Science.gov

Sample records for area d4 project

  1. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2007 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of twenty buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  2. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2008 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of eighteen buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site that were demolished in Fiscal Year 2008. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  3. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2009 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Skwarek

    2010-01-27

    This report summarizes the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition activities of seven facilities in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in fiscal year 2009. The D4 of these facilities included characterization; engineering; removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials; equipment removal; utility disconnection; deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure; and stabilization or removal of slabs and foundations. This report also summarizes the nine below-grade slabs/foundations removed in FY09 of buildings demolished in previous fiscal years.

  4. 300 Area D4 Project 1st Quarter Fiscal Year 2006 Building Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Smith

    2006-04-20

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of the MO-052, 3225, 334, 334A, and 334-TF Buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation as appropriate.

  5. 100 Area D4 Project Building Completion Report - July 2007 to December 2008

    SciTech Connect

    M. T. Stankovich

    2009-04-15

    This report documents the decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of the 105-NB, 163-N, 183-N, 183-NA, 183-NB, 183-NC, 184-N, 184-NA, 184-NB, 184-NC, 184-ND, 184-NE, 184-NF, 1312-N, 1330-N, 1705-N, 1705-NA, 1706-N, 1712-N, 1714-N, 1714-NA, 1714-NB, 1802-N, MO-050, MO-055, MO-358, MO-390, MO-900, MO-911, and MO-950 facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 activities for these facilities include utility disconnection, planning, characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiological contaminated materials, equipment removal, decommissioning, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and removal of the remaining slabs.

  6. 100 Area D4 Project Building Completion Report May 2006 - June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    E. G. Ison

    2007-07-25

    This report documents the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) and the demolition of the 153-N, 1515-N, 1516-N, 1517-N, 1518-N, 1519-N, 1331-N, 1332-N, and 181-NC facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The D&D and demolition of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and removal of the remaining slabs.

  7. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  8. EarthServer - an FP7 project to enable the web delivery and analysis of 3D/4D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, John; Sen, Marcus; Passmore, James

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer aims at open access and ad-hoc analytics on big Earth Science data, based on the OGC geoservice standards Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The WCS model defines "coverages" as a unifying paradigm for multi-dimensional raster data, point clouds, meshes, etc., thereby addressing a wide range of Earth Science data including 3D/4D models. WCPS allows declarative SQL-style queries on coverages. The project is developing a pilot implementing these standards, and will also investigate the use of GeoSciML to describe coverages. Integration of WCPS with XQuery will in turn allow coverages to be queried in combination with their metadata and GeoSciML description. The unified service will support navigation, extraction, aggregation, and ad-hoc analysis on coverage data from SQL. Clients will range from mobile devices to high-end immersive virtual reality, and will enable 3D model visualisation using web browser technology coupled with developing web standards. EarthServer is establishing open-source client and server technology intended to be scalable to Petabyte/Exabyte volumes, based on distributed processing, supercomputing, and cloud virtualization. Implementation will be based on the existing rasdaman server technology developed. Services using rasdaman technology are being installed serving the atmospheric, oceanographic, geological, cryospheric, planetary and general earth observation communities. The geology service (http://earthserver.bgs.ac.uk/) is being provided by BGS and at present includes satellite imagery, superficial thickness data, onshore DTMs and 3D models for the Glasgow area. It is intended to extend the data sets available to include 3D voxel models. Use of the WCPS standard allows queries to be constructed against single or multiple coverages. For example on a single coverage data for a particular area can be selected or data with a particular range of pixel values. Queries on multiple surfaces can be

  9. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Angie; Bertjens, Steve; Lieurance, Mike; Berguson, Bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  10. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  11. Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Cox, J.D.; Beard, T.; Ruhl, S.; Bearden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish global modeling in the raster domain, but recent research has indicated that the transformation of large areas through map projection equations leads to errors. This research attempts to gauge the extent of map projection and resampling effects on the tabulation of categorical areas by comparing the results of three datasets for seven common projections. The datasets, Global Land Cover, Holdridge Life Zones, and Global Vegetation, were compiled at resolutions of 30 arc-second, 1/2 degree, and 1 degree, respectively. These datasets were projected globally from spherical coordinates to plane representations. Results indicate significant problems in the implementation of global projection transformations in commercial software, as well as differences in areal accuracy across projections. The level of raster resolution directly affects the accuracy of areal tabulations, with higher resolution yielding higher accuracy. If the raster resolution is high enough for individual pixels to approximate points, the areal error tends to zero. The 30-arc-second cells appear to approximate this condition.

  12. CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL SCHOOL, AS PROPOSED BY THE PROJECT, ARE LISTED. FIVE AREAS OF SCHOOL OPERATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--(1) MULTIPLE CLASSES, INCLUDING SUPERVISED CORRESPONDENCE COURSES, (2) FLEXIBLE SCHEDULES, (3) USE OF SCHOOL AIDES, (4) USES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION, AND (5) SHARED SERVICES AND TALENTED YOUTH. A MAP LOCATING THE…

  13. Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katherine M.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Simon, Ryan R.

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4. PMID:22870201

  14. New equal-area map projections for noncircular regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, John P.

    1988-01-01

    A series of new equal-area map projections has been devised. Called Oblated Equal-Area, its lines of constant distortion follow approximately oval or rectangular paths instead of the circles of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection or the straight lines of the Cylindrical Equal-Area projection. The projection series permits design of equal-area maps of oblong regions with less overall distortion of shape and scale than equal-area maps on other projections.

  15. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. . Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  16. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  17. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site Characterization

  18. 78 FR 63481 - Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... exchange of regulated study data, and (2) issuing a notice in the August 14, 2012 Federal Register (77 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project...

  19. Greater Milwaukee Metropolitan Area Career Education Project. Phase 3 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    The third report of the greater Milwaukee area career education project documents the phase 3 activities and accomplishments of the project, from October 1974 to July 1975. The following objectives were accomplished. Contact persons have been established in each district to promote career education. Three one-week workshops, two adult career…

  20. First concept for a tropical area monitoring project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The first concept of a tropical area monitoring project is presented. The project would develop an operational system capable of monitoring land areas by machine processing of satellite data. LANDSAT images would be processed within a controlled isolable unit to detect changes in forest cover, rangeland, soil integrity, and other factors important to conservation of tropical ecology. An introductory developmental effort is described to demonstrate the use of LANDSAT data in this application. The independent unit, which functions as a user organization within the development project, assures that the technology will be transferable to a user organization through well defined, easily monitored interfaces with the rest of the world.

  1. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some partsmore » of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.« less

  2. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-01

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land-atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.

  3. Area 5 Site characterization project report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, W.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.; Estrella, R.

    1994-09-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research institute (DRI) has conducted this study for the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Waste Management Division (WMD). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization Project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from borehole samples through September 1994. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, and soil water extract isotope analyses.

  4. Significant linkage disequilibrium between the Huntington disease gene and the loci D4S10 and D4S95 in the Dutch population

    SciTech Connect

    Skraastad, M.I.; Van de Vosse, E.; Belfroid, R.; Hoeld, K.; Vegter-van der Vlis, M.; Bakker, E.; van Ommen, G.J.B. ); Sandkuijl, L.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Significant linkage disequilibrium has been found between the Huntington disease (HD) gene and DNA markers located around D4S95 and D4S98. The linkage-disequilibrium studies favor the proximal location of the HD gene, in contrast to the conflicting results of recombination analyses. The authors have analyzed 45 Dutch HD families with 19 DNA markers and have calculated the strength of linkage disequilibrium. Highly significant linkage disequilibrium has been detected with D4S95, consistent with the studies in other populations. In contrast with most other studies, however, the area of linkage disequilibrium extends from D4S10 proximally to D4S95, covering 1,100 kb. These results confirm that the HD gene most likely maps near D4S95. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Overview to northwest of entire project area, from the communications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview to northwest of entire project area, from the communications tower. At farthest left is warehouse A-141. Warehouse A-199 and magazine A-210 are just left of center, and the fresh water tanks are in the right distance. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine, Corbett Road, southwest end of Kieper Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Bridging Disciplines with the Riparian Area Management Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerill, Kristan M.; Titus, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Faculty at Columbia University's Earth Semester created the interdisciplinary Riparian Area Management Project to help students integrate information and skills from life sciences, geosciences, social sciences, and humanities focused coursework. Structured as a "consulting" contract, students were required to make a policy recommendation utilizing…

  7. Westside Area Career Occupations Project. Evaluation Report 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glur, John

    Evaluation of the Westside Area Career Occupations Project (WACOP) focused on (1) examining what aspects of the Arizona career education effort had the most significant impact on students, and (2) measuring specific outcomes related to the students' knowledge about the world of work, using the Arizona Careers Test. System implementation and…

  8. Foreign Language/Area Studies Enhancement Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felker, William; Fuller, Clark

    The Foreign Language/Area Studies Enhancement Program at Central State University (Ohio) is an experience-centered work and study program in Africa designed to give students training in language, culture, and technology. It parallels and supports the university's northern Senegal water management project designed to promote self-sufficiency among…

  9. Metacridamide B methanol-d4 monosolvate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The title compound was extracted from conidia of the fungus Metarhizium acridum. Crystals were obtained as a methanol-d4 solvate. The tail part of the 4-methylhexan-2-yl group exhibits disorder over two positions, with an occupancy ratio of 0.682 (9):0.318 (9). The crystal structure confirms the abs...

  10. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of...

  11. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of...

  12. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of...

  13. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of...

  14. 42 CFR 52d.4 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.4 Application. (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall be... Director, NCI, may prescribe. 1 Applications and instructions are available from the Division of...

  15. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  16. Analytical technique for satellite projected cross-sectional area calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yaacov, Ohad; Edlerman, Eviatar; Gurfil, Pini

    2015-07-01

    Calculating the projected cross-sectional area (PCSA) of a satellite along a given direction is essential for implementing attitude control modes such as Sun pointing or minimum-drag. The PCSA may also be required for estimating the forces and torques induced by atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure. This paper develops a new analytical method for calculating the PCSA, the concomitant torques and the satellite exposed surface area, based on the theory of convex polygons. A scheme for approximating the outer surface of any satellite by polygons is developed. Then, a methodology for calculating the projections of the polygons along a given vector is employed. The methodology also accounts for overlaps among projections, and is capable of providing the true PCSA in a computationally-efficient manner. Using the Space Autonomous Mission for Swarming and Geo-locating Nanosatellites mechanical model, it is shown that the new analytical method yields accurate results, which are similar to results obtained from alternative numerical tools.

  17. /D=4, /N=1 orientifolds with vector structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Rabadán, R.

    2001-02-01

    We construct compact type IIB orientifolds with discrete groups Z4, Z6, Z6' , Z8, Z12 and Z12' . These models are N=1 supersymmetric in D=4 and have vector structure. The possibility of having vector structure in ZN orientifolds with even N arises due to an alternative Ω-projection in the twisted sectors. Some of the models without vector structure are known to be inconsistent because of uncancelled tadpoles. We show that vector structure leads to a sign flip in the twisted Klein bottle contribution. As a consequence, all the tadpoles can be cancelled by introducing D9-branes and D5-branes.

  18. WIMS-D4M user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L.; Costescu, C.I.

    1995-07-01

    The Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS) code has been used extensively throughout the world for power and research reactor lattice physics analysis. There are many WIMS versions currently in use. The D4 version selected by the RERTR program was originally developed in 1980). It was chosen for the accurate lattice physics capability and an unrestricted distribution privilege. The code and its 69-group library tape 166259 generated in Winfrith were obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) in 1992. Since that time the RERTR program has added three important features. The first was the capability to generate up to 20 broad-group bumup-dependent macroscopic or microscopic ISOTXS cross sections for each composition of the unit cell, a new ENDF/B-V based nuclear data library, and a new Supercell option. As a result of these modifications and other minor ones, the code is now named WIMS-D4M. A supplementary reference guide can be obtained from the RSIC that contains detailed explanations of all user options, library contents, along with several sample problems. Primary applications of WIMS for research reactor modeling do not require an extensive knowledge of all WIMS user options. This user guide is primarily addressed to the needs of the research reactor community although the code can be used for most thermal reactor lattices. The guide is written based on the experience of the RERTR staff with WIMS-D4M and will discuss only the most needed options for research reactor analyses.

  19. Dopaminergic projections to the medial preoptic area of postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephanie M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activity in the rodent medial preoptic area (mPOA) is crucial for the display of maternal behaviors, as well as numerous other physiological and behavioral functions. However, the origin of dopaminergic input to the mPOA has not been identified through neuroanatomical tracing. To accomplish this, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold was iontophoretically applied to the mPOA of postpartum laboratory rats, and dual-label immunocytochemistry for Fluorogold and tyrosine hydroxylase later performed to identify dopaminergic cells of the forebrain and midbrain projecting to the mPOA. Results indicate that the number of dopaminergic cells projecting to the mPOA is moderate (~90 cells to one hemisphere), and that these cells have an unexpectedly wide distribution. Even so, more than half of the dual-labeled cells were found in what has been considered extensions of the A10 dopamine group (particularly the ventrocaudal posterior hypothalamus and adjacent medial supramammillary nucleus), or in the A10 cells of the ventral tegmental area. The rostral hypothalamus and surrounding region also contained numerous dual-labeled cells, with the greatest number found within the mPOA itself (including in the AVPV and PVpo). Notably, dual-labeled cells were rare in the zona incerta (A13), a site previously suggested to provide dopaminergic input to the mPOA. This study is the first to use anatomical tracing to detail the dopaminergic projections to the mPOA in the laboratory rat, and indicates that much of this projection originates more caudally than previously suggested. PMID:19409227

  20. Area recommendation report for the crystalline repository project: An evaluation. [Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J E; Lowe, H; Yurkovich, S P

    1986-03-28

    An evaluation is given of DOE's recommendation of the Elk River complex in North Carolina for siting the second repository. Twelve recommendations are made including a strong suggestion that the Cherokee Tribe appeal both through political and legal avenues for inclusion as an affected area primarily due to projected impacts upon economy and public health as a consequence of the potential for reduced tourism.

  1. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  2. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  3. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  4. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  5. Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 447, as specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the State of Nevada, includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the PSA.

  6. Subcellular localization and regulation of StarD4 protein in macrophages and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Agudo, Daniel; Calderon-Dominguez, Maria; Ren, Shunlin; Marques, Dalila; Redford, Kaye; Medina-Torres, Miguel Angel; Hylemon, Phillip; Gil, Gregorio; Pandak, William M

    2011-10-01

    StarD4 is a member of the StarD4 subfamily of START domain proteins with a characteristic lipid binding pocket specific for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to define StarD4 subcellular localization, regulation, and function. Immunobloting showed that StarD4 is highly expressed in the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T3-L1, in human THP-1 macrophages, Kupffer cells (liver macrophages), and hepatocytes. In 3T3-L1 cells and THP-1 macrophages, StarD4 protein appeared localized to the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). More specifically, in THP-1 macrophages StarD4 co-localized to areas of the ER enriched in Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), and was closely associated with budding lipid droplets. The addition of purified StarD4 recombinant protein to an in vitro assay increased ACAT activity 2-fold, indicating that StarD4 serves as a rate-limiting step in cholesteryl ester formation by delivering cholesterol to ACAT-1-enriched ER. In addition, StarD4 protein was found to be highly regulated and to redistribute in response to sterol levels. In summary, these observations, together with our previous findings demonstrating the ability of increased StarD4 expression to increase bile acid synthesis and cholesteryl ester formation, provide strong evidence for StarD4 as a highly regulated, non-vesicular, directional, intracellular transporter of cholesterol which plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis.

  7. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  8. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  9. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  10. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  11. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  12. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  13. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  14. 76 FR 1429 - Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-154

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... through February 28, 2011. 73 FR 48382, August 19, 2008. \\3\\ WAPA-118 was approved by FERC on a final... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority--Rate Order No. WAPA-154 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Rate...

  15. Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) - Progress Report, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Haase, Jennifer L.; Moore, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Maps of surficial geology, deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard, and liquefaction potential index have been prepared by various members of the Evansville Area Earthquake Hazard Mapping Project for seven quadrangles in the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, metropolitan areas. The surficial geologic maps feature 23 types of surficial geologic deposits, artificial fill, and undifferentiated bedrock outcrop and include alluvial and lake deposits of the Ohio River valley. Probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard and liquefaction hazard mapping is made possible by drawing on a wealth of information including surficial geologic maps, water well logs, and in-situ testing profiles using the cone penetration test, standard penetration test, down-hole shear wave velocity tests, and seismic refraction tests. These data were compiled and collected with contributions from the Indiana Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois State Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey, and Purdue University. Hazard map products are in progress and are expected to be completed by the end of 2009, with a public roll out in early 2010. Preliminary results suggest that there is a 2 percent probability that peak ground accelerations of about 0.3 g will be exceeded in much of the study area within 50 years, which is similar to the 2002 USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps for a firm rock site value. Accelerations as high as 0.4-0.5 g may be exceeded along the edge of the Ohio River basin. Most of the region outside of the river basin has a low liquefaction potential index (LPI), where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 (that is, there is a high potential for liquefaction) for a M7.7 New Madrid type event is only 20-30 percent. Within the river basin, most of the region has high LPI, where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 for a New Madrid type event is 80-100 percent.

  16. Earthquake supersite project in the Messina Straits area (EQUAMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, Mario; Chiarabba, Claudio; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Faccenna, Claudio; Lanari, Riccardo; Matteuzzi, Francesco; Neri, Giancarlo; Patanè, Domenico; Polonia, Alina; Prati, Claudio; Tinti, Stefano; Zerbini, Susanna

    2015-04-01

    A new permanent supersite is going to be proposed to the GEO GSNL (Geohazard Supersites and National Laboratories) for the Messina Straits area (Italy). The justification for this new supersite can be found in its geological and geophysical features and in the exposure to strong earthquakes, also in the recent past (1908). The Messina Supersite infrastructure (EQUAMES: EarthQUAkes in the MEssina Straits) will host, and contribute to the collection of, large amounts of data, basic for the analysis of seismic hazard/risk in this high seismic risk area, including risk from earthquake-related processes such as submarine mass failures and tsunamis. In EQUAMES, data of different types will coexist with models and methods useful for their analysis/interpretation and with first-level products of analysis that can be of interest for different kinds of users. EQUAMES will help all the interested scientific and non-scientific subjects to find and use data and to increase inter-institutional cooperation by addressing the following main topics in the Messina Straits area: • investigation of the geological and physical processes leading to the earthquake preparation and generation; • analysis of seismic shaking at ground (expected and observed); • combination of seismic hazard with vulnerability and exposure data for risk estimates; • analysis of tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation deriving from earthquake occurrence also through landslides due to instability conditions of subaerial and submarine slopes; • overall risk associated to earthquake activity in the Supersite area including the different types of cascade effects Many Italian and international Institutions have shown an effective interest in this project where a large variety of geophysical and geological in-situ data will be collected and where the INGV has the leading role with its large infrastructure of seismic, GPS and geochemical permanent stations. The groups supporting EQUAMES

  17. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) deletion in mice does not affect operant responding for food or cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-22

    In this study we examined the genetic contribution of the D4R in food and cocaine self-administration using D4R mice. Mice were examined for operant responding to food pellets or intravenous cocaine. Compared to wild-type mice (D4R{sup +/+}), both heterozygous (D4R{sup +/-}) and knockout (D4R{sup -/-}) mice showed no difference in responding for food or cocaine. Our findings suggest that the D4R is not directly involved in mediating operant response behaviors for food or cocaine.

  18. The d4 gene family in the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Chestkov, A.V.; Baka, I.D.; Kost, M.V.

    1996-08-15

    The d4 domain, a novel zinc finger-like structural motif, was first revealed in the rat neuro-d4 protein. Here we demonstrate that the d4 domain is conserved in evolution and that three related genes form a d4 family in the human genome. The human neuro-d4 is very similar to rat neuro-d4 at both the amino acid and the nucleotide levels. Moreover, the same splice variants have been detected among rat and human neuro-d4 transcripts. This gene has been localized on chromosome 19, and two other genes, members of the d4 family isolated by screening of the human genomic library at low stringency, have been mapped to chromosomes 11 and 14. The gene on chromosome 11 is the homolog of the ubiquitously expressed mouse gene ubi-d4/requiem, which is required for cell death after deprivation of trophic factors. A gene with a conserved d4 domain has been found in the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The conservation of d4 proteins from nematodes to vertebrates suggests that they have a general importance, but a diversity of d4 proteins expressed in vertebrate nervous systems suggests that some family members have special functions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject`s Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria.

  20. 76 FR 5148 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... extension through February 28, 2011. 73 FR 48382, August 19, 2008. \\3\\ WAPA-118 was approved by FERC on a... Extension of Rate Order Nos. WAPA-106 and WAPA-118. 76 FR 1429, January 10, 2011. Proposed Formula Rate for... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing...

  1. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  2. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  3. Local Area Networks--The ENFI Project (Writing on the College Campus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Linda

    1989-01-01

    Describes Electronic Networks for Interaction (ENFI), a local area network project developed at Gallaudet University to empower students with hearing impairments. Notes that this project can be adapted easily for use with traditional students. (MM)

  4. Some Equal-area, Conformal and Conventional Map Projections: A Tutorial Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Map projections have been widely used in many areas such as geography, oceanography, meteorology, geology, geodesy, photogrammetry and global positioning systems. Understanding different types of map projections is very crucial in these areas. This paper presents a tutorial review of various types of current map projections such as equal-area, conformal and conventional. We present these map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for them in detail. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  5. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  6. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the CFO. This pilot project area may be a watershed, a subwatershed, an area, or an individual farm...) Wetland restoration and protection, and (iv) Wildlife habitat development and protection, (v) Or...

  7. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the CFO. This pilot project area may be a watershed, a subwatershed, an area, or an individual farm...) Wetland restoration and protection, and (iv) Wildlife habitat development and protection, (v) Or...

  8. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the CFO. This pilot project area may be a watershed, a subwatershed, an area, or an individual farm...) Wetland restoration and protection, and (iv) Wildlife habitat development and protection, (v) Or...

  9. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the CFO. This pilot project area may be a watershed, a subwatershed, an area, or an individual farm...) Wetland restoration and protection, and (iv) Wildlife habitat development and protection, (v) Or...

  10. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the CFO. This pilot project area may be a watershed, a subwatershed, an area, or an individual farm...) Wetland restoration and protection, and (iv) Wildlife habitat development and protection, (v) Or...

  11. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  12. Projected Allied Health and Nursing Training Needs for a Seven-County Area in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.; And Others

    This report describes a project that developed and field tested a model for projecting state-wide manpower needs in the allied health and nursing occupations in West Virginia and presents projections made for sixteen allied health and nursing occupations in the Charleston area. The content of the report is presented in three sections. The first…

  13. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass...

  14. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass...

  15. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass...

  16. 7 CFR 1450.202 - Project area selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...) The dry tons of renewable biomass projected to be available from sources other than the eligible crops... opportunity for producers and local investors to participate in the ownership of the biomass...

  17. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those...

  18. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those...

  19. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those...

  20. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those...

  1. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and Funding... agricultural portion of a 208 water quality management plan, or revised portions thereof, and have identified agricultural nonpoint source water quality problems are eligible for authorization under RCWP. Those...

  2. Discontinued drug projects in the respiratory therapeutic area during 2012.

    PubMed

    Snell, Noel J C

    2014-03-01

    During 2012, a number of respiratory drug projects and individual agents were discontinued, for a variety of reasons, including toxicity, lack of efficacy, commercial re-evaluation and change in corporate focus. These included three antagonists of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2), which had been evaluated in allergic respiratory disease and (in one case) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other agents intended for the treatment of asthma, COPD, pulmonary hypertension and lung fibrosis. These have been reviewed against the background of a general reduction in respiratory research by the pharmaceutical industry.

  3. City of Huntsville Public Housing Areas STEM Initiative Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Tomeka; Smith, Cydale; Pugh, Marcus; Budak, Satilmis; Muntele, Claudiu

    2012-02-01

    Students in high-poverty and high-minority schools are entering the classroom without the knowledge and skills they need to succeed. In order to bridge the gaps in opportunity and achievement that separate low-income students and students of color from other young Americans, we have introduced elementary and middle school students to the basic concepts of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Within the project, we have provided students with excellent learning opportunities, engaging hands-on experiences, and outstanding advising and mentoring. We have assessed student development and impact before, during, and after the program.

  4. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  5. Dopamine, cognitive function, and gamma oscillations: role of D4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Furth, Katrina E.; Mastwal, Surjeet; Wang, Kuan H.; Buonanno, Andres; Vullhorst, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) are considered core symptoms of this disorder, and can manifest at the prodromal stage. Antipsychotics ameliorate positive symptoms but only modestly improve cognitive symptoms. The lack of treatments that improve cognitive abilities currently represents a major obstacle in developing more effective therapeutic strategies for this debilitating disorder. While D4 receptor (D4R)-specific antagonists are ineffective in the treatment of positive symptoms, animal studies suggest that D4R drugs can improve cognitive deficits. Moreover, recent work from our group suggests that D4Rs synergize with the neuregulin/ErbB4 signaling pathway, genetically identified as risk factors for SCZ, in parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons to modulate gamma oscillations. These high-frequency network oscillations correlate with attention and increase during cognitive tasks in healthy subjects, and this correlation is attenuated in affected individuals. This finding, along with other observations indicating impaired GABAergic function, has led to the idea that abnormal neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in individuals with SCZ reflects a perturbation in the balance of excitation and inhibition. Here we review the current state of knowledge of D4R functions in the PFC and hippocampus, two major brain areas implicated in SCZ. Special emphasis is given to studies focusing on the potential role of D4Rs in modulating GABAergic transmission and to an emerging concept of a close synergistic relationship between dopamine/D4R and neuregulin/ErbB4 signaling pathways that tunes the activity of PV interneurons to regulate gamma frequency network oscillations and potentially cognitive processes. PMID:23847468

  6. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX...-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46958), HUD published for... FR 27808) Federal Register notice. Specifically, HUD noted that the methodology for calculating...

  7. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  8. Hanford Area 1990 population and 50-year projections. [Appendix contains computer programming for population projections and graphs showing them by grid areas

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Scott, M.J.; Shindle, S.F.; Napier, B.A.; Thurman, A.G.; Batishko, N.C. ); Davis, M.D. ); Pittenger, D.B. )

    1991-10-01

    The complex and comprehensive safety analysis activities carried out at Hanford for nonreactor nuclear facilities require data from a number of scientific and engineering disciplines. The types of data that are required include data pertaining to current population and population projections. The types of data found in this document include 1990 census totals for residential population within a 50-mile radius of the 100-N, 200, 300, and 400 Area meteorological towers. This document also contains 50-year projections for residential populations within a 50-mile radius of these four meteorological towers. The analysis of population projections indicates that residential population within a 50-mile radius of the four meteorological towers in question will continue to grow through 2040, although at a slower rate each decade. In all cases, the highest growth is projected for the decade ending in the year 2000. The annual growth rate for this period is projected to be 0.646, 0.633, 0.543, and 0.570 in the 100-N, 200, 300, and 400 Areas, respectively. By 2040, these growth rates are projected to drop to 0.082, 0.068, 0.078, 0.078, respectively. 4 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The National Map - Lake Tahoe Area Pilot Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  10. 7. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS315A HELIUM STORAGE AREA: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS-315A HELIUM STORAGE AREA: PLAN AND DETAILS-MECHANICAL, APRIL 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28419, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Linking with Community To Reclaim Natural Areas for Education: The McLane Elementary School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Melinda; Smith, Kathy Kurtz

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project in which students, teachers, and the community work to reclaim neglected wetlands and forested areas for use as an environmental study site for interdisciplinary learning. (Author/MM)

  12. Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

  13. USDA area-wide project for annual grasses: outcomes and impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides a record of the research, outreach, education and technology transfer that was completed as part of the area-wide project for invasive annual grasses from 2007-2012. The overall goal of the project was to catalyze a holistic integrated management program for invasive annual g...

  14. A Project for Everyone: English Language Learners and Technology in Content-Area Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of student participation in classroom projects when learning English as a second language highlights conditions that support language and content learning; approaches that can facilitate language and content learning; and what technology and other resources support English language learners in content-area classrooms. Uses a project on…

  15. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  16. The lartge-area picosecond photo-detector (LAPPD) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, Gary

    2012-03-01

    The technological revolution that replaced the bulky Cathode Ray Tube with a wide variety of thin, reduced-cost display technologies, has yet to be realized for photosensors. Such a low-cost, robust and flexible photon detector, capable of efficient single photon measurement with good spatial and temporal resolution, would have numerous scientific, medical and industrial applications. To address the significant technological challenges of realizing such a disruptive technology, the Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD) collaboration was formed, and has been strongly supported by the Department of Energy. This group leverages the inter-disciplinary capabilities and facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL), electronics expertise at the Universities of Chicago and Hawaii, and close work with industrial partners to extend the known technologies. Advances in theory-inspired design and in-situ photocathode characterization during growth, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for revolutionizing micro-channel plate fabrication, and compact, wave-form sampling CMOS ASIC readout of micro striplines are key tools toward realizing a viable LAPPD device. Progress toward a first 8" x 8" demonstrator module will be presented.

  17. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  18. Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

  19. Tuberculoventral neurons project to the multipolar cell area but not to the octopus cell area of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wickesberg, R E; Whitlon, D; Oertel, D

    1991-11-15

    Tuberculoventral neurons in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) provide frequency-specific inhibition to neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of the mouse (Wickesberg and Oertel, '88, '90). The present experiments examine the projection from the deep DCN to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the PVCN reveal that the multipolar cell area, but not the octopus cell area, is innervated by neurons in the deep layer of the DCN. Injections into the multipolar cell area, in the rostral and ventral PVCN, labeled neurons across the entire rostrocaudal extent of the deep DCN. The labeled tuberculoventral neurons generally lay within the band of labeled auditory nerve terminals in the DCN. Injections of HRP into the octopus cell area, in the dorsal caudal PVCN, labeled almost no cells within the band of auditory nerve fiber terminals that were labeled by the same injection. The inhibition from tuberculoventral neurons onto ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons is likely to be mediated by glycine (Wickesberg and Oertel, '90). Slices of the cochlear nuclear complex were immunolabeled by an antibody against glycine conjugated with glutaraldehyde to bovine serum albumin (Wenthold et al., '87). Glycine-like immunoreactivity was found throughout the DCN, the AVCN and the multipolar cell area, but there was little labeling in the octopus cell area. This finding provides independent evidence that tuberculoventral neurons do not innervate the octopus cell area and indicates that the octopus cell area is anatomically and functionally distinct.

  20. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  1. A Computer Program for Projections of Vehicular Pollutant Emissions in Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, G. D.; Ott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an algorithm for the determination of current and projected annual air pollution emissions from vehicles in any urban area. A computer program based on this algorithm, PAVE, has been developed. Results of applying the program to emissions from automobiles in the San Francisco Bay Area are presented and discussed. (Editor/JR)

  2. 76 FR 64083 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Register (51 FR 4012, January 31, 1986) and provided the marketing plan principles used to market what is...) Final Rule published in the Federal Register (60 FR 54151, October 20, 1995), Subpart C extended and... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal...

  3. Pilot Communication Research Project Utilizing the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.; And Others

    This paper describes the evolution of a group research project undertaken by six communication graduate students, using the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF), a collection of primary source materials on over 250 predominantly pre-literate cultures representing all major areas of the world. The paper narrates the students' research processes, from…

  4. Role of dopamine D4 receptors in copulatory behavior: Studies with selective D4 agonists and antagonists in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Contini, Andrea; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Argiolas, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine influences the anticipatory and consummatory phases of sexual behavior, by acting on receptors of the D2 family (D2, D3 and D4) and in particular of the D2 subtype, although evidence for a role of D4 receptors in erectile function and copulatory behavior is also available. In order to clarify such a role of D4 receptors, the effect of selective D4 receptor agonists and antagonists on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats in classic copulation tests with a receptive female, was compared with that of apomorphine and haloperidol, a classic dopamine receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. PD-168,077 (0.05-0.2mg/kg) and ABT-724 (0.01-0.04mg/kg), two selective D4 receptor agonists, given subcutaneously, improved dose-dependently copulatory behavior as shown by the decrease of mount frequency and post ejaculatory interval induced by PD-168,077, and of mount frequency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory and inter intromission intervals induced by ABT-724, and by the increase of ejaculation frequency and copulatory efficacy induced by both drugs. Conversely, L-745,870 (1-5mg/kg), a selective D4 receptor antagonist, given intraperitoneally, impaired dose-dependently copulatory behavior, as shown by the increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies, mount frequency, post ejaculatory interval and the decrease in ejaculation frequency and copulatory efficacy induced by this drug. L-745,870 (5mg/kg) administered before PD-168,077 (0.2mg/kg) or ABT-724 (0.04mg/kg), also abolished completely the facilitatory effects of both PD-168,077 and ABT-724 on sexual behavior. These results confirm the involvement of D4 receptors in specific aspects of male rat copulatory behavior that overlap only partially with those influenced by apomorphine and haloperidol. PMID:26287845

  5. MSSM-like from SU5 × D4 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl Laamara, R.; Miskaoui, M.; Saidi, E. H.

    2016-05-01

    Using finite discrete group characters and symmetry breaking by hyperflux as well as constraints on top-quark family, we study minimal low energy effective theory following from SU5 ×D4 models embedded in F-theory with non-abelian flux. Matter curves spectrum of the models is obtained from SU5 ×S5 theory with monodromy S5 by performing two breakings: first from symmetric group S5 to S4 subsymmetry, and next to dihedral D4 subgroup. As a consequence, and depending on the ways of decomposing triplets of S4, we end with three types of D4-models. Explicit constructions of these theories are given and a MSSM-like spectrum is derived.

  6. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-4 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(d)-4 Transitional rules. (a) Certain transactions involving securities acquired by a foundation before May 27, 1969... transaction between a private foundation and a corporation which is a disqualified person shall not be an...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-4 - Transitional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(d)-4 Transitional rules. (a) Certain transactions involving securities acquired by a foundation before May 27, 1969... transaction between a private foundation and a corporation which is a disqualified person shall not be an...

  8. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  9. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  10. Tuberculosis in cattle: the results of the four-area project

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The four-area project was undertaken to further assess the impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland. It was conducted between 1997 and 2002 in matched removal and reference areas in four counties, namely Cork, Donegal, Kilkenny and Monaghan, representing a wide range of Irish farming environments. In the removal areas, a proactive programme of badger removal was conducted, on two or three occasions each year, whereas in the reference areas, badger removal was entirely reactive following severe outbreaks of tuberculosis amongst cattle. A detailed statistical analysis of this study has already been presented by Griffin et al. [13]; this paper presents further, mainly descriptive, findings from the study. In total, 2,360 badgers were captured in the removal areas of which 450 (19.5%) were considered positive for tuberculosis and 258 badgers were captured in the reference areas, with 57 (26.1%) positive for tuberculosis. The annual incidence of confirmed herd restrictions was lower in the removal area compared to the reference area in every year of the study period in each of the four counties. These empirical findings were consistent with the hazard ratios found by Griffin et al. [13]. Further, the effect of proactive badger removal on cattle tuberculosis in the four-area project and in the earlier east-Offaly project, as measured using the number of reactors per 1,000 cattle tested, were very similar, providing compelling evidence of the role of badgers in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Irish cattle herds. The validity of the four-area project was discussed in detail. Efforts to minimise badger-to-cattle transmission in Ireland must be undertaken in association with the current comprehensive control programme, which has effectively minimised opportunities for cattle-to-cattle transmission. PMID:21851665

  11. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  12. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  13. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information.

