Science.gov

Sample records for area d4 project

  1. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2007 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of twenty buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  2. 300 Area D4 Project 4th Quarter Fiscal Year 2006 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Smith

    2007-01-30

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of nine buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  3. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2008 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of eighteen buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site that were demolished in Fiscal Year 2008. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  4. 300 Area D4 Project 2nd Quarter FY06 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Smith

    2006-06-26

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of 16 buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation as appropriate.

  5. 300 Area D4 Project 3rd Quarter Fiscal Year 2006 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Smith

    2006-09-25

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of five buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation as appropriate.

  6. 300 Area D4 Project 1st Quarter Fiscal Year 2006 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Smith

    2006-04-20

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of the MO-052, 3225, 334, 334A, and 334-TF Buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation as appropriate.

  7. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2009 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Skwarek

    2010-01-27

    This report summarizes the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition activities of seven facilities in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in fiscal year 2009. The D4 of these facilities included characterization; engineering; removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials; equipment removal; utility disconnection; deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure; and stabilization or removal of slabs and foundations. This report also summarizes the nine below-grade slabs/foundations removed in FY09 of buildings demolished in previous fiscal years.

  8. 100 Area D4 Project Building Completion Report - July 2007 to December 2008

    SciTech Connect

    M. T. Stankovich

    2009-04-15

    This report documents the decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of the 105-NB, 163-N, 183-N, 183-NA, 183-NB, 183-NC, 184-N, 184-NA, 184-NB, 184-NC, 184-ND, 184-NE, 184-NF, 1312-N, 1330-N, 1705-N, 1705-NA, 1706-N, 1712-N, 1714-N, 1714-NA, 1714-NB, 1802-N, MO-050, MO-055, MO-358, MO-390, MO-900, MO-911, and MO-950 facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 activities for these facilities include utility disconnection, planning, characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiological contaminated materials, equipment removal, decommissioning, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and removal of the remaining slabs.

  9. 100 Area D4 Project Building Completion Report May 2006 - June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    E. G. Ison

    2007-07-25

    This report documents the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) and the demolition of the 153-N, 1515-N, 1516-N, 1517-N, 1518-N, 1519-N, 1331-N, 1332-N, and 181-NC facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The D&D and demolition of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and removal of the remaining slabs.

  10. D4 Project Innovations and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, J.C.

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the Hanford Site, which was awarded to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). One portion of the WCH company structure is known as the D4 project, where D4 represents the deactivation, decommissioning, decontamination, and demolition of excess facilities. The RCC Contract scope requires that approximately 485 excess facilities undergo the D4 process. During 2005 and 2006, significant acceleration has been achieved in completing the D4 of these facilities. By the end of November 2006, more than 70 facilities had been completed, while only 22 were scheduled for completion. This acceleration has been achieved by implementing innovative work practices and refinement of techniques developed at other DOE such as Rocky Flats, Mound, and Savannah River. In addition, a number of unique equipment deployments have supported the acceleration. While the RCC Project is moving along an accelerated path, there are a number of challenges ahead. The challenges discussed in this paper relate to project impacts that could result from the delayed release of excess facilities in the 300 and 100-K Areas and the potential for mitigation of these impacts. (authors)

  11. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  12. EarthServer - an FP7 project to enable the web delivery and analysis of 3D/4D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, John; Sen, Marcus; Passmore, James

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer aims at open access and ad-hoc analytics on big Earth Science data, based on the OGC geoservice standards Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The WCS model defines "coverages" as a unifying paradigm for multi-dimensional raster data, point clouds, meshes, etc., thereby addressing a wide range of Earth Science data including 3D/4D models. WCPS allows declarative SQL-style queries on coverages. The project is developing a pilot implementing these standards, and will also investigate the use of GeoSciML to describe coverages. Integration of WCPS with XQuery will in turn allow coverages to be queried in combination with their metadata and GeoSciML description. The unified service will support navigation, extraction, aggregation, and ad-hoc analysis on coverage data from SQL. Clients will range from mobile devices to high-end immersive virtual reality, and will enable 3D model visualisation using web browser technology coupled with developing web standards. EarthServer is establishing open-source client and server technology intended to be scalable to Petabyte/Exabyte volumes, based on distributed processing, supercomputing, and cloud virtualization. Implementation will be based on the existing rasdaman server technology developed. Services using rasdaman technology are being installed serving the atmospheric, oceanographic, geological, cryospheric, planetary and general earth observation communities. The geology service (http://earthserver.bgs.ac.uk/) is being provided by BGS and at present includes satellite imagery, superficial thickness data, onshore DTMs and 3D models for the Glasgow area. It is intended to extend the data sets available to include 3D voxel models. Use of the WCPS standard allows queries to be constructed against single or multiple coverages. For example on a single coverage data for a particular area can be selected or data with a particular range of pixel values. Queries on multiple surfaces can be

  13. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation in GABAergic projections of the globus pallidus to the reticular thalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra reticulata of the rat decreases locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Erlij, David; Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Rojas-Márquez, Martín; González-Hernández, Brenda; Escartín-Perez, Erick; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine D4 receptors are localized in the GABAergic projections that globus pallidus (GP) neurons send to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RTN), the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Deficient D4 function in this network could lead to hyperactivity and thus be important in generating some of the symptoms of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), a condition associated with polymorphisms of dopamine D4 receptors. It is then, unexpected that systemic injections of D4 ligands have no significant effects on the motor activity of normal rats. We further examined this issue by microinjecting D4 ligands and psychostimulant drugs in relevant structures. Interstitial dopamine overflow in the RTN was increased by reverse microdialysis of both methylphenidate and methamphetamine. Intranuclear injections in the RTN of methylphenidate, methamphetamine and the selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 reduced motor activity. Intraperitoneal injection of the D4 antagonist L 745,870 blocked the effects of these intranuclear injections. Similarly, intranuclear injections of PD 168,077 in the SNr inhibited motor activity, an effect that was also blocked by intraperitoneal L 745,870. In rats with 6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonism, intraperitoneal PD 168,077 produced ipsilateral turning behavior that was blocked by L 745,870. Our results suggest that diminished D4 signaling in GP projections could lead to increased traffic through the relay nuclei of the thalamus and hyperactivity. Hence this basal-ganglia-thalamus network may be one of the targets of the beneficial effects that psychostimulant drugs have in disorders associated with D4 receptor abnormalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  14. Project analysis and integration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Project Analysis and Integration Area (PA&I) is to support the planning, analysis, integration, and decision making activities of the Flat-plate Solar Array FSA) Project. Accordingly, PA&I supports the Project by developing and documenting Project plans based, in part, on the technical and economic assessments performed by PA&I of the various technical options. Goals for module technical performance and costs, derived from National Photovoltaics Program goals, are established by PA&I for each of the major technical activities in the Project. Assessments of progress toward achievement of goals are made to guide decision making within the Project.

  15. The D4A Digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cuyper, J.; Winter, L.

    2005-12-01

    The D4A (Digital Access to Aerial- and Astro-photographic Archives) project aims to acquire the necessary know-how, hardware and software to digitise the astro-photographic collections of the Royal Observatory of Belgium and the aerial-photographic collections of the National Geographic Institute and the Royal Museum of Central Africa in collaboration with AGFA-Gevaert. The D4A digitiser under construction consists of a granite based Aerotech ABL 3600 open frame air bearing XY positioning system, with custom build hardware to mount glass plates, film sheets and film rolls. The optical subsystem consists of a C-Cam Technologies CMOS camera mounted to a Schneider telecentric Xenoplan lens and will be illuminated by a computer controlled LED. The maximum scanning area is 350mm × 350mm with a speed of 6 plates (240mm × 240mm) per hour. A first benchmark of a prototype ABL 3600 was done and the proposed illumination system tested as detailed below.

  16. Project for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Peay State Univ., Clarksville, TN.

    The history of the Project for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT), a university based national curriculum assessment project, is described in this report. The project performs surveys of academic curricula by content area, collects examination items from the faculty of participating departments, and constructs, distributes, and scores…

  17. The D4A Digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cuyper, J.-P.; Winter, L.

    2006-07-01

    The D4A (Digital Access to Aerial- and Astro-photographic Archives) project aims to acquire the necessary know-how, hardware and software to digitise the astro-photographic collections of the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and the aerial-photographic collections of the National Geographic Institute and the Royal Museum of Central Africa in collaboration with AGFA-Gevaert, a world-leader in photographic matters. The final design of the ``D4A Digitiser'' that is being built by the ROB in Brussels is presented. A geometric benchmark testing of different commercial flatbed scanners is given and the results are compared with the requirements needed for the astrometric and photometric data extraction from the digitised images.

  18. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power Light Company's (PP L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  19. Implementation of Online Peer Assessment in a Design for Learning and Portfolio (D4L+P) Program to Help Students Complete Science Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuttisela, Karntarat; Wuttiprom, Sura; Phonchaiya, Sonthi; Saengsuwan, Sayant

    2016-01-01

    Peer assessment was one of the most effective strategies to improve students' understanding, metacognitive skills, and social interaction. An online tool, "Designing for Learning and Portfolio (D4L+P)", was developed solely to support the T5 (tasks, tools, tutorials, topicresources, and teamwork) method of teaching and learning. This…

  20. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Angie; Bertjens, Steve; Lieurance, Mike; Berguson, Bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  1. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  2. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest..., Colorado River Storage Project Manager, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social.... Thomas Hackett, Rates Team Lead, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social...

  3. Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Cox, J.D.; Beard, T.; Ruhl, S.; Bearden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish global modeling in the raster domain, but recent research has indicated that the transformation of large areas through map projection equations leads to errors. This research attempts to gauge the extent of map projection and resampling effects on the tabulation of categorical areas by comparing the results of three datasets for seven common projections. The datasets, Global Land Cover, Holdridge Life Zones, and Global Vegetation, were compiled at resolutions of 30 arc-second, 1/2 degree, and 1 degree, respectively. These datasets were projected globally from spherical coordinates to plane representations. Results indicate significant problems in the implementation of global projection transformations in commercial software, as well as differences in areal accuracy across projections. The level of raster resolution directly affects the accuracy of areal tabulations, with higher resolution yielding higher accuracy. If the raster resolution is high enough for individual pixels to approximate points, the areal error tends to zero. The 30-arc-second cells appear to approximate this condition.

  4. CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL SCHOOL, AS PROPOSED BY THE PROJECT, ARE LISTED. FIVE AREAS OF SCHOOL OPERATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--(1) MULTIPLE CLASSES, INCLUDING SUPERVISED CORRESPONDENCE COURSES, (2) FLEXIBLE SCHEDULES, (3) USE OF SCHOOL AIDES, (4) USES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION, AND (5) SHARED SERVICES AND TALENTED YOUTH. A MAP LOCATING THE…

  5. The D4A Digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cuyper, J.-P.; Winter, L.; Vanommeslaeghe, J.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the pilot-project "Digital Access to Aero- and Astrophotographic Archives - D4A" is to preserve the historic-scientific information contained in the aerial photographic archives of the National Geographical Institute and the Royal Museum of Central Africa, and in the astrophotographic plate archive of the Royal Observatory of Belgium. In collaboration with the astronomical institutes of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Universiteit Antwerpen, and AGFA-Gevaert, a world-leader in photographic matters, the goal is to acquire the necessary know-how, hardware and software to digitise the information contained in the photographic plates, as well as the associated metadata. The project set out to offer the results to the public and to make them directly usable for scientific research through the modern techniques of the information society. A digital catalogue is under construction as well as an air-bearing digitiser of high geometric and radiometric resolution and precision. This digitiser will be housed in a temperature and humidity stabilised clean room with adjacent archive room.

  6. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. . Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  7. 78 FR 79444 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Final 2025 Power Marketing Initiative. SUMMARY: Western Area Power Administration (Western), Rocky Mountain Region, a Federal power marketing agency of the...

  8. Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katherine M.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Simon, Ryan R.

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4. PMID:22870201

  9. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  10. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  11. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  12. The D4c neutron diffractometer for liquids and glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. E.; Palleau, P.; Feltin, D.

    2000-03-01

    The D4c diffractometer, whose design and prototype stages have been successfully completed, is currently under construction. The D4c project involves upgrades in detection, neutron shielding, detector collimation and electronics. Large gains in counting rate (factor of 10) and in detector stability (factor of 5) will extend the range of high-precision isotopic substitution experiments used to obtain partial structure factors for liquids and glasses. The D4c instrument is scheduled to be commissioned in early 2000.

  13. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  14. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Various software for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package. PMID:27873959

  15. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-12-03

    Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  16. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site Characterization

  17. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  18. South Carolina: Charleston County Area Project Impact Environmental Education Program (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Charleston County Area Project Impact is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The project is under the direction of the Charleston County Building Services Department, in Charleston, S.C.

  19. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    In 5 squirrel monkeys the anatomical projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area were studied by the autoradiographic tracing technique. The 'cingular' vocalization area lies around the sulcus cinguli at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum; its electrical stimulation yields purring and cackling calls. The following efferent connections were found: corticocortical fibers could be traced into the orbital cortex (areas 10 and 11), dorsomedial frontal cortex (areas 9, 8 and 6), limbic cortex (areas 25, 24 and 23), Broca's area (area 44), frontal operculum (area 50), insula (areas 13 and 14), and auditory association cortex (area 22). Subcortical terminal fields within the telencephalon were found in the nucleus caudatus, putamen, claustrum, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, preoptic region and nucleus centralis and basolateralis amygdalae. Fibers reached most of these structures along different trajectories. In the diencephalon terminal fields lay in the dorsal hypothalamus, the subthalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, and the following thalamic nuclei: nucleus reticularis, ventralis anterior, centralis medialis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, submedius, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum. In the midbrain, the periaqueductal gray was the only projection area, extending into the parabrachial nuclei at the pontomesencephalic transition. The most caudal terminal field was found in the medial pontine gray. No terminals were detected in the nucleus ambiguus, nucleus n. hypoglossi or in any other cranial motor nucleus involved in phonation processes. A comparison of this projection system with the whole of structures producing vocalization when electrically stimulated yielded only partial overlap. Not all vocalization areas lie within the 'cingular' projection system, and inversely, not the whole projection system yielded vocalization. Overlap took place in the anterior limbic cortex, preoptic region, central amygdaloid nucleus

  20. Ashland Area Support Substation Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power & Light Company`s (PP&L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP&L`s Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP&L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW`s) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP&L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  1. First concept for a tropical area monitoring project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The first concept of a tropical area monitoring project is presented. The project would develop an operational system capable of monitoring land areas by machine processing of satellite data. LANDSAT images would be processed within a controlled isolable unit to detect changes in forest cover, rangeland, soil integrity, and other factors important to conservation of tropical ecology. An introductory developmental effort is described to demonstrate the use of LANDSAT data in this application. The independent unit, which functions as a user organization within the development project, assures that the technology will be transferable to a user organization through well defined, easily monitored interfaces with the rest of the world.

  2. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; ...

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some partsmore » of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.« less

  3. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.

  4. Dopamine D4 receptors in psychostimulant addiction.

    PubMed

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Grandy, David K; Le Foll, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Since the cloning of the D4 receptor in the 1990s, interest has been building in the role of this receptor in drug addiction, given the importance of dopamine in addiction. Like the D3 receptor, the D4 receptor has limited distribution within the brain, suggesting it may have a unique role in drug abuse. However, compared to the D3 receptor, few studies have evaluated the importance of the D4 receptor. This may be due, in part, to the relative lack of compounds selective for the D4 receptor; the early studies were mainly conducted in mice lacking the D4 receptor. In this review, we summarize the literature on the structure and localization of the D4 receptor before reviewing the data from D4 knockout mice that used behavioral models relevant to the understanding of stimulant use. We also present evidence from more recent pharmacological studies using selective D4 agonists and antagonists and animal models of drug-seeking and drug-taking. The data summarized here suggest a role for D4 receptors in relapse to stimulant use. Therefore, treatments based on antagonism of the D4 receptor may be useful treatments for relapse to nicotine, cocaine, and amphetamine use. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cornell OEO Project: An Exploration in Urban Extension Activity. Supplementary Report No. 1: The Project Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Lynn; Harding, Margaret

    The site of the Cornell-OEO project in South Brooklyn is described in terms of physical characteristics, ethnic composition, family composition, age of residents, income, and other qualities. Two large housing projects in the area are described. The charging character of the neighborhoods and its impact on the residents is outlined. Tables and…

  6. Overview to northwest of entire project area, from the communications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview to northwest of entire project area, from the communications tower. At farthest left is warehouse A-141. Warehouse A-199 and magazine A-210 are just left of center, and the fresh water tanks are in the right distance. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine, Corbett Road, southwest end of Kieper Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Underground Test Area Subproject Project Management Plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-03

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the manner in which the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) will manage the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides the basic guidance for implementation and the organizational structure for meeting the UGTA objectives.

  8. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  9. Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce Literacy Project 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce, PA.

    The Bethlehem Area Chamber of Commerce, using a grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Education, developed a model program to demonstrate the effectiveness of a business-based network to improve the literacy level of the local work force. The project involved increasing business member awareness of literacy needs, creating linkages among…

  10. Nashville Area Employment and Training Needs. Vocational Education Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    A survey involving 1,142 Nashville, Tennessee, area businesses was conducted to assess current employment interest and future labor demands for entry-level jobs. Major objectives of the project component, part of a three-pronged effort to improve vocational education, were (1) to provide for greater involvement by business and industry in…

  11. Bridging Disciplines with the Riparian Area Management Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerill, Kristan M.; Titus, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Faculty at Columbia University's Earth Semester created the interdisciplinary Riparian Area Management Project to help students integrate information and skills from life sciences, geosciences, social sciences, and humanities focused coursework. Structured as a "consulting" contract, students were required to make a policy recommendation…

  12. Subcortical Projections of Area V2 in the Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.; Galkin, Thelma W.; Desimone, Robert; Gattass, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the subcortical efferent connections of visual area V2, we injected tritiated amino acids under electrophysiological control into 15 V2 sites in 14 macaques. The injection sites included the fovea representation as well as representations ranging from central to far peripheral eccentricities in both the upper and lower visual fields. The results indicated that V2 projects topographically to different portions of the inferior and lateral pulvinar and to the superficial and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus. Within the pulvinar, the V2 projections terminated in fields P1, P2, and P4, with the strongest projection being in P2. Central visual field injections in V2 labeled projection zones in P1 and P2, whereas peripheral field injections labeled P1, P2, and P4. No projections were found in P3. Both central and peripheral field injections in V2 projected topographically to the superficial and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus. Projections from V2 to the pulvinar and the superior colliculus constituted cortical–subcortical loops through which circuits serving spatial attention are activated. PMID:24456395

  13. Rocky desertification treatment project in karst areas in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jinxing; Pang, Danbo; Wan, Long; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Genzhu

    2017-04-01

    Rocky desertification is one of the most severe ecological problems in karst areas of South China. Severe vegetation degradation, high soil erosion, high exposed bedrock and fast groundwater flow through karst conduits are typical characteristics in the rocky desertification areas. From 2008, the rocky desertification treatment project was conducted by the Chinese government to improve the local ecological environment. This paper has offered an overview of the rocky desertification treatment project, and the partitions for the rocky desertification treatment. Changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of different severity of rocky desertification were investigated. Diverse vegetation restoration modes and ecological engineering technology modes for rocky desertification management were introduced. We also discussed the vegetation restoration effects and the carbon absorbing effects by Chinese rocky desertification treatment project. Besides, the problems exist in the rocky desertification treatment were analyzed in our study. The new rocky desertification treatment project will be carried out from 2016 in China. We need continue to summarize the past experiences, and gain more achievements from the new project.

  14. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  15. Area recommendation report for the crystalline repository project: An evaluation. [Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J E; Lowe, H; Yurkovich, S P

    1986-03-28

    An evaluation is given of DOE's recommendation of the Elk River complex in North Carolina for siting the second repository. Twelve recommendations are made including a strong suggestion that the Cherokee Tribe appeal both through political and legal avenues for inclusion as an affected area primarily due to projected impacts upon economy and public health as a consequence of the potential for reduced tourism.

  16. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  17. Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

    2009-07-01

    According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

  18. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  19. The Griffith area palliative care service: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Ian; McDonald, Keith; Nancarrow, Lynette; Fletcher, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In September 2000 the Commonwealth released, as part of its National Palliative Care Strategy under the Australian Health Care Agreements, a National Framework for Palliative Care Service Development. The new National Framework stressed an important set of values to guide models of palliative care delivery. It notes that the challenge is to secure the place of palliative care as an integral part of health care across Australia, routinely available within local communities to those people who need it. Care and support for people who are dying and their families need to be built not only into health care services, but also into the fabric of communities and their support networks. While few would disagree with this, little is known about how best to achieve it in rural Australia. The Griffith Area Palliative Care Service (GAPS) is a two-year pilot project delivering a palliative care service through a truly integrated approach to care for patients, their carers and families within the Griffith Local Government Area and Carrathool Shire areas. This paper describes how GAPS is successfully meeting the challenges of service provision to rural and remote areas.

  20. Projections from the Subfornical Region of the Lateral Hypothalamic Area

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, MARINA; CANTERAS, NEWTON S.; BURNS, GULLY; SWANSON, LARRY W.

    2010-01-01

    The L-shaped anterior zone of the lateral hypothalamic area’s subfornical region (LHAsfa) is delineated by a pontine nucleus incertus input. Function evidence suggests the subfornical region and nucleus incertus modulate foraging and defensive behaviors, although subfornical region connections are poorly understood. A high resolution Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHAL) structural analysis is presented here of the LHAsfa neuron population’s overall axonal projection pattern. The strongest LHAsfa targets are in the interbrain and cerebral hemisphere. The former include inputs to anterior hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial part of the ventromedial nucleus, and ventral region of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (defensive behavior control system components), and to lateral habenula and dorsal region of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (foraging behavior control system components). The latter include massive inputs to lateral and medial septal nuclei (septo-hippocampal system components), and inputs to bed nuclei of the stria terminalis posterior division related to the defensive behavior system, intercalated amygdalar nucleus (projecting to central amygdalar nucleus), and posterior part of the basomedial amygdalar nucleus. LHAsfa vertical and horizontal limb basic projection patterns are similar, although each preferentially innervates certain terminal fields. Lateral hypothalamic area regions immediately medial, lateral, and caudal to the LHAsfa each generate quite distinct projection patterns. Combined with previous evidence that major sources LHAsfa neural inputs include the parabrachial nucleus (nociceptive information), defensive and foraging behavior system components, and the septo-hippocampal system, the present results suggest that the LHAsfa helps match adaptive behavioral responses (either defensive or foraging) to current internal motivational status and external environmental conditions. PMID:16261534

  1. Significant linkage disequilibrium between the Huntington disease gene and the loci D4S10 and D4S95 in the Dutch population

    SciTech Connect

    Skraastad, M.I.; Van de Vosse, E.; Belfroid, R.; Hoeld, K.; Vegter-van der Vlis, M.; Bakker, E.; van Ommen, G.J.B. ); Sandkuijl, L.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Significant linkage disequilibrium has been found between the Huntington disease (HD) gene and DNA markers located around D4S95 and D4S98. The linkage-disequilibrium studies favor the proximal location of the HD gene, in contrast to the conflicting results of recombination analyses. The authors have analyzed 45 Dutch HD families with 19 DNA markers and have calculated the strength of linkage disequilibrium. Highly significant linkage disequilibrium has been detected with D4S95, consistent with the studies in other populations. In contrast with most other studies, however, the area of linkage disequilibrium extends from D4S10 proximally to D4S95, covering 1,100 kb. These results confirm that the HD gene most likely maps near D4S95. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  3. 7 CFR 15d.4 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... filed with the Director of the Office of Civil Rights, United States Department of Agriculture... the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.4 Complaints. (a) Any person who believes that he or she (or...

  4. 7 CFR 15d.4 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... filed with the Director of the Office of Civil Rights, United States Department of Agriculture... the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.4 Complaints. (a) Any person who believes that he or she (or...

  5. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of Cancer...

  6. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of Cancer...

  7. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of Cancer...

  8. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of Cancer...

  9. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of Cancer...

  10. Metacridamide B methanol-d4 monosolvate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The title compound was extracted from conidia of the fungus Metarhizium acridum. Crystals were obtained as a methanol-d4 solvate. The tail part of the 4-methylhexan-2-yl group exhibits disorder over two positions, with an occupancy ratio of 0.682 (9):0.318 (9). The crystal structure confirms the abs...

  11. Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 447, as specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the State of Nevada, includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the PSA.

  12. Closure report for CAU No. 416: Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Project Shoal Area (PSA) Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416. CAU 416 consists of a mud pit, muckpile, and housekeeping site. The PSA is located approximately 48.3 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The mud pit was the result of drilling activities at the PSA in 1963. Investigation activities completed in 1996 determined drilling mud in the mud pit was impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons in excess of the State of Nevada 100 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). The muckpile consists of broken granite from emplacement shaft and drift (tunnel) mining activities at the PSA in 1963. The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans.

  13. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  14. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  15. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  16. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  17. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  18. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... project areas. 1468.4 Section 1468.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas. (a) CCC may periodically solicit proposals from the public to establish pilot project areas in the...

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and sprinting speed in boys.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Hill, M R

    2009-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative correlate of prenatal testosterone, has been found to relate to performance in sport and athletics such that low 2D:4D (high prenatal testosterone) correlates with high performance. Speed in endurance races is strongly related to 2D:4D, and may be one factor that underlies the link between sport and 2D:4D, but nothing is known of the relationship between 2D:4D and sprinting speed. Here we show that running times over 50 m were positively correlated with 2D:4D in a sample of 241 boys (i.e. runners with low 2D:4D ran faster than runners with high 2D:4D). The relationship was also found for 50 m split times (at 20, 30, and 40 m) and was independent of age, BMI, and an index of maturity. However, associations between 2D:4D and sprinting speed were much weaker than those reported for endurance running. This suggests that 2D:4D is a relatively weak predictor of strength and a stronger predictor of efficiency in aerobic exercise. We discuss the effect sizes for relationships between 2D:4D and sport and target traits in general, and identify areas of strength and weakness in digit ratio research.

  20. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  1. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  2. Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) - Progress Report, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Haase, Jennifer L.; Moore, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Maps of surficial geology, deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard, and liquefaction potential index have been prepared by various members of the Evansville Area Earthquake Hazard Mapping Project for seven quadrangles in the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, metropolitan areas. The surficial geologic maps feature 23 types of surficial geologic deposits, artificial fill, and undifferentiated bedrock outcrop and include alluvial and lake deposits of the Ohio River valley. Probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard and liquefaction hazard mapping is made possible by drawing on a wealth of information including surficial geologic maps, water well logs, and in-situ testing profiles using the cone penetration test, standard penetration test, down-hole shear wave velocity tests, and seismic refraction tests. These data were compiled and collected with contributions from the Indiana Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois State Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey, and Purdue University. Hazard map products are in progress and are expected to be completed by the end of 2009, with a public roll out in early 2010. Preliminary results suggest that there is a 2 percent probability that peak ground accelerations of about 0.3 g will be exceeded in much of the study area within 50 years, which is similar to the 2002 USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps for a firm rock site value. Accelerations as high as 0.4-0.5 g may be exceeded along the edge of the Ohio River basin. Most of the region outside of the river basin has a low liquefaction potential index (LPI), where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 (that is, there is a high potential for liquefaction) for a M7.7 New Madrid type event is only 20-30 percent. Within the river basin, most of the region has high LPI, where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 for a New Madrid type event is 80-100 percent.

  3. Growth of ice particle mass and projected area during riming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, Ehsan; Mitchell, David L.

    2017-01-01

    There is a long-standing challenge in cloud and climate models to simulate the process of ice particle riming realistically, partly due to the unrealistic parameterization of the growth of ice particle mass (m) and projected area (A) during riming. This study addresses this problem, utilizing ground-based measurements of m and ice particle maximum dimension (D) as well as theory to formulate simple expressions describing the dependence of m and A on riming. It was observed that β in the m - D power law m = α Dβ appears independent of riming during the phase 1 (before the formation of graupel), with α accounting for the ice particle mass increase due to riming. This semi-empirical approach accounts for the degree of riming and renders a gradual and smooth ice particle growth process from unrimed ice particles to graupel, and thus avoids discontinuities in m and A during accretional growth. Once the graupel with quasi-spherical shape forms, D increases with an increase in m and A (phase 2 of riming). The treatment for riming is explicit, and includes the parameterization of the ice crystal-cloud droplet collision efficiency (Ec) for hexagonal columns and plates using hydrodynamic theory. In particular, Ec for cloud droplet diameters less than 10 µm are estimated, and under some conditions observed in mixed-phase clouds, these droplets can account for roughly half of the mass growth rate from riming. These physically meaningful yet simple methods can be used in models to improve the riming process.

  4. /D=4, /N=1 orientifolds with vector structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Rabadán, R.

    2001-02-01

    We construct compact type IIB orientifolds with discrete groups Z4, Z6, Z6' , Z8, Z12 and Z12' . These models are N=1 supersymmetric in D=4 and have vector structure. The possibility of having vector structure in ZN orientifolds with even N arises due to an alternative Ω-projection in the twisted sectors. Some of the models without vector structure are known to be inconsistent because of uncancelled tadpoles. We show that vector structure leads to a sign flip in the twisted Klein bottle contribution. As a consequence, all the tadpoles can be cancelled by introducing D9-branes and D5-branes.

  5. On D = 4 Stationary Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianopoli, L.; D'Auria, R.; Gallerati, A.; Trigiante, M.

    2013-11-01

    We review some recent results concerning non-extremal and extremal stationary, asymptotically flat black hole solutions in extended D = 4 supergravities, and their properties with respect to the global symmetries of the theory. More specifically we refer to the effective three-dimensional description of these solutions and their classification within orbits with respect to the action of the global symmetry group, illustrating, for single-center solutions, the general mathematical relation between the orbits of non-extremal and extremal black holes.

  6. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  7. TQM project team - closure of a radioactive disposal area

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, A.S. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The paper discusses the integration of Total Quality Management (TQM) and specific project management best practices during design stages of an environmental restoration project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. It emphasizes the importance of an empowered, flexible and responsible project team to best reflect the translation of contractor resources into customer needs when faced with changes in funding level and schedules. 7 figs.

  8. 78 FR 63481 - Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... drug applications (INDs), (2) existing standardization projects underway, and (3) industry input on... TA standards. Stakeholders are encouraged to engage in and support these data standardization efforts...

  9. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  10. Local Area Networks--The ENFI Project (Writing on the College Campus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Linda

    1989-01-01

    Describes Electronic Networks for Interaction (ENFI), a local area network project developed at Gallaudet University to empower students with hearing impairments. Notes that this project can be adapted easily for use with traditional students. (MM)

  11. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  12. A Pilot Project for Vocational Guidance in Economically Underdeveloped Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carroll H.

    The purpose of this project was to establish a demonstration program to provide guidance services for: (1) non-college bound high school seniors, (2) recent high school graduates currently unemployed, and (3) former high school students who had dropped out of school within 3 years of initiation of the project. Specific objectives included: (1)…

  13. Some Equal-area, Conformal and Conventional Map Projections: A Tutorial Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Map projections have been widely used in many areas such as geography, oceanography, meteorology, geology, geodesy, photogrammetry and global positioning systems. Understanding different types of map projections is very crucial in these areas. This paper presents a tutorial review of various types of current map projections such as equal-area, conformal and conventional. We present these map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for them in detail. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  14. D=4, N=1, type IIA orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, S.; Kataoka, H.; Sato, Hikaru

    1999-12-01

    We study a D=4, N=1, type IIA orientifold with an orbifold group ZN and ZN×ZM. We calculate the one-loop vacuum amplitudes for the Klein bottle, cylinder, and Möbius strip and extract the tadpole divergences. We find that the tadpole cancellation conditions thus obtained are satisfied by the Z4, Z8, Z'8, Z'12 orientifolds while there is no solution for Z3, Z7, Z6, Z'6, Z12. The Z4×Z4 type IIA orientifold is also constructed by introducing four different configurations of 6-branes. We argue about perturbative versus nonperturbative orientifold vacua under T duality between the type IIA and the type IIB ZN orientifolds in four dimensions.

  15. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  16. S Q E D 4 and Q E D 4 on the Null-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2014-08-01

    We study the scalar electrodynamics ( S Q E D 4) and the spinor electrodynamics ( Q E D 4) in the null-plane formalism. We follow Dirac's technique for constrained systems to analyze the constraint structure in both theories in detail. We impose the appropriate boundary conditions on the fields to fix the hidden subset first class constraints that generate improper gauge transformations and obtain a unique inverse of the second-class constraint matrix. Finally, choosing the null-plane gauge condition, we determine the generalized Dirac brackets of the independent dynamical variables, which via the correspondence principle give the (anti)-commutators for posterior quantization.

  17. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION:...

  18. ESTCP Pilot Project Wide Area Assessment for Munitions Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    and open , gradual slopes, and valleys between steep hills. Vegetation varies from sparse shrubs and trees to dense, continuous groves. The site...technologies that locate areas intentionally used for military activities such as impact areas, target areas, or other “ concentrations ” such as open ...number cannot be used to define an anomaly density that constitutes ‘ concentrated ,’ as the contrast between the site background anomaly density and the

  19. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-09-23

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  20. NHC's Manpower Distribution Project--Finding Ways to Interest Students to Practice in Shortage Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Anne R.

