in place.

  13. A Consumer's Guide to Homesharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors.

    This is one of a series of booklets prepared as a resource for the American Association of Retired Persons' (AARP) Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors, a local AARP volunteer program that uses trained Housing Information Volunteers to provide impartial information to older people who have questions of concern about how to find safe,…

  14. Talking Shop to Wise Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Louie E., Comp.

    The document is a guide to a consumer education resource unit which aims to create a teacher-student and student-community learning partnership which will actively involve all participants. Concepts, behavioral objectives, learning experiences, and generalizations are provided in a format that can be quickly viewed and easily interpreted, but the…

  15. Kids Can Be Savvy Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuerst, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Describes several product-testing projects designed to help students develop the skills they need to make educated purchases and be savvy consumers. The tests involve examining the taste of and ingredients in cold cereals. Other tests involve examining crayons, glue, laundry detergent, oranges, and popcorn. (SM)

  16. Consumer Reports--Classroom Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Barbara C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a set of activities for testing consumer products to encourage students to learn how to use scientific investigations in their everyday lives. Describes the penny flip experiment and testing a detergent. Students learn in a hands-on manner the importance of completing accurate laboratory reports, which allows them to analyze results and…

  17. Melon Quality: What Consumers Like

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet melons (Cucumis melo L. plus Citrullus lanatus L.) are the most popular fresh fruit, based on per capita consumption, in the U.S.A. Cucumis melo (muskmelons or rockmelons) are the only fruits in the U.S.A. to have a 2.3 fold increase in consumer demand over the past 35 years. Preference attr...

  18. Consumer Education Competencies: K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    The publication represents the result of the Consumer Education Task Force's attempt to develop competencies applicable to a K-12 continuum. It has been designed to provide school district personnel with relevant data to support a comprehensive curriculum development effort; or to support a variety of alternative approaches at various grade…

  19. National Developments and Consumer Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine H.

    Consumerism as a student-oriented approach to postsecondary education is one that rests on two fundamental premises: (1) it is important that students receive fair treatment in their roles as educational consumers; and (2) some current practices in postsecondary education are not adequately responsive to student needs. Consumerism implies a…

  20. Metrication: A Guide for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer and Corporate Affairs Dept., Ottawa (Ontario).

    The widespread use of the metric system by most of the major industrial powers of the world has prompted the Canadian government to investigate and consider use of the system. This booklet was developed to aid the consuming public in Canada in gaining some knowledge of metrication and how its application would affect their present economy.…

  1. Kids Can Be Savvy Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuerst, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Describes several product-testing projects designed to help students develop the skills they need to make educated purchases and be savvy consumers. The tests involve examining the taste of and ingredients in cold cereals. Other tests involve examining crayons, glue, laundry detergent, oranges, and popcorn. (SM)

  2. Consumer reaction to healthcare advertising.

    PubMed

    Klein, R F

    1998-07-01

    How do consumers view healthcare advertising? This question, along with many others, was addressed in a national survey conducted by Market Strategies for The Alliance For Healthcare Strategy And Marketing, and presented during The Alliance's annual advertising and promotion conference last June.

  3. Consumer Education for Disabled Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Cheryl; Del Rogers, James

    The curriculum provides consumer information on five topics to increase independence and effectiveness of physically disabled (PD) persons in the marketplace. Noted is development of the curriculum as part of a 3 stage county educational program in San Diego, California, including incorporation of findings from a needs assessment survey of PD and…

  4. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN). Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life) were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major cancer charity, which funds

  5. Validation and pharmacokinetic application of a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique for determining the concentrations of amodiaquine and its metabolite in plasma of patients treated with oral fixed-dose amodiaquine-artesunate combination in areas of malaria endemicity.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Olumuyiwa N; Bolaji, Oluseye O; Falade, Catherine O; Osonuga, Odusoga A; Ademowo, Olusegun G

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been adopted by most African countries, including Nigeria, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose combinations of these ACTs, amodiaquine-artesunate (FDC AQAS) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), were introduced in Nigeria to improve compliance and achieve positive outcomes of malaria treatment. In order to achieve clinical success with AQAS, we developed and validated a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for determination of amodiaquine (AQ) and desethylamodiaquine (DAQ) in plasma using liquid-liquid extraction of the drugs with diethyl ether following protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Agilent Zorbax C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of distilled water-methanol (80:20 [vol/vol]) with 2% (vol/vol) triethylamine, pH 2.2, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Calibration curves in spiked plasma were linear from 100 to 1,000 ng/ml (r > 0.99) for both AQ and DAQ. The limit of detection was 1 ng (sample size, 20 μl). The intra- and interday coefficients of variation at 150, 300, and 900 ng/ml ranged from 1.3 to 4.8%, and the biases were between 6.4 and 9.5%. The mean extraction recoveries of AQ and DAQ were 80.0% and 68.9%, respectively. The results for the pharmacokinetic parameters of DAQ following oral administration of FDC AQAS (612/200 mg) for 3 days in female and male patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria showed that the maximum plasma concentrations (C max) (740 ± 197 versus 767 ± 185 ng/ml), areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) (185,080 ± 20,813 versus 184,940 ± 16,370 h · ng/ml), and elimination half-life values (T 1/2) (212 ± 1.14 versus 214 ± 0.84 h) were similar (P > 0.05).

