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Sample records for area food prices

  1. Relative Food Prices and Obesity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: 1976-2001

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Variyam, Jayachandran N.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of food price on obesity, by exploring the co-occurrence of obesity growth with relative food price reduction between 1976 and 2001. Analyses control for female labor participation and metropolitan outlet densities that might affect body weight. Both the first-difference and fixed effects approaches provide consistent evidence suggesting that relative food prices have substantial impacts on obesity and such impacts were more pronounced among the low-educated. These findings imply that relative food price reductions during the time period could plausibly explain about 18% of the increase in obesity among the U.S. adults in metropolitan areas. PMID:25502888

  2. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  3. [Changes in prices of taxed sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy dense food in rural and semi-rural areas in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Zavala, J Alejandro; Batis, Carolina; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate changes in prices associated with the implementation of the tax to sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and to nonessential energy dense food in 2014. Price data were collected in rural and semi-rural areas in December 2013, and April and December 2014. Fixed effects models were used to estimate changes in prices of beverages and nonessential energy dense food, stratified by region, retailer and package size. The SSB tax did not pass completely through prices: prices increased on average 0.73 pesos per liter. For nonessential energy dense food, the tax passed completely or was overshifted for cookies, cereal bars and cereal boxes. The potential effect of the taxes on consumption could be attenuated in rural areas as the pass through prices was incomplete.

  4. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  5. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  6. Pricing effects on food choices.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  7. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.

  8. Food prices and blood cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Rahkovsky, Ilya; Gregory, Christian A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cost Americans billions of dollars per year. High cholesterol levels, which are closely related to dietary habits, are a major contributor to CVD. In this article, we study whether changes in food prices are related to cholesterol levels and whether taxes or subsidies on particular foods would be effective in lowering cholesterol levels and, consequently, CVD costs. We find that prices of vegetables, processed foods, whole milk and whole grains are significantly associated with blood cholesterol levels. Having analyzed the costs and benefits of government interventions, we find that a subsidy of vegetables and whole grains would be an efficient way to reduce CVD expenditures.

  9. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  10. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  11. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika

    2011-12-01

    To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.

  12. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation.

  13. Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Tefft, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Recent proposals argue that a fast food tax may be an effective policy lever for reducing population weight. Although there is growing evidence for a negative association between fast food prices and weight among adolescents, less is known about adults. That any measured relationship to date is causal is unclear because there has been no attempt to separate variation in prices on the demand side from that on the supply side. We argue that the minimum wage is an exogenous source of variation in fast food prices, conditional on income and employment. In two-stage least-squares analyses, we find little evidence that fast food price changes affect adult BMI or obesity prevalence. Results are robust to including controls for area and time fixed effects, area time trends, demographic characteristics, substitute prices, numbers of establishments and employment in related industries, and other potentially related factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Smart Food Pricing Could Bring Healthier Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164036.html Smart Food Pricing Could Bring Healthier Choices Better diets result when fruits and veggies are cheaper, unhealthy foods more expensive, study found To use the sharing ...

  15. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  16. Food price policy can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Popkin, B M; Mroz, T A; Zhai, F

    1999-05-01

    The rapid change in diets, physical activity and body composition in low income countries has led to the coexistence of large pockets of undernutrition and overnutrition. Public health strategies for addressing this situation may be necessary, and price policy options are examined for China. Longitudinal dietary data collected in China in 1989-1993 on a sample of 5625 adults aged 20-45 y were examined. Three-day averages of food group consumption and nutrient intake were used in longitudinal statistical models to examine separately the effects of food prices on the decision to consume each food group and then the amount consumed. The effects of changes in six food prices on the consumption of each of six food groups, not just the food group whose price had changed, and on three macronutrients were estimated. The effects show large and significant price effects. If the joint effects of the nutrition transition are to be considered, then there are clear tradeoffs among which foods to tax and which to subsidize. Most important is the effect of prices in reducing fat intake of the rich but not adversely affecting protein intake for the poor. Increases in the prices of pork, eggs and edible oils are predicted to lower fat intake. Only increases in pork prices led to reduced protein intakes. This raises questions about earlier policy changes being implemented in China and provides insight into an important and controversial area for public health policy.

  17. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets (p < 0.001). Prices were generally not significantly different in isolated stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  18. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2017-01-01

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10–54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets (p < 0.001). Prices were generally not significantly different in isolated stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces. PMID:28809795

  19. Food prices and body fatness among youths.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This is the first study to consider clinically measured levels of body composition rather than BMI to investigate the effects of food prices on obesity outcomes among youths classified by gender and race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that increases in the real price per calorie of food for home consumption and the real price of fast-food restaurant food lead to improvements in obesity outcomes among youths. We also find that a rise in the real price of fruits and vegetables leads to increased obesity. Finally, our results indicate that measures of PBF derived from BIA and DXA are no less sensitive and in some cases more sensitive to the prices just mentioned than BMI, and serve an important role in demonstrating that rising food prices (except fruit and vegetable prices) are indeed associated with reductions in obesity rather than with reductions in body size proportions alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Robustness of an Intermittent Program of Comparative Retail Food Price Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgran, Roger A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of food item prices was compared across Tucson-area stores and to a local newspaper's annual price survey. Price distributions for national brands and cheapest alternative brands coincided closely with the newspaper report, suggesting that comparative food-store price reports provide useful information to consumers. (SK)

  1. Soaring Food Prices Squeeze Dining Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, JJ

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that students are likely to see a sharp increase in the cost of on-campus meal plans this fall, as rising food prices have sent some college food-service operations into deficits and have forced many to get creative with their fixed budgets. As the cost of food has soared, many dining halls have focused more on reducing…

  2. Soaring Food Prices Squeeze Dining Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, JJ

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that students are likely to see a sharp increase in the cost of on-campus meal plans this fall, as rising food prices have sent some college food-service operations into deficits and have forced many to get creative with their fixed budgets. As the cost of food has soared, many dining halls have focused more on reducing…

  3. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, p<0.001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We

  4. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women.