    1975-01-01

    Through its Health Manpower Distribution Project, the National Health Council has developed three demonstration projects in rural Maine, inner city New Orleans, and Applachian Kentucky to test methods of influencing students to practice in shortage areas. Four additional projects have been funded and three regional workshops sponsored. (MW)

  1. Aberdeen Area Final Evaluation Report, ESEA Title I Project, Fiscal Year 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    Compiled from the final evaluation reports of 36 direct instruction projects and 1 Area Technical Assistance project (94 percent of which were contracted and administered by American Indian tribes or Indian school boards), this report is a summative evaluation of 1974 Title I projects in North and South Dakota. A brief introduction describes the…

  2. Projected Allied Health and Nursing Training Needs for a Seven-County Area in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.; And Others

    This report describes a project that developed and field tested a model for projecting state-wide manpower needs in the allied health and nursing occupations in West Virginia and presents projections made for sixteen allied health and nursing occupations in the Charleston area. The content of the report is presented in three sections. The first…

  3. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  4. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  5. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  6. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass conversion...

  7. Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Network Radio Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panciers, David J.

    In the fall of 1973, public, school, and college librarians in the Lowell, Massachusetts, area formed the Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Networks (LACOIN). With a grant from the Library Services and Construction Act, Title III, LACOIN initiated library-sponsored public affairs radio broadcasting for its community. Utilizing the Lowell…

  8. Projections of forestland and developed land areas in western Washington.

    Treesearch

    R. Alig; E. White

    2007-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2000, nonfederal timberland areas in western Washington declined by 5 percent, in contrast to a 3-percent reduction for the 1980-90 period. Most of this reduction is attributed to the conversion of timberland to other land uses, especially urban and other developed uses. In areas such as the Puget Sound region, population densities have more than...

  9. Subcellular localization and regulation of StarD4 protein in macrophages and fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Agudo, Daniel; Calderon-Dominguez, Maria; Ren, Shunlin; Marques, Dalila; Redford, Kaye; Medina-Torres, Miguel Angel; Hylemon, Phillip; Gil, Gregorio; Pandak, William M.

    2011-01-01

    StarD4 is a member of the StarD4 subfamily of START domain proteins with a characteristic lipid binding pocket specific for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to define StarD4 subcellular localization, regulation, and function. Immunobloting showed that StarD4 is highly expressed in the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T3-L1, in human THP-1 macrophages, Kupffer cells (liver macrophages), and hepatocytes. In 3T3-L1 cells and THP-1 macrophages, StarD4 protein appeared localized to the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). More specifically, in THP-1 macrophages StarD4 co-localized to areas of the ER enriched in Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), and was closely associated with budding lipid droplets. The addition of purified StarD4 recombinant protein to an in vitro assay increased ACAT activity 2-fold, indicating that StarD4 serves as a rate-limiting step in cholesteryl ester formation by delivering cholesterol to ACAT-1-enriched ER. In addition, StarD4 protein was found to be highly regulated and to redistribute in response to sterol levels. In summary, these observations, together with our previous findings demonstrating the ability of increased StarD4 expression to increase bile acid synthesis and cholesteryl ester formation, provide strong evidence for StarD4 as a highly regulated, non-vesicular, directional, intracellular transporter of cholesterol which plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:21767660

  10. Libyan Military Power Projection in Sub-Saharan Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-12

    credible. One pays attention to his great design to unify all the Arabic world. Can such a thing happen? And how could a military power in this area be...6th century. The Berber cultural substratem was totally submerged in Libya in the ninth and tenth centuries by large-scale immigration of Arabic ...speaking, nomadic tribes from central Arabia. That explains the heavy Arabic feeling of the modern inhabitants. It may be said of numerous areas that

  11. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) deletion in mice does not affect operant responding for food or cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-22

    In this study we examined the genetic contribution of the D4R in food and cocaine self-administration using D4R mice. Mice were examined for operant responding to food pellets or intravenous cocaine. Compared to wild-type mice (D4R{sup +/+}), both heterozygous (D4R{sup +/-}) and knockout (D4R{sup -/-}) mice showed no difference in responding for food or cocaine. Our findings suggest that the D4R is not directly involved in mediating operant response behaviors for food or cocaine.

  12. City of Huntsville Public Housing Areas STEM Initiative Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Tomeka; Smith, Cydale; Pugh, Marcus; Budak, Satilmis; Muntele, Claudiu

    2012-02-01

    Students in high-poverty and high-minority schools are entering the classroom without the knowledge and skills they need to succeed. In order to bridge the gaps in opportunity and achievement that separate low-income students and students of color from other young Americans, we have introduced elementary and middle school students to the basic concepts of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Within the project, we have provided students with excellent learning opportunities, engaging hands-on experiences, and outstanding advising and mentoring. We have assessed student development and impact before, during, and after the program.

  13. [Restructuring and reorganization project in the public health area].

    PubMed

    Crosetto, M A; Caballero, G

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to produce substantial change as regards the reorganization, reconstruction and normalization of the hospital data to extra hospital data recording system from the Ministry of Health in the Province of Córdoba (Argentina). In order to incorporate socio-demographic factors in the various data forms so asa to produce efficiency upon the politic implemented. To achieve such aim, colwork on the different levels of execution, training the health team with respect to the identification of the population problems, and attempting to change of a demographic basis the current sanitary policies into policies of populations.

  14. Discontinued drug projects in the respiratory therapeutic area during 2012.

    PubMed

    Snell, Noel J C

    2014-03-01

    During 2012, a number of respiratory drug projects and individual agents were discontinued, for a variety of reasons, including toxicity, lack of efficacy, commercial re-evaluation and change in corporate focus. These included three antagonists of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2), which had been evaluated in allergic respiratory disease and (in one case) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other agents intended for the treatment of asthma, COPD, pulmonary hypertension and lung fibrosis. These have been reviewed against the background of a general reduction in respiratory research by the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. The d4 gene family in the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Chestkov, A.V.; Baka, I.D.; Kost, M.V.

    1996-08-15

    The d4 domain, a novel zinc finger-like structural motif, was first revealed in the rat neuro-d4 protein. Here we demonstrate that the d4 domain is conserved in evolution and that three related genes form a d4 family in the human genome. The human neuro-d4 is very similar to rat neuro-d4 at both the amino acid and the nucleotide levels. Moreover, the same splice variants have been detected among rat and human neuro-d4 transcripts. This gene has been localized on chromosome 19, and two other genes, members of the d4 family isolated by screening of the human genomic library at low stringency, have been mapped to chromosomes 11 and 14. The gene on chromosome 11 is the homolog of the ubiquitously expressed mouse gene ubi-d4/requiem, which is required for cell death after deprivation of trophic factors. A gene with a conserved d4 domain has been found in the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The conservation of d4 proteins from nematodes to vertebrates suggests that they have a general importance, but a diversity of d4 proteins expressed in vertebrate nervous systems suggests that some family members have special functions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  16. America's National Parks 3d (4)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-11

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 4)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  17. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  18. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  19. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  20. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  1. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those critical areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for...

  2. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  3. 76 FR 64083 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Proposed 2025 Power Marketing Initiative... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is seeking comments on this proposed 2025 Power...

  4. Community Mobilization Project: A Strategic Plan for American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Indian Nations, Inc., Oakland, CA.

    The Community Mobilization Project was a 3-year, grassroots strategic planning process by American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area. As a result of Bureau of Indian Affairs policies that relocated reservation Indians to the Bay Area in the 1950s-70s, over 40,000 American Indians now live in the 10-county area. However, the Indian population…

  5. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  6. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews II. Projections of four nuclei to areas of visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Patterns of thalamocortical connections were related to architectonically defined subdivisions of the pulvinar complex and the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews are of special interest because they are considered close relatives of primates, and they have a highly developed visual system. Several distinguishable tracers were injected within and across cortical visual areas in individual tree shrews in order to reveal retinotopic patterns and cortical targets of subdivisions of the pulvinar. The results indicate that each of the three architectonic regions of the pulvinar has a distinctive pattern of cortical connections and that one of these divisions is further divided into two regions with different patterns of connections. Two of the pulvinar nuclei have similar retinotopic patterns of projections to caudal visual cortex. The large central nucleus of the pulvinar (Pc) projects to the first and second visual areas, V1 and V2, and an adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD) in retinotopic patterns indicating that the upper visual quadrant is represented dorsal to the lower quadrant in Pc. The smaller ventral nucleus (Pv) which stains darkly for the Cat-301 antigen, projects to these same cortical areas, with a retinotopic pattern. Pv also projects to a temporal anterior area, TA. The dorsal nucleus (Pd), which densely expresses AChE, projects to posterior and ventral areas of temporal extrastriate cortex, areas TP and TPI. A posterior nucleus, Pp, projects to anterior areas TAL and TI, of the temporal lobe, as well as TPI. Injections in different cortical areas as much as 6 mm apart labeled overlapping zones in Pp and double-labeled some cells. These results indicate that the visual pulvinar of tree shrews contains at least four functionally distinct subdivisions, or nuclei. In addition, the cortical injections revealed that the LGN projects topographically and densely to V1 and that a significant number of LGN neurons

  7. The National Map - Lake Tahoe Area Pilot Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  8. Archeological Investigations in the Lower Pool Area of the La Farge Lake Project Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the area which would be flooded if aa cofferdam were built to enable the completion of the proposed Kickapoo dam. The Lower Pool area was...to the National Register of Historic Places. These sites have potential for yielding valuable archaeological information which would enhance our understanding of prehistoric settlement in the Upper Kickapoo Valley. (Author)

  9. 7. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS315A HELIUM STORAGE AREA: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS-315A HELIUM STORAGE AREA: PLAN AND DETAILS-MECHANICAL, APRIL 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28419, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Linking with Community To Reclaim Natural Areas for Education: The McLane Elementary School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Melinda; Smith, Kathy Kurtz

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project in which students, teachers, and the community work to reclaim neglected wetlands and forested areas for use as an environmental study site for interdisciplinary learning. (Author/MM)

  11. Linking with Community To Reclaim Natural Areas for Education: The McLane Elementary School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Melinda; Smith, Kathy Kurtz

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project in which students, teachers, and the community work to reclaim neglected wetlands and forested areas for use as an environmental study site for interdisciplinary learning. (Author/MM)

  12. Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

  13. Human Services in Rural Alaska: Highlights from the Evaluation of the Rural Areas Social Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Frances Lomas

    The Social and Rehabilitation Service granted the Alaska Division of Public Welfare funds to train and employ qualified Native village people as paraprofessionals who could provide the social services needed while living right in the village. The Rural Areas Social Services Project (RASS), a demonstration and training project aimed at bringing…

  14. Tomorrow's Manpower Needs. Volume I, Developing Area Manpower Projections. Bulletin No. 1606.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication is the first of four volumes of "Tomorrow's Manpower Needs," publications devoted to the subject of national, state, and area projections of manpower requirements. The objective of this publication is to provide projections of probable need in particular occupations as guides for education, training, and other policies aimed at…

  15. Rural Critical Care Nurse Training Project--Four Corners Area, November 14, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Regional Medical Program, Albuquerque.

    Project objectives were to train 10 nurses from hospitals in the Four Corners Area in rural critical care nursing, to have a training director organize and coordinate the project, and to utilize the replacement nurse concept. The course curriculum was determined through a needs assessment survey conducted by a team of health professionals from…

  16. Project MACTAD, Mobile Area Committee for Training and Development. Periodic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, R.W.; And Others

    The project was created to train the unemployed and underemployed in the Mobile area in skills qualifying them for jobs in Alabama's expanding industrial complex. Developments in the administration, recruiting, counseling, community service, training, job development and placement, and followup of the project from January 1, 1968 through February…

  17. Research, demonstration, and extension: the ARS area-wide ecologically based invasive plant management project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Area-wide project is a collaborative five year effort funded in 2008 by USDA-ARS that has brought together scientists with the USDA-ARS, universities, land managers, and policy makers throughout the Great Basin. A primary goal of the project is to develop and implement a comprehensive, regional...

  18. Aberdeen Area Final Evaluation Report, ESEA Title I Projects, Fiscal Year 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The final evaluation report on the 37 Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I projects in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Aberdeen Area, this report presents graphic and tabular descriptions for each of the 37 projects re: (1) Title I expenditures (graphic display of expenditures for reading, math, language, administration, area…

  19. A Project for Everyone: English Language Learners and Technology in Content-Area Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of student participation in classroom projects when learning English as a second language highlights conditions that support language and content learning; approaches that can facilitate language and content learning; and what technology and other resources support English language learners in content-area classrooms. Uses a project on…

  20. USDA area-wide project for annual grasses: outcomes and impacts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This document provides a record of the research, outreach, education and technology transfer that was completed as part of the area-wide project for invasive annual grasses from 2007-2012. The overall goal of the project was to catalyze a holistic integrated management program for invasive annual g...

  1. The lartge-area picosecond photo-detector (LAPPD) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, Gary

    2012-03-01

    The technological revolution that replaced the bulky Cathode Ray Tube with a wide variety of thin, reduced-cost display technologies, has yet to be realized for photosensors. Such a low-cost, robust and flexible photon detector, capable of efficient single photon measurement with good spatial and temporal resolution, would have numerous scientific, medical and industrial applications. To address the significant technological challenges of realizing such a disruptive technology, the Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD) collaboration was formed, and has been strongly supported by the Department of Energy. This group leverages the inter-disciplinary capabilities and facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL), electronics expertise at the Universities of Chicago and Hawaii, and close work with industrial partners to extend the known technologies. Advances in theory-inspired design and in-situ photocathode characterization during growth, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for revolutionizing micro-channel plate fabrication, and compact, wave-form sampling CMOS ASIC readout of micro striplines are key tools toward realizing a viable LAPPD device. Progress toward a first 8" x 8" demonstrator module will be presented.

  2. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  3. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  4. Topographical and quantitative distribution of the projecting neurons to main divisions of the septal area.

    PubMed

    Haghdoost-Yazdi, H; Pasbakhsh, P; Vatanparast, J; Rajaei, F; Behzadi, G

    2009-06-01

    Septal area is a limbic structure that is involved in the regulation of several autonomic, learning-related and behavioral functions. Participation of this area in various physiologic functions is indicative of its extensive connections with different brain areas. It contains two major divisions: lateral septum (LS) and medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB). In the present work, we examined topographical distribution of projecting neurons to these divisions and quantitatively verified them. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) retrograde tract tracing was performed. Our results show that about two-thirds of projections to the septal area terminate in the LS. They mostly originate ipsilaterally from the septal area itself (8%), hippocampal formation (38%), non-specific thalamic nuclei (23%), lateral pre-optic area, lateral hypothalamus, perifornical area and mammillary complex in hypothalamus (20%), ventral tegmental area, raphe and tegmental nuclei, and also locus coeruleus in brainstem (10%). Most afferents to the MS come ipsilaterally from the septal area itself (18%), hippocampal formation (12%), lateral pre-optic area, lateral hypothalamus and mammillary complex in hypothalamus (42%), ventral tegmental area, raphe and tegmental nuclei, central gray matter and also locus coeruleus in brainstem (20%). Some afferents to the septal area originate contralaterally from the lateral hypothalamus, supramammillary area, raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus. Afferents from the interanterodorsal and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, which increase the role of the septal area in arousal and awareness, are reported for the first time. Projecting cells to the MS support the learning-related function of this area. Projecting cells to the LS that are more scattered throughout the brain indicate its involvement in more diverse functions.

  5. Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

  6. Identification of a New Selective Dopamine D4 Receptor Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Dinithia; Zhu, Xue Y.; Eyunni, Suresh V. K.; Etukala, Jagan R.; Ofori, Edward; Bricker, Barbara; Lamango, Nazarius S.; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor has been shown to play key roles in certain CNS pathologies including addiction to cigarette smoking. Thus, selective D4 ligands may be useful in treating some of these conditions. Previous studies in our laboratory have indicated that the piperazine analog of haloperidol exhibits selective and increased affinity to the DAD4 receptor subtype, in comparison to its piperidine analog. This led to further exploration of the piperazine moiety to identify new agents that are selective at the D4 receptor. Compound 27 (KiD4 = 0.84 nM) was the most potent of the compounds tested. However, it only had moderate selectivity for the D4 receptor. Compound 28 (KiD4 = 3.9 nM) while not as potent, was more discriminatory for the D4 receptor subtype. In fact, compound 28 has little or no binding affinity to any of the other four DA receptor subtypes. In addition, of the 23 CNS receptors evaluated, only two, 5HT1AR and 5HT2BR, have binding affinity constants better than 100 nM (Ki < 100 nM). Compound 28 is a potentially useful D4-selective ligand for probing disease treatments involving the D4 receptor, such as assisting smoking cessation, reversing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and treating erectile dysfunction. Thus, further optimization, functional characterization and evaluation in animal models may be warranted. PMID:24800940

  7. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  8. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  9. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  10. A Computer Program for Projections of Vehicular Pollutant Emissions in Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, G. D.; Ott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an algorithm for the determination of current and projected annual air pollution emissions from vehicles in any urban area. A computer program based on this algorithm, PAVE, has been developed. Results of applying the program to emissions from automobiles in the San Francisco Bay Area are presented and discussed. (Editor/JR)

  11. A Computer Program for Projections of Vehicular Pollutant Emissions in Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, G. D.; Ott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an algorithm for the determination of current and projected annual air pollution emissions from vehicles in any urban area. A computer program based on this algorithm, PAVE, has been developed. Results of applying the program to emissions from automobiles in the San Francisco Bay Area are presented and discussed. (Editor/JR)

  12. Tuberculoventral neurons project to the multipolar cell area but not to the octopus cell area of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wickesberg, R E; Whitlon, D; Oertel, D

    1991-11-15

    Tuberculoventral neurons in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) provide frequency-specific inhibition to neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of the mouse (Wickesberg and Oertel, '88, '90). The present experiments examine the projection from the deep DCN to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the PVCN reveal that the multipolar cell area, but not the octopus cell area, is innervated by neurons in the deep layer of the DCN. Injections into the multipolar cell area, in the rostral and ventral PVCN, labeled neurons across the entire rostrocaudal extent of the deep DCN. The labeled tuberculoventral neurons generally lay within the band of labeled auditory nerve terminals in the DCN. Injections of HRP into the octopus cell area, in the dorsal caudal PVCN, labeled almost no cells within the band of auditory nerve fiber terminals that were labeled by the same injection. The inhibition from tuberculoventral neurons onto ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons is likely to be mediated by glycine (Wickesberg and Oertel, '90). Slices of the cochlear nuclear complex were immunolabeled by an antibody against glycine conjugated with glutaraldehyde to bovine serum albumin (Wenthold et al., '87). Glycine-like immunoreactivity was found throughout the DCN, the AVCN and the multipolar cell area, but there was little labeling in the octopus cell area. This finding provides independent evidence that tuberculoventral neurons do not innervate the octopus cell area and indicates that the octopus cell area is anatomically and functionally distinct.

  13. Facilitating telemedicine project sustainability in medically underserved areas: a healthcare provider participant perspective.

    PubMed

    Paul, David L; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2016-04-26

    Very few telemedicine projects in medically underserved areas have been sustained over time. This research furthers understanding of telemedicine service sustainability by examining teleconsultation projects from the perspective of healthcare providers. Drivers influencing healthcare providers' continued participation in teleconsultation projects and how projects can be designed to effectively and efficiently address these drivers is examined. Case studies of fourteen teleconsultation projects that were part of two health sciences center (HSC) based telemedicine networks was utilized. Semi-structured interviews of 60 key informants (clinicians, administrators, and IT professionals) involved in teleconsultation projects were the primary data collection method. Two key drivers influenced providers' continued participation. First was severe time constraints. Second was remote site healthcare providers' (RSHCPs) sense of professional isolation. Two design steps to address these were identified. One involved implementing relatively simple technology and process solutions to make participation convenient. The more critical and difficult design step focused on designing teleconsultation projects for collaborative, active learning. This learning empowered participating RSHCPs by leveraging HSC specialists' expertise. In order to increase sustainability the fundamental purpose of teleconsultation projects needs to be re-conceptualized. Doing so requires HSC specialists and RSHCPs to assume new roles and highlights the importance of trust. By implementing these design steps, healthcare delivery in medically underserved areas can be positively impacted.

  14. Distinct Physiological Effects of Dopamine D4 Receptors on Prefrontal Cortical Pyramidal Neurons and Fast-Spiking Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ping; Yan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R), which is strongly linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, is highly expressed in pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we examined the impact of D4R on the excitability of these 2 neuronal populations. We found that D4R activation decreased the frequency of spontaneous action potentials (sAPs) in PFC pyramidal neurons, whereas it induced a transient increase followed by a decrease of sAP frequency in PFC parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons. D4R activation also induced distinct effects in both types of PFC neurons on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents, which drive the generation of sAP. Moreover, dopamine substantially decreased sAP frequency in PFC pyramidal neurons, but markedly increased sAP frequency in PV+ interneurons, and both effects were partially mediated by D4R activation. In the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia, the decreasing effect of D4R on sAP frequency in both types of PFC neurons was attenuated, whereas the increasing effect of D4R on sAP in PV+ interneurons was intact. These results suggest that D4R activation elicits distinct effects on synaptically driven excitability in PFC projection neurons versus fast-spiking interneurons, which are differentially altered in neuropsychiatric disorder-related conditions.

  15. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in Klinefelter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Kilduff, L P; Trivers, R

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of second to fourth digit length (2D:4D) is a correlate of prenatal testosterone. High 2D:4D is associated with low prenatal testosterone, and reduced sensitivity to testosterone. Klinefelter's syndrome (KS; 47 XXY) affects the endocrine system, such that low testosterone levels are found in KS foetuses, new-borns and adults. To date, there are no published data regarding the pattern of 2D:4D in KS males. Here we consider 2D:4D in KS individuals (n = 51), their relatives (16 fathers and 15 mothers) and an unaffected control sample of 153 men and 153 women. Adult KS individuals were taller than their fathers and had shorter fingers than fathers and male controls. Compared with fathers, male controls and mothers, KS males had shorter fingers relative to height. With regard to 2D:4D, KS individuals had higher 2D:4D than fathers (right and left hands), male controls (right and left hands) and mothers (left hands). Among KS males older than 13 years there were 34 individuals currently prescribed testosterone and nine not prescribed. In comparison to the former, the latter individuals had higher right 2D:4D and higher right-left 2D:4D. We conclude that KS males have mean 2D:4D values similar to those found in female population norms. In addition, testosterone supplementation in KS males may be most common for individuals with low right 2D:4D. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  17. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  18. Report of Final Evaluation, ESEA Title I Projects, Fiscal Year 1972. Phoenix Area Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Phoenix, AZ.

    Title I projects operated in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Phoenix Area, during Fiscal 1972 are described in this final evaluation report. An overview of the geographical location of Areas within the BIA is given, along with the organization of the BIA at large and of the Phoenix Area. Enrollments in the Phoenix Area projects are presented…

  19. Resolving the Orientation of Cylinders and Cuboids from Projected Area Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER  5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S)    5d.  PROJECT  NUMBER  5e. TASK NUMBER  5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER  7. PERFORMING......terms of pitch, yaw, and roll. Yaw cards and orthogonal X-rays can provide estimates of the impact projected area, but the model makes use of the

  20. RECREATION Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 1. Barkley Lock and Dam, Lake Barkley Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Area Jul 1980 Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the enthusiasm and excellent cooperation of the resource managers , rangers, and other Corps...recreation carrying capacity-related information for the Lake Barkley Project. The information is based upon: 1) user and management surveys conducted...WES was the Project Monitor. Dr. Adolph Anderson, WES, was Program Manager of the Environmental Laboratory (EL) Recreation Research Program. The

  1. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  2. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  3. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  4. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  5. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information.

  6. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - December 2008-June 2009 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.A.; Bauer, R.A.; Boyd, O.S.; Chung, J.; Cramer, C.H.; Gaunt, D.A.; Hempen, G.L.; Hoffman, D.; McCallister, N.S.; Prewett, J.L.; Rogers, J.D.; Steckel, P.J.; Watkins, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the mission, the project background, the participants, and the progress of the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) for the period from December 2008 through June 2009. During this period, the SLAEHMP held five conference calls and two face-to-face meetings in St. Louis, participated in several earthquake awareness public meetings, held one outreach field trip for the business and government community, collected and compiled new borehole and digital elevation data from partners, and published a project summary.

  7. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  8. Underground test area quality assurance project plan, Nevada test site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) is one of the planning documents used for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which falls under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP). The Nevada ERP consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The UGTA Subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. The purposes of the UGTA Subproject are to define boundaries around each Corrective Action Unit (CAU), as defined by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), that establish areas containing water that may be unsafe for domestic or municipal use and to establish monitoring programs for each CAU that will verify modeling upon which the boundaries are based.

  9. Content Area Bilingual Education: Project CABE 1988-89. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Lista, Carlos A.

    Project CABE (Content Area Bilingual Education) offered instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and Native Language Arts (NLA) to 823 limited English proficient Spanish-Speaking students in grades 1 through 9 in 34 schools in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens (New York). All students were two or more years below level in mathematics and…

  10. Human projected area factors for detailed direct and diffuse solar radiation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kubaha, K; Fiala, D; Toftum, J; Taki, A H

    2004-11-01

    Projected area factors for individual segments of the standing and sedentary human body were modelled for both direct and diffuse solar radiation using detailed 3D geometry and radiation models. The local projected area factors with respect to direct short-wave radiation are a function of the solar azimuth angle (alpha) between 0 degrees < alpha<360 degrees and the solar altitude (beta) angles between -90 degrees < beta<+90 degrees . In case of diffuse solar radiation from the isotropic sky the local human projected area factors were modelled as a function of the ground albedo (rho) ranging between 0< rho<1. The model was validated against available experimental data and showed good general agreement with projected area factors measured for both the human body as a whole and for local quantities. Scientists can use the equations to predict the inhomogeneous irradiation and absorption of direct and diffuse solar radiation and UV-radiation at surfaces of the human body. In conjunction with detailed multi-node models of human thermoregulation the equations can be used to predict the physiological implications of solar radiation and outdoor weather conditions on humans.

  11. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  12. A Study of the Science Achievement of Earth Science Curriculum Project Students From Different Socioeconomic Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Stanley Joe

    Reported is a study to compare science achievement of 318 ninth-grade students who came from different socioeconomic areas but all enrolled in an Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP) program. The students were divided into three socioeconomic groups: upper, middle, and lower. All were given a pretest in science achievement, a posttest, an…

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS IN THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, LESLIE; AND OTHERS

    VARIOUS METHODS AVAILABLE FOR A PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF A STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA) ARE REVIEWED, AS WELL AS THE DATA AVAILABLE TO IMPLEMENT THESE APPROACHES. TWO "NAIVE" MODELS ARE RECOMMENDED FOR USE AS BENCH MARKS AGAINST WHICH TO COMPARE MORE SOPHISTICATED APPROACHES--THE "NO CHANGE"…

  14. 76 FR 65493 - Draft Environmental Assessment; Giant Miscanthus in REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under the Biomass Crop Assistance Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit... miscanthus (Miscanthus X giganteus) as a dedicated energy crop to be grown in the REPREVE Renewables, LLC... Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). This notice provides a means for the public to voice any...

  15. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  16. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  17. Evaluation of the USDA Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project by Meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using USDA ‘4-Poster’ devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed d...

  18. Using the Gravity Model to Delineate a Trade Area: A Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzik, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Reports that students who might be bored or intimidated by economic geographic theory become enthusiastic when they can apply it to their own experiences. Describes a class project involving fieldwork and in-class analysis on delineating the retail trade area of a small Ohio city. Includes three maps and mathematical formulae for data analysis.…

  19. Deer browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River project area

    Treesearch

    William H. Moore

    1967-01-01

    A procedure developed in Georgia was used to inventory the browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River Project Area near Aiken, South Carolina. Through this procedure, the forest land manager is supplied with relative carrying capacity data for deer . If silvical practices can be related to habitat quality and quantity, he can adjust...

  20. Delinquency Prevention in South Chicago. A Fifty-Year Assessment of the Chicago Area Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlossman, Steven; And Others

    This report examines the Chicago Area Project (CAP), the first community-based delinquency prevention program, from both a historical and a contemporary perspective. The analysis is in three parts. The first part describes CAP's founding in the 1930s and analyzes the process through which it was established and the operation of its prevention…

  1. EPA Awards New Great Lakes Restoration Funding for Projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    No. 15-OPA166 HARRISON TOWNSHIP, MICH. (Nov. 9, 2015) -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of new funding for major Great Lakes Restoration Initiative projects in the Clinton River Area of Concern totaling nearly $20 m

  2. An Ecological Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Muddy-Virgin River Project Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Muddy-Virgin River Project Area covers a large part of southern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The Muddy and Virgin Rivers drain into Lake Mead which provides drinking water for communities located in the Las Vegas Valley. The are...

  3. An Ecological Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Muddy-Virgin River Project Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Muddy-Virgin River Project Area covers a large part of southern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The Muddy and Virgin Rivers drain into Lake Mead which provides drinking water for communities located in the Las Vegas Valley. The are...

  4. 22. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS315A: MISCELLANEOUS DETAILSLAUNCHING AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS-315A: MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS-LAUNCHING AREAS 17A, 17B-STRUCTURAL, APRIL 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. Business Marketing Information Systems Skills. Voc-Ed Project. Business Data Processing Career Area. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    This report and research analysis relate to the Milwaukee Area Technical College Research Project, a study undertaken to determine a curriculum to meet the information processing/management training needs of individuals entering or continuing careers in the information marketing and business data processing occupational clusters. The report of…

  6. Area Consortium on Training. "Training for Technology" Project, 1982-1983. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moock, Lynn D.

    The Area Consortium on Training initiated the Training for Technology Project to fill industry needs for skilled personnel and job needs for economically disadvantaged persons. Major accomplishments included establishment of a training team for economic development and for development of training programs; contacting of more than 100 employers;…

  7. Using the Gravity Model to Delineate a Trade Area: A Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzik, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Reports that students who might be bored or intimidated by economic geographic theory become enthusiastic when they can apply it to their own experiences. Describes a class project involving fieldwork and in-class analysis on delineating the retail trade area of a small Ohio city. Includes three maps and mathematical formulae for data analysis.…

  8. Dopamine, cognitive function, and gamma oscillations: role of D4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Furth, Katrina E.; Mastwal, Surjeet; Wang, Kuan H.; Buonanno, Andres; Vullhorst, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) are considered core symptoms of this disorder, and can manifest at the prodromal stage. Antipsychotics ameliorate positive symptoms but only modestly improve cognitive symptoms. The lack of treatments that improve cognitive abilities currently represents a major obstacle in developing more effective therapeutic strategies for this debilitating disorder. While D4 receptor (D4R)-specific antagonists are ineffective in the treatment of positive symptoms, animal studies suggest that D4R drugs can improve cognitive deficits. Moreover, recent work from our group suggests that D4Rs synergize with the neuregulin/ErbB4 signaling pathway, genetically identified as risk factors for SCZ, in parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons to modulate gamma oscillations. These high-frequency network oscillations correlate with attention and increase during cognitive tasks in healthy subjects, and this correlation is attenuated in affected individuals. This finding, along with other observations indicating impaired GABAergic function, has led to the idea that abnormal neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in individuals with SCZ reflects a perturbation in the balance of excitation and inhibition. Here we review the current state of knowledge of D4R functions in the PFC and hippocampus, two major brain areas implicated in SCZ. Special emphasis is given to studies focusing on the potential role of D4Rs in modulating GABAergic transmission and to an emerging concept of a close synergistic relationship between dopamine/D4R and neuregulin/ErbB4 signaling pathways that tunes the activity of PV interneurons to regulate gamma frequency network oscillations and potentially cognitive processes. PMID:23847468

  9. D4 and D1 dopamine receptors modulate [3H] GABA release in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of the rat.

    PubMed

    Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Hernández-Chan, Nancy; Paz-Bermúdez, Francisco; Sierra, Arturo; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2009-12-01

    Neurons of the globus pallidus express dopamine D4 receptors that can modulate transmitter release by their axon terminals. Indeed, GABA release from pallidal terminals in the subthalamic nucleus and in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus is inhibited by activation of D4 receptors. Here we investigated whether GABA release by pallidal projections to the substantia nigra reticulate (SNr) is also modulated by D4 receptors. Dopamine-stimulated depolarization-induced GABA release in slices of the SNr; however, after selective blockade of D1 receptors, dopamine inhibited release. The selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 (IC(50) = 5.30 nM) mimicked the inhibition of release while the selective D4 antagonist L-745,870 blocked the inhibition. To identify the source of D1 and D4 modulated terminals, we unilaterally injected kainic acid in either the GP or the striatum. After lesions of the pallidum, the D4 induced inhibition of release was blocked while the D1 induced stimulation was still significant. Lesions of the striatum had the converse effects. We conclude that release of dopamine in the SNr enhances GABA release mainly through activation of D1 receptors in striatonigral projections and inhibits release mainly through activation of D4 receptors in pallidonigral projections. Because deficient D4 receptor signaling in globus pallidus terminals will lead to disinhibition of impulse traffic through the thalamus we speculate that the D4 abnormalities observed in ADHD patients may be important in the generation of the syndrome.

  10. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and postoperative pain perception.