  6. Validation and Pharmacokinetic Application of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Technique for Determining the Concentrations of Amodiaquine and Its Metabolite in Plasma of Patients Treated with Oral Fixed-Dose Amodiaquine-Artesunate Combination in Areas of Malaria Endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Olumuyiwa N.; Bolaji, Oluseye O.; Falade, Catherine O.; Osonuga, Odusoga A.

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been adopted by most African countries, including Nigeria, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose combinations of these ACTs, amodiaquine-artesunate (FDC AQAS) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), were introduced in Nigeria to improve compliance and achieve positive outcomes of malaria treatment. In order to achieve clinical success with AQAS, we developed and validated a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for determination of amodiaquine (AQ) and desethylamodiaquine (DAQ) in plasma using liquid-liquid extraction of the drugs with diethyl ether following protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Agilent Zorbax C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of distilled water-methanol (80:20 [vol/vol]) with 2% (vol/vol) triethylamine, pH 2.2, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Calibration curves in spiked plasma were linear from 100 to 1,000 ng/ml (r > 0.99) for both AQ and DAQ. The limit of detection was 1 ng (sample size, 20 μl). The intra- and interday coefficients of variation at 150, 300, and 900 ng/ml ranged from 1.3 to 4.8%, and the biases were between 6.4 and 9.5%. The mean extraction recoveries of AQ and DAQ were 80.0% and 68.9%, respectively. The results for the pharmacokinetic parameters of DAQ following oral administration of FDC AQAS (612/200 mg) for 3 days in female and male patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria showed that the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) (740 ± 197 versus 767 ± 185 ng/ml), areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) (185,080 ± 20,813 versus 184,940 ± 16,370 h · ng/ml), and elimination half-life values (T1/2) (212 ± 1.14 versus 214 ± 0.84 h) were similar (P > 0.05). PMID:25896711

  7. Consumer Education Curriculum Guide for Adults. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    The consumer education for adults guide, part of a consumer and homemaking education unit, was developed in a curriculum workshop at Winthrop College in June 1972. It was written in reference to a norm grouping. The concepts presented are: family life cycle, life style, the consumer in the economy, spending plan, consumer credit, financing…

  8. Consumer Resource Guide: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyheim, Charlotte, Comp.; Smith-Hansgen, Sharon, Comp.

    The selective bibliography contains over 1,000 citations of books, pamphlets, audiovisual materials, and teaching resources related to consumer education. It is designed not only for educators but also for individual consumers and members of consumer organizations. Contents are arranged by subject matter under ten general topics: consumer and the…

  9. 7 CFR 1260.124 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer information. 1260.124 Section 1260.124... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.124 Consumer information. Consumer information means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations...

  10. Consumer Decision Making in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusby, Linda A.

    This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…

  11. 7 CFR 1260.124 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer information. 1260.124 Section 1260.124... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.124 Consumer information. Consumer information means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.124 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer information. 1260.124 Section 1260.124... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.124 Consumer information. Consumer information means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and...

  13. 49 CFR 173.167 - Consumer commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consumer commodities. 173.167 Section 173.167... Consumer commodities. (a) Effective January 1, 2013, a “consumer commodity” (see § 171.8 of this subchapter... kPa) prescribed in § 173.27(c) of this part. Consumer commodities are excepted from the...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.124 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer information. 1260.124 Section 1260.124... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.124 Consumer information. Consumer information means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and...

  15. Consumer Education in Illinois Schools, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Intended to assist Illinois teachers in planning an instructional program in consumer education that meets state requirements, this consumer education curriculum is designed to help students in grades 9 through 12: (1) become informed consumers; (2) understand the rights and responsibilities of consumers in society; (3) develop responsible…

  16. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board); and Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...' regulations that implement the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

  17. Consumer Education in Lincoln High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumers Union of United States, Inc., Mount Vernon, NY. Educational Services Div.

    "Consumer Education in Lincoln High School" was prepared by the Consumer Education Committee, faculty members of the school. The document presents a series of teacher-prepared case studies of Lincoln High School's consumer education program and how consumer education has been integrated into the following departments: business education,…

  18. 7 CFR 1260.124 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1260.124 Section 1260.124... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.124 Consumer information. Consumer information means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations...

  19. Consumer governance may harm health center financial performance.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brad

    2013-07-01

    Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), which must be governed by a patient majority, have historically struggled to remain financially viable while caring for a disproportionately low-income and uninsured population. Consumer governance is credited with making FQHCs responsive to community needs, but to the extent that patient trustees resemble the typical low-income FQHC patient, patient trustees might lack the capacity to govern, harming financial performance as a result. Thus, this study sought to empirically evaluate the relationship between FQHC board composition and financial performance. Using data from years 2002-2007 of the Uniform Data System and the Area Resource File, and years 2003-2006 of FQHC grant applications, FQHC operating margin was modeled as a function of board and executive committee composition, the interaction between them, general time trends, other FQHC and county-level factors, and FQHC-level fixed effects. Trustees were classified as representative (ie, low-income) consumers, nonrepresentative (ie, high-income) consumers, and nonconsumers on the basis of their self-reported patient status and occupation. Each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of representative consumers on the board is associated with a 1.7 percentage point decrease in operating margin. This effect becomes insignificant if any consumers serve on the executive committee. There is no significant relationship between the proportion of nonrepresentative consumers and operating margin. If consumers are given leadership roles on the board, consumer governance does not harm financial performance and may be beneficial enough in other respects to justify its being required as a condition of federal FQHC funding. Without such strengthening of the provision, consumer governance appears to harm financial performance and it is unclear from this study whether it offers other benefits that are significant enough to justify this financial risk.