  14. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  15. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  16. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  17. Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan and Crop Area Optimization for Integrated Management in a Water Resource Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, R. K.; Thomas, T.; Galkate, R. V.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.

    2013-09-01

    A scientifically developed catchment area treatment (CAT) plan and optimized pattern of crop areas may be the key for sustainable development of water resource, profitability in agriculture and improvement of overall economy in drought affected Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh (India). In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a CAT plan using spatial variation of geology, geomorphology, soil, drainage, land use in geographical information system for selection of soil and water conservation measures and crop area optimization using linear programming for maximization of return considering water availability, area affinity, fertilizers, social and market constraints in Benisagar reservoir project of Chhatarpur district (M.P.). The scientifically developed CAT plan based on overlaying of spatial information consists of 58 mechanical measure (49 boulder bunds, 1 check dam, 7 cully plug and 1 percolation tank), 2.60 km2 land for agro forestry, 2.08 km2 land for afforestation in Benisagar dam and 67 mechanical measures (45 boulder bunds and 22 gully plugs), 7.79 km2 land for agro forestry, 5.24 km2 land for afforestation in Beniganj weir catchment with various agronomic measures for agriculture areas. The linear programming has been used for optimization of crop areas in Benisagar command for sustainable development considering various scenarios of water availability, efficiencies, affinity and fertilizers availability in the command. Considering present supply condition of water, fertilizers, area affinity and making command self sufficient in most of crops, the net benefit can be increase to Rs. 1.93 crores from 41.70 km2 irrigable area in Benisagar command by optimizing cropping pattern and reducing losses during conveyance and application of water.

  18. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - December 2008-June 2009 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.A.; Bauer, R.A.; Boyd, O.S.; Chung, J.; Cramer, C.H.; Gaunt, D.A.; Hempen, G.L.; Hoffman, D.; McCallister, N.S.; Prewett, J.L.; Rogers, J.D.; Steckel, P.J.; Watkins, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the mission, the project background, the participants, and the progress of the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) for the period from December 2008 through June 2009. During this period, the SLAEHMP held five conference calls and two face-to-face meetings in St. Louis, participated in several earthquake awareness public meetings, held one outreach field trip for the business and government community, collected and compiled new borehole and digital elevation data from partners, and published a project summary.

  19. User-centred health design: reflections on D4D's experiences and challenges.

    PubMed

    Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of user-centred design and testing in the healthcare technology domain. Challenges associated with user and stakeholder involvement in designing solutions for healthcare are recognized in the literature and need to be addressed to facilitate the development of new technology that is usable and acceptable to the end-user. The Devices for Dignity Health Technology Cooperative (D4D) has been involved in a range of technology development projects with an underpinning approach of addressing unmet needs through user involvement. This paper provides practical examples of some of the challenges that occur at different stages during a user-centred design process including ethical approval processes; stakeholder and user recruitment and involvement; eliciting needs from users regarding sensitive and personal issues; and interdisciplinary working. The paper will describe some of the strategies that have been employed by D4D to overcome these challenges and facilitate technology development.

  20. User-centred health design: reflections on D4D's experiences and challenges.

    PubMed

    Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of user-centred design and testing in the healthcare technology domain. Challenges associated with user and stakeholder involvement in designing solutions for healthcare are recognized in the literature and need to be addressed to facilitate the development of new technology that is usable and acceptable to the end-user. The Devices for Dignity Health Technology Cooperative (D4D) has been involved in a range of technology development projects with an underpinning approach of addressing unmet needs through user involvement. This paper provides practical examples of some of the challenges that occur at different stages during a user-centred design process including ethical approval processes; stakeholder and user recruitment and involvement; eliciting needs from users regarding sensitive and personal issues; and interdisciplinary working. The paper will describe some of the strategies that have been employed by D4D to overcome these challenges and facilitate technology development. PMID:26453037

  1. Projecting large-scale area changes in land use and land cover for terrestrial carbon analyses.

    PubMed

    Alig, Ralph J; Butler, Brett J

    2004-04-01

    One of the largest changes in US forest type areas over the last half-century has involved pine types in the South. The area of planted pine has increased more than 10-fold since 1950, mostly on private lands. Private landowners have responded to market incentives and government programs, including subsidized afforestation on marginal agricultural land. Timber harvest is a crucial disturbance affecting planted pine area, as other forest types are converted to planted pine after harvest. Conversely, however, many harvested pine plantations revert to other forest types, mainly due to passive regeneration behavior on nonindustrial private timberlands. We model land use and land cover changes as a basis for projecting future changes in planted pine area, to aid policy analysts concerned with mitigation activities for global climate change. Projections are prepared in two stages. Projected land use changes include deforestation due to pressures to develop rural land as the human population expands, which is a larger area than that converted from other rural lands (e.g., agriculture) to forestry. In the second stage, transitions among forest types are projected on land allocated to forestry. We consider reforestation, influences of timber harvest, and natural succession and disturbance processes. Baseline projections indicate a net increase of about 5.6 million ha in planted pine area in the South over the next 50 years, with a notable increase in sequestered carbon. Additional opportunities to expand pine plantation area warrant study of landowner behavior to aid in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change and attain other goals.

  2. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  3. Role of dimerization in dopamine D(4) receptor biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Skieterska, Kamila; Duchou, Jolien; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors critically involved in locomotion, reward, and cognitive processes. Export of dopamine receptors to the plasma membrane is thought to follow the default secretory pathway, whereby proteins travel from the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), through the Golgi apparatus, to arrive at the cell surface. Several observations indicate that trafficking from the ER to the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, and that correct folding in the ER acts as a bottle neck to the maturation of the dopamine D4 receptors. The dopamine D(4) receptor is an interesting receptor since it has a polymorphic region in its third intracellular loop, resulting in receptor isoforms of varying length and amino acid composition. Correct folding is enhanced by: (1) interaction with specific proteins, such as ER resident chaperones, (2) interaction with pharmacological chaperones, for example, ligands that are membrane permeable and can bind to the receptor in the ER, and (3) receptor dimerization; the assembly of multisubunit proteins into a quaternary structure is started in the ER before cell surface delivery, which helps in correct folding and subsequent expression. These interactions help the process of GPCR folding, but more importantly they ensure that only properly folded proteins proceed from the ER to the trans-Golgi network. In this review we will mainly focus on the role of receptor dimerization in dopamine D(4) receptor maturation. PMID:25175456

  4. Area Consortium on Training. "Training for Technology" Project, 1982-1983. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moock, Lynn D.

    The Area Consortium on Training initiated the Training for Technology Project to fill industry needs for skilled personnel and job needs for economically disadvantaged persons. Major accomplishments included establishment of a training team for economic development and for development of training programs; contacting of more than 100 employers;…

  5. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Area Projects, Allocation Procedures and Call for Applications (75 FR 78988) on December 17, 2010... part 905, (60 FR 54151, Oct. 20, 1995). The Program, developed in part to implement Section 114 of the... allocation procedures, in conjunction with the General Power Marketing and Allocation Criteria (51 FR...

  6. Evaluation of the USDA Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project by Meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using USDA ‘4-Poster’ devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed d...

  7. 76 FR 65493 - Draft Environmental Assessment; Giant Miscanthus in REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... (ROD) for the BCAP final PEIS (75 FR 65995-66007) and BCAP final rule (76 FR 66202-66243) in the... REPREVE Renewables, LLC Project Areas Under the Biomass Crop Assistance Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit... Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP). This notice provides a means for the public to voice any...

  8. Content Area Bilingual Education: Project CABE 1988-89. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Tomi D.; Lista, Carlos A.

    Project CABE (Content Area Bilingual Education) offered instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and Native Language Arts (NLA) to 823 limited English proficient Spanish-Speaking students in grades 1 through 9 in 34 schools in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens (New York). All students were two or more years below level in mathematics and…

  9. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  10. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  11. 22. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS315A: MISCELLANEOUS DETAILSLAUNCHING AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of engineering drawing. PROJECT WS-315A: MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS-LAUNCHING AREAS 17A, 17B-STRUCTURAL, APRIL 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. WACOP (Westside Area Career/Occupation Project) Media Catalog for 1973, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glur, John; Catalano, Ruth

    The catalog lists various commercially prepared media materials available on loan from the Westside Area Career Occupation Project (WACOP) Media Center for evaluation prior to school or district purchase. Among the types of media specified are: books, kits, cassettes, films, instructional units, transparencies, posters, pamphlets, and magazines.…

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTION OF OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS IN THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, LESLIE; AND OTHERS

    THE FINAL STAGE OF A PROGRAM FOR ACHIEVING A BALANCE BETWEEN THE AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR LABOR IS THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT ESTIMATES INTO OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS BASED ON PROJECTIONS OF OCCUPATIONAL PATTERNS BY INDUSTRY. THIS CAN BE USED TO EVALUATE POTENTIAL AREAS OF SUBSTANTIAL SURPLUS OR SHORTAGE, AND PROVIDE THE…

  14. Using the Gravity Model to Delineate a Trade Area: A Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzik, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Reports that students who might be bored or intimidated by economic geographic theory become enthusiastic when they can apply it to their own experiences. Describes a class project involving fieldwork and in-class analysis on delineating the retail trade area of a small Ohio city. Includes three maps and mathematical formulae for data analysis.…

  15. Business Marketing Information Systems Skills. Voc-Ed Project. Business Data Processing Career Area. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    This report and research analysis relate to the Milwaukee Area Technical College Research Project, a study undertaken to determine a curriculum to meet the information processing/management training needs of individuals entering or continuing careers in the information marketing and business data processing occupational clusters. The report of…

  16. An Ecological Characterization and Landscape Assessment of the Muddy-Virgin River Project Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Muddy-Virgin River Project Area covers a large part of southern Nevada. Very little is known about the water quality of the entire Basin. The Muddy and Virgin Rivers drain into Lake Mead which provides drinking water for communities located in the Las Vegas Valley. The are...

  17. Small School Design in Practice. Central Ideas -- Focus on The Catskill Area Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Willard L.; And Others

    Describing major features of the New York Catskill Area Project in Small School Design (CAPSSD) begun in 1957, this pamphlet addresses: (1) Basic Concepts in Small School Design (flexible scheduling, multiple classes, organizational interdependency, teacher versatility, student planning, technological communications, and interagency cooperation);…

  18. The United States Department Of Agriculture Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project: history and protocol.

    PubMed

    Pound, Joe Mathews; Miller, John Allen; George, John E; Fish, Durland

    2009-08-01

    The Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP) was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a large-scale cooperative demonstration project of the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS)-patented 4-Poster tick control technology (Pound et al. 1994) involving the USDA-ARS and a consortium of universities, state agencies, and a consulting firm at research locations in the five states of Connecticut (CT), Maryland (MD), New Jersey (NJ), New York (NY), and Rhode Island (RI). The stated objective of the project was "A community-based field trial of ARS-patented tick control technology designed to reduce the risk of Lyme disease in northeastern states." Here we relate the rationale and history of the technology, a chronological listing of events leading to implementation of the project, the original protocol for selecting treatment, and control sites, and protocols for deployment of treatments, sampling, assays, data analyses, and estimates of efficacy.

  19. Synthesis of Experimental and Model Results From The Esquif Project Over The Paris Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.; Esquif Team

    The ESQUIF research project follows mainly two goals: (i) To built a complete database of observations related to pollutants as all other parameters linked to the origin of this regional Paris area pollution, (ii) To improve our knowledge on regional atmospheric pollution events, focusing on the Paris area ("Ile de France", a zone of 150x150km, centered on the Paris city). The experimental part of the project (1998- 2000) is now over and the database freely available. The project now turns to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarii and forecasting. From the whole set of studied topics, we will focus on some results: 1. The importance of the local "Paris area" emissions on the photochemical pollution, compared to long-range transport of polluted air mass, for which the source may be external to the studied area. A contrario the impact of parisian sources on the neigh- bouring areas and the potential extent of this influence (study of the parisian "plume"). 2. The sensitivity of photooxidant concentrations to the meteorology (local and synop- tic) and to emissions of primary pollutants by the way of modelling: it includes direct, adjoint and Monte-Carlo methodologies. 3. Some preliminary results on urban aerosols, estimated from numerous measure- ments during summer 2000. It includes the radiative impact of aerosols and cloudiness on photooxidant pollution. 4. A coupled approach, using chemistry-transport model and aircraft data, is presented for surface emissions optimization.

  20. Projection from the accommodation-related area in the superior colliculus of the cat.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Ohtsuka, K

    1996-04-01

    Our previous study has indicated that accommodative responses can be evoked with weak currents applied to a circumscribed area of the superior colliculus in the cat. We investigated efferent projections from this area with biocytin in the present study. The accommodation area in the superior colliculus was identified by systematic microstimulation in each of five anesthetized cats. Accommodative responses were detected by an infrared optometer. After mapping the superior colliculus, biocytin was injected through a glass micropipette into the accommodation area, where accommodative responses were elicited with low-intensity microstimulation. In addition, accommodative responses to stimulation of the superior colliculus were compared before and after an injection of muscimol, an agonist of inhibitory neurotransmitter, into the pretectum. Following the injection of biocytin, in the ascending projections, labeled terminals were seen mainly in the caudal portion of the nucleus of the optic tract, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, the posterior pretectal nucleus, the olivary pretectal nucleus, the mesencephalic reticular formation at the level of the oculomotor nucleus, and the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus on the ipsilateral side. Less dense terminals were seen in the anterior pretectal nucleus, the zona incerta, and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus. In the descending projections, labeled terminals were observed mainly in the paramedian pontine reticular formation, the nucleus raphe interpositus, and the dorsomedial portion of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis on the contralateral side. Less dense terminals were also seen in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus, the cuneiform nucleus, the medial part of the paralemniscal tegmental field, and the dorsolateral division of the pontine nuclei on the ipsilateral side. Following the injection of muscimol into the pretectum, including the nucleus of the optic tract, the

  1. The 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a group of expert collaborators are using the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site 300 Area uranium plume within the footprint of the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit as a site for an Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC). The IFRC is entitled Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on the Hanford Site 300 Area Uranium Plume Project. The theme is investigation of multi-scale mass transfer processes. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research that relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements/approaches needed to characterize and model a mass transfer-dominated system. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the 300 Area IFRC Project. This plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  2. Assessment of Flooded Areas Projections and Floods Potential Impacts Applying Remote Sensing Imagery and Demographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Carriello, F.; Fernandes, P. J. F.; Garofolo Lopes, L.; Siqueira Júnior, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Assessing vulnerability and potential impacts associated with extreme discharges requires an accurate topographic description in order to estimate the extension of flooded areas. However, in most populated regions, topographic data obtained by in-situ measurements is not available. In this case, digital elevation models derived from remote sensing date are usually applied. Moreover, this digital elevation models have intrinsic errors that introduce bigger uncertainty in results than the associated to hydrological projections. On the other hand, estimations of flooded areas through remote sensing images provide accurate information, which could be used for the construction of river level-flooded area relationships regarding vulnerability assessment. In this work, this approach is applied for the city of Porto Velho in the Brazilian Amazonia to assess potential vulnerability to floods associated with climate change projections. The approach is validated using census data, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and information about socio-economical injuries associated to historical floods, provided by the Brazilian Civil Defence. Hydrological projections under climate change are carried out using several downscaling of climate projections as inputs in a hydrological model. Results show more accurate estimation of flood impacts than the obtained using digital elevation models derivate from remote sensing data. This reduces uncertainties in the assessment of vulnerability to floods associated with climate change in the region.

  3. Evolution of mammalian sensorimotor cortex: thalamic projections to parietal cortical areas in Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Franca, João G.; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Cooke, Dylan F.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    The current experiments build upon previous studies designed to reveal the network of parietal cortical areas present in the common mammalian ancestor. Understanding this ancestral network is essential for highlighting the basic somatosensory circuitry present in all mammals, and how this basic plan was modified to generate species specific behaviors. Our animal model, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), is a South American marsupial that has been proposed to have a similar ecological niche and morphology to the earliest common mammalian ancestor. In this investigation, we injected retrograde neuroanatomical tracers into the face and body representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the rostral and caudal somatosensory fields (SR and SC), as well as a multimodal region (MM). Projections from different architectonically defined thalamic nuclei were then quantified. Our results provide further evidence to support the hypothesized basic mammalian plan of thalamic projections to S1, with the lateral and medial ventral posterior thalamic nuclei (VPl and VPm) projecting to S1 body and S1 face, respectively. Additional strong projections are from the medial division of posterior nucleus (Pom). SR receives projections from several midline nuclei, including the medial dorsal, ventral medial nucleus, and Pom. SC and MM show similar patterns of connectivity, with projections from the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei, VPm and VPl, and the entire posterior nucleus (medial and lateral). Notably, MM is distinguished from SC by relatively dense projections from the dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. We discuss the finding that S1 of the short-tailed opossum has a similar pattern of projections as other marsupials and mammals, but also some distinct projections not present in other mammals. Further we provide additional support for a primitive posterior parietal cortex which receives input from multiple modalities. PMID

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  5. Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Eric C.

    2006-12-01

    4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

  6. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Linda J; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st) century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  7. The ADHD-linked human dopamine D4 receptor variant D4.7 induces over-suppression of NMDA receptor function in prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Luye; Liu, Wenhua; Ma, Kaijie; Wei, Jing; Zhong, Ping; Cho, Kei; Yan, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    The human dopamine D4 receptor (hD4R) variants with long tandem repeats in the third intracellular loop have been strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk taking behaviors. To understand the potential molecular mechanism underlying the connection, we have investigated the synaptic function of human D4R polymorphism by virally expressing the ADHD-linked 7-repeat allele, hD4.7, or its normal counterpart, hD4.4, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of D4R knockout mice. We found that hD4R bound to the SH3 domain of PSD-95 in a state-dependent manner. Activation of hD4.7 caused more reduction of NR1/PSD-95 binding and NR1 surface expression than hD4.4 in PFC slices. Moreover, the NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDAR-EPSC) in PFC pyramidal neurons were suppressed to a larger extent by hD4.7 than hD4.4 activation. Direct stimulation of NMDARs with the partial agonist d-cycloserine prevented the NMDAR hypofunction induced by hD4.7 activation. Moreover, hD4.7-expressing mice exhibited the increased exploratory and novelty seeking behaviors, mimicking the phenotypic hallmark of human ADHD. d-cycloserine administration ameliorated the ADHD-like behaviors in hD4.7-expressing mice. Our results suggest that over-suppression of NMDAR function may underlie the role of hD4.7 in ADHD, and enhancing NMDAR signaling may be a viable therapeutic strategy to ADHD humans carrying the D4.7 allele. PMID:27475724

  8. The ADHD-linked human dopamine D4 receptor variant D4.7 induces over-suppression of NMDA receptor function in prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Luye; Liu, Wenhua; Ma, Kaijie; Wei, Jing; Zhong, Ping; Cho, Kei; Yan, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    The human dopamine D4 receptor (hD4R) variants with long tandem repeats in the third intracellular loop have been strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk taking behaviors. To understand the potential molecular mechanism underlying the connection, we have investigated the synaptic function of human D4R polymorphism by virally expressing the ADHD-linked 7-repeat allele, hD4.7, or its normal counterpart, hD4.4, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of D4R knockout mice. We found that hD4R bound to the SH3 domain of PSD-95 in a state-dependent manner. Activation of hD4.7 caused more reduction of NR1/PSD-95 binding and NR1 surface expression than hD4.4 in PFC slices. Moreover, the NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDAR-EPSC) in PFC pyramidal neurons were suppressed to a larger extent by hD4.7 than hD4.4 activation. Direct stimulation of NMDARs with the partial agonist d-cycloserine prevented the NMDAR hypofunction induced by hD4.7 activation. Moreover, hD4.7-expressing mice exhibited the increased exploratory and novelty seeking behaviors, mimicking the phenotypic hallmark of human ADHD. d-cycloserine administration ameliorated the ADHD-like behaviors in hD4.7-expressing mice. Our results suggest that over-suppression of NMDAR function may underlie the role of hD4.7 in ADHD, and enhancing NMDAR signaling may be a viable therapeutic strategy to ADHD humans carrying the D4.7 allele.

  9. All the supersymmetric configurations of N=4, d=4 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellorín, Jorge; Ortín, Tomás

    2005-10-01

    All the supersymmetric configurations of pure, ungauged, N=4, d=4 supergravity are classified in a formalism that keeps manifest the S and T dualities of the theory. We also find simple equations that need to be satisfied by the configurations to be classical solutions of the theory. While the solutions associated to null Killing vectors were essentially classified by Tod (a classification that we refine), we find new configurations and solutions associated to timelike Killing vectors that do not satisfy Tod's rigidity hypothesis (hence, they have a nontrivial U(1) connection) and whose supersymmetry projector is associated to 1-dimensional objects (strings), although they have a trivial axion field.

  10. Feasibility of reduced-dose 3D/4D-DSA using a weighted edge preserving filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstar, Erick L.; Speidel, Michael A.; Davis, Brian J.; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A conventional 3D/4D digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) requires two rotational acquisitions (mask and fill) to compute the log-subtracted projections that are used to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume. Since all of the vascular information is contained in the fill acquisition, it is hypothesized that it is possible to reduce the x-ray dose of the mask acquisition substantially and still obtain subtracted projections adequate to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume with noise level comparable to a full dose acquisition. A full dose mask and fill acquisition were acquired from a clinical study to provide a known full dose reference reconstruction. Gaussian noise was added to the mask acquisition to simulate a mask acquisition acquired at 10% relative dose. Noise in the low-dose mask projections was reduced with a weighted edge preserving (WEP) filter designed to preserve bony edges while suppressing noise. 2D log-subtracted projections were computed from the filtered low-dose mask and full-dose fill projections, and then 3D/4D-DSA reconstruction algorithms were applied. Additional bilateral filtering was applied to the 3D volumes. The signal-to-noise ratio measured in the filtered 3D/4D-DSA volumes was compared to the full dose case. The average ratio of filtered low-dose SNR to full-dose SNR was 1.07 for the 3D-DSA and 1.05 for the 4D-DSA, indicating the method is a feasible approach to restoring SNR in DSA scans acquired with a low-dose mask. The method was also tested in a phantom study with full dose fill and 22% dose mask.

  11. Ventral tegmental area GABA projections pause accumbal cholinergic interneurons to enhance associative learning.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew T C; Tan, Kelly R; O'Connor, Eoin C; Nikonenko, Irina; Muller, Dominique; Lüscher, Christian

    2012-12-20

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are essential for learning about environmental stimuli associated with motivationally relevant outcomes. The task of signalling such events, both rewarding and aversive, from the VTA to the NAc has largely been ascribed to dopamine neurons. The VTA also contains GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons, which provide local inhibition and also project to the NAc. However, the cellular targets and functional importance of this long-range inhibitory projection have not been ascertained. Here we show that GABA-releasing neurons of the VTA that project to the NAc (VTA GABA projection neurons) inhibit accumbal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) to enhance stimulus-outcome learning. Combining optogenetics with structural imaging and electrophysiology, we found that VTA GABA projection neurons selectively target NAc CINs, forming multiple symmetrical synaptic contacts that generated inhibitory postsynaptic currents. This is remarkable considering that CINs represent a very small population of all accumbal neurons, and provide the primary source of cholinergic tone in the NAc. Brief activation of this projection was sufficient to halt the spontaneous activity of NAc CINs, resembling the pause recorded in animals learning stimulus-outcome associations. Indeed, we found that forcing CINs to pause in behaving mice enhanced discrimination of a motivationally important stimulus that had been associated with an aversive outcome. Our results demonstrate that VTA GABA projection neurons, through their selective targeting of accumbal CINs, provide a novel route through which the VTA communicates saliency to the NAc. VTA GABA projection neurons thus emerge as orchestrators of dopaminergic and cholinergic modulation in the NAc.

  12. Digital-model study of ground-water hydrology, Columbia Basin Irrigation Project Area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hansen, A.J., Jr.; Skrivan, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1952 water diverted from the Columbia River at Grand Coulee Dam has been used to irrigate parts of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project area in eastern Washington, and as a result ground-water levels generally have risen in the area. The rapid increases in ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage from irrigation have created a need for a better understanding of the ground-water system before and after the start of irrigation to establish guidelines necessary for management of the area's ground-water resource. Data and information from previous geologic and hydrologic studies were used as a basis for quantitative analyses of ground-water inflow and outflow by means of digital computer models representing three major areas--Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and Royal Slope.

  13. Camera Calibration for Water-Biota Research: The Projected Area of Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Wackrow, Rene; Ferreira, Edgar; Chandler, Jim; Shiono, Koji

    2015-12-03

    Imaging systems have an indisputable role in revealing vegetation posture under diverse flow conditions, image sequences being generated with off the shelf digital cameras. Such sensors are cheap but introduce a range of distortion effects, a trait only marginally tackled in hydraulic studies focusing on water-vegetation dependencies. This paper aims to bridge this gap by presenting a simple calibration method to remove both camera lens distortion and refractive effects of water. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using the variable projected area, computed for both simple and complex shaped objects. Results demonstrate the significance of correcting images using a combined lens distortion and refraction model, prior to determining projected areas and further data analysis. Use of this technique is expected to increase data reliability for future work on vegetated channels.

  14. Global Burned Area Mapping from European Satellites: the ESA FIRE_CCI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvieco, E.; Sandow, C.; Guenther, K. P.; González-Alonso, F.; Pereira, J. M.; Pérez, O.; Bradley, A. V.; Schultz, M.; Mouillot, F.; Ciais, P.

    2012-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is part of the European contribution to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program. Fire disturbance is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) included in the ESA CCI program. It focus on mapping burned area (BA) using European sensors (ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS data), and in comparing the performance of the results with other existing datasets. The project aims at developing and validating algorithms to produce consistent, stable, error-characterized global BA information. The project includes as well developing algorithms to generate georeferenced and calibrated reflectances of (A)ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS data, identifying potential sources of confusion with burned areas (clouds, smoke, cloud shadows, water, snow, topographic shadows). The final product will be a merging of BA information derived from three different sensors . The outputs will be adapted to the needs of the atmospheric and vegetation modelling communities.

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  19. Area 5 Site Characterization Project: Report of hydraulic property analysis through August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.

    1993-12-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) has supported the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (ERWM), Waste Operations Branch (WOB). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from Pilot Wells and Science Trench borehole samples through August 1993. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, soil water extract isotope analyses and soil water chemistry analyses.

  20. Reciprocal projections of cat extrastriate cortex: I. Distribution and morphology of neurons projecting from posterior medial lateral suprasylvian sulcus to area 17.

    PubMed

    Einstein, G

    1996-12-23

    Reciprocal projections between cortical areas have been subdivided into two functionally distinct component, "feedforward" and "feedback" (for review, see Felleman and Van Essen [1991] Cereb. Cortex 1:1-47). Some anatomical evidence, such as differences in the laminar distribution of the neurons of origin and of the terminations of their axons, has supported this division. However, very little is actually known about the distribution and morphology of the neurons of the feedback projections. In order to contribute further to our understanding of these two components of the corticocortical projections, I studied the distribution and morphology of a feedback projection, the reciprocal projection from the posterior medial lateral suprasylvian sulcus (PMLS), to primary visual cortex (area 17). Retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent tracers in vivo combined with intracellular dye injections in lightly fixed cortical slices revealed many similarities between the feedforward and feedback projections: 1) They both emanate from all layers but layer 1; 2) each layer of origin contains a wide variety of standard and/or inverted pyramidal neurons; and 3) all of these, with the exception of a rare, large layer 5 neuron, have dendritic fields restricted principally to their layers of origin. There was, however, one major difference between the feedforward and feedback projections: In contrast to the projection from area 17 to PMLS, the projection from PMLS had a dense projection from layer 6 that compromised a striking abundance of spiny fusiform and inverted pyramidal neurons. These were morphologically distinct from other layer 6 neurons that project to the thalamus. Taken together, these data suggest that the reciprocal projections between area 17 and area PMLS, although not completely equivalent, share essential features that form a distinct population of neurons differing in morphology from corticothalamic projection neurons. PMID:8978467

  1. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  2. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  3. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  4. d=4 attractors, effective horizon radius, and fake supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, Sergio; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio

    2008-09-15

    We consider extremal black hole attractors [both Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) and non-BPS] for N=3 and N=5 supergravity in d=4 space-time dimensions. Attractors for matter-coupled N=3 theory are similar to attractors in N=2 supergravity minimally coupled to Abelian vector multiplets. On the other hand, N=5 attractors are similar to attractors in N=4 pure supergravity, and in such theories only (1/N)-BPS nondegenerate solutions exist. All the above-mentioned theories have a simple interpretation in the first order (fake supergravity) formalism. Furthermore, such theories do not have a d=5 uplift. Finally we comment on the duality relations among the attractor solutions of N{>=}2 supergravities sharing the same full bosonic sector.

  5. Discrete Torsion, (Anti) de Sitter D4-Brane and Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhishek K.; Pandey, P. K.; Singh, Sunita; Kar, Supriya

    2014-06-01

    We obtain quantum geometries on a vacuum created pair of a (DDbar)3-brane, at a Big Bang singularity, by a local two form on a D4-brane. In fact our analysis is provoked by an established phenomenon leading to a pair creation by a gauge field at a black hole horizon by Stephen Hawking in 1975. Importantly, the five dimensional microscopic black holes are described by an effective non-perturbative curvature underlying a discrete torsion in a second order formalism. In the case for a non-propagating torsion, the effective curvature reduces to Riemannian, which in a low energy limit may describe Einstein vacuum in the formalism. In particular, our analysis suggests that a non-trivial space begin with a hot de Sitter brane-Universe underlying a nucleation of a vacuum pair of (DDbar)-instanton at a Big Bang. A pair of instanton nucleats a D-particle which in turn combines with an anti D-particle to describe a D-string and so on. The nucleation of a pair of higher dimensional pair of brane/anti-brane from a lower dimensional pair may be viewed via an expansion of the brane-Universe upon time. It is in conformity with the conjecture of a branes within a brane presumably in presence of the non-zero modes of two form. Interestingly, we perform a thermal analysis underlying various emergent quantum de Sitter vacua on a D4-brane and argue for the plausible tunneling geometries underlying a thermal equilibrium. It is argued that a de Sitter Schwarzschild undergoes quantum tunneling to an AdS-brane Schwarzschild via Nariai and de Sitter topological black hole.

  6. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove

  7. A physiological analysis of subcortical and commissural projections of areas 17 and 18 of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, A R

    1980-01-01

    1. The corticotectal, corticothalamic and commissural projections of areas 17 and 18 of the cat have been examined using electrical stimulation techniques. 2. In both area 17 and area 18, almost all corticotectal neurones are C cells and have binocular receptive fields. Some of these cells respond equally well to both small moving spots and elongated stimuli, while others only respond to stimuli of restricted length (cf. Palmer & Rosenquist, 1974). Both types are highly direction-selective. A third type of corticotectal C cell responds optimally to long edges or bars and shows only weak direction selectivity. Corticotectal cells generally have fast conducting axons and the majority are encountered in lamina V. About 25% of all cells recorded in lamina V can be antidromically activated from the superior colliculus. 3. Striate and parastriate cells efferent to the thalamus can have either S or C type receptive fields. Corticothalamic S cells are the most common type of efferent cell in lamina VI and have more slowly conducting axons than C cells. Efferent S cells are almost always direction-selective and about half have binocular receptive fields. 4. It is suggested that there may be at least three subgroups within the corticothalamic cells: lamina V C cells project to the pulvinare complex (the same cells may also send axons to the superior colliculus), lamina VI C cells project to the perigeniculate nucleus and lamina VI S cells provide the cortical input to neurones within the lateral geniculate nucleus. 5. In contrast to the corticotectal and corticothalamic projections, the receptive fields of cells projecting through the corpus callosum forth a heterogenous group. All major striate and parastriate receptive field classes are efferent to the contralateral cortex. Their receptive field centres are located close to the vertical mid line and most cells respond best to stimuli moving towards the ipsilateral visual hemifield. Efferent neurones are mostly encountered

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  9. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region.

  10. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  11. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

  12. Dopamine D4 receptor, but not the ADHD-associated D4.7 variant, forms functional heteromers with the dopamine D2S receptor in the brain

    PubMed Central

    González, Sergio; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Peper, Marcela; Lorenzo, Ramiro; Moreno, Estefanía; Ciruela, Francisco; Borycz, Janusz; Ortiz, Jordi; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; McCormick, Peter J.; Volkow, Nora D.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Floran, Benjamin; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor have been consistently associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However the functional significance of the risk polymorphism (variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3) is still unclear. Here we show that whereas the most frequent 4-repeat (D4.4) and the 2-repeat (D4.2) variants form functional heteromers with the short isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S), the 7-repeat risk allele (D4.7) does not. D2 receptor activation in the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer potentiates D4 receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in transfected cells and in the striatum, which did not occur in cells expressing D4.7 or in the striatum of knock-in mutant mice carrying the 7 repeats of the human D4.7 in the third intracellular loop of the D4 receptor. In the striatum D4 receptors are localized in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals, where they selectively modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by interacting with D2S receptors. This interaction shows the same qualitative characteristics than the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer-mediated MAPK signaling and D2S receptor activation potentiates D4 receptor-mediated inibition of striatal glutamate release. It is therefore postulated that dysfunctional D2S-D4.7 heteromers may impair presynaptic dopaminergic control of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and explain functional deficits associated with ADHD. PMID:21844870

  13. Large rainfall changes consistently projected over substantial areas of tropical land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Robin; Good, Peter; Martin, Gill; Rowell, David P.

    2016-02-01

    Many tropical countries are exceptionally vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns, with floods or droughts often severely affecting human life and health, food and water supplies, ecosystems and infrastructure. There is widespread disagreement among climate model projections of how and where rainfall will change over tropical land at the regional scales relevant to impacts, with different models predicting the position of current tropical wet and dry regions to shift in different ways. Here we show that despite uncertainty in the location of future rainfall shifts, climate models consistently project that large rainfall changes will occur for a considerable proportion of tropical land over the twenty-first century. The area of semi-arid land affected by large changes under a higher emissions scenario is likely to be greater than during even the most extreme regional wet or dry periods of the twentieth century, such as the Sahel drought of the late 1960s to 1990s. Substantial changes are projected to occur by mid-century--earlier than previously expected--and to intensify in line with global temperature rise. Therefore, current climate projections contain quantitative, decision-relevant information on future regional rainfall changes, particularly with regard to climate change mitigation policy.

  14. Tackling five main problem areas found in science (ground segment) project developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, T.; Pérez-López, F.

    2014-08-01

    Science projects which require a large software development may use many scientists alongside a few professional software engineers. Such projects tend to show extreme cases of the general problems associated with software developments. After introducing an example of a large software development in a science project, the importance of a development management plan will be emphasised and sections of the plan highlighted and it is explained how these sections address and prepare for the expected problems throughout the life of the project. A positive, strongly proactive quality assurance, QA, approach is the common theme throughout. The role of QA is, therefore, more to guide, support and advise all members of the team rather than only to detect and react to problems. The top five problem areas addressed are: 1. Vague, late and missing requirements. 2. Few professional software engineers in a large software development. 3. A lack of testers with an appropriate test mentality. 4. Quality Assurance people cannot be everywhere, nor have in-depth skills in every subject. 5. Scientists will want to start coding and see writing documents as a waste of their time.