    PubMed

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Stabryła, Piotr; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-07-01

    It has not been established whether sex differences in pain perception are influenced by prenatal sex hormones. Digit ratio as an indicator of prenatal hormone exposure can be used as a simple measure of the influence of prenatal hormones on pain sensitivity or perception in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and pain perception in the postoperative period after rhinoplasty. A prospective cohort study of 100 patients (50 women of the mean age of 30.74±8.09years and 50 men of the mean age of 30.98±10.86years) who underwent posttraumatic rhinoplasty due to the nose trauma in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic. The following measurements were taken the day before a surgery: body height, waist and hip circumference, II and IV digits' lengths and body weight. All subjects filled in a questionnaire including 0-10-point VAS scales to assess postoperative pain 1h after an operation (AO), 6h AO, 12h AO, 24h AO and 48h AO. Women with low 2D:4D reported significantly more pain 1h after an operation than women with high 2D:4D. Similar correlation was observed for low 2D:4D in women 48h AO. In men, low 2D:4D was associated with lower postoperative pain 12h AO (p=0.029). In conclusion, we showed that low 2D:4D in women was associated with high postoperative pain, and low right 2D:4D in men was associated with low postoperative pain. This may suggest that intrauterine estrogen exposure makes women more resistant to pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raquel A; Burgess, Neil D; Cabeza, Mar; Rahbek, Carsten; Araújo, Miguel B

    2012-01-01

    Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate projections. Using an ensemble forecasting framework, we examine projections of future shifts in climatic suitability, and their methodological uncertainties, for over 2500 species of mammals, birds, amphibians and snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. To summarize a priori the variability in the ensemble of 17 general circulation models, we introduce a consensus methodology that combines co-varying models. Thus, we quantify and map the relative contribution to uncertainty of seven bioclimatic envelope models, three multi-model climate projections and three emissions scenarios, and explore the resulting variability in species turnover estimates. We show that bioclimatic envelope models contribute most to variability, particularly in projected novel climatic conditions over Sahelian and southern Saharan Africa. To summarize agreements among projections from the bioclimatic envelope models we compare five consensus methodologies, which generally increase or retain projection accuracy and provide consistent estimates of species turnover. Variability from emissions scenarios increases towards late-century and affects southern regions of high species turnover centred in arid Namibia. Twofold differences in median species turnover across the study area emerge among alternative climate projections and emissions scenarios. Our ensemble of projections underscores the potential bias when using a single algorithm or climate projection for Africa, and provides a cautious first approximation of the potential exposure of sub-Saharan African vertebrates to climatic changes. The future use and further development of bioclimatic envelope modelling will hinge on the interpretation of results in the light

  12. Evolution of mammalian sensorimotor cortex: thalamic projections to parietal cortical areas in Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Franca, João G.; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Cooke, Dylan F.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    The current experiments build upon previous studies designed to reveal the network of parietal cortical areas present in the common mammalian ancestor. Understanding this ancestral network is essential for highlighting the basic somatosensory circuitry present in all mammals, and how this basic plan was modified to generate species specific behaviors. Our animal model, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), is a South American marsupial that has been proposed to have a similar ecological niche and morphology to the earliest common mammalian ancestor. In this investigation, we injected retrograde neuroanatomical tracers into the face and body representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the rostral and caudal somatosensory fields (SR and SC), as well as a multimodal region (MM). Projections from different architectonically defined thalamic nuclei were then quantified. Our results provide further evidence to support the hypothesized basic mammalian plan of thalamic projections to S1, with the lateral and medial ventral posterior thalamic nuclei (VPl and VPm) projecting to S1 body and S1 face, respectively. Additional strong projections are from the medial division of posterior nucleus (Pom). SR receives projections from several midline nuclei, including the medial dorsal, ventral medial nucleus, and Pom. SC and MM show similar patterns of connectivity, with projections from the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei, VPm and VPl, and the entire posterior nucleus (medial and lateral). Notably, MM is distinguished from SC by relatively dense projections from the dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. We discuss the finding that S1 of the short-tailed opossum has a similar pattern of projections as other marsupials and mammals, but also some distinct projections not present in other mammals. Further we provide additional support for a primitive posterior parietal cortex which receives input from multiple modalities. PMID

  13. Evolution of mammalian sensorimotor cortex: thalamic projections to parietal cortical areas in Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Dooley, James C; Franca, João G; Seelke, Adele M H; Cooke, Dylan F; Krubitzer, Leah A

    2014-01-01

    The current experiments build upon previous studies designed to reveal the network of parietal cortical areas present in the common mammalian ancestor. Understanding this ancestral network is essential for highlighting the basic somatosensory circuitry present in all mammals, and how this basic plan was modified to generate species specific behaviors. Our animal model, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), is a South American marsupial that has been proposed to have a similar ecological niche and morphology to the earliest common mammalian ancestor. In this investigation, we injected retrograde neuroanatomical tracers into the face and body representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the rostral and caudal somatosensory fields (SR and SC), as well as a multimodal region (MM). Projections from different architectonically defined thalamic nuclei were then quantified. Our results provide further evidence to support the hypothesized basic mammalian plan of thalamic projections to S1, with the lateral and medial ventral posterior thalamic nuclei (VPl and VPm) projecting to S1 body and S1 face, respectively. Additional strong projections are from the medial division of posterior nucleus (Pom). SR receives projections from several midline nuclei, including the medial dorsal, ventral medial nucleus, and Pom. SC and MM show similar patterns of connectivity, with projections from the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei, VPm and VPl, and the entire posterior nucleus (medial and lateral). Notably, MM is distinguished from SC by relatively dense projections from the dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. We discuss the finding that S1 of the short-tailed opossum has a similar pattern of projections as other marsupials and mammals, but also some distinct projections not present in other mammals. Further we provide additional support for a primitive posterior parietal cortex which receives input from multiple modalities.

  14. The 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a group of expert collaborators are using the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site 300 Area uranium plume within the footprint of the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit as a site for an Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC). The IFRC is entitled Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on the Hanford Site 300 Area Uranium Plume Project. The theme is investigation of multi-scale mass transfer processes. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research that relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements/approaches needed to characterize and model a mass transfer-dominated system. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the 300 Area IFRC Project. This plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  15. Projections of the ventrolateral pontine vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Stefanie; Jürgens, Uwe

    2006-02-01

    In four squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), the tracer biotin dextranamine (BDA) was injected into the ventrolateral pons at a site at which injection of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid blocked vocalization electrically elicited from the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Anterograde projections could be traced into all cranial motor and sensory nuclei involved in phonation, that is, the nucleus ambiguus, facial, hypoglossal and trigeminal motor nuclei, the motorneuron column in the ventral gray substance innervating the extrinsic laryngeal muscles, the nucleus retroambiguus, solitary tract and spinal trigeminal nuclei. Projections were also found into a number of auditory nuclei, namely the nucleus cochlearis-complex, superior olive, ventral and dorsal nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and inferior colliculus. Furthermore, there were projections into the reticular formation of the lateral and dorsocaudal medulla and lateral pons, into nucleus gracilis, inferior and medial vestibular nuclei, lateral reticular nucleus, ventral raphe, pontine gray, superior colliculus, PAG and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. Injection of the tracer wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase into the ventrolateral pontine vocalization-blocking area in one animal yielded retrograde labeling throughout the PAG. Injection of BDA into a vocalization-eliciting site of the PAG in another animal yielded projections into the ventrolateral pontine vocalization-blocking area. It is concluded that the ventral paralemniscal area in the ventrolateral pons represents a relay station of the descending periaqueductal vocalization-controlling pathway.

  16. Assessment of Flooded Areas Projections and Floods Potential Impacts Applying Remote Sensing Imagery and Demographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Carriello, F.; Fernandes, P. J. F.; Garofolo Lopes, L.; Siqueira Júnior, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Assessing vulnerability and potential impacts associated with extreme discharges requires an accurate topographic description in order to estimate the extension of flooded areas. However, in most populated regions, topographic data obtained by in-situ measurements is not available. In this case, digital elevation models derived from remote sensing date are usually applied. Moreover, this digital elevation models have intrinsic errors that introduce bigger uncertainty in results than the associated to hydrological projections. On the other hand, estimations of flooded areas through remote sensing images provide accurate information, which could be used for the construction of river level-flooded area relationships regarding vulnerability assessment. In this work, this approach is applied for the city of Porto Velho in the Brazilian Amazonia to assess potential vulnerability to floods associated with climate change projections. The approach is validated using census data, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and information about socio-economical injuries associated to historical floods, provided by the Brazilian Civil Defence. Hydrological projections under climate change are carried out using several downscaling of climate projections as inputs in a hydrological model. Results show more accurate estimation of flood impacts than the obtained using digital elevation models derivate from remote sensing data. This reduces uncertainties in the assessment of vulnerability to floods associated with climate change in the region.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  18. [2D:4D finger ratio and language development].

    PubMed

    Albores-Gallo, L; Fernández-Guasti, A; Hernández-Guzmán, L; List-Hilton, C

    A possible hormonal influence in language development has been suggested in the recent years. The 2D:4D finger ratio is an indirect measure for prenatal androgen exposure. It is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively related to prenatal estrogen, resulting in a lower ratio for men and a larger ratio for women. It can be explored in children as young as 2 years old. To study if an association exists between the 2D:4D finger ratio and language development (vocabulary) and/or language problems. The lengths of the second digit (index finger) (2D) and the fourth digit (ring finger) (4D) were measured in 97 preschoolers and the Language Development Survey was administered to the parents. A weak negative correlation between language development (vocabulary) and right 2D:4D ratio was found in both sexes for children aged 4 or less years, significant only in boys. A strong negative correlation between language articulation problems and right 2D:4D ratio in both sexes for children aged 3 or less years, and a lower negative correlation between articulation problems and right 2D:4D ratio were found for boys aged 4 or less years. Findings suggest an important role for testosterone in language development (vocabulary) and a possible influence on articulation problems, probably through higher testosterone levels.

  19. 2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar; Muthu, Prathibha K

    2016-12-01

    Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios.

  20. THE HETEROGENEITY OF VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA NEURONS: PROJECTION FUNCTIONS IN A MOOD-RELATED CONTEXT

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J.J.; Han, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain’s reward circuitry is composed of a heterogeneous population of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons that play important roles in mediating mood-related functions including depression. These neurons project to different brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the amygdala. The functional understanding of these projection pathways has been improved since the extensive use of advanced techniques such as viral-mediated gene transfer, cell-type specific neurophysiology and circuit-probing optogenetics. In this article, we will discuss the recent progress in understanding these VTA projection-specific functions, focusing on mood-related disorders. PMID:24931766

  1. Surfaces designed to control the projected area and shape of individual cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C H; Lhoest, J B; Castner, D G; McFarland, C D; Healy, K E

    1999-02-01

    Materials with spatially resolved surface chemistry were designed to isolate individual mammalian cells to determine the influence of projected area on specific cell functions (e.g., proliferation, cytoskeletal organization). Surfaces were fabricated using a photolithographic process resulting in islands of cell binding N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (EDS) separated by a nonadhesive interpenetrating polymer network [poly (acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol); P (AAm-co-EG)]. The surfaces contained over 3800 adhesive islands/cm2, allowing for isolation of single cells with projected areas ranging from 100 microns 2 to 10,000 microns 2. These surfaces provide a useful tool for researching how cell morphology and mechanical forces affect cell function.

  2. Digital-model study of ground-water hydrology, Columbia Basin Irrigation Project Area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hansen, A.J.; Skrivan, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1952 water diverted from the Columbia River at Grand Coulee Dam has been used to irrigate parts of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project area in eastern Washington, and as a result ground-water levels generally have risen in the area. The rapid increases in ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage from irrigation have created a need for a better understanding of the ground-water system before and after the start of irrigation to establish guidelines necessary for management of the area's ground-water resource. Data and information from previous geologic and hydrologic studies were used as a basis for quantitative analyses of ground-water inflow and outflow by means of digital computer models representing three major areas--Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and Royal Slope.

  3. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  7. Area 5 Site Characterization Project: Report of hydraulic property analysis through August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.

    1993-12-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) has supported the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (ERWM), Waste Operations Branch (WOB). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from Pilot Wells and Science Trench borehole samples through August 1993. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, soil water extract isotope analyses and soil water chemistry analyses.

  8. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western`s net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western`s purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western`s net revenue is computed.

  9. The area acustico-vestibularis of Discoglossus pictus. II. The primary afferent projections.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A; Muñoz, M

    1988-01-01

    In the present report the primary projections to the dorsal rhombencephalic alar plate (area acustico-vestibularis, AAV) of the adult anuran amphibian Discoglossus pictus have been studied by means of the anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). As in Alytes cisternasii, other member of the family Discoglossidae, no primary afferent fibers to the AAV were found from nerves other than the VIIIth cranial nerve. No remanent of the lateral line system in the adult stage is present. The projections of the dorsal root of nerve VIIIth distribute over the dorsal nucleus and rostrally reach the aspect of the cerebellum. Caudally projects to the large cells of the ventral nucleus and terminate caudally, in the dorsolateral neuropil, at levels coincident with the IX motor nucleus. The projection of the ventral root also reaches the cerebellum in its lateral aspect but also fibers to the nucleus cerebelli were observed. The extensive projection to the ventral nucleus is also continued caudally to the caudal nucleus and ends around the solitary tract. Main terminal fields were located in two neuropils, one subventricular and other in an intermediate position. In addition, from both nerve branches, fibers leave the AAV and reach the reticular formation. Particularly, fibers from the posterior branch enter the superior olivary nucleus. Retrograde labeled neurons in the vicinity of the VII motor nucleus are interpreted as efferent cells to the labyrinth.

  10. Trigonal bipyramidal 5d-4f molecules with SMM behavior.

    PubMed

    Saber, Mohamed R; Dunbar, Kim R

    2014-02-28

    A family of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) 5d-4f cyanide bridged aggregates were synthesized that exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization below 4 K as indicated by a signal in the out-of-phase ac susceptibility data under zero field.

  11. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  12. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  13. Geosphere-biosphere interactions in European Protected Areas: a view from the H2020 ECOPOTENTIAL Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Karnieli, Arnon; Marangi, Carmela; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Imperio, Simona

    2017-04-01

    The large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, contributing to GEO and GEOSS - http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, adopting the view of ecosystems as one physical system with their environment, focusing on geosphere-biosphere interactions, Earth Critical Zone dynamics, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions, the effect of extreme events and using Essential (Climate, Biodiversity and Ocean) Variables as descriptors of change. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The project focuses on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance, that is representative of the range of environmental and biogeographical conditions characterizing Europe. Some of the activities of the project are devoted to detect and quantify the changes taking place in the Protected Areas, through the analysis of remote sensing observations, in-situ data and gridded climatic datasets. Likewise, the project aims at providing estimates of the future ecosystem conditions in different climate and environmental change scenarios. In all such endeavours, one is faced with cross-scale issues: downscaling of climate information to drive ecosystem response, and upscaling of local ecosystem changes to larger scales. So far, the analysis has been conducted mainly by using traditional methods, but there is wide room for improvement by using more refined approaches. In particular, a crucial question is how to upscale the information gained at single-site scale to larger, regional or continental scale, an issue that could benefit from using, for example, complex network analysis.

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  15. GIS-aided port area plane design on project for Dongluo island-port in Fuzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zong, Yueguang; He, Jinliao

    2008-10-01

    Up to now, the site selection of deepwater port has become a hot issue in the construction and planning of many estuary port cities. At the same time, there are various schemes about the location of deepwater port in Fuzhou and different opinions on them. Under this background, a new project for Dongluo Island-Port has been put forward. Port engineering has distinct spatial attributes, so its design is closely related to geographic spatial location. According to common engineering technique standards of seaport's location and construction, this paper explores the port area plane design of the new project by spatial analysis means of GIS. Main technical processes include applying the ARC/INFO9.0 and ArcView3.2 software to build elevation data firstly, then overlay the feature coverage to the base map to implement spatial analysis, and obtain the design coverage for port area finally. Combining with technical criterions of port area plane design, the paper analyses the design effect and concludes that the berths arrangement accords with the demand of transport capacity and the items layout accords with the engineering technique criterions as well, therefore the port area plane design is technically feasible as a whole.

  16. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  18. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  19. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  20. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region.

  1. Efferent projection from the rostral ventrolateral medulla to the area postrema in rats.

    PubMed

    Frugière, A; Nunez, E; Pasaro, R; Gaytan, S; Barillot, J C

    1998-08-06

    The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a region of the brain primarily involved in cardiovascular control. It receives information from several areas of the brainstem, among which the area postrema (AP) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The medial subnuclei of the solitary tract (TS) project towards the RVLM, providing cardiopulmonary information, and the AP serves information about circulatory hormones. Although the efferent pathways are well known, it is not the case for the connections from the RVLM towards the AP and the NTS. The present study was designed to examine the efferent connections from the RVLM onto the dorsal structures of the medulla: quantitatively by means of anatomical techniques, and functionally by means of electrophysiological techniques. Morphologically, Biocytin or Biotinylated dextran amine microinjections into the RVLM were followed by labelling of many fibres running towards the bulbar dorsomedial structures, with some pathways lying in the AP itself, or located in its caudal vicinity. Conversely, when microinjections of Fast Blue (FB) were made into the AP, FB-labelled cells could be observed within the RVLM. Electrophysiologically, single shock stimulation carried on AP allowed identification of axonal fibres issuing from somata located into the cardiovascular neuronal pool in the RVLM. From these results, we can assume: (1) the existence of dense efferent projection from RVLM to aspects of the dorsal vagal complex, including the AP and, among this dense projection, (2) the existence of some fibres terminating in, or crossing through the AP, and identified as conveying baroreceptor-related information, in the rat.

  2. Long-distance feedback projections to area V1: implications for multisensory integration, spatial awareness, and visual consciousness.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Simon; Falchier, Arnaud; Kennedy, Henry

    2004-06-01

    It is generally agreed that information flow through the cortex is constrained by a hierarchical architecture. Recent experimental evidence suggests that projections descending the hierarchy and targeting the primary visual cortex (area V1) may play an essential role in perceptual processes. We have, therefore, reexamined feedback projections to area V1, using retrograde tracer injections in this area In addition to well-known areas, quantification of labeling in higher cortical areas reveals a number of hitherto unknown long-distance feedback connections originating from auditory (A1), multisensory (STP) cortices, but also from a perirhinal area (36). These feedback projections from advanced cortical stations, a global feature shared by areas that belong to the ventral visual stream, could play an important role in early multisensory integration and spatial awareness and could provide the physical substrate for the involvement of area V1 in visual consciousness.

  3. Underground Test Area Project Waste Management Plan (Rev. No. 2, April 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) initiated the UGTA Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project investigation sites have been grouped into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) in accordance with the most recent version of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The primary UGTA objective is to gather data to characterize the groundwater aquifers beneath the NTS and adjacent lands. The investigations proposed under the UGTA program may involve the drilling and sampling of new wells; recompletion, monitoring, and sampling of existing wells; well development and hydrologic/ aquifer testing; geophysical surveys; and subsidence crater recharge evaluation. Those wastes generated as a result of these activities will be managed in accordance with existing federal and state regulations, DOE Orders, and NNSA/NV waste minimization and pollution prevention objectives. This Waste Management Plan provides a general framework for all Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project participants to follow for the characterization, storage/accumulation, treatment, and disposal of wastes generated by UGTA Project activities. The objective of this waste management plan is to provide guidelines to minimize waste generation and to properly manage wastes that are produced. Attachment 1 to this plan is the Fluid Management Plan and details specific strategies for management of fluids produced under UGTA operations.

  4. Large Area Projection Microstereolithography: Characterization and Optimization of 3D Printing Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Melissa R.; Moran, Bryan; Bekker, Logan; Dudukovic, Nikola

    2016-08-12

    Large Area Projection Microstereolithography (LAPμSL) is a new technology that allows the additive manufacture of parts that have feature sizes spanning from centimeters to tens of microns. Knowing the accuracy of builds from a system like this is a crucial step in development. This project explored the capabilities of the second and newest LAPμSL system that was built by comparing the features of actual builds to the desired structures. The system was then characterized in order to achieve the best results. The photo polymeric resins that were used were Autodesk PR48 and HDDA. Build parameters for Autodesk PR48 were found that allowed the prints to progress while using the full capacity of the system to print quality parts in a relatively short amount of time. One of the larger prints in particular had a print time that was nearly eighteen times faster than it would have been had printed in the first LAPμSL system. The characterization of HDDA resin helped the understanding that the flux of the light projected into the resin also affected the quality of the builds, rather than just the dose of light given. Future work for this project includes exploring the use of other resins in the LAPμSL systems, exploring the use of Raman Spectroscopy to analyze builds, and completing the characterization of the LAPμSL system.

  5. Large rainfall changes consistently projected over substantial areas of tropical land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Robin; Good, Peter; Martin, Gill; Rowell, David P.

    2016-02-01

    Many tropical countries are exceptionally vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns, with floods or droughts often severely affecting human life and health, food and water supplies, ecosystems and infrastructure. There is widespread disagreement among climate model projections of how and where rainfall will change over tropical land at the regional scales relevant to impacts, with different models predicting the position of current tropical wet and dry regions to shift in different ways. Here we show that despite uncertainty in the location of future rainfall shifts, climate models consistently project that large rainfall changes will occur for a considerable proportion of tropical land over the twenty-first century. The area of semi-arid land affected by large changes under a higher emissions scenario is likely to be greater than during even the most extreme regional wet or dry periods of the twentieth century, such as the Sahel drought of the late 1960s to 1990s. Substantial changes are projected to occur by mid-century--earlier than previously expected--and to intensify in line with global temperature rise. Therefore, current climate projections contain quantitative, decision-relevant information on future regional rainfall changes, particularly with regard to climate change mitigation policy.

  6. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  7. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  8. Tackling five main problem areas found in science (ground segment) project developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, T.; Pérez-López, F.

    2014-08-01

    Science projects which require a large software development may use many scientists alongside a few professional software engineers. Such projects tend to show extreme cases of the general problems associated with software developments. After introducing an example of a large software development in a science project, the importance of a development management plan will be emphasised and sections of the plan highlighted and it is explained how these sections address and prepare for the expected problems throughout the life of the project. A positive, strongly proactive quality assurance, QA, approach is the common theme throughout. The role of QA is, therefore, more to guide, support and advise all members of the team rather than only to detect and react to problems. The top five problem areas addressed are: 1. Vague, late and missing requirements. 2. Few professional software engineers in a large software development. 3. A lack of testers with an appropriate test mentality. 4. Quality Assurance people cannot be everywhere, nor have in-depth skills in every subject. 5. Scientists will want to start coding and see writing documents as a waste of their time.

  9. A Program to Strengthen Early Childhood Education in Poverty Area Schools; Project No. 0769. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Cynthia H.

    The Program to Strengthen Early Childhood Education in poverty area schools in New York City, a Title I ESEA project, was designed to continue the efforts of Project Headstart into the primary grades. The program attempted to improve the achievement level of primary grade pupils by introducing reduced class ratios, paraprofessional assistance, and…

  10. The projection from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum sustains long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Commins, S; Gigg, J; Anderson, M; O'Mara, S M

    1998-03-30

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a popular model of the synaptic plasticity which may be engaged by the biological processes underlying learning and memory. Most available studies of LTP have concentrated on the analysis of LTP occurring in 'early' components of the hippocampal circuit (for example, dentate gyrus and area CA1). We examine here, for the first time, LTP as it occurs in the massive, unidirectional projection from CA1 to the subiculum in vivo. We show that this projection sustains high-frequency stimulus-induced LTP (10 trains of 20 stimuli at 200 Hz; intertrain interval 2 s; LTP 181 +/- 9% at 30 min post-LTP induction). In addition, input-output (I/O) curves show a leftward shift for all stimulation values.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-11-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) continued environmental investigation of the subsurface Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447. The PSA is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the US' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device deep underground in granitic rock to determine whether seismic waves produced by an underground nuclear test could be differentiated from seismic waves produced by a naturally occurring earthquake. The test was a joint effort conducted by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) in October 1963 (AEC, 1964).

  12. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  13. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network.

    PubMed

    Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J; Fishpool, Lincoln D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Collingham, Yvonne C; Rahbek, Carsten; Huntley, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established. Using modelled projected shifts in the distributions of sub-Saharan Africa's entire breeding avifauna, we show that species turnover across the continent's Important Bird Area (IBA) network is likely to vary regionally and will be substantial at many sites (> 50% at 42% of IBAs by 2085 for priority species). Persistence of suitable climate space across the network as a whole, however, is notably high, with 88-92% of priority species retaining suitable climate space in >or= 1 IBA(s) in which they are currently found. Only 7-8 priority species lose climatic representation from the network. Hence, despite the likelihood of significant community disruption, we demonstrate that rigorously defined networks of protected areas can play a key role in mitigating the worst impacts of climate change on biodiversity.

  14. Tunnelling in Urbanised Areas - Geotechnical Case Studies at Different Project Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Stefan; Poscher, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard

    Tunnelling in urbanised areas is always a challenge for the client and the contractor as well as for the designers, the engineers, and the geologists. The high demand for space and the disturbance of existing infrastructures by construction measures increasingly forces future infrastructure projects to be carried out underground. At the same time, interferences with human, natural or water resources shall be reduced and noise, dust, as well as site traffic shall be minimised. Quite frequently, politics also come into play. All these factors may lead to pre-determined routes, with ground conditions which may not always be very favourable. This article presents examples of different projects at different stages and emphasizes the importance of engineering geology in the route selection process. The most promising options are routes located in ground, which is not sensitive to settlement and/or water ingress. A longer route in favourable ground conditions is to be given preference over a shorter route in adverse ground conditions. In case of no alternative, the risk of surface settlements and exploding construction costs have to be taken into account. The first project presented is the railway line in the Inn valley / Tyrol, comprising four sections in urbanised areas, which - due to environmental and political reasons - have to cross infrastructure facilities and traffic lines, often in unfavourable ground conditions. There is a variety of construction methods in the tender design to be applied in urbanised tunnelling ranging from NATM tunnels with local groundwater draw-down and jet grouting enclosure against water pressure, to TBM-driven tunnels with hydro-shield. The second project is a planned by-pass for the city of Linz, which is at the environmental impact assessment stage. The alignment is dominated by geological considerations, avoiding unfavourable ground conditions to the greatest possible extent.

  15. Geological evaluation of San Diego Norte Pilot Project, Zuata area, Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    De Rojas, I.

    1987-10-01

    The San Diego Norte Pilot Project consists of twelve inclined wells (7 producing wells 300 m (984 ft) apart, plus 5 observation wells) drilled from a cluster, to study the production and compaction behavior under steam soak (huff and puff) of the Tertiary heavy crude oil reservoirs of the Zuata area. This area is located within the Orinoco Heavy Oil belt of Venezuela. A geological model was needed as a base for the reservoir studies and to understand the geological setting. This model was constructed from extensive log information, seismic lines, well samples, and cores. The reservoir sands are friable with an average porosity of 34% and permeabilities ranging from 1 to 7 ..mu..m/sup 2/ (1 to 7 darcys). The sands were deposited in meander belts that stacked up forming multistory bodies. Point bars and channel fills account for 80-90% of the total sand. These sands are internally heterogeneous, sinuous and elongated, and larger than the 1 km/sup 2/ area covered by the project. The topmost two productive sands, which together average 22 m (72 ft), show the best porosities and permeabilities and are isolated by thick clays that make them suitable for selective steam injection. In the project, the oil has a density of about 1.0 g/cm/sup 3/ (10/sup 0/ API) and fills all the sands down to the oil-water contact. The depth of this contact is controlled by regional faults. Based on core compressibility tests, compaction is expected to be the principal production mechanism that could increase the expected primary recovery of 4 to 12% by huff and puff steam injection, leading to a possible recovery of 0.64 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (4 million bbl) in six years with four cycles of steam injection. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  17. 2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar

    2016-01-01

    Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios. PMID:28208851

  18. Io Shown in Lambertian Equal Area Projection and in Approximately Natural Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    NASA's Voyager 1 computer color mosaics, shown in approximately natural color and in Lambertian equal-area projections, show the Eastern (left) and Western (right) hemispheres of Io. This innermost of Jupiter's 4 major satellites is the most volcanically active object in the solar system. Io is 2263 mi (3640 km) in diameter, making it a little bigger than Earth's moon. Almost all the features visible here have volcanic origins, including several calderas and eruption plumes that were active at the time of the Voyager 1 encounter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00318

  19. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A PowerPoint Presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Earthquake Insight St. Louis, Mo., field trip held on May 28, 2009. The presentation focused on summarizing the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) justification, goals, achievements, and products, for an audience of business and public officials. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight, in an abbreviated format, the topics addressed; they are discussed below and are explained with additional text as appropriate.

  20. Procedures and results of the measurements on large area photomultipliers for the NEMO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Bellotti, R.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhdaef, B.; Cacopardo, G.; Calı, C.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carminati, G.; Cassano, B.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; DeBonis, G.; DeRosa, G.; DeRuvo, G.; DeVita, R.; Distefano, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Giovanetti, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Lonardo, A.; LoPresti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Maugeri, F.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Piattelli, P.; Piombo, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Spurio, M.; Stefani, F.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vicini, P.; Wischnewski, R.

    2010-03-01

    The selection of the photomultiplier plays a crucial role in the R&D activity related to a large-scale underwater neutrino telescope. This paper illustrates the main procedures and facilities used to characterize the performances of 72 large area photomultipliers, Hamamatsu model R7081 sel. The voltage to achieve a gain of 5×10 7, dark count rate and single photoelectron time and charge properties of the overall response were measured with a properly attenuated 410 nm pulsed laser. A dedicated study of the spurious pulses was also performed. The results prove that the photomultipliers comply with the general requirements imposed by the project.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  2. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A Progress Report-November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karadeniz, D.; Rogers, J.D.; Williams, R.A.; Cramer, C.H.; Bauer, R.A.; Hoffman, D.; Chung, J.; Hempen, G.L.; Steckel, P.H.; Boyd, O.L.; Watkins, C.M.; McCallister, N.S.; Schweig, E.

    2009-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) is producing digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and ground shaking, in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. Although not site specific enough to indicate the hazard at a house-by-house resolution, they can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as the result of an earthquake. Earthquake hazard maps provide one way of conveying such estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which produces earthquake hazard maps for the Nation, is working with local partners to develop detailed maps for urban areas vulnerable to strong ground shaking. These partners, which along with the USGS comprise the SLAEHMP, include the Missouri University of Science and Technology-Rolla (Missouri S&T), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Saint Louis University, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency, and URS Corporation. Preliminary hazard maps covering a test portion of the 29-quadrangle St. Louis study area have been produced and are currently being evaluated by the SLAEHMP. A USGS Fact Sheet summarizing this project was produced and almost 1000 copies have been distributed at several public outreach meetings and field trips that have featured the SLAEHMP (Williams and others, 2007). In addition, a USGS website focusing on the SLAEHMP, which provides links to project results and relevant earthquake hazard information, can be found at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/ceus/urban_map/st_louis/index.php. This progress report summarizes the

  3. Pilot project on the resettlement of out-migrant agricultural population in Yangtze Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W

    1992-10-01

    A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity.

  4. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2000 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, G F; Hakemi, N L; Hudson, G B; Hutcheon, I D; Lau, C A; Kersting, A B; Kenneally, J M; Moran, J E; Phinney, D L; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Williams, R; Zavarin, M

    2001-07-01

    This report highlights the results of FY 2000 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. This is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL-ANCD to document recent investigations of radionuclide migration and transport processes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOENV), and supports DP operations at the NTS through studies of radiochemical and hydrologic processes that are relevant to the DP mission. Other organizations that support the HRMP include Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPS), and Bechtel Nevada (BN). The UGTA Project is sponsored by the Environmental Management (EM) program at DOENV; its goal is to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination in groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. The project strategy follows guidelines set forth in a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Participating contractors include LLNL (both ANCD and the Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate), LANL, USGS, DRI, BN, and IT Corporation (with subcontract support from Geotrans Inc.).

  5. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  6. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  7. Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  8. Natural Resource Dependency and Decentralized Conservation Within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  9. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  10. Lateral Hypothalamic Area Glutamatergic Neurons and Their Projections to the Lateral Habenula Regulate Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Alice M.; Van Swieten, Maaike; Basiri, Marcus L.; Blair, Grace A.; Kantak, Pranish

    2016-01-01

    The overconsumption of calorically dense, highly palatable foods is thought to be a major contributor to the worldwide obesity epidemic; however, the precise neural circuits that directly regulate hedonic feeding remain elusive. Here, we show that lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) glutamatergic neurons, and their projections to the lateral habenula (LHb), negatively regulate the consumption of palatable food. Genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons increased daily caloric intake and produced weight gain in mice that had access to a high-fat diet, while not altering general locomotor activity. Anterior LHA glutamatergic neurons send a functional glutamatergic projection to the LHb, a brain region involved in processing aversive stimuli and negative reward prediction outcomes. Pathway-specific, optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic LHA-LHb circuit resulted in detectable glutamate-mediated EPSCs as well as GABA-mediated IPSCs, although the net effect of neurotransmitter release was to increase the firing of most LHb neurons. In vivo optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers produced a real-time place preference, whereas optogenetic stimulation of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers had the opposite effect. Furthermore, optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers acutely increased the consumption of a palatable liquid caloric reward. Collectively, these results demonstrate that LHA glutamatergic neurons are well situated to bidirectionally regulate feeding and potentially other behavioral states via their functional circuit connectivity with the LHb and potentially other brain regions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that the genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons enhances caloric intake. Some of these LHA glutamatergic neurons project to the lateral habenula, a brain area important for generating behavioral avoidance. Optogenetic stimulation of this circuit has net excitatory effects on postsynaptic LHb neurons. This is the

  11. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project Shoal Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project Shoal Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.

  12. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  13. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  14. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. 165.T01-1130 Section 165.T01-1130... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  15. 33 CFR 165.T01-1130 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. 165.T01-1130 Section 165.T01-1130... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  16. 33 CFR 165.T01-1125 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alford Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA 165.T01-1125 Section 165.T01-1125... Street Bridge rehabilitation project, Mystic River, MA (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated... to bottom, within 100 yards of any point on the S99 Alford Street Bridge. (b) Regulations. (1) The...

  17. 33 CFR 165.T01-0174 - Regulated Navigation Area; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and Tarrytown, NY. 165.T01-0174 Section 165...; Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and Tarrytown, NY. (a) Boundaries. The...