  20. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  1. Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket

    DOEpatents

    Dakin, James T.

    1982-09-21

    Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

  2. Materialism, status consumption, and consumer independence.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Ronald Earl; Clark, Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Materialism influences many people. We focus on two aspects of this influence: reactions to prestige products and to the influence of others. A study of 187 U.S. student consumers shows that materialism is positively related to buying products that confer status. In contrast, materialism is negatively related to consumer independence, an enduring tendency to pay minimal attention to the prescribed norms of other consumers and to make product and brand decisions according to personal preferences. Consuming products for status is also negatively related to consumer independence. Moreover, the association between materialism and consumer independence is completely mediated by consuming for status. Materialism urges consumers to be status conscious so that they follow social norms in purchasing, but seeking status through goods is avoided by less materialistic, independent consumers. A second study (n = 258) also using student consumers confirmed these results.

  3. Consumer Experiences in a Consumer-Driven Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Jon B; Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the experience of enrollees in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP). Data Sources/Study Setting Survey of University of Minnesota employees regarding their 2002 health benefits. Study Design Comparison of regression-adjusted mean values for CDHP and other plan enrollees: customer service, plan paperwork, overall satisfaction, and plan switching. For CDHP enrollees only, use of plan features, willingness to recommend the plan to others, and reports of particularly negative or positive experiences. Principal Findings There were significant differences in experiences of CDHP enrollees versus enrollees in other plans with customer service and paperwork, but similar levels of satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with health plans. Eight percent of CDHP enrollees left their plan after one year, compared to 5 percent of enrollees leaving other plans. A minority of CDHP enrollees used online plan features, but enrollees generally were satisfied with the amount and quality of the information provided by the CDHP. Almost half reported a particularly positive experience, compared to a quarter reporting a particularly negative experience. Thirty percent said they would recommend the plan to others, while an additional 57 percent said they would recommend it depending on the situation. Conclusions Much more work is needed to determine how consumer experience varies with the number and type of plan options available, the design of the CDHP, and the length of time in the CDHP. Research also is needed on the factors that affect consumer decisions to leave CDHPs. PMID:15230916

  4. Liquid penetrants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasley, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Liquid-penetrant inspection is discussed for surface defects in solids. The principle advantages are considered to be its simplicity and economy. The techniques and penetrants are described along with the developers. Commercially available equipment is also described.

  5. Liquid-crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Harry; Morris, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    Liquid-crystal lasers are a burgeoning area in the field of soft-matter photonics that may herald a new era of ultrathin, highly versatile laser sources. Such lasers encompass a multitude of remarkable features, including wideband tunability, large coherence area and, in some cases, multidirectional emission. They have the potential to combine large output powers with miniature cavity dimensions - two properties that have traditionally been incompatible. Their potential applications are diverse, ranging from miniature medical diagnostic tools to large-area holographic laser displays. Here we discuss the scientific origins of this technology and give a brief synopsis of the cutting-edge research currently being carried out worldwide.

  6. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  7. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. "Practical" Electrospinning of Biopolymers in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Shamshina, Julia L; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Bonner, Jonathan R; Gurau, Gabriela; Di Nardo, Thomas; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-01-10

    To address the need to scale up technologies for electrospinning of biopolymers from ionic liquids to practical volumes, a setup for the multi-needle electrospinning of chitin using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2 mim]-[OAc], was designed, built, and demonstrated. Materials with controllable and high surface area were prepared at the nanoscale using ionic-liquid solutions of high-molecular-weight chitin extracted with the same ionic liquid directly from shrimp shells.

  9. Developing a consumer pricing strategy.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Arthur; Tiedemann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare providers can learn a variety of pricing lessons from the retail market: For providers, wholesale pricing--"the price to play"--alone is not enough. Once a hospital or health system chooses a market position, the provider creates an expectation that must be met-consistently. Consumer loyalty is fluid, and the price of care or service is not always the motivator for choosing one organization over another; intangibles such as location and level of customer service also drive purchasing decisions.

  10. The future of consumer cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  11. Consumer attitudes toward irradiated food

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, S.

    1994-12-31

    Throughout history, new methods of food preservation have been met with skepticism and fear. Such processes as pasteurization and canning were denounced as being dangerous, detrimental to nutrients, or an excuse for dirty products. Now comes irradiation, and activists argue against this new process for the same reasons. Publicly, the perception is that consumers, distrustful of nuclear power, will never buy or accept irradiated food.

  12. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  13. 77 FR 23282 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967 = 100) increased 356.2 percent from its... = 100), I certify that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban...