  15. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  16. Underground Test Area Project Waste Management Plan (Rev. No. 2, April 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) initiated the UGTA Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project investigation sites have been grouped into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) in accordance with the most recent version of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The primary UGTA objective is to gather data to characterize the groundwater aquifers beneath the NTS and adjacent lands. The investigations proposed under the UGTA program may involve the drilling and sampling of new wells; recompletion, monitoring, and sampling of existing wells; well development and hydrologic/ aquifer testing; geophysical surveys; and subsidence crater recharge evaluation. Those wastes generated as a result of these activities will be managed in accordance with existing federal and state regulations, DOE Orders, and NNSA/NV waste minimization and pollution prevention objectives. This Waste Management Plan provides a general framework for all Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project participants to follow for the characterization, storage/accumulation, treatment, and disposal of wastes generated by UGTA Project activities. The objective of this waste management plan is to provide guidelines to minimize waste generation and to properly manage wastes that are produced. Attachment 1 to this plan is the Fluid Management Plan and details specific strategies for management of fluids produced under UGTA operations.

  17. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    PubMed Central

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  18. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Phoenix, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-11-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) continued environmental investigation of the subsurface Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447. The PSA is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the US' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device deep underground in granitic rock to determine whether seismic waves produced by an underground nuclear test could be differentiated from seismic waves produced by a naturally occurring earthquake. The test was a joint effort conducted by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) in October 1963 (AEC, 1964).

  1. State Education Department Facilities Planning Unit. Report 96-D-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    Generally, construction projects undertaken by school districts in New York State are financed in part by state aid. The Education Department's Facilities Planning unit approves state aid for school-district construction projects outside New York City. This report presents findings of an audit that evaluated whether the Unit management's oversight…

  2. Tunnelling in Urbanised Areas - Geotechnical Case Studies at Different Project Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Stefan; Poscher, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard

    Tunnelling in urbanised areas is always a challenge for the client and the contractor as well as for the designers, the engineers, and the geologists. The high demand for space and the disturbance of existing infrastructures by construction measures increasingly forces future infrastructure projects to be carried out underground. At the same time, interferences with human, natural or water resources shall be reduced and noise, dust, as well as site traffic shall be minimised. Quite frequently, politics also come into play. All these factors may lead to pre-determined routes, with ground conditions which may not always be very favourable. This article presents examples of different projects at different stages and emphasizes the importance of engineering geology in the route selection process. The most promising options are routes located in ground, which is not sensitive to settlement and/or water ingress. A longer route in favourable ground conditions is to be given preference over a shorter route in adverse ground conditions. In case of no alternative, the risk of surface settlements and exploding construction costs have to be taken into account. The first project presented is the railway line in the Inn valley / Tyrol, comprising four sections in urbanised areas, which - due to environmental and political reasons - have to cross infrastructure facilities and traffic lines, often in unfavourable ground conditions. There is a variety of construction methods in the tender design to be applied in urbanised tunnelling ranging from NATM tunnels with local groundwater draw-down and jet grouting enclosure against water pressure, to TBM-driven tunnels with hydro-shield. The second project is a planned by-pass for the city of Linz, which is at the environmental impact assessment stage. The alignment is dominated by geological considerations, avoiding unfavourable ground conditions to the greatest possible extent.

  3. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  5. On integrable matrix product operators with bond dimension D = 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Hosho

    2015-01-01

    We construct and study a two-parameter family of matrix product operators of bond dimension D = 4. The operators M(x, y) act on ({\\Bbb{C}}_2)\\otimes N , i.e. the space of states of a spin-1/2 chain of length N. For the particular values of the parameters: x = 1/3 and y=1/\\sqrt{3} , the operator turns out to be proportional to the square root of the reduced density matrix of the valence-bond-solid state on a hexagonal ladder. We show that M(x, y) has several interesting properties when (x, y) lies on the unit circle centered at the origin: x2 + y2 = 1. In this case, we find that M(x, y) commutes with the Hamiltonian and all the conserved charges of the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain. Moreover, M(x1, y1) and M(x2, y2) are mutually commuting if x^2i + y^2_i=1 for both i = 1 and 2. These remarkable properties of M(x, y) are proved as a consequence of the Yang-Baxter equation.

  6. Microglial phospholipase D4 deficiency influences myelination during brain development.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Terumasa; Otani, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is expressed in activated microglia that transiently appear in white matter during postnatal brain development. Previous knockdown experiments using cultured microglia showed PLD4 involvement in phagocytosis and proliferation. To elucidate the role of PLD4 in vivo, PLD4-deficient mice were generated and the cerebella were examined at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P7, when PLD4 expression is highest in microglia. Wild type microglia showed strong immunoreactivity for microglial marker CD68 at P5, whereas CD68 signals were weak in PLD4-deficient microglia, suggesting that loss of PLD4 affects microglial activation. At P5 and P7, immunostaining for anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibody indicated a mild but significant delay in myelination in PLD4-deficient cerebellum. Similar change was also observed in the corpus callosum at P7. However, this difference was not apparent at P10, suggesting that microglial PLD4-deficiency primarily influences the early myelination stage. Thus, microglia may have a transient role in myelination via a PLD4-related mechanism during development. PMID:27477458

  7. Microglial phospholipase D4 deficiency influences myelination during brain development.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Terumasa; Otani, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is expressed in activated microglia that transiently appear in white matter during postnatal brain development. Previous knockdown experiments using cultured microglia showed PLD4 involvement in phagocytosis and proliferation. To elucidate the role of PLD4 in vivo, PLD4-deficient mice were generated and the cerebella were examined at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P7, when PLD4 expression is highest in microglia. Wild type microglia showed strong immunoreactivity for microglial marker CD68 at P5, whereas CD68 signals were weak in PLD4-deficient microglia, suggesting that loss of PLD4 affects microglial activation. At P5 and P7, immunostaining for anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibody indicated a mild but significant delay in myelination in PLD4-deficient cerebellum. Similar change was also observed in the corpus callosum at P7. However, this difference was not apparent at P10, suggesting that microglial PLD4-deficiency primarily influences the early myelination stage. Thus, microglia may have a transient role in myelination via a PLD4-related mechanism during development.

  8. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A Progress Report-November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karadeniz, D.; Rogers, J.D.; Williams, R.A.; Cramer, C.H.; Bauer, R.A.; Hoffman, D.; Chung, J.; Hempen, G.L.; Steckel, P.H.; Boyd, O.L.; Watkins, C.M.; McCallister, N.S.; Schweig, E.

    2009-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) is producing digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and ground shaking, in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. Although not site specific enough to indicate the hazard at a house-by-house resolution, they can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as the result of an earthquake. Earthquake hazard maps provide one way of conveying such estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which produces earthquake hazard maps for the Nation, is working with local partners to develop detailed maps for urban areas vulnerable to strong ground shaking. These partners, which along with the USGS comprise the SLAEHMP, include the Missouri University of Science and Technology-Rolla (Missouri S&T), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Saint Louis University, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency, and URS Corporation. Preliminary hazard maps covering a test portion of the 29-quadrangle St. Louis study area have been produced and are currently being evaluated by the SLAEHMP. A USGS Fact Sheet summarizing this project was produced and almost 1000 copies have been distributed at several public outreach meetings and field trips that have featured the SLAEHMP (Williams and others, 2007). In addition, a USGS website focusing on the SLAEHMP, which provides links to project results and relevant earthquake hazard information, can be found at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/ceus/urban_map/st_louis/index.php. This progress report summarizes the

  9. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and hand preference for writing in the BBC Internet Study.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Peters, M

    2009-09-01

    The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) may be negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone. Hand preference has been linked with prenatal testosterone and 2D:4D. Here we show that 2D:4D is associated with hand preference for writing in a large internet sample (n>170,000) in which participants self-reported their finger lengths. We replicated a significant association between right 2D:4D and writing hand preference (low right 2D:4D associated with left hand preference) as well as a significant correlation between writing hand preference and the difference between left and right 2D:4D or Dr-l (low Dr-l associated with left hand preference). A new significant correlation between left 2D:4D and writing hand preference was also shown (high left 2D:4D associated with left hand preference). There was a clear interaction between writing hand preference and 2D:4D: The left 2D:4D was significantly larger than the right 2D:4D in male and female left-handed writers, and the right hand 2D:4D was significantly larger than the left hand 2D:4D in male and female right-handed writers.

  10. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  11. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  12. Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal area CA1-subiculum projection: implications for theories of memory.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, S M; Commins, S; Anderson, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews investigations of synaptic plasticity in the major, and underexplored, pathway from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum. This brain area is the major synaptic relay for the majority of hippocampal area CA1 neurons, making the subiculum the last relay of the hippocampal formation prior to the cortex. The subiculum thus has a very major role in mediating hippocampal-cortical interactions. We demonstrate that the projection from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum sustains plasticity on a number of levels. We show that this pathway is capable of undergoing both long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF, a short-term plastic effect). Although we failed to induce long-term depression (LTD) of this pathway with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and two-pulse stimulation (TPS), both protocols can induce a "late-developing" potentiation of synaptic transmission. We further demonstrate that baseline synaptic transmission can be dissociated from paired-pulse stimulation of the same pathway; we also show that it is possible, using appropriate protocols, to change PPF to paired-pulse depression, thus revealing subtle and previously undescribed mechanisms which regulate short-term synaptic plasticity. Finally, we successfully recorded from individual subicular units in the freely-moving animal, and provide a description of the characteristics of such neurons in a pellet-chasing task. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to theories of the biological consolidation of memory.

  13. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2000 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, G F; Hakemi, N L; Hudson, G B; Hutcheon, I D; Lau, C A; Kersting, A B; Kenneally, J M; Moran, J E; Phinney, D L; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Williams, R; Zavarin, M

    2001-07-01

    This report highlights the results of FY 2000 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. This is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL-ANCD to document recent investigations of radionuclide migration and transport processes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOENV), and supports DP operations at the NTS through studies of radiochemical and hydrologic processes that are relevant to the DP mission. Other organizations that support the HRMP include Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPS), and Bechtel Nevada (BN). The UGTA Project is sponsored by the Environmental Management (EM) program at DOENV; its goal is to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination in groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. The project strategy follows guidelines set forth in a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Participating contractors include LLNL (both ANCD and the Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate), LANL, USGS, DRI, BN, and IT Corporation (with subcontract support from Geotrans Inc.).

  14. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  15. Natural Resource Dependency and Decentralized Conservation Within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  16. Cerebellar vermis is a target of projections from the motor areas in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Keith A; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2011-09-20

    The cerebellum has a medial, cortico-nuclear zone consisting of the cerebellar vermis and the fastigial nucleus. Functionally, this zone is concerned with whole-body posture and locomotion. The vermis classically is thought to be included within the "spinocerebellum" and to receive somatic sensory input from ascending spinal pathways. In contrast, the lateral zone of the cerebellum is included in the "cerebro-cerebellum" because it is densely interconnected with the cerebral cortex. Here we report the surprising result that a portion of the vermis receives dense input from the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus into lobules VB-VIIIB of the vermis and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to define disynaptic inputs to it. We found that large numbers of neurons in the primary motor cortex and in several motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere project to the vermis. Thus, our results challenge the classical view of the vermis and indicate that it no longer should be considered as entirely isolated from the cerebral cortex. Instead, lobules VB-VIIIB represent a site where the cortical motor areas can influence descending control systems involved in the regulation of whole-body posture and locomotion. We argue that the projection from the cerebral cortex to the vermis is part of the neural substrate for anticipatory postural adjustments and speculate that dysfunction of this system may underlie some forms of dystonia. PMID:21911381

  17. Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  18. Soil Fertility Status of the Kano River Irrigation Project Area in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibrin, J. M.; Abubakar, S. Z.; Suleiman, A.

    This study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status and the extent of soil sodicity and salinity in the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP), located between latitudes 11°32`N to 11°51`N and longitudes 8°20`E to 8°40`E in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from the entire project area using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on farmers` soil and water management practices. Soil sodicity was the most serious problem in the area. The exchangeable sodium percentage in the top soil ranged from 3.1 to 34.4 with an average of 14.8, while in the subsoil the range was from 3.1 to 40.6 with an average of 17.5. Soil pH values ranged from 5.6 to 9.5 and 4.8 to 9.6 in the top and subsoil, respectively. About 53% of the farmers interviewed cultivated on their field drains, a practice that has led to the blockage of most of the field drains in KRIP and resulted in waterlogging.

  19. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project Shoal Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project Shoal Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.

  20. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  1. Future climate and wildfire: ecosystem projections of area burned in the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Duffy, P.; Battisti, D. S.; McKenzie, D.; Peterson, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The area burned by fire in ecosystems of the western United States has been closely linked to climate in the paleoecological record and in the modern record. Statistical models of area burned show that the climatic controls on area burned vary with vegetation type (Littell et al. 2009). In more arid or systems (grasslands, shrublands, woodlands), antecedent climatic controls on fire were associated first with the production of fuels and secondarily with drought in the year of fire. These relationships typically manifested as wetter and sometimes cooler conditions in the seasons prior to the fire season. Area burned in forest ecosystems and some woodlands was primarily associated with drought conditions, specifically increased temperature and decreased precipitation in the year of fire and the seasons leading up to the fire season. These climatic controls indicate the role of climate in drying existing fuels. Statistical fire models trained on the late 20th century for ecoprovinces in the West would be useful for projecting area burned, at least until vegetation type conversion driven by climate and disturbance occurs. To that end, we used ~ 2.5 degree gridded future climate fields derived for a multi-GCM ensemble of 1C and 2C temperature increase forcing to develop future ecoprovince monthly and seasonal average temperature and associated precipitation and used these as predictors in statistical fire models of future projected area burned. We also conducted modeling scenarios with the ensemble temperature increase paired with historical precipitation. Most ecoprovinces had increases in area burned, with a range of ~ 67% to over 600% . Ecoprovinces that are primarily sensitive to precipitation changes exhibit smaller increases than those most sensitive to temperature (forest systems). We also developed exceedance probabilities. Some ecoprovinces show large increases in area burned but low exceedance probabilities, suggest that the area burned is concentrated more

  2. GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area send direct inhibitory projections to orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki C; Tsujino, Natsuko; Hasegawa, Emi; Akashi, Kaori; Abe, Manabu; Mieda, Michihiro; Sakimura, Kenji; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Populations of neurons in the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) fire rapidly during sleep, exhibiting sleep/waking state-dependent firing patterns that are the reciprocal of those observed in the arousal system. The majority of these preoptic "sleep-active" neurons contain the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. On the other hand, a population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) contains orexins, which play an important role in the maintenance of wakefulness, and exhibit an excitatory influence on arousal-related neurons. It is important to know the anatomical and functional interactions between the POA sleep-active neurons and orexin neurons, both of which play important, but opposite roles in regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. In this study, we confirmed that specific pharmacogenetic stimulation of GABAergic neurons in the POA leads to an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We next examined direct connectivity between POA GABAergic neurons and orexin neurons using channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) as an anterograde tracer as well as an optogenetic tool. We expressed ChR2-eYFP selectively in GABAergic neurons in the POA by AAV-mediated gene transfer, and examined the projection sites of ChR2-eYFP-expressing axons, and the effect of optogenetic stimulation of ChR2-eYFP on the activity of orexin neurons. We found that these neurons send widespread projections to wakefulness-related areas in the hypothalamus and brain stem, including the LHA where these fibers make close appositions to orexin neurons. Optogenetic stimulation of these fibers resulted in rapid inhibition of orexin neurons. These observations suggest direct connectivity between POA GABAergic neurons and orexin neurons.

  3. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  4. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix...) Pt. 305, App. D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305—Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (Dollars/Year) Natural Gas ($/year) Low...

  5. 26 CFR 1.337(d)-4 - Taxable to tax-exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxable to tax-exempt. 1.337(d)-4 Section 1.337(d)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.337(d)-4 Taxable to tax-exempt. (a) Gain...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...) Pt. 305, App. D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305—Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas Link to an...

  7. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  8. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  9. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Tests Area Project FY 2003 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J., B C; F., E G; K., E B; L., F D; J., H L; Max, H; Bryant, H G; B., K A; E., M J; A., P G; P., R T; K., S D; F.B., T A; W., W R; Mavrik, Z; Pihong, Z

    2004-08-17

    This report describes FY 2003 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The present report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-CBND during FY 2003. Although we have emphasized investigations that were led by CBND, we also participated in a variety of collaborative studies with other UGTA and HRMP contract organizations including the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  10. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  11. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY2005 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Nimz, G J; Ramon, E C; Rose, T P; Shuller, L; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2007-03-23

    This report describes FY 2005 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  12. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  13. Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project: Overview. [Second repository

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The draft Area Recommendation Report (ARR) for the Crystalline Repository Project identifies portions of crystalline rock bodies as proposed potentially acceptable sites for the Nation's second repository for deep geologic burial of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. This Overview provides a brief summary of that report. The US Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated available geologic and environmental data for 235 crystalline rock bodies in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions to identify preliminary candidate areas. The 12 proposed potentially acceptable sites are located in the States of Georgia (1), Maine (2), Minnesota (3), New Hampshire (1), North Carolina (2), Virginia (2), and Wisconsin (1). The data, analyses and rationale pertaining to the identification of the 12 proposed potentially acceptable sites are presented in the draft ARR. The analyses presented in the draft ARR demonstrate that the evidence available for each proposed potentially acceptable site supports (1) a finding that the site is not disqualified under Appendix III of the DOE Siting Guidelines and (2) a decision to proceed with the continued investigation of the site on the basis of the favorable and potentially adverse conditions identified to date. These potentially acceptable sites will be investigated and evaluated in more detail during the area phase of the siting process and considered along with other candidate sites in a progressive narrowing process to finally choose the site of the second repository in 1998.

  14. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  15. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  16. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  17. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes. PMID:25795338

  18. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes.

  19. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  20. Large-area soft x-ray projection lithography using multilayer mirrors structured by RIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Steffen; Kloidt, Andreas; Kleineberg, Ulf; Schmiedeskamp, Bernt; Kadel, Klaus; Schomburg, Werner K.; Hormes, F. J.; Heinzmann, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    SXPL (soft X-ray projection lithography) is one of the most promising applications of X-ray reflecting optics using multilayer mirrors. Within our collaboration, such multilayer mirrors were fabricated, characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors were produced by electron beam evaporation in UHV under thermal treatment with an in-situ X-ray controlled thickness in the region of 2d equals 14 nm. The reflectivities measured at normal incidence reached up to 54%. Various surface analysis techniques have been applied in order to characterize and optimize the X-ray mirrors. The multilayers were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) with CF(subscript 4), using a photoresist as the etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested in the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA at the Physikalisches Institut of Bonn University. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 cm(superscript 2) of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto the resist (Hoechst AZ PF 514), which was mounted at an average distance of about 7 mm. In the first test-experiments, structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced over the whole of the exposed area. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  1. Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

  2. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  3. Estradiol-sensitive projection neurons in the female rat preoptic area

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area (POA) interrupts the lordosis reflex, a combined contraction of back muscles, in response to male mounts and the major receptive component of sexual behavior in female rat in estrus, without interfering with the proceptive component of this behavior or solicitation. Axon-sparing POA lesions with an excitotoxin, on the other hand, enhance lordosis and diminish proceptivity. The POA effect on the reflex is mediated by its estrogen-sensitive projection to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as shown by the behavioral effect of VTA stimulation as well as by the demonstration of an increased threshold for antidromic activation of POA neurons from the VTA in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol benzoate (EB). EB administration increases the antidromic activation threshold in ovariectomized females and neonatally castrated males, but not in neonatally androgenized females; the EB effect is limited to those that show lordosis in the presence of EB. EB causes behavioral disinhibition of lordosis through an inhibition of POA neurons with axons to the VTA, which eventually innervate medullospinal neurons innervating spinal motoneurons of the back muscle. The EB-induced change in the threshold or the axonal excitability may be a result of EB-dependent induction of BK channels. Recordings from freely moving female rats engaging in sexual interactions revealed separate subpopulations of POA neurons for the receptive and proceptive behaviors. Those POA neurons engaging in the control of proceptivity are EB-sensitive and project to the midbrain locomotor region (MLR). EB thus enhances lordosis by reducing excitatory neural impulses from the POA to the VTA. An augmentation of the POA effect to the MLR may culminate in an increased locomotion that embodies behavioral estrus in the female rat. PMID:25852453

  4. FISH detection of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: Exclusion of D4F26 as critical site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.P.; Altherr, M.R.; Blake, J.M.; Keppen, L.D.

    1994-08-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is due to a deletion in the terminal band of 4p16.3. Among loci that have been involved in deletions are D4S95, D4S125, D4F26, as shown by PCR typing, Southern blot hybridization, and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Currently, FISH detection of WHS is predicated upon the deletion of the D4F26 locus with failure to hybridize to pC847.351, a commercially available cosmid probe. A WHS patient is shown to have an interstitial deletion, by hemizygosity at D4S98 and D4F26. This suggests that the tip of 4p, specifically D4F26, is not a critical deletion site for WHS. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  6. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... response to a May 18, 2010, notice (75 FR 27808) announcing HUD's intent to operate a small area FMR... are available electronically at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR... Federal Register (75 FR 27808) seeking public comment on a small area FMR demonstration project....

  7. Bay Area Fatherhood Initiatives: Policymaker and Practitioner Perspectives on Intergrating Fathering Efforts. A Report from the Bay Area Fathering Integrated Data System (BAyFIDS) II Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsden, Vivian L.; Rethemeyer, R. Karl

    The past 10 years have been a period of enormous growth in efforts around father involvement, with local government systems attempting to meet the needs of the diverse father population. The Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAYFIDS) Project is designed to track and analyze the operation and impact of fathering programs and describe the…

  8. Evaluation of a Terminal Area In-Trail Approach Spacing, Project and Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelden, Stephen; Johnson, Walter (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Reported here are the results of work completed as a precursor to Distributed Air Ground (DAG), Concept Element 11 (CE11) research. CE11 is a NASA, Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) concept initiated to promote research on in-trail merging and spacing during approach in the terminal area environment, such that improvements to the National Air Space (NAS) may be realized. A description of the project concept, results of a preliminary study, and a literature review are presented. In terms of conclusions, study results, and reference material respectively: 1) the concept is supported as being significant to NAS capacity improvement, 2) the preliminary study indicated that having more than one downstream, in-trail aircraft present on a CDTI during approach may be advantageous, and that flying traditional Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) utilizing advanced decision support tools (DST) may be complicated by wake turbulence considerations, a lack of vertical awareness on the part of the flight crew, and the 'step-down' nature of many terminal area approaches, and 3) the results of a literature review are presented for future reference.

  9. Lack of imprinting of the human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Propping, P.; Wolf, H.K.

    1996-04-09

    The term genomic imprinting has been used to refer to the differential expression of genetic material depending on whether it has come from the male or female parent. In humans, the chromosomal region 11p15.5 has been shown to contain 2 imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2). The gene for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), which is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology, is also located in this area. In the present study, we have examined the imprinting status of the DRD4 gene in brain tissue of an epileptic patient who was heterozygous for a 12 bp repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the DRD4 gene. We show that both alleles are expressed in equivalent amounts. We therefore conclude that the DRD4 gene is not imprinted in the human brain. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    SciTech Connect

    Marschke, Stephen F.

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  11. Documentation assessment, Project C-018H, 200-E area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, M.W.; Connor, M.D.; Mertelendy, J.I.

    1994-12-21

    Project C-018H is one of the fourteen subprojects to the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project. Project C-018H provides treatment and disposal for the 242-A Evaporator and PUREX plant process condensate waste streams. This project used the Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach proposed by RL. The IMT approach included all affected organizations on the project team to coordinate and execute all required project tasks, while striving to integrate and satisfy all technical, operational, functional, and organizational objectives. The HEC Projects were initiated in 1989. Project C-018H began in early 1990, with completion of construction currently targeted for mid-1995. This assessment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the management control on design documents and quality assurance records developed and submitted for processing, use, and retention for the Project. The assessment focused primarily on the overall adequacy and quality of the design documentation currently being submitted to the project document control function.

  12. D4 RECEPTOR DEFICIENCY IN MICE HAS LIMITED EFFECTS ON IMPULSIVITY AND NOVELTY SEEKING

    PubMed Central

    Helms, C. M.; Gubner, N. R.; Wilhelm, C. J.; Mitchell, S. H.; Grandy, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    Alleles of the human dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) gene (DRD4.7) have repeatedly been found to correlate with novelty seeking, substance abuse, pathological gambling, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If these various psychopathologies are a result of attenuated D4R-mediated signaling, mice lacking D4Rs (D4KO) should be more impulsive than wild-type (WT) mice and exhibit more novelty seeking. However, in our study, D4KO and WT mice showed similar levels of impulsivity as measured by delay discounting performance and response inhibition on a Go/No-go test, suggesting that D4R-mediated signaling may not affect impulsivity. D4KO mice were more active than WT mice in the first 5 min of a novel open field test, suggesting greater novelty seeking but for both genotypes, with the more impulsive D4KO mice habituated less readily in the novel open field. These data suggest that the absence of D4Rs is not sufficient to cause psychopathologies associated with heightened impulsivity and novelty seeking. PMID:18456309

  13. Structural analysis of point mutations at the Vaccinia virus A20/D4 interface.

    PubMed

    Contesto-Richefeu, Céline; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P; Peyrefitte, Christophe N; Iseni, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The Vaccinia virus polymerase holoenzyme is composed of three subunits: E9, the catalytic DNA polymerase subunit; D4, a uracil-DNA glycosylase; and A20, a protein with no known enzymatic activity. The D4/A20 heterodimer is the DNA polymerase cofactor, the function of which is essential for processive DNA synthesis. The recent crystal structure of D4 bound to the first 50 amino acids of A20 (D4/A201-50) revealed the importance of three residues, forming a cation-π interaction at the dimerization interface, for complex formation. These are Arg167 and Pro173 of D4 and Trp43 of A20. Here, the crystal structures of the three mutants D4-R167A/A201-50, D4-P173G/A201-50 and D4/A201-50-W43A are presented. The D4/A20 interface of the three structures has been analysed for atomic solvation parameters and cation-π interactions. This study confirms previous biochemical data and also points out the importance for stability of the restrained conformational space of Pro173. Moreover, these new structures will be useful for the design and rational improvement of known molecules targeting the D4/A20 interface. PMID:27599859

  14. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (< 5%). These results show that both leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  15. Sensitivity projections for dark matter searches with the Fermi large area telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, E.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Anderson, B.; Caputo, R.; Cuoco, A.; Di Mauro, M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Meyer, M.; Tibaldo, L.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Ceraudo, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Digel, S. W.; Gaskins, J.; Gustafsson, M.; Mirabal, N.; Razzano, M.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the γ-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 meV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this report we describe methods used to search for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. We also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, considering both statistical and systematic uncertainties. We project the expected sensitivities of each search method for 10 and 15 years of LAT data taking. In particular, we find that the sensitivity of searches targeting dwarf galaxies, which provide the best limits currently, will improve faster than the square root of observing time. Current LAT limits for dwarf galaxies using six years of data reach the thermal relic level for masses up to 120 GeV for the b b ¯ annihilation channel for reasonable dark matter density profiles. With projected discoveries of additional dwarfs, these limits could extend to about 250 GeV. With as much as 15 years of LAT data these searches would be sensitive to dark matter annihilations at the thermal relic cross section for masses to greater than 400 GeV (200 GeV) in the b b ¯ (τ+τ-) annihilation channels.

  16. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Sensitivity projections for dark matter dearches with the Fermi large area telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Charles, E.; M. Sanchez-Conde; Anderson, B.; Caputo, R.; Cuoco, A.; Di Mauro, M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Meyer, M.; Tibaldo, L.; et al

    2016-05-20

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of themore » $$\\gamma$$-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this report we describe methods used to search for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. We also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, considering both statistical and systematic uncertainties. We project the expected sensitivities of each search method for 10 and 15 years of LAT data taking. In particular, we find that the sensitivity of searches targeting dwarf galaxies, which provide the best limits currently, will improve faster than the square root of observing time. Current LAT limits for dwarf galaxies using six years of data reach the thermal relic level for masses up to 120 GeV for the $$b\\bar{b}$$ annihilation channel for reasonable dark matter density profiles. With projected discoveries of additional dwarfs, these limits could extend to about 250 GeV. With as much as 15 years of LAT data these searches would be sensitive to dark matter annihilations at the thermal relic cross section for masses to greater than 400 GeV (200 GeV) in the $$b\\bar{b}$$ ($$\\tau^+ \\tau^-$$) annihilation channels.« less

  18. MERIS burned area algorithm in the framework of the ESA Fire CCI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, P.; Calado, T.; Gonzalez, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Fire-CCI project aims at generating long and reliable time series of burned area (BA) maps based on existing information provided by European satellite sensors. In this context, a BA algorithm is currently being developed using the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor. The algorithm is being tested over a series of ten study sites with a area of 500x500 km2 each, for the period of 2003 to 2009. The study sites are located in Canada, Colombia, Brazil, Portugal, Angola, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Borneo, Russia and Australia and include a variety of vegetation types characterized by different fire regimes. The algorithm has to take into account several limiting aspects that range from the MERIS sensor characteristics (e.g. the lack of SWIR bands) to the noise presented in the data. In addition the lack of data in some areas caused either because of cloud contamination or because the sensor does not acquire full resolution data over the study area, provokes a limitation difficult to overcome. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the design of the BA algorithm is based on the analysis of maximum composites of spectral indices characterized by low values of temporal standard deviation in space and associated to MODIS hot spots. Accordingly, for each study site and year, composites of maximum values of BAI are computed and the corresponding Julian day of the maximum value and number of observations in the period are registered by pixel . Then we computed the temporal standard deviation for pixels with a number of observations greater than 10 using spatial matrices of 3x3 pixels. To classify the BAI values as burned or non-burned we extract statistics using the MODIS hot spots. A pixel is finally classified as burned if it satisfies the following conditions: i) it is associated to hot spots; ii) BAI maximum is higher than a certain threshold and iii) the standard deviation of the Julian day is less than a given number of days.

  19. Project management approach for the Waste Area Grouping 6 Closure/Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document has been developed as a preliminary definition of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 Closure Project Management Approach. The purpose of this document is to identify the roles and responsibilities of the various project team members and to identify the project scope, schedule and budget. This document is intended to be a living document. As information develops, this document will be revised to create a WAG 6 Project Management Plan (PMP). The PMP will provide additional focus to the information contained in this document. The information required will be available as the selected alternative for remediation of WAG 6 is approved and Remedial Action Plans are conceptualized. This document has been reviewed against, and is intended to be consistent with, the Environmental Restoration Program Management Plan.

  20. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  1. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix...) Pt. 305, App. D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Instantaneous—Gas Range Information Capacity.../year) Natural gas ($/year) LOW HIGH Propane ($/year) LOW HIGH Under 1.00 285 285 479 479 1.00 to...

  2. 2D:4D digit ratio predicts delay of gratification in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Sergio; Moreira, Bruno; Da Costa, Newton

    2014-01-01

    We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification.

  3. 2D:4D Digit Ratio Predicts Delay of Gratification in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Sergio; Moreira, Bruno; Da Costa, Newton

    2014-01-01

    We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification. PMID:25490040

  4. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2006 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Culham, H W; Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Blasiyh Nuno, G A; Powell, B A; Rose, T P; Singleton, M J; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-04-08

    This report describes FY 2006 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains four chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and National Security Technologies (NSTec). Chapter 1 is a summary of FY 2006 sampling efforts at near-field 'hot' wells at the NTS, and presents new chemical and isotopic data for groundwater samples from four near-field wells. These include PM-2 and U-20n PS 1DDh (CHESHIRE), UE-7ns (BOURBON), and U-19v PS No.1ds (ALMENDRO). Chapter 2 is a summary of the results of chemical and isotopic measurements of groundwater samples from three UGTA environmental monitoring wells. These wells are: ER-12-4 and U12S located in Area 12 on Rainier Mesa and

  5. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  6. Optimal pipe size design for looped irrigation water supply system using harmony search: Saemangeum project area.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Guen; Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  7. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  8. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  9. Project Management Meets Change Management - A Success Story. Focus Area: Tech Perspectives TI012SN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the concepts and terminology from Project Management, the process of planning and executing a Change Management (CM) Infrastructure improvement project is described. The primary audience for this presentation includes both experienced and relatively new CM administrators and their managers. It also includes anyone with an interest in the application of project management knowledge to CM administration. There are several benefits: the complexity of the CM tool technology is more manageable, CM administrators get to use project management knowledge to complete a project (not "firefighting"), improve relations with your customers (that means developers and managers), and get the opportunity to do it again.

  10. A global climate model based, Bayesian climate projection for northern extra-tropical land areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Eliseev, Alexey V.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2012-04-01

    Projections with contemporary global climate models (GCMs) still markedly deviate from each other on magnitude of climate changes, in particular, in middle to subpolar latitudes. In this work, a climate projection based on the ensemble of 18 CMIP3 GCM models forced by SRES A1B scenario is performed for the northern extra-tropical land. To assess the change of soil state, off-line simulations are performed with the Deep Soil Simulator (DSS) developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS). This model is forced by output of the above-mentioned GCM simulations. Ensemble mean and ensemble standard deviation for any variable are calculated by using Bayesian averaging which allows to enhance a contribution from more realistic models and diminish that from less realistic models. As a result, uncertainty for soil and permafrost variables become substantially narrower. The Bayesian weights for each model are calculated based on their performance for the present-day surface air temperature (SAT) and permafrost distributions, and for SAT trend during the 20th century. The results, except for intra-ensemble standard deviations, are not very sensitive to particular choice of Bayesian traits. Averaged over the northern extra-tropical land, annual mean surface air temperature in the ensemble increases by 3.1 ± 1.4 K (ensemble mean±intra-ensemble standard deviation) during the 21st century. Precipitation robustly increases in the pan-Arctic and decreases in the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. The models agree on near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. The area underlain by near-surface permafrost decreases from the contemporary value 20 ± 3 mln sq. km to 14 ± 3 mln sq. km in the late 21st century. This leads to risk for geocryological hazard due to soil subsidence. This risk is classified as moderate to high in the southern and western parts of Siberia and Tibet in Eurasia, and in the region from Alaska

  11. Expression of a Novel D4 Dopamine Receptor in the Lamprey Brain. Evolutionary Considerations about Dopamine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous data reported in lampreys, which belong to the phylogenetically oldest branch of vertebrates, show that the dopaminergic system was already well developed at the dawn of vertebrate evolution. The expression of dopamine in the lamprey brain is well conserved when compared to other vertebrates, and this is also true for the D2 receptor. Additionally, the key role of dopamine in the striatum, modulating the excitability in the direct and indirect pathways through the D1 and D2 receptors, has also been recently reported in these animals. The moment of divergence regarding the two whole genome duplications occurred in vertebrates suggests that additional receptors, apart from the D1 and D2 previously reported, could be present in lampreys. We used in situ hybridization to characterize the expression of a novel dopamine receptor, which we have identified as a D4 receptor according to the phylogenetic analysis. The D4 receptor shows in the sea lamprey a more restricted expression pattern than the D2 subtype, as reported in mammals. Its main expression areas are the striatum, lateral and ventral pallial sectors, several hypothalamic regions, habenula, and mesencephalic and rhombencephalic motoneurons. Some expression areas are well conserved through vertebrate evolution, as is the case of the striatum or the habenula, but the controversies regarding the D4 receptor expression in other vertebrates hampers for a complete comparison, especially in rhombencephalic regions. Our results further support that the dopaminergic system in vertebrates is well conserved and suggest that at least some functions of the D4 receptor were already present before the divergence of lampreys. PMID:26778974

  12. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  13. Nevada Test Site Area 25, Radiological Survey and Cleanup Project, 1974-1983 (a revised final report). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the radiological survey, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 facilities and land areas incorporated in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS). Buildings, facilities and support systems used after 1959 for nuclear reactor and engine testing were surveyed for the presence of radioactive contamination. The radiological survey portion of the project encompassed portable instrument surveys and removable contamination surveys (swipe) for beta plus gamma and alpha radioactive contamination of facilities, equipment and land areas. Soil sampling was also accomplished. The majority of Area 25 facilities and land areas have been returned to unrestricted use. Remaining radiologically contaminated areas are posted with warning signs and barricades. 9 references, 23 figures.