  18. Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Rudling, Nick; Kissling, Christian; Taurines, Regine; Thome, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    The length of the index finger relative to that of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, has been taken to be a marker of the amount of testosterone (T) that was present in the foetal environment (Manning, Scutt, Wilson, & Lewis-Jones, 1998). It has also been suggested (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1987) that elevated levels of foetal T are associated with left-handedness and that adult levels of circulating T might relate to foetal levels (Jamison, Meier, & Campbell, 1993). We used multiple regression analyses to investigate whether there is any relationship between either left or right hand 2D:4D ratio and handedness. We also examined whether adult levels of salivary T (or cortisol, used as a control hormone) predict digit ratio and/or handedness. Although the 2D:4D ratio of neither the left nor the right hand was related to handedness, the difference between the digit ratios of the right and left hands, D(R-L), was a significant predictor of handedness and of the performance difference between the hands on a peg-moving task, supporting previous findings (Manning & Peters, 2009; Manning et al., 1998; Manning, Trivers, Thornhill, & Singh, 2000; Stoyanov, Marinov, & Pashalieva, 2009). Adult circulating T levels did not predict the digit ratio of the left or right hand; nor was there a significant relationship between concentrations of salivary T (or cortisol) and either hand preference or asymmetry in manual skill. We suggest that the association between D(R-L) and hand preference arises because D(R-L) is a correlate of sensitivity to T in the developing foetus.

  19. D4 brane probes in gauge/gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yang

    2009-03-15

    We propose a Dirac-Born-Infeld vertex brane+N{sub c} fundamental strings configuration for a probe baryon in the finite-temperature thermal gauge field via AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we investigate properties of this configuration in QCD{sub 4} and warped AdS{sub 6}xS{sup 4}. We find that, in the D4-D8 system, a holographic probe baryon can be described as N{sub c} fundamental strings connecting through a vertex D4 brane wrapped on S{sup 4}. In QCD{sub 4} background, a closed vertex can exist in a confined phase but cannot exist in a deconfined phase. In the low temperature region, the screening effect still exists in the confined phase like a meson, and the vertex D4 brane dominates the baryon mass. The lower energy state corresponds to the vertex brane closer to the radial cutoff position (r=r{sub c}), and the higher energy state corresponds to the vertex brane a little farther away from the cutoff position. The high energy limit of this configuration is just like the unclosed vertex brane configuration in a higher temperature deconfined phase. In warped AdS{sub 6}xS{sup 4} background, a closed vertex can exist in a deconfined phase and the vertex contains a spike, while fundamental strings are relatively short. The screening length should be defined through the distance between the top position of the vertex spike and the boundary.

  20. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  1. Supramolecular 3d-4f single-molecule magnet architectures.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Sebastian; van Leusen, Jan; Izarova, Natalya V; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Kögerler, Paul; Monakhov, Kirill Yu

    2016-10-18

    The nanosized self-assemblies {[{Ln(III)}{H2O⊂CrLn}]2(H2O)} (Ln = Dy, 1 and Tb, 2) based on new 3d-4f mixed-metal coordination topologies are formed via extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding that is directed by enclosed water molecules. Compounds 1 and 2 show single-molecule magnet characteristics manifested by hysteresis loops up to 1.6 K (Ueff = 8.3 cm(-1)) and 1 K (Ueff = 3.4 cm(-1)), respectively.

  2. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  3. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY2005 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Nimz, G J; Ramon, E C; Rose, T P; Shuller, L; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2007-03-23

    This report describes FY 2005 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  4. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  5. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  6. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  7. Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project: Overview. [Second repository

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The draft Area Recommendation Report (ARR) for the Crystalline Repository Project identifies portions of crystalline rock bodies as proposed potentially acceptable sites for the Nation's second repository for deep geologic burial of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. This Overview provides a brief summary of that report. The US Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated available geologic and environmental data for 235 crystalline rock bodies in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions to identify preliminary candidate areas. The 12 proposed potentially acceptable sites are located in the States of Georgia (1), Maine (2), Minnesota (3), New Hampshire (1), North Carolina (2), Virginia (2), and Wisconsin (1). The data, analyses and rationale pertaining to the identification of the 12 proposed potentially acceptable sites are presented in the draft ARR. The analyses presented in the draft ARR demonstrate that the evidence available for each proposed potentially acceptable site supports (1) a finding that the site is not disqualified under Appendix III of the DOE Siting Guidelines and (2) a decision to proceed with the continued investigation of the site on the basis of the favorable and potentially adverse conditions identified to date. These potentially acceptable sites will be investigated and evaluated in more detail during the area phase of the siting process and considered along with other candidate sites in a progressive narrowing process to finally choose the site of the second repository in 1998.

  8. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Tests Area Project FY 2003 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J., B C; F., E G; K., E B; L., F D; J., H L; Max, H; Bryant, H G; B., K A; E., M J; A., P G; P., R T; K., S D; F.B., T A; W., W R; Mavrik, Z; Pihong, Z

    2004-08-17

    This report describes FY 2003 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The present report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-CBND during FY 2003. Although we have emphasized investigations that were led by CBND, we also participated in a variety of collaborative studies with other UGTA and HRMP contract organizations including the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  9. March 10, 2006, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses Requirements for Project-level Conformity Determinations in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule, published March 10, 2006, establishes requirements for project-level conformity determinations in particulate matter (PM) 2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas, and revises existing requirements for projects in PM10 areas.

  10. Feedforward and feedback projections of caudal belt and parabelt areas of auditory cortex: refining the hierarchical model

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Troy A.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.; Camalier, Corrie R.; Falchier, Arnaud; Lakatos, Peter; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Our working model of the primate auditory cortex recognizes three major regions (core, belt, parabelt), subdivided into thirteen areas. The connections between areas are topographically ordered in a manner consistent with information flow along two major anatomical axes: core-belt-parabelt and caudal-rostral. Remarkably, most of the connections supporting this model were revealed using retrograde tracing techniques. Little is known about laminar circuitry, as anterograde tracing of axon terminations has rarely been used. The purpose of the present study was to examine the laminar projections of three areas of auditory cortex, pursuant to analysis of all areas. The selected areas were: middle lateral belt (ML); caudomedial belt (CM); and caudal parabelt (CPB). Injections of anterograde tracers yielded data consistent with major features of our model, and also new findings that compel modifications. Results supporting the model were: (1) feedforward projection from ML and CM terminated in CPB; (2) feedforward projections from ML and CPB terminated in rostral areas of the belt and parabelt; and (3) feedback projections typified inputs to the core region from belt and parabelt. At odds with the model was the convergence of feedforward inputs into rostral medial belt from ML and CPB. This was unexpected since CPB is at a higher stage of the processing hierarchy, with mainly feedback projections to all other belt areas. Lastly, extending the model, feedforward projections from CM, ML, and CPB overlapped in the temporal parietal occipital area (TPO) in the superior temporal sulcus, indicating significant auditory influence on sensory processing in this region. The combined results refine our working model and highlight the need to complete studies of the laminar inputs to all areas of auditory cortex. Their documentation is essential for developing informed hypotheses about the neurophysiological influences of inputs to each layer and area. PMID:24795550

  11. MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT RISKS SUCCESSES IN THE STARTUP OF THE HANFORD 200 AREA TRU WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GREENWLL, R.D.

    2005-01-20

    A risk identification and mitigation method applied to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Retrieval Project performed at the Hanford 200 Area burial grounds is described. Retrieval operations are analyzed using process flow diagramming. and the anticipated project contingencies are included in the Authorization Basis and operational plans. Examples of uncertainties assessed include degraded container integrity, bulged drums, unknown containers, and releases to the environment. Identification and mitigation of project risks contributed to the safe retrieval of over 1700 cubic meters of waste without significant work stoppage and below the targeted cost per cubic meter retrieved. This paper will be of interest to managers, project engineers, regulators, and others who are responsible for successful performance of waste retrieval and other projects with high safety and performance risks.

  12. Temperature changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area and linkage with Three Gorges Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen; Liang, Shunlin; Feng, Lian; He, Tao; Song, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is one of the largest hydroelectric projects throughout the world. It has brought many benefits to the society but also led to endless debates about its environmental and climatic impacts. Monitoring the spatiotemporal variations of temperature in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) is important for understanding the climatic impacts of the TGP. In this study, we used remote sensing-based land surface temperature (LST) and ground-measured air temperature data to investigate temperature changes in the TGRA. Results showed that during the daytime in summer, LST exhibited significant cooling (1-5°C) in the downstream region of the reservoir, whereas LST during the nighttime in winter exhibited significant warming (1-5°C) across the entire reservoir. However, these cooling and warming effects were both locally constrained within 5 km buffer along the reservoir. The changes in air temperature were consistent with those in LST, with 0.67°C cooling in summer and 0.33°C warming in winter. The temperature changes along the reservoir not only resulted from the land-water conversion induced by the dam impounding but were also related to the increase of vegetation cover caused by the ecological restoration projects. Significant warming trends were also found in the upstream of TGRA, especially during the daytime in summer, with up to 5°C for LST and 0.52°C for air temperature. The warming was caused mainly by urban expansion, which was driven in part by the population resettlement of TGP. Based on satellite observations, we investigated the comprehensive climatic impacts of TGP caused by multiple factors.

  13. Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

  14. Extreme events of perceived temperature over Europe: a projected northward extension of dangerous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoccimarro, Enrico; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Gualdi, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that an increase of temperature over Europe, both in terms of averages and extremes, is expected within the current century. In order to consider health impacts under warm conditions, it is important to take into account the combined effect of temperature and humidity on the human body. To this aim a basic index - the humindex - representative of the perceived temperature, under different scenarios and periods, has been investigated in this study. A very low concomitance of extreme temperature events and extreme humindex events is found over the present climate, reinforcing the importance to investigate not only extreme temperature and relative humidity future projections but also the combination of the two parameters. A set of 10-km resolution regional climate simulations provided within the EUR-11 EURO-CORDEX multi-model effort, demonstrates ability in representing the intense and extreme events of the humindex over the present climate and to be eligible as a tool to quantify future changes in geographical patterns of exposed areas over Europe. An enlargement of the domain subject to dangerous conditions is found since the middle of the current century, reaching 60 degrees North when considering really extreme events. The most significant increase in humindex extreme events is found when comparing the 2066-2095 projections under rcp8.5 scenario, to the 1966-2005 period: bearing in mind that changes in relative humidity may either amplify or offset the health effects of temperature extremes, a less pronounced projected reduction of relative humidity intensity in the Northern part of the European domain, associated to extreme temperature and humindex, makes Northern Europe the most prone region to a local increase of the humindex extremes.

  15. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  16. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  17. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  18. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes.

  19. The epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infections in the Egypt-49 project area

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, M.; Nielsen, J.; Samaan, S. A.; Mallah, M. B.; Allam, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    The influence of the size and location of communities in relation to the different types of watercourse, the availability of a protected water supply, types of housing and the presence of other sanitary facilities on the prevalence of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area has been studied. There is no direct relationship between the size of village and the prevalence of bilharziasis. Main drains and distributaries are potent sources of infection and, in terms of the total population exposed, distributaries play the most significant role in the transmission of infection. Of the other factors, the availability of a protected water supply seems to have the greatest effect on the prevalence. Although the presence of a latrine in the dwelling does not of itself influence the extent of schistosome infection, which is caught from polluted water, the installation of latrines assists in the cultivation of healthy habits, thereby lessening the prevalence not only of bilharziasis but also of certain other infections. PMID:5297628

  20. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  1. OURSES: a telemedicine project for rural areas in france. Telemonitoring of elderly people.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Guerrero, Alfonso; Mailhes, Corinne; Castanie, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Several telemedicine applications are proposed within the frame of OURSES project, French acronym for Offer of Rural Use of Services by Satellite, providing services for elderly people. The main objective of this project is to show the interest of using satellites as a complement to terrestrial technologies, in areas where telecommunication infrastructure is lacking or incomplete. This paper describes one of these applications: an ECG monitoring system. This telemonitoring system allows, thanks to a wireless wearable sensor, to detect possible cardiac problems of elderly people. ECG signals are analyzed through signal processing algorithms and if some abnormal condition is detected, an alarm is raised and sent via satellite to the physician's office. The corresponding physician is able to access at any time the recorded ECG signals, whenever he is willing to, in the presence of an alarm or not. This allows a constant monitoring of the elderly people. Tests realized in a real environment have demonstrated the feasibility and the interest of this application.

  2. YANGTZE project: Investigation of mass movements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (P. R. China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Dominik; Rohn, Joachim; Wiedenmann, Johannes; Rudolph, René; Otte, Karel; Ernstberger, Stefanie; Eckstein, Susan; Dumperth, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Within the German YANGTZE Project, mass movement hazard is investigated for the Xiangxi Catchment which is part of the Three Gorges Reservoir (P. R. China). The objective of our sub-project is to investigate the impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir on slope stability and (re-)activation of mass movements. Within this paper first results of investigations on mass movements in the Xiangxi Catchment that were started in summer 2008 are presented. They show a significant correlation between mass movement distribution and activity on the one hand and lithology and altitude on the other hand. In Xiangxi Catchment, correlation between geology and occurrence of mass movements can be studied ideally as most of the geological formations outcropping in the reservoir area can be found there. Furthermore, the mouth of Xiangxi River is quite close to the Three Gorges Dam so that the impact of the impoundment is distinctive in the Xiangxi Catchment. In 2008 and 2009, about 70 km² were mapped geotechnically. The mapping was done for (a) the backwater area of Xiangxi River influenced by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (from Yangtze River to Gaoyang Town), (b) Quyuan Valley as a sub-catchment of Xiangxi Catchment, and (c) along the main roads from Gaoyang Town towards Gufu City and towards Shennongjia Nature Reserve. The investigated area comprises marine and continental sedimentary layers from Cambrian to Jurassic Period. The lithology of these layers is dominated by carbonates (limestone, dolostone and marlstone) on the one hand and clastic sediments (shale, mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate) on the other hand. A total of 180 mass movements was found and mapped. Mainly rotational or combined rotational-translational landslides, but also some rockslides and rockfalls were found. As expected, a strong correlation between lithology on the one side and occurrence and activity of mass movements on the other side could be found. In the study area, Jurassic

  3. The GRASP project - a multidisciplinary study of hydrology and biogeochemistry in a periglacial catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Emma; Lindborg, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region is sensitive to global warming, and permafrost thaw and release of old carbon are examples of processes that may have a positive feedback effect to the global climate system. Quantification and assumptions on future change are often based on model predictions. Such models require cross-disciplinary data of high quality that often is lacking. Biogeochemical processes in the landscape are highly influenced by the hydrology, which in turn is intimately related to permafrost processes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed when collecting data and setting up field experiments aiming at increase the understanding of these processes. Here we summarize and present data collected in the GRASP, Greenland Analogue Surface Project. GRASP is a catchment-scale field study of the periglacial area in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, focusing on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. The site investigations were initiated in 2010 and have since then resulted in three separate data sets published in ESSD (Earth system and Science Data) each one focusing on i) meteorological data and hydrology, ii) biogeochemistry and iii) geometries of sediments and the active layer. The three data-sets, which are freely available via the PANGAEA data base, enable conceptual and coupled numerical modeling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes. An important strength with the GRASP data is that all data is collected within the same, relatively small, catchment area. This implies that measurements are more easily linked to the right source area or process. Despite the small catchment area it includes the major units of the periglacial hydrological system; a lake, a talik, a supra- and subpermafrost aquifer and, consequently, biogeochemical processes in each of these units may be studied. The new data from GRASP is both used with the aim to increase the knowledge of present day periglacial hydrology and biogeochemistry but also in order to

  4. Identifying areas of high herpetofauna diversity that are threatened by planned infrastructure projects in Spain.

    PubMed

    Benayas, José M Rey; Montaña, Enrique De La; Belliure, Josabel; Eekhout, Xavier R

    2006-05-01

    A major task related to conservation is to predict if planned infrastructure projects are likely to threaten biodiversity. In this study we investigated the potential impact of planned infrastructure in Spain on amphibian and reptile species, two highly vulnerable groups given their limited dispersal and current situation of population decline. We used distribution data of both groups to identify areas of high herpetofauna diversity, and compared the locations of these areas with the locations of the planned road, high-speed train railway and water reservoir network. Four criteria were used for this identification: species richness, rarity, vulnerability, and a combined index of the three criteria. From a total of 1441 cells of 20 x 20 km, areas of high diversity were defined as those cells whose ranked values for the different criteria included either all species or all threatened species. The combined index provided the smallest number of cells needed to retain all threatened species (1.7 and 2.6% of the cells for amphibian and reptile species, respectively). Coincidences between these high diversity areas and cells including planned infrastructures-denominated 'alert planning units'-were 35.4% for amphibians and 31.2% for reptiles. Mitigation of the potential impacts would include actions such as barriers to animal access to roads and railways and ecoducts under these constructions. Our approach provides conservation authorities information that can be used to make decisions on habitat protection. A technique that identifies threats to herpetofauna before they occur is also likely to improve the chance of herpetofauna being protected.

  5. The efferent projections of neurons in the white matter of different cortical areas of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Meyer, G; Gonzalez-Hernandez, T; Galindo-Mireles, D; Castañeyra-Perdomo, A; Ferres-Torres, R

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Fast Blue into different cortical areas (frontal, parietal, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex) revealed that neurons in the white matter (interstitial neurons) give rise to association fibers which project mostly to the gray matter of the overlying cytoarchitectonic area, but which may extend also over different cytoarchitectonic areas. The rostrocaudal extent of the projecting axons was up to 1 mm in the frontal and parietal cortex, and up to 3.5 mm in the cingulate cortex. Concurrent processing for dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry showed that 70% of cortically projecting interstitial neurons were NADPH-d-positive. An analysis of neuronal morphology suggests that the FasT-Blue-labeled, NADPH-d-negative neurons may represent displaced pyramidal neurons of layer VIb; the Fast-Blue-labeled and NADPH-d-positive neurons have bipolar or multipolar dendritic trees, constituting a population of nonpyramidal interstitial neurons that project into the cortical gray matter.

  6. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... small area FMR demonstration project until the 5-year American Community Survey (ACS) data are published...: HUD intends to use the 5-year ACS data to calculate small area FMRs for PHAs participating in the demonstration. However, due to timing, the special tabulations of 5-year ACS data that are required...

  7. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  8. Evaluation of a Terminal Area In-Trail Approach Spacing, Project and Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelden, Stephen; Johnson, Walter (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Reported here are the results of work completed as a precursor to Distributed Air Ground (DAG), Concept Element 11 (CE11) research. CE11 is a NASA, Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) concept initiated to promote research on in-trail merging and spacing during approach in the terminal area environment, such that improvements to the National Air Space (NAS) may be realized. A description of the project concept, results of a preliminary study, and a literature review are presented. In terms of conclusions, study results, and reference material respectively: 1) the concept is supported as being significant to NAS capacity improvement, 2) the preliminary study indicated that having more than one downstream, in-trail aircraft present on a CDTI during approach may be advantageous, and that flying traditional Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) utilizing advanced decision support tools (DST) may be complicated by wake turbulence considerations, a lack of vertical awareness on the part of the flight crew, and the 'step-down' nature of many terminal area approaches, and 3) the results of a literature review are presented for future reference.

  9. Main contributions of the KfK nuclear safety project in the LWR safety area

    SciTech Connect

    Kuczera, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Project (PNS) was established at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in 1972. At that time, nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany was in a transition phase proceeding from light water reactor (LWR) demonstration plants (300 MW(e)) to commercial size plants of 1200 to 1300 MW(e) which are standard units today. Simultaneously, general questions about LWR safety and reliability as well as questions on risk-oriented features became more pronounced in the public discussion. As a consequence, various already existing LWR safety activities were brought together and combined in the organizational framework of the PNS. The overriding objectives of PNS research and development (R and D) effort were at the quantification of safety margins of reactor systems and components, and the improvement of existing safety systems to avoid accident occurrence and to minimize accident consequences. In close cooperation with governmental authorities, manufacturers, and utilities, an R and D program was developed, comprised of four main areas: 1) dynamic behavior of reactor components; 2) fuel element behavior under accident conditions; 3) core meltdown accident analyses; and 4) retention of radioactive fission products and limitation of severe accident consequences. An overview on the KfK contribution to LWR safety research is given. It deals in a comprehensive matter with results obtained in the areas listed above.

  10. d=4 attractors, effective horizon radius, and fake supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, Sergio; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio

    2008-09-15

    We consider extremal black hole attractors [both Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) and non-BPS] for N=3 and N=5 supergravity in d=4 space-time dimensions. Attractors for matter-coupled N=3 theory are similar to attractors in N=2 supergravity minimally coupled to Abelian vector multiplets. On the other hand, N=5 attractors are similar to attractors in N=4 pure supergravity, and in such theories only (1/N)-BPS nondegenerate solutions exist. All the above-mentioned theories have a simple interpretation in the first order (fake supergravity) formalism. Furthermore, such theories do not have a d=5 uplift. Finally we comment on the duality relations among the attractor solutions of N{>=}2 supergravities sharing the same full bosonic sector.

  11. Discrete Torsion, (Anti) de Sitter D4-Brane and Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhishek K.; Pandey, P. K.; Singh, Sunita; Kar, Supriya

    2014-06-01

    We obtain quantum geometries on a vacuum created pair of a (DDbar)3-brane, at a Big Bang singularity, by a local two form on a D4-brane. In fact our analysis is provoked by an established phenomenon leading to a pair creation by a gauge field at a black hole horizon by Stephen Hawking in 1975. Importantly, the five dimensional microscopic black holes are described by an effective non-perturbative curvature underlying a discrete torsion in a second order formalism. In the case for a non-propagating torsion, the effective curvature reduces to Riemannian, which in a low energy limit may describe Einstein vacuum in the formalism. In particular, our analysis suggests that a non-trivial space begin with a hot de Sitter brane-Universe underlying a nucleation of a vacuum pair of (DDbar)-instanton at a Big Bang. A pair of instanton nucleats a D-particle which in turn combines with an anti D-particle to describe a D-string and so on. The nucleation of a pair of higher dimensional pair of brane/anti-brane from a lower dimensional pair may be viewed via an expansion of the brane-Universe upon time. It is in conformity with the conjecture of a branes within a brane presumably in presence of the non-zero modes of two form. Interestingly, we perform a thermal analysis underlying various emergent quantum de Sitter vacua on a D4-brane and argue for the plausible tunneling geometries underlying a thermal equilibrium. It is argued that a de Sitter Schwarzschild undergoes quantum tunneling to an AdS-brane Schwarzschild via Nariai and de Sitter topological black hole.

  12. Documentation assessment, Project C-018H, 200-E area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, M.W.; Connor, M.D.; Mertelendy, J.I.

    1994-12-21

    Project C-018H is one of the fourteen subprojects to the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project. Project C-018H provides treatment and disposal for the 242-A Evaporator and PUREX plant process condensate waste streams. This project used the Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach proposed by RL. The IMT approach included all affected organizations on the project team to coordinate and execute all required project tasks, while striving to integrate and satisfy all technical, operational, functional, and organizational objectives. The HEC Projects were initiated in 1989. Project C-018H began in early 1990, with completion of construction currently targeted for mid-1995. This assessment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the management control on design documents and quality assurance records developed and submitted for processing, use, and retention for the Project. The assessment focused primarily on the overall adequacy and quality of the design documentation currently being submitted to the project document control function.

  13. 76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... (42 U.S.C. 7152). This act transferred to and vested in the Secretary of Energy the power marketing..., pursuant to the Post-1989 General Power Marketing and Allocation Criteria (Marketing Plan). Firm Point-to... preparation of this Rate Order. Project Descriptions The Post-1989 General Power Marketing and Allocation...

  14. Morphology of individual axons projecting from area V2 to MT in the macaque.

    PubMed

    Rockland, K S

    1995-04-24

    Efferent axons from area V2 to the middle temporal area (MT) were anterogradely labeled by Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or biocytin and analyzed in serial reconstructions. Five of seven reconstructed axons had three arbors (each < or = 200 microns in diameter) in layers 3-4, separated by 200-600 microns. Two axons terminated in what was apparently a single focus in layers 3-4. Of 15 additional single arbors analyzed, 12 were concentrated in layers 3-4, and measured 200-250 microns across at their widest point. Three of these arbors were more columnar in shape (about 400 microns in diameter), and extended from layer 4 toward layer 1. This system differs in several features from MT-projecting axons originating from V1. Namely, V2 axons terminating in MT are thinner (approximately 1.0 microns vs. 3.0 microns), their terminal specializations are more delicate, and their arbors are concentrated in layer 4 and overlying layer 3, with no collaterals to layer 6. These differences may reflect the distinctive neuronal populations giving rise to these two connectional systems (different sizes of pyramidal neurons in layer 3 of V2, and a mix of pyramidal and spiny stellate cells in area V1). Differences may have implications for timing factors; that is, impulses from V1, subserved by large-caliber axons, may arrive in MT coincidentally with indirect connections via V2 to MT. Another consideration may be the functional architecture of MT. Regularly spaced clusters of neurons have been described in MT which have similar directionality preferences. The interarbor spacing of cortical efferents is consistent with a columnar organization, but the laminar specificity may indicate recruitment of different combinations of postsynaptic populations by V1 or V2 terminations.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    SciTech Connect

    Marschke, Stephen F.

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  16. State Education Department Facilities Planning Unit. Report 96-D-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    Generally, construction projects undertaken by school districts in New York State are financed in part by state aid. The Education Department's Facilities Planning unit approves state aid for school-district construction projects outside New York City. This report presents findings of an audit that evaluated whether the Unit management's oversight…

  17. Somatotopic direct projections from orofacial areas of secondary somatosensory cortex to trigeminal sensory nuclear complex in rats.

    PubMed

    Haque, T; Akhter, F; Kato, T; Sato, F; Takeda, R; Higashiyama, K; Moritani, M; Bae, Y-C; Sessle, B J; Yoshida, A

    2012-09-06

    Little is known about the projections from the orofacial areas of the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) to the pons and medulla including the second-order somatosensory neuron pools. To address this in rats, we first examined the distribution of S2 neurons projecting to the trigeminal principal nucleus (Vp) or oral subnucleus (Vo) of the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) after injections of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), into five regions in the Vp/Vo which were responsive to stimulation of trigeminal nerves innervating the orofacial tissues. A large number of FG-labeled neurons were found with a somatotopic arrangement in the dorsal areas of S2 (orofacial S2 area). This somatotopic arrangement in the orofacial S2 area was shown to closely match that of the orofacial afferent inputs by recording cortical surface potentials evoked by stimulation of the trigeminal nerves. We then examined the morphology of descending projections from these electrophysiologically defined areas of the orofacial S2 to the pons and medulla after injections of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine (BDA), into the areas. A large number of BDA-labeled axon fibers and terminals were seen only in some of the second-order somatosensory neuron pools, most notably in the contralateral TSNC, although the labeled terminals were not seen in certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC including the rostrocaudal middle level of the trigeminal interpolar subnucleus. The projections to the TSNC showed somatotopic arrangements in dorsoventral, superficial-deep and rostrocaudal directions. The somatotopic arrangements in the Vp/Vo closely matched those of the electrophysiologically defined central projection sites of the orofacial trigeminal afferents in the TSNC. The present results suggest that the orofacial S2 projects selectively to certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC, and the projections may allow the orofacial S2 to accurately modulate

  18. Corticocortical projections to representations of the teeth, tongue, and face in somatosensory area 3b of macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cerkevich, Christina M.; Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2013-01-01

    We placed injections of anatomical tracers into representations of the tongue, teeth, and face in the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b) of macaque monkeys. Our injections revealed strong projections to representations of the tongue and teeth from other parts of the oral cavity responsive region in 3b. The 3b face also provided input to the representations of the intra-oral structures. The primary representation of the face showed a pattern of intrinsic connections similar to that of the mouth. The area 3b hand representation provided little to no input to either the mouth or face representations. The mouth and face representations of area 3b received projections from the presumptive oral cavity and face regions of other somatosensory areas in the anterior parietal cortex and the lateral sulcus including areas 3a, 1, 2, the second somatosensory area (S2), the parietal ventral area (PV), and cortex that may include the parietal rostral (PR) and ventral somatosensory (VS) areas. Additional inputs came from primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) areas. This areal pattern of projections is similar to the well-studied pattern revealed by tracer injections in regions of 3b representing the hand. The tongue representation appeared to be unique in area 3b in that it also received inputs from areas in the anterior upper bank of the lateral sulcus and anterior insula that may include the primary gustatory area (area G) and other cortical taste processing areas, as well as a region of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) lining the principal sulcus. PMID:23853118

  19. Sensitivity projections for dark matter dearches with the Fermi large area telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Charles, E.; M. Sanchez-Conde; Anderson, B.; ...

    2016-05-20

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of themore » $$\\gamma$$-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this report we describe methods used to search for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. We also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, considering both statistical and systematic uncertainties. We project the expected sensitivities of each search method for 10 and 15 years of LAT data taking. In particular, we find that the sensitivity of searches targeting dwarf galaxies, which provide the best limits currently, will improve faster than the square root of observing time. Current LAT limits for dwarf galaxies using six years of data reach the thermal relic level for masses up to 120 GeV for the $$b\\bar{b}$$ annihilation channel for reasonable dark matter density profiles. With projected discoveries of additional dwarfs, these limits could extend to about 250 GeV. With as much as 15 years of LAT data these searches would be sensitive to dark matter annihilations at the thermal relic cross section for masses to greater than 400 GeV (200 GeV) in the $$b\\bar{b}$$ ($$\\tau^+ \\tau^-$$) annihilation channels.« less

  20. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (< 5%). These results show that both leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Sensitivity projections for dark matter dearches with the Fermi large area telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, E.; M. Sanchez-Conde; Anderson, B.; Caputo, R.; Cuoco, A.; Di Mauro, M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Meyer, M.; Tibaldo, L.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Ceraudo, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Gaskins, J.; Gustafsson, M.; Mirabal, N.; Razzano, M.

    2016-05-20

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the $\\gamma$-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this report we describe methods used to search for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. We also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, considering both statistical and systematic uncertainties. We project the expected sensitivities of each search method for 10 and 15 years of LAT data taking. In particular, we find that the sensitivity of searches targeting dwarf galaxies, which provide the best limits currently, will improve faster than the square root of observing time. Current LAT limits for dwarf galaxies using six years of data reach the thermal relic level for masses up to 120 GeV for the $b\\bar{b}$ annihilation channel for reasonable dark matter density profiles. With projected discoveries of additional dwarfs, these limits could extend to about 250 GeV. With as much as 15 years of LAT data these searches would be sensitive to dark matter annihilations at the thermal relic cross section for masses to greater than 400 GeV (200 GeV) in the $b\\bar{b}$ ($\\tau^+ \\tau^-$) annihilation channels.

  2. Sensitivity projections for dark matter dearches with the Fermi large area telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, E.; M. Sanchez-Conde; Anderson, B.; Caputo, R.; Cuoco, A.; Di Mauro, M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Meyer, M.; Tibaldo, L.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Ceraudo, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Gaskins, J.; Gustafsson, M.; Mirabal, N.; Razzano, M.

    2016-05-20

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the $\\gamma$-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this report we describe methods used to search for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. We also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, considering both statistical and systematic uncertainties. We project the expected sensitivities of each search method for 10 and 15 years of LAT data taking. In particular, we find that the sensitivity of searches targeting dwarf galaxies, which provide the best limits currently, will improve faster than the square root of observing time. Current LAT limits for dwarf galaxies using six years of data reach the thermal relic level for masses up to 120 GeV for the $b\\bar{b}$ annihilation channel for reasonable dark matter density profiles. With projected discoveries of additional dwarfs, these limits could extend to about 250 GeV. With as much as 15 years of LAT data these searches would be sensitive to dark matter annihilations at the thermal relic cross section for masses to greater than 400 GeV (200 GeV) in the $b\\bar{b}$ ($\\tau^+ \\tau^-$) annihilation channels.