  14. Consumer Issues and Action--One of a Series in Expanded Programs of Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, James E.

    This module, one in a series relating to consumer education, is intended as a teaching guide. Topics covered by the guide are: What Should Consumers Know and Do in Order to Get Their Money's Worth?; What Should Consumers Know and Do about Advertising?; What Should Consumers Know and Do about Product Warranties?; What Should Consumers Know and Do…

  15. Consumer oriented product noise testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Les

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the need for product noise measurements and how best to meet that need in the near future. Currently there is only a small market place for quieter consumer products. This is not because of lack of interest. No one really wants to announce to everyone in their house that they just flushed the toilet, few really want the entire neighborhood to know they are mowing their yard, etc. The small market place is primarily due to a lack of regulations on product noise, a lack of information easily available to consumers about which products are quieter, and market consolidation resulting in fewer manufacturers, most of whom are unwilling to emphasize their quieter products at the risk of eroding sales of their noisier ones (that currently have greater market share). In the absence of the EPA fulfilling its statutory requirement to regulate and label product noise under the Noise Control Act of 1972, and with the unwillingness of most industries to voluntarily publish accurate product noise data, there is a significant role for ``Consumer Oriented Product Noise Testing.'' This paper explores the Noise Pollution Clearinghouse's ongoing and planned product noise testing, evaluating its advantages, disadvantages, and limitations.

  16. Australian consumer awareness of health benefits associated with vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Eason, Jocelyn; Mactavish-West, Hazel; Lister, Carolyn; Mcconchie, Robyn

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the perceived health benefits of specific vegetable consumption to guide the use of nutrition and health claims on vegetable marketing collateral. Free elicitation and consumer ranking data were collected through an online survey of 1000 adults from across Australia and analysed for the perceived importance of vegetables in the daily diet, number of serves consumed per day, knowledge about health-related benefits of specific vegetables and perceived health benefits of vegetable consumption. The importance of vegetables in the diet and daily vegetable consumption was higher in people from an English-speaking background, females, people aged 45 years and over and people living in non-metropolitan areas. Digestion was selected as the major health benefit from consumption of specific vegetables. However, understanding of the health benefits of specific vegetable consumption was relatively low among consumers. Half of the respondents were not sure of the health benefits associated with specific vegetables, except for carrots and spinach. Some respondents volunteered nutrient content or other information. There was no clear indication that consumers understand the specific health benefits conferred by consumption of vegetables. Nutrient and health benefit labelling therefore has the capacity to enhance knowledge of vegetable consumers. It is recommended that health benefit labelling be tailored to promote greater consumption of vegetables in those demographic groups where vegetable consumption was lower. The present study assists the Australian vegetable industry in helping consumers make more informed consumption choices. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  17. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  18. The new consumer of medicine--the pharmacy technicians' perspective.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Janine M; Noerreslet, Mikkel

    2004-08-01

    Market research, and more recently health services research, has adopted the concept of the 'new consumer' to describe customers/patients who are becoming more demanding. This study aims to determine the relevancee of the concept 'new consumer' for pharmacy practice, in light of the theory of 'risk society'. Qualitative in-depth interviews were carried out with seven pharmacy technicians from six different pharmacies in the Copenhagen area, Denmark. They were asked to describe developments, over time, in consumer behaviour. They were asked to focus on three themes: information, the authority of the pharmacy staff, and their predictions of the future pharmacy customer. Young customers, particularly parents of pre-school children, as well as the chronically ill appeared to share the characteristics associated with the 'new consumer'. They were: information strong (well-informed) and information seeking (inquisitive); asked critical questions; showed a desire to longer initiate dialogue; sought counselling and in general no longer blindly accepted the authority of the pharmacy staff. According to pharmacy technicians a 'new consumer' does exist and is visible in community pharmacies in Copenhagen. Seen in light of the theory of risk society, we further conclude that the behaviour of the 'new consumer' is indicative of an attempt to minimize risk of drug therapy.

  19. Integrating Life Skills into a Consumer Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlyniec, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Strategies for teaching life skills are presented (such as role playing). Specific topic areas covered in the course are presented (career awareness, life-style determination, budget preparation, insurance, consumer law, and investments). The author also discusses interjecting other life situations, handling student departures, and developing…

  20. Consumer Education Program for the Developmentally Disabled Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    Outlined is the content of a consumer education course for low income and educable developmentally disabled adults. The program is divided into four concept areas (lesson topics are in parentheses): decision making (values and goals, and needs and wants); money management (values of money, the budget or spending plan, and the savings plan); wise…

  1. Consumer Education Curriculum Guide. Energy and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jane S.; Morris, Carol

    This curriculum guide on consumer education, covering one of the five content areas of the Energy and Family Curriculum Guide, has been designed to provide learning experiences and identify resources that can be used to develop units of study related to energy usage and conservation. The guide is intended for use in comprehensive courses of home…

  2. Perpetuating Core Values in Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) Code of Ethics guides members on ethical practice in specific areas, however, becoming ethical does not happen at the moment a major is declared or on graduation day. Ethical values are formed in childhood by the examples provided by parents, teachers, and other significant adults.…

  3. Consumer Education in the English Curriculum. Monograph 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Nancy B.; Johnston, William L.