  14. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action

  15. 17 CFR 240.14d-4 - Dissemination of tender offers to security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to security holders. 240.14d-4 Section 240.14d-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... offers to security holders. As soon as practicable on the date of commencement of a tender offer, the bidder must publish, send or give the disclosure required by § 240.14d-6 to security holders of the...

  16. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females. PMID:25226321

  17. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females.

  18. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  19. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom, Ed.

    Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

  20. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  1. Interpreting digit ratio (2D:4D)-behavior correlations: 2D:4D sex difference, stability, and behavioral correlates and their replicability in young children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of using the ratio of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) to study influences of early androgen exposure on human behavior relies, in part, on a report that the ratio is sex-dimorphic and stable from age 2 years (Manning etal., 1998). However, subsequent research has rarely replicated this finding. Moreover, although 2D:4D has been correlated with many behaviors, these correlations are often inconsistent. Young children's 2D:4D-behavior correlations may be more consistent than those of older individuals, because young children have experienced fewer postnatal influences. To evaluate the usefulness of 2D:4D as a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in studies of 2D:4D-behavior correlations, we assessed its sex difference, temporal stability, and behavioral correlates over a 6- to 8-month period in 126, 2- to 3-year-old children, providing a rare same-sample replicability test. We found a moderate sex difference on both hands and high temporal stability. However, between-sex overlap and within-sex variability were also large. Only 3 of 24 correlations with sex-typed behaviors-scores on the Preschool Activities Inventory (PSAI), preference for a boy-typical toy, preference for a girl-typical toy, were significant and in the predicted direction, all of which involved the PSAI, partially confirming findings from another study. Correlation coefficients were larger for behaviors that showed larger sex differences. But, as in older samples, the overall pattern showed inconsistency across time, sex, and hand. Therefore, although sex-dimorphic and stable, 2D:4D-behavior correlations are no more consistent for young children than for older samples. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  2. The Alliance Project: Its Impact on Special Education Teacher Preparation Efforts in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Naomi C.; Cantou-Clarke, Cynthia D.; Easterling, Jeffrey

    The Alliance Project strives to increase the participation of minority institutions of higher education (MIHEs) in personnel preparation grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements supported by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The project's primary purpose is to create a more diverse pool of special educators and related service…

  3. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  4. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area. PMID:12881622

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Emergence and fate of cyclic volatile polydimethylsiloxanes (D4, D5) in municipal waste streams: release mechanisms, partitioning and persistence in air, water, soil and sediments.

    PubMed

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2014-01-15

    Siloxane use in consumer products (i.e., fabrics, paper, concrete, wood, adhesive surfaces) has significantly increased in recent years due to their excellent water repelling and antimicrobial characteristics. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the release mechanisms of two siloxane compounds, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), which have been detected both at landfills and wastewater treatment plants, estimate persistence times in different media, and project release quantities over time in relation to their increasing use. Analyses were conducted based on fate and transport mechanisms after siloxanes enter waste streams. Due to their high volatility, the majority of D4 and D5 end up in the biogas during decomposition. D5 is about ten times more likely to partition into the solid phase (i.e., soil, biosolids). D5 concentrations in the wastewater influent and biogas are about 16 times and 18 times higher respectively, in comparison to the detected levels of D4.

  7. Emergence and fate of cyclic volatile polydimethylsiloxanes (D4, D5) in municipal waste streams: release mechanisms, partitioning and persistence in air, water, soil and sediments.

    PubMed

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2014-01-15

    Siloxane use in consumer products (i.e., fabrics, paper, concrete, wood, adhesive surfaces) has significantly increased in recent years due to their excellent water repelling and antimicrobial characteristics. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the release mechanisms of two siloxane compounds, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), which have been detected both at landfills and wastewater treatment plants, estimate persistence times in different media, and project release quantities over time in relation to their increasing use. Analyses were conducted based on fate and transport mechanisms after siloxanes enter waste streams. Due to their high volatility, the majority of D4 and D5 end up in the biogas during decomposition. D5 is about ten times more likely to partition into the solid phase (i.e., soil, biosolids). D5 concentrations in the wastewater influent and biogas are about 16 times and 18 times higher respectively, in comparison to the detected levels of D4. PMID:24012894

  8. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  9. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an

  10. Large area projection liquid-crystal video display system with inherent grid pattern optically removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A relatively small and low-cost system is provided for projecting a large and bright television image onto a screen. A miniature liquid crystal array is driven by video circuitry to produce a pattern of transparencies in the array corresponding to a television image. Light is directed against the rear surface of the array to illuminate it, while a projection lens lies in front of the array to project the image of the array onto a large screen. Grid lines in the liquid crystal array are eliminated by a spacial filter which comprises a negative of the Fourier transform of the grid.

  11. [An automatic extraction algorithm for individual tree crown projection area and volume based on 3D point cloud data].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Heng; Feng, Zhong-Ke; Su, Zhi-Fang; Xu, Hui; Jiao, You-Quan; Deng, Ou

    2014-02-01

    Tree crown projection area and crown volume are the important parameters for the estimation of biomass, tridimensional green biomass and other forestry science applications. Using conventional measurements of tree crown projection area and crown volume will produce a large area of errors in the view of practical situations referring to complicated tree crown structures or different morphological characteristics. However, it is difficult to measure and validate their accuracy through conventional measurement methods. In view of practical problems which include complicated tree crown structure, different morphological characteristics, so as to implement the objective that tree crown projection and crown volume can be extracted by computer program automatically. This paper proposes an automatic untouched measurement based on terrestrial three-dimensional laser scanner named FARO Photon120 using plane scattered data point convex hull algorithm and slice segmentation and accumulation algorithm to calculate the tree crown projection area. It is exploited on VC+6.0 and Matlab7.0. The experiments are exploited on 22 common tree species of Beijing, China. The results show that the correlation coefficient of the crown projection between Av calculated by new method and conventional method A4 reaches 0.964 (p<0.01); and the correlation coefficient of tree crown volume between V(VC) derived from new method and V(C) by the formula of a regular body is 0.960 (p<0.001). The results also show that the average of V(C) is smaller than that of V(VC) at the rate of 8.03%, and the average of A4 is larger than that of A(V) at the rate of 25.5%. Assumed Av and V(VC) as ture values, the deviations of the new method could be attributed to irregularity of the crowns' silhouettes. Different morphological characteristics of tree crown led to measurement error in forest simple plot survey. Based on the results, the paper proposes that: (1) the use of eight-point or sixteen-point projection with

  12. In-space assembly and construction technology project summary: Infrastructure operations area of the operations technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs describing the in-space assembly and construction technology project of the infrastructure operations area of the operation technology program are presented. Th objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate an in-space assembly and construction capability for large and/or massive spacecraft. The in-space assembly and construction technology program will support the need to build, in orbit, the full range of spacecraft required for the missions to and from planet Earth, including: earth-orbiting platforms, lunar transfer vehicles, and Mars transfer vehicles.

  13. A focal domain of extreme demethylation within D4Z4 in FSHD2

    PubMed Central

    Hartweck, Lynn M.; Anderson, Lindsey J.; Lemmers, Richard J.; Dandapat, Abhijit; Toso, Erik A.; Dalton, Joline C.; Tawil, Rabi; Day, John W.; van der Maarel, Silvère M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a neuromuscular disease with an unclear genetic mechanism. Most patients have a contraction of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array at 4qter, which is thought to cause partial demethylation (FSHD1) of the contracted allele. Demethylation has been surveyed at 3 restriction enzyme sites in the first repeat and only a single site across the entire array, and current models postulate that a generalized D4Z4 chromatin alteration causes FSHD. The background of normal alleles has confounded the study of epigenetic alterations; however, rare patients (FSHD2) have a form of the disease in which demethylation is global, i.e., on all D4Z4 elements throughout the genome. Our objective was to take advantage of the global nature of FSHD2 to identify where disease-relevant methylation changes occur within D4Z4. Methods: Using bisulfite sequencing of DNA from blood and myoblast cells, methylation levels at 74 CpG sites across 3 disparate regions within D4Z4 were measured in FSHD2 patients and controls. Results: We found that rates of demethylation caused by FSHD2 are not consistent across D4Z4. We identified a focal region of extreme demethylation within a 5′ domain, which we named DR1. Other D4Z4 regions, including the DUX4 ORF, were hypomethylated but to a much lesser extent. Conclusions: These data challenge the simple view that FSHD is caused by a broad “opening” of D4Z4 and lead us to postulate that the region of focal demethylation is the site of action of the key D4Z4 chromatin regulatory factors that go awry in FSHD. PMID:23284062

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  15. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2008 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2008-09-30

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades. It includes time-zero monitoring results for planting activities conducted in January 2008, annual survival monitoring for all planting years (2007 and 2008), and recommendations for the successful completion of DOE habitat mitigation commitments for this project.

  16. Purification and properties of D-4-deoxy-5-oxoglucarate hydro-lyase (decarboxylating).

    PubMed

    Jeffcoat, R; Hassall, H; Dagley, S

    1969-12-01

    1. An enzyme extracted from Pseudomonas acidovorans was purified and shown to catalyse the simultaneous dehydration and decarboxylation of d-4-deoxy-5-oxoglucarate. It is proposed to name the enzyme d-4-deoxy-5-oxoglucarate hydro-lyase (decarboxylating), trivial name ;deoxyoxoglucarate dehydratase'. 2. No added cofactors were required, and the enzyme was inactivated when incubated with its substrate in the presence of sodium borohydride. Under these conditions the substrate and enzyme appeared to be bound covalently. 3. The action of the enzyme is readily explained if it is assumed that d-4-deoxy-5-oxoglucarate forms a Schiff base with a lysine residue in the enzyme.

  17. Implementing transnational telemedicine solutions: a connected health project in rural and remote areas of six Northern Periphery countries Series on European collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Casey, Monica; Hayes, Patrick S; Heaney, David; Dowie, Lee; Ólaighin, Gearoid; Matero, Matti; Hun, Soo; Knarvik, Undine; Alrutz, Käte; Eadie, Leila; Glynn, Liam G

    2013-03-01

    This is the first article in a Series on collaborative projects between European countries, relevant for general practice/family medicine and primary healthcare. Telemedicine, in particular the use of the Internet, videoconferencing and handheld devices such as smartphones, holds the potential for further strides in the application of technology for the delivery of healthcare, particularly to communities in rural and remote areas within and without the European Union where this study is taking place. The Northern Periphery Programme has funded the 'Implementing Transnational Telemedicine Solutions' (ITTS) project from September 2011 to December 2013, led by the Centre for Rural Health in Inverness, Scotland. Ten sustainable projects based on videoconsultation (speech therapy, renal services, emergency psychiatry, diabetes), mobile patient self-management (physical activity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease) and home-based health services (medical and social care emergencies, rehabilitation, multi-morbidity) are being implemented by the six partner countries: Scotland, Finland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden. In addition, an International Telemedicine Advisory Service, created for the project, provides business expertise and advice. Community panels contribute feedback on the design and implementation of services and ensure 'user friendliness'. The project goals are to improve accessibility of healthcare in rural and remote communities, reducing unnecessary hospital visits and travel in a sustainable way. Opportunities will be provided for comparative research studies. This article provides an introduction to the ITTS project and how it aims to fulfil these needs. The ITTS team encourage all healthcare providers to at least explore possible technological solutions within their own context. PMID:23432039

  18. Implementing transnational telemedicine solutions: a connected health project in rural and remote areas of six Northern Periphery countries Series on European collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Casey, Monica; Hayes, Patrick S; Heaney, David; Dowie, Lee; Ólaighin, Gearoid; Matero, Matti; Hun, Soo; Knarvik, Undine; Alrutz, Käte; Eadie, Leila; Glynn, Liam G

    2013-03-01

    This is the first article in a Series on collaborative projects between European countries, relevant for general practice/family medicine and primary healthcare. Telemedicine, in particular the use of the Internet, videoconferencing and handheld devices such as smartphones, holds the potential for further strides in the application of technology for the delivery of healthcare, particularly to communities in rural and remote areas within and without the European Union where this study is taking place. The Northern Periphery Programme has funded the 'Implementing Transnational Telemedicine Solutions' (ITTS) project from September 2011 to December 2013, led by the Centre for Rural Health in Inverness, Scotland. Ten sustainable projects based on videoconsultation (speech therapy, renal services, emergency psychiatry, diabetes), mobile patient self-management (physical activity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease) and home-based health services (medical and social care emergencies, rehabilitation, multi-morbidity) are being implemented by the six partner countries: Scotland, Finland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden. In addition, an International Telemedicine Advisory Service, created for the project, provides business expertise and advice. Community panels contribute feedback on the design and implementation of services and ensure 'user friendliness'. The project goals are to improve accessibility of healthcare in rural and remote communities, reducing unnecessary hospital visits and travel in a sustainable way. Opportunities will be provided for comparative research studies. This article provides an introduction to the ITTS project and how it aims to fulfil these needs. The ITTS team encourage all healthcare providers to at least explore possible technological solutions within their own context.

  19. Neural correlates of inhibitory control and functional genetic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Richard C.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Reiersen, Angela M.; Parra, Andres S.; Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been implicated in psychiatric disorders in which deficits of self-regulation are a prominent feature (e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders) and in dopamine D4 receptor insensitivity within prefrontal regions of the brain. Our hypothesis was that carriers of 7-repeats in the Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) of DRD4 (7R+) would recruit prefrontal brain regions involved in successful inhibitory control to a lesser degree than non-carriers (7R−) and demonstrate less inhibitory control as confirmed by observation of locally reduced blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) % signal change and lower accuracy while performing “No-Go” trials of a Go/No-Go task. Methods Participants (age=18, n=62, 33 females) were recruited from the general population of the St. Louis, Missouri region. Participants provided a blood or saliva sample for genotyping, completed drug and alcohol-related questionnaires and IQ testing, and performed a Go/No-Go task inside of a 3T fMRI scanner. Results Go/No-Go task performance did not significantly differ between 7R+ and 7R− groups. Contrast of brain activity during correct “No-Go” trials with a non-target letter baseline revealed significant BOLD activation in a network of brain regions previously implicated in inhibitory control including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, middle frontal, medial prefrontal, subcortical, parietal/temporal, and occipital/cerebellar brain regions. Mean BOLD % signal change during “No-Go” trials was significantly modulated by DRD4 genotype, with 7R+ showing a lower hemodynamic response than 7R− in right anterior prefrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, left premotor cortex, and right occipital/cerebellar areas. Follow-up analyses suggested that 7-repeat status accounted for approximately 5–6% of the variance in the BOLD response during “No-Go” trials. Discussion The DRD4 7

  20. Simulation of five ground-water withdrawal projections for the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.G.; Eychaner, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The N Aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400 sq mi Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. Water in the aquifer is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 sq mi of the area. Maximum saturated thickness is about 1,050 ft. Annual groundwater withdrawals from 1972 through 1986 averaged 5,480 acre-ft and included 3,820 acre-ft used to operate a coal mine on Black Mesa. As a result, water levels have declined in a large part of the aquifer. The coal company has applied for a permanent permit under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. An existing mathematical model of the aquifer in the Black Mesa area was converted to a newer model program and recalibrated by using revised estimates of selected aquifer parameters and a finer spatial grid. The model was used to simulate four groundwater withdrawal alternatives that combined the existing and proposed mining plans with projected constant or increasing pumpage for nearby communities. A fifth alternative combined increasing community pumpage with no mine withdrawals and was used as a basis for comparison. Simulated water levels for the year 2031 in the coal-lease area are projected to be 60 ft lower than in 1985 for the proposed mining plan combined with growing community pumpage and > 100 ft lower than predevelopment water levels over an area of 1,660 sq mi. Groundwater would rise to within 100 ft of predevelopment levels < 10 yr after mine withdrawals cease. Withdrawals at the mine were a minor factor in determining simulated water levels at most communities in the study area. Water levels at Tuba City were not affected by mine pumpage in any projection. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Findlay

    2006-09-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

  2. Spatial configuration of land-use/land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyes Hernández, Humberto; Aguilar Robledo, Miguel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Fortanelli Martínez, Javier

    2008-07-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the configuration and spatial reorganization of land-use and land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, eastern San Luis Potosí, Mexico, as well as the relationship between these changes and the environmental conditions prevailing in the area. Land-use and land-cover changes were determined through the analysis and interpretation of satellite images from different dates. The changes identified in the different study periods were correlated with the prevailing physical factors. The results show that the spatial configuration of farming activities, initially induced by the implementation of a regional development project, is highly correlated to the presence of limiting factors such as soil type, slope, and climate. Particularly, the former represents the element that has led to the establishment of the current distribution pattern of farming activities.

  3. 20. INTERIOR, COAL CHUTES (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR, COAL CHUTES (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x 5 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 19. INTERIOR, 'CHILLER NO. 2' (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR, 'CHILLER NO. 2' (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x 5 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 18. INTERIOR, CATWALK AND PIPES (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR, CATWALK AND PIPES (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x 5 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Low 2D:4D Values Are Associated with Video Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Zenses, Eva-Maria; Lenz, Bernd; Stoessel, Christina; Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27) compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27). Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction. PMID:24236143

  7. Low 2D:4D values are associated with video game addiction.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Zenses, Eva-Maria; Lenz, Bernd; Stoessel, Christina; Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27) compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27). Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction.

  8. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2009 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2009-09-29

    Annual monitoring in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades was conducted in June 2009. MAP guidelines defined mitigation success for this project as 3000 established sagebrush transplants on a 4.5 ha mitigation site after five monitoring years. Annual monitoring results suggest that an estimated 2130 sagebrush transplants currently grow on the site. Additional activities in support of this project included gathering sagebrush seed and securing a local grower to produce between 2250 and 2500 10-in3 tublings for outplanting during the early winter months of FY2010. If the minimum number of seedlings grown for this planting meets quality specifications, and planting conditions are favorable, conservative survival estimates indicate the habitat mitigation goals outlined in the MAP will be met in FY2014.

  9. Irrigated rice area estimation using remote sensing techniques: Project's proposal and preliminary results. [Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.; Moreira, M. A.; Novaes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a methodology for annual estimates of irrigated rice crop in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using remote sensing techniques is proposed. The project involves interpretation, digital analysis, and sampling techniques of LANDSAT imagery. Results are discussed from a preliminary phase for identifying and evaluating irrigated rice crop areas in four counties of the State, for the crop year 1982/1983. This first phase involved just visual interpretation techniques of MSS/LANDSAT images.

  10. Construction of nitronyl nitroxide-based 3d-4f clusters: structure and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Feng; Hu, Peng; Li, Yun-Gai; Li, Li-Cun

    2015-02-01

    Three unprecedented nitronyl nitroxide radical-bridged 3d-4f clusters, [Ln2 Cu2 (hfac)10 (NIT-3py)2 (H2 O)2 ](Ln(III) =Y, Gd, Dy), have been obtained from the self-assembly of Ln(hfac)3 , Cu(hfac)2 , and the radical ligand. The Dy complex shows a slow relaxation of magnetization, representing the first nitronyl nitroxide radical-based 3d-4f cluster with single-molecule magnet behavior.

  11. 77 FR 13971 - Regulated Navigation Area; MBTA Saugus River Railroad Drawbridge Rehabilitation Project, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA... Safety Act, the Coast Guard has the authority to establish RNAs in defined water areas that...

  12. 77 FR 1020 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... for comments. SUMMARY: The United States Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA..., the Coast Guard has the authority to establish RNAs in defined water areas that are determined to...

  13. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...) Metropolitan Area (King and Snohomish Counties) AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... proposed extension of the Central Link Light Rail system from Seattle in King County to the city of... Snohomish and King Counties and the City of Seattle. It is within a geographically constrained area...

  14. Resolvin D4 stereoassignment and its novel actions in host protection and bacterial clearance

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Jeremy W.; Orr, Sarah K.; Dalli, Jesmond; Cheng, Chien-Yee C.; Sanger, Julia M.; Chiang, Nan; Petasis, Nicos A.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    Resolvins of the D-series are specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators that regulate cellular response by orchestrating resolution networks involved in host responses to injury and infection. Here, endogenous resolvin D4 was identified in human tissues and found to persist late into the resolution phase of acute murine Staphylococcus aureus infections. Completion of the first total synthesis of resolvin D4 established the absolute stereochemical configuration of RvD4 confirmed by matching with endogenous RvD4 from resolving exudates in dorsal pouch S. aureus infections. In vivo, RvD4 (ng/mouse) reduced neutrophilic infiltration (~40%) and enhanced uptake of apoptotic PMN (51%) by human dermal fibroblasts at concentrations as low as 0.1 nM. These results establish the complete stereochemistry of RvD4 as 4S,5R,17S-trihydroxydocosa-6E,8E,10Z,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid and its novel pro-resolving actions in S. aureus infections as well as its potent ability to stimulate clearance of apoptotic cells by skin fibroblasts. PMID:26743932

  15. Using Interdisciplinary, Project-Based, Multimodal Activities to Facilitate Literacy across the Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Archie E.

    2014-01-01

    Tour Across America is an interdisciplinary, project-based, multimodal (IPM) activity where students get the opportunity to apply what they learn to a real-life situation while illustrating the interdisciplinary nature of literacy. It provides students with a high-interest, creative platform to review, reinforce, and integrate learned literacy…

  16. Integrated Project Management: A Case Study in Integrating Cost, Schedule, Technical, and Risk Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a case study as a model for integrated project management. The ISS Program Office (ISSPO) developed replacement fluid filtration cartridges in house for the International Space Station (ISS). The presentation includes a step-by-step procedure and organizational charts for how the fluid filtration problem was approached.

  17. Crisis Communication in the Area of Risk Management: The CriCoRM Project

    PubMed Central

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Antonelli, Laura; Orizio, Grazia; Rossmann, Costanze; Ziegler, Lena; Meyer, Lisa; Garcia-Jimenez, Leonarda; Losada, Jose Carlos; Correia, Joao; Soares, Joana; Covolo, Loredana; Lirangi, Enrico; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last H1N1 pandemic has emerged the importance of crisis communication as an essential part of health crisis management. The Project aims specifically to improve the understanding of crisis communication dynamics and effective tools and to allow public health institutions to communicate better with the public during health emergencies. Design and methods The Project will perform different activities: i) state of the art review; ii) identification of key stakeholders; iii) communicational analysis performed using data collected on stakeholder communication activities and their outcomes considering the lessons learnt from the analysis of the reasons for differing public reactions during pandemics; iv) improvement of the existing guidelines; v) development of Web 2.0 tools as web-platform and feed service and implementation of impact assessment algorithms; vi) organization of exercises and training on this issues. Expected impact of the study for public health In the context of health security policies at an EU level, the project aims to find a common and innovative approach to health crisis communication that was displayed by differing reactions to the H1N1 pandemic policies. The focus on new social media tools aims to enhance the role of e-health, and the project aims to use these tools in the specific field of health institutions and citizens. The development of Web 2.0 tools for health crisis communication will allow an effective two-way exchange of information between public health institutions and citizens. An effective communication strategy will increase population compliance with public health recommendations. Significance for public health The specific aim of the project is to develop a European strategy approach on how to communicate with the population and with different stakeholders groups involved in the crisis management process, based on an analysis of the communication process during the H1N1 pandemic (content analysis of press

  18. The Content Area Reading Project: An Inservice Education Program for Junior High School Teachers and Teachers of Adults. Appendix C, Model Teaching Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.

    Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…

  19. Projected changes in wildlife habitats in Arctic natural areas of northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Lawler, James P.; Handel, Colleen M.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    We project the effects of transitional changes among 60 vegetation and other land cover types (“ecotypes”) in northwest Alaska over the 21st century on habitats of 162 bird and 39 mammal species known or expected to occur regularly in the region. This analysis, encompassing a broad suite of arctic and boreal wildlife species, entailed building wildlife-habitat matrices denoting levels of use of each ecotype by each species, and projecting habitat changes under historic and expected accelerated future rates of change from increasing mean annual air temperature based on the average of 5 global climate models under the A1B emissions scenario, and from potential influence of a set of 23 biophysical drivers. Under historic rates of change, we project that 52 % of the 201 species will experience an increase in medium- and high-use habitats, 3 % no change, and 45 % a decrease, and that a greater proportion of mammal species (62 %) will experience habitat declines than will bird species (50 %). Outcomes become more dire (more species showing habitat loss) under projections made from effects of biophysical drivers and especially from increasing temperature, although species generally associated with increasing shrub and tree ecotypes will likely increase in distribution. Changes in wildlife habitats likely will also affect trophic cascades, ecosystem function, and ecosystem services; of particular significance are the projected declines in habitats of most small mammals that form the prey base for mesocarnivores and raptors, and habitat declines in 25 of the 50 bird and mammal species used for subsistence hunting and trapping.

  20. Non-random association between alleles detected at D4S95 and D4S98 and the Huntington's disease gene.

    PubMed Central

    Theilmann, J; Kanani, S; Shiang, R; Robbins, C; Quarrell, O; Huggins, M; Hedrick, A; Weber, B; Collins, C; Wasmuth, J J

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of many families with linked DNA markers has provided support for the Huntington's disease (HD) gene being close to the telomere on the short arm of chromosome 4. However, analysis of recombination events in particular families has provided conflicting results about the precise location of the HD gene relative to these closely linked DNA markers. Here we report an investigation of linkage disequilibrium between six DNA markers and the HD gene in 75 separate families of varied ancestry. We show significant non-random association between alleles detected at D4S95 and D4S98 and the mutant gene. These data suggest that it may be possible to construct high and low risk haplotypes, which may be helpful in DNA analysis and genetic counselling for HD, and represent independent evidence that the gene for HD is centromeric to more distally located DNA markers such as D4S90. This information may be helpful in defining a strategy to clone the gene for HD based on its location in the human genome. Images PMID:2531224

  1. [Genetic diagnostics as a legislation project. Regulatory initiatives and main areas of regulation].

    PubMed

    Damm, Reinhard

    2007-02-01

    The legislation project of a law on genetic diagnostics appears to have come to a standstill; however, it should be taken up again. The national and international discussion underlines the need for regulation. This assessment is based on the dynamic developments in the field of biological and medical sciences and the resulting problems for medical practice, the healthcare system, commercial in terests and, not least, patients, volunteers and clients. The German legislators cannot only build on the preparatory work of political advisory institutions and commissions; besides current legislation in neighbouring countries, several regulatory drafts have been prepared in Germany, which provide important normative material for legislative work. However, these drafts also reflect the conflicts of interest and assessment arising from such a project. Legislation on genetic diagnostics is not only concerned with differing focal points of regulation and numerous questions of detail but also with decisions on fundamental normative orientations and principles of regulation.

  2. [Genetic diagnostics as a legislation project. Regulatory initiatives and main areas of regulation].

    PubMed

    Damm, Reinhard

    2007-02-01

    The legislation project of a law on genetic diagnostics appears to have come to a standstill; however, it should be taken up again. The national and international discussion underlines the need for regulation. This assessment is based on the dynamic developments in the field of biological and medical sciences and the resulting problems for medical practice, the healthcare system, commercial in terests and, not least, patients, volunteers and clients. The German legislators cannot only build on the preparatory work of political advisory institutions and commissions; besides current legislation in neighbouring countries, several regulatory drafts have been prepared in Germany, which provide important normative material for legislative work. However, these drafts also reflect the conflicts of interest and assessment arising from such a project. Legislation on genetic diagnostics is not only concerned with differing focal points of regulation and numerous questions of detail but also with decisions on fundamental normative orientations and principles of regulation. PMID:17225988

  3. IDF Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2008 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the CH2MHill Hanford Group (CHG) Compensatory Mitigation Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). It includes time-zero monitoring results for planting activities conducted in December 2007, annual survival monitoring for all planting years, a summary of artificial burrow observations, and recommendations for the successful completion of DOE mitigation commitments for this project.

  4. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Harris, L J; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Williams, R W; Loewen, D R; Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Ryerson, F J; Pawloski, G A; Laue, C A; Moran, J E

    2003-08-15

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution

  5. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  6. The CLUVA project: Climate-change scenarios and their impact on urban areas in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ruocco, Angela; Weets, Guy; Gasparini, Paolo; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Lindley, Sarah; Pauleit, Stephan; Vahed, Anwar; Schiano, Pasquale; Kabisch, Sigrun; Vedeld, Trond; Coly, Adrien; Tonye, Emmanuel; Touré, Hamidou; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its main objective is the estimate of the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The mission of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to assess risks cascading from climate-changes. It downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; vulnerability of in-town ecosystems and urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary quantitative, probabilistic, modelling is applied. CLUVA brings together climate experts, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists with their African counterparts in an integrated research effort focusing on the improvement of the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. The CLUVA approach was set-up in the first year of the project and developed as follows: an ensemble of eight global projections of climate changes is produced for east and west Africa until 2050 considering the new IPCC (International Panel on Climate Changes; http://www.ipcc.ch/) scenarios. These are then downscaled to urban level, where territorial modeling is required to compute hazard effects on the vulnerable physical system (urban ecosystems, informal settlements, lifelines such as transportation and sewer networks) as well as on the social context, in defined time frames, and risk analysis is then employed to assess expected consequences. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks is performed. With the aid of the African partners, the developed approach

  7. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Idaho Project, Nemo Detail Area, South Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The Nemo Detail area covers 40 square miles in the eastern portion of the Black Hills Uplift. The region's geology is a combination of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, and overlying Early Paleozoic sediments and metasediments. The Paleozoics cover most of the eastern half of the area. A total of 7 groups of samples in uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. These anomalies occur in locales of relatively high uranium and thorium with respect to the balance of the detail area. Magnetic data show a wide range of gradients; but fail to show a significant degree of correlation with available geologic interpretations or the radiometric data. Only one geochemical unit was defined on the basis of the radiometric criteria set forth in Volume I.

  8. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  9. Area-specific analysis of the distribution of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the rat ventral tegmental area, with special reference to the GABAergic and glutamatergic efferents

    PubMed Central

    Kalló, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S.; Szöke, Sarolta; Fekete, Csaba; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a main regulator of reward and integrates a wide scale of hormonal and neuronal information. Feeding-, energy expenditure-, stress, adaptation- and reproduction-related hypothalamic signals are processed in the VTA and influence the reward processes. However, the neuroanatomical origin and chemical phenotype of neurons mediating these signals to the VTA have not been fully characterized. In this study we have systematically mapped hypothalamic neurons that project to the VTA using the retrograde tracer Choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) and analyzed their putative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate character with in situ hybridization in male rats. 23.93 ± 3.91% of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the VTA was found in preoptic and 76.27 ± 4.88% in anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamic regions. Nearly half of the retrogradely-labeled neurons in the preoptic, and more than one third in the anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus appeared in medially located regions. The analyses of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) mRNA expression revealed both amino acid markers in different subsets of retrogradely-labeled hypothalamic neurons, typically with the predominance of the glutamatergic marker VGLUT2. About one tenth of CTB-IR neurons were GAD65-positive even in hypothalamic nuclei expressing primarily VGLUT2. Some regions were populated mostly by GAD65 mRNA-containing retrogradely-labeled neurons. These included the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus where 58.63 ± 19.04% of CTB-IR neurons were GABAergic. These results indicate that both the medial and lateral nuclear compartments of the hypothalamus provide substantial input to the VTA. Furthermore, colocalization studies revealed that these projections not only use glutamate but also GABA for neurotransmission. These GABAergic afferents may underlie important inhibitory mechanism to fine-tune the

  10. The importance of sea ice area biases in 21st century multimodel projections of Antarctic temperature and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Stephenson, David B.; Turner, John; Phillips, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Climate models exhibit large biases in sea ice area (SIA) in their historical simulations. This study explores the impacts of these biases on multimodel uncertainty in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble projections of 21st century change in Antarctic surface temperature, net precipitation, and SIA. The analysis is based on time slice climatologies in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 future scenario (2070-2099) and historical (1970-1999) simulations across 37 different CMIP5 models. Projected changes in net precipitation, temperature, and SIA are found to be strongly associated with simulated historical mean SIA (e.g., cross-model correlations of r = 0.77, 0.71, and -0.85, respectively). Furthermore, historical SIA bias is found to have a large impact on the simulated ratio between net precipitation response and temperature response. This ratio is smaller in models with smaller-than-observed SIA. These strong emergent relationships on SIA bias could, if found to be physically robust, be exploited to give more precise climate projections for Antarctica.

  11. Can exposure to prenatal sex hormones (2D:4D) predict cognitive reflection?

    PubMed

    Bosch-Domènech, Antoni; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M

    2014-05-01

    The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a test introduced by Frederick (2005). The task is designed to measure the tendency to override an intuitive response that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. The consistent sex differences in CRT performance may suggest a role for prenatal sex hormones. A now widely studied putative marker for relative prenatal testosterone is the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). This paper tests to what extent 2D:4D, as a proxy for the prenatal ratio of testosterone/estrogens, can predict CRT scores in a sample of 623 students. After controlling for sex, we observe that a lower 2D:4D (reflecting a relative higher exposure to testosterone) is significantly associated with a higher number of correct answers. The result holds for both hands' 2D:4Ds. In addition, the effect appears to be stronger for females than for males. We also control for patience and math proficiency, which are significantly related to performance in the CRT. But the effect of 2D:4D on performance in CRT is not reduced with these controls, implying that these variables are not mediating the relationship between digit ratio and CRT.

  12. Integrated disposal Facility Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2007 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the first year survival of sagebrush seedlings planted as compensatory mitigation for the Integrated Disposal Facility Project. Approximately 42,600 bare root seedlings and 26,000 pluglings were planted at a mitigation site along Army Loop Road in February 2007. Initial baseline monitoring occurred in March 2007, and first summer survival was assessed in September 2007. Overall survival was 19%, with bare root survival being marginally better than pluglings (21% versus 14%). Likely major factors contributing to low survival were late season planting and insufficient soil moisture during seedling establishment.