  3. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Dopamine D4 receptor, but not the ADHD-associated D4.7 variant, forms functional heteromers with the dopamine D2S receptor in the brain

    PubMed Central

    González, Sergio; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Peper, Marcela; Lorenzo, Ramiro; Moreno, Estefanía; Ciruela, Francisco; Borycz, Janusz; Ortiz, Jordi; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; McCormick, Peter J.; Volkow, Nora D.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Floran, Benjamin; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor have been consistently associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However the functional significance of the risk polymorphism (variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3) is still unclear. Here we show that whereas the most frequent 4-repeat (D4.4) and the 2-repeat (D4.2) variants form functional heteromers with the short isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S), the 7-repeat risk allele (D4.7) does not. D2 receptor activation in the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer potentiates D4 receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in transfected cells and in the striatum, which did not occur in cells expressing D4.7 or in the striatum of knock-in mutant mice carrying the 7 repeats of the human D4.7 in the third intracellular loop of the D4 receptor. In the striatum D4 receptors are localized in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals, where they selectively modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by interacting with D2S receptors. This interaction shows the same qualitative characteristics than the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer-mediated MAPK signaling and D2S receptor activation potentiates D4 receptor-mediated inibition of striatal glutamate release. It is therefore postulated that dysfunctional D2S-D4.7 heteromers may impair presynaptic dopaminergic control of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and explain functional deficits associated with ADHD. PMID:21844870

  5. A Cultural Resources Literature Search of the Bayou Du Chien Drainage Project Area in Fulton, Graves, and Hickman Counties, Kentucky

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-10

    Mary E., and Roger W. Barbour 1971 A Guide to the Wildflowers and Ferns of Kentucky . The University Press of Kentucky , Lexington. I. 59 I Wharton, Mary...DRAINAGE PROJECT AREA IN FULTON, GRAVES, AND HICKMAN COUNTIES, KENTUCKY I by ?amela A. Schenian October 10, 1985 - DTIC S APRL 9 19933 I E i Cultural... KENTUCKY by Pamela A. Schenian Pamela A.’ Schenia Principal Investigator and Project Archaeologist October 10, 1985 Prepared for: The Memphis

  6. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Areas, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting the geographic areas of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Depending upon the type of market or project and data availability, polygons reflect market coverage areas, project footprints, or project primary impact areas in which ecosystem service markets and projects operate. The data were collected via surveys and desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace from 2008 to 2016 on biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and water markets. Additional biodiversity data were obtained from the Regulatory In-lieu Fee and Bank Information Tracking System (RIBITS) database in 2015. Attribute data include information regarding the methodology, design, and development of biodiversity, carbon, and water markets and projects. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for EnviroAtlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about thi

  8. A critical review of the research on the extreme male brain theory and digit ratio (2D:4D).

    PubMed

    Teatero, Missy L; Netley, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extreme male brain (EMB) theory of ASD suggests that fetal testosterone (FT) exposure may underlie sex differences in autistic traits. A link between the organizational effects of FT on the brain and ASD is often drawn based on research using digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative biomarker, without a full survey of the findings. This paper critically and quantitatively reviews the research on the relationship between 2D:4D and ASD as well as autism spectrum, empathizing, and systemizing measures in neurotypical populations. Overall, there is some support for the EMB theory in all four areas, particularly the 2D:4D-ASD relationship. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  9. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  10. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  11. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  12. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  13. Optimal pipe size design for looped irrigation water supply system using harmony search: Saemangeum project area.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Guen; Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  14. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2006 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Culham, H W; Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Blasiyh Nuno, G A; Powell, B A; Rose, T P; Singleton, M J; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-04-08

    This report describes FY 2006 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains four chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and National Security Technologies (NSTec). Chapter 1 is a summary of FY 2006 sampling efforts at near-field 'hot' wells at the NTS, and presents new chemical and isotopic data for groundwater samples from four near-field wells. These include PM-2 and U-20n PS 1DDh (CHESHIRE), UE-7ns (BOURBON), and U-19v PS No.1ds (ALMENDRO). Chapter 2 is a summary of the results of chemical and isotopic measurements of groundwater samples from three UGTA environmental monitoring wells. These wells are: ER-12-4 and U12S located in Area 12 on Rainier Mesa and

  15. Anorexia nervosa, perfectionism, and dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4).

    PubMed

    Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Lerer, Elad; Zohar, Ada H; Kremer, Ilana; Elizur, Yoel; Nemanov, Lubov; Golan, Moria; Blank, Shulamit; Gritsenko, Inga; Ebstein, Richard P

    2007-09-05

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), a well-characterized, polymorphic gene, is an attractive candidate for contributing risk to disordered eating and anorexia nervosa (AN). We tested association using UNPHASED for 5 DRD4 polymorphic loci, 3 promoter region SNPs (C-521T, C-616G, A-809G), the 120 bp promoter region tandem duplication and the exon III repeat, in 202 AN trios and 418 control families. Since perfectionism characterizes AN, we tested these five loci for association with the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) in the AN and control groups. Single locus analysis showed significant association between the 'C' C-521T allele and AN. Haplotype analysis also showed significant association, particularly a 4-locus haplotype (exon III&120 bp repeat&C-521T&A-809G). Association was also observed between DRD4 and CAPS scores both for AN and control subjects. The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a), previously shown to be associated with disordered eating, were also associated with CAPS scores. Three genes associated with AN were also associated with perfectionism. Personality traits are potential endophenotypes for understanding the etiology of eating disorders and one of the several pathways to eating pathology may be mediated by the impact of DNA sequences on perfectionism. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Project Management Meets Change Management - A Success Story. Focus Area: Tech Perspectives TI012SN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the concepts and terminology from Project Management, the process of planning and executing a Change Management (CM) Infrastructure improvement project is described. The primary audience for this presentation includes both experienced and relatively new CM administrators and their managers. It also includes anyone with an interest in the application of project management knowledge to CM administration. There are several benefits: the complexity of the CM tool technology is more manageable, CM administrators get to use project management knowledge to complete a project (not "firefighting"), improve relations with your customers (that means developers and managers), and get the opportunity to do it again.

  17. Variable exchange between a stream and an aquifer in the Rio Grande Project Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Z.; Abudu, S.; Michelsen, A.; King, P.

    2016-12-01

    Both surface water and groundwater in the Rio Grande Project area in southern New Mexico and Far West Texas have been stressed by natural conditions such as droughts and human activities, including urban development and agricultural irrigation. In some area pumping stress in the aquifer becomes so great that it depletes the river flow especially during the irrigation season, typically from March through October. Therefore understanding such relationship between surface water and groundwater becomes more important in regional water resources planning and management. In this area, stream flows are highly regulated by the upstream reservoirs during the irrigation season and greatly influenced by return flows during non-irrigation season. During a drought additional groundwater pumping to supplement surface water shortage further complicates the surface water and groundwater interaction. In this paper the authors will use observation data and results of numerical models (MODFLOW) to characterize and quantify hydrological exchange fluxes between groundwater in the aquifers and surface water as well as impacts of groundwater pumping. The interaction shows a very interesting seasonal variation (irrigation vs. non-irrigation) as well as impact of a drought. Groundwater has been pumped for both municipal supplies and agricultural irrigation, which has imposed stresses toward both stream flows and aquifer storage. The results clearly show that historic groundwater pumping has caused some reaches of the river change from gaining stream to losing stream. Beyond the exchange between surface water and groundwater in the shallow aquifer, groundwater pumping in a deep aquifer could also enhance the exchanges between different aquifers through leaky confining layers. In the earlier history of pumping, pumping from the shallow aquifer is compensated by simple depletion of surface water, while deep aquifer tends to use the aquifer storage. With continued pumping, the cumulative

  18. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and social development. Those areas have densely distributed population, farmland and agricultural and industrial activities and are experiencing rapid urbanization, but suffer from high scarcity of water resources, with all the cities in the areas seeing water shortage to a varying extent. Most of the cities are relying on abstracting deep groundwater and occupying agricultural water for urban water supply. In December 2002, the State Council officially approved the General Plan on the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, which provides multiple measures to reduce groundwater over-abstraction and improve and gradually restore the eco-environment in the receiving areas by using transferred water to replace the agricultural water occupied by urban water supply and the eco-environmental water occupied by cities and agriculture. What changes have occurred to the eco-environment and urban water use in the receiving areas in recent years ? How much water can be returned from the cities to agriculture and ecology after the objectives of water supply are met? What can be achieved in the control of groundwater abstraction? What level of guarantee can the water transfer provide for agricultural water use in a dry year? All of those issues have been at the focus of public attention. In this paper, statistical analysis is made on the eco-environmental status and urban water use of 72 cities in the receiving areas of the Phase I projects since year 2000 and a conclusion is drawn that the renewal capacity of the eco-environment and groundwater in the receiving areas is deteriorating. Then the water

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and hand preference for writing in the BBC Internet Study.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Peters, M

    2009-09-01

    The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) may be negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone. Hand preference has been linked with prenatal testosterone and 2D:4D. Here we show that 2D:4D is associated with hand preference for writing in a large internet sample (n>170,000) in which participants self-reported their finger lengths. We replicated a significant association between right 2D:4D and writing hand preference (low right 2D:4D associated with left hand preference) as well as a significant correlation between writing hand preference and the difference between left and right 2D:4D or Dr-l (low Dr-l associated with left hand preference). A new significant correlation between left 2D:4D and writing hand preference was also shown (high left 2D:4D associated with left hand preference). There was a clear interaction between writing hand preference and 2D:4D: The left 2D:4D was significantly larger than the right 2D:4D in male and female left-handed writers, and the right hand 2D:4D was significantly larger than the left hand 2D:4D in male and female right-handed writers.

  20. 3D/4D sonography - any safety problem.

    PubMed

    Pooh, Ritsuko K; Maeda, Kazuo; Kurjak, Asim; Sen, Cihat; Ebrashy, Alaa; Adra, Abdallah; Dayyabu, Aliyu Labaran; Wataganara, Tuangsit; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Gray-scale image data are processed in 3D ultrasound by repeated scans of multiple planes within a few seconds to achieve one surface rendering image and three perpendicular plane images. The 4D image is achieved by repeating 3D images in short intervals, i.e. 3D and 4D ultrasound are based on simple B-mode images. During 3D/4D acquisition, a fetus in utero is exposed by ultrasound beam for only a few seconds, and it is as short as real-time B-mode scanning. Therefore, simple 3D imaging is as safe as a simple B-mode scan. The 4D ultrasound is also as safe as a simple B-mode scan, but the ultrasound exposure should be shorter than 30 min. The thermal index (TI) and mechanical index (MI) should both be lower than 1.0, and the ultrasound study is regulated by the Doppler ultrasound if it is combined with simple 3D or 4D ultrasound. Recently, some articles have reported the functional changes of animal fetal brain neuronal cells and liver cell apoptosis with Doppler ultrasound. We discuss cell apoptosis by ultrasound in this report. Diagnostic ultrasound safety is achieved by controlling the output pulse and continuous ultrasound waves using thermal and mechanical indices, which should be <1.0 in abdominal and transvaginal scan, pulsed Doppler, as well as 3D and 4D ultrasound. The lowest spatial peak temporal average (SPTA) intensity of the ultrasound to suppress cultured cell growth is 240 mW/cm2, below which no ultrasound effect has been reported. An ultrasound user must be trained to recognize the ultrasound bioeffects; thermal and mechanical indices, and how to reduce these when they are higher than 1.0 on the monitor display; and guide the proper use of the ultrasound under the ALARA principle, because the user is responsible for ensuring ultrasound safety.

  1. Cationic D4R zinc phosphate-anionic polyoxometalate hybrids: synthesis, spectra, structure and catalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Alok Ch; Roch-Marchal, Catherine; Murugavel, Ramaswamy

    2013-07-14

    A facile synthetic strategy for the generation of a new class of inorganic-organic-inorganic hybrids is reported. Replacement of labile DMSO ligands from the preformed Double-Four-Ring (D4R) zinc phosphate cluster [Zn(dipp){(CH3)2SO}]4 by the addition of 4-aminopyridine (4-ampyr) results in the isolation of another discrete D4R cluster [Zn(dipp)(4-ampyr)]4 (1), which forms a hydrogen-bonded framework in solid-state. If 1-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium salts are employed instead, tetra-cationic D4R cluster [Zn(dipp)(L)]4[PF6]4 (2) and [Zn(dipp)(L)]4[ClO4]4 (3) (L = 1-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium, dipp = 2,6-di-iso-propylphenylphosphate) are isolated. Compound 2 was reacted with three different polyoxometalates, [TBA]4[Mo8O26] (POM-1), [TBA]4[PMo11VO40] (POM-2), and [TBA]4[SiMo12O40] (POM-3) to obtain amorphous hybrids, [Zn(dipp)(L)]4[Mo8O26] (4), [Zn(dipp)(L)]4[PMo11VO40] (5), and [Zn(dipp)(L)]4[SiMo12O40] (6), respectively. All the hybrid materials have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic studies. The molecular structure of 1 has also been determined by single-crystal XRD measurements. N2 gas sorption analyses show moderate BET surface area and also establish the mesoporous nature of the hybrids 4-6. The catalytic potential of hybrids 4, 5 and 6 has been explored towards epoxidation of cyclohexene.

  2. Community based needs assessment in an urban area: a participatory action research project.

    PubMed

    Ahari, Saeid Sadeghieh; Habibzadeh, Shahram; Yousefi, Moharram; Amani, Firouz; Abdi, Reza

    2012-03-07

    Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Participatory action research is an effective method for

  3. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action

  4. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom, Ed.

    Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

  5. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  6. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom, Ed.

    Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

  7. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  8. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  9. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  10. Nevada Test Site Area 25, Radiological Survey and Cleanup Project, 1974-1983 (a revised final report). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the radiological survey, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 facilities and land areas incorporated in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS). Buildings, facilities and support systems used after 1959 for nuclear reactor and engine testing were surveyed for the presence of radioactive contamination. The radiological survey portion of the project encompassed portable instrument surveys and removable contamination surveys (swipe) for beta plus gamma and alpha radioactive contamination of facilities, equipment and land areas. Soil sampling was also accomplished. The majority of Area 25 facilities and land areas have been returned to unrestricted use. Remaining radiologically contaminated areas are posted with warning signs and barricades. 9 references, 23 figures.

  11. The transverse and oblique cylindrical equal-area projection of the ellipsoid.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The formulas for the ellipsoidal projection are derived for both forward and inverse computations and consist of modifying the formulas obtained by using the authalic sphere so that the scale along the central line of the projection is constant. Fourier series are used to eliminate recurring numerical integration and other lengthy trigonometric computations of co-ordinates.-from Author

  12. The Alliance Project: Its Impact on Special Education Teacher Preparation Efforts in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Naomi C.; Cantou-Clarke, Cynthia D.; Easterling, Jeffrey

    The Alliance Project strives to increase the participation of minority institutions of higher education (MIHEs) in personnel preparation grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements supported by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The project's primary purpose is to create a more diverse pool of special educators and related service…

  13. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  14. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  15. Airpower Projection in the Anti-Access/Area Denial Environment: Dispersed Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Raptor Case Study.....................................................................6 Risks to Dispersed Operations...project airpower, this paper breaks down a case study of the Rapid Raptor concept. The risks with executing a dispersed model are analyzed and mitigation...will force leaders to look at alternative ways to project power. Alternative Option: Rapid Raptor Case Study The ability to defend forward operating

  16. 26 CFR 1.337(d)-4 - Taxable to tax-exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxable to tax-exempt. 1.337(d)-4 Section 1.337(d)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.337(d)-4 Taxable to tax-exempt. (a) Gain...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...) Pt. 305, App. D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Instantaneous—Gas Range Information...

  18. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 11. Surry Mountain Lake Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    positive and negative changes that sunbathers and swimmers reported on the physical condition and people’s use of the area from their previous visit...Table 5 Positive and Negative Changes Noticed in the Physical Conditions of the Area - Items Mentioned by Sunbathers and Swimmers Area Positive Changes...Area unpleasant in a significant number of cases. Tables 14 and 15 indicate the changes in the physical conditions and people’s use of the areas

  19. Projected temperature-related deaths in ten large U.S. metropolitan areas under different climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Kate R; Haykin, Leah; Eliot, Melissa N; Schwartz, Joel D; Gasparrini, Antonio; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-10-01

    There is an established U-shaped association between daily temperature and mortality. Temperature changes projected through the end of century are expected to lead to higher rates of heat-related mortality but also lower rates of cold-related mortality, such that the net change in temperature-related mortality will depend on location. We quantified the change in heat-, cold-, and temperature-related mortality rates through the end of the century across 10 large US metropolitan areas. We applied location-specific projections of future temperature from over 40 downscaled climate models to exposure-response functions relating daily temperature and mortality in 10 US metropolitan areas to estimate the change in temperature-related mortality rates in 2045-2055 and 2085-2095 compared to 1992-2002, under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We further calculated the total number of deaths attributable to temperature in 1997, 2050, and 2090 in each metropolitan area, either assuming constant population or accounting for projected population growth. In each of the 10 metropolitan areas, projected future temperatures were associated with lower rates of cold-related deaths and higher rates of heat-related deaths. Under the higher-emission RCP 8.5 scenario, 8 of the 10 metropolitan areas are projected to experience a net increase in annual temperature-related deaths per million people by 2086-2095, ranging from a net increase of 627 (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 239, 1018) deaths per million in Los Angeles to a net decrease of 59 (95% eCI: -485, 314) deaths per million in Boston. Applying these projected temperature-related mortality rates to projected population size underscores the large public health burden of temperature. Increases in the heat-related death rate are projected to outweigh decreases in the cold-related death rate in 8 out of 10 cities studied under a high emissions scenario. Adhering to a lower greenhouse gas emissions

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  2. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in homosexual and heterosexual men from Austria.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Manning, John T; Ponocny, Ivo

    2005-06-01

    Neurohormonal theories of sexual orientation emphasize the organizational effects of testosterone on the developing brain. A recent suggestion, that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone, has led to a number of studies of 2D:4D in homosexual and heterosexual men and women. The results have been mixed. In comparison to heterosexual men, mean 2D:4D in gay men has been reported to be hypermasculinized (lower 2D:4D), hypomasculinized (higher 2D:4D), or to show no significant difference. Here, we report mean 2D:4D in Austrian homosexual and heterosexual men. We found no significant difference between means for homosexual and heterosexual 2D:4D, with values for both falling between 0.96 to 0.97. There are now 6 reports of 2D:4D in heterosexual and homosexual men. Considering Caucasian men, the studies from the United States show low heterosexual mean 2D:4D, and homosexual mean 2D:4D is higher or similar to that of heterosexuals. The European studies show high heterosexual mean 2D:4D, and comparisons with homosexuals reveal the latter to have lower or similar mean 2D:4D to that of heterosexuals. We discuss these results in relation to the suggestion that mean 2D:4D in heterosexual men differs across populations but mean 2D:4D in homosexuals shows less geographical variation (the "uniform mean hypothesis"). It is concluded that more data are required to clarify whether or not there is a 2D:4D effect for sexual orientation in men.

  3. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  4. Large area projection liquid-crystal video display system with inherent grid pattern optically removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A relatively small and low-cost system is provided for projecting a large and bright television image onto a screen. A miniature liquid crystal array is driven by video circuitry to produce a pattern of transparencies in the array corresponding to a television image. Light is directed against the rear surface of the array to illuminate it, while a projection lens lies in front of the array to project the image of the array onto a large screen. Grid lines in the liquid crystal array are eliminated by a spacial filter which comprises a negative of the Fourier transform of the grid.

  5. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an

  6. [An automatic extraction algorithm for individual tree crown projection area and volume based on 3D point cloud data].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Heng; Feng, Zhong-Ke; Su, Zhi-Fang; Xu, Hui; Jiao, You-Quan; Deng, Ou

    2014-02-01

    Tree crown projection area and crown volume are the important parameters for the estimation of biomass, tridimensional green biomass and other forestry science applications. Using conventional measurements of tree crown projection area and crown volume will produce a large area of errors in the view of practical situations referring to complicated tree crown structures or different morphological characteristics. However, it is difficult to measure and validate their accuracy through conventional measurement methods. In view of practical problems which include complicated tree crown structure, different morphological characteristics, so as to implement the objective that tree crown projection and crown volume can be extracted by computer program automatically. This paper proposes an automatic untouched measurement based on terrestrial three-dimensional laser scanner named FARO Photon120 using plane scattered data point convex hull algorithm and slice segmentation and accumulation algorithm to calculate the tree crown projection area. It is exploited on VC+6.0 and Matlab7.0. The experiments are exploited on 22 common tree species of Beijing, China. The results show that the correlation coefficient of the crown projection between Av calculated by new method and conventional method A4 reaches 0.964 (p<0.01); and the correlation coefficient of tree crown volume between V(VC) derived from new method and V(C) by the formula of a regular body is 0.960 (p<0.001). The results also show that the average of V(C) is smaller than that of V(VC) at the rate of 8.03%, and the average of A4 is larger than that of A(V) at the rate of 25.5%. Assumed Av and V(VC) as ture values, the deviations of the new method could be attributed to irregularity of the crowns' silhouettes. Different morphological characteristics of tree crown led to measurement error in forest simple plot survey. Based on the results, the paper proposes that: (1) the use of eight-point or sixteen-point projection with

  7. In-Space Assembly and Construction Technology Project Summary: Infrastructure Operations Area of the Operations Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs describing the in-space assembly and construction technology project of the infrastructure operations area of the operation technology program are presented. Th objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate an in-space assembly and construction capability for large and/or massive spacecraft. The in-space assembly and construction technology program will support the need to build, in orbit, the full range of spacecraft required for the missions to and from planet Earth, including: earth-orbiting platforms, lunar transfer vehicles, and Mars transfer vehicles.

  8. Intracellular cholesterol transporter StarD4 binds free cholesterol and increases cholesteryl ester formation*

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Agudo, Daniel; Ren, Shunlin; Wong, Eric; Marques, Dalila; Redford, Kaye; Gil, Gregorio; Hylemon, Phillip; Pandak, William M.

    2008-01-01

    StarD4 protein is a member of the StarD4 subfamily of steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins that includes StarD5 and StarD6, proteins whose functions remain poorly defined. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize StarD4's sterol binding and to determine in a hepatocyte culture model its sterol transport capabilities. Utilizing purified full-length StarD4, in vitro binding assays demonstrated a concentration-dependent binding of [14C]cholesterol by StarD4 similar to that of the cholesterol binding START domain proteins StarD1 and StarD5. Other tested sterols showed no detectable binding to StarD4, except for 7α-hydroxycholesterol, for which StarD4 demonstrated weak binding on lipid protein overlay assays. Subsequently, an isolated mouse hepatocyte model was used to study the ability of StarD4 to bind/mobilize/distribute cellular cholesterol. Increased expression of StarD4 in primary mouse hepatocytes led to a marked increase in the intracellular cholesteryl ester concentration and in the rates of bile acid synthesis. The ability and specificity of StarD4 to bind cholesterol and, as a function of its level of expression, to direct endogenous cellular cholesterol suggest that StarD4 plays an important role as a directional cholesterol transporter in the maintenance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:18403318

  9. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2008 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2008-09-30

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades. It includes time-zero monitoring results for planting activities conducted in January 2008, annual survival monitoring for all planting years (2007 and 2008), and recommendations for the successful completion of DOE habitat mitigation commitments for this project.

  10. Implementing transnational telemedicine solutions: a connected health project in rural and remote areas of six Northern Periphery countries Series on European collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Casey, Monica; Hayes, Patrick S; Heaney, David; Dowie, Lee; Ólaighin, Gearoid; Matero, Matti; Hun, Soo; Knarvik, Undine; Alrutz, Käte; Eadie, Leila; Glynn, Liam G

    2013-03-01

    This is the first article in a Series on collaborative projects between European countries, relevant for general practice/family medicine and primary healthcare. Telemedicine, in particular the use of the Internet, videoconferencing and handheld devices such as smartphones, holds the potential for further strides in the application of technology for the delivery of healthcare, particularly to communities in rural and remote areas within and without the European Union where this study is taking place. The Northern Periphery Programme has funded the 'Implementing Transnational Telemedicine Solutions' (ITTS) project from September 2011 to December 2013, led by the Centre for Rural Health in Inverness, Scotland. Ten sustainable projects based on videoconsultation (speech therapy, renal services, emergency psychiatry, diabetes), mobile patient self-management (physical activity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease) and home-based health services (medical and social care emergencies, rehabilitation, multi-morbidity) are being implemented by the six partner countries: Scotland, Finland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden. In addition, an International Telemedicine Advisory Service, created for the project, provides business expertise and advice. Community panels contribute feedback on the design and implementation of services and ensure 'user friendliness'. The project goals are to improve accessibility of healthcare in rural and remote communities, reducing unnecessary hospital visits and travel in a sustainable way. Opportunities will be provided for comparative research studies. This article provides an introduction to the ITTS project and how it aims to fulfil these needs. The ITTS team encourage all healthcare providers to at least explore possible technological solutions within their own context.

  11. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  12. Stimulation of dopamine D4 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats induces hyperphagia: involvement of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Tejas-Juárez, Juan Gabriel; Cruz-Martínez, Ana María; López-Alonso, Verónica Elsa; García-Iglesias, Brenda; Mancilla-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Florán-Garduño, Benjamín; Escartín-Pérez, Rodrigo Erick

    2014-06-22

    Obesity is a serious worldwide health problem, affecting 20-40% of the population in several countries. According to animal models, obesity is related to changes in the expression of proteins that control energy homeostasis and in neurotransmission associated to regulation of food intake. For example, it has been reported that diet-induced obesity produces overexpression of dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) of mice. Neurons in the VMH send dense glutamatergic projections to other hypothalamic regions as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where multiple signals are integrated to finely regulate energy homeostasis and food intake. Although it is well established that dopaminergic transmission in the hypothalamus plays a key role in modulating feeding, the specific mechanisms involved in the activation of D4R in the PVN and its modulatory action on glutamate release and feeding behavior have remained unexplored. To fill this gap, we characterize the behavioral and neurochemical role of D4R in the PVN. In behavioral experiments, we examined the effects of activation of dopamine D4 receptors in the PVN on food intake and on the behavioral satiety sequence in rats exposed to a food-restricted feeding program. In vitro experiments were conducted to study the effects of activation of dopamine D4 receptors on [(3)H]glutamate release and on plasma corticosterone in explants of the PVN. We found that activation of D4R in the PVN induced inhibition of glutamate release and stimulated food intake by inhibiting satiety. Furthermore, activation of D4R in the PVN decreased plasma levels of corticosterone, and this effect was reverted by NMDA. According to our findings, D4R in the PVN may be a target for the pharmacotherapy for obesity as well as eating disorder patients who show restrictive patterns and overweight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lack of imprinting of the human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Propping, P.; Wolf, H.K.

    1996-04-09

    The term genomic imprinting has been used to refer to the differential expression of genetic material depending on whether it has come from the male or female parent. In humans, the chromosomal region 11p15.5 has been shown to contain 2 imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2). The gene for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), which is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology, is also located in this area. In the present study, we have examined the imprinting status of the DRD4 gene in brain tissue of an epileptic patient who was heterozygous for a 12 bp repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the DRD4 gene. We show that both alleles are expressed in equivalent amounts. We therefore conclude that the DRD4 gene is not imprinted in the human brain. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Findlay

    2006-09-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

  15. Simulation of five ground-water withdrawal projections for the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.G.; Eychaner, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The N Aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400 sq mi Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. Water in the aquifer is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 sq mi of the area. Maximum saturated thickness is about 1,050 ft. Annual groundwater withdrawals from 1972 through 1986 averaged 5,480 acre-ft and included 3,820 acre-ft used to operate a coal mine on Black Mesa. As a result, water levels have declined in a large part of the aquifer. The coal company has applied for a permanent permit under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. An existing mathematical model of the aquifer in the Black Mesa area was converted to a newer model program and recalibrated by using revised estimates of selected aquifer parameters and a finer spatial grid. The model was used to simulate four groundwater withdrawal alternatives that combined the existing and proposed mining plans with projected constant or increasing pumpage for nearby communities. A fifth alternative combined increasing community pumpage with no mine withdrawals and was used as a basis for comparison. Simulated water levels for the year 2031 in the coal-lease area are projected to be 60 ft lower than in 1985 for the proposed mining plan combined with growing community pumpage and > 100 ft lower than predevelopment water levels over an area of 1,660 sq mi. Groundwater would rise to within 100 ft of predevelopment levels < 10 yr after mine withdrawals cease. Withdrawals at the mine were a minor factor in determining simulated water levels at most communities in the study area. Water levels at Tuba City were not affected by mine pumpage in any projection. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Ventromedial mesencephalic tegmental (VMT) projections to ten functionally different cortical areas in the cat: topography and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, T; Törk, I

    1987-05-08

    The cortical projections of the ventromedial mesencephalic tegmentum (VMT) were studied in the cat by the retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated HRP (WGA-HRP). The following cortical regions were injected: prefrontal, cingulate, motor, somatic sensory, auditory, primary visual, secondary visual, parasplenial, insular, and entorhinal. Labelled cells in the five component nuclei of the VMT (rostral linear, parabrachial pigmented, central linear, interfascicular, and paranigral nuclei) were counted and the numbers correlated with the total cell populations of the nuclei. In all experiments large numbers of cells were labelled in the VMT, particularly in the rostral linear and parabrachial pigmented nuclei. Following entorhinal cortical injections, significant labelling occurred in the interfascicular and central linear nucleus, although some cells of these nuclei were labelled in every experiment. The cells of the paranigral nucleus remained unlabelled in all experiments. Several hundred VMT cells were labelled in most experiments, over 1000 in the case of the parasplenial and over 2000 in the case of prefrontal injections. The most strongly labelled nucleus was the rostral linear, in which up to 36% of the total cell population could be labelled in a single experiment. These results indicate that the VMT of the cat is a major source of brainstem projections to the cerebral cortex and that all cortical areas are reached by this system. Although the projections to the prefrontal and limbic cortical areas are particularly prominent, there appears to be a consistent and significant projection to all areas. Further, the projection of the VMT to the cortex is topographically organized, indicating that the functional roles of the component nuclei of the VMT may be substantially different.

  17. Spatial configuration of land-use/land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyes Hernández, Humberto; Aguilar Robledo, Miguel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Fortanelli Martínez, Javier

    2008-07-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the configuration and spatial reorganization of land-use and land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, eastern San Luis Potosí, Mexico, as well as the relationship between these changes and the environmental conditions prevailing in the area. Land-use and land-cover changes were determined through the analysis and interpretation of satellite images from different dates. The changes identified in the different study periods were correlated with the prevailing physical factors. The results show that the spatial configuration of farming activities, initially induced by the implementation of a regional development project, is highly correlated to the presence of limiting factors such as soil type, slope, and climate. Particularly, the former represents the element that has led to the establishment of the current distribution pattern of farming activities.

  18. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2009 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2009-09-29

    Annual monitoring in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades was conducted in June 2009. MAP guidelines defined mitigation success for this project as 3000 established sagebrush transplants on a 4.5 ha mitigation site after five monitoring years. Annual monitoring results suggest that an estimated 2130 sagebrush transplants currently grow on the site. Additional activities in support of this project included gathering sagebrush seed and securing a local grower to produce between 2250 and 2500 10-in3 tublings for outplanting during the early winter months of FY2010. If the minimum number of seedlings grown for this planting meets quality specifications, and planting conditions are favorable, conservative survival estimates indicate the habitat mitigation goals outlined in the MAP will be met in FY2014.

  19. Economic evaluations of four GRI (Gas Research Institute) unconventional-gas project areas. Annual report, September 1982-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, S.M.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Oman, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis shows that the value of economic benefit (measured at a five percent discount rate) specifically attributable to each of GRI's four unconventional gas research areas is computed as: western tight gas sands, 18 billion dollars; eastern Devonian gas shales, 5 billion dollars; methane from coal deposits, 8.6 billion dollars; and geopressured aquifers, zero (not likely to penetrate the market). The economic benefits calculation reflects the cost of fuel displaced relative to the cost of the gas provided. The magnitudes of economic benefits for these project areas far exceed the annual research budget for unconventional gas at GRI.

  20. Archaeological Survey and Testing for the Upstream Work. Big Stone Lake-Whetstone River Project Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    at points where erosion had left a vertical bank without vegetation cover. The personnel included Elden Johnson, Professor of Anthropology, University...bank to prevent the cutting. Below the Highway 12 bridge, he has added huge slabs of concrete this past summer. All of these attempts at preservation...excavations on his property. 2. Spoilage Areas--South Dakota and Minnesota Area #1: This area lies on the flood plain and is owned by Mr. and Mrs. Nelson

  1. Domain specific relationships of 2D:4D digit ratio in risk perception and risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The 2D:4D digit ratio (henceforth, 2D:4D) is accepted as a marker of prenatal testosterone, demonstrating gender differences. The present study reveals that 2D:4D shows not only gender differences but also individual differences in personality and risk-taking behavior. We measured individual participants' 2D:4D, structural personality, and risk-taking attitude scores. The result of the current study replicates the gender difference in 2D:4D in previous researches. However, we found different aspects of the correlations among 2D:4D, personality, and risk-taking attitude. Path analyses indicated that 2D:4D passes through personality factors before reaching the risk-taking attitude, particularly in the financial domain activities of investing and gambling. Also we observed a specific relationship between right-hand 2D:4D and emotionality and between left-hand 2D:4D and agreeableness. Finally, we suggest multiple path models of 2D:4D and personality in risk taking depending on the domain.

  2. Chromosome jumping from D4S10 (G8) toward the Huntington disease gene.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J E; Gilliam, T C; Cole, J L; Drumm, M L; Wasmuth, J J; Gusella, J F; Collins, F S

    1988-01-01

    The gene for Huntington disease (HD) has been localized to the distal portion of the short arm of human chromosome 4 by linkage analysis. Currently, the two closest DNA markers are D4S10 (G8), located approximately equal to 3 centimorgans centromeric to HD, and D4S43 (C4H), positioned 0-1.5 centimorgans from HD. In an effort to move closer to the HD gene, with the eventual goal of identifying the gene itself, we have applied the technique of chromosome jumping to this region. A 200-kilobase jumping library has been constructed, and a jump from D4S10 has been obtained and its approximate distance verified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two restriction fragment length polymorphisms have been identified at the jump locus, which is denoted D4S81. Linkage analysis of previously identified recombinants between D4S10 and HD or D4S10 and D4S43 shows that in two of five events the jump has crossed the recombination points. This unequivocally orients D4S10 and D4S81 on the chromosome, provides additional markers for HD, and suggests that recombination frequency in this region of chromosome 4 may be increased, so that the physical distance from D4S10 to HD may not be as large as originally suspected. Images PMID:2901098

  3. The digit ratio (2D:4D) in China: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the 2D:4D in China (mainland and Taiwan) and to analyze the influences of ethnicity, digit measurement methods, age, and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. We here conducted a meta-analysis of the results of 28 studies. A total of 112 independent samples and 19,093 participants were included. The sex difference in left 2D:4D only approached significance when outliers were removed (P = 0.078), whereas the right 2D:4D was significantly lower in males compared to females, showing that the magnitude of sex difference was greater for the right hand than for the left hand. No significant differences were found in the 2D:4D between Han and ethnic minorities. The 2D:4D of samples measured using indirect digit measurement tended to be lower than in samples measured using direct digit measurement. Moreover, there were no effects of age and latitude on the 2D:4D in China. We concluded that the sex differences in Chinese 2D:4D are consistent with the results from western studies, and that genetic pool differences rather than latitude-related environmental variables affect the 2D:4D in China. In addition, 2D:4D measurements obtained by different digit measurement techniques should not be combined within one study, or used together in comparative studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Structural analysis of point mutations at the Vaccinia virus A20/D4 interface.

    PubMed

    Contesto-Richefeu, Céline; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P; Peyrefitte, Christophe N; Iseni, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The Vaccinia virus polymerase holoenzyme is composed of three subunits: E9, the catalytic DNA polymerase subunit; D4, a uracil-DNA glycosylase; and A20, a protein with no known enzymatic activity. The D4/A20 heterodimer is the DNA polymerase cofactor, the function of which is essential for processive DNA synthesis. The recent crystal structure of D4 bound to the first 50 amino acids of A20 (D4/A201-50) revealed the importance of three residues, forming a cation-π interaction at the dimerization interface, for complex formation. These are Arg167 and Pro173 of D4 and Trp43 of A20. Here, the crystal structures of the three mutants D4-R167A/A201-50, D4-P173G/A201-50 and D4/A201-50-W43A are presented. The D4/A20 interface of the three structures has been analysed for atomic solvation parameters and cation-π interactions. This study confirms previous biochemical data and also points out the importance for stability of the restrained conformational space of Pro173. Moreover, these new structures will be useful for the design and rational improvement of known molecules targeting the D4/A20 interface.