    PubMed

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-06-01

    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes.

  5. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katie A; Guilkey, David K; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Steffen, Lyn M; Shikany, James M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-03-01

    Fiscal food policies (eg, taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. To estimate subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Twenty-year follow-up (5 examinations) in a biracial US prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/1986-2005/2006, baseline N = 5115). Participants were aged 18 to 30 years at baseline; design indicated equal recruitment by race (black vs white), educational attainment, age, and sex. Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research were temporally and geographically linked to study participants' home address at each examination. Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Covariates included individual-level and community-level social and demographic factors. In repeated measures regression analysis, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were nonlinear (quadratic, P < .001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction P = .04), income (P = .07), and education (P = .03). At the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption frequency of 2.20 (95% CI, 2.07-2.33) and 1.55 (1.45-1.65) times/wk, respectively, whereas at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.86 (1.75-1.97) and 1.50 (1.41-1.59) times/wk. We observed differential price effects on HOMA-IR (inverse for lower educational status only [interaction P = .005] and at middle income only [interaction P = .02]) and BMI (inverse for blacks, less education, and middle income; positive for whites, more

  6. Beyond the sticker price: including and excluding time in comparing food prices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanliang; Davis, George C; Muth, Mary K

    2015-07-01

    An ongoing debate in the literature is how to measure the price of food. Most analyses have not considered the value of time in measuring the price of food. Whether or not the value of time is included in measuring the price of a food may have important implications for classifying foods based on their relative cost. The purpose of this article is to compare prices that exclude time (time-exclusive price) with prices that include time (time-inclusive price) for 2 types of home foods: home foods using basic ingredients (home recipes) vs. home foods using more processed ingredients (processed recipes). The time-inclusive and time-exclusive prices are compared to determine whether the time-exclusive prices in isolation may mislead in drawing inferences regarding the relative prices of foods. We calculated the time-exclusive price and time-inclusive price of 100 home recipes and 143 processed recipes and then categorized them into 5 standard food groups: grains, proteins, vegetables, fruit, and dairy. We then examined the relation between the time-exclusive prices and the time-inclusive prices and dietary recommendations. For any food group, the processed food time-inclusive price was always less than the home recipe time-inclusive price, even if the processed food's time-exclusive price was more expensive. Time-inclusive prices for home recipes were especially higher for the more time-intensive food groups, such as grains, vegetables, and fruit, which are generally underconsumed relative to the guidelines. Focusing only on the sticker price of a food and ignoring the time cost may lead to different conclusions about relative prices and policy recommendations than when the time cost is included. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Food Prices and Obesity: A Review1234

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Eric A.; Strombotne, Kiersten L.; Zhen, Chen; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In response to rising rates of obesity in the United States due in part to excess food consumption, researchers and policy makers have argued that levying food taxes on obesity-promoting foods, perhaps combined with subsidies on healthier options, would be an effective tool to stem the obesity epidemic. The extent to which overall energy intake or weight outcomes will improve as a result of these policies is ultimately an empirical question. This review examines the link between food or beverage price changes and energy intake or weight outcomes among U.S. consumers. Current evidence indicates that, by themselves, targeted food taxes and subsidies as considered to date are unlikely to have a major effect on individual weight or obesity prevalence. While research suggests that the effects are modest, food taxes and subsidies may play an important role in a multifaceted approach to reducing obesity incidence. PMID:25398747

  8. Food prices and obesity: a review.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Strombotne, Kiersten L; Zhen, Chen; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-11-01

    In response to rising rates of obesity in the United States due in part to excess food consumption, researchers and policy makers have argued that levying food taxes on obesity-promoting foods, perhaps combined with subsidies on healthier options, would be an effective tool to stem the obesity epidemic. The extent to which overall energy intake or weight outcomes will improve as a result of these policies is ultimately an empirical question. This review examines the link between food or beverage price changes and energy intake or weight outcomes among U.S. consumers. Current evidence indicates that, by themselves, targeted food taxes and subsidies as considered to date are unlikely to have a major effect on individual weight or obesity prevalence. While research suggests that the effects are modest, food taxes and subsidies may play an important role in a multifaceted approach to reducing obesity incidence. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Regional price differences and food consumption frequency among elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, R.; Datar, A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Food prices may affect diet and weight gain among youth and lead to geographic disparities in obesity. This paper examines the association between regional prices and consumption frequency of fruit/vegetables and snack items among elementary school children in the USA. Study design Observational study using individual-level survey data of fifth-grade children (average age 11 years) and regional food prices based on store visits in 2004. Methods Dependent variables are self-reported consumption frequency in fifth grade; primary explanatory variables are metropolitan area food prices relative to cost of living. Multivariate regression analysis. Results Price variation across metropolitan areas exists, and lower real prices for vegetables and fruits predict significantly higher intake frequency. Higher dairy prices predict lower frequency of milk consumption, while higher meat prices predict increased milk consumption. Similar price effects were not found for fast food or soft drink consumption. Discussion The geographic variation in food prices across the USA is sufficiently large to affect dietary patterns among youth for fruit, vegetables and milk. This suggests that either the price variation is too small to affect children’s consumption frequency of fast food or soft drinks, or that the consumption of these foods is less price sensitive. PMID:21315395

  10. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  11. The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Long, Michael W; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-02-01

    In light of proposals to improve diets by shifting food prices, it is important to understand how price changes affect demand for various foods. We reviewed 160 studies on the price elasticity of demand for major food categories to assess mean elasticities by food category and variations in estimates by study design. Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7-0.8). As an example, a 10% increase in soft drink prices should reduce consumption by 8% to 10%. Studies estimating price effects on substitutions from unhealthy to healthy food and price responsiveness among at-risk populations are particularly needed.