  13. Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

  14. Validity of Academic Work Indicators in the Projected European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Rafael J.; Moreno, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The competencies achieved, the quantity and distribution of the time employed, and the activities carried out by the student are fundamental elements of the future European Higher Education Area. The present study explores, in a specific course, the current level of some indicators of such elements and their validity. The results highlight the…

  15. Draft area recommendation report for the Crystalline Repository Project: Comments: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-16

    The Mille Lacs Band conducted a review of the draft area recommendation report (ARR) and provided comments as outlined in the contract. It also had staff attending the necessary training and informational meeting established by the Department of Energy. This had met all the necessary objectives as outlined in the contract.

  16. Business Marketing Information Systems Skills. Voc-Ed Project. Marketing Management Career Area. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    A study was conducted to develop a curriculum to meet the information processing/management training needs of persons entering or continuing careers in the information marketing area. The process used for the study was based on Stufflebeam's Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) model of evaluation. The information gathering process included a…

  17. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  18. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.

  19. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  20. 2D:4D finger ratio positively correlates with total cerebral cortex in males.

    PubMed

    Darnai, Gergely; Plózer, Enikő; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Horváth, Réka; Schwarcz, Attila; Kovács, Norbert; Altbäcker, Anna; Janszky, József; Clemens, Zsófia

    2016-02-26

    Although there is evidence that the ratio of 2nd-4th digit length (2D:4D) correlates with prenatal testosterone level, psychological and health traits only two studies have assessed the relationship with brain morphological features. Here we investigated the association between the 2D:4D ratio and several brain subvolumes. Seventy-five subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 were included in the study. The length of the 2nd and 4th digits were measured with an electronic vernier caliper while MRI measurements were performed on a Siemens Magnetom Trio Tim (3T) system. Freesurfer software suite was used for volumetric segmentation. Finger ratio significantly positively correlated with total cerebral cortex, total cerebellar white matter and total cerebellar cortex in males but not in females. Our results indicate that prenatal testosterone, as estimated by the 2D:4D ratio has an effect on adult brain morphology in males. PMID:26780566

  1. Proximal femoral focal deficiency of the fetus - early 3D/4D prenatal ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kudla, Marek J; Beczkowska-Kielek, Aleksandra; Kutta, Katarzyna; Partyka-Lasota, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital syndrome of unknown etiology. Additional disorders can be present up to 70% of PFFD cases. Management (including termination) depends on the severity of the malformation. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman referred for routine ultrasound examination in the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed 3D/4D evaluation revealed asymmetry of lower limbs and diagnosis of isolated PFFD was established. Parents were fully informed and decided to continue the pregnancy. We stress here the importance of early 3D/4D ultrasound diagnosis. Our paper presents the earliest case where the diagnosis of PFFD was established with 3D/4D ultrasound. PMID:27622419

  2. YM-50001: a novel, potent and selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, K; Tada, S; Matsumoto, M; Ohmori, J; Maeno, K; Yamaguchi, T

    1996-11-01

    We investigated some in vitro pharmacological properties of a novel human dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, YM-50001 [(R)-5-chloro-4-cyclopropylacarbonylamino-2-methoxy-N-[1-(3-methox ybenzyl)- 3-pyrrolidinyl]benzamide monooxalate]. Receptor binding studies revealed that YM-50001 had a potent affinity for human D4 receptors (Ki = 5.62 nM). YM-50001 displayed weak or negligible affinity for other neurotransmitter receptors including human D2 and D3 receptors. YM-50001 shifted the dopamine response curve on each human D2-like receptor subtype-mediated low-Km GTPase activity to the right. YM-50001 also exhibited good D4 selectivity with respect to D2-like receptor antagonism in the functional assay. These results indicate that YM-50001 is a novel, potent and selective D4 receptor antagonist.

  3. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  4. D-Area Drip Irrigation-Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2003-01-14

    Groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and by-products resulting from discharges of this organic solvent during past operations. Several potential clean-up strategies are being or have been investigated, including a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process that is the focus of the treatability study described in this report. The contaminated groundwater in D-Area occurs primarily at depths of 30 to 50 feet below ground surface, well below the depths that are typically penetrated by plant roots. The system investigated in this study involved pumping water from the contaminated aquifer and discharging the water into overlying test plots below the surface using drip irrigation. The test plots contained pines, cottonwoods, or no vegetation (controls). The primary objective was to determine the overall effectiveness of the process for TCE removal and to elucidate the biotic and abiotic pathways for its removal.

  5. Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-05-31

    This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.

  6. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  7. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies, with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area.

  8. Hydrologic monitoring in the area of the proposed Yazoo River navigation project, west-central Mississippi, 1978-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data on ground-water levels collected from the area of the proposed Yazoo River Navigation Project for the years 1978-80 are presented without interpretation. These data were obtained as part of a hydrologic study to understand the hydrologic effects of construction and operation of a waterway on the Yazoo River. The data were collected in cooperation with the Vicksburg District, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. During the data collection period, water-level measurements were made on about a monthly schedule in 62 observation wells in the network. Three of the wells were equipped with continuous water-level recorders. (USGS)

  9. [Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Zhuo; Xie, Yong-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population (Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi, and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the minimum standard of 0.14 bm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  10. First Results From The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Lightning Mapping Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, B.; Zubrick, S.

    2006-12-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6, 54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4, 2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  11. First Results from the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area Lighting Map Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Hall, John; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, Bill; Zubrick, Steven

    2007-01-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6,54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4,2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  12. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China

    PubMed Central

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology. PMID:27375513

  13. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology. PMID:27375513

  14. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology.

  15. Hypocretinergic and non-hypocretinergic projections from the hypothalamus to the REM sleep executive area of the pons.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2013-01-23

    Within the postero-lateral hypothalamus neurons that utilize hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as neuromodulators are co-distributed. These neurons have been involved in the control of behavioral states, and a deficit in the hypocretinergic system is the pathogenic basis of narcolepsy with cataplexy. In this report, utilizing immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing techniques, we examined the hypocretinergic innervation of the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), which is the executive site that is responsible for the generation of REM sleep in the cat. The retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was administered in pontine regions where carbachol microinjections induced REM sleep. Utilizing immunohistochemical techniques, we found that approximately 1% of hypocretinergic neurons in the tuberal area of the hypothalamus project to the NPO. In addition, approximately 6% of all CTb+ neurons in this region were hypocretinergic. The hypocretinergic innervation of the NPO was also compared with the innervation of the same site by MCH-containing neurons. More than three times as many MCHergic neurons were found to project to the NPO compared with hypocretinergic cells; both neuronal types exhibited bilateral projections. We also identified a group of non-hypocretinergic non-MCHergic neuronal group of neurons that were intermingled with both hypocretinergic and MCHergic neurons that also projected to this same brainstem region. These neurons were grater in number that either hypocretin or MCH-containing neurons; their soma size was also smaller and their projections were mainly ipsilateral. The present anatomical data suggest that hypocretinergic, MCHergic and an unidentified companion group of neurons of the postero-lateral hypothalamus participate in the regulation of the neuronal activity of NPO neurons, and therefore, are likely to participate in the control of wakefulness and REM sleep. PMID:23122879

  16. Hypocretinergic and non-hypocretinergic projections from the hypothalamus to the REM sleep executive area of the pons.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2013-01-23

    Within the postero-lateral hypothalamus neurons that utilize hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as neuromodulators are co-distributed. These neurons have been involved in the control of behavioral states, and a deficit in the hypocretinergic system is the pathogenic basis of narcolepsy with cataplexy. In this report, utilizing immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing techniques, we examined the hypocretinergic innervation of the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), which is the executive site that is responsible for the generation of REM sleep in the cat. The retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was administered in pontine regions where carbachol microinjections induced REM sleep. Utilizing immunohistochemical techniques, we found that approximately 1% of hypocretinergic neurons in the tuberal area of the hypothalamus project to the NPO. In addition, approximately 6% of all CTb+ neurons in this region were hypocretinergic. The hypocretinergic innervation of the NPO was also compared with the innervation of the same site by MCH-containing neurons. More than three times as many MCHergic neurons were found to project to the NPO compared with hypocretinergic cells; both neuronal types exhibited bilateral projections. We also identified a group of non-hypocretinergic non-MCHergic neuronal group of neurons that were intermingled with both hypocretinergic and MCHergic neurons that also projected to this same brainstem region. These neurons were grater in number that either hypocretin or MCH-containing neurons; their soma size was also smaller and their projections were mainly ipsilateral. The present anatomical data suggest that hypocretinergic, MCHergic and an unidentified companion group of neurons of the postero-lateral hypothalamus participate in the regulation of the neuronal activity of NPO neurons, and therefore, are likely to participate in the control of wakefulness and REM sleep.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  18. VirB/D4-dependent protein translocation from Agrobacterium into plant cells.

    PubMed

    Vergunst, A C; Schrammeijer, B; den Dulk-Ras, A; de Vlaam, C M; Regensburg-Tuïnk, T J; Hooykaas, P J

    2000-11-01

    The Agrobacterium VirB/D4 transport system mediates the transfer of a nucleoprotein T complex into plant cells, leading to crown gall disease. In addition, several Virulence proteins must somehow be transported to fulfill a function in planta. Here, we used fusions between Cre recombinase and VirE2 or VirF to directly demonstrate protein translocation into plant cells. Transport of the proteins was monitored by a Cre-mediated in planta recombination event resulting in a selectable phenotype and depended on the VirB/D4 transport system but did not require transferred DNA. PMID:11062129

  19. No relation between 2D : 4D fetal testosterone marker and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Wouters, Jan; Lemay, Katrien; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-09-17

    It has been suggested that high levels of prenatal testosterone exposure are implied in the aetiology of dyslexia and its frequently co-occurring sensory problems. This study examined 2D : 4D digit ratio (a marker of fetal testosterone exposure) in dyslexic and normal reading children. No group differences in 2D : 4D were observed. Digit ratio did not show the postulated relation with reading, spelling, phonological ability, speech perception, auditory processing and visual processing. These findings challenge the validity of theories that allocate a prominent role to fetal testosterone exposure in the aetiology of dyslexia and its sensory impairments. PMID:17712280

  20. Projecting future grassland performance in the Greater Platte River Basin to assess sustainability for potential biofuel feedstock areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Wylie, B. K.; Phuyal, K.

    2012-12-01

    In previous studies, we used vegetation condition information from archival records of satellite data (i.e., 10-year time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data), site geophysical and biophysical features (e.g., elevation, slope and aspect, and soils), and weather and climate drivers to build ecosystem performance (EP) models to dynamically monitor EP (DMEP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB). Ecosystem performance is a surrogate approach for measuring ecosystem productivity. We estimated ecosystem site potentials (i.e., long-term ecosystem productivities), weather-based expected EP (EEP), and rangeland conditions based on these EP models. Validation of the EP results using ground observations (e.g., percentage of bare soil, LANDFIRE maps, stocking rate, and crop yield data) demonstrated the reliability of these EP models. We used this DMEP method to identify grasslands that are potentially suitable for cellulosic biofuel feedstock (e.g., switchgrass) development in the GPRB. The objectives of this study are to (1) project the future grassland EP; (2) assess the changes and trends of the future EP; and (3) examine the future sustainability of the identified biofuel feedstock areas in the GPRB. We used the EP models and future climate projections to estimate future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) climate-based projections of grassland performance in the GPRB. The future climate data were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) "SRES A1B" (a "middle" emissions path) obtained from the "Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections" archive (http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_cmip3_projections). Results show that, under climate scenario A1B, the potential biofuel feedstock areas in the more mesic Eastern part of the GPRB will remain productive in the future (the spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3335 kg ha-1 year-1, 3355 kg ha-1 year-1, and 3341 kg ha-1 year

  1. Malumfashi Endemic Diseases Research Project, XI. Water-contact activities in the schistosomiasis study area.

    PubMed

    Tayo, M A; Pugh, R N; Bradley, A K

    1980-06-01

    Fishing, bathing, swimming and playing in water were the most important activities at the Ruwan Sanyi dam site, northern Nigeria, in terms of schistosomiasis transmission. Various washing activities were important in exposure to the infection. Males were responsible for 98% of activity involving contamination and exposure. This accounted for the marked male predominance of Schitosoma haematobium infection in the Muslim communities of this area, where boys under the age of 21 years were responsible for more than 77% of environmental egg contamination. Peak water-contact activity occurred in the afternoon and this coincided with the peak cercarial shedding period and the peak urinary egg output. As a result of the construction of many such dams in this part of northern Nigeria, the recent upward trend in schistosomiasis tramission is likely to be maintained. Fishing is a new and a potentially important activity in transmission. Any future programme to control urinary schistosomiasis in this area should pay particular attention to this activity as well as group swimming activity by young males, who should be the prime target.

  2. XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d-4p and 3d-4f transition arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Maguire, Oisin; Sheridan, Paul; Hayden, Patrick; O'Reilly, Fergal; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; Endo, Akira; Limpouch, Jiri; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser produced plasmas (LPPs) in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray lithography and metrology at 13.5 nm has been widely reported and recent research efforts have focused on developing next generation sources for lithography, surface morphology, patterning and microscopy at shorter wavelengths. In this paper, the spectra emitted from LPPs of the 2nd transition row elements from yttrium (Z = 39) to palladium (Z = 46), with the exception of zirconium (Z = 40) and technetium (Z = 43), produced by two Nd:YAG lasers which delivered up to 600 mJ in 7 ns and 230 mJ in 170 ps, respectively, are reported. Intense emission was observed in the 2-8 nm spectral region resulting from unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) due to 3d-4p, 3d-4f and 3p-3d transitions. These transitions in a number of ion stages of yttrium, niobium, ruthenium and rhodium were identified by comparison with results from Cowan code calculations and previous studies. The theoretical data were parameterized using the UTA formalism and the mean wavelength and widths were calculated and compared with experimental results.

  3. A Turkish family with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in six siblings; linkage analysis on 4p16 region (D4S3360-D4S2366).

    PubMed

    Cağdaş, D N; Parlar, A I; Pac, A; Tutun, U; Balci, S

    2008-01-01

    We present a Turkish family and their 6 children, consecutively affected by Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) Syndrome. Four of the affected children died in the postnatal period, and 2 of them had been admitted to the pediatric cardiology department for their cardiologic evaluation. Since they had the features of the EVC Syndrome, linkage analysis was performed with the polymorphic markers, D4S3360-D4S2366, selected from 4p 16 locus. There was complete segregation between the disease and marker allels and the two affected siblings were homozygote for the polymorphic markers, as expected in autosomal recessive inheritance. The diagnosis of EVC Syndrome was confirmed by this molecular analysis. Two cases with EVC were presented in this report. Case 1 had partial abnormal pulmonary venous return and pulmonary stenosis additional to ostium primum atrial septal defect and mitral cleft. Partial abnormal pulmonary venous return and pulmonary stenosis were previously not reported with EVC Syndrome. Postaxial polydactyly phenotype of the Case 2 differs from her brother's. There is bifid 5th metacarpal and unilateral (L) bifid middle and distal phalanges resembling syndactyly.

  4. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

  5. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  6. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  7. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  8. Malignant melanoma slide review project: Patients from non-Kaiser hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, P.

    1993-01-05

    This project was initiated, in response to concerns that the observed excess of malignant melanoma among employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) might reflect the incidence of disease diagnostically different than that observed in the general population. LLNL sponsored a slide review project, inviting leading dermatopathology experts to independently evaluate pathology slides from LLNL employees diagnosed with melanoma and those from a matched sample of Bay Area melanoma patients who did not work at the LLNL. The study objectives were to: Identify all 1969--1984 newly diagnosed cases of malignant melanoma among LLNL employees resident in the San Francisco-Oakland Metropolitan Statistical Area, and diagnosed at facilities other than Kaiser Permanente; identify a comparison series of melanoma cases also diagnosed between 1969--1984 in non-Kaiser facilities, and matched as closely as possible to the LLNL case series by gender, race, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and hospital of diagnosis; obtain pathology slides for the identified (LLNL) case and (non-LLNL) comparison patients for review by the LLNL-invited panel of dermatopathology experts; and to compare the pathologic characteristics of the case and comparison melanoma patients, as recorded by the dermatopathology panel.

  9. Transferability of Data Related to the Underground Test Area Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2004-06-24

    This document is the collaborative effort of the members of an ad hoc subcommittee of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Technical Working Group (TWG). The UGTA Project relies on data from a variety of sources; therefore, a process is needed to identify relevant factors for determining whether material-property data collected from other areas can be used to support groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and other models within a Corrective Action Unit (CAU), and for documenting the data transfer decision and process. This document describes the overall data transfer process. Separate Parameter Descriptions will be prepared that provide information for selected specific parameters as determined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) UGTA Project Manager. This document and its accompanying appendices do not provide the specific criteria to be used for transfer of data for specific uses. Rather, the criteria will be established by separate parameter-specific and model-specific Data Transfer Protocols. The CAU Data Documentation Packages and data analysis reports will apply the protocols and provide or reference a document with the data transfer evaluations and decisions.

  10. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  11. Floating substrate process: Large-area silicon sheet task low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, M.; Hall, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    Supercooling of silicon-tin alloy melts was studied. Values as high as 78 C at 1100 C and 39 C at 1200 C were observed, corresponding to supersaturation parameter values 0.025 and 0.053 at 1050 C and 1150 C, respectively. The interaction of tin with silane gas streams was investigated over the temperature range 1000 to 1200 C. Single-pass conversion efficiencies exceeding 30% were obtained. The growth habit of spontaneously-nucleated surface growth was determined to be consistent with dendritic and web growth from singly-twinned triangular nucleii. Surface growth of interlocking silicon crystals, thin enough to follow the surface of the liquid and with growth velocity as high as 5 mm/min, was obtained. Large area single-crystal growth along the melt surface was not achieved. Small single-crystal surface growth was obtained which did not propagate beyond a few millimeters.

  12. Polyoxometalate-supported 3d-4f heterometallic single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaojia; Zhou, Wenzhe; Li, Yangguang; Ke, Hongshan; Tang, Jinkui; Clérac, Rodolphe; Wang, Yonghui; Su, Zhongmin; Wang, Enbo

    2012-03-01

    The reactions of [CuTbL(Schiff)(H(2)O)(3)Cl(2)]Cl complexes with A- or B-type Anderson polyoxoanions lead to new polyoxometalate-supported 3d-4f heterometallic systems with single-molecule-magnet behavior.

  13. The preventive effects of apolipoprotein mimetic D-4F from vibration injury-experiment in rats.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David J; Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin Ling; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Kao, Dennis S; Matloub, Hani S; Riley, Danny A

    2011-03-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a debilitating sequela of neurological and vascular injuries caused by prolonged occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. Our previous study demonstrated that short-term exposure to vibration can induce vasoconstriction and endothelial cell damage in the ventral artery of the rat's tail. The present study investigated whether pretreatment with D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-1 mimetic with known anti-oxidant and vasodilatory properties, prevents vibration-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial cell injury, and protein nitration. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mg/kg D-4F at 1 h before vibration of the tails for 4 h/day at 60 Hz, 49 m/s(2) r.m.s. acceleration for either 1 or 3 days. Vibration-induced endothelial cell damage was examined by light microscopy and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (a marker for free radical production). One and 3-day vibration produced vasoconstriction and increased nitrotyrosine. Preemptive treatment with D-4F prevented these negative changes. These findings suggest that D-4F may be useful in the prevention of HAVS.

  14. Endogenous leukotriene D4 formation during anaphylactic shock in the guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, A; Orning, L; Bernström, K; Hammarström, S

    1987-01-01

    Experiments on the metabolism and excretion of i.v. administered selectively labeled [3H8]leukotriene C4 in bile duct-cannulated guinea pigs indicated predominantly biliary excretion of tritium. The major leukotriene metabolite in bile was identified as leukotriene D4. By monitoring leukotriene excretion radioimmunochromatographically, it was shown that guinea pigs suffering from anaphylactic shock produce leukotriene D4 endogenously. Immunological challenge of animals sensitized to ovalbumin was accompanied by an increase of biliary leukotriene D4 concentrations from 10 +/- 1 to 86 +/- 10 nM (mean +/- SEM, n = 5, P less than 0.001). When considering that bile flow was decreased to about half after challenge, the excretion rate of leukotriene D4 in bile increased from 0.88 +/- 0.16 before to 3.18 +/- 0.38 pmol X min-1 X kg-1 after challenge (mean +/- SEM, n = 5, P less than 0.002). It is concluded that systemic anaphylaxis in the guinea pig is associated with endogenous generation of leukotriene C4 (up to 1 nmol/kg during a 30-min period after the challenge. PMID:3039514

  15. 26 CFR 1.1244(d)-4 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net operating loss deduction. 1.1244(d)-4... Net operating loss deduction. (a) General rule. For purpose of section 172, relating to the net... trade or business of the taxpayer. Therefore, this loss is allowable in determining the taxpayer's...

  16. 5D/4D U-dualities and N=8 black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Ceresole, Anna; Ferrara, Sergio; Gnecchi, Alessandra

    2009-12-15

    We use the connection between the U-duality groups in d=5 and d=4 to derive properties of the N=8 black hole potential and its critical points (attractors). This approach allows us to study and compare the supersymmetry features of different solutions.

  17. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  18. The D4 Flavor Symmetry in 3-3-1 Model with Neutral Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, V. V.; Long, H. N.

    2013-12-01

    We construct a D4 flavor model based on SU(3)C ⊗SU(3)L ⊗U(1)X gauge symmetry responsible for fermion masses and mixings. The neutrinos get small masses from antisextets which are in a singlet and a doublet under D4. If the D4 symmetry is violated as perturbation by a Higgs triplet under SU(3)L and lying in \\underline{1}''' of D4, the corresponding neutrino mass mixing matrix gets the most general form. In this case, the model can fit the experimental data in 2012 on neutrino masses and mixing. Our results show that the neutrino masses are naturally small and a little deviation from the tribimaximal neutrino mixing form can be realized. The quark masses and mixing matrix are also discussed. In the model under consideration, the CKM matrix can be different from the unit matrix. The scalar potential of the model is more simpler than those of the model based on S3 and S4. Assignation of VEVs to antisextets leads to the mixing of the new gauge bosons and those in the Standard Model. The mixing in the charged gauge bosons as well as the neutral gauge boson is considered.

  19. 42 CFR 51d.4 - What information is required in the application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GRANTS MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES § 51d.4 What information is...'s designee, that a mental health or substance abuse emergency exists, as well as a written statement..., the principal elected official, or such officer's or official's designee, that a mental health...

  20. 42 CFR 51d.4 - What information is required in the application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTS MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES § 51d.4 What information is...'s designee, that a mental health or substance abuse emergency exists, as well as a written statement..., the principal elected official, or such officer's or official's designee, that a mental health...

  1. 42 CFR 51d.4 - What information is required in the application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTS MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES § 51d.4 What information is...'s designee, that a mental health or substance abuse emergency exists, as well as a written statement..., the principal elected official, or such officer's or official's designee, that a mental health...

  2. 42 CFR 51d.4 - What information is required in the application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES § 51d.4 What information is...'s designee, that a mental health or substance abuse emergency exists, as well as a written statement..., the principal elected official, or such officer's or official's designee, that a mental health...

  3. 42 CFR 51d.4 - What information is required in the application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTS MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES § 51d.4 What information is...'s designee, that a mental health or substance abuse emergency exists, as well as a written statement..., the principal elected official, or such officer's or official's designee, that a mental health...

  4. Afferent projections to the ventral tegmental area of Tsai and interfascicular nucleus: a horseradish peroxidase study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, O T

    1979-09-01

    Using the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), a study has been made of projections to the ventral tegmental area of Tsai (VTA) and related dopaminergic cell groups (A 10). In order to minimise the possibility of damage to fibres of passage, a technique was evolved for the microiontophoresis of HRP such that minimal current strengths and durations were applied. In addition to a sham injection, control injections were also made to the medial lemnisuc, red nucleus, deep tegmental decussations, mesencephalic reticular formation and brachium conjunctivum. Following HRP injections confined to the areas of the VTA containing the dopamine cell groups, labelled neurons appeared in prefrontal cortex, dorsal bank of rhinal sulcus, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, amygdala, diagonal band of Broca, substantis innominata, magnocellular preoptic area, medial and lateral preoptic areas, anterior, lateral and postero-dorsal hypothalamus, lateral habenular, nucleus parafascicular nucleus of thalamus, superior colliculus, nucleus raphe dorsalis, nucleus raphe nagnus and pontis, dorsal and ventral parabrachial nuclei, locus coeruleus and deep cerebellar nuclei. Regions containing catecholamine groups A 1, A 5, A 6, A 7, A 9, A 13 and the serotonin group B 7 corresponded to the topography of labeled cell groups. Injections of HRP to the interfascicular nucleus resulted in labeling predominantly confined to the medial habenular and median raphe nuclei. The results are discussed in relation to the known connections of these regions. Other regions of the brain labelled by VTA injections are assessed in relation to control injections and the limitations of the HRP technique. A review of the organisation of some of these afferents in relation to the known cortical-subcortical-mesencephalic projection systems, suggests that the VTA is in a position to recieve information from a massively convergent system derived ultimately from the entire archi-, paleo

  5. Long-range projection neurons of the mouse ventral tegmental area: a single-cell axon tracing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aransay, Ana; Rodríguez-López, Claudia; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco; Prensa, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Pathways arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) release dopamine and other neurotransmitters during the expectation and achievement of reward, and are regarded as central links of the brain networks that create drive, pleasure, and addiction. While the global pattern of VTA projections is well-known, the actual axonal wiring of individual VTA neurons had never been investigated. Here, we labeled and analyzed the axons of 30 VTA single neurons by means of single-cell transfection with the Sindbis-pal-eGFP vector in mice. These observations were complemented with those obtained by labeling the axons of small populations of VTA cells with iontophoretic microdeposits of biotinylated dextran amine. In the single-cell labeling experiments, each entire axonal tree was reconstructed from serial sections, the length of terminal axonal arbors was estimated by stereology, and the dopaminergic phenotype was tested by double-labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence. We observed two main, markedly different VTA cell morphologies: neurons with a single main axon targeting only forebrain structures (FPN cells), and neurons with multibranched axons targeting both the forebrain and the brainstem (F + BSPN cells). Dopaminergic phenotype was observed in FPN cells. Moreover, four “subtypes” could be distinguished among the FPN cells based on their projection targets: (1) “Mesocorticolimbic” FPN projecting to both neocortex and basal forebrain; (2) “Mesocortical” FPN innervating the neocortex almost exclusively; (3) “Mesolimbic” FPN projecting to the basal forebrain, accumbens and caudateputamen; and (4) “Mesostriatal” FPN targeting only the caudateputamen. While the F + BSPN cells were scattered within VTA, the mesolimbic neurons were abundant in the paranigral nucleus. The observed diversity in wiring architectures is consistent with the notion that different VTA cell subpopulations modulate the activity of specific sets of prosencephalic and

  6. Long-range projection neurons of the mouse ventral tegmental area: a single-cell axon tracing analysis.

    PubMed

    Aransay, Ana; Rodríguez-López, Claudia; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco; Prensa, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Pathways arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) release dopamine and other neurotransmitters during the expectation and achievement of reward, and are regarded as central links of the brain networks that create drive, pleasure, and addiction. While the global pattern of VTA projections is well-known, the actual axonal wiring of individual VTA neurons had never been investigated. Here, we labeled and analyzed the axons of 30 VTA single neurons by means of single-cell transfection with the Sindbis-pal-eGFP vector in mice. These observations were complemented with those obtained by labeling the axons of small populations of VTA cells with iontophoretic microdeposits of biotinylated dextran amine. In the single-cell labeling experiments, each entire axonal tree was reconstructed from serial sections, the length of terminal axonal arbors was estimated by stereology, and the dopaminergic phenotype was tested by double-labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence. We observed two main, markedly different VTA cell morphologies: neurons with a single main axon targeting only forebrain structures (FPN cells), and neurons with multibranched axons targeting both the forebrain and the brainstem (F + BSPN cells). Dopaminergic phenotype was observed in FPN cells. Moreover, four "subtypes" could be distinguished among the FPN cells based on their projection targets: (1) "Mesocorticolimbic" FPN projecting to both neocortex and basal forebrain; (2) "Mesocortical" FPN innervating the neocortex almost exclusively; (3) "Mesolimbic" FPN projecting to the basal forebrain, accumbens and caudateputamen; and (4) "Mesostriatal" FPN targeting only the caudateputamen. While the F + BSPN cells were scattered within VTA, the mesolimbic neurons were abundant in the paranigral nucleus. The observed diversity in wiring architectures is consistent with the notion that different VTA cell subpopulations modulate the activity of specific sets of prosencephalic and brainstem structures.

  7. Long-range projection neurons of the mouse ventral tegmental area: a single-cell axon tracing analysis.

    PubMed

    Aransay, Ana; Rodríguez-López, Claudia; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco; Prensa, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Pathways arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) release dopamine and other neurotransmitters during the expectation and achievement of reward, and are regarded as central links of the brain networks that create drive, pleasure, and addiction. While the global pattern of VTA projections is well-known, the actual axonal wiring of individual VTA neurons had never been investigated. Here, we labeled and analyzed the axons of 30 VTA single neurons by means of single-cell transfection with the Sindbis-pal-eGFP vector in mice. These observations were complemented with those obtained by labeling the axons of small populations of VTA cells with iontophoretic microdeposits of biotinylated dextran amine. In the single-cell labeling experiments, each entire axonal tree was reconstructed from serial sections, the length of terminal axonal arbors was estimated by stereology, and the dopaminergic phenotype was tested by double-labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence. We observed two main, markedly different VTA cell morphologies: neurons with a single main axon targeting only forebrain structures (FPN cells), and neurons with multibranched axons targeting both the forebrain and the brainstem (F + BSPN cells). Dopaminergic phenotype was observed in FPN cells. Moreover, four "subtypes" could be distinguished among the FPN cells based on their projection targets: (1) "Mesocorticolimbic" FPN projecting to both neocortex and basal forebrain; (2) "Mesocortical" FPN innervating the neocortex almost exclusively; (3) "Mesolimbic" FPN projecting to the basal forebrain, accumbens and caudateputamen; and (4) "Mesostriatal" FPN targeting only the caudateputamen. While the F + BSPN cells were scattered within VTA, the mesolimbic neurons were abundant in the paranigral nucleus. The observed diversity in wiring architectures is consistent with the notion that different VTA cell subpopulations modulate the activity of specific sets of prosencephalic and brainstem structures

  8. The lateral hypothalamic area controls paradoxical (REM) sleep by means of descending projections to brainstem GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Clément, Olivier; Sapin, Emilie; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Arthaud, Sébastien; Brischoux, Frédéric; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2012-11-21

    It has recently been shown that the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) and the adjacent dorsal deep mesencephalic nucleus (dDpMe) contain GABAergic neurons gating paradoxical sleep (PS) onset by means of their projection to the glutamatergic PS-on neurons of the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus (SLD). To determine the mechanisms responsible for the cessation of activity of these GABAergic PS-off neurons at the onset and during PS, we combined the immunostaining of c-FOS, a marker of neuronal activation, with cholera toxin b subunit (CTb) retrograde tracing from the VLPAG/dDpMe in three groups of rats (control, PS deprived, and PS hypersomniac). We found that the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) is the only brain structure containing a very large number of neurons activated during PS hypersomnia and projecting to the VLPAG/dDpMe. We further demonstrated that 44% of these neurons express the neuropeptide melanin concentrating hormone (MCH). We then showed that bilateral injections in the LH of two inhibitory compounds, clonidine (an α-2 adrenergic agonist) and muscimol (a GABAa agonist) induce an inhibition of PS. Furthermore, after muscimol injections in the LH, the VLPAG/dDpMe contained a large number of activated neurons, mostly GABAergic, and projecting to the SLD. Altogether, our results indicate for the first time that the activation of a population of LH neurons, in part MCH containing, is necessary for PS to occur. Furthermore, our results strongly suggest that these neurons trigger PS by means of their inhibitory projection to the PS-off GABAergic neurons located in the VLPAG/dDpMe.

  9. Lack of dopamine D4 receptor affinity contributes to the procognitive effect of lurasidone.

    PubMed

    Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Ikeda, Kazuhito; Ikejiri, Masaru; Ishiyama, Takeo; Taiji, Mutsuo

    2014-03-15

    We previously demonstrated among several antipsychotics exhibiting potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonism that only lurasidone, (1R,2S,3R,4S)-N-[(1R,2R)-2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)-1-piperazinylmethyl]-1-cyclohexylmethyl]-2,3-bicyclo[2.2.1] heptanedicarboximide hydrochloride, improved performance in the object retrieval detour (ORD) task by marmosets. The mechanisms by which only lurasidone causes enhancements in cognitive function have not yet been established; however, most antipsychotics, except for lurasidone, have been shown to exhibit potent antagonistic activity against the dopamine D4 receptor. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of the dopamine D4 receptor on executive function with the selective agonist, Ro10-5824 and antagonist, L-745,870, and elucidate a possible mechanism for the procognitive effect of lurasidone. The effects of these drugs were evaluated in naïve marmosets using the ORD task. Changes in the success rate during the difficult trial in the task were used to assess the cognitive effect of the drugs. Ro10-5824 (0.3-3 mg/kg) increased the success rate in the difficult trial, potentiated the effect of lurasidone, and reversed the cognitive impairment induced by clozapine. Interestingly, the co-administration of L-745,870 with lurasidone decreased the success rate in the difficult trial, whereas the single administration of L-745,870 had no effect. These results suggest that activation of the dopamine D4 receptor may improve executive function, whereas concomitant blockade of dopamine D4 and D2 receptors may have the opposite effect. In addition to the other unique binding profiles of other monoamine receptors, the lack of affinity for the dopamine D4 receptor by lurasidone could also contribute, at least partly, to its cognitive-enhancing effect.