  5. The transport of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in lightly cross-linked silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C J; Jerina, K L; Brandon, H J; Young, V L

    2001-01-01

    The transport of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), one of the major constituents of silicone fluids and rubbers, and low viscosity polydimethylsiloxane oil into a silica filled cross-linked silicone elastomeric rubber was measured as a function of temperature, cross-link density of the rubber, and concentration of the D4 in methanol solution. A small amount of material, approximately 3 wt%, is extracted from the rubber with hexane. The extraction process has a large effect upon D4 solubility in the rubber, increasing from approximately 160 to 180 wt% after extraction. The heats of solution for both penetrants into the rubber are essentially zero and the activation energies for diffusion are small, approximately 8 and 15 kJ molt(-1) for D4 and PDMS, respectively. The diffusion process is Fickian and the diffusion coefficient of D4 into silicone/silica rubbers is essentially independent of concentration over the concentration investigated, i.e. from 1 to 100 vol% D4 in methanol. The permeability, i.e. the product of the diffusion coefficient and the solubility, decreases rapidly for D4 concentrations less than 50 vol% (0.1 mol fraction). This suggests that the permeation of D4 out of any encapsulation device, such as a silicone breast implant, is linearly dependent upon the concentration of D4 in the prosthesis. Swelling is isotropic and was measured by dimensional changes in rectangular samples and correlates well with the volume of D4 sorbed.

  6. Area changes in U.S. forests and other major land uses, 1982 to 2002, with projections to 2062.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Andrew J. Plantinga; David Haim; Maribeth. Todd

    2010-01-01

    This study updates an earlier assessment of the past, current, and prospective situation for the Nation’s land base. We describe area changes among major land uses on the U.S. land base for historical trends from 1982 to 2002 and projections out to 2062. Historically, 11 million acres of forest, cropland, and open space were converted to urban and other developed uses...

  7. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Paleozoic in age and consist chiefly of schist, gneiss, gabbro , 0 This information has been derived from the RFA, 1996. Jacobs Enn wtn Wo .• FINAL PROJECT...system which has supplied potable water to the area is the Van Bibber system. During World War II (WW II) a system was also used which supplied water...Imregriating plants were operated at Beach Point during and alteir World War I!; these plants were used to treat clothing with a waxy material that provides

  8. Irrigated rice area estimation using remote sensing techniques: Project's proposal and preliminary results. [Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.; Moreira, M. A.; Novaes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a methodology for annual estimates of irrigated rice crop in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using remote sensing techniques is proposed. The project involves interpretation, digital analysis, and sampling techniques of LANDSAT imagery. Results are discussed from a preliminary phase for identifying and evaluating irrigated rice crop areas in four counties of the State, for the crop year 1982/1983. This first phase involved just visual interpretation techniques of MSS/LANDSAT images.

  9. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Manning, J T; Cook, C J; Kilduff, L P

    2010-11-01

    The relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) is a putative marker for prenatal testosterone. Low 2D:4D has been reported to correlate with high performance in sport in general. Here, for the first time, we examine the relationship between 2D:4D and performance in elite rugby players. The 44 players (28 forwards, 16 backs) were drawn from the Ospreys Rugby Union Club and 44 age-matched controls. The measures of performance comprised age-adjusted number of international performances (caps) for Wales, a comparison of coaches' first-choice League team with others, and the number of tries scored by backs in club matches. Compared with controls, players were larger and had lower 2D:4D for the right and left hand. With regard to number of caps, players with low 2D:4D in their right hand and low right 2D:4D compared with their left (right - left 2D:4D difference) had high numbers of caps. First-choice players did not differ significantly from second-choice players in their 2D:4D but they did have a lower right - left 2D:4D difference than second-choice players. Low right 2D:4D and low right - left 2D:4D difference were significantly linked with large numbers of tries. We conclude that low right 2D:4D and low right - left 2D:4D difference are predictors of high rugby performance.

  10. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in newborns: influences of prenatal testosterone and maternal environment.

    PubMed

    Ventura, T; Gomes, M C; Pita, A; Neto, M T; Taylor, A

    2013-02-01

    The 2D:4D digit ratio is sexually-dimorphic, probably due to testosterone action through the perinatal period. We characterize the 2D:4D ratio in newborn (NB) infants, in between the pre- and postnatal surges of testosterone, and relate it to the mother's 2D:4D and to testosterone levels in the amniotic fluid (AF). Testosterone was assayed in samples of maternal plasma and AF collected at amniocentesis. Shortly after birth, 106 NBs and their mothers were measured for 2D:4D ratio. NB males had lower mean 2D:4D ratios than females but this dimorphism was significant only for the left hand (males: 0.927; females: 0.950; p=0.004). Mothers who had sons had lower 2D:4D ratios than those who had daughters and the mother's 2D:4D were higher than those of NBs regardless of sex. Both hands of NB females were negatively correlated with AF testosterone and positively correlated with the mother's 2D:4D, but males showed no significant associations. Maternal plasma testosterone also showed a negative weak correlation with NB's digit ratio in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism at birth was only significant for the left hand, in contrast with reports of greater right hand dimorphism, suggesting that postnatal testosterone is determinant for 2D:4D stabilization. The lower 2D:4D ratios in mothers who had sons support claims that hormone levels in parents are influential for determining their children's sex. NB female's digit ratio, but not males', was associated to the level of AF testosterone. The mother's 2D:4D ratios were positively correlated with their daughters' 2D:4D, but the same was not observed for male NBs, suggesting that prenatal testosterone levels in male fetus lead their 2D:4D ratios to stray from their mothers' with high individual variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoreceptor projections and receptive fields in the dorsal rim area and main retina of the locust eye.

    PubMed

    Schmeling, Fabian; Tegtmeier, Jennifer; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Homberg, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    In many insect species, photoreceptors of a small dorsal rim area of the eye are specialized for sensitivity to the oscillation plane of polarized skylight and, thus, serve a role in sky compass orientation. To further understand peripheral mechanisms of polarized-light processing in the optic lobe, we have studied the projections of photoreceptors and their receptive fields in the main eye and dorsal rim area of the desert locust, a model system for polarization vision analysis. In both eye regions, one photoreceptor per ommatidium, R7, has a long visual fiber projecting through the lamina to the medulla. Axonal fibers from R7 receptors of the dorsal rim area have short side branches throughout the depth of the dorsal lamina and maintain retinotopic projections to the dorsal medulla following the first optic chiasma. Receptive fields of dorsal rim photoreceptors are considerably larger (average acceptance angle 33°) than those of the main eye (average acceptance angle 2.04°) and, taken together, cover almost the entire sky. The data challenge previous reports of two long visual fibers per ommatidium in the main eye of the locust and provide data for future analysis of peripheral networks underlying polarization opponency in the locust brain.

  12. High resolution climate projections to assess the future vulnerability of European urban areas to climatological extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Wagner, Sven; Emeis, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Results from high resolution 7-km WRF regional climate model (RCM) simulations are used to analyse changes in the occurrence frequencies of heat waves, of precipitation extremes and of the duration of the winter time freezing period for highly populated urban areas in Central Europe. The projected climate change impact is assessed for 11 urban areas based on climate indices for a future period (2021-2050) compared to a reference period (1971-2000) using the IPCC AR4 A1B Scenario as boundary conditions. These climate indices are calculated from daily maximum, minimum and mean temperatures as well as precipitation amounts. By this, the vulnerability of these areas to future climate conditions is to be investigated. The number of heat waves, as well as the number of single hot days, tropical nights and heavy precipitation events is projected to increase in the near future. In addition, the number of frost days is significantly decreased. Probability density functions of monthly mean summer time temperatures show an increase of the 95th percentile of about 1-3 °C for the future compared with the reference period. The projected increase of cooling and decrease of heating degree days indicate the possible impact on urban energy consumption under future climate conditions.

  13. Density functional investigation of metal-metal interactions in d4d4 face-shared [M2Cl9]3 - (M = Mn, Tc, Re) systems.

    PubMed

    Cavigliasso, Germán; Stranger, Robert

    2004-04-05

    The molecular and electronic structures of the d(4)d(4) face-shared [M(2)Cl(9)](3)(-) (M = Mn, Tc, Re) dimers have been calculated by density functional methods in order to investigate metal-metal bonding in this series. The electronic structures of these systems have been analyzed using potential energy curves for the broken-symmetry and other spin states arising from the various d(4)d(4) coupling modes, and closed energy cycles have been utilized to identify and quantify the parameters which are most important in determining the preference for electron localization or delocalization and for high-spin or low-spin configurations. In [Tc(2)Cl(9)](3)(-) and [Re(2)Cl(9)](3)(-), the global minimum has been found to be a spin-triplet state arising from the coupling of metal centers with low-spin configurations, and characterized by delocalization of the metal-based electrons in a double (sigma and delta(pi)) bond with a metal-metal separation of 2.57 A. In contrast, high-spin configurations and electron localization are favored in [Mn(2)Cl(9)](3)(-), the global minimum for this species being the ferromagnetic S = 4 state with a rather long metal-metal separation of 3.43 A. These results are consistent with metal-metal overlap and ligand-field effects prevailing over spin polarization effects in the Tc and Re systems, but with the opposite trend being observed in the Mn complex. The ground states and metal-metal bonding observed for the d(4)d(4) systems in this study parallel those previously found for the analogous d(2)d(2) complexes of V, Nb, and Ta, and can be rationalized on the basis that the d(4)d(4) dimer configuration is the hole equivalent of the d(2)d(2) configuration.

  14. The Drumchapel Project: A Study of ICT Usage by School Pupils and Teachers in a Secondary School in a Deprived Area of Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLelland, Dorothy; Crawford, John

    2004-01-01

    The Drumchapel Project was a joint exploratory project between Glasgow Caledonian University, a 1992 university, and Drumchapel High School, a secondary school in a deprived area of Glasgow. The initial aim was to explore ICT skill levels among the school pupils but an information literacy agenda emerged in the course of the Project. Focus groups…

  15. The Drumchapel Project: A Study of ICT Usage by School Pupils and Teachers in a Secondary School in a Deprived Area of Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLelland, Dorothy; Crawford, John

    2004-01-01

    The Drumchapel Project was a joint exploratory project between Glasgow Caledonian University, a 1992 university, and Drumchapel High School, a secondary school in a deprived area of Glasgow. The initial aim was to explore ICT skill levels among the school pupils but an information literacy agenda emerged in the course of the Project. Focus groups…

  16. Integrated Project Management: A Case Study in Integrating Cost, Schedule, Technical, and Risk Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a case study as a model for integrated project management. The ISS Program Office (ISSPO) developed replacement fluid filtration cartridges in house for the International Space Station (ISS). The presentation includes a step-by-step procedure and organizational charts for how the fluid filtration problem was approached.

  17. Using Interdisciplinary, Project-Based, Multimodal Activities to Facilitate Literacy across the Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Archie E.

    2014-01-01

    Tour Across America is an interdisciplinary, project-based, multimodal (IPM) activity where students get the opportunity to apply what they learn to a real-life situation while illustrating the interdisciplinary nature of literacy. It provides students with a high-interest, creative platform to review, reinforce, and integrate learned literacy…

  18. School Age Multihandicapped Project: Capital Area Rehabilitation Center. Final Report 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capital Area Rehabilitation Center, Austin, TX.

    The document contains the final report of a model project to provide a therapeutically based educational program for severely handicapped, orthopedically impaired children (6 to 21 years old) utilizing the skills of teachers, aides, therapists, and a nurse to provide individualized hands on services. Section I contains an overview of the…

  19. Projected changes in wildlife habitats in Arctic natural areas of northwest Alaska

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot; M.Torre Jorgenson; James P. Lawler; Colleen M. Handel; Anthony R. DeGange

    2015-01-01

    We project the effects of transitional changes among 60 vegetation and other land cover types (Becotypes^) in northwest Alaska over the 21st century on habitats of 162 bird and 39 mammal species known or expected to occur regularly in the region. This analysis, encompassing a broad suite of arctic and boreal wildlife species, entailed building wildlifehabitat matrices...

  20. Using Interdisciplinary, Project-Based, Multimodal Activities to Facilitate Literacy across the Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Archie E.

    2014-01-01

    Tour Across America is an interdisciplinary, project-based, multimodal (IPM) activity where students get the opportunity to apply what they learn to a real-life situation while illustrating the interdisciplinary nature of literacy. It provides students with a high-interest, creative platform to review, reinforce, and integrate learned literacy…

  1. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... urban area comprises one of the region's most productive markets for transit. The Regional Transit... centers located in the North Corridor and the other urban centers in the Central Puget Sound area; 2... gas emissions Chapter 70.235 RCW (Limiting Green House Gas Emissions) ] Potential EIS Alternatives The...

  2. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 3. Hartwell Lake Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Other species of fish include rainbow and brown trout ; channel, white, and flathead catfish; hybrid, striped, white, and redeye bass; redbreasted...Lavonia *,* corps recreation area IDED dam Mt. Olivet Sother recreation area lake shoreline .... gov ernment- owne d land 0 highway i municipal

  3. Projecting large-scale area changes in land use and land cover for terrestrial carbon analyses.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Brett J. Butler

    2004-01-01

    One of the largest changes in US forest type areas over the last half-century has involved pine types in the South. The area of planted pine has increased more than 10-fold since 1950, mostly on private lands. Private landowners have responded to market incentives and government programs, including subsidized afforestation on marginal agricultural land. Timber harvest...

  4. Urbanization in the US: land use trends, impacts on forest area, projections, and policy considerations

    Treesearch

    Ralph Alig

    2010-01-01

    Since World War II, socio-economic drivers of US urbanization such as population totals and personal income levels have increased substantially. Human land use is the primary force driving changes in forest ecosystem attributes including forest area, which is the focus of this paper. The percentage of the US population residing in urban areas is higher than that in...

  5. Crisis Communication in the Area of Risk Management: The CriCoRM Project

    PubMed Central

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Antonelli, Laura; Orizio, Grazia; Rossmann, Costanze; Ziegler, Lena; Meyer, Lisa; Garcia-Jimenez, Leonarda; Losada, Jose Carlos; Correia, Joao; Soares, Joana; Covolo, Loredana; Lirangi, Enrico; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last H1N1 pandemic has emerged the importance of crisis communication as an essential part of health crisis management. The Project aims specifically to improve the understanding of crisis communication dynamics and effective tools and to allow public health institutions to communicate better with the public during health emergencies. Design and methods The Project will perform different activities: i) state of the art review; ii) identification of key stakeholders; iii) communicational analysis performed using data collected on stakeholder communication activities and their outcomes considering the lessons learnt from the analysis of the reasons for differing public reactions during pandemics; iv) improvement of the existing guidelines; v) development of Web 2.0 tools as web-platform and feed service and implementation of impact assessment algorithms; vi) organization of exercises and training on this issues. Expected impact of the study for public health In the context of health security policies at an EU level, the project aims to find a common and innovative approach to health crisis communication that was displayed by differing reactions to the H1N1 pandemic policies. The focus on new social media tools aims to enhance the role of e-health, and the project aims to use these tools in the specific field of health institutions and citizens. The development of Web 2.0 tools for health crisis communication will allow an effective two-way exchange of information between public health institutions and citizens. An effective communication strategy will increase population compliance with public health recommendations. Significance for public health The specific aim of the project is to develop a European strategy approach on how to communicate with the population and with different stakeholders groups involved in the crisis management process, based on an analysis of the communication process during the H1N1 pandemic (content analysis of press

  6. Crisis Communication in the Area of Risk Management: The CriCoRM Project.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Antonelli, Laura; Orizio, Grazia; Rossmann, Costanze; Ziegler, Lena; Meyer, Lisa; Garcia-Jimenez, Leonarda; Losada, Jose Carlos; Correia, Joao; Soares, Joana; Covolo, Loredana; Lirangi, Enrico; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-09-02

    During the last H1N1 pandemic has emerged the importance of crisis communication as an essential part of health crisis management. The Project aims specifically to improve the understanding of crisis communication dynamics and effective tools and to allow public health institutions to communicate better with the public during health emergencies. THE PROJECT WILL PERFORM DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES: i) state of the art review; ii) identification of key stakeholders; iii) communicational analysis performed using data collected on stakeholder communication activities and their outcomes considering the lessons learnt from the analysis of the reasons for differing public reactions during pandemics; iv) improvement of the existing guidelines; v) development of Web 2.0 tools as web-platform and feed service and implementation of impact assessment algorithms; vi) organization of exercises and training on this issues. In the context of health security policies at an EU level, the project aims to find a common and innovative approach to health crisis communication that was displayed by differing reactions to the H1N1 pandemic policies. The focus on new social media tools aims to enhance the role of e-health, and the project aims to use these tools in the specific field of health institutions and citizens. The development of Web 2.0 tools for health crisis communication will allow an effective two-way exchange of information between public health institutions and citizens. An effective communication strategy will increase population compliance with public health recommendations. Significance for public healthThe specific aim of the project is to develop a European strategy approach on how to communicate with the population and with different stakeholders groups involved in the crisis management process, based on an analysis of the communication process during the H1N1 pandemic (content analysis of press releases, press coverage and forum discussions) and on interviews with key

  7. Projected changes in wildlife habitats in Arctic natural areas of northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Lawler, James P.; Handel, Colleen M.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    We project the effects of transitional changes among 60 vegetation and other land cover types (“ecotypes”) in northwest Alaska over the 21st century on habitats of 162 bird and 39 mammal species known or expected to occur regularly in the region. This analysis, encompassing a broad suite of arctic and boreal wildlife species, entailed building wildlife-habitat matrices denoting levels of use of each ecotype by each species, and projecting habitat changes under historic and expected accelerated future rates of change from increasing mean annual air temperature based on the average of 5 global climate models under the A1B emissions scenario, and from potential influence of a set of 23 biophysical drivers. Under historic rates of change, we project that 52 % of the 201 species will experience an increase in medium- and high-use habitats, 3 % no change, and 45 % a decrease, and that a greater proportion of mammal species (62 %) will experience habitat declines than will bird species (50 %). Outcomes become more dire (more species showing habitat loss) under projections made from effects of biophysical drivers and especially from increasing temperature, although species generally associated with increasing shrub and tree ecotypes will likely increase in distribution. Changes in wildlife habitats likely will also affect trophic cascades, ecosystem function, and ecosystem services; of particular significance are the projected declines in habitats of most small mammals that form the prey base for mesocarnivores and raptors, and habitat declines in 25 of the 50 bird and mammal species used for subsistence hunting and trapping.

  8. The Content Area Reading Project: An Inservice Education Program for Junior High School Teachers and Teachers of Adults. Appendix C, Model Teaching Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.

    Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…

  9. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) in left- and right-handed males.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Zlatislav; Marinov, Miroslav; Pashalieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The finger length ratio (2D:4D) is a biomarker for the prenatal levels of testosterone. The prenatal effects of testosterone on the development of brain hemispheres are considered as a key factor in the etiology of left-handedness. We tested whether 2D:4D correlates with the type of handedness in males (18 right-handers and 18 left-handers). Right hand 2D:4D, left hand 2D:4D, average 2D:4D, and the difference between right and left 2D:4D (D(r-l)) were compared. The value of D(r-l) in left-handers was significantly lower than D(r-l) in right-handers. This result can be interpreted as proof that left-handers were subjected to higher levels of testosterone in utero.

  10. 2D:4D Digit Ratio Predicts Delay of Gratification in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Sergio; Moreira, Bruno; Da Costa, Newton

    2014-01-01

    We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification. PMID:25490040

  11. 2D:4D digit ratio predicts delay of gratification in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Sergio; Moreira, Bruno; Da Costa, Newton

    2014-01-01

    We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification.

  12. Relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and female competitive rowing performance.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melissa J; Schranz, Natasha K; Manning, John T; Tomkinson, Grant R

    2015-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure of prenatal testosterone exposure, is weakly-to-moderately associated with increased physical performance, although the evidence is far stronger for males than females. To examine the relationship between 2D:4D and measured on-water rowing performance in young females competing at the Australian Rowing Championships. Using an observational, cross-sectional design, female rowers (n = 69, aged 12-30 years) who competed in single sculls events at the Australian Rowing Championships in 2007 and 2008 had numerous physical and digital anthropometric measurements taken, including 2D:4D measurements. Relationships between 2D:4Ds and race times were examined using Pearson's correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression. Partial Least Squares regression analysis determined the strength of the 2D:4D as a predictor of race time relative to 78 body dimensions plus age. Overall, weak to strong positive correlations between 2D:4D and race time were found; that is, females with smaller 2D:4Ds had faster race times than females with larger 2D:4Ds. Relationships were weak to moderate for all females (r = 0.29-0.32), moderate-to-strong for senior rowers (aged ≥20 years; r = 0.42-0.55), and weak for junior rowers (aged <20 years; r = 0.13-0.18), with all relationships persisting following adjustment for age. Partial Least Squares regression analysis showed that 2D:4Ds had high predictive importance relative to other body dimensions. Females with smaller 2D:4Ds rowed substantially faster than females with larger 2D:4Ds, with the 2D:4D possibly linked to underlying characteristics that have been optimized over time resulting in better rowing performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Familial digit ratio (2D:4D) associations in a general population sample from Wales.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Bellin, Wynford; Davies, William

    2017-09-01

    The relative length of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) may be a sex-linked correlate of prenatal androgen exposure. However, the nature of the sex-linkage is controversial, with evidence for both X- and Y-linkage of the 2D:4D phenotype. To examine transgenerational effects relating to sex-linkage. In addition, assortative mating on 2D:4D was considered, as well as associations between 2D:4D and age and sex. A family study was conducted. Parents and offspring completed a demographic questionnaire, and digit ratios were calculated from photocopies of participants' hands. We recruited and phenotyped 585 individuals attending a cultural festival in Wales. 2D:4D information was available for 47 mother-son dyads, 70 mother-daughter dyads, 31 father-son dyads and 30 father-daughter dyads. Correlations between 2D:4D of parents and children, as well as between mothers and fathers were conducted. 2D:4D was also examined in relation to age and sex. There was a sex difference in 2D:4D (malesD:4D, but no significant correlation between mother and son ratios, nor between father and offspring ratios. The overall pattern of correlations (with emphasis on father-son dyads) was not supportive of Y-linkage. There was a positive correlation between 2D:4D and age in children, and a negative correlation between 2D:4D and age in adults, and no evidence of assortative mating. Our data are consistent with the notion of 2D:4D as a sexually-dimorphic, mildly age-sensitive, and transgenerationally-transmitted trait that is more likely to be X- than Y-linked. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lucifer Yellow filling of area X-projecting neurons in the high vocal center of female canaries.

    PubMed

    Benton, S; Cardin, J A; DeVoogd, T J

    1998-07-13

    The avian high vocal center (HVC) is a complex forebrain nucleus that coordinates the sensorimotor integration necessary for song learning and production. It receives auditory and potentially somatosensory input, and sends major projections to vocal motor and anterior forebrain nuclei. The HVC has at least four morphological classes of neurons for which the connectivity remains uncertain. Previous studies have alluded to the functional identity of the cell classes, but none have provided the definitive evidence necessary for subsequent identification of behaviorally relevant changes within known neuronal populations. The cell filling technique we have adapted for use in the song system provides a method by which hodologically identified classes can be described with precision, and song related changes in their morphology can be readily identified. Neurons in female canaries (Serinus canarius) that project to Area X of the anterior forebrain pathway were retrogradely labeled, selectively filled with Lucifer Yellow in a fixed slice preparation, and converted to a Golgi-like stain through an immunocytochemical reaction. We have identified Area X-projecting neurons as belonging to the thick dendrite class of Nixdorf et al. [B.E. Nixdorf, S.S. Davis, T.J. DeVoogd, Morphology of golgi-impregnated neurons in hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis in adult male and female canaries, J. Comp. Neurol. 284 (1989) 337-349] and have shown definitively that they are among the HVC neurons that can receive direct auditory input, as this cell class has short dendrites that extend into the shelf region ventral to HVC that is known to receive auditory inputs. Well-filled axons had collaterals that ramified and terminated within the nucleus, demonstrating a network through which Area X-projecting cells can contribute to intrinsic HVC communication. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Review of LACIE methodology, a project evaluation of technical acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results indicated that the LANDSAT data and the classification technology can estimate the small grains area within a sample segment accurately and reliably enough to meet the LACIE goals. Overall, the LACIE estimates in a 9 x 11 kilometer segment agree well with ground and aircraft determined area within these segments. The estimated c.v. of the random classification error was acceptably small. These analyses confirmed that bias introduced by various factors, such as LANDSAT spatial resolution, lack of spectral resolution, classifier bias, and repeatability, was not excessive in terms of the required performance criterion. Results of these tests did indicate a difficulty in differentiating wheat from other closely related small grains. However, satisfactory wheat area estimates were obtained through the reduction of the small grain area estimates in accordance with relative amounts of these crops as determined from historic data; these procedures are being further refined.

  16. Determining Industrial Comparative Advantages in Areas of Proposed Water Navigation Projects: An Industrial Location Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    indirect forward and backward linkage (6) Second order Impacts associated with agglomeration and scale economies and the attainment of minimum...Methodology 3 2.0 Regional Impact of Water Resources Development 5 3.0 Industrial Location Anilysis 10 3.1 The General Theory 10 3.2 Determinants of...establish a general framework of a cause-effect relationship of water navigation projects and their effect on regions’ economies . Within this framework

  17. Protocadherin-alpha family is required for serotonergic projections to appropriately innervate target brain areas.

    PubMed

    Katori, Shota; Hamada, Shun; Noguchi, Yukiko; Fukuda, Emi; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Hideko; Hasegawa, Sonoko; Yagi, Takeshi

    2009-07-22

    Serotonergic axons from the raphe nuclei in the brainstem project to every region of the brain, where they make connections through their extensive terminal arborizations. This serotonergic innervation contributes to various normal behaviors and psychiatric disorders. The protocadherin-alpha (Pcdha) family of clustered protocadherins consists of 14 cadherin-related molecules generated from a single gene cluster. We found that the Pcdhas were strongly expressed in the serotonergic neurons. To elucidate their roles, we examined serotonergic fibers in a mouse mutant (Pcdha(Delta CR/Delta CR)) lacking the Pcdha cytoplasmic region-encoding exons, which are common to the gene cluster. In the first week after birth, the distribution pattern of serotonergic fibers in Pcdha(Delta CR/Delta CR) mice was similar to wild-type, but by 3 weeks of age, when the serotonergic axonal termini complete their arborizations, the distribution of the projections was abnormal. In some target regions, notably the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, the normally even distribution of serotonin axonal terminals was, in the mutants, dense at the periphery of each region, but sparse in the center. In the stratum lacunosum-molecular of the hippocampus, the mutants showed denser serotonergic innervation than in wild-type, and in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the caudate-putamen, the innervation was sparser. Together, the abnormalities suggested that Pcdha proteins are important in the late-stage maturation of serotonergic projections. Further examination of alternatively spliced exons encoding the cytoplasmic tail showed that the A-type (but not the B-type) cytoplasmic tail was essential for the normal development of serotonergic projections.

  18. IDF Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2008 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the CH2MHill Hanford Group (CHG) Compensatory Mitigation Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). It includes time-zero monitoring results for planting activities conducted in December 2007, annual survival monitoring for all planting years, a summary of artificial burrow observations, and recommendations for the successful completion of DOE mitigation commitments for this project.

  19. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    hydraulic excavator, crane, concrete pumps , loader, transit mixer, water trucks, and miscellaneous equipment. g. For other construction items, drainage...Flood Control Acts of December 1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the...project was initiated in 1918, many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and

  20. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 5. Lake Shelbyville Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the enthusiasm and excellent cooperation of the resource managers , rangers, and other Corps personnel at Lake...survey analysis, and development of methodologies. Mr. R. Scott Jackson, WES was the Project Monitor. Dr. Adolph Anderson, WES, was Program Manager of the...Waterways Experiment Station’s (WES) Recreational Carrying Capacity Design and Management Study reports, provides selected carrying capacity-related

  1. Ipsilateral corticotectal projections from the primary, premotor and supplementary motor cortical areas in adult macaque monkeys: a quantitative anterograde tracing study.

    PubMed

    Fregosi, Michela; Rouiller, Eric M

    2017-09-18

    The corticotectal projection from cortical motor areas is one of several descending pathways involved in the indirect control of spinal motoneurons. In non-human primates, previous studies reported that cortical projections to the superior colliculus (SC) originated from the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary motor cortex, whereas no projection originated from the supplementary motor area (SMA). The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the properties of corticotectal projections originating from these three cortical motor areas in intact adult macaques (n = 9). The anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine was injected into one of these cortical areas in each animal. Individual axonal boutons, both en passant and terminaux, were charted and counted in the different layers of the ipsilateral SC. The data confirmed the presence of strong corticotectal projections from the PM. A new observation was that strong corticotectal projections were also found to originate from the SMA (its proper division). The corticotectal projection from the primary motor cortex was quantitatively less strong than that from either the premotor or SMAs. The corticotectal projection from each motor area was directed mainly to the deep layer of the SC, although its intermediate layer was also a consistent target of fairly dense terminations. The strong corticotectal projections from non-primary motor areas are in position to influence the preparation and planning of voluntary movements. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and basketball performance in Australian men.

    PubMed

    Frick, Nathan A; Hull, Melissa J; Manning, John T; Tomkinson, Grant R

    2017-05-06

    To investigate relationships between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and competitive basketball performance in Australian men. Using an observational cross-sectional design a total of 221 Australian basketball players who competed in the Olympic Games, International Basketball Federation World Championships/Cup, Australian National Basketball League, Central Australian Basketball League or socially had their 2D:4Ds measured. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in mean 2D:4Ds between men playing at different competitive standards, with relationships between 2D:4Ds and basketball game-related statistics assessed using Pearson's product moment correlations in men playing at a single competitive standard. There were significant differences between competitive standards for the left 2D:4D following Bonferroni correction, but not for the right 2D:4D, with basketballers who achieved higher competitive standards tending to have lower left 2D:4Ds. No important correlations between 2D:4D and basketball game-related statistics were found, with correlations typically negligible. This study indicated that the 2D:4D can discriminate between basketballers competing at different standards, but not between basketballers within a single competitive standard using objective game-related statistics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.

  4. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Ma, Zhanbing; Zhao, Junli; Huo, Zhenghao

    2015-07-01

    Sex steroid exposure during human development may influence disease susceptibility. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is thought to be a putative biomarker for prenatal hormone level during foetal life. Recently there has been a great deal of interest in 2D:4D and risk of disease in adulthood. We explored the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and coronary heart disease. Photocopies of the two hands of 310 males (controls: 155; patients: 155) were collected at Yin chuan city, in the Ningxia province of China. Left hand, right hand, mean hand and right minus left 2D:4D (Dr-l) were analysed. The mean values of 2D:4D ratio in patients were higher than those of CSIN controls. The patients showed significantly higher 2D:4D (left hand: P < 0.01; right hand, mean hand: P < 0.05) than controls. In patients, 2D:4D (especially left hand 2D:4D) were inversely associated with age at diagnosis (left hand: P < 0.001; right hand, mean hand: P < 0.05). No association between Dr-l and age or age at presentation of disease was observed in the groups. 2D:4D may correlate particularly with risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioavailability of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) after exposure to silicones by inhalation and implantation.

    PubMed Central

    Luu, H M; Hutter, J C

    2001-01-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict the target organ doses of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) after intravenous (IV), inhalation, or implantation exposures. The model used (14)C-D(4) IV disposition data in rats to estimate tissue distribution coefficients, metabolism, and excretion parameters. We validated the model by comparing the predicted blood and tissues concentrations of D(4) after inhalation to experimental results in both rats and humans. We then used the model to simulate D(4) kinetics after single and/or repeated D(4) exposures in rats and humans. The model predicted bioaccumulation of D(4) in fatty tissues (e.g., breast), especially in women. Because of its high lipid solubility (Log P(oct/water) = 5.1), D(4) persisted in fat with a half life of 11.1 days after inhalation and 18.2 days after breast implant exposure. Metabolism and excretion remained constant with repeated exposures, larger doses, and/or different routes of exposure. The accumulation of D(4) in fatty tissues should play an important role in the risk assessment of D(4) especially in women exposed daily to multiple personal care products and silicone breast implants. PMID:11712992

  6. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and testosterone in men.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Wood, S; Vang, E; Walton, J; Bundred, P E; van Heyningen, C; Lewis-Jones, D I

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between 2D:4D and testosterone in men attending an infertility clinic and men drawn from the general population. Data on 2D:4D and testosterone from two samples were collected: (1) 43 men attending an infertility clinic, and (2) 51 men drawn from the general population without regard to fertility. In sample (1) there were negative associations between 2D:4D and testicular function, and men with lower 2D:4D in their right compared to left hand had higher testosterone levels than men with higher 2D:4D in their right compared to left hand. Sample (2) showed no significant associations between 2D:4D or side differences in 2D:4D and testosterone. Adult levels of testosterone may be related to aspects of 2D:4D in samples which contain men with compromised testicular function, but not in men from normative samples. Associations between 2D:4D and fertility-associated traits probably arise from early organisational effects of testosterone rather than from activational effects of current testosterone.