    Consumer education should be integrated throughout the curriculum in an inter-disciplinary manner. English teachers have unparalleled opportunity to provide students with excellent foundations for critical and interpretive reading and thinking in the area of advertising, as they are involved with reading, vocabulary building, and both oral and…

  4. Student Perceptions of Themselves as "Consumers" of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article first offers a survey of what has become an area of increasing interest in higher education: the rise of the so-called "student-consumer". This has been linked in part to the marketisation of higher education and the increased personal financial contributions individual students make towards their higher education. Drawing…

  5. The Consumer and Homemaking Cluster. Career Orientation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Developed to provide seventh and eighth grade students information about careers in the consumer and homemaking occupational cluster, this booklet may be used to integrate career information with various subject areas. (It is one of several student booklets developed for use in the Ohio Career Orientation Program at grades 7 and 8 to assist…

  6. Consumer Education in an Age of Adaptation. Educator Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sally R.

    Designed to serve as a reference and resource, this publication contains ideas and information to help teachers modify content and teaching methods to assist students in coping with the changing marketplace. Part 1 of the guide lists educational objectives for these major content areas: (1) The Consumer and the Economy, (2) Values and Goals, (3)…

  7. Perpetuating Core Values in Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) Code of Ethics guides members on ethical practice in specific areas, however, becoming ethical does not happen at the moment a major is declared or on graduation day. Ethical values are formed in childhood by the examples provided by parents, teachers, and other significant adults.…

  8. Consumer Aspects of Death and Dying. The Forgotten Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, James M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The consumer aspects of death and dying are discussed as part of a comprehensive death education program. Suggested areas to be covered include traditional funeral procedures and costs; alternatives including cremation, body donation, and funeral and memorial societies; and drawing up a will. Some suggested teaching strategies are outlined. (JMF)

  9. Developing a Resource Center in Consumer Education: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, E. Thomas; And Others

    The rationale behind this annotated bibliography of over 1300 items is that every consumer education teacher needs numerous classroom resources to provide for the individual needs of his students, and these resources should be balanced in representing all content areas. The resource materials included, mostly booklets and pamphlets for classroom…

  10. Large-Area Liquid Scintillation Detector Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, M. F.; Gurr, H. S.; Hruschka, A. A.; Jenkins, T. L.; Kropp, W. P.; Reines, P.; Sobel, H.

    The following sections are included: * SUMMARY * INTRODUCTION * DETECTOR RESPONSE FUNCTION F(z) AND EVENT POSITION DETERMINATION * REFINEMENTS IN THE DETECTOR CONFIGURATION DESIGN * DETECTOR PERFORMANCE * APPENDIX * REFERENCES

  11. Validation of an assay for quantification of free normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection: Comparison of peak-area vs. peak-height measurements.

    PubMed

    Nieć, Dawid; Kunicki, Paweł K

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of plasma concentrations of free normetanephrine (NMN), metanephrine (MN) and methoxytyramine (MTY) constitute the most diagnostically accurate screening test for pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The aim of this article is to present the results from a validation of an analytical method utilizing high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection (HPLC-CD) for quantifying plasma free NMN, MN and MTY. Additionally, peak integration by height and area and the use of one calibration curve for all batches or individual calibration curve for each batch of samples was explored as to determine the optimal approach with regard to accuracy and precision. The method was validated using charcoal stripped plasma spiked with solutions of NMN, MN, MTY and internal standard (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine) with the exception of selectivity which was evaluated by analysis of real plasma samples. Calibration curve performance, accuracy, precision and recovery were determined following both peak-area and peak-height measurements and the obtained results were compared. The most accurate and precise method of calibration was evaluated by analyzing quality control samples at three concentration levels in 30 analytical runs. The detector response was linear over the entire tested concentration range from 10 to 2000pg/mL with R(2)≥0.9988. The LLOQ was 10pg/mL for each analyte of interest. To improve accuracy for measurements at low concentrations, a weighted (1/amount) linear regression model was employed, which resulted in inaccuracies of -2.48 to 9.78% and 0.22 to 7.81% following peak-area and peak-height integration, respectively. The imprecisions ranged from 1.07 to 15.45% and from 0.70 to 11.65% for peak-area and peak-height measurements, respectively. The optimal approach to calibration was the one utilizing an individual calibration curve for each batch of samples and peak-height measurements. It was characterized by inaccuracies ranging from -3

  12. Self-monitoring and consumer psychology.

    PubMed

    DeBono, Kenneth G

    2006-06-01

    Research on the relations between self-monitoring differences and two important areas of consumer behavior, reactions to specific advertising approaches and product evaluation strategies, is reviewed and evaluated. First, research on the responsiveness of high and low self-monitors to image-oriented and product-quality-based advertising attempts is addressed. Although findings generally indicate that high self-monitors are more responsive to image-oriented ads and that low self-monitors are more responsive to quality-based appeals, these results have not been robust. Possible reasons for this inconsistency are explored. Second, research on the means by which high and low self-monitors evaluate consumer products is examined. Findings suggest that when judging product quality, low self-monitors tend to rely on product performance and high self-monitors more likely use the product's image-enhancing capabilities. Additionally, research indicates that self-image/product-image congruency is generally a more important concern for low self-monitors, but high and low self-monitors' differential reliance on this congruency might be moderated by the situations in which the product is typically used. Additional possible delimiting conditions of these general findings are discussed.