  10. Molecular combing compared to Southern blot for measuring D4Z4 contractions in FSHD.

    PubMed

    Vasale, Jessica; Boyar, Fatih; Jocson, Michael; Sulcova, Vladimira; Chan, Patricia; Liaquat, Khalida; Hoffman, Carol; Meservey, Marc; Chang, Isabell; Tsao, David; Hensley, Kerri; Liu, Yan; Owen, Renius; Braastad, Corey; Sun, Weimin; Walrafen, Pierre; Komatsu, Jun; Wang, Jia-Chi; Bensimon, Aaron; Anguiano, Arturo; Jaremko, Malgorzata; Wang, Zhenyuan; Batish, Sat; Strom, Charles; Higgins, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    We compare molecular combing to Southern blot in the analysis of the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 locus (FSHD1) on chromosome 4q35-qter (chr 4q) in genomic DNA specimens sent to a clinical laboratory for FSHD testing. A de-identified set of 87 genomic DNA specimens determined by Southern blot as normal (n = 71), abnormal with D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array contractions (n = 7), indeterminate (n = 6), borderline (n = 2), or mosaic (n = 1) was independently re-analyzed by molecular combing in a blinded fashion. The molecular combing results were identical to the Southern blot results in 75 (86%) of cases. All contractions (n = 7) and mosaics (n = 1) detected by Southern blot were confirmed by molecular combing. Of the 71 samples with normal Southern blot results, 67 (94%) had concordant molecular combing results. The four discrepancies were either mosaic (n = 2), rearranged (n = 1), or borderline by molecular combing (n = 1). All indeterminate Southern blot results (n = 6) were resolved by molecular combing as either normal (n = 4), borderline (n = 1), or rearranged (n = 1). The two borderline Southern blot results showed a D4Z4 contraction on the chr 4qA allele and a normal result by molecular combing. Molecular combing overcomes a number of technical limitations of Southern blot by providing direct visualization of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat arrays on specific chr 4q and chr 10q alleles and more precise D4Z4 repeat sizing. This study suggests that molecular combing has superior analytical validity compared to Southern blot for determining D4Z4 contraction size, detecting mosaicism, and resolving borderline and indeterminate Southern blot results. Further studies are needed to establish the clinical validity and diagnostic accuracy of these findings in FSHD. PMID:26420234

  11. Toward A Unified Seismic Bulletin For The European-mediterranean Area : Epsi Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedfroid, O.; Epsi Team

    The goal is to develop means and tools that will allow producing of European- Mediterranean seismic bulletin that will serve as a reference for the scientific com- munity. In order to become a useful support for seismic hazard assessment, such a bulletin will be required to present standard and reliable information. EMSC gathers via e-mail manually picked seismic phase arrival times with or without associated locations from almost all the institutes of the European- Mediterranean region in a database ; then bulletins are automatically merged by a unique software. Events are then submitted to an automatic analysis of the location parameters, and, for dubious events, to a manual reprocessing. First studies have shown that, first : the use of local velocity models and the increase of the azimutal coverage for most of the relocated events, then the interactive analysis of each event allow a huge improvement in terms of quality and quantity of the final seismic bulletin. The next step is to define an accurate magnitude estimation for the whole region of interest. Experience shows that the differences in the magnitudes reported by several institutes for a given event may vary up to 1.5 units. Based on enhanced local mag- nitude computation or on the derivation of the seismic moment, three methods are currently being applied on a reference dataset. Scientifical and technical criteria have 1 been defined in order to select the most reliable method. It is then proposed to develop new velocity models for border regions from the analysis of the residuals of calibrated events. Thus a model for France-Italy border have been defined and models for Italy-Slovenia, Italy-Switzerland and France-Spain borders are currently being developed. Another important objective of the project is the installation of autoDRM systems in several institutes in order to improve data exchange. Data and more information can be found at : http://www.emsc- csem.org/Html/EPSI_home.html Keywords

  12. Interim Report: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection - 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Richards, Emily L.; Butler, Bart C.; Parker, Kent E.; Glovack, Julia N.; Burton, Sarah D.; Baum, Steven R.; Clayton, Eric T.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.

    2007-07-31

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to treat aqueous uranium within the 300 Area aquifer of the Hanford site. The general treatability testing approach consists of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, in order to develop an effective chemical formulation for the polyphosphate amendments and evaluate the transport properties of these amendments under site conditions. Phosphorus-31 (31P) NMR was utilized to determine the effects of Hanford groundwater and sediment on the degradation of inorganic phosphates. Static batch tests were conducted to optimize the composition of the polyphosphate formulation for the precipitation of apatite and autunite, as well as to quantify the kinetics, loading and stability of apatite as a long-term sorbent for uranium. Dynamic column tests were used to further optimize the polyphosphate formulation for emplacement within the subsurface and the formation of autunite and apatite. In addition, dynamic testing quantified the stability of autunite and apatite under relevant site conditions. Results of this investigation provide valuable information for designing a full-scale remediation of uranium in the 300 aquifer.

  13. Tephrostratigraphy of the Waki-Mille area of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological research project, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Beverly Z; Angelini, Joshua; Deino, Alan; Alene, Mulugeta; Fournelle, John H; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2016-04-01

    Tephra geochemistry and (40)Ar/(39)Ar geochronology are reported for the Waki-Mille area in the northwestern part of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological project area in the west central Afar region of Ethiopia. Previous studies documented dentognathic fossils that are morphologically intermediate between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis and some that are attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. Additional dentognathic remains from the study area were assigned to the newly identified species Australopithecus deyiremeda. These fossil hominin taxa were recovered from volcanic and sedimentary strata containing tuffs ranging in age from more than 3.77 million years ago (Ma) to less than 3.469 Ma. One of the tuffs was correlated based on geochemistry, feldspar mineralogy, and age to the Lokochot Tuff of the Omo-Turkana Basin of southern Ethiopia and Kenya. Variations in major and minor element abundances in volcanic glass demarcate ten geochemically distinct tuffs and tuff sequences, including three that are geochemically similar to widespread regional tuffs, specifically the Lomogol, Lokochot, and β- Tulu Bor/Sidi Hakoma tuffs. A new (40)Ar/(39)Ar age for the Waki Tuff, which is geochemically similar to the Lomogol Tuff, is 3.664 ± 0.016 Ma. Other tuffs in the Waki-Mille area are geochemically dissimilar to regional tuffs documented to date. Identification of tuffs based on character, stratigraphic position, and geochemistry refines local stratigraphic correlations and delineates the geographic distributions of precisely dated fossiliferous levels within the Waki-Mille area. PMID:27086054

  14. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  15. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  16. Functional evidence for a direct excitatory projection from the lateral habenula to the ventral tegmental area in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brown, P Leon; Shepard, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    The lateral habenula, a phylogenetically conserved epithalamic structure, is activated by aversive stimuli and reward omission. Excitatory efferents from the lateral habenula predominately inhibit midbrain dopamine neuronal firing through a disynaptic, feedforward inhibitory mechanism involving the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. However, the lateral habenula also directly targets dopamine neurons within the ventral tegmental area, suggesting that opposing actions may result from increased lateral habenula activity. In the present study, we tested the effect of habenular efferent stimulation on dopamine and nondopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rats using a parasagittal brain slice preparation. Single pulse stimulation of the fasciculus retroflexus excited 48% of dopamine neurons and 51% of nondopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area of rat pups. These proportions were not altered by excision of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus and were evident in both cortical- and striatal-projecting dopamine neurons. Glutamate receptor antagonists blocked this excitation, and fasciculus retroflexus stimulation elicited evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials with a nearly constant onset latency, indicative of a monosynaptic, glutamatergic connection. Comparison of responses in rat pups and young adults showed no significant difference in the proportion of neurons excited by fasciculus retroflexus stimulation. Our data indicate that the well-known, indirect inhibitory effect of lateral habenula activation on midbrain dopamine neurons is complemented by a significant, direct excitatory effect. This pathway may contribute to the role of midbrain dopamine neurons in processing aversive stimuli and salience.

  17. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  18. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  19. Prediflood: A French research project aiming at developing a road submersion warning system for flash flood prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naulin, J. P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Delrieu, G.; Arnaud, P.; Lutoff, C.; Vincendon, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). Forecasts are also often limited to the main streams or to specific watersheds with particular assets like hydropower dams, leaving aside large parts of the territory. Distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting models, able to take advantage of the now available high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall measurements, are promising tools for anticipating and quantifying the short term consequences of storm events all over a region. They would be very useful, especially in regions frequently affected by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal patterns. They would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: prepositioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Some preliminary tests conducted by the LCPC within the European project FLOODsite have shown encouraging results of a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting model. It seems possible, despite the limits of the available rainfall measurements and the shortcomings of the rainfall-runoff models, to deliver distributed forecasts of possible local flood consequences - road submersion risk rating at about 5000 different locations over the Gard department in the tested case - with an acceptable level of accuracy. The PreDiFlood project (http://heberge.lcpc.fr/prediflood/) aims at consolidating and extending these first results with the objective to conduct pre-operational tests with possible end-users at the end of the project. Such a tool will not replace, but complement existing flood forecasting approaches in time and space domains that have not been covered until now

  20. EC FP6 Enviro-RISKS project outcomes in area of Earth and Space Science Informatics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Zakarin, E. A.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays the community acknowledged that to understand dynamics of regional environment properly and perform its assessment on the base of monitoring and modeling more strong involvement of information-computational technologies (ICT) is required, which should lead to development of information-computational infrastructure as an inherent part of such investigations. This paper is based on the Report&Recommendations (www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-4.pdf) of the Enviro-RISKS (Man-induced Environmental Risks: Monitoring, Management and Remediation of Man-made Changes in Siberia) Project Thematic expert group for Information Systems, Integration and Synthesis Focus and presents results of activities of Project Partners in area of Information Technologies for Environmental Sciences development and usage. Approaches used the web-based Information Technologies and the GIS-based Information Technologies are described and a way to their integration is outlined. In particular, developed in course of the Project carrying out Enviro-RISKS web portal and its Climate site (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/), providing an access to interactive web-system for regional climate assessment on the base of standard meteorological data archives, which is a key element of the information-computational infrastructure of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), is described in details as well as developed on the base of GIS technology system for monitoring and modeling air and water pollutions transport and transformations. The later is quite useful for practical applications realization of geoinformation modeling, in which relevant mathematical models are plunged into GIS and all the modeling and analysis phases are accomplished in the informational sphere, based on the real data including those coming from satellites. Major efforts currently are undertaken in attempt to integrate GIS based environmental applications with web accessibility, computing power and data interoperability thus to

  1. Using Workflow Modeling to Identify Areas to Improve Genetic Test Processes in the University of Maryland Translational Pharmacogenomics Project

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, Elizabeth M.; Overby, Casey L.; Banchero, Meghan; Pollin, Toni; Kelemen, Mark; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Beitelshees, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    Delivering genetic test results to clinicians is a complex process. It involves many actors and multiple steps, requiring all of these to work together in order to create an optimal course of treatment for the patient. We used information gained from focus groups in order to illustrate the current process of delivering genetic test results to clinicians. We propose a business process model and notation (BPMN) representation of this process for a Translational Pharmacogenomics Project being implemented at the University of Maryland Medical Center, so that personalized medicine program implementers can identify areas to improve genetic testing processes. We found that the current process could be improved to reduce input errors, better inform and notify clinicians about the implications of certain genetic tests, and make results more easily understood. We demonstrate our use of BPMN to improve this important clinical process for CYP2C19 genetic testing in patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary heart disease. PMID:26958179

  2. 2014 Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447 Project Shoal Area Churchill County, Nevada October 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the drilling program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Shoal was the location of an underground nuclear test conducted on October 26, 1963, as part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor to DOE). The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device in granitic rock at a depth of approximately 1,211 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (AEC 1964). The corrective action strategy for the site is focused on revising the site conceptual model and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network at the site. Field activities associated with the project were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended) and applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations.

  3. d=4 black hole attractors in N=2 supergravity with Fayet-Iliopoulos terms

    SciTech Connect

    Bellucci, Stefano; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Yeranyan, Armen

    2008-04-15

    We generalize the description of the d=4 attractor mechanism based on an effective black hole potential to the presence of a gauging which does not modify the derivatives of the scalars and does not involve hypermultiplets. The obtained results do not rely necessarily on supersymmetry, and they can be extended to d>4, as well. Thence, we work out the example of the stu model of N=2 supergravity in the presence of Fayet-Iliopoulos terms, for the supergravity analogues of the magnetic and D0-D6 black hole charge configurations, and in three different symplectic frames: the (SO(1,1)){sup 2}, SO(2,2) covariant and SO(8)-truncated ones. The attractive nature of the critical points, related to the semipositive definiteness of the Hessian matrix, is also studied.

  4. CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency: New form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14/dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (CHST14/D4ST1) deficiency represents a specific form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in CHST14. The disorder has been independently termed "adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome", "EDS, Kosho type", and "EDS, musculocontractural type". To date, 31 affected patients from 21 families have been described. Clinically, CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency is characterized by multiple congenital malformations (craniofacial features including large fontanelle, hypertelorism, short and downslanting palpebral fissures, blue sclerae, short nose with hypoplastic columella, low-set and rotated ears, high palate, long philtrum, thin upper lip vermilion, small mouth, and micro-retrognathia; multiple congenital contractures including adduction-flexion contractures and talipes equinovarus as well as other visceral or ophthalmological malformations) and progressive multisystem fragility-related complications (skin hyperextensibility, bruisability, and fragility with atrophic scars; recurrent dislocations; progressive talipes or spinal deformities; pneumothorax or pneumohemothorax; large subcutaneous hematomas; and diverticular perforation). Etiologically, multisystem fragility is presumably caused by impaired assembly of collagen fibrils resulting from loss of dermatan sulfate (DS) in the decorin glycosaminoglycan side chain that promotes electrostatic binding between collagen fibrils. This is the first reported human disorder that specifically affects biosynthesis of DS. Its clinical characteristics indicate that CHST14/D4ST1 and, more fundamentally, DS, play a critical role in fetal development and maintenance of connective tissues in multiple organs. Considering that patients with CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency develop progressive multisystem fragility-related manifestations, establishment of a comprehensive and detailed natural history and health-care guidelines as well as further elucidation

  5. Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S.; Hebebrand, J.

    1994-09-01

    Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation in the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.

  6. Architecture Studies Done for High-Rate Duplex Direct Data Distribution (D4) Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A study was sponsored to investigate a set of end-to-end system concepts for implementing a high-rate duplex direct data distribution (D4) space-to-ground communications link. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating these systems (both commercial and Government) as a possible method of providing a D4 communications service between NASA spacecraft in low Earth orbit and the respective principal investigators using or monitoring instruments aboard these spacecraft. Candidate commercial services were assessed regarding their near-term potential to provide a D4 type of service. The candidates included K-band and V-band geostationary orbit and nongeostationary orbit satellite relay services and direct downlink (D3) services. Internet protocol (IP) networking technologies were evaluated to enable the user-directed distribution and delivery of science data. Four realistic, near-future concepts were analyzed: 1) A duplex direct link (uplink plus downlink communication paths) between a low-Earth-orbit spacecraft and a principal-investigator-based autonomous Earth station; 2) A space-based relay using a future K-band nongeosynchronous-orbit system to handle both the uplink and downlink communication paths; 3) A hybrid link using both direct and relay services to achieve full duplex capability; 4) A dual-mode concept consisting of both a duplex direct link and a space relay duplex link operating independently. The concepts were analyzed in terms of contact time between the NASA spacecraft and the communications service and the achievable data throughput. Throughput estimates for the D4 systems were based on the infusion of advanced communications technology products (single and multibeam K-band phased-arrays and digital modems) being developed by Glenn. Cost estimates were also performed using extrapolated information from both terrestrial and current satellite communications providers. The throughput and cost estimates were used to compare the concepts.

  7. CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency: New form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14/dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (CHST14/D4ST1) deficiency represents a specific form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in CHST14. The disorder has been independently termed "adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome", "EDS, Kosho type", and "EDS, musculocontractural type". To date, 31 affected patients from 21 families have been described. Clinically, CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency is characterized by multiple congenital malformations (craniofacial features including large fontanelle, hypertelorism, short and downslanting palpebral fissures, blue sclerae, short nose with hypoplastic columella, low-set and rotated ears, high palate, long philtrum, thin upper lip vermilion, small mouth, and micro-retrognathia; multiple congenital contractures including adduction-flexion contractures and talipes equinovarus as well as other visceral or ophthalmological malformations) and progressive multisystem fragility-related complications (skin hyperextensibility, bruisability, and fragility with atrophic scars; recurrent dislocations; progressive talipes or spinal deformities; pneumothorax or pneumohemothorax; large subcutaneous hematomas; and diverticular perforation). Etiologically, multisystem fragility is presumably caused by impaired assembly of collagen fibrils resulting from loss of dermatan sulfate (DS) in the decorin glycosaminoglycan side chain that promotes electrostatic binding between collagen fibrils. This is the first reported human disorder that specifically affects biosynthesis of DS. Its clinical characteristics indicate that CHST14/D4ST1 and, more fundamentally, DS, play a critical role in fetal development and maintenance of connective tissues in multiple organs. Considering that patients with CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency develop progressive multisystem fragility-related manifestations, establishment of a comprehensive and detailed natural history and health-care guidelines as well as further elucidation

  8. Digit ratios (2D:4D), postnatal testosterone and eye contact in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Janet; Alexander, Gerianne M

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has shown an association between eye contact and prenatal testosterone measured in amniocenteses samples. The purpose of this study was to test the association between eye contact and prenatal androgen action measured via second to fourth digit ratios (2D:4D ratios), and to explore the relationship between eye contact and postnatal testosterone levels. Participants included 72 children, between the ages of 18 and 24 months, and their parents. Salivary testosterone levels were obtained when children were 3-months old. At 18-months, 2D:4D ratios were measured and parent-child dyads participated in an 8-min play session that was recorded and later coded for duration and frequency of eye contact. Results indicated that larger 2D:4D ratios (indicative of lower androgen levels) significantly predicted longer duration and more frequency of eye contact, while postnatal testosterone levels were unrelated to eye contact. These novel findings suggest prenatal androgens may influence the emergence of social development.

  9. Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kameda, K.; Ihda, S.

    1995-12-18

    An intriguing property of the dopamine D4 receptor gene is a hypervariable segment in the coding region characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48 bp repeats (2-8 or 10 repeats) in the third exon of the gene. The authors analyzed 70 unrelated schizophrenics and 70 normal controls to determine the allele and genotype frequencies created by length polymorphism of dopamine D4 receptor gene. All patients and controls were unrelated and from the Japanese population. Patients were divided into three groups with regard to age at onset, familial loading, and severity of symptoms assessed strictly with Manchester scale. There were no statistically significant differences if the distributions of alleles and genotypes were analyzed in consideration of those clinical subtypes. Lichter and colleagues [1993] have reported that at least 25 haplotypes exist for this polymorphic region of the dopamine receptor D4 gene. In this study only the alleles created by length polymorphism were analyzed, and further investigation to determine the haplotypes of patients and controls on using a much larger sample size will be required. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Sound waves in the compactified D0-D4 brane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenhe; Li, Si-wen

    2016-09-01

    As an extension to our previous work, we study the transport properties of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model in the black D4-brane background with smeared D0 branes (D0-D4/D8 system). Because of the presence of the D0 branes, in the bubble configuration, this model is holographically dual to four-dimensional QCD or Yang-Mills theory with a Chern-Simons term, and the number density of the D0 branes corresponds to the coupling constant (θ angle) of the Chern-Simons term in the dual field theory. In this paper, we accordingly focus on the small number density of the D0 branes to study the sound mode in the black D0-D4 brane system since the coupling of the Chern-Simons term should be quite weak in QCD. Then, we derive its five-dimensional effective theory and analytically compute the speed of sound and the sound wave attenuation in the approach of gauge/gravity duality. Our result shows the speed of sound and the sound wave attenuation are modified by the presence of the D0 branes. Thus, they depend on the θ angle or chiral potential in this holographic description.

  11. The D4 dopamine receptor gene maps on 11p proximal to HRAS

    SciTech Connect

    Petronis, A.; Kennedy, J.L.; Van Tol, H.H.M. ); Lichter, J.B.; Livak, K.J. )

    1993-10-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is of high interest in neuropsychiatric illness due to its anatomical distribution in the limbic system and its relatively high affinity for the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Also, D4 receptors are expressed in cardiac tissue, and D4 maps in the same region as the inherited cardiac disease referred to as Long QT syndrome. DRD4 was genetically mapped near the tip of the short arm of chromosome 11, close to the oncogene Harvey-RAS (HRAS). Multipoint linkage analysis of several large families could not define the location of DRD4 proximal versus distal to HRAS, although it was evident that DRD4 was located distal to the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A proximal localization of DRD4 relative to HRAS was thus demonstrated. The localization is inferred from a single recombination event, and additional studies on families segregating analyzed polymorphisms would be valuable. Exact order of the genes on 11p15 will greatly assist the resolving power of linkage studies in this region, as applied to neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as Long QT syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

  12. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: project overview with analysis of dense gas structure and kinematics in Barnard 1

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Lee, Katherine I.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s{sup –1}. We imaged ∼150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO{sup +} and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity dispersions ranging from ∼0.05 to 0.50 km s{sup –1} across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc; this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  13. Risk Evaluation of Water Shortage in Source Area of Middle Route Project for South-North Water Transfer in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenquan, Gu; Dongguo, Shao

    2010-05-01

    water diversion causes changes in the downstream flow regime, which may intensify the crisis of water shortage. The effect of diversion on water shortage depends on the volumes of water transferred and water demand of source area, the upstream flow and the way the reservoir is operated. This paper reports the findings of a study to assess the impact of water diversion from Danjiangkou reservoir on middle and lower Hanjiang River, part of the source area of South-North Water Transfer Project, China. The model consists of three parts: a reservoir inflow and water demand simulation model, a reservoir operation model and a risk evaluation model with uncertainty analysis. Thomas-Fiering model and Mont-Carlo method are performed to simulate monthly reservoir inflow data and a 12-dimensional random vector is used to describe the 12-month water demand in middle and lower Hanjiang River. A self-optimization simulation model (SSM) is established for optimum operation of Danjiangkou reservoir. The model runs several scenarios, including water inflow, water diversion, water demand scenarios, whose output provides valuable information for decision making.

  14. The Urbis Project: Identification and Characterization of Potential Urban Development Areas as a Web-Based Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzke, Nina; Kada, Martin; Kastler, Thomas; Xu, Shaojuan; de Lange, Norbert; Ehlers, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Urban sprawl and the related landscape fragmentation is a Europe-wide challenge in the context of sustainable urban planning. The URBan land recycling Information services for Sustainable cities (URBIS) project aims for the development, implementation, and validation of web-based information services for urban vacant land in European functional urban areas in order to provide end-users with site specific characteristics and to facilitate the identification and evaluation of potential development areas. The URBIS services are developed based on open geospatial data. In particular, the Copernicus Urban Atlas thematic layers serve as the main data source for an initial inventory of sites. In combination with remotely sensed data like SPOT5 images and ancillary datasets like OpenStreetMap, detailed site specific information is extracted. Services are defined for three main categories: i) baseline services, which comprise an initial inventory and typology of urban land, ii) update services, which provide a regular inventory update as well as an analysis of urban land use dynamics and changes, and iii) thematic services, which deliver specific information tailored to end-users' needs.

  15. Restoration of areas disturbed by site studies for a mined commercial radioactive waste repository: The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Biehert, R.W.; Newell, R.L.; Page, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was undertaken to environmentally characterize a portion of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State as a potential host for the nation's first mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Studies were terminated by Congress in 1987. Between 1976 and 1987, 72 areas located across the Hanford Site were disturbed by the BWIP. These areas include borehole pads, a large Exploratory Shaft Facility, and the Near Surface Test Facility. Most boreholes were cleared of vegetation, leveled, and stabilized with a thick layer of compacted pit-run gravel and sand. The Near Surface Test Facility consists of three mined adits, a rock-spoils bench, and numerous support facilities. Restoration began in 1988 with the objective of returning sites to pre-existing conditions using native species. The Hanford Site retains some of the last remnants of the shrub-steppe ecosystem in Washington. The primary constraints to restoring native vegetation at Hanford are low precipitation and the presence of cheatgrass, an extremely capable alien competitor. 5 figs.

  16. Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

    2013-01-01

    The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  17. Local atomic structural investigations of precursory phenomenon of the hydrogen release from LiAlD4

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Toyoto; Tomiyasu, Dr. Keisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Otomo, Toshiya; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Local atomic structural investigations of LiAlD4, which is composed of Li+ and [AlD4], at 40 300 K were studied by total neutron scattering combined with pair distribution function (PDF) analysis for understanding of hydrogen release from LiAlD4. The results showed that the Al D pair distribution almost unchanged, while the Li D pair distribution clearly started to broaden and shrink above 200 250 K. The shrinking of the Li D pair distribution might lead to the local generation of LiD, which was speculated as the precursory phenomenon for the hydrogen release from LiAlD4.

  18. Functional Corticospinal Projections from Human Supplementary Motor Area Revealed by Corticomuscular Coherence during Precise Grip Force Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sophie; Entakli, Jonathan; Bonnard, Mireille; Berton, Eric; De Graaf, Jozina B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area (SMA) are functional during precise force control with the precision grip (thumb-index opposition). Since beta band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is well-accepted to reflect efferent corticospinal transmission, we analyzed the beta band CMC obtained with simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) signals. Subjects performed a bimanual precise visuomotor force tracking task by applying isometric low grip forces with their right hand precision grip on a custom device with strain gauges. Concurrently, they held the device with their left hand precision grip, producing similar grip forces but without any precision constraints, to relieve the right hand. Some subjects also participated in a unimanual control condition in which they performed the task with only the right hand precision grip while the device was held by a mechanical grip. We analyzed whole scalp topographies of beta band CMC between 64 EEG channels and 4 EMG intrinsic hand muscles, 2 for each hand. To compare the different topographies, we performed non-parametric statistical tests based on spatio-spectral clustering. For the right hand, we obtained significant beta band CMC over the contralateral M1 region as well as over the SMA region during static force contraction periods. For the left hand, however, beta band CMC was only found over the contralateral M1. By comparing unimanual and bimanual conditions for right hand muscles, no significant difference was found on beta band CMC over M1 and SMA. We conclude that the beta band CMC found over SMA for right hand muscles results from the precision constraints and not from the bimanual aspect of the task. The result of the present study strongly suggests that the corticospinal projections from human SMA become functional when high precision force control is required. PMID:23555945

  19. TCTEX1D4 Interactome in Human Testis: Unraveling the Function of Dynein Light Chain in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Maria João; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Morais-Santos, Filipa; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Studies were designed to identify the TCTEX1D4 interactome in human testis, with the purpose of unraveling putative protein complexes essential to male reproduction and thus novel TCTEX1D4 functions. TCTEX1D4 is a dynein light chain that belongs to the DYNT1/TCTEX1 family. In spermatozoa, it appears to be important to sperm motility, intraflagellar transport, and acrosome reaction. To contribute to the knowledge on TCTEX1D4 function in testis and spermatozoa, a yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in testis, which allowed the identification of 40 novel TCTEX1D4 interactors. Curiously, another dynein light chain, TCTEX1D2, was identified and its existence demonstrated for the first time in human spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence studies proved that TCTEX1D2 is an intra-acrosomal protein also present in the midpiece, suggesting a role in cargo movement in human spermatozoa. Further, an in silico profile of TCTEX1D4 revealed that most TCTEX1D4 interacting proteins were not previously characterized and the ones described present a very broad nature. This reinforces TCTEX1D4 as a dynein light chain that is capable of interacting with a variety of functionally different proteins. These observations collectively contribute to a deeper molecular understanding of the human spermatozoa function. PMID:24606217

  20. 3 CFR - Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Sections 110(d)(4) and 110(f) of the Trafficking Victims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Sections 110(d)(4) and 110(f) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as Amended Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of February 3, 2012 Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Sections 110(d)(4) and 110(f) of the...

  1. The 2D:4D ratio of the hand and schizotypal personality traits in schizophrenia patients and healthy control persons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Kang; Li, Chun-Bo; Jin, Jin; Wang, Ji-Jun; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Montag, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Prenatal estrogen/testosterone exposure is known to be involved in early brain development. In this context, the ratio of the index finger to ring finger length (2D:4D) has been put forward as an indicator of the intrauterine sex hormonal level. A previous study by Collinson et al. (2010) examined 2D:4D ratios in Asian patients with schizophrenia and found an increased 2D:4D pattern in male patients compared to male healthy controls. In the current study, we tried to replicate the result of this study on the 2D:4D ratio in schizophrenia patients and controls in a Chinese sample. Moreover, we investigated the link between 2D:4D ratios and schizotypal personality traits in the participants of the study. No significant difference between cases and controls in 2D:4D ratios for both hands could be observed. However, a positive association between right 2D:4D ratio and schizotypal personality traits was found in healthy controls (both in the male and female subsamples) suggesting that a high 2D:4D ratio could represent a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia in healthy males and females. Same results were observed for the digit ratio of the left hand and the SPQ in the healthy total and healthy female subsample. Therefore, the inclusion of personality measures to study the link between the digit ratio and schizophrenia might help to provide insights in a potential continuum from healthy to schizophrenic behavior.

  2. TCTEX1D4 interactome in human testis: unraveling the function of dynein light chain in spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria João; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Morais-Santos, Filipa; Cruz e Silva, Edgar da; Fardilha, Margarida

    2014-04-01

    Studies were designed to identify the TCTEX1D4 interactome in human testis, with the purpose of unraveling putative protein complexes essential to male reproduction and thus novel TCTEX1D4 functions. TCTEX1D4 is a dynein light chain that belongs to the DYNT1/TCTEX1 family. In spermatozoa, it appears to be important to sperm motility, intraflagellar transport, and acrosome reaction. To contribute to the knowledge on TCTEX1D4 function in testis and spermatozoa, a yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in testis, which allowed the identification of 40 novel TCTEX1D4 interactors. Curiously, another dynein light chain, TCTEX1D2, was identified and its existence demonstrated for the first time in human spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence studies proved that TCTEX1D2 is an intra-acrosomal protein also present in the midpiece, suggesting a role in cargo movement in human spermatozoa. Further, an in silico profile of TCTEX1D4 revealed that most TCTEX1D4 interacting proteins were not previously characterized and the ones described present a very broad nature. This reinforces TCTEX1D4 as a dynein light chain that is capable of interacting with a variety of functionally different proteins. These observations collectively contribute to a deeper molecular understanding of the human spermatozoa function.

  3. Matrix model and holographic baryons in the D0-D4 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Jia, Tuo

    2015-08-01

    We study the spectrum and short-distance two-body force of holographic baryons by the matrix model, which is derived from the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the D0-D4 background (D0-D4/D8 system). The matrix model is derived by using the standard technique in string theory, and it can describe multibaryon systems. We rederive the action of the matrix model from open string theory on the baryon vertex, which is embedded in the D0-D4/D8 system. The matrix model offers a more systematic approach to the dynamics of the baryons at short distances. In our system, we find that the matrix model describes stable baryonic states only if ζ =UQ0 3/UKK 3<2 , where UQ0 3 is related to the number density of smeared D0-branes. This result in our paper is exactly the same as some previous results studied in this system, presented in [W. Cai, C. Wu, and Z. Xiao, Phys. Rev. D 90, 106001 (2014)]. We also compute the baryon spectrum (k =1 case) and short-distance two-body force of baryons (k =2 case). The baryon spectrum is modified and could be able to fit the experimental data if we choose a suitable value for ζ . And the short-distance two-body force of baryons is also modified by the appearance of smeared D0-branes from the original Sakai-Sugimoto model. If ζ >2 , we find that the baryon spectrum will be totally complex and an attractive force will appear in the short-distance interaction of baryons, which may consistently correspond to the existence of unstable baryonic states.

  4. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  5. Coupling SLEUTH model and population projection to simulate urban growth of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Y.; Zhao, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study used two modelling approaches to predict future urban landscapes for the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. In the first approach, we implemented traditional SLEUTH urban simulation model by using publicly available and locally-developed land cover and transportation data. Historical land cover data from 1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used to calibrate the SLEUTH model and predict urban growth from 2011 to 2070. The SLEUTH model achieved 94.8% overall accuracy for validation year 2014. For the second modelling approach, we used a future population projection for 2050, aided by a strong population-imperviousness statistical relationship (R2 ~ 0.95), to predict impervious surface density for each county. These population-predicted impervious surface density values were compared to SLEUTH model output, at the county spatial scale. R2 of 0.84 suggested general agreement of overall pattern, although SLEUTH generated higher impervious surface density values for 36 out of 40 counties. For population-predicted impervious surface density, we further developed a lookup table approach to integrate SLEUTH output and generated a spatially explicit urban map for 2050. This lookup table approach has high potential to integrate population-predicted and SLEUTH-predicted urban landscape, especially when future population can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.

  6. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory Across Generations. An emerging Multidisciplinary Work Area and an NEA Project - 12218

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Jantine; Pescatore, Claudio

    2012-07-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference means for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, i.e. not dependent on human presence and intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. There is however no intention to forgo, at any time, knowledge and awareness either of the repository or of the waste that it contains. The preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) is seen as an integral part of radioactive waste management, supporting lengthy and complex socio-technical processes across pre-operational, operational and post-operational lifetimes. Long-term preservation of RK and M is an emerging multidisciplinary work area in which much learning is expected over the coming years. Novel methods are being sought that are least vulnerable to both natural degradation and to changes in socio-economic conditions. Progress has been made in individual countries, but there is a need to internationalise the thinking, compare approaches, investigate potential solutions and share decisions. This is the task of the NEA RK and M project. A major outcome of the project will be a 'menu-driven document' that will allow people to identify the main elements of a strategic action plan for RK and M preservation. In sum, the preservation of RK and M is a unprecedented task in which technical, scientific and social information is interwoven and needs to be developed and preserved across generations and across specialist boundaries. Important studies have been undertaken in the past decades to explore a variety of approaches to preserving RK and M across different timescales, including archives and markers. The work of the past in this area is useful, but innovative thinking is also needed. Seen from today's perspective, very little work is available on for example the contextualization of data for later use; on the

  7. InSAR analysis of ground deformation over the Istanbul Area in the framework of the FP7 MARsite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, Stefano; Bonano, Manuela; Nobile, Adriano; Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Solaro, Giuseppe; Moro, Marco; Saroli, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The FP7 MARsite project (New Directions in Seismic Hazard assessment through Focused Earth Observation in Marmara Supersite), is aiming at providing complete geodetic records of crustal deformation for major continental earthquake occurring in the Marmara region through repeated GPS, InSAR, gravity and seismological observations. One of the goals of the project is the long-term continuous geodetic monitoring of the crustal deformation affecting the Istanbul area using large archives of X-band satellite SAR data, made available through the GEO Supersites Initiative. To this aim, we processed the available SAR datasets by exploiting the multi-temporal and multi-scale InSAR techniques known as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS, Berardino et al., 2002) and StaMPS (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, Hooper et al., 2007), which have the potential of providing new insights into the spatial and temporal patterns of the investigated phenomena. The results achieved in the first 2 years of the MARsite project over the megacity of Istanbul are presented. IREA-CNR applied the SBAS technique to a dataset of 101 SAR images acquired by the TerraSAR-X constellation over descending orbits, spanning the interval from November 2010 to August 2014. 312 differential interferograms were generated. INGV applied the StaMPS PSI approach (Hooper et al., 2007) to COSMO-SkyMed SAR images acquired from two different ascending tracks, consisting of 29 and 64 image strips for the Eastern and the Western tracks respectively, and covering the period between 2011 and 2013. Two sets of 28 and 63 differential interferograms were generated for the two tracks. The resulting ground velocity maps show several localized deformation sources in the urban area, due to subsidence and/or slope deformation. No clear long spatial wavelength tectonic patterns are visible, possibly due to the limited extent of the X-band satellite swaths (~40 km). We identified a displacement pattern related to the Istanbul airport

  8. Digit ratio (2D:4D), dominance, reproductive success, asymmetry, and sociosexuality in the BBC Internet Study.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T; Fink, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) may be a correlate of prenatal sex steroids, and has been linked to traits, which are influenced by fetal testosterone and estrogen. Here we consider such links in a large Internet study of sex differences (the BBC Internet Study) in which finger lengths were self-measured. Consistent with lab-based findings the 2D:4D in this study shows sexual dimorphism, ethnic differences and higher dimorphism of right 2D:4D than left, thereby indicating that 2D:4D does measure real between-participant variation. High error in self-measurement of fingers reduces effect sizes. However, the large sample size gives assurance that significant effects are likely to be real. We controlled for ethnicity and sexual orientation by considering White heterosexuals only (153,429 participants). Sexual dimorphism was confirmed in 2D:4D and for the difference of right-left 2D:4D. After Bonferroni correction we found highly significant relationships with low effect sizes as follows. In males and females there were negative associations between 2D:4D and dominance. In males there were negative associations between 2D:4D and family size and factors associated with reproductive success. For females these associations were positive. For asymmetry we found U-shaped relationships with 2D:4D in both males and females. We found no relationship between 2D:4D and promiscuity (sociosexuality). In total, we considered 48 relationships and found 29 to be significant. We compare our findings with a similar study reported by Putz et al. (2004), which found only 2 out of 57 correlations to be significant and discuss possible reasons for the discrepancies between the studies.