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in a Chinese population with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenli; Huo, Zhenghao; Lu, Hong; Sheng, Youjing; Geng, Zhi; Ma, Zhanbing

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal gonadal hormones may play a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. It has been reported that second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) was influenced by the levels of exposure to prenatal testosterone and estrogen. So, 2D:4D may help to predict the disease susceptibility to schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and schizophrenia in Chinese population. We recruited 178 schizophrenics (males: 76; females: 102) and 365 controls (males: 218; females: 147) in this study. Photocopies of both hands were collected and left hand, right hand, mean hand and left minus right hand (DL-R) 2D:4D were analyzed. The right and mean hand 2D:4D ratios were significantly higher in schizophrenics compared to that of controls in both males and females. The left hand 2D:4D ratio in female schizophrenics was also significantly higher than in controls. Compared to controls, the DL-R 2D:4D in male schizophrenics was obviously higher. There was a weakly (but not significantly) negative correlation between the mean hand 2D:4D ratio and the age of onset. The 2D:4D ratio may correlate with the schizophrenia in Chinese population, and it may be an indicator of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor cortical control of cardiovascular bulbar neurones projecting to spinal autonomic areas.

    PubMed

    Viltart, Odile; Mullier, Olivia; Bernet, François; Poulain, Pierre; Ba-M'Hamed, Saadia; Sequeira, Henrique

    2003-07-01

    There is evidence that the motor cortex is involved in cardiovascular adjustments associated with somatic motor activity, as it has functional connections with the ventrolateral medulla, a brainstem region critically involved in the control of blood pressure and the regulation of plasma catecholamine levels. The ventrolateral medulla sends projections to the spinal intermediolateral nucleus, where preganglionic neurones controlling heart and blood vessels (T2 segment) and adrenal medulla (T8 segment) are found. The aim of the present study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of the rat motor cortex induces cardiovascular responses and Fos expression in ventrolateral medulla neurones projecting to the T2 and T8 segments. After a set of experiments designed to record cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels), injections of retrograde tracer (Fluorogold) were performed in the intermediolateral nucleus of two groups of rats, at the T2 or at the T8 segmental levels. Five days later, the motor cortex was stimulated in order to induce Fos expression in the ventrolateral medulla. Stimulation of the motor cortex induced: (1). hypotension and a significant decrease in plasma noradrenaline levels, and (2). a significant increase in the number of the double-labelled neurones in the rostral ventrolateral medulla projecting to T2. These data demonstrate that cardiovascular adjustments, preparatory to, or concomitant with, motor activity may be initiated in the motor cortex and transmitted to cardiac and vasomotor spinal preganglionic neurones, via the ventrolateral medulla. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The subcommissural organ expresses D2, D3, D4, and D5 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Mercedes; Jiménez, Antonio J; Richter, Hans; Vio, Karin; Bermúdez-Silva, F Javier; Rodríguez, Esteban M; Pérez-Fígares, Jose Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Dopamine receptors have been found in certain populations of non-neuronal cells in the brain, viz., discrete areas of ciliated ependyma and the ependymal cells of the choroid plexus. We have studied the presence of both tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive nerve fibers and dopamine receptors in the subcommissural organ (SCO), an ependymal brain gland that is located in the roof of the third ventricle and that secretes, into the cerebrospinal fluid, glycoproteins that aggregate to form Reissner's fiber (RF). Antibodies against D2, D3, D4, and D5 dopamine receptors were used in immunoblots of bovine striatum, fresh SCO, and organ-cultured SCO, and in immunocytochemistry of the bovine, rat, and mouse SCO. Only a few tyrosine-hydroxylase fibers appeared to reach the SCO. However, virtually all the secretory ependymal and hypendymal cells of the SCO immunoreacted with antibodies against D2, D4, and D5 receptors, with the last-mentioned rendering the strongest reaction, especially at the ventricular cell pole of the secretory ependymocytes, suggesting that dopamine might reach the SCO via the cerebrospinal fluid. The antibodies against the four subtypes of receptors revealed corresponding bands in immunoblots of striatum and fresh SCO. Although the cultured SCO displayed dopamine receptors, dopamine had no apparent effect on the expression of the SCO-spondin gene/protein or on the release of RF-glycoproteins (SCO-spondin included) by SCO explants, suggesting that dopamine affects the function(s) of the SCO differently from the secretion of RF-glycoproteins.

  10. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Harris, L J; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Williams, R W; Loewen, D R; Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Ryerson, F J; Pawloski, G A; Laue, C A; Moran, J E

    2003-08-15

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution

  11. The CLUVA project: Climate-change scenarios and their impact on urban areas in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ruocco, Angela; Weets, Guy; Gasparini, Paolo; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Lindley, Sarah; Pauleit, Stephan; Vahed, Anwar; Schiano, Pasquale; Kabisch, Sigrun; Vedeld, Trond; Coly, Adrien; Tonye, Emmanuel; Touré, Hamidou; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its main objective is the estimate of the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The mission of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to assess risks cascading from climate-changes. It downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; vulnerability of in-town ecosystems and urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary quantitative, probabilistic, modelling is applied. CLUVA brings together climate experts, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists with their African counterparts in an integrated research effort focusing on the improvement of the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. The CLUVA approach was set-up in the first year of the project and developed as follows: an ensemble of eight global projections of climate changes is produced for east and west Africa until 2050 considering the new IPCC (International Panel on Climate Changes; http://www.ipcc.ch/) scenarios. These are then downscaled to urban level, where territorial modeling is required to compute hazard effects on the vulnerable physical system (urban ecosystems, informal settlements, lifelines such as transportation and sewer networks) as well as on the social context, in defined time frames, and risk analysis is then employed to assess expected consequences. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks is performed. With the aid of the African partners, the developed approach

  12. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess thesustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in theGreater Platte River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phuyal, Khem P.

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  13. [Evaluating the efficiency of basic public health service project in Beijing rural areas based on data envelopment analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-lin; Pan, Xi-long

    2013-04-18

    To measure the efficiency changes of basic public health service in Beijing rural areas and to provide some suggestions for the basic public health service project throughout China. In the study, stratified random samples from 32 township health centers (THCs) were measured by data envelopment analysis (DEA) model with the panel data from 2007 to 2009. (1) The average total efficiency score of samples was 0.972. The TE non-efficient THCs were with excess in all input indicators and insufficient outputs in technology management, health promotion and chronic disease management. (2) The total factor productivity (TFP) from 2007 to 2008 increased 8.8%, which was attributed to technology change. The TFP decreased by 6.6% from 2008 to 2009, but the technical efficiency increased by 3.3%. There is room for improvemrnt in the basic public health service project in Beijing rural areas. Scale efficiency should be improved and the common development of technical efficiency and technology progress promoted in order to increase the project outputs.

  14. The ratio of second to fourth digit length (2D:4D) and coronary artery disease in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing-Li; Yang, Ding-You; Chai, Wen-Hui; Jin, Ming-Lei; Zhou, Xing-Chun; Peng, Li; Zhao, Yu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The association between index finger to ring finger length ratio (2D:4D) and cardiac disorders has been reported, however it has not been discussed in terms of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated whether 2D:4D could be used as a marker for predisposition to CAD as assessed by coronary angiography in Chinese men and women. This study included 1764 persons divided into 4 groups, 441 cases with CAD and 441 persons without CAD as control in each sex of the same age. Finger lengths were measured twice for both hands using electronic calipers. Student t test was used to detect the difference of 2D:4D among groups. The receiver operator characteristic curves (ROCs) were used to detect the diagnostic effect of 2D:4D for CAD. There were no significant differences in age among the four groups. A significant difference of 2D:4D ratios between right and left hand were observed only in men in both control and CAD groups. On the right hand in the control group and on both hands in the CAD group, the 2D:4D ratios were higher in women than in men (all, P < 0.001). In men with CAD, mean 2D:4D was higher than mean 2D:4D in control men (right hand 0.962±0.042:0.927±0.038; left hand 0.950±0.044:0.934±0.048; both hands, P < 0.001), but this was not observed in women. No relationship was found between 2D:4D and age (all, P >0.05). The area under the curve of right hand 2D:4D in male was 0.72 (95% CI 0.683-0.753, p<0.001), while it was 0.602 (95% CI 0.565-0.639, p<0.001) in left hand. The present study showed an association between high 2D:4D ratio and CAD in both hands in men. There were no significant differences in mean 2D:4D between women with CAD and controls.

  15. The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D) and Coronary Artery Disease in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xing-li; Yang, Ding-you; Chai, Wen-hui; Jin, Ming-lei; Zhou, Xing-chun; Peng, Li; Zhao, Yu-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between index finger to ring finger length ratio (2D:4D) and cardiac disorders has been reported, however it has not been discussed in terms of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated whether 2D:4D could be used as a marker for predisposition to CAD as assessed by coronary angiography in Chinese men and women. Methods: This study included 1764 persons divided into 4 groups, 441 cases with CAD and 441 persons without CAD as control in each sex of the same age. Finger lengths were measured twice for both hands using electronic calipers. Student t test was used to detect the difference of 2D:4D among groups. The receiver operator characteristic curves (ROCs) were used to detect the diagnostic effect of 2D:4D for CAD. Results: There were no significant differences in age among the four groups. A significant difference of 2D:4D ratios between right and left hand were observed only in men in both control and CAD groups. On the right hand in the control group and on both hands in the CAD group, the 2D:4D ratios were higher in women than in men (all, P < 0.001). In men with CAD, mean 2D:4D was higher than mean 2D:4D in control men (right hand 0.962±0.042:0.927±0.038; left hand 0.950±0.044:0.934±0.048; both hands, P < 0.001), but this was not observed in women. No relationship was found between 2D:4D and age (all, P >0.05). The area under the curve of right hand 2D:4D in male was 0.72 (95% CI 0.683-0.753, p<0.001), while it was 0.602 (95% CI 0.565-0.639, p<0.001) in left hand. Conclusions: The present study showed an association between high 2D:4D ratio and CAD in both hands in men. There were no significant differences in mean 2D:4D between women with CAD and controls. PMID:24046536

  16. The importance of sea ice area biases in 21st century multimodel projections of Antarctic temperature and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Stephenson, David B.; Turner, John; Phillips, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Climate models exhibit large biases in sea ice area (SIA) in their historical simulations. This study explores the impacts of these biases on multimodel uncertainty in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble projections of 21st century change in Antarctic surface temperature, net precipitation, and SIA. The analysis is based on time slice climatologies in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 future scenario (2070-2099) and historical (1970-1999) simulations across 37 different CMIP5 models. Projected changes in net precipitation, temperature, and SIA are found to be strongly associated with simulated historical mean SIA (e.g., cross-model correlations of r = 0.77, 0.71, and -0.85, respectively). Furthermore, historical SIA bias is found to have a large impact on the simulated ratio between net precipitation response and temperature response. This ratio is smaller in models with smaller-than-observed SIA. These strong emergent relationships on SIA bias could, if found to be physically robust, be exploited to give more precise climate projections for Antarctica.

  17. 2d:4d, sex steroid hormones and human psychological sex differences.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J

    2008-08-01

    Studies on 2d:4d, the ratio between the second and the fourth digit, as a possible indicator of prenatal androgen exposure, have failed to produce consistent results. This paper analyzes the relation between 2d:4d, sex steroids and well-documented sex differences in characteristics such as depression, dominance, and aggressive (ART) and non-aggressive adolescent risk-taking (NART) in a comparatively large sample of adolescent boys (N=301, mean age: 14.4 years) and girls (N=298, mean age: 14.3 years). Boys had on average a lower 2d:4d than girls (F=42.15; p<0.001). With respect to boys, controlling for age and pubertal development (PD), a small but marginally significant positive association was found between 2d:4d and total testosterone (TT) (r=0.11; p<0.05). In girls a significant association was found between 2d:4d and SHBG (r=0.18; p<0.01). However, relationships between 2d:4d and hormones depended on the phase of the menstrual cycle, with 2d:4d being negatively associated with FT (B=-0.013; p<0.05) once a positive association between 2d:4d and FT for girls in the mid-cycle group (B=0.019; p<0.01) is taken into account. With respect to sex differences in characteristics, we found evidence of a relationship between 2d:4d and depression in boys (r=-0.14; p<0.05) but not between 2d:4d and dominance, ART or NART. No relationships were found between 2d:4d and any of these variables in girls.

  18. Area-specific analysis of the distribution of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the rat ventral tegmental area, with special reference to the GABAergic and glutamatergic efferents

    PubMed Central

    Kalló, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S.; Szöke, Sarolta; Fekete, Csaba; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a main regulator of reward and integrates a wide scale of hormonal and neuronal information. Feeding-, energy expenditure-, stress, adaptation- and reproduction-related hypothalamic signals are processed in the VTA and influence the reward processes. However, the neuroanatomical origin and chemical phenotype of neurons mediating these signals to the VTA have not been fully characterized. In this study we have systematically mapped hypothalamic neurons that project to the VTA using the retrograde tracer Choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) and analyzed their putative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate character with in situ hybridization in male rats. 23.93 ± 3.91% of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the VTA was found in preoptic and 76.27 ± 4.88% in anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamic regions. Nearly half of the retrogradely-labeled neurons in the preoptic, and more than one third in the anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus appeared in medially located regions. The analyses of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) mRNA expression revealed both amino acid markers in different subsets of retrogradely-labeled hypothalamic neurons, typically with the predominance of the glutamatergic marker VGLUT2. About one tenth of CTB-IR neurons were GAD65-positive even in hypothalamic nuclei expressing primarily VGLUT2. Some regions were populated mostly by GAD65 mRNA-containing retrogradely-labeled neurons. These included the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus where 58.63 ± 19.04% of CTB-IR neurons were GABAergic. These results indicate that both the medial and lateral nuclear compartments of the hypothalamus provide substantial input to the VTA. Furthermore, colocalization studies revealed that these projections not only use glutamate but also GABA for neurotransmission. These GABAergic afferents may underlie important inhibitory mechanism to fine-tune the

  19. Integrated disposal Facility Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2007 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the first year survival of sagebrush seedlings planted as compensatory mitigation for the Integrated Disposal Facility Project. Approximately 42,600 bare root seedlings and 26,000 pluglings were planted at a mitigation site along Army Loop Road in February 2007. Initial baseline monitoring occurred in March 2007, and first summer survival was assessed in September 2007. Overall survival was 19%, with bare root survival being marginally better than pluglings (21% versus 14%). Likely major factors contributing to low survival were late season planting and insufficient soil moisture during seedling establishment.

  20. Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

  1. Groundwater Strategy for the Ou-1 Landfill Area, Miamisburg Closure Project, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    LOONEY, BRIANB.

    2004-01-01

    The general objective of the study was to assist the Miamisburg Closure Project in their efforts to develop and refine a comprehensive, technically sound strategy for remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene and other volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of the landfill in Operable Unit 1. To provide the necessary flexibility to the site, regulators and stakeholders, the resulting evaluation considered a variety of approaches ranging from ''no further action'' to waste removal. The approaches also included continued soil vapor extraction, continued groundwater pump and treat, monitored natural attenuation, biostimulation, partitioning barriers, hydrologic modification, and others.

  2. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  3. Control of the subthalamic innervation of the rat globus pallidus by D2/3 and D4 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Adán; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Sierra, Arturo; Valdiosera, René; Tapia, Dagoberto; Anaya, Verónica; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José; Aceves, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    The effects of activating dopaminergic D(2/3) and D(4) receptors during activation of the subthalamic projection to the globus pallidus (GP) were explored in rat brain slices using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Byocitin labeling and both orthodromic and antidromic activation demonstrated the integrity of some subthalamopallidal connections in in vitro parasagittal brain slices. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by CNQX and AP5 were evoked onto pallidal neurons by local field stimulation of the subthalamopallidal pathway in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of dopamine and quinpirole, a dopaminergic D(2)-class receptor agonist, reduced evoked EPSCs by about 35%. This effect was only partially blocked by sulpiride, a D(2/3) receptor antagonist. The sulpiride-sensitive reduction of the subthalamopallidal EPSC was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) and a reduction in the frequency but not the mean amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs), indicative of a presynaptic site of action, which was confirmed by variance-mean analysis. The sulpiride-resistant EPSC reduction was mimicked by PD 168,077 and blocked by L-745,870, selective D(4) receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively, suggesting the involvement of D(4) receptors. The reduction of EPSCs produced by PD 168,077 was not accompanied by changes in PPR or the frequency of sEPSCs; however, it was accompanied by a reduction in mean sEPSC amplitude, indicative of a postsynaptic site of action. These results show that dopamine modulates subthalamopallidal excitation by presynaptic D(2/3) and postsynaptic D(4) receptors. The importance of this modulation is discussed.

  4. Expression of a Novel D4 Dopamine Receptor in the Lamprey Brain. Evolutionary Considerations about Dopamine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous data reported in lampreys, which belong to the phylogenetically oldest branch of vertebrates, show that the dopaminergic system was already well developed at the dawn of vertebrate evolution. The expression of dopamine in the lamprey brain is well conserved when compared to other vertebrates, and this is also true for the D2 receptor. Additionally, the key role of dopamine in the striatum, modulating the excitability in the direct and indirect pathways through the D1 and D2 receptors, has also been recently reported in these animals. The moment of divergence regarding the two whole genome duplications occurred in vertebrates suggests that additional receptors, apart from the D1 and D2 previously reported, could be present in lampreys. We used in situ hybridization to characterize the expression of a novel dopamine receptor, which we have identified as a D4 receptor according to the phylogenetic analysis. The D4 receptor shows in the sea lamprey a more restricted expression pattern than the D2 subtype, as reported in mammals. Its main expression areas are the striatum, lateral and ventral pallial sectors, several hypothalamic regions, habenula, and mesencephalic and rhombencephalic motoneurons. Some expression areas are well conserved through vertebrate evolution, as is the case of the striatum or the habenula, but the controversies regarding the D4 receptor expression in other vertebrates hampers for a complete comparison, especially in rhombencephalic regions. Our results further support that the dopaminergic system in vertebrates is well conserved and suggest that at least some functions of the D4 receptor were already present before the divergence of lampreys. PMID:26778974

  5. Business Marketing Information Systems Skills. Voc-Ed Project. Marketing Management Career Area. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    A study was conducted to develop a curriculum to meet the information processing/management training needs of persons entering or continuing careers in the information marketing area. The process used for the study was based on Stufflebeam's Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) model of evaluation. The information gathering process included a…

  6. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE... requirements of subpart C-Power Marketing Initiative of the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program.... These actions implement Subpart C-Power Marketing Initiative of the Program's Final Rule. See 10 CFR...

  7. 77 FR 1020 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge...) on the navigable waters of the Mystic River under and surrounding the S99 Alford Street Bridge which... where the bridge is being repaired. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on January 9, 2012 through...

  8. Business Marketing Information Systems Skills. Voc-Ed Project. Marketing Management Career Area. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    A study was conducted to develop a curriculum to meet the information processing/management training needs of persons entering or continuing careers in the information marketing area. The process used for the study was based on Stufflebeam's Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) model of evaluation. The information gathering process included a…

  9. New Jersey Area Libraries: A Pilot Project Toward the Evaluation of the Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Lloyd J.

    The checklist and date distribution methods are used to evaluate the reference collections of two New Jersey Area Reference Libraries, an older, traditional single unit public library and a newer unit in a system of nine libraries. Three sectors of the reference collection are tested: reference books, abstracting and indexing services and serials.…

  10. A PILOT PROJECT FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND REORGANIZATION IN AN URBAN AREA JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    PROGRAMS AND MATERIALS WILL BE DEVELOPED, FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS CHOSEN AS POTENTIAL DROPOUTS, TO FOCUS ATTENTION ON SPECIFIC NEEDS. THE CLASSES WILL BE TAUGHT IN A NONSCHOOL SETTING BY A TEAM OF TEACHERS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS, HOME ECONOMICS, SCIENCE, MATH, COMMUNICATIONS, READING, AND FINE ARTS. THE TEACHERS WILL COMBINE THESE AREAS INTO…

  11. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.We estimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  12. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Handgrip Strength in Hani Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Keli; Zhang, Xinghua; Zheng, Lianbin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D) in humans is considered as a putative marker of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been progressively adopted as one useful tool to evaluate the effect of prenatal hormones in some traits such as physical ability. Handgrip strength is one authentic measure of physical ability and is generally used on the anthropological research within an evolutionary viewpoint. Methods Here we present the first evidence on 2D:4D and handgrip strength on adult participants of Hani ethnicity and explore the relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength. We examined 2D:4D and handgrip strength of 80 males and 60 females at Bubeng village, in the Yunnan province of China. Results The mean 2D:4D in females was higher than that in males for each hand. Females showed significantly higher 2D:4D than males in the right hand rather than in the left hand. Males displayed significantly higher handgrip strength than females for both hands. Handgrip strength decreased with age for both sexes. A significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength was found in the right hand of males. Conclusion The relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength may be attributed to evolutionary drive of sexual selection operating on fetal programming. PMID:24205044

  13. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in Hani ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Keli; Zhang, Xinghua; Zheng, Lianbin

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D) in humans is considered as a putative marker of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been progressively adopted as one useful tool to evaluate the effect of prenatal hormones in some traits such as physical ability. Handgrip strength is one authentic measure of physical ability and is generally used on the anthropological research within an evolutionary viewpoint. Here we present the first evidence on 2D:4D and handgrip strength on adult participants of Hani ethnicity and explore the relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength. We examined 2D:4D and handgrip strength of 80 males and 60 females at Bubeng village, in the Yunnan province of China. The mean 2D:4D in females was higher than that in males for each hand. Females showed significantly higher 2D:4D than males in the right hand rather than in the left hand. Males displayed significantly higher handgrip strength than females for both hands. Handgrip strength decreased with age for both sexes. A significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength was found in the right hand of males. The relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength may be attributed to evolutionary drive of sexual selection operating on fetal programming.

  14. Examination marks of male university students positively correlate with finger length ratios (2D:4D).

    PubMed

    Romano, Maria; Leoni, Barbara; Saino, Nicola

    2006-02-01

    Intersexual and intrasexual variation in second to fourth digit length (2D:4D) in humans may result from differential exposure to fetal testosterone. 2D:4D predicts several physiological, psychological and performance traits in adulthood. These relationships may reflect the 'pleiotropic' effects of testosterone on development of digits and diverse organ systems, which are expressed in adulthood. We hypothesized that 2D:4D also predicts academic success of students. 2D:4D of right hand positively predicted examination marks of males from two three-year degree courses (TYDCs). Marks of females did not covary with 2D:4D. Males from the two TYDCs differed in 2D:4D. The present results thus add to the rapidly accumulating literature on 2D:4D showing correlations with phenotypic traits in humans. If testosterone affects 2D:4D and intellectual performance, our results suggest that testosterone levels are under stabilizing selection because of effects on performance traits documented in previous studies and antagonistic effects on intellectual performance (present study).

  15. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE...

  16. 17 CFR 240.14d-4 - Dissemination of tender offers to security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissemination of tender offers to security holders. 240.14d-4 Section 240.14d-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules...

  17. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females.

  18. Hypocretinergic and non-hypocretinergic projections from the hypothalamus to the REM sleep executive area of the pons.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2013-01-23

    Within the postero-lateral hypothalamus neurons that utilize hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as neuromodulators are co-distributed. These neurons have been involved in the control of behavioral states, and a deficit in the hypocretinergic system is the pathogenic basis of narcolepsy with cataplexy. In this report, utilizing immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing techniques, we examined the hypocretinergic innervation of the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), which is the executive site that is responsible for the generation of REM sleep in the cat. The retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was administered in pontine regions where carbachol microinjections induced REM sleep. Utilizing immunohistochemical techniques, we found that approximately 1% of hypocretinergic neurons in the tuberal area of the hypothalamus project to the NPO. In addition, approximately 6% of all CTb+ neurons in this region were hypocretinergic. The hypocretinergic innervation of the NPO was also compared with the innervation of the same site by MCH-containing neurons. More than three times as many MCHergic neurons were found to project to the NPO compared with hypocretinergic cells; both neuronal types exhibited bilateral projections. We also identified a group of non-hypocretinergic non-MCHergic neuronal group of neurons that were intermingled with both hypocretinergic and MCHergic neurons that also projected to this same brainstem region. These neurons were grater in number that either hypocretin or MCH-containing neurons; their soma size was also smaller and their projections were mainly ipsilateral. The present anatomical data suggest that hypocretinergic, MCHergic and an unidentified companion group of neurons of the postero-lateral hypothalamus participate in the regulation of the neuronal activity of NPO neurons, and therefore, are likely to participate in the control of wakefulness and REM sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  20. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Interpreting digit ratio (2D:4D)-behavior correlations: 2D:4D sex difference, stability, and behavioral correlates and their replicability in young children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of using the ratio of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) to study influences of early androgen exposure on human behavior relies, in part, on a report that the ratio is sex-dimorphic and stable from age 2 years (Manning etal., 1998). However, subsequent research has rarely replicated this finding. Moreover, although 2D:4D has been correlated with many behaviors, these correlations are often inconsistent. Young children's 2D:4D-behavior correlations may be more consistent than those of older individuals, because young children have experienced fewer postnatal influences. To evaluate the usefulness of 2D:4D as a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in studies of 2D:4D-behavior correlations, we assessed its sex difference, temporal stability, and behavioral correlates over a 6- to 8-month period in 126, 2- to 3-year-old children, providing a rare same-sample replicability test. We found a moderate sex difference on both hands and high temporal stability. However, between-sex overlap and within-sex variability were also large. Only 3 of 24 correlations with sex-typed behaviors-scores on the Preschool Activities Inventory (PSAI), preference for a boy-typical toy, preference for a girl-typical toy, were significant and in the predicted direction, all of which involved the PSAI, partially confirming findings from another study. Correlation coefficients were larger for behaviors that showed larger sex differences. But, as in older samples, the overall pattern showed inconsistency across time, sex, and hand. Therefore, although sex-dimorphic and stable, 2D:4D-behavior correlations are no more consistent for young children than for older samples. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrologic monitoring in the area of the proposed Yazoo River navigation project, west-central Mississippi, 1978-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data on ground-water levels collected from the area of the proposed Yazoo River Navigation Project for the years 1978-80 are presented without interpretation. These data were obtained as part of a hydrologic study to understand the hydrologic effects of construction and operation of a waterway on the Yazoo River. The data were collected in cooperation with the Vicksburg District, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. During the data collection period, water-level measurements were made on about a monthly schedule in 62 observation wells in the network. Three of the wells were equipped with continuous water-level recorders. (USGS)

  3. Computational Analysis of Torsional Bulking Behavior of 3D 4-Directional Braided Composites Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xinrong; Liu, Ye; Hao, Wenfeng; Liu, Yinghua; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    The torsional bulking behavior of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts was analyzed in this work. First, the unit cell models of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts with different braiding angles and fiber volume fraction were built up. Then, the elastic parameters of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts were predicted using the unit cells under different boundary conditions. Finally, the torsional bulking eigenvalues and bulking modes of the composites shafts were obtained by numerical simulation, and the effects of braiding angle and fiber volume fraction on the torsional bulking behavior of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts were analyzed. The simulation results show that the bulking eigenvalues increase with the increase of braiding angle and fiber volume fraction. This work will play an important role in the design of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.

  4. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  5. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance.

    PubMed

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance.

  6. Heritability of digit ratio (2D:4D) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Voracek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects, which has been widely employed to study androgenic-programming effects on shaping sex-linked traits and behaviours in humans. This approach is now increasingly applied to non-human species. Heritability studies of 2D:4D in both humans and zebra finches indicate substantial genetic contributions to the expression of this trait. This study examines the heritability of 2D:4D in rhesus macaques, based on the resemblance of mother-infant dyads, to see how these compare with human values. Results suggest that familial resemblance in 2D:4D is also strong in rhesus monkeys. Heritability estimates were within the range of estimates from human studies. These preliminary results suggest that the strength of heritability of 2D:4D may generalize across taxa.

  7. 2D:4D in men is related to aggressive dominance but not to sociable dominance.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P; Dubbs, Shelli; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that a smaller ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) is an indicator of the exposure to prenatal testosterone (T). This study measured the 2D:4D of men and assessed dominance as a personality trait to investigate indirectly if the exposure to prenatal T is related to a dominant personality later in life. Results showed that men had a more aggressive dominant personality when having a more masculine (lower) 2D:4D, while there was no relationship between sociable dominance and 2D:4D. Findings from this study indicate that it is important to distinguish different forms of dominance since other studies failed to find relationships between dominance and 2D:4D. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  9. D-Area Drip Irrigation-Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2003-01-14

    Groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and by-products resulting from discharges of this organic solvent during past operations. Several potential clean-up strategies are being or have been investigated, including a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process that is the focus of the treatability study described in this report. The contaminated groundwater in D-Area occurs primarily at depths of 30 to 50 feet below ground surface, well below the depths that are typically penetrated by plant roots. The system investigated in this study involved pumping water from the contaminated aquifer and discharging the water into overlying test plots below the surface using drip irrigation. The test plots contained pines, cottonwoods, or no vegetation (controls). The primary objective was to determine the overall effectiveness of the process for TCE removal and to elucidate the biotic and abiotic pathways for its removal.

  10. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  11. Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities. Right Size Project 10-0192C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    ft. ____Talus: Homogenous areas of rock rubble ranging in average size 0.15 - 2.0 m (0.5 - 6.5 ft), composed of basalt, andesite , and/or sedimentary...of rock rubble ranging in average size 0.15 - 2.0 m (0.5 - 6.5 ft), composed of basalt, andesite , and/or sedimentary rock, including riprap slides and

  12. Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-05-31

    This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.

  13. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Treesearch

    Jeff Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon IV; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.Weestimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  14. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  15. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies, with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area.

  16. [Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Zhuo; Xie, Yong-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population (Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi, and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the minimum standard of 0.14 bm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  17. First Results from the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area Lighting Map Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Hall, John; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, Bill; Zubrick, Steven

    2007-01-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6,54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4,2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  18. First Results From The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Lightning Mapping Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, B.; Zubrick, S.

    2006-12-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6, 54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4, 2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  19. D4cpv-calsequestrin: a sensitive ratiometric biosensor accurately targeted to the calcium store of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sztretye, Monika; Yi, Jianxun; Figueroa, Lourdes; Zhou, Jingsong; Royer, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Current fluorescent monitors of free [Ca2+] in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle cells are of limited quantitative value. They provide either a nonratio signal that is difficult to calibrate and is not specific or, in the case of Forster resonant energy transfer (FRET) biosensors, a signal of small dynamic range, which may be degraded further by imperfect targeting and interference from endogenous ligands of calsequestrin. We describe a novel tool that uses the cameleon D4cpv, which has a greater dynamic range and lower susceptibility to endogenous ligands than earlier cameleons. D4cpv was targeted to the SR by fusion with the cDNA of calsequestrin 1 or a variant that binds less Ca2+. “D4cpv-Casq1,” expressed in adult mouse at concentrations up to 22 µmole/liter of muscle cell, displayed the accurate targeting of calsequestrin and stayed inside cells after permeabilization of surface and t system membranes, which confirmed its strict targeting. FRET ratio changes of D4cpv-Casq1 were calibrated inside cells, with an effective KD of 222 µM and a dynamic range [(Rmax − Rmin)/Rmin] of 2.5, which are improvements over comparable sensors. Both the maximal ratio, Rmax, and its resting value were slightly lower in areas of high expression, a variation that was inversely correlated to distance from the sites of protein synthesis. The average [Ca2+]SR in 74 viable cells at rest was 416 µM. The distribution of individual ratio values was Gaussian, but that of the calculated [Ca2+]SR was skewed, with a tail of very large values, up to 6 mM. Model calculations reproduce this skewness as the consequence of quantifiably small variations in biosensor performance. Local variability, a perceived weakness of biosensors, thus becomes quantifiable. It is demonstrably small in D4cpv. D4cpv-Casq1 therefore provides substantial improvements in sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility over existing monitors of SR free Ca2+ concentration. PMID:21788610

  20. Scientometric analysis and bibliography of digit ratio (2D:4D) research, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella

    2009-06-01

    A scientometric analysis of modern research on the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for prenatal androgen action, is presented. In early 2009, this literature totalled more than 300 publications and, since its initiation in 1998, has grown at a rate slightly faster than linear. Key findings included evidence of publication bias and citation bias, incomplete coverage and outdatedness of existing reviews, and a dearth of meta-analyses in this field. 2D:4D research clusters noticeably in terms of researchers, institutions, countries, and journals involved. Although 2D:4D is an anthropometric trait, most of the research has been conducted at psychology departments, not anthropology departments. However, 2D:4D research has not been predominantly published in core and specialized journals of psychology, but rather in more broadly scoped journals of the behavioral sciences, biomedical social sciences, and neurosciences. Total citation numbers of 2D:4D papers for the most part were not larger than their citation counts within 2D:4D research, indicating that until now, only a few 2D:4D studies have attained broader interest outside this specific field. Comparative citation analyses show that 2D:4D research presently is commensurate in size and importance to evolutionary psychological jealousy research, but has grown faster than the latter field. In contrast, it is much smaller and has spread more slowly than research about the Implicit Association Test Fifteen conjectures about anticipated trends in 2D:4D research are outlined, appendixed by a first-time bibliography of the entirety of the published 2D:4D literature.

  1. Projecting future grassland performance in the Greater Platte River Basin to assess sustainability for potential biofuel feedstock areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Wylie, B. K.; Phuyal, K.