  13. [Determination of 19 antibiotic and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in wild fish muscle in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay using accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Du, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Hongxia

    2014-12-01

    A sample preparation and analytical method with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) was developed to detect 19 antibiotic (9 sulfonamides, 4 quinolones, 3 macrolides and 3 others) and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in fish muscle. The target compounds were extracted using ASE and purified simultaneously by a C18 resin in the extraction cell. The extracts were evaporated to dryness, and redissolved with the initial mobile phase for HPLC-MS/MS analysis after freezing centrifugation (10,000 r/min, -4 °C) to remove the fat and other matrix compounds further. The separation of the analytes was carried out on an Xterra MS C18 column with methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as mobile phase A and 0. 1% formic acid (containing 0. 1% ammonium formate) as mobile phase B. The spiked recoveries of the method were 55. 2%-113. 3%, with the relative standard deviations of 0. 1% - 17. 6% (n = 6). The limits of detection ranged from 0. 003 to 0. 6 ng/g. The method was applied to two fish (Synechogobius hasta and Liza haematocheilus) collected in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay and six antibiotics were detected, in which the mass concentrations of norfloxacin were highest with mean values of 67. 01 and 27. 58 ng/g, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and useful in the study on exposure levels and environmental behavior of the antibiotics.

  14. Terrorism Insurance: Alternative Programs for Protecting Insurance Consumers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    insurance in urban areas - Offered federal reinsurance for insured property in urban areas Statement Terrorism Insurance: Alternative Proposals for...and the reinsurers who share the industry’s risks, have indicated that they don’t know how much to charge for this coverage going forward because they...Insurance: Alternative Proposals for Protecting Insurance Consumers Page 2 GAO-02-199T prudent and efficient behavior are not replaced by an attitude

  15. THE WORKER IS A CONSUMER. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE ANNUAL AFL-CIO NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNITY SERVICES (10TH, WASHINGTON, MAY 16-20, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    THE TENTH ANNUAL AFL-CIO NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNITY SERVICES WAS CONCERNED WITH WAYS THE LABOR UNIONS CAN DEVELOP CONSUMER EDUCATION AROUND THE NEEDS OF WORKERS. SPEAKERS POINTED OUT THE NEED FOR ENFORCEMENT OF CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS, OUTLINED AREAS IN WHICH SCHOOL CONSUMER COURSES WERE NEEDED, DISCUSSED CONSUMER RIGHTS, AND SUGGESTED…

  16. Concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Natasha; Jaeger, Matthew W

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated liquid detergent pods are an emerging public health hazard, especially in pediatric patients. Ingestion is a more common route of exposure for liquid detergent pods compared with non-pod detergents and it tends to be associated with more severe adverse effects. We present 3 cases that demonstrate the varied clinical symptoms resulting from detergent pod ingestion. These cases not only demonstrate findings such as gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms but also show more rare neurological symptoms. The cases highlight the dangers of concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion. To help prevent further life-threatening injuries, there is a need for more consumer information and provider knowledge about the potential adverse complications.

  17. Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  18. What consumers want to know about quality when choosing a hospice provider.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brad; McDuff, Jessica; Naierman, Naomi; Kreling, Barbara; Tein, Naomi; Hunter, Dora; Deviney, Meredith; Lynn, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    Despite the availability of endorsed quality measures and widespread usage of hospice, hospice quality data are rarely available to consumers. Moreover, little is known about how consumers prioritize extant measures. This study drew on focus group and survey data collected in 5 metropolitan areas. The study found that consumers reported the hospice quality indicators we tested were easy to understand. Participants placed top priority on measures related to pain and symptom management. Relative to consumers with hospice experience, consumers without previous experience tended to place less value on spiritual support for patients and caregivers, emotional support for caregivers, and after-hours availability. The National Quality Forum-approved measures resonate well with consumers. Consumers also appear to be ready for access to data on the quality of hospice providers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Japanese consumers' valuation of domestic beef after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Manabu; Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    After the radioactive contamination of agricultural and livestock products caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 11, 2011, consumer aversion against purchasing food products from the affected areas has become a major social problem in Japan. We examine how test results for radioactive materials in beef affect consumer valuation of beef produced in no-risk and affected areas using a choice experiment survey of consumers in the Tokyo metropolitan area (N = 392). Respondents were divided into two groups: one faced choice experiment tasks under the current test condition (the test status was only "under the limit"), and the other faced choice experiment tasks under the tightened test condition (with three levels: "below the limit," "below one-tenth of the limit," and "undetected"). We found that consumer valuation of "below the limit" beef in the affected area did not differ from that of "below one-tenth of the limit" beef in the affected area. Introducing the tightened status improved consumer valuations of all types of beef in the no-risk area regardless of the test status. However, consumer valuation of "undetected" beef in the affected area was lower than that in the no-risk area. The same measures need to be implemented with great care in both no-risk and affected areas. Otherwise, the effects of measures taken in the affected areas may be diluted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumers young and old: segmenting the target markets for direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jennifer Gerard; Manika, Danae; Stout, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) studies have typically focused on older adults or a general population of adults. However, college students are viable targets for DTCA and are receiving more research attention in this area. In this article, we compare college students with two adult age segments. Our findings indicate all age groups had relatively high awareness of DTCA and similar attitudes and behavioral responses to the ads. However, there were significant differences in media use and health characteristics as well as the factors predicting DTCA ad trust, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Implications and future research suggestions are discussed.