  9. Preliminary results of ESA Category-1 Project 5834 "Application of DInSAR technique to areas of active ground deformations"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, B.; D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    We have established a processing chain of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for identification and parametrisation of deformation sources in areas of active ground deformation (e.g. seismogenic areas, volcanic districts). SAR data from European Space Agency (ESA) satellites ERS-2 and ENVISAT are used. SAR and InSAR data processing LEVEL 0 SAR data are focussed to Single Look Complex (SLC) through ROI_PAC (Copyright 2002-2008, Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory). We perform an advanced data processing using Doris (Kampes and Usai, 1999) a single program that can do most common steps of the interferometric radar processing starting from SLC data to generation of interferometric products and geocoding. Unwrapping of interferometric phase is performed using the public domain software snaphu (Chen and Zebker, 2001). Modeling of deformation sources We propose a novel inversion approach base on non-linear inversion. The forward modeling is provided by the semi-analytic deformation model for point sources and finite faults. The parameters of the fault (center position, width, height, rake and seismic moment) are inverted using a combination of non-linear optimization algorithms (as Monte-Carlo, Nelder&Mead Simplex and Simulated Annealing). The misfit function defined for the optimization is based on the L2 norm of the error weighted by the coherence of the considered spatial point. Test datasets To test our modeling procedure we chose three different study areas, refer to mainly strike-slip seismogenic sources with different orientation to respect satellite Line Of Sight (LOS): December 26 2003 Iranian earthquake (Bam e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ENVISAT ASAR narrow swath IS2 (RAW and SLCs); August 17 1999 Turkey earthquake (Izmit e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs); June 17-21 2000 Iceland earthquakes, data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs). Tests carried over real

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of four 3d-4f butterfly single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hua-Hong; Sheng, Liang-Bing; Liang, Fu-Pei; Chen, Zi-Lu; Zhang, Yi-Quan

    2015-11-14

    The syntheses, structures, and characterization of four 3d-4f butterfly clusters are described. With different polyhydroxy Schiff-base ligands 2-(((2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylene)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (H4L1) and 2-(2,3-dihydroxpropyliminomethyl)-6-methoxyphenol (H3L2), three heterotetranuclear NiLn complexes (NiDy-L1 (1), NiTb-L2 (2), NiDy-L2 (3)) and one heterohexanuclear CoDy complex (4) were obtained. The three heterotetranuclear NiLn complexes display a central planar butterfly topology. The heterohexanuclear complex was built from butterfly CoDy clusters and two Dy(III) ions by the bridging of pivalate. The vertices of the body positions of the butterfly are occupied by transition metal ions in all four complexes. Magnetic analyses indicate that the complexes exhibit typical single-molecule magnet behaviour with anisotropy barriers of 33.7 cm(-1), 60.3 cm(-1), 39.6 cm(-1), and 18.4 cm(-1) for 1-4, respectively. Ab initio calculations were performed on these complexes, and the low lying electronic structure of each Ln(III) (Ln = Dy, Tb) ion and the magnetic interactions were determined. It was found that the two Ln ions may have much more contribution to the total relaxation barrier through the stronger 3d-4f exchange couplings compared to weak Ln-Ln interactions.

  11. 2D:4D asymmetry and gender differences in academic performance.

    PubMed

    Nye, John V C; Androuschak, Gregory; Desierto, Desirée; Jones, Garett; Yudkevich, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone (T)-which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D)-would seem to have ambiguous effects on academic achievement since traits like aggressiveness or risk-taking are not uniformly positive for success in school. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear, quadratic, relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila. We also find that there is a gender differentiated link between various measures of academic achievement and measured digit ratios. These effects are different depending on the field of study, choice of achievement measure, and use of the right hand or left digit ratios. The results seem to be asymmetric between Moscow and Manila where the right (left) hand generates inverted-U (U-shaped) curves in Moscow while the pattern for hands reverses in Manila. Drawing from unusually large and detailed samples of university students in two countries not studied in the digit literature, our work is the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions.

  12. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  13. Mapping of D4S98/S114/S113 confines the Huntington's defect to a reduced physical region at the telomere of chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Whaley, W L; Michiels, F; MacDonald, M E; Romano, D; Zimmer, M; Smith, B; Leavitt, J; Bucan, M; Haines, J L; Gilliam, T C

    1988-12-23

    The dominant gene defect in Huntington's disease (HD) is linked to the DNA marker D4S10, near the telomere of the chromosome 4 short arm. Two other markers, D4S43 and D4S95, are closer, but still proximal to the HD gene in 4p16.3. We have characterized a new locus, D4S114, identified by cloning the end of a NotI fragment resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. D4S114 was localized distal to D4S43 and D4S95 by both physical and genetic mapping techniques. The "end"-clone overlaps a previously isolated NotI "linking" clone, and is within 150 kb of a second "linking" clone defining D4S113. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms for D4S113 and D4S114, one of which is identical to a SacI polymorphism detected by the anonymous probe pBS731B-C (D4S98), were typed for key crossovers in HD and reference pedigrees. The data support the locus order D4S10-(D4S43, D4S95)-D4S98/S114/S113-HD-telomere. The D4S98/S114/S113 cluster therefore represents the nearest cloned sequences to HD, and provides a valuable new point for launching directional cloning strategies to isolate and characterize this disease gene.

  14. Projects Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  15. A subordinate status position increases the present value of financial resources for low 2D:4D men.

    PubMed

    Millet, Kobe; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (digit ratio or 2D:4D) is related to prenatal testosterone with lower ratios thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. Accordingly, low 2D:4D has been associated to a number of fitness-related factors, such as high status in competitive sports and in music. Recent evidence suggests that 2D:4D is also related to economic decision making. We combine both streams of research in the present paper. In two studies we manipulated status in two different ways. We found that a subordinate position raises discount rates, consistent with the reasoning that the present utility of money is higher for men in this position. Moreover, the effect was more pronounced for men with a low 2D:4D. There was a significant negative relationship between 2D:4D and level of discounting in a subordinate status position, but no significant relationship emerged in the dominant status position. Our studies add evidence to the recent line of research associating digit ratio and economic decision making. Moreover, our studies show that future 2D:4D research should focus on plausible interactions between 2D:4D and context cues rather than on linear relations.

  16. Comparison of adsorbents for H2S and D4 removal for biogas conversion in a solid oxide fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Sigot, Léa; Ducom, Gaëlle; Benadda, Belkacem; Labouré, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Biogas contains trace compounds detrimental for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application, especially sulphur-containing compounds and volatile organic silicon compounds (VOSiCs). It is therefore necessary to remove these impurities from the biogas for fuelling an SOFC. In this paper, dynamic lab-scale adsorption tests were performed on synthetic polluted gas to evaluate the performance of a polishing treatment to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S - sulphur compound) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4 - VOSiC). Three kinds of adsorbents were tested: an activated carbon, a silica gel (SG) and a zeolite (Z). Z proved to be the best adsorbent for H2S removal, with an adsorbed quantity higher than [Formula: see text] at the SOFC tolerance limit. However, as concerns D4 removal, SG was the most efficient adsorbent, with an adsorbed quantity of about 184 mgD4/gSG at the SOFC tolerance limit. These results could not be explained by structural characteristics of the adsorbents, but they were partly explained by chemical interactions between the adsorbate and the adsorbent. In these experiments, internal diffusion was the controlling step, Knudsen diffusion being predominant to molecular diffusion. As Z was also a good adsorbent for D4 removal, competition phenomena were investigated with Z for the simultaneous removal of H2S and D4. It was shown that H2S retention was dramatically decreased in the presence of D4, probably due to D4 polymerization resulting in pore blocking.

  17. Geological and geothermal 3D modelling of the Vienna Basin, Austria - pilot area of the project TRANSENERGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, S.; Bottig, M.; Zekiri, F.; Fuchsluger, M.; Götzl, G.; Schubert, G.; Brüstle, A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, sedimentary basins show high potential for the use of geothermal energy. Since the Vienna Basin is a densely populated area, (approximately 1.7 million people in the city of Vienna plus surroundings) geothermal power and heat could play a significant role in the future. The Vienna basin is a relatively cold system where the 100 °C isotherm is to be found at a minimum of about 2500 meters. This fact, meaning the need of deep thus expensive wells, adding the problem of space for drillings and geothermal power plants are challenging subjects in terms of exploitation. The aim of the present work is to model the thermal regime of the Vienna basin and take a closer look on two exploitation scenarios in different hydrological systems (parts of the Bajuvaric and Juvavic nappes in the basement and the horizon of Aderklaa conglomerates in the Neogene sediments). In the first phase, a geological 3D model was created using published data (surface geology, interpreted cross sections from drilling and seismic data) as well as markers from selected wells (data derived from OMV). The geometrical model was built in GoCADTM, where in a first step surfaces were created, displaced along major faults and further exported for the following numerical simulations. In total, 14 Surfaces were created, seven Neogene layers and seven structuring the basement. The thermal modelling is realized using the finite-element software COMSOL Multiphysics© and FEFLOW. Major surfaces were imported into COMSOL as geometry objects, which is not practicable for very complex, fine structures. To represent smaller units inside the subdomains, the associated material parameters had to be imported as functions of the three space coordinates. To gain initial values for the exploitation scenario modelling a steady-state solution has to be achieved. For the lower model boundary, a Neumann boundary condition was set using a newly derived heat flow density map (project TRANSENERGY, Geological Survey

  18. A tetranucleotide repeat (D4S1652) is linked to facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and shows no linkage disequilibrium with the disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.D.; Bailey, H.L.; Mills, K.A.

    1994-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant dystrophy which is associated with a deletion in a subtelomeric repeat element on 4q35. The gene has not yet been identified. The probe detecting this deletion (D4F104S1) is not chromosome 4-specific, and at least one large family has been identified which is not linked to chromosome 4. Thus, persymptomatic/prenatal diagnosis can only be provided to families that are proven to be chromosome 4-linked or where a new mutation is demonstrated. The markers available to demonstrate linkage to chromosome 4, D4S139, D4S163, and D4F35S1, are VNTRs. We have used D4S1652, a tetranucleotide repeat recently identified by the Cooperative Human Linkage Center, in our FSHD families. We found it is completely linked to the 4q35 VNTRs and to the disease phenotype. Physical mapping, using radiation hybrids and somatic cell hybrids, places D4S1652 between D4S139, an interval of approximately 1 Mb. We have used D4S1652 to look for linkage disequilibrium in our FSHD patient population. This result is of interest because of our hypothesis that the deletion in the subtelomeric repeat element alters transcription of a more proximal gene through a position effect. Previously available markers have been unsatisfactory for this experiment because of difficulty comparing numerous VNTR alleles across families. We observed 4, easily distinguished, D4S1652 alleles in our families. We studied 14 chromosomes associated with disease phenotype and 55 chromosomes from nontransmitting parents. We found no evidence for linkage disequilibrium ({chi}{sup 2}=1.313, nonsignificant). This result will need confirmation with a larger patient population, but is consistent with the clinical observation that there is a high rate of a new mutation in this disorder.

  19. Hydrologic Data and Evaluation for Model Validation Wells, MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 near the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    B. Lyles; P. Oberlander; D. Gillespie; D. Donithan; J. Chapman; J. Healey

    2007-02-14

    In 2006, a drilling campaign was conducted at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) to provide information for model validation, emplace long-term monitoring wells, and develop baseline geochemistry for long term hydrologic monitoring. Water levels were monitored in the vicinity of the drilling, in the existing wells HC-1 and HC-6, as well as in the newly drilled wells, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 and their associated piezometers. Periodic water level measurements were also made in existing wells HC-2, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5 and HC-7. A lithium bromide chemical tracer was added to drilling fluids during the installation of the monitoring and validation (MV) wells and piezometers. The zones of interest were the fractured, jointed and faulted horizons within a granitic body. These horizons generally have moderate hydraulic conductivities. As a result, the wells and their shallower piezometers required strenuous purging and development to remove introduced drilling fluids as evidenced by bromide concentrations. After airlift and surging well development procedures, the wells were pumped continuously until the bromide concentration was less then 1 milligram per liter (mg/L). Water quality samples were collected after the well development was completed. Tritium scans were preformed before other analyses to ensure the absence of high levels of radioactivity. Tritium levels were less than 2,000 pico-curies per liter. Samples were also analyzed for carbon-14 and iodine-129, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, as well as major cations and anions. Aquifer tests were performed in each MV well after the bromide concentration fell below acceptable levels. Water level data from the aquifer tests were used to compute aquifer hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity

  20. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in volcanic settings.

  1. Investigacion Educativa: Areas - Politicas - Estrategias y Proyectos del ICOLPE, 2 (Educational Research: Topics, Policies, Strategies, and Projects of the Colombian Institute of Pedagogy, 2),

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This booklet defines and establishes guidelines for educational research in Colombia. Sections describe basic philosophy and objectives, types of research, policies for educational investigation, governmental role, and principle areas for educational research. A listing of current and proposed research projects is provided. The final section…

  2. Synthesis of Findings from Southern Regional Cooperative Research Project S-44: Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Virlyn A.; Morgan, Carolyn A.

    A group of rural sociologists initiated this 1958-1965 research project for the purpose of increasing knowledge about social and economic adjustments of low-income people in the rural areas of the South. Factors found to be associated with the adjustment of low-income families and individuals were anomia, level-of-living, joint decision making,…

  3. A Secondary School/Area Vocational Technical School Cooperative Career Guidance Project Based on the Assessed Needs of High School Juniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    A project provided 2,307 high school juniors in 44 schools in Kansas with a career planning experience through use of the Career Planning Program (CPP), a career guidance instrument. Twelve area vocational-technical school counselors functioned as technical skills trainers to high school counselors and as test materials liaison persons. Data were…

  4. Presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease. A case complicated by recombination within the D4S10 locus.

    PubMed

    Curtis, A; Millan, F; Holloway, S; Mennie, M; Crosbie, A; Raeburn, J A; Brock, D J

    1989-01-01

    Presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease (HD) is possible through the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at the closely linked D4S10 locus. Recombination between the HD and D4S10 loci will occur in 4%-5% of meioses, and is a well-recognised complication of predictive testing. Recombination between RFLPs within the D4S10 locus is a rare event and can usually be ignored. We report a case where such an intra-locus recombination frustrated attempts to predict the chance of a high-risk individual inheriting the HD gene.

  5. Dopamine D4 receptor exon III polymorphism, adverse life events and personality traits in a nonclinical German adult sample.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Personality and temperament embrace a wide area of both psychological and behavioral processes which are also based on disposition. A functional polymorphism in exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been a highly suspect genetic marker for personality in spite of ambiguous results. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between DRD4, negative life events and personality in a representative nonclinical sample. Hundred sixty-seven Germans completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the California Adult Q-Sort. A factor analysis revealed 3 factors: emotional stability, social orientation and impulsivity. DNA from buccal cells was genotyped for the DRD4 variable-number tandem-repeat exon III polymorphism with respect to presence versus absence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele. Adverse life events were assessed by means of the Adverse Life Events Scale. Men carrying the DRD4 7-repeat allele were more impulsive than those without. Male 7-repeat carriers were more emotionally instable than others, but only when they experienced a large amount of negative life events. No genotype-personality relationships were found for women. The results indicate gender-specific influences of the DRD4 gene on human behavior and invite researchers to further investigate gene-environment correlations on personality traits.

  6. Global distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.M.; Kidd, J.R.; Livak, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia because the dopaminergic system has been implicated in this neuropsychiatric disorder. Several research groups have reported an association between allelic variants at DRD4 and schizophrenia, while others have been unable to replicate that finding. Knowledge of the appropriate gene frequencies in the underlying populations may resolve these inconsistencies. We have determined the frequencies of 8 different alleles of the 48 bp imperfect tandem repeat of exon 3 at the DRD4 locus in samples from 33 populations around the world. The frequencies vary considerably in the different populations with the most common allele ranging from 16% to 95%. Frequencies and Fst values will be presented for the 3 most common alleles (4-, 7-, and 2- repeat) by continental groupings, but the individual populations vary significantly around the averages. The populations averaged 4.3 alleles (range 2 to 7).

  7. Association study between the dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Petronis, A.; Macciardi, F.; Athanassiades, A.; Paterson, A.D.

    1995-10-09

    The dopamine D4 receptor is of major interest in schizophrenia research due to its high affinity for the atypical neuroleptic clozapine and a high degree of variability in the receptor gene (DRD4). Although several genetic linkage analyses performed on schizophrenia multiplex families from different regions of the world have either excluded or failed to prove that DRD4 is a major genetic factor for the development of schizophrenia, analyses for moderate predisposing effects are still of significant interest. We performed a study examining differences in allele frequencies of 4 different DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients and age, sex, and ethnic origin matched controls. None of these 4 polymorphisms showed evidence for genetic association with schizophrenia, although a trend towards excess of the allele with 7 repeats in the (48){sub n} bp exon III polymorphism was observed. Complexities in the DRD4 genetic investigation and further analytic approaches are discussed. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Transaxial system models for jPET-D4 image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga; Hagiwara, Naoki; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

    2005-11-21

    A high-performance brain PET scanner, jPET-D4, which provides four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) information, is being developed to achieve not only high spatial resolution, but also high scanner sensitivity. One technical issue to be dealt with is the data dimensions which increase in proportion to the square of the number of DOI layers. It is, therefore, difficult to apply algebraic or statistical image reconstruction methods directly to DOI-PET, though they improve image quality through accurate system modelling. The process that requires the most computational time and storage space is the calculation of the huge number of system matrix elements. The DOI compression (DOIC) method, which we have previously proposed, reduces data dimensions by a factor of 1/5. In this paper, we propose a transaxial imaging system model optimized for jPET-D4 with the DOIC method. The proposed model assumes that detector response functions (DRFs) are uniform along line-of-responses (LORs). Then each element of the system matrix is calculated as the summed intersection lengths between a pixel and sub-LORs weighted by a value from the DRF look-up-table. 2D numerical simulation results showed that the proposed model cut the calculation time by a factor of several hundred while keeping image quality, compared with the accurate system model. A 3D image reconstruction with the on-the-fly calculation of the system matrix is within the practical limitations by incorporating the proposed model and the DOIC method with one-pass accelerated iterative methods.

  9. Transaxial system models for jPET-D4 image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Hagiwara, Naoki; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

    2005-11-01

    A high-performance brain PET scanner, jPET-D4, which provides four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) information, is being developed to achieve not only high spatial resolution, but also high scanner sensitivity. One technical issue to be dealt with is the data dimensions which increase in proportion to the square of the number of DOI layers. It is, therefore, difficult to apply algebraic or statistical image reconstruction methods directly to DOI-PET, though they improve image quality through accurate system modelling. The process that requires the most computational time and storage space is the calculation of the huge number of system matrix elements. The DOI compression (DOIC) method, which we have previously proposed, reduces data dimensions by a factor of 1/5. In this paper, we propose a transaxial imaging system model optimized for jPET-D4 with the DOIC method. The proposed model assumes that detector response functions (DRFs) are uniform along line-of-responses (LORs). Then each element of the system matrix is calculated as the summed intersection lengths between a pixel and sub-LORs weighted by a value from the DRF look-up-table. 2D numerical simulation results showed that the proposed model cut the calculation time by a factor of several hundred while keeping image quality, compared with the accurate system model. A 3D image reconstruction with the on-the-fly calculation of the system matrix is within the practical limitations by incorporating the proposed model and the DOIC method with one-pass accelerated iterative methods.

  10. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca2+ Probe D4ER

    PubMed Central

    Greotti, Elisa; Wong, Andrea; Pozzan, Tullio; Pendin, Diana; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the major intracellular Ca2+ store and the free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) within its lumen ([Ca2+]ER) can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca2+ sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca2+ probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd) for Ca2+, low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca2+] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca2+ affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca2+] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca2+]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca2+ homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer’s Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2). The lower Ca2+ affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca2+ content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls. PMID:27598166

  11. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca(2+) Probe D4ER.

    PubMed

    Greotti, Elisa; Wong, Andrea; Pozzan, Tullio; Pendin, Diana; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the major intracellular Ca(2+) store and the free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) within its lumen ([Ca(2+)]ER) can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca(2+) sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca(2+) probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd) for Ca(2+), low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca(2+)] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca(2+) affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca(2+)] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca(2+)]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer's Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2). The lower Ca(2+) affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca(2+) content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls. PMID:27598166

  12. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Non-zero baseline values are proposed for the one listed plant species found within the Lupea Project area, one species that is a candidate for listing, and the four other rare species we found that may be considered for listing in the future. Additionally, a zero baseline is proposed for 23 other species that were predicted, but not found within the project area. These include 14 Endangered species, one Threatened species, two candidates for listing, and six species of concern. Subsequent monitoring of the site will be necessary to determine if the populations of these species have increased or decreased relative to their baseline values. It is presumed that the management activities Kamehameha Schools has proposed for this area, particularly removal of the ungulates and weed control, will provide a benefit to the habitat as a whole and allow for natural regeneration and maintenance of the all elements of the plant communities found there.

  13. Side-illuminating LED luminaires with accurate projection in high uniformity and high optical utilization factor for large-area field illumination.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Chien; Cai, Jhih-You; Tasi, Ming-Shiou; Tasi, Zheng-Yu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2014-03-10

    A novel light luminaire is proposed and experimentally analyzed, which accurately projects light into a large rectangular area to achieve uniform illumination and a high optical utilization factor at the target. Side-illuminating luminaires for large-scale illuminated area are typically set with an elevated tilt angle to enlarge the illuminated area. However, the light pattern is bent thereby reducing the uniformity and optical utilization factor at the target. In this paper, we propose an efficient and useful approach with a rotationally symmetric projection lens that is trimmed to adjust the bending effect and to form a rectangular illumination light pattern on the ground. The design concept is demonstrated and verified. Several potential applications such as highly uniform illumination with fitting shapes for sport courts are analyzed and discussed. PMID:24922246

  14. Side-illuminating LED luminaires with accurate projection in high uniformity and high optical utilization factor for large-area field illumination.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Chien; Cai, Jhih-You; Tasi, Ming-Shiou; Tasi, Zheng-Yu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2014-03-10

    A novel light luminaire is proposed and experimentally analyzed, which accurately projects light into a large rectangular area to achieve uniform illumination and a high optical utilization factor at the target. Side-illuminating luminaires for large-scale illuminated area are typically set with an elevated tilt angle to enlarge the illuminated area. However, the light pattern is bent thereby reducing the uniformity and optical utilization factor at the target. In this paper, we propose an efficient and useful approach with a rotationally symmetric projection lens that is trimmed to adjust the bending effect and to form a rectangular illumination light pattern on the ground. The design concept is demonstrated and verified. Several potential applications such as highly uniform illumination with fitting shapes for sport courts are analyzed and discussed. PMID:24800294

  15. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Jensen, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Water, bottom-sediment, and biota samples were collected in 1990-91 to identify water-quality problems associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in some water samples exceeded aquatic-life criteria. Selenium was associated with irrigaton drainage from the Dolores Project, but other trace elements may be transported into the area in the irrigation water supply. Selenium concentrations exceeded the chronic aquatic-life criterion in water samples from lower McElmo Creek and Navajo Wash, which drain the Montezuma Valley, from newly irrigated areas, and from the Mancos River. The maximum selenium con- centration in water was 88 micrograms per liter from Navajo Wash. Concentrations of herbicides in water were less than concentrations harmful to aquatic life. Selenium concentrations in four bottom-sediment samples exceeded the baseline concentrations for soils in the Western United States. The largest selenium concentrations in biota were in samples from Navajo Wash, from newly irrigated areas north of the Montezuma Valley, and from the Mancos River basin. Selenium concentrations in aquatic-invertebrate samples from the newly irrigated areas exceeded a guideline for food items consumed by fish and wildlife. Selenium concen- trations in whole-body suckers were larger in the San Juan River downstream from the Dolores Project than upstream from the project at Four Corners. Selenium concentrations in fathead minnow samples from two sites were at adverse-effect levels. Mercury concentrations in warm-water game fish in reservoirs in the study area may be of concern to human health. Some concentrations of other trace elements exceeded background concentrations, but the concentrations were not toxicologically significant or the toxicologic significance is not known.

  17. Ascorbic acid decomposition into oxalate ions: a simple synthetic route towards oxalato-bridged heterometallic 3d-4f clusters.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Alina S; Shova, Sergiu; Ion, Adrian E; Maxim, Catalin; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Andruh, Marius

    2015-04-28

    Two types of oxalato-bridged heterometallic 3d-4f dodeca- and hexanuclear compounds have been obtained by connecting six bi- and, respectively, trinuclear moieties through oxalato bridges arising from the slow decomposition of the L-ascorbic acid.

  18. Neutrino mass and mixing in the 3-3-1 model with neutral leptons based on D4 flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    We propose a new D4 flavor model based on SU(3)C⊗SU(3)L ⊗U(1)X gauge symmetry responsible for fermion masses and mixings in which all fermion fields act only as singlets under D4 which differs from our previous work. The neutrinos get small masses from two SU(3)L anti-sextets and one SU(3)L triplet which are all in singlets under D4. If a SU(3)L Higgs triplet, lying in {1}''' under D4, is considered as a perturbation the corresponding neutrino mass mixing matrix gets the most general form. In this case, the model can fit the most recent data on neutrino masses and mixing with nonzero θ13. Our results show that the neutrino masses are naturally small. The sum of three light neutrino masses and the effective mass governing neutrinoless double beta decay are obtained that are consistent with the recent data.

  19. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994), while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009). The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D) and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D) were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04). There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex hormone concentrations

  20. D4Z - a new renumbering for iterative solution of ground-water flow and solute- transport equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kipp, K.L.; Russell, T.F.; Otto, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    D4 zig-zag (D4Z) is a new renumbering scheme for producing a reduced matrix to be solved by an incomplete LU preconditioned, restarted conjugate-gradient iterative solver. By renumbering alternate diagonals in a zig-zag fashion, a very low sensitivity of convergence rate to renumbering direction is obtained. For two demonstration problems involving groundwater flow and solute transport, iteration counts are related to condition numbers and spectra of the reduced matrices.

  1. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  2. Right-left digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts free testosterone levels associated with a physical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian J; Bennett, Mark; Crewther, Blair; Bracken, Richard Michael; Manning, John

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the digit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of prenatal levels of testosterone, but there is no association between 2D:4D and the circulating levels of both total and free testosterone. Sports provide a physical challenge and participants often show increased levels of free testosterone immediately preceding and during competition. We tested this hypothesis of a link between 2D:4D and testosterone under challenge in 79 professional rugby players using the following procedures; (i) 25 players were physically challenged using a repeated sprint agility test, and saliva samples were assayed for testosterone immediately preceding the repeated sprint agility test (time 1) and 5 minutes (time 2) and 20 minutes after completion of the repeated sprint ability (time 3); (ii) 54 players were also tested for salivary testosterone in an unchallenged condition. We found that right-left 2D:4D was significantly and negatively related to testosterone concentrations at times 1, 2 and 3 following the repeated sprint agility test (P < 0.05) and there was no association between the 2D:4D and basal testosterone levels in the unchallenged group. We suggest that low right-left 2D:4D is a predictive marker of free testosterone responsiveness when trained men are physically challenged, and that this association is programmed by the action of prenatal testosterone.

  3. Digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts sporting success among female fencers independent from physical, experience, and personality factors.

    PubMed

    Voracek, M; Reimer, B; Dressler, S G

    2010-12-01

    Research particularly focusing on male athletes and popular sports (running and soccer) suggests associations of lower (masculinized) second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action, with better sports performance. Studies focusing on women, non-mainstream sports, or controlling for covariates relevant for sporting success are still sparse. This study examined associations between 2D:4D and performance of both male and female athletes active in fencing (a non-mainstream sport dominated by male participants), while controlling for covariates. National fencing rankings and 2D:4D of 58 male and 41 female Austrian tournament fencers (mean age 24 years) were correlated. Among female, but not male, fencers, lower 2D:4D was related to better national fencing rankings. 2D:4D still accounted for incremental variance (12%) in fencing success, when the effects of salient performance factors (age, body mass index, years of fencing, training intensity, and the personality variables achievement, control, harm avoidance, and social potency) were controlled for (totaling 35% attributable variance). Athletes active in the most aggressive form (the sabre) had lower 2D:4D than those active in the other forms (épée and foil fencing). Sporting success in adult life might be partly prenatally programmed via long-lasting extragenital effects of testosterone. PMID:19843265

  4. Digit ratio 2D:4D in relation to autism spectrum disorders, empathizing, and systemizing: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Hönekopp, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal testosterone (PT) effects have been proposed to increase systemizing (the drive to understand lawful input-output relationships), to decrease empathizing (the drive to understand others), and to cause autism via hypermasculinization of the brain. Digit ratio 2D:4D is a putative marker of PT effects in humans. An online study (n = 1896) into the relationship between the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (a widely used measure of empathizing) and self-measured 2D:4D in a nonclinical sample is reported. No evidence for a link between empathizing and 2D:4D in either females or males emerged. Further, three meta-analyses are presented that look into the relationships of 2D:4D with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), systemizing, and empathizing. 2D:4D was substantially lower (more masculine) in ASD-affected individuals than in normal controls (d = -0.58, P < 0.001). However, 2D:4D was found to be virtually unrelated to systemizing and empathizing in normal adults. The results support the idea that high PT is a risk factor for autism, but they challenge the view that PT substantially contributes to sex differences in systemizing and empathizing. Possibly, this pattern reflects an interaction effect, whereby PT drives ASD characteristic changes only in brains with a specific damage.

  5. Map Projections and the Visual Detective: How to Tell if a Map Is Equal-Area, Conformal, or Neither

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Judy M.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to see whether a map is equal-area, conformal, or neither is useful for looking intelligently at large-area maps. For example, only if a map is equal-area can reliable judgments of relative size be made. If a map is equal-area, latitude-longitude cells are equal in size between a given pair of parallels, the cells between a given pair…

  6. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  7. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  8. Water-quality data for selected North Carolina streams and reservoirs in the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Ronald G.; Taylor, John E.; Middleton, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project was developed to assess regional water-quality characteristics in drinking-water supplies and to provide a basis for determining trends in water quality for the Research Triangle area, which is one of the fastest growing areas in North Carolina. The study area is in the upper Neuse River Basin and the upper Cape Fear River Basin in the north-central Piedmont Province of the State. Hydrologic data were collected at 21 reservoir sites and 30 stream sites from October 1988 through September 1992 to define water-quality characteristics. The data collected at these sites include streamflow data and approximately 275 physical properties and chemical characteristics of surface water.

  9. TCTEX1D4, a novel protein phosphatase 1 interactor: connecting the phosphatase to the microtubule network

    PubMed Central

    Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Vieira, Sandra I.; Esteves, Sara L. C.; Silva, Joana V.; Freitas, Maria João; Brauns, Ann-Kristin; Luers, Georg; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Fardilha, Margarida; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reversible phosphorylation plays an important role as a mechanism of intracellular control in eukaryotes. PPP1, a major eukaryotic Ser/Thr-protein phosphatase, acquires its specificity by interacting with different protein regulators, also known as PPP1 interacting proteins (PIPs). In the present work we characterized a physiologically relevant PIP in testis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human testis cDNA library, we identified a novel PIP of PPP1CC2 isoform, the T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) that has recently been described as a Tctex1 dynein light chain family member. The overlay assays confirm that TCTEX1D4 interacts with the different spliced isoforms of PPP1CC. Also, the binding domain occurs in the N-terminus, where a consensus PPP1 binding motif (PPP1BM) RVSF is present. The distribution of TCTEX1D4 in testis suggests its involvement in distinct functions, such as TGFβ signaling at the blood–testis barrier and acrosome cap formation. Immunofluorescence in human ejaculated sperm shows that TCTEX1D4 is present in the flagellum and in the acrosome region of the head. Moreover, TCTEX1D4 and PPP1 co-localize in the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and microtubules in cell cultures. Importantly, the TCTEX1D4 PPP1BM seems to be relevant for complex formation, for PPP1 retention in the MTOC and movement along microtubules. These novel results open new avenues to possible roles of this dynein, together with PPP1. In essence TCTEX1D4/PPP1C complex appears to be involved in microtubule dynamics, sperm motility, acrosome reaction and in the regulation of the blood–testis barrier. PMID:23789093

  10. Dopamine D4 receptor and serotonin transporter gene effects on the longitudinal development of infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Holmboe, K; Nemoda, Z; Fearon, R M P; Sasvari-Szekely, M; Johnson, M H

    2011-07-01

    Existing studies of the effect on infant temperament of the 48 base pair variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4 VNTR, and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR, have provided contradictory results, and age seems to be an important factor. The present study investigated the effect of these two polymorphisms on the stability of infant temperament between 4 and 9 months of age. Furthermore, the effect of a recently discovered single nucleotide polymorphism which modulates the 5-HTTLPR (rs25531) was investigated in relation to infant temperament. The study sample consisted of 90 infants, who were assessed by parental report at the two ages under consideration using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. It was found that infants carrying the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 VNTR had higher levels of Negative Affect. Furthermore, there was an interaction between DRD4 VNTR and 5-HTTLPR genotype such that infants with the DRD4 VNTR 7-repeat allele and the highest expressing 5-HTTLPR genotype (L(A) L(A) ) had the highest level of Negative Affect. These effects were largely driven by scores on the Falling Reactivity scale. Genetic effects were stable across age. The results emphasize the need for developmental studies of genetic effects on temperament.