  12. The Impact of Food Prices on Consumption: A Systematic Review of Research on the Price Elasticity of Demand for Food

    PubMed Central

    Long, Michael W.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    In light of proposals to improve diets by shifting food prices, it is important to understand how price changes affect demand for various foods. We reviewed 160 studies on the price elasticity of demand for major food categories to assess mean elasticities by food category and variations in estimates by study design. Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7–0.8). As an example, a 10% increase in soft drink prices should reduce consumption by 8% to 10%. Studies estimating price effects on substitutions from unhealthy to healthy food and price responsiveness among at-risk populations are particularly needed. PMID:20019319

  13. Comparing Prices for Food and Diet Research: The Metric Matters.

    PubMed

    Jones, N R V; Monsivais, P

    2016-07-02

    An important issue in research into access to healthy food is how best to compare the price of foods. The appropriate metric for comparison has been debated at length, with proponents variously stating that food prices should be compared in terms of their energy content, their edible mass, or their typical portion size. In this article we assessed the impact of using different food price metrics on the observed difference in price between food groups and categories of healthiness, using United Kingdom consumer price index data for 148 foods and beverages in 2012. We found that the choice of metric had a marked effect on the findings and conclude that this must be decided in advance to suit the reason for comparing food prices.

  14. Comparing Prices for Food and Diet Research: The Metric Matters

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N. R. V.; Monsivais, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An important issue in research into access to healthy food is how best to compare the price of foods. The appropriate metric for comparison has been debated at length, with proponents variously stating that food prices should be compared in terms of their energy content, their edible mass, or their typical portion size. In this article we assessed the impact of using different food price metrics on the observed difference in price between food groups and categories of healthiness, using United Kingdom consumer price index data for 148 foods and beverages in 2012. We found that the choice of metric had a marked effect on the findings and conclude that this must be decided in advance to suit the reason for comparing food prices. PMID:27630754

  15. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    PubMed

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in U.S. food prices, 1950-2007.

    PubMed

    Christian, Thomas; Rashad, Inas

    2009-03-01

    The potential effect that food prices may have on the health of the U.S. population needs to be further explored, particularly in light of the rising food prices currently being observed. Declining food prices over time have been singled out as a main contributor, for example, to the rising trend in obesity. In this paper we use data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association, the Consumer Expenditure Survey, and the United States Department of Agriculture to analyze trends in various types of food prices, to create a food price index, and to estimate the price of a calorie. Results may be used by future researchers in estimating the health implications of these trends. We find that while the general trend in food prices has been declining, that of restaurant meal prices and prices of fruits and vegetables has risen over time. It is doubtful that the decline in food prices has been sufficiently large to account for the large increase in caloric intake that is said to have contributed to the obesity epidemic in the U.S.

  17. What Happens to Patterns of Food Consumption when Food Prices Change? Evidence from A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Food Price Elasticities Globally.

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, Laura; Green, Rosemary; Turner, Rachel; Dangour, Alan D; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen considerable interest in examining the impact of food prices on food consumption and subsequent health consequences. Fiscal policies targeting the relative price of unhealthy foods are frequently put forward as ways to address the obesity epidemic. Conversely, various food subsidy interventions are used in attempts to reduce levels of under-nutrition. Information on price elasticities is essential for understanding how such changes in food prices affect food consumption. It is crucial to know not only own-price elasticities but also cross-price elasticities, as food substitution patterns may have significant implications for policy recommendations. While own-price elasticities are common in analyses of the impact of food price changes on health, cross-price effects, even though generally acknowledged, are much less frequently included in analyses, especially in the public health literature. This article systematically reviews the global evidence on cross-price elasticities and provides combined estimates for seven food groups in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries alongside previously estimated own-price elasticities. Changes in food prices had the largest own-price effects in low-income countries. Cross-price effects were more varied and depending on country income level were found to be reinforcing, undermining or alleviating own-price effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Understanding the Impact of Higher Corn Prices on Consumer Food Prices

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-04-18

    In an effort to assess the true effects of higher corn prices, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) commissioned an analysis on the impact of increased corn prices on retail food prices. This paper summarizes key results of the study and offers additional analysis based on information from a variety of other sources.

  19. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies.

  20. Higher Prices, Fewer Choices: Shopping for Food in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Patricia McGrath

    The Food Stamp Program is the U.S. government's primary program to prevent the rural poor from going hungry. Food stamp allotments are set each year based on the cost of the "Thrifty Food Plan" (TFP), a minimally adequate diet defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which sets costs by examining average food prices in urban…

  1. Higher Prices, Fewer Choices: Shopping for Food in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Patricia McGrath

    The Food Stamp Program is the U.S. government's primary program to prevent the rural poor from going hungry. Food stamp allotments are set each year based on the cost of the "Thrifty Food Plan" (TFP), a minimally adequate diet defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which sets costs by examining average food prices in urban…

  2. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    PubMed

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  3. Fish Is Food - The FAO’s Fish Price Index

    PubMed Central

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F.; Smith, Martin D.; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations–which compiles prices for other major food categories–has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability. PMID:22590598

  4. Local Staple Food Price Indices in the Age of Biofuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    In many poor, food insecure regions, agriculture is a primary source of income and farmers are reliant both on their own production and on purchasing food in the market to feed their families. Large local food price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation and may be the consequence of weather-related food production declines, Dr can simply be the result of price transmission from the international commodity market. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets far from the places where the chronically food insecure live. A much better understanding of how local staple food prices in isolated regions such as West Africa that grow most of the food they eat to better understand the impact of global commodity market transformations on sensitive communities at the margin. This information will also enable improved strategies for these farmers who are extraordinarily sensitive to climate change impacts on agricultural growing conditions.