  1. Linking Consumer Rights with Citizen Roles: An Opportunity for Consumer Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Georgia L.

    1994-01-01

    Consumer educators can help students develop consumer/citizen roles through curricula linking consumer rights with citizen responsibilities. Dialogue about issues, community needs assessment, and community volunteer service enable students to practice citizen roles. (SK)

  2. Evaluation of food safety education for consumers.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, L; Hillers, V; Kendall, P; Mason, A

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, nutrition educators have used a fairly global approach to teach food safety by teaching a broad range of safe food handling behaviors in the expectation that this will lead to the avoidance of foodborne illness. This approach can be confusing and lead to evaluation data that are difficult to interpret. This article suggests that food safety education and evaluation in the future be organized around five behavioral constructs: practice personal hygiene, cook foods adequately, avoid cross-contamination, keep foods at safe temperatures, and avoid food from unsafe sources. These five constructs are derived from data on actual outbreaks and estimated incidences of foodborne illness. Research is needed to establish reliable and valid evaluation measures for these five behavioral constructs. Evaluation instruments can be tailored to fit specific education programs. If evaluation instruments focus on these five behavior areas, the result will be meaningful evaluation data that can be more easily summarized across food safety education programs for consumers.

  3. Research on Liquid Lubricants for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Glenn Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  4. Research on liquid lubricants for space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Lewis Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes, and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  5. Research on liquid lubricants for space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Lewis Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes, and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  6. Development of the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire: A Measure of Consumer Perceptions and Practices.

    PubMed

    Cairnduff, Victoria; Dean, Moira; Koidis, Anastasios

    2016-09-01

    Food preparation and storage behaviors in the home deviating from the "best practice" food safety recommendations may result in foodborne illnesses. Currently, there are limited tools available to fully evaluate the consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behavior in the area of refrigerator safety. The current study aimed to develop a valid and reliable tool in the form of a questionnaire, the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire (CRSQ), for assessing systematically all these aspects. Items relating to refrigerator safety knowledge (n =17), perceptions (n =46), and reported behavior (n =30) were developed and pilot tested by an expert reference group and various consumer groups to assess face and content validity (n =20), item difficulty and consistency (n =55), and construct validity (n =23). The findings showed that the CRSQ has acceptable face and content validity with acceptable levels of item difficulty. Item consistency was observed for 12 of 15 in refrigerator safety knowledge. Further, all 5 of the subscales of consumer perceptions of refrigerator safety practices relating to risk of developing foodborne disease showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α value > 0.8). Construct validity of the CRSQ was shown to be very good (P = 0.022). The CRSQ exhibited acceptable test-retest reliability at 14 days with the majority of knowledge items (93.3%) and reported behavior items (96.4%) having correlation coefficients of greater than 0.70. Overall, the CRSQ was deemed valid and reliable in assessing refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior; therefore, it has the potential for future use in identifying groups of individuals at increased risk of deviating from recommended refrigerator safety practices, as well as the assessment of refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior for use before and after an intervention.

  7. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Bellisle, France

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to rising rates of obesity in the United States. The standard explanation is that energy-containing liquids are less satiating than are solid foods. However, purely physiologic mechanisms do not fully account for the proposed links between liquid sugar energy and body weight change. First, a reevaluation of published epidemiologic studies of consumption of sweetened beverages and overweight shows that most such studies either are cross-sectional or are based on passive surveillance of temporal trends and thus permit no conclusions about causal links. Second, research evidence comparing the short-term satiating power of different types of liquids and of solids remains inconclusive. Numerous clinical studies have shown that sugar-containing liquids, when consumed in place of usual meals, can lead to a significant and sustained weight loss. The principal ingredient of liquid meal replacement shakes is sugar, often high-fructose corn syrup, which is present in amounts comparable to those in soft drinks. Far from suppressing satiety, one such liquid shake is marketed on the grounds that it helps control hunger and prevents hunger longer when consumed for the purpose of weight loss. These inconsistencies raise the question whether the issue of sugars and body weight should continue to be framed purely in metabolic or physiologic terms. The effect of sugar consumption on body weight can also depend on behavioral intent, context, and the mode of use, availability, and cost of sweetened liquids.