  11. Type IV secretion: the Agrobacterium VirB/D4 and related conjugation systems

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The translocation of DNA across biological membranes is an essential process for many living organisms. In bacteria, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are used to deliver DNA as well as protein substrates from donor to target cells. The T4SS are structurally complex machines assembled from a dozen or more membrane proteins in response to environmental signals. In Gram-negative bacteria, the conjugation machines are composed of a cell envelope-spanning secretion channel and an extracellular pilus. These dynamic structures (i) direct formation of stable contacts—the mating junction—between donor and recipient cell membranes, (ii) transmit single-stranded DNA as a nucleoprotein particle, as well as protein substrates, across donor and recipient cell membranes, and (iii) mediate disassembly of the mating junction following substrate transfer. This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the mechanistic details of DNA trafficking with a focus on the paradigmatic Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS and related conjugation systems. PMID:15546668

  12. Type IV secretion: the Agrobacterium VirB/D4 and related conjugation systems.

    PubMed

    Christie, Peter J

    2004-11-11

    The translocation of DNA across biological membranes is an essential process for many living organisms. In bacteria, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are used to deliver DNA as well as protein substrates from donor to target cells. The T4SS are structurally complex machines assembled from a dozen or more membrane proteins in response to environmental signals. In Gram-negative bacteria, the conjugation machines are composed of a cell envelope-spanning secretion channel and an extracellular pilus. These dynamic structures (i) direct formation of stable contacts-the mating junction-between donor and recipient cell membranes, (ii) transmit single-stranded DNA as a nucleoprotein particle, as well as protein substrates, across donor and recipient cell membranes, and (iii) mediate disassembly of the mating junction following substrate transfer. This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the mechanistic details of DNA trafficking with a focus on the paradigmatic Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS and related conjugation systems. PMID:15546668

  13. NUT-charged black holes in matter-coupled N=2, D=4 gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleoni, Marta; Klemm, Dietmar

    2012-06-01

    Using the results of Cacciatori, Klemm, Mansi, and Zorzan [J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 05 (2008) 09710.1088/1126-6708/2008/05/097], where all timelike supersymmetric backgrounds of N=2, D=4 matter-coupled supergravity with Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging were classified, we construct genuine NUT-charged BPS black holes in anti-deSitter4 with nonconstant moduli. The calculations are exemplified for the SU(1,1)/U(1) model with prepotential F=-iX0X1. The resulting supersymmetric black holes have a hyperbolic horizon and carry two electric, two magnetic, and one NUT charge, which are however not all independent, but are given in terms of three free parameters. We find that turning on a NUT charge lifts the flat directions in the effective black hole potential, such that the horizon values of the scalars are completely fixed by the charges. We also oxidize the solutions to 11 dimensions, and find that they generalize the geometry found in the work of Gauntlett, Kim, Pakis, and Waldram [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 65, 026003 (2001)10.1103/PhysRevD.65.026003] corresponding to membranes wrapping holomorphic curves in a Calabi-Yau fivefold. Finally, a class of NUT-charged Nernst branes is constructed as well, but these have curvature singularities at the horizon.

  14. Diagonal-free 3D/4D HN,HN-TROSY-NOESY-TROSY.

    PubMed

    Diercks, Tammo; Truffault, Vincent; Coles, Murray; Millet, Oscar

    2010-02-24

    Structural biology by NMR spectroscopy relies on measuring interproton distances via NOE cross-signals in nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) spectra. In proteins, the subset of H(N)-H'(N) NOE contacts is most important for deriving initial structural models and for spectral assignment by "NOE walking". Here we present a fully optimized NMR experiment for measuring these pivotal contacts: diagonal-free 3D/4D HN,HN-TROSY-NOESY-TROSY. It combines all of the critical requirements for extracting the optimal H(N)-H'(N) distance information: the highest resolution by consistent transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) evolution, the largest spectral dispersion in two (15)N dimensions, and maximal coverage and purity through specific suppression of the intense diagonal signals that are the main source of overlap, artifacts, and bias in any NOESY spectrum. Most notably, diagonal suppression here comes without compromising the NOE cross-signal intensities. This optimized experiment appears to be ideal for a broad range of structural studies, particularly on large deuterated, partially unfolded, helical, and membrane proteins.

  15. The D4 receptor gene and mood disorders: An association study

    SciTech Connect

    Macciardi, F.; Cavalini, M.C.; Petronis, A.

    1994-09-01

    The problem of a gene-disease association is of major relevance in the current research of Psychiatric Disorders, mostly because of the lack of unequivocal results obtained with the linkage approach. However, some points of an association study must also be carefully considered, namely the statistical methodology and the strategy to select a gene to be tested. The gene coding for the D4 receptor (DRD4) might be theoretically relevant as a component of the genetic susceptibility for mood disorders. We now know that DRD4 has at least 2 functional polymorphisms in the coding regions of the gene, in exon 3 and exon 1, thus conferring etiologic relevance to a potentially positive association. In our work, we investigated the DRD4 genotypes of the 3rd and 1st exon for 93 patients with bipolar disorder and 57 patients with major depression, recurrent disorder. Patients have been diagnosed either by traditional DSMIII-R criteria or by clustering their lifetime psychopathological symptomatology. A random control group consisted of 151 subjects. A significant association has been found with DRD4 exon 3 genotypes, revealing an increase of genotypes 2-4 in Bipolar patients (chi-square=23.07, df=12, p=0.02). Even though a definitive confirmation of our finding requires an independent replication of the study, this result emphasizes the importance of DRD4 in mood disorders.

  16. No evidence of association between dopamine D4 receptor variants and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L.C.C.; Castle, D.; Murray, R.

    1994-09-15

    Disturbance in the dopamine neurotransmitter system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorder. In this study, we examine the possibility that functional variants of the recently cloned dopamine D4 receptor gene contribute to the genetic component of manic depression. The polymorphism, a 48 bp tandem repeat coding for part of the third cytoplasmic loop, was detected using a PCR based method. In a first sample of 57 patients and 59 controls, we found allele 7 to be in excess in the patients. In contrast, allele 3 was less frequent in patients. A second, larger sample of 90 patients and 91 controls was utilized to test these hypotheses. Data from the two samples were then pooled together for further analyses. We calculated the power of our samples, and if the frequency of 7 repeat allele obtained from sample 1 is true, i.e., 25% (28/114) for patients and 14% (16/188) for controls, then the power of the combined sample is 62% at 5% (two-tailed) significance level. However, both observations were not replicated; we therefore conclude that variations in this repeat of the DRD4 gene do not contribute to the genetic component of manic depression. 51 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. The suitability of large area drift chambers as the technology choice for the Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) project

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V.; Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Bryman, D.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Cousins, T.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Liu, Z.; Noel, S.; Oakham, F. G.; Stocki, T. J.; Thompson, M.; Waller, D.

    2011-07-01

    The CRIPT project brings together several Canadian institutions, concerned with the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), addressing a requirement at ports-of-entry for detection of SNM in the many thousands of containers that flow into and out of Canada every day, while at the same time providing a way of monitoring the contents of nuclear waste storage containers, for waste management and non-proliferation reasons. The scale of these applications is large - typically tens of cubic metres, requiring detectors that can cover a large area at a minimum cost. The CRIPT project considered drift chambers adapted from high energy physics experience, as one of its technology choices. We report here on the performance of a full scale prototype, which covers an area of 2.4 m x 1.2 m with only 6 readout channels, and provides a 2D data point with accuracies (in x and z) of around 2 mm. (authors)

  18. An aerial radiological survey of Project Gasbuggy and surrounding area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Date of survey: October 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Gasbuggy site, 55 miles (89 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico, on October 27, 1994. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 16-square-mile (41-square-kilometer) area at a 150-foot (46-meter) altitude centered on the Gasbuggy site. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 14 to 20 {micro}R/h at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.

  19. Further Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa area of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 6 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; MacLeod, Kenneth; McMillan, Ian K.; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Msaky, Emma

    2006-07-01

    Initial results from scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. In a field season in 2003, a total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly marine clays and claystones deposited in an outer shelf or slope environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology) and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 6 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko (UTM 37L 555752, 9014922), 350 m to the south-east of a previous site, TDP Site 1. The top 59.58 m, which was mostly drilled without coring, consists of an Oligocene clay formation belonging to nannofossil Zone NP23. The rest of the hole, to a total depth of 61.25 m, consists of a fault zone in which the Oligocene sediments are intermixed with middle Eocene clays of planktonic foraminifer Zone E9 and nannofossil Subzone NP15b. TDP Site 7 consists of two holes (Hole TDP7A: UTM 37L 547126, 9030142; Hole TDP7B: UTM 37L 0547130, 9030140) drilled just 5 m apart at Kwamatola, a creek to the south of Kilwa Kivinje. Underneath approximately 20 m of unconsolidated sands and gravels, claystones and siltstones were recovered to a total depth of 128.00 m. The site spans lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones E1, E2 and E3 and nannofossil Subzones NP 9b and NP10. The bottom of Hole TDP7B approaches the Paleocene-Eocene boundary but no unambiguously Paleocene sediments were recovered. TDP Site 8 was drilled to the south-east of Singino Hill (UTM 37L 548033, 9025811). Below a covering of surface gravels, it yielded predominantly dark greenish-grey claystones to a total depth of 22.95 m. The sediments are from the lower Eocene and span the boundary between planktonic foraminifer Zones E3 and E4 and fall within

  20. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  1. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR THE PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MATERIALS FOR TRAINING TEACHERS SERVING DEPRESSED URBAN AREAS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMILEY, MAJORIE B.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE WAS TO GATHER RESOURCE MATERIAL AND PRODUCE CURRICULUM MATERIALS DEALING WITH EDUCATION FOR TEACHERS IN DEPRESSED AREAS. OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE IN FIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND FOUR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED AREAS OF HARLEM. INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH SCHOOL PERSONNEL. ANOTHER STUDY WAS MADE OF THE EXPERIENCES…

  2. Mapping of land use and geomorphology in the APAPORE project area by LANDSAT satellite data, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Kux, H. J.; Sausen, T. M.; Bueno, A. M. T. R.; Desouza, L. F.; Nunes, J. S. D.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a land use and geomorphological mapping of the so-called Projeto APAPORE area, at Mato Grosso do Sul State are presented. The study was carried out using multispectral scanner (MSS) and return beam vidicon LANDSAT images (channels 5 and 7 for the MSS) at the scale of 1:250,000 from 1980 through visual interpretation. The results indicate that pastureland is the most widespead class and that the agricultural areas re concentrated in the north of the area under study. The area covered with cerradao (arboreous savanna type) has a great areal extention, thus permitting the advance of the agricultural frontier. The geomorphological mapping can be useful to regional planning of future land use within the studied area.

  3. Absorption of a linear (L2) and a cyclic (D4) siloxane using different oils: application to biogas treatment.

    PubMed

    Rojas Devia, Carolina; Subrenat, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophobic volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS), such as hexamethyldisiloxane (L2) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), present a low solubility in water. An alternative treatment by absorption into hydrophobic absorbents was therefore studied. For this purpose, three different absorbents, motor oil, cutting oil and a water-cutting oil mixture, were selected with the aim of re-using a waste product. The set of experiments was carried out in a bubble column, where parameters such as inlet concentration, residence time and temperature were studied. The best performance for the removal of both siloxanes, in terms of absorption capacity, was observed for motor oil, particularly for D4. In fact, motor oil removal efficiency for D 4 was 80%, whereas for L2 it was 60%, indicating that D 4 is more easily absorbed than L2. In the case of water-cutting oil, this showed a mass transfer enhancement from the gas phase to the liquid phase compared with water alone. Furthermore, a removal efficiency of 70% was observed for D 4, showing that the addition of an oil fraction to a water system improves the absorption of VMS. These results show that VMS absorption into oils could be a promising way to achieve their abatement.

  4. Evolutionary Conservation of a Coding Function for D4Z4, the Tandem DNA Repeat Mutated in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Jannine ; Mitchell, Laura M. ; Bolland, Daniel J. ; Fantes, Judy ; Corcoran, Anne E. ; Scotting, Paul J. ; Armour, John A. L. ; Hewitt, Jane E. 

    2007-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by deletions within the polymorphic DNA tandem array D4Z4. Each D4Z4 repeat unit has an open reading frame (ORF), termed “DUX4,” containing two homeobox sequences. Because there has been no evidence of a transcript from the array, these deletions are thought to cause FSHD by a position effect on other genes. Here, we identify D4Z4 homologues in the genomes of rodents, Afrotheria (superorder of elephants and related species), and other species and show that the DUX4 ORF is conserved. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that primate and Afrotherian D4Z4 arrays are orthologous and originated from a retrotransposed copy of an intron-containing DUX gene, DUXC. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and RNA fluorescence and tissue in situ hybridization data indicate transcription of the mouse array. Together with the conservation of the DUX4 ORF for >100 million years, this strongly supports a coding function for D4Z4 and necessitates re-examination of current models of the FSHD disease mechanism. PMID:17668377

  5. Low D4Z4 copy number and gender difference in Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Jun; Hong, Ji-Man; Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Seok; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Min; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Young-Chul

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and genetic features of Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD), and assessed the impact of molecular defects on phenotypic expression. We enrolled 104 FSHD patients from 87 unrelated Korean families with D4Z4 repeat array of less than 11 copies on 4q35. Sixty-one men and forty-three women were enrolled. Median D4Z4 copy number was 4 units and 99 (95%) Korean patients with FSHD carried 1-6 units. The median age at symptom onset was 13 [interquartile range: 8-17] years old. In 100 symptomatic patients, muscle weakness began in facial muscles in 58 patients, shoulder-girdle muscles in 37, and pelvic-girdle muscles in 5. Disease severity was significantly correlated with D4Z4 copy number. In addition, women were more severely affected than men even though there were no differences in age at examination or in D4Z4 copy number between the two genders. This gender difference among Korean patients was the opposite of analysis on individuals of European ancestry. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the new diagnostic threshold for FSHD in Koreans based on the D4Z4 repeat array size distribution from 1 to 6 units and expanded the clinical spectrum. PMID:26319123

  6. Low D4Z4 copy number and gender difference in Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Jun; Hong, Ji-Man; Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Seok; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Min; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Young-Chul

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and genetic features of Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD), and assessed the impact of molecular defects on phenotypic expression. We enrolled 104 FSHD patients from 87 unrelated Korean families with D4Z4 repeat array of less than 11 copies on 4q35. Sixty-one men and forty-three women were enrolled. Median D4Z4 copy number was 4 units and 99 (95%) Korean patients with FSHD carried 1-6 units. The median age at symptom onset was 13 [interquartile range: 8-17] years old. In 100 symptomatic patients, muscle weakness began in facial muscles in 58 patients, shoulder-girdle muscles in 37, and pelvic-girdle muscles in 5. Disease severity was significantly correlated with D4Z4 copy number. In addition, women were more severely affected than men even though there were no differences in age at examination or in D4Z4 copy number between the two genders. This gender difference among Korean patients was the opposite of analysis on individuals of European ancestry. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the new diagnostic threshold for FSHD in Koreans based on the D4Z4 repeat array size distribution from 1 to 6 units and expanded the clinical spectrum.

  7. Mutation in the auxiliary calcium-channel subunit CACNA2D4 causes autosomal recessive cone dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wycisk, Katharina Agnes; Zeitz, Christina; Feil, Silke; Wittmer, Mariana; Forster, Ursula; Neidhardt, John; Wissinger, Bernd; Zrenner, Eberhart; Wilke, Robert; Kohl, Susanne; Berger, Wolfgang

    2006-11-01

    Retinal signal transmission depends on the activity of high voltage-gated l-type calcium channels in photoreceptor ribbon synapses. We recently identified a truncating frameshift mutation in the Cacna2d4 gene in a spontaneous mouse mutant with profound loss of retinal signaling and an abnormal morphology of ribbon synapses in rods and cones. The Cacna2d4 gene encodes an l-type calcium-channel auxiliary subunit of the alpha (2) delta type. Mutations in its human orthologue, CACNA2D4, were not yet known to be associated with a disease. We performed mutation analyses of 34 patients who received an initial diagnosis of night blindness, and, in two affected siblings, we detected a homozygous nucleotide substitution (c.2406C-->A) in CACNA2D4. The mutation introduces a premature stop codon that truncates one-third of the corresponding open reading frame. Both patients share symptoms of slowly progressing cone dystrophy. These findings represent the first report of a mutation in the human CACNA2D4 gene and define a novel gene defect that causes autosomal recessive cone dystrophy.

  8. Digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts facial, but not voice or body odour, attractiveness in men.

    PubMed

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Lemaître, Jean-François; Leongómez, Juan David; Roberts, S Craig

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that human second-to-fourth digit ratio (or 2D:4D) is related to facial features involved in attractiveness, mediated by in utero hormonal effects. The present study extends the investigation to other phenotypic, hormone-related determinants of human attractiveness: voice and body odour. Pictures of faces with a neutral expression, recordings of voices pronouncing vowels and axillary odour samples captured on cotton pads worn for 24 h were provided by 49 adult male donors. These stimuli were rated on attractiveness and masculinity scales by two groups of 49 and 35 females, approximately half of these in each sample using hormonal contraception. Multivariate regression analyses showed that males' lower (more masculine) right 2D:4D and lower right-minus-left 2D:4D (Dr-l) were associated with a more attractive (and in some cases more symmetrical), but not more masculine, face. However, 2D:4D and Dr-l did not predict voice and body odour masculinity or attractiveness. The results were interpreted in terms of differential effects of prenatal and circulating testosterone, male facial shape being supposedly more dependent on foetal levels (reflected by 2D:4D ratio), whereas body odour and vocal characteristics could be more dependent on variation in adult circulating testosterone levels. PMID:21508034

  9. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor Act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Milica M; Milovanovic, Mina; Burazer, Lidija; Vuckovic, Olga; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Knulst, Andre C; Lindner, Buko; Petersen, Arnd; Jankov, Ratko; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Kiwifruit has become a frequent cause of fruit allergy in the recent years. The molecular basis of type I hypersensitivity to kiwifruit is attributed to 11 IUIS allergens, with Act d 1, Act d 2 and Act d 5 characterized in extenso. Evaluation of the allergenic properties of Act d 4, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) was performed in this study. Identity of the purified glycoprotein was determined by Edman degradation and by mass fingerprint whereby more than 90% of the primary structure of the mature kiwifruit cystatin was confirmed. Using MALDI TOF analysis, molecular masses of 10902.5 and 11055.2 Da were detected for Act d 4, respectively. Positive skin prick reactivity with Act d 4 was induced in three kiwifruit allergic patients, as well as the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c molecules in the basophile activation assay. The IgE reactivity was detected in dot blot analysis while Western blot analysis was negative using sera from six kiwifruit patients, suggesting the presence of conformational IgE epitopes on the Act d 4 molecule. As activator of effector cells in type I hypersensitivity Act d 4 is a functional allergen contributing to the clinical symptoms of kiwifruit allergy.

  10. Project SOUL: Computer Training Program for High School Students from Disadvantaged Areas. Part III, The Scientific Programming Course. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Art

    This report details the Scientific Programming Course that is a part of "Project SOUL." The course is intended for underprivileged high school juniors and seniors having an interest in mathematics or science and aspirations to attend college. The report is divided into three sections. In section I, the administration and operation of the course as…

  11. Project SOUL: Computer Training Program for High School Students from Disadvantaged Areas. Part I, General Report. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellman, Richard E.; And Others

    This report presents a general description of the 1970 "Project SOUL" summer program. The computer training course, intended for disadvantaged high school students, provides both training for immediate jobs and fundamental mathematical and scientific training for students going on to college. Included in this document are a description of the…

  12. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Grapevine Canyon Wind Project was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 34041). After considering the... of Intent published in the Federal Register on July 24, 2009 (74 FR 36689). The U.S. Environmental... July 23, 2010 (75 FR 43161). The NOA also announced a 45-day comment period for receipt of comments...

  13. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

    1980-01-01

    Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

  14. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children's affective knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Sharon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others' emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children's responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies.

  15. Leukotriene D4-induced Caco-2 cell proliferation is mediated by prostaglandin E2 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Marisol; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Moreno, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is a pro-inflammatory mediator formed from arachidonic acid through the action of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Its biological effects are mediated by at least two G-coupled plasmatic cysteinyl LT receptors (CysLT1-2R). It has been reported an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway in tumor tissue unlike in normal colon mucosa. Colon tumors generally have an increased expression of CysLT1R and colon cancer patients with high expression levels of CysLT1R have poor prognosis. We previously observed that the cyclooxygenase pathway is involved in the control of intestinal epithelial cancer cell growth through PGE2 production. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of LTD4 binding with CysLT1R on Caco-2 cell growth. We note a number of key findings from this research. We observed that at a concentration similar to that found under inflammatory conditions, LTD4 was able to induce Caco-2 cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. Moreover, with the use of a specific receptor antagonist this study has demonstrated that the effect of LTD4 is a result of its interaction with CystLT1R. We also note the possible participation of the PLC-IP3-Ca2+/DAG-PKC signaling pathways in cytosolic PLA2 and [3H]AA release induced by LTD4-CystLT1R interaction. Finally, we found that the resulting activation of the AA cascade and the production of PGE2 eicosanoid could be related to the activation of cell signaling pathways such as ERK and CREB. These findings will help facilitate our understanding of how inflammatory mediators can affect the survival and dissemination of intestinal carcinoma cells. PMID:26216432

  16. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children's affective knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Sharon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others' emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children's responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies. PMID:26157401

  17. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children’s affective knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Sharon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Ebstein, Richard P.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others’ emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children’s responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies. PMID:26157401

  18. Evaluation of Projection Methods to Predict Wetlands Area Sizes: the Wetlands Inventory of the United States (sample Date Correction, Land Classification)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrazas-Gonzalez, Gerardo H.

    This research concerns different methods that can be applied for projection of wetlands areas at selected times. A method described by Frayer (1987) for a stratified random sampling design. The method was developed by W. E. Frayer in collaboration with D. C. Bowden and can be used in surveys where the sampling units have been measured at two different times, tsb1 and tsb2. A change matrix giving the amount of each wetland type at time tsb1 that is in each of the wetland types at time tsb2 is obtained for each sampling unit. Projections are based on a mean annual stratum matrix of changes. Methods of evaluating the reliability of FBSB projections have not been given previously. One objective of this project is to provide variance estimators for the FBSB projection method using jackknife and bootstrap techniques. Direct analytic techniques appear to require an unrealistic amount of time to develop given the complexity of the estimator. Interest in projections at an arbitrary time led to a more general description of the stratum basis estimator to include t < tsb1 and t between tsb1 and tsb2. Variations in the measurement times tsb1 and tsb2 among sampling units within stratum and other considerations including the complexity of the stratum basis estimator, motivated the use of simpler estimators. Two classes of methods for making projections are given. The first class of estimators are functions of summed estimated change matrices while the second class of estimators are functions of products of normalized estimated change matrices. Estimators within each of the classes are further differentiated by whether the changes matrices are on annual or observed time period (tsb2-tsb1) basis. The projections procedures address two different objectives. One objective is the estimation of the total of wetlands areas at a given time. The other objective is to estimate the amount of change among wetland types between 2 given times. All the methods can be used for both objectives

  19. Literature review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for design in areas of extreme bed-load mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Asquith, William H.; Fang, Xing; Thompson, David B.; Wang, Keh-Han

    2005-01-01

    A review of the literature addressing sediment transport in gravel-bed river systems and structures designed to control bed-load mobility is provided as part of Texas Department of Transportation research project 0–4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility. The study area comprises the western half of the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Three primary foci of the literature review are journal articles, edited volumes, and government publications. Major themes within the body of literature include deterministic sediment transport theory and equations, development of methods to measure and analyze fluvial sediment, applications and development of theory in natural channels and flume experiments, and recommendations for river management and structural design. The literature review provides an outline and foundation for the research project to characterize extreme bed-load mobility in rivers and streams across the study area. The literature review also provides a basis upon which potential modifications to low-water stream-crossing design in the study area can be made.

  20. Bioremediation Well Borehole Soil Sampling and Data Analysis Summary Report for the 100-N Area Bioremediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Gamon

    2009-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings acquired during the drilling and construction of seven bioremediation wells in the 100-N Area in conjunction with remediation of the UPR-100-N-17 petroleum waste site.

  1. 17 CFR 240.14d-103 - Schedule 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .../recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and rules 14d-1(b... 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange..., DC 20549 Schedule 14D-9F Solicitation/Recommendation Statement Pursuant to Section 14(d)(4) of...

  2. 17 CFR 240.14d-103 - Schedule 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .../recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and rules 14d-1(b... 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange..., DC 20549 Schedule 14D-9F Solicitation/Recommendation Statement Pursuant to Section 14(d)(4) of...

  3. 17 CFR 240.14d-103 - Schedule 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and rules 14d-1(b... 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange..., DC 20549 Schedule 14D-9F Solicitation/Recommendation Statement Pursuant to Section 14(d)(4) of...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14d-103 - Schedule 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and rules 14d-1(b... 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange..., DC 20549 Schedule 14D-9F Solicitation/Recommendation Statement Pursuant to Section 14(d)(4) of...

  5. 17 CFR 240.14d-103 - Schedule 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and rules 14d-1(b... 14D-9F. Solicitation/recommendation statement pursuant to section 14(d)(4) of the Securities Exchange..., DC 20549 Schedule 14D-9F Solicitation/Recommendation Statement Pursuant to Section 14(d)(4) of...

  6. beta-estradiol attenuates the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of Stavudine (D4T) in primary PBL

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingjie; Huang, Qingsheng; Huang, Yong; Wood, Owen; Yuan, Weishi; Chancey, Caren; Daniel, Sylvester; Rios, Maria; Hewlett, Indira; Clouse, Kathleen A; Dayton, Andrew I

    2008-01-01

    Background Female hormones are known to play an important role in predisposition for many infectious diseases. Recent work suggests there are gender effects in HIV/AIDS progression. Here we ask whether the sex steroid hormone β-estradiol affects the replication of HIV-1 or the efficacy of a common anti-retroviral drug, Stavudine (D4T). Results Human PBL were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of combinations of sex steroid hormones and the anti-retroviral drug, D4T. After seven days in culture, viral supernatants were assayed for HIV-1 p24 protein. β-estradiol resulted in a modest inhibition of HIV-1 replication of ~26%. However, 2 nM β-estradiol increased the amount of HIV-1 replication in the presence of 50 nM D4T from a baseline of 33% (+/- SE = 5.4) to 74% (+/- SE = 5.4) of control virus levels in the absence of drug. Both results were statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). β-estradiol did not increase the replication of a D4T-resistant strain of HIV in the presence of D4T. The effects were unlikely to be due to general cell inhibition or toxicity because these concentrations of drug and hormone cause no cytotoxicity in PBL as measured by trypan blue exclusion. Conclusion β-estradiol inhibited both HIV-1 replication in primary human PBL and the antiretroviral efficacy of D4T in PBL cultures. To optimize antiretroviral drug therapy, it may be necessary to monitor patient hormonal status. PMID:18808673

  7. Failure to find linkage between a functional polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, S.; Gill, M.; Collier, D.A.

    1994-03-15

    We report the results of a linkage study in 24 families multiply affected with schizophrenia using a polymorphic DNA sequence encoding the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D4 receptor. Two-point LOD score analyses with a range of single gene models ranging from near dominant to near recessive revealed no evidence for linkage. In addition, we examined the data by non-parametric sib-pair analysis and found no excess sharing of alleles between affected sib-pairs. We therefore conclude that mutations within the dopamine D4 receptor gene do not have a major aetiological role in schizophrenia in our collection of pedigrees. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Quantum deformations of D = 4 Euclidean, Lorentz, Kleinian and quaternionic o⋆ (4) symmetries in unified o (4 ; C) setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, A.; Lukierski, J.; Tolstoy, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    We employ new calculational technique and present complete list of classical r-matrices for D = 4 complex homogeneous orthogonal Lie algebra o (4 ; C), the rotational symmetry of four-dimensional complex space-time. Further applying reality conditions we obtain the classical r-matrices for all possible real forms of o (4 ; C): Euclidean o (4), Lorentz o (3 , 1), Kleinian o (2 , 2) and quaternionic o⋆ (4) Lie algebras. For o (3 , 1) we get known four classical D = 4 Lorentz r-matrices, but for other real Lie algebras (Euclidean, Kleinian, quaternionic) we provide new results and mention some applications.

  9. Criticality analysis of selected Saxton Plutonium Program experiments using WIMS-D4M and DIF3D

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas Vivas, G.F.; Parish, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Saxton critical experiments were simulated with homogenized region, multigroup cross sections from the WIMS-D4M lattice physics code (ENDF/B-V library) and the diffusion code, DIF3D. The simulations were focused on assessing the codes` capabilities, including the different cell models available in WIMS-D4M. The accuracy of the core power distributions obtained with DIF3D has also been assessed. The number of experiments and their variety was used to obtain statistical parameters that allow a quantitative discussion of the assessment of the methodology.

  10. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  11. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China.

  12. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. PMID:26619399

  13. Identification of remediation needs and technology development focus areas for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.D.; Valdez, J.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project has been tasked with the characterization, assessment, remediation and long-term monitoring of contaminated waste sites at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). Many of these sites will require remediation which will involve the use of baseline technologies, innovative technologies that are currently under development, and new methods which will be developed in the near future. The Technology Applications Program (TAP) supports the ER Project and is responsible for development of new technologies for use at the contaminated waste sites, including technologies that will be used for remediation and restoration of these sites. The purpose of this report is to define the remediation needs of the ER Project and to identify those remediation needs for which the baseline technologies and the current development efforts are inadequate. The area between the remediation needs and the existing baseline/innovative technology base represents a technology gap which must be filled in order to remediate contaminated waste sites at SNL/NM economically and efficiently. In the first part of this report, the remediation needs of the ER Project are defined by both the ER Project task leaders and by TAP personnel. The next section outlines the baseline technologies, including EPA defined Best Demonstrated Available Technologies (BDATs), that are applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. This is followed by recommendations of innovative technologies that are currently being developed that may also be applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. Finally, the gap between the existing baseline/innovative technology base and the remediation needs is identified. This technology gap will help define the future direction of technology development for the ER Project.

  14. Fluid Management Plan for the Project Shoal Area, Off-sites Subproject, CAU 447, Revision 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Off-Site Project to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Off-Sites Project areas located off the NTS, but within the state of Nevada. The PSA is located approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Four wells were drilled at the PSA in 1996 as part of the site investigation administered through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The hydrogeologic data gathered from these wells was used to support the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the PSA. However, the subsequent evaluation of the groundwater model concluded that further delineation of the subsurface was required to reduce uncertainties in the model. In accordance with the FFACO, an addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the proposed PSA subsurface investigation, Corrective Action Unit 447, was developed. The addendum proposed the drilling and construction of four additional wells and the conduct of hydrologic testing at the PSA. This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from the well construction and testing activities at the PSA.

  15. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan.

  16. Feasibility studies for the development of petroleum areas. Integrated exploitation project of the fields in the area north of Santa Cruz. Volume 2. Tables and figures. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 2 of 4 contains Tables and Figures.

  17. Experimental use of TRMM precipitation radar observations in 1D+4D-Var assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Lopez, Philippe; Bauer, Peter; Moreau, Emmanuel

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a new application of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) observations for indirect assimilation into the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The PR reflectivities are first processed using a one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) method to adjust model temperature and specific humidity. The retrieved Total Column Water Vapour (TCWV) is then assimilated into the operational four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) system. The applicability of the 1D+4D-Var approach to the radar observations is discussed in detail.Several case studies were run to assess the feasibility and the effectiveness of assimilating PR reflectivities with a 1D-Var approach. Results show good behaviour of the 1D-Var system in terms of convergence and stability. Its performance in terms of retrieved TCWV is comparable to that of other 1D-Vars which make use of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) observations. When the 1D-Var TCWV pseudo-observations are input into the 4D-Var system, a positive impact is shown in the analysis and the subsequent forecasts, both on moisture-related fields and also on winds and surface pressure. The quality of the forecast is verified using track observations for the tropical cyclones. The track forecasts from the experiments which include 1D-Var TCWV are generally closer to the observed track than a control run. Despite their much smaller spatial coverage than TMI observations, it is found that the PR data have a comparable impact, provided the satellite samples a meaningful portion of the storm, possibly its centre. This is possibly due to the fact that TCWV increments from PR and from TMI brightness temperature have similar magnitudes.These results show that active sensor data can provide indirect yet useful information on the moisture field and that this information can effectively be assimilated to improve the analysis and the forecast of tropical disturbances. Although this is a sub

  18. Leukotriene D4 nasal provocation test: Rationale, methodology and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, ZHENG; XIE, YANQING; GUAN, WEIJIE; GAO, YI; XIA, SHU; LIANG, JIANXIN; ZHENG, JINPING

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) play a vital role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR), but few studies have investigated the nasal mucosal physiological response to LTs in AR patients. The aim of the present study was to establish the methodology and investigate the diagnostic value and safety of a leukotriene D4 (LTD4) nasal provocation test. LTD4 nasal provocation tests were performed in 26 AR patients and 16 normal control subjects. Nasal airway responsiveness was assessed by calculating the concentration of LTD4 required to cause a 60% increase in nasal airway resistance (PC60NAR-LTD4), which was measured using rhinomanometry and a composite symptom score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic value of LTD4 nasal provocation test, and adverse events were recorded. The study protocol was registered with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01963741). PC60NAR-LTD4 in AR was significantly lower compared with that of normal controls [8.36 (IQR, 10.00) vs. 17.00 (IQR, 0.00) µg/ml, P=0.005]. Composite symptom score was higher in AR as compared with normal controls (1.19±0.94 vs. 0.12±0.50, P<0.001). The symptom scores included sneezing (0.12±0.34 vs. 0.00±0.00, P=0.149), rhinorrhea (0.79±0.66 vs. 0.06±0.25, P<0.001) and chemosis or itching of the eyes (0.06±0.25 vs. 0.21±0.42, P=0.216). High diagnostic value was indicated by the ROC [AUC: 0.822, 95%CI (0.665, 0.961)]. No serious adverse events were observed. Thus, the present results indicate that AR patients exhibited nasal hyperactivity to LTD4, and the established procedure of LTD4 nasal provocation testing is effective and safe for use in the diagnosis of AR. PMID:27347089

  19. Ontogeny of the serotonergic projection to rat neocortex: transient expression of a dense innervation to primary sensory areas

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amato, R.J.; Blue, M.E.; Largent, B.L.; Lynch, D.R.; Ledbetter, D.J.; Molliver, M.E.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    The development of serotonergic innervation to rat cerebral cortex was characterized by immunohistochemical localization of serotonin combined with autoradiographic imaging of serotonin-uptake sites. In neonatal rat, a transient, dense, serotonergic innervation appears in all primary sensory areas of cortex. In somatosensory cortex, dense patches of serotonergic innervation are aligned with specialized cellular aggregates called barrels. The dense patches are not apparent after 3 weeks of age, and the serotonergic innervation becomes more uniform in adult neocortex. This precocious neonatal serotonergic innervation may play a transient physiologic role in sensory areas of cortex or may exert a trophic influence on the development of cortical circuitry and thalamocortical connections.

  20. Pyramidal Neurons in Rat Prefrontal Cortex Projecting to Ventral Tegmental Area and Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Express 5-HT2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Borsetti, Pablo; Cortés, Roser

    2009-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in higher brain functions altered in schizophrenia. Classical antipsychotics modulate cortico-limbic circuits mainly through subcortical D2 receptor blockade, whereas second generation (atypical) antipsychotics preferentially target cortical 5-HT receptors. Anatomical and functional evidence supports a PFC-based control of the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei. Using a combination of retrograde tracing experiments and in situ hybridization we report that a substantial proportion of PFC pyramidal neurons projecting to the dorsal raphe (DR) and/or ventral tegmental area (VTA) express 5-HT2A receptors. Cholera-toxin B application into the DR and the VTA retrogradely labeled projection neurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) and in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In situ hybridization of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA in the same tissue sections labeled a large neuronal population in mPFC and OFC. The percentage of DR-projecting neurons expressing 5-HT2A receptor mRNA was ∼60% in mPFC and ∼75% in OFC (n = 3). Equivalent values for VTA-projecting neurons were ∼55% in both mPFC and ventral OFC. Thus, 5-HT2A receptor activation/blockade in PFC may have downstream effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic systems via direct descending pathways. Atypical antipsychotics may distally modulate monoaminergic cells through PFC 5-HT2A receptor blockade, presumably decreasing the activity of neurons receiving direct cortical inputs. PMID:19029064