  5. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes.

  6. As Food Prices Rise, Setting Menus Is Cause of Heartburn for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    With food and fuel prices increasing sharply, food and nutrition directors in school districts around the country are finding themselves facing some uncomfortable choices. In some districts, school lunch menus are being pared down to fewer selections, instead of the array of healthy options districts would like to offer. In other areas, canned and…

  7. As Food Prices Rise, Setting Menus Is Cause of Heartburn for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    With food and fuel prices increasing sharply, food and nutrition directors in school districts around the country are finding themselves facing some uncomfortable choices. In some districts, school lunch menus are being pared down to fewer selections, instead of the array of healthy options districts would like to offer. In other areas, canned and…

  8. Food Prices and Climate Extremes: A Model of Global Grain Price Variability with Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Frieler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or heat waves affect agricultural production in major cropping regions and therefore impact the world market prices of staple crops. In the last decade, crop prices exhibited two very prominent price peaks in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011, threatening food security especially for poorer countries that are net importers of grain. There is evidence that these spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual supply shortages and the expectation of bad harvests. However, the response of the market to supply shocks is nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and trade policies. Quantifying the contributions of such different factors to short-term price variability remains difficult, not least because many existing models ignore the role of storage which becomes important on short timescales. This in turn impedes the assessment of future climate change impacts on food prices. Here, we present a simple model of annual world grain prices that integrates grain stocks into the supply and demand functions. This firstly allows us to model explicitly the effect of storage strategies on world market price, and thus, for the first time, to quantify the potential contribution of trade policies to price variability in a simple global framework. Driven only by reported production and by long--term demand trends of the past ca. 40 years, the model reproduces observed variations in both the global storage volume and price of wheat. We demonstrate how recent price peaks can be reproduced by accounting for documented changes in storage strategies and trade policies, contrasting and complementing previous explanations based on different mechanisms such as speculation. Secondly, we show how the integration of storage allows long-term projections of grain price variability under climate change, based on existing crop yield scenarios.

  9. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P < 0.0001). Differences in IDDS and HFIAS between the 2 y were even more marked after adjustment for confounding factors and food expenditure. Food security and dietary diversity significantly decreased between 2007 and 2008, whereas food prices increased. Households increased their food expenditure, but this was not sufficient to compensate the effects of the crisis.

  10. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P < 0.05). Higher fast food and fruit and vegetable prices also contributed to higher risk of food insecurity (coefficient = 0.632, P < 0.01 for fast food; coefficient = 0.879, P < 0.01 for fruits and vegetables). However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  11. Price and maternal obesity influence purchasing of low- and high-energy-dense foods2

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Dearing, Kelly K; Paluch, Rocco A; Roemmich, James N; Cho, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Price can influence food purchases, which can influence consumption. Limited laboratory research has assessed the effect of price changes on food purchases, and no research on individual differences that may interact with price to influence purchases exists. Objective We aimed to assess the influence of price changes of low-energy-density (LED) and high-energy-density (HED) foods on mother’s food purchases in a laboratory food-purchasing analogue. Design Mothers were randomly assigned to price conditions in which the price of either LED or HED foods was manipulated from 75% to 125% of the reference purchase price, whereas the price of the alternative foods was kept at the reference value. Mothers completed purchases for 2 income levels ($15 or $30 per family member). Results Purchases were reduced when prices of LED (P < 0.01) and HED (P < 0.001) foods were increased. Maternal BMI interacted with price to influence purchases of HED foods when the price of HED foods increased (P = 0.016) and interacted with price to influence purchases of LED foods when the price of HED foods increased (P = 0.008). Conclusion These results show the relevance of considering price change as a way to influence food purchases of LED compared with HED foods and the possibility that individual differences may influence the own-price elasticity of HED foods and substitution of LED for HED foods. PMID:17921365

  12. Variation in drug prices at pharmacies: are prices higher in poorer areas?

    PubMed

    Gellad, Walid F; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Friedberg, Mark W; Brookhart, M Alan; Haas, Jennifer S; Shrank, William H

    2009-04-01

    To determine whether retail prices for prescription drugs are higher in poorer areas. The MyFloridarx.com website, which provides retail prescription prices at Florida pharmacies, and median ZIP code income from the 2000 Census. We compared mean pharmacy prices for each of the four study drugs across ZIP code income groups. Pharmacies were classified as either chain pharmacies or independent pharmacies. Prices were downloaded in November 2006. Across the four study drugs, mean prices were highest in the poorest ZIP codes: 9 percent above the statewide average. Independent pharmacies in the poorest ZIP codes charged the highest mean prices. Retail prescription prices appear to be higher in poorer ZIP codes of Florida.