  8. 'Take small steps to go a long way' consumer involvement in research into complementary and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Charlotte

    2004-08-01

    This investigation set out to learn about consumer involvement in complementary medicine research from those who have experience of practice in this area. A literature search was combined with written and oral responses from key people and organisations in the UK. Letter or e-mail contact was made with 59 key people and organisations and 43 people responded. Eighteen respondents were interviewed. The overall level of consumer involvement was low but participants provided examples of experiences of consumer involvement in commissioning, designing, carrying out, and disseminating research. Clear roles and tasks and a consumer-friendly research environment, enabled consumers to contribute, gain confidence, and gradually widen their areas of involvement. There appears to be no single 'right way' for researchers and consumers to work together, but with experience and mutual respect researchers became increasingly enthusiastic about the value of the consumer perspective. As one consumer said: 'You have to take small steps to go a long way'.

  9. Macromolecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. ); Pincus, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Collection of liquid from below-ground location

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Steven J.; Alexander, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    A method of retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container.

  11. Organizational capacity needs of consumer-run organizations.

    PubMed

    Wituk, Scott; Vu, Chi C; Brown, Louis D; Meissen, Greg

    2008-05-01

    Consumer-run organizations (CROs) are self-help oriented organizations that are run entirely by consumers (people who use or have used mental health services). The current study utilizes an organizational capacity framework to explore the needs of operating CROs. This framework includes four core capacity areas: (1) technical, (2) management, (3) leadership, and (4) adaptive capacity. An analysis reveals that the greatest organizational needs are related to technical and management capacities. Implications are discussed in terms of strategies and activities that CRO leaders and mental health professionals and administrators can use to strengthen the organizational capacity of CROs in their community.

  12. Correlating consumer perception and consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-11-01

    Doenjang is a traditional Korean food and is widely used for many Korean foods. Consumer perception and consumer acceptability on the typical sensory characteristics of traditional Doenjang remain unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the consumer perception on traditional Doenjang characteristics and how preexisting consumer perception influenced the consumer liking for traditionally and commercially manufactured Doenjang. A consumer survey was conducted by presenting 26 sensory descriptions to consumers (n = 82) for check-all-that-apply measurement. Then, a consumer acceptance test was conducted over 2 d on 2 Doenjang samples representing commercially produced Doenjang and traditionally produced Doenjang: Day 1 consumers evaluated without any information (n = 182), and day 2 consumers evaluated samples informed that both samples were made by the "traditional" method (n = 109). Two-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses were conducted. Consumers' preexisting perceptions on the typical sensory characteristics of traditionally made Doenjang were similar in that they associate "gu-soo flavor," "dark color," "flavorful," and "well-fermented flavor" regardless of consumer demographics and Doenjang user status. However, these consumer perceptions on sensory attributes of traditional Doenjang did not agree with desirable sensory attributes for consumer liking, in that consumers preferred the commercially made Doenjang regardless of the evaluation condition and consumer user status. Findings from the current study therefore suggested a discrepancy between the preexisting current consumer perception and actual consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Extraterrestrial consumables production and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    Potential oxygen requirements for lunar-surface, lunar-orbit, and planetary missions are presented with emphasis on: (1) emergency survival of the crew, (2) provision of energy consumables for vehicles, and (3) nondependency on an earth supply of oxygen. Although many extraterrestrial resource processes are analytically feasible, this study has considered hydrogen and fluorine processing concepts to obtain oxygen or water (or both). The results are quite encouraging and are extrapolatable to other processes. Preliminary mission planning and sequencing analysis has enabled the programmatic evaluation of using lunar-derived oxygen relative to transportation cost as a function of vehicle delivery and operational capability.

  14. Optical design for consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anurag

    2014-10-01

    Optical engineers often limit their focus on meeting the provided targets on performance and geometry and assume that the specifications are largely non-negotiable. Such approach ignores the value proposition behind the product and the challenges associated with overall product design, manufacturing, business development and legal issues. As a result, the design effort can be expensive, time consuming and can result in product failure. We discuss a product based systems engineering approach that leads to an application specific optical design that is more effective and efficient to implement.

  15. Information and the solar consumer

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, F.

    1981-05-01

    A brief review of the use of solar energy in the US is presented and then the attitude of solar consumer are summarized. Results of research show that information or knowledge of an innovation proceeds at a faster rate than the actual adoption of that innovation. It is noted that until the level of solar knowledge increases to about 30% of the potential end users who have seriously considered the technology and plan to invest in it, adoption of the technology will be limited.

  16. 47 CFR 64.703 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by... methods by which complaints concerning such rates, charges, or collection practices will be resolved; and... (Federal Communications Commission, Consumer Information Bureau, Consumer Complaints—Telephone,...

  17. Identifying Consumer Education Content for Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Baker, Glenn E.

    1982-01-01

    The survey described here identified suitable consumer topics which can be infused into industrial courses at all grade levels. The survey reinforced the development of sound consumer skills as an important objective of industrial arts education. (SK)

  18. Suspect Screening of Chemicals in Consumer Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation details a pilot suspect screening analysis (SSA) of common consumer products done under the Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry project of CSS. This work presents methods which can rapidly characterize chemicals identified in consumer products including formulations (s...

  19. Activating the Consumer about Pregnancy and Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Gordon B.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of consumer issues involved in education about pregnancy and childbirth are outlined for inclusion in health education programs. They include consumer concern prior to and during pregnancy, and surrounding childbirth. (JMF)

  20. Consumer choice of pork chops in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M

    2010-07-01

    Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.