    2012-12-01

    In previous studies, we used vegetation condition information from archival records of satellite data (i.e., 10-year time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data), site geophysical and biophysical features (e.g., elevation, slope and aspect, and soils), and weather and climate drivers to build ecosystem performance (EP) models to dynamically monitor EP (DMEP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB). Ecosystem performance is a surrogate approach for measuring ecosystem productivity. We estimated ecosystem site potentials (i.e., long-term ecosystem productivities), weather-based expected EP (EEP), and rangeland conditions based on these EP models. Validation of the EP results using ground observations (e.g., percentage of bare soil, LANDFIRE maps, stocking rate, and crop yield data) demonstrated the reliability of these EP models. We used this DMEP method to identify grasslands that are potentially suitable for cellulosic biofuel feedstock (e.g., switchgrass) development in the GPRB. The objectives of this study are to (1) project the future grassland EP; (2) assess the changes and trends of the future EP; and (3) examine the future sustainability of the identified biofuel feedstock areas in the GPRB. We used the EP models and future climate projections to estimate future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) climate-based projections of grassland performance in the GPRB. The future climate data were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) "SRES A1B" (a "middle" emissions path) obtained from the "Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections" archive (http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_cmip3_projections). Results show that, under climate scenario A1B, the potential biofuel feedstock areas in the more mesic Eastern part of the GPRB will remain productive in the future (the spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3335 kg ha-1 year-1, 3355 kg ha-1 year-1, and 3341 kg ha-1 year

  2. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  3. Archaeological Investigation in the Perry Lake Project Area, Northeastern Kansas National Register Evaluation of 17 Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    outline what are inferred to have been oval -shaped, grass and daub covered lodges. Temporary occupancy is suggested by sparse amounts of daub and lack of...somewhat oval in shape and truncated on the south by an adjacent highway. No formal tools or diagnostic artifacts were found upon the surface, which...east-west and 30 m north-south. The site wls elongated and oval in shape covering an area of 3750 m , and contained a very light surface scatter. A datum

  4. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

  5. Understanding the local food environment: A participatory photovoice project in a low-income area in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Díez, Julia; Conde, Paloma; Sandin, María; Urtasun, María; López, Remedios; Carrero, José Luis; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to partner between researchers, practitioners and residents to increase our understanding of environmental influences on dietary behaviors. We used the participatory method of Photovoice to understand key determinants of the local food environment influencing residents' diets. This project was conducted in Villaverde, a low-income area located in Madrid, Spain. From February to May 2015, 24 residents working in four Photovoice groups, took photographs related to their local food environment. Each group analyzed and critically discussed their photographs in small group sessions. Through a consensus-building process, participants identified 30 emerging categories, which followed five conceptual themes related to their food environment: 1) eating in moderation, 2) cultural diversity, 3) food stores, 4) social relationships and 5) economic crisis and poverty. Participants, researchers and practitioners successfully collaborated in analyzing, writing, disseminating the project results, and directly informing local policy-makers, media, and other residents. The project results may guide community-generated interventions for promoting a healthier food environment.

  6. Prevalence of STDs among prostitutes in Czech border areas with Germany in 1997–2001 assessed in project "Jana"

    PubMed Central

    Resl, V; Kumpova, M; Cerna, L; Novak, M; Pazdiora, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To prevent STDs, including HIV/AIDS, and assessment of STD prevalence in the target group. Methods: Prostitutes working in night clubs and in the streets and roads of three districts in the West Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic bordering on Germany were studied. Interactions included street work, venereology check up, psychology and sociology counselling, psychological preparation on possible treatment, and continuous and regular contact. Results: The number of "love clubs" involved in project "Jana" increased from 46 in 1997 to 72 in 2000. Of 561 street girls registered in the project during 1997–2001, there was one HIV positive, every 11th prostitute had syphilis, and one in 93 women had gonorrhoea, whereas incidence of syphilis in the Czech Republic was 10.2/100 000 and that of gonorrhoea 9.5/100 000 inhabitants in 2001, 31 women had Chlamydia trachomatis urinary tract and genital infection, and 25 were HBsAg positives. STD frequency revealed in project participants significantly exceeds numbers of STDs in the other inhabitants of the Czech Republic. The majority of prostitutes were foreigners, mostly Ukrainians and Russians. Conclusion: The situation in the border areas is alarming. The priority must be to concentrate efforts on prevention of spread of venereal diseases in borders of economically disparate states. PMID:14663136

  7. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  8. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  9. Projected heat-related mortality under climate change in the metropolitan area of Skopje.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Baccini, Michela; De Ridder, Koen; Hooyberghs, Hans; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Scott, Kristen; Spasenovska, Margarita

    2016-05-16

    Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital and largest city of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper attempts to forecast the impact of heat on mortality in Skopje in two future periods under climate change and compare it with a historical baseline period. After ascertaining the relationship between daily mean ambient air temperature and daily mortality in Skopje, we modelled the evolution of ambient temperatures in the city under a Representative Concentration Pathway scenario (RCP8.5) and the evolution of the city population in two future time periods: 2026-2045 and 2081-2100, and in a past time period (1986-2005) to serve as baseline for comparison. We then calculated the projected average annual mortality attributable to heat in the absence of adaptation or acclimatization during those time windows, and evaluated the contribution of each source of uncertainty on the final impact. Our estimates suggest that, compared to the baseline period (1986-2005), heat-related mortality in Skopje would more than double in 2026-2045, and more than quadruple in 2081-2100. When considering the impact in 2081-2100, sampling variability around the heat-mortality relationship and climate model explained 40.3 and 46.6 % of total variability. These results highlight the importance of a long-term perspective in the public health prevention of heat exposure, particularly in the context of a changing climate.

  10. Emergence and fate of cyclic volatile polydimethylsiloxanes (D4, D5) in municipal waste streams: release mechanisms, partitioning and persistence in air, water, soil and sediments.

    PubMed

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2014-01-15

    Siloxane use in consumer products (i.e., fabrics, paper, concrete, wood, adhesive surfaces) has significantly increased in recent years due to their excellent water repelling and antimicrobial characteristics. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the release mechanisms of two siloxane compounds, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), which have been detected both at landfills and wastewater treatment plants, estimate persistence times in different media, and project release quantities over time in relation to their increasing use. Analyses were conducted based on fate and transport mechanisms after siloxanes enter waste streams. Due to their high volatility, the majority of D4 and D5 end up in the biogas during decomposition. D5 is about ten times more likely to partition into the solid phase (i.e., soil, biosolids). D5 concentrations in the wastewater influent and biogas are about 16 times and 18 times higher respectively, in comparison to the detected levels of D4.

  11. The BOND project: Biogenic aerosols and air quality in Athens and Marseille greater areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulou, R. E. P.; Tagaris, E.; Pilinis, C.; Andronopoulos, S.; Sfetsos, A.; Bartzis, J. G.

    2004-03-01

    The role of Secondary Biogenic Organic Aerosol in aerosol budget is examined using the Atmospheric Dispersion of Pollutants over Complex Terrain-Urban Airshed Model-Aerosols (ADREA-I/UAM-AERO) modeling system in two representative Mediterranean areas. The areas have been selected, because of their elevated biogenic emission levels and the sufficient degree of meteorological and land use diversity characterizing the locations. Comparison of the model results with and without biogenic emissions reveals the significant role biogenic emissions play in modulating ozone and aerosol concentrations. Biogenic emissions are predicted to affect the concentrations of organic aerosol constituents through the reactions of terpenes with O3, OH and NO3. The ozonolysis of terpenes is predicted to cause an increase in OH radical concentrations that ranges from 10% to 78% for Athens, and from 20% to 95% for Marseilles, depending on the location, compared to the predictions without biogenic emissions. The reactions of this extra hydroxyl radical with SO2 and NOx have as final products increased concentrations of sulfates and nitrates in the particulate phase. As a result, biogenic emissions are predicted to affect the concentrations not only of organic aerosols, but those of inorganic aerosols as well. Thus biogenic emissions should be taken into consideration when models for the prediction and enforcement of abatement strategies of atmospheric pollution are applied.

  12. An analysis of subject areas and country participation for all health-related projects in the EU's FP5 and FP6 programmes.

    PubMed

    Galsworthy, Michael J; Irwin, Rachel; Charlesworth, Kate; Ernst, Kelly; Hristovski, Dimitar; Wismar, Matthias; McKee, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Previous analyses concerning health components of European Union (EU)-funded research have shown low project participation levels of the 12 newest member states (EU-12). Additionally, there has been a lack of subject-area analysis. In the Health Research for Europe project, we screened all projects of the EU's Framework Programmes for research FP5 and FP6 (1998-2006) to identify health research projects and describe participation by country and subject area. FP5 and FP6 project databases were acquired and screened by coders to identify health-related projects, which were then categorized according to the 47 divisions of the EU Health Portal (N = 2728 projects) plus an extra group of 'basic/biotech' projects (N = 1743). Country participation and coordination rates for projects were also analyzed. Approximately 20% of the 26 946 projects (value €29.2bn) were health-related (N = 4756. Value €6.04bn). Within the health categories, the largest expenditures were cancer (11.9%), 'other' (i.e. not mental health or cardiovascular) non-communicable diseases (9.5%) and food safety (9.4%). One hundred thirty-two countries participated in these projects. Of the 27 EU countries (and five partner countries), north-western and Nordic states acquired more projects per capita. The UK led coordination with > 20% of projects. EU-12 countries were generally under-represented for participation and coordination. Combining our findings with the associated literature, we comment on drivers determining distribution of participation and funds across countries and subject areas. Additionally, we discuss changes needed in the core EU projects database to provide greater transparency, data exploitation and return on investment in health research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Transferability of Data Related to the Underground Test Area Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2004-06-24

    This document is the collaborative effort of the members of an ad hoc subcommittee of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Technical Working Group (TWG). The UGTA Project relies on data from a variety of sources; therefore, a process is needed to identify relevant factors for determining whether material-property data collected from other areas can be used to support groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and other models within a Corrective Action Unit (CAU), and for documenting the data transfer decision and process. This document describes the overall data transfer process. Separate Parameter Descriptions will be prepared that provide information for selected specific parameters as determined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) UGTA Project Manager. This document and its accompanying appendices do not provide the specific criteria to be used for transfer of data for specific uses. Rather, the criteria will be established by separate parameter-specific and model-specific Data Transfer Protocols. The CAU Data Documentation Packages and data analysis reports will apply the protocols and provide or reference a document with the data transfer evaluations and decisions.

  14. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  15. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  16. Key role of the dopamine D4 receptor in the modulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Quiroz, César; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Tanda, Gianluigi; Ferré, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the functional role of the D4 receptor and the functional differences of the products of DRD4 polymorphic variants remained enigmatic. Immunohistochemical and optogenetic-microdialysis experiments were performed in knock-in mice expressing a D4 receptor with the long intracellular domain of a human DRD4 polymorphic variant associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When compared with the wild-type mouse D4 receptor, the expanded intracellular domain of the humanized D4 receptor conferred a gain of function, blunting methamphetamine-induced cortical activation and optogenetic and methamphetamine-induced corticostriatal glutamate release. The results demonstrate a key role of the D4 receptor in the modulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, these data imply that enhanced D4 receptor–mediated dopaminergic control of corticostriatal transmission constitutes a vulnerability factor of ADHD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:28097219

  17. Key role of the dopamine D4 receptor in the modulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Quiroz, César; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Tanda, Gianluigi; Ferré, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the functional role of the D4 receptor and the functional differences of the products of DRD4 polymorphic variants remained enigmatic. Immunohistochemical and optogenetic-microdialysis experiments were performed in knock-in mice expressing a D4 receptor with the long intracellular domain of a human DRD4 polymorphic variant associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When compared with the wild-type mouse D4 receptor, the expanded intracellular domain of the humanized D4 receptor conferred a gain of function, blunting methamphetamine-induced cortical activation and optogenetic and methamphetamine-induced corticostriatal glutamate release. The results demonstrate a key role of the D4 receptor in the modulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, these data imply that enhanced D4 receptor-mediated dopaminergic control of corticostriatal transmission constitutes a vulnerability factor of ADHD and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Decreased digit ratio (2D:4D) and gastric cancer in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Youjing; Qian, Wenli; Wang, Lu; Huo, Zhenghao; Lu, Hong; Yu, Haochen; Geng, Zhi; Cheng, Ping

    2016-12-01

    The development of finger length is influenced by the level of hormones during pregnancy in the womb. The relative length of 2nd to 4th digit (2D:4D) is considered as a putative marker for prenatal hormone exposure and may represent an individual susceptibility to certain diseases, particularly those hormone-related cancers (e.g., gastric cancer). The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a possible relationship between 2D:4D ratio and gastric cancer (GCA) in Chinese men. 94 male patients with GCA and 91 controls were chosen to participate in this study. Photographs of both hands were collected and then the lengths of second and fourth digits of both hands were measured. Left hand, right hand, mean hand, and right minus left hand (∆R-L) 2D:4D ratios were analyzed and compared. In GCA group, 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower (right hand: p<0.01; left hand, mean hand: p<0.001) than controls. No association was observed between 2D:4D ratio and tumor staging (neither in tumor size (T) nor in lymph node involvement (N) or distant metastases (M)). There was also no correlation between 2D:4D ratio and age of onset. Decreased 2D:4D ratio may be an indicator for forecasting the susceptibility to develop GCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in a Chinese population of Han ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Ma, Zhanbing; Wang, Lu; Huo, Zhenghao; Lu, Hong; Zhao, Junli; Qian, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    In humans, the relative lengths of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait which correlated with prenatal sex steroids and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal hormone exposure in some traits, such as physical performance. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one potent index of physical ability and its relationship with 2D:4D ratio has been discussed in several ethnic groups. To investigate whether there is a correlation between 2D:4D ratio and HGS in Chinese college students of Ningxia Han ethnicity. 608 students (211 males and 397 females) of Han ethnicity were recruited from Ningxia medical university. Photocopies and HGS of both hands were collected at Yinchuan city, in the Ningxia province of China. Sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D and HGS were found, males had significantly lower 2D:4D and greater HGS than females. 2D:4D in both hands were significantly negative correlated with HGS in females and not in males. 2D:4D ratio is negative correlated with HGS in a Chinese population of Ningxia Han ethnicity and this association should be considered on the anthropological research within an evolutionary concept in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Finger length ratios (2D:4D) in anthropoids implicate reduced prenatal androgens in social bonding.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Shultz, Susanne

    2010-03-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a biomarker reflecting prenatal androgen effects (PAE), such that individuals with lower ratios have experienced higher PAE than those with higher ratios. 2D:4D has been correlated with a number of sex-linked traits in humans such as aggression, promiscuity, and competitiveness. In addition, polygynous societies reportedly have lower 2D:4D (higher PAE) than more monogamous populations. This evidence suggests that PAE may be implicated in the development of sexually selected behaviors in humans. To place 2D:4D research into a broader context, we test the relationship between digit ratios and behavior across nonhuman anthropoids; polygynous species, with higher levels of intrasexual competition, should have more pronounced markers of PAE (lower 2D:4D) than pair-bonded species. Our results accord with those found in humans: 2D:4D is lower in polygynous species and higher (lower PAE) in pair-bonded species. Old World monkeys have low, and relatively invariant 2D:4D (high PAE), which is coupled with high levels of intrasexual competition. This contrasts with higher and more variable ratios in both great apes and New World monkeys. In addition, both male and female ratios decrease with increasing levels of intrasexual competition. Human ratios are intermediate between pair-bonded and more promiscuous hominoids. We propose that PAE may be involved in promoting species characteristic social behavior in anthropoids.

  1. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in Indian swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, H H; Veena, Umesh B; Tejaswi, R Nadig

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that achievement in sports is correlated with a putative measure of prenatal testosterone the 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D). It has been shown that digit ratio (2D:4D) is negatively associated with prenatal testosterone, and it is also negatively associated with ability in sports. This study examined associations between 2D:4D and performance of both male and female National level Indian swimmers. Age matched non-sports personnel formed the control. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured after scanning both hands and their ratio calculated. Our results show lower 2D:4D values in males compared to females (P < 0.05). Among male, but not female, swimmers had significantly (P < 0.05) lower 2D:4D ratio. Low 2D:4D in male swimmers suggests they are more prenatally programmed via long-lasting extra genital effects of testosterone. 2D:4D ratio could be used to identify young sports personnel who have potential to reach high levels of performance.

  2. Long-range projection neurons of the mouse ventral tegmental area: a single-cell axon tracing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aransay, Ana; Rodríguez-López, Claudia; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco; Prensa, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Pathways arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) release dopamine and other neurotransmitters during the expectation and achievement of reward, and are regarded as central links of the brain networks that create drive, pleasure, and addiction. While the global pattern of VTA projections is well-known, the actual axonal wiring of individual VTA neurons had never been investigated. Here, we labeled and analyzed the axons of 30 VTA single neurons by means of single-cell transfection with the Sindbis-pal-eGFP vector in mice. These observations were complemented with those obtained by labeling the axons of small populations of VTA cells with iontophoretic microdeposits of biotinylated dextran amine. In the single-cell labeling experiments, each entire axonal tree was reconstructed from serial sections, the length of terminal axonal arbors was estimated by stereology, and the dopaminergic phenotype was tested by double-labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence. We observed two main, markedly different VTA cell morphologies: neurons with a single main axon targeting only forebrain structures (FPN cells), and neurons with multibranched axons targeting both the forebrain and the brainstem (F + BSPN cells). Dopaminergic phenotype was observed in FPN cells. Moreover, four “subtypes” could be distinguished among the FPN cells based on their projection targets: (1) “Mesocorticolimbic” FPN projecting to both neocortex and basal forebrain; (2) “Mesocortical” FPN innervating the neocortex almost exclusively; (3) “Mesolimbic” FPN projecting to the basal forebrain, accumbens and caudateputamen; and (4) “Mesostriatal” FPN targeting only the caudateputamen. While the F + BSPN cells were scattered within VTA, the mesolimbic neurons were abundant in the paranigral nucleus. The observed diversity in wiring architectures is consistent with the notion that different VTA cell subpopulations modulate the activity of specific sets of prosencephalic and

  3. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Project Overview with Analysis of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Barnard 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Looney, Leslie W.; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Plunkett, Adele L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; Kauffmann, Jens; Tassis, Konstantinos; Crutcher, Richard M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s-1. We imaged ~150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N2H+ shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO+ and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N2H+ velocity dispersions ranging from ~0.05 to 0.50 km s-1 across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N2H+ position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  4. Comparison Of Downscaled CMIP5 Precipitation Datasets For Projecting Changes In Extreme Precipitation In The San Francisco Bay Area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Rath, John; Mills, William; Roy, Sujoy; Thrasher, Bridget; Wang, Weile; Chiang, Felicia; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James

    2014-01-01

    Water resource managers planning for the adaptation to future events of extreme precipitation now have access to high resolution downscaled daily projections derived from statistical bias correction and constructed analogs. We also show that along the Pacific Coast the Northern Oscillation Index (NOI) is a reliable predictor of storm likelihood, and therefore a predictor of seasonal precipitation totals and likelihood of extremely intense precipitation. Such time series can be used to project intensity duration curves into the future or input into stormwater models. However, few climate projection studies have explored the impact of the type of downscaling method used on the range and uncertainty of predictions for local flood protection studies. Here we present a study of the future climate flood risk at NASA Ames Research Center, located in South Bay Area, by comparing the range of predictions in extreme precipitation events calculated from three sets of time series downscaled from CMIP5 data: 1) the Bias Correction Constructed Analogs method dataset downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid (12km); 2) the Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation method downscaled to a 1km grid; 3) a statistical model of extreme daily precipitation events and projected NOI from CMIP5 models. In addition, predicted years of extreme precipitation are used to estimate the risk of overtopping of the retention pond located on the site through simulations of the EPA SWMM hydrologic model. Preliminary results indicate that the intensity of extreme precipitation events is expected to increase and flood the NASA Ames retention pond. The results from these estimations will assist flood protection managers in planning for infrastructure adaptations.

  5. Projections of the hand field of the macaque ventral premotor area F5 to the brainstem and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Borra, Elena; Belmalih, Abdelouahed; Gerbella, Marzio; Rozzi, Stefano; Luppino, Giuseppe

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we first assessed that the hand motor field of the macaque ventral premotor area F5, involved in visuomotor control of hand actions, is connected to both the hand field of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the spinal cord. We then injected retroanterograde tracers in this field to completely illustrate its possible descending motor projections. In the brainstem the F5 hand motor field projects to the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC) and to sectors of the mesencephalic, pontine, and bulbar reticular formation, which are the sources of spinal projections. In the spinal cord, labeled terminals were virtually all confined to the C2-T1 segments, mostly contralaterally. At C6-T1 levels the labeling was weaker and mostly clustered laterally in the intermediate zone. At C2-C5 levels, labeled terminals were much denser and diffusely distributed over the mid-dorsal part of the intermediate zone where a propriospinal system that directly controls hand muscle motoneurons and mediates commands for the control of dexterous finger movements is located (Isa et al. [2007] Physiology 22:145-152). Thus, the F5 hand motor field has a weaker direct access and a stronger indirect access to spinal segments where hand muscle motoneurons are located, suggesting a role of this field in the generation and control of hand movements not only at the M1 level, but also at the spinal cord level. These projections may represent the neural substrate for the F5 hand motor field's role in the recovery of manual dexterity after M1 lesions.

  6. Floating substrate process: Large-area silicon sheet task low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, M.; Hall, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    Supercooling of silicon-tin alloy melts was studied. Values as high as 78 C at 1100 C and 39 C at 1200 C were observed, corresponding to supersaturation parameter values 0.025 and 0.053 at 1050 C and 1150 C, respectively. The interaction of tin with silane gas streams was investigated over the temperature range 1000 to 1200 C. Single-pass conversion efficiencies exceeding 30% were obtained. The growth habit of spontaneously-nucleated surface growth was determined to be consistent with dendritic and web growth from singly-twinned triangular nucleii. Surface growth of interlocking silicon crystals, thin enough to follow the surface of the liquid and with growth velocity as high as 5 mm/min, was obtained. Large area single-crystal growth along the melt surface was not achieved. Small single-crystal surface growth was obtained which did not propagate beyond a few millimeters.

  7. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  8. Comparison of digit ratio (2D:4D) between Brazilian men with and without prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendes, P H C; Martelli, D R B; de Melo Costa, S; Gonçalves, E; Macedo, C P; Silveira, M F; Martelli Júnior, H

    2016-03-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) has been suggested as a proxy biomarker for prenatal androgen activity and has been linked to prostate cancer, as the genes that regulate the formation and differentiation of the fingers are also related to the carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. To investigate the possible correlation between right hand, left hand and right hand minus left hand (DR-L) 2D:4D and prostate cancer of Brazilian subjects by comparing 2D:4D ratios of individuals diagnosed with prostate cancer and individuals without the disease. Also, to inquire the relationship between 2D:4D and severity of prostate cancer through Gleason scores. Digital measurements of the lengths of the index and ring fingers of both hands of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCA group, n=100) and healthy control individuals (n=100) were obtained using a digital vernier caliper. Means of the 2D:4D ratios were compared. Data were analyzed by the Student's t-test for unpaired samples, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation with a significance level of 5%. The PCA group presented significantly lower right and left 2D:4D (P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively) in comparison to healthy controls, but DR-L were not significantly different between groups (P=0.589). In addition, digit ratios were not correlated to Gleason score for either hand or in DR-L. 2D:4D seems to be a marker for screening patients for prostate cancer in an admixed population, as males with prostate cancer present lower 2D:4D than healthy subjects. On the other hand, 2D:4D does not appear to be associated with the severity of prostate cancer.

  9. Is maternal periconceptional smoking associated with 2D:4D digit ratio in their children?

    PubMed

    Velez, M P; Arbuckle, T E; Monnier, P; Fraser, W D

    2017-05-23

    The 2nd--4th finger ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a potential indicator of greater androgen exposure during fetal development. Maternal periconceptional smoking may alter the homeostasis of fetal androgens, which could in turn result in differential development of 2D:4Ds in utero. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of maternal periconceptional smoking (i.e. 1 year before through the first trimester of pregnancy) on the 2D:4D of children within The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study. Maternal smoking history was obtained through questionnaires during the first trimester of pregnancy in 2001 women from 10 cities across Canada. The periconceptional smoking prevalence was 12%. A follow-up study was conducted to measure growth and development up to 5 years of age in a subsample of some 800 MIREC children (MIREC-CD Plus), and digital pictures of the ventral surface of both hands were obtained in mothers and children (2-5 years). The 2D:4D was calculated as the ratio of the 2nd and 4th fingers of each hand. Boys had lower mean 2D:4Ds compared with girls in both hands. Age and maternal 2D:4D were strong determinants of the children's 2D:4D, however, the mean 2D:4D did not differ among children whose mothers had smoked during the periconceptional period compared with those who had not, irrespective of sex. In conclusion, we did not find an association between maternal periconceptional smoking and children's 2D:4D, although the smoking prevalence was low.

  10. Modified inverse micelle synthesis for mesoporous alumina with a high D4 siloxane adsorption capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei; Jiang, Ting; Jafari, Tahereh; Poyraz, Altug S.; Wu, Wei; Kriz, David A.; Du, Shoucheng; Biswas, Sourav; Thompson Pettes, Michael; Suib, Steven L.

    2016-10-18

    In this work, mesoporous aluminas (MAs) with uniform and monomodal pores were fabricated via a modified inverse micelle synthesis method, using a non-polar solvent (to minimize the effect of water content) and short reaction time (for a fast evaporation process). The effects of reaction times (4–8 h), surfactant chain lengths (non-ionic surfactants), and calcination temperatures and hold times (450–600 °C; 1–4 h) on the textural properties of MA were studied. Additionally, the targeted pore sizes of MA were obtained in the range of 3.1–5.4 nm by adjusting the surfactant and reaction time. The surface area and pore volume were controlled by the calcination temperature and hold time while maintaining the thermal stability of the materials. The tuned MA of the large mesopore volume achieved 168 mg/g octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4 siloxane) adsorption capacity, a 32% improvement compared to commercially activated alumina. Finally, after three adsorption recycles, the synthesized MA still maintained approximate 85% of its original adsorption capacity, demonstrating a sustainable adsorption performance and high potential for related industrial applications.

  11. Modified inverse micelle synthesis for mesoporous alumina with a high D4 siloxane adsorption capacity

    DOE PAGES

    Zhong, Wei; Jiang, Ting; Jafari, Tahereh; ...

    2016-10-18

    In this work, mesoporous aluminas (MAs) with uniform and monomodal pores were fabricated via a modified inverse micelle synthesis method, using a non-polar solvent (to minimize the effect of water content) and short reaction time (for a fast evaporation process). The effects of reaction times (4–8 h), surfactant chain lengths (non-ionic surfactants), and calcination temperatures and hold times (450–600 °C; 1–4 h) on the textural properties of MA were studied. Additionally, the targeted pore sizes of MA were obtained in the range of 3.1–5.4 nm by adjusting the surfactant and reaction time. The surface area and pore volume were controlledmore » by the calcination temperature and hold time while maintaining the thermal stability of the materials. The tuned MA of the large mesopore volume achieved 168 mg/g octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4 siloxane) adsorption capacity, a 32% improvement compared to commercially activated alumina. Finally, after three adsorption recycles, the synthesized MA still maintained approximate 85% of its original adsorption capacity, demonstrating a sustainable adsorption performance and high potential for related industrial applications.« less

  12. EUROSEISMOS 2002-2003 a project for saving and studying historical seismograms in the Eeuro-mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, G.; Pino, N. A.

    2003-04-01

    The study of the great earthquakes and the analysis of their tectonic significance are very important elements in the evaluation of seismic potential, seismic hazard and risk. The analysis of the seismograms of historical earthquakes plays a crucial role in understanding the patterns of deformation energy release, the characteristics of propagation and interaction of the seismic waves with the inhabited areas, in the areas affected by these events. The recovery and reproduction of historical seismograms and the indispensable information contained therein, on the instruments that recorded them and their related characteristics, often become difficult and laborious operations that deprive research of a disproportionate amount of human and economic resources in relation to the objective complexity of the matter. These difficulties have so far much reduced the number of study cases and have been a disincentive to researchers interested in dealing with this important research strand. In order to overcome these difficulties the EUROSEISMOS has been started up (http://80.117.141.2/Es_web); this is a project for collaboration between researchers and research bodies having a long tradition of seismic monitoring, with the following main objectives: 1) the recovery, with the reproduction at the SISMOS centre of the INGV, of the seismograms of the most important historical earthquakes (1895 1980) in the Euro-Mediterranean area in the 20th century; 2) benchmarking of experiences on the processing of seismographic historical data; 3) creation of a permanent workgroup on these aspects. So far 29 researchers belonging to 26 countries from Finland to Algeria, and from Georgia to Portugal, have joined the project. The approximately 300 earthquakes of primary interest for the researchers involved have been collected in a catalogue, and early in 2003 the first reproductions of seismograms were started.

  13. Neural correlates of inhibitory control and functional genetic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Richard C.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Reiersen, Angela M.; Parra, Andres S.; Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been implicated in psychiatric disorders in which deficits of self-regulation are a prominent feature (e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders) and in dopamine D4 receptor insensitivity within prefrontal regions of the brain. Our hypothesis was that carriers of 7-repeats in the Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) of DRD4 (7R+) would recruit prefrontal brain regions involved in successful inhibitory control to a lesser degree than non-carriers (7R−) and demonstrate less inhibitory control as confirmed by observation of locally reduced blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) % signal change and lower accuracy while performing “No-Go” trials of a Go/No-Go task. Methods Participants (age=18, n=62, 33 females) were recruited from the general population of the St. Louis, Missouri region. Participants provided a blood or saliva sample for genotyping, completed drug and alcohol-related questionnaires and IQ testing, and performed a Go/No-Go task inside of a 3T fMRI scanner. Results Go/No-Go task performance did not significantly differ between 7R+ and 7R− groups. Contrast of brain activity during correct “No-Go” trials with a non-target letter baseline revealed significant BOLD activation in a network of brain regions previously implicated in inhibitory control including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, middle frontal, medial prefrontal, subcortical, parietal/temporal, and occipital/cerebellar brain regions. Mean BOLD % signal change during “No-Go” trials was significantly modulated by DRD4 genotype, with 7R+ showing a lower hemodynamic response than 7R− in right anterior prefrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, left premotor cortex, and right occipital/cerebellar areas. Follow-up analyses suggested that 7-repeat status accounted for approximately 5–6% of the variance in the BOLD response during “No-Go” trials. Discussion The DRD4 7

  14. Ratio of total traction force to projected cell area is preserved in differentiating adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Abuhattum, Shada; Gefen, Amit; Weihs, Daphne

    2015-10-01

    During obesity development, preadipocytes proliferate and differentiate into new mature adipocytes, to increase the storage capacity of triglycerides. The morphology of the cells changes during differentiation from an elongated spindle-shape preadipocyte into a rounded, differentiated adipocyte. That change allows efficient packing of spheroidal (triglyceride) lipid droplets in the cells, also reducing their ability to proliferate and migrate. The change in preadipocyte morphology is well known. However, little is known about the dynamic mechanical interactions of the cells with their microenvironment, and specifically the forces applied by the cells during and following differentiation. In this study, we evaluated changes in the morphology concurrently with the magnitude and location of forces applied by the cells onto a compliant gel-substrate. We found that the elongated preadipocytes applied forces concentrated at the poles of the cell, yet during differentiation the forces become more uniformly distributed around the cell and mostly at its perimeter. Furthermore, we observed that the total traction force per cell area is preserved, remaining essentially unchanged between preadipocytes and differentiated cells 3-14 days post-differentiation. At differentiation times longer than 8 days we also observed an increasing subset of cells that indent the gels, as opposed to merely applying horizontal traction forces. Our work provides insights into the dynamic mechanobiology of the adipogenesis process.

  15. Interim Report: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection - 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Richards, Emily L.; Butler, Bart C.; Parker, Kent E.; Glovack, Julia N.; Burton, Sarah D.; Baum, Steven R.; Clayton, Eric T.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.

    2007-07-31

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to treat aqueous uranium within the 300 Area aquifer of the Hanford site. The general treatability testing approach consists of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, in order to develop an effective chemical formulation for the polyphosphate amendments and evaluate the transport properties of these amendments under site conditions. Phosphorus-31 (31P) NMR was utilized to determine the effects of Hanford groundwater and sediment on the degradation of inorganic phosphates. Static batch tests were conducted to optimize the composition of the polyphosphate formulation for the precipitation of apatite and autunite, as well as to quantify the kinetics, loading and stability of apatite as a long-term sorbent for uranium. Dynamic column tests were used to further optimize the polyphosphate formulation for emplacement within the subsurface and the formation of autunite and apatite. In addition, dynamic testing quantified the stability of autunite and apatite under relevant site conditions. Results of this investigation provide valuable information for designing a full-scale remediation of uranium in the 300 aquifer.

  16. Tephrostratigraphy of the Waki-Mille area of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological research project, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Beverly Z; Angelini, Joshua; Deino, Alan; Alene, Mulugeta; Fournelle, John H; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2016-04-01

    Tephra geochemistry and (40)Ar/(39)Ar geochronology are reported for the Waki-Mille area in the northwestern part of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological project area in the west central Afar region of Ethiopia. Previous studies documented dentognathic fossils that are morphologically intermediate between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis and some that are attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. Additional dentognathic remains from the study area were assigned to the newly identified species Australopithecus deyiremeda. These fossil hominin taxa were recovered from volcanic and sedimentary strata containing tuffs ranging in age from more than 3.77 million years ago (Ma) to less than 3.469 Ma. One of the tuffs was correlated based on geochemistry, feldspar mineralogy, and age to the Lokochot Tuff of the Omo-Turkana Basin of southern Ethiopia and Kenya. Variations in major and minor element abundances in volcanic glass demarcate ten geochemically distinct tuffs and tuff sequences, including three that are geochemically similar to widespread regional tuffs, specifically the Lomogol, Lokochot, and β- Tulu Bor/Sidi Hakoma tuffs. A new (40)Ar/(39)Ar age for the Waki Tuff, which is geochemically similar to the Lomogol Tuff, is 3.664 ± 0.016 Ma. Other tuffs in the Waki-Mille area are geochemically dissimilar to regional tuffs documented to date. Identification of tuffs based on character, stratigraphic position, and geochemistry refines local stratigraphic correlations and delineates the geographic distributions of precisely dated fossiliferous levels within the Waki-Mille area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  18. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  19. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  20. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.