  13. Variation in Drug Prices at Pharmacies: Are Prices Higher in Poorer Areas?

    PubMed Central

    Gellad, Walid F; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Friedberg, Mark W; Brookhart, M Alan; Haas, Jennifer S; Shrank, William H

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether retail prices for prescription drugs are higher in poorer areas. Data Sources The MyFloridarx.com website, which provides retail prescription prices at Florida pharmacies, and median ZIP code income from the 2000 Census. Study Design We compared mean pharmacy prices for each of the four study drugs across ZIP code income groups. Pharmacies were classified as either chain pharmacies or independent pharmacies. Data Collection Prices were downloaded in November 2006. Principal Findings Across the four study drugs, mean prices were highest in the poorest ZIP codes: 9 percent above the statewide average. Independent pharmacies in the poorest ZIP codes charged the highest mean prices. Conclusions Retail prescription prices appear to be higher in poorer ZIP codes of Florida. PMID:19178584

  14. Local food prices and their associations with children's weight and food security.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Taryn W; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie

    2014-03-01

    Both obesity and food insecurity are important public health problems facing young children in the United States. A lack of affordable, healthy foods is one of the neighborhood factors presumed to underlie both food insecurity and obesity among children. We examine associations between local food prices and children's BMI, weight, and food security outcomes. We linked data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy to age 5, to local food price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) Cost-of-Living Index (n = 11,700 observations). Using ordinary least squares (OLS), linear probability, and within-child fixed effects (FE) models, we exploit the variability in food price data over time and among children who move residences focusing on a subsample of households under 300% of the Federal Poverty Level. Results from ordinary least squares and FE models indicate that higher-priced fruits and vegetables are associated with higher child BMI, and this relationship is driven by the prices of fresh (versus frozen or canned) fruits and vegetables. In the FE models, higher-priced soft drinks are associated with a lower likelihood of being overweight, and surprisingly, higher fast food prices are associated with a greater likelihood of being overweight. Policies that reduce the costs of fresh fruits and vegetables may be effective in promoting healthy weight outcomes among young children.

  15. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the relation between food prices and the demand for food with specific reference to national and household income levels. Design Systematic review with meta-regression. Data sources Online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature (ISI Web of Science, EconLit, PubMed, Medline, AgEcon, Agricola, Google, Google Scholar, IdeasREPEC, Eldis, USAID, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute), hand searched reference lists, and contact with authors. Study selection We included cross sectional, cohort, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies with English abstracts. Eligible studies used nationally representative data from 1990 onwards derived from national aggregate data sources, household surveys, or supermarket and home scanners. Data analysis The primary outcome extracted from relevant papers was the quantification of the demand for foods in response to changes in food price (own price food elasticities). Descriptive and study design variables were extracted for use as covariates in analysis. We conducted meta-regressions to assess the effect of income levels between and within countries on the strength of the relation between food price and demand, and predicted price elasticities adjusted for differences across studies. Results 136 studies reporting 3495 own price food elasticities from 162 different countries were identified. Our models predict that increases in the price of all foods result in greater reductions in food consumption in poor countries: in low and high income countries, respectively, a 1% increase in the price of cereals results in reductions in consumption of 0.61% (95% confidence interval 0.56% to 0.66%) and 0.43% (0.36% to 0.48%), and a 1% increase in the price of meat results in reductions in consumption of 0.78% (0.73% to 0.83%) and 0.60% (0.54% to 0.66%). Within all countries, our models predict that poorer households will be the most adversely

  16. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Green, Rosemary; Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2013-06-17

    To quantify the relation between food prices and the demand for food with specific reference to national and household income levels. Systematic review with meta-regression. Online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature (ISI Web of Science, EconLit, PubMed, Medline, AgEcon, Agricola, Google, Google Scholar, IdeasREPEC, Eldis, USAID, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute), hand searched reference lists, and contact with authors. We included cross sectional, cohort, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies with English abstracts. Eligible studies used nationally representative data from 1990 onwards derived from national aggregate data sources, household surveys, or supermarket and home scanners. The primary outcome extracted from relevant papers was the quantification of the demand for foods in response to changes in food price (own price food elasticities). Descriptive and study design variables were extracted for use as covariates in analysis. We conducted meta-regressions to assess the effect of income levels between and within countries on the strength of the relation between food price and demand, and predicted price elasticities adjusted for differences across studies. 136 studies reporting 3495 own price food elasticities from 162 different countries were identified. Our models predict that increases in the price of all foods result in greater reductions in food consumption in poor countries: in low and high income countries, respectively, a 1% increase in the price of cereals results in reductions in consumption of 0.61% (95% confidence interval 0.56% to 0.66%) and 0.43% (0.36% to 0.48%), and a 1% increase in the price of meat results in reductions in consumption of 0.78% (0.73% to 0.83%) and 0.60% (0.54% to 0.66%). Within all countries, our models predict that poorer households will be the most adversely affected by increases in food prices. Changes in global food prices will

  17. Distance to Store, Food Prices, and Obesity in Urban Food Deserts

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Hunter, Gerald; Zenk, Shannon N.; Huang, Christina; Beckman, Robin; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of access to healthy foods may explain why residents of low-income neighborhoods and African Americans in the U.S. have high rates of obesity. The findings on where people shop and how that may influence health are mixed. However, multiple policy initiatives are underway to increase access in communities that currently lack healthy options. Few studies have simultaneously measured obesity, distance, and prices of the store used for primary food shopping. Purpose To examine the relationship among distance to store, food prices, and obesity. Methods The Pittsburgh Hill/Homewood Research on Eating, Shopping, and Health study conducted baseline interviews with 1,372 households between May and December 2011 in two low-income, majority African American neighborhoods without a supermarket. Audits of 16 stores where participants reported doing their major food shopping were conducted. Data were analyzed between February 2012 and February 2013. Results Distance to store and prices were positively associated with obesity (p<0.05). When distance to store and food prices were jointly modeled, only prices remained significant (p<0.01), with higher prices predicting a lower likelihood of obesity. Although low- and high-price stores did not differ in availability, they significantly differed in their display and marketing of junk foods relative to healthy foods. Conclusions Placing supermarkets in food deserts to improve access may not be as important as simultaneously offering better prices for healthy foods relative to junk foods, actively marketing healthy foods, and enabling consumers to resist the influence of junk food marketing. PMID:25217097

  18. Distance to store, food prices, and obesity in urban food deserts.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Hunter, Gerald; Zenk, Shannon N; Huang, Christina; Beckman, Robin; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2014-11-01

    Lack of access to healthy foods may explain why residents of low-income neighborhoods and African Americans in the U.S. have high rates of obesity. The findings on where people shop and how that may influence health are mixed. However, multiple policy initiatives are underway to increase access in communities that currently lack healthy options. Few studies have simultaneously measured obesity, distance, and prices of the store used for primary food shopping. To examine the relationship among distance to store, food prices, and obesity. The Pittsburgh Hill/Homewood Research on Eating, Shopping, and Health study conducted baseline interviews with 1,372 households between May and December 2011 in two low-income, majority African American neighborhoods without a supermarket. Audits of 16 stores where participants reported doing their major food shopping were conducted. Data were analyzed between February 2012 and February 2013. Distance to store and prices were positively associated with obesity (p<0.05). When distance to store and food prices were jointly modeled, only prices remained significant (p<0.01), with higher prices predicting a lower likelihood of obesity. Although low- and high-price stores did not differ in availability, they significantly differed in their display and marketing of junk foods relative to healthy foods. Placing supermarkets in food deserts to improve access may not be as important as simultaneously offering better prices for healthy foods relative to junk foods, actively marketing healthy foods, and enabling consumers to resist the influence of junk food marketing. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention.

  20. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Birhane, Tesfay; Shiferaw, Solomon; Hagos, Seifu; Mohindra, Katia Sarla

    2014-07-04

    High food prices have emerged as a major global challenge, especially for poor and urban households in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. However, there is little empirical evidence on urban food security and how people living in urban areas are coping with sustained high food prices. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 18 to February 14, 2012. A total of 550 households were selected from three sub-cities of Addis Ababa using three-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire based interview with household heads. Items in the questionnaire include, among others, basic socioeconomic variables, dietary diversity and coping strategies. Food security status of households was assessed by a Household Food Insecurity Access Score. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and both univariate and bivariate analysis were done. The study found that 75% of households were food insecure and 23% were in a state of hunger. Households with higher food insecurity scores tend to have lower dietary diversity and are less likely to consume high quality diets. Reduction in meal size and shifting to poor quality/less expensive/food types were among the common coping strategies to high food price used by households. Household incomes, occupational and educational status of household heads were significant determinants of food security. Food insecurity in Ethiopia is not only a rural problem. Urban food insecurity is a growing concern due to the toxic combination of high rates of urban poverty, high dependency of urban households on food supplied by the market, and fluctuating food prices. Household food insecurity was particularly high among low income households and those headed by uneducated, daily wagers and

  1. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High food prices have emerged as a major global challenge, especially for poor and urban households in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. However, there is little empirical evidence on urban food security and how people living in urban areas are coping with sustained high food prices. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 18 to February 14, 2012. A total of 550 households were selected from three sub-cities of Addis Ababa using three-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire based interview with household heads. Items in the questionnaire include, among others, basic socioeconomic variables, dietary diversity and coping strategies. Food security status of households was assessed by a Household Food Insecurity Access Score. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and both univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results The study found that 75% of households were food insecure and 23% were in a state of hunger. Households with higher food insecurity scores tend to have lower dietary diversity and are less likely to consume high quality diets. Reduction in meal size and shifting to poor quality/less expensive/food types were among the common coping strategies to high food price used by households. Household incomes, occupational and educational status of household heads were significant determinants of food security. Conclusion Food insecurity in Ethiopia is not only a rural problem. Urban food insecurity is a growing concern due to the toxic combination of high rates of urban poverty, high dependency of urban households on food supplied by the market, and fluctuating food prices. Household food insecurity was particularly high among low income households and those headed by

  2. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  3. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  4. Are the price patterns of cardioprotective vs. unhealthy foods the same? A report from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although several studies have assessed the price of different food groups in developed countries, there is scarce evidence regarding developing countries. Also, there is no report regarding the price of cardioprotective compared with unhealthy foods. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of food cost across different food groups (cardioprotective vs. unhealthy) and to assess the association between food cost and nutritional quality of foods in Iran. METHODS A list of foods consumed frequently by Iranian population was provided. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed by energy density and nutrient rich foods (NRF) index. Food groups were defined according to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate food groups. The price of food groups was reported as kcal/price and price/serving. RESULTS Although a positive association between different types of nutrient rich foods, nutrient content of foods and food price was observed, there was an inverse relationship between food price and energy density. The kcal/price of "oils" was less than "whole grains" and "refined grains". "Sugar, sweets and beverages" and "beans and legumes" food groups had equal kcal/price media. Among healthy foods for cardiovascular system, nuts had the highest price/serving. On the other hand, among unhealthy foods for cardiovascular system, processed meat had the highest price/serving. The price/serving of healthy oils was similar to saturated and trans fatty acids rich oils. Also, the price/serving of low-fat (healthy) vs. high fat (unhealthy) dairy was not different. Similar finding was observed for white meat vs. red meat. CONCLUSION Our findings revealed that the pattern of food price in Iran is different from developed countries. Also, we found that Iranians can consume a cardioprotective diet without any economic pressure. PMID:28149312

  5. Are the price patterns of cardioprotective vs. unhealthy foods the same? A report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have assessed the price of different food groups in developed countries, there is scarce evidence regarding developing countries. Also, there is no report regarding the price of cardioprotective compared with unhealthy foods. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of food cost across different food groups (cardioprotective vs. unhealthy) and to assess the association between food cost and nutritional quality of foods in Iran. A list of foods consumed frequently by Iranian population was provided. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed by energy density and nutrient rich foods (NRF) index. Food groups were defined according to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate food groups. The price of food groups was reported as kcal/price and price/serving. Although a positive association between different types of nutrient rich foods, nutrient content of foods and food price was observed, there was an inverse relationship between food price and energy density. The kcal/price of "oils" was less than "whole grains" and "refined grains". "Sugar, sweets and beverages" and "beans and legumes" food groups had equal kcal/price media. Among healthy foods for cardiovascular system, nuts had the highest price/serving. On the other hand, among unhealthy foods for cardiovascular system, processed meat had the highest price/serving. The price/serving of healthy oils was similar to saturated and trans fatty acids rich oils. Also, the price/serving of low-fat (healthy) vs. high fat (unhealthy) dairy was not different. Similar finding was observed for white meat vs. red meat. Our findings revealed that the pattern of food price in Iran is different from developed countries. Also, we found that Iranians can consume a cardioprotective diet without any economic pressure.

  6. Price Elasticities of Food Demand: Compensated vs Uncompensated.

    PubMed

    Clements, Kenneth W; Si, Jiawei

    2016-11-01

    Two recent studies have provided a comprehensive review/summary of a large number of estimates of the price elasticity of food consumption using a meta-regression approach. In this letter, we introduce a way of removing the income effect from these elasticities to recover the compensated elasticities. Although the income effect is small, the compensated elasticities vary by income group. Both types of elasticity should possibly be considered when assessing the impact of policy changes on food consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Macronutrient supplementation and food prices in HIV treatment.

    PubMed

    Sztam, Kevin A; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Infection caused by HIV and malnutrition have a complex interaction and often coexist geographically. Malnutrition has synergistic immune effects and HIV affects nutritional status. HIV care and treatment programs are compelled to confront this dual burden to optimize HIV outcomes. In this article, we review the published literature concerning intervention studies in adults and children and the effect of food prices on HIV treatment programs. While the evidence base is relatively incomplete for specific macronutrient interventions in the context of HIV treatment, it is clear that a new standard of care is needed, guided by experience, rationale, and existing data, in which malnourished patients may easily access nutritional therapies within HIV treatment. From this clinical foundation, we may both treat patients and evaluate novel therapies. Some HIV care and treatment programs provide food-based supplements; however, rising food costs and economic instability may jeopardize the success of these programs. HIV treatment programs may struggle to meet the needs of patients with potential increased rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in the setting of high food prices.

  8. Macronutrient Supplementation and Food Prices in HIV Treatment12

    PubMed Central

    Sztam, Kevin A.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Infection caused by HIV and malnutrition have a complex interaction and often coexist geographically. Malnutrition has synergistic immune effects and HIV affects nutritional status. HIV care and treatment programs are compelled to confront this dual burden to optimize HIV outcomes. In this article, we review the published literature concerning intervention studies in adults and children and the effect of food prices on HIV treatment programs. While the evidence base is relatively incomplete for specific macronutrient interventions in the context of HIV treatment, it is clear that a new standard of care is needed, guided by experience, rationale, and existing data, in which malnourished patients may easily access nutritional therapies within HIV treatment. From this clinical foundation, we may both treat patients and evaluate novel therapies. Some HIV care and treatment programs provide food-based supplements; however, rising food costs and economic instability may jeopardize the success of these programs. HIV treatment programs may struggle to meet the needs of patients with potential increased rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in the setting of high food prices. PMID:19939991

  9. Cafeterias/Food-Service Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of notable school cafeterias and food service areas, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  10. Cafeterias/Food-Service Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of notable school cafeterias and food service areas, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  11. Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; West, Delia Smith; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Elaine Prewitt, T

    2010-06-01

    Availability and price of healthy foods in food stores has the potential to influence purchasing patterns, dietary intake, and weight status of individuals. This study examined whether demographic factors of the store neighborhood or store size have an impact on the availability and price of healthy foods in sample of grocery stores and supermarkets. The Nutrition Environment Measures Study-Store (NEMS-S) instrument, a standardized observational survey, was utilized to evaluate food stores (N = 42) in a multi-site (Vermont and Arkansas) study in 2008. Census data associated with store census tract (median household income and proportion African-American) were used to characterize store neighborhood and number of cash registers was used to quantify store size. Median household income was significantly associated with the NEMS healthy food availability score (r = 0.36, P < 0.05); neither racial composition (r = -0.23, P = 0.14) nor store size (r = 0.27, P = 0.09) were significantly related to the Availability score. Larger store size (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) was significantly associated with the NEMS-S Price scores, indicating more favorable prices for healthier items; neither racial composition nor median household income were significantly related to the Price score (P's > 0.05). Even among supermarkets, healthier foods are less available in certain neighborhoods, although, when available, the quality of healthier options did not differ, suggesting that targeting availability may offer promise for policy initiatives. Furthermore, increasing access to larger stores that can offer lower prices for healthier foods may provide another avenue for enhancing food environments to lower disease risk.

  12. Negative impact on calorie intake associated with the 2006-08 food price crisis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora; Robles, Miguel

    2011-06-01

    From 2006 to 2008, there were sharp increases in the prices of major food commodities globally, including maize, rice, and wheat. Few studies have contributed empirical evidence of the nutritional impacts of this food price crisis. To assess changes in energy intake in response to food price shocks and in relation to calorie adequacy levels in seven Latin American countries. Data were drawn from nationally representative household budget surveys. The quadratic almost ideal demand system (QUAIDS) model characterized change patterns in consumption for six food groups and one nonfood group under two scenarios: actual change in food prices by country, and standardized 10% increase in prices across all countries. Energy intakes before and after the crisis were determined once calories were assigned to food items from the ProPAN and US Department of Agriculture food composition databases. Energy intakes were reduced by 8.0% (range, 0.95% to 15.1%) from precrisis levels across all countries. Ecuador and Panama were the worst affected, followed by Haiti and Nicaragua. There was a consistent, direct relationship between wealth quintile and change in energy intake. Rural areas were affected to the same extent as or a greater extent than urban areas. High positive increases in calorie consumption were found in the richest wealth quintile, exceeding 10% of previous levels in five countries. Policies and programs targeting the poorest households in both rural and urban areas may be needed to offset the energy deficits associated with food price increases. More research is needed on the effect of food prices and micronutrient nutrition.

  13. Long-term trends in food availability, food prices, and obesity in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Seiden, Andrew; Hawley, Nicola L; Schulz, Dirk; Raifman, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    To describe long-term food availability and prices from 1961 to 2007 and body mass index (BMI) trends from 1980 to 2010 in Samoa, and to contextualize these trends within political, economic, cultural, behavioral, and climatic influences. National level data on food availability and pricing were obtained from the open access database FAO (http://faostat.fao.org). Data for Samoa were collected from annual food balance sheets available for the period 1961-2007. Mean BMI for Samoan men and women aged 35-44 years of age is reported from four different time periods, 1979-1982, 1991, 2003, and 2010. Total energy availability increased substantially, by 47%, with more than 900 extra calories available per capita per day in 2007 than in 1961. Many of these extra calories are supplied by dietary fat, the availability of which rose by a proportionally greater amount, 73%. Availability of both meat and vegetable oils rose substantially. Poultry meat increased the most proportionally, from 10 to 117 kcal per capita per day. Coconut products, fruits, and starchy root crops-all locally grown-showed little to no increase over this time. As import prices for poultry and mutton increased their availability decreased, but the availability of vegetable oils rose despite a rise in their price. Mean BMI for men and women aged 35-44 years rose 18% rise from 1980 to 2010. These long-term trends in food availability and prices, and the temporal pattern of BMI provide national level data for understanding the process of the nutritional transition in Samoa. Further work on consumer food prices, diet, food security, and health is needed to further contextualize the transformation of the local food system in Samoa. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Long-term trends in food availability, food prices, and obesity in Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Seiden, Andrew; Hawley, Nicola; Schulz, Dirk; Raifman, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe long term food availability and prices from 1961 to 2007 and BMI trends from 1980–2010 in Samoa, and to contextualize these trends within political, economic, cultural, behavioral, and climatic influences. Methods National level data on food availability and pricing were obtained from the open access database FAO (http://faostat.fao.org). Data for Samoa were collected from annual food balance sheets available for the period 1961 to 2007. Mean BMI for Samoan men and women ages 35–44 years of age is reported from four different time periods, 1979–82, 1991, 2003, and 2010. Results Total energy availability increased substantially, by 47%, with more than 900 extra calories available per capita per day in 2007 than in 1961. Many of these extra calories are supplied by dietary fat, the availability of which rose by a proportionally greater amount, 73%. Availability of both meat and vegetable oils rose substantially. Poultry meat increased the most proportionally, from 10 to 117 kcal per capita per day. Coconut products, fruit and starchy root crops – all locally grown – showed little to no increase over this time. As import prices for poultry and mutton increased their availability decreased, but the availability of vegetable oils rose despite a rise in their price. Mean BMI for men and women ages 35–44 years rose 18% rise from 1980–2010. Conclusions These long-term trends in food availability and prices, and the temporal pattern of BMI provide national level data for understanding the process of the nutrition transition in Samoa. Further work on consumer food prices, diet, food security and health is needed to further contextualize the transformation of the local food system in Samoa. PMID:22371334

  15. Area-to-point Kriging in spatial hedonic pricing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, E.-H.; Kyriakidis, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a geostatistical hedonic price model in which the effects of location on house values are explicitly modeled. The proposed geostatistical approach, namely area-to-point Kriging with External Drift (A2PKED), can take into account spatial dependence and spatial heteroskedasticity, if they exist. Furthermore, this approach has significant implications in situations where exhaustive area-averaged housing price data are available in addition to a subset of individual housing price data. In the case study, we demonstrate that A2PKED substantially improves the quality of predictions using apartment sale transaction records that occurred in Seoul, South Korea, during 2003. The improvement is illustrated via a comparative analysis, where predicted values obtained from different models, including two traditional regression-based hedonic models and a point-support geostatistical model, are compared to those obtained from the A2PKED model.

  16. Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Wang, Youfa

    2009-12-01

    Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults' fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18-23 years in the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged by geocode identifiers with food prices and restaurant and food store availability. The results showed that higher levels of FV consumption were associated with lower FV prices (price elasticity of -0.32) and that this own-price effect was robust to the inclusion of other food prices and food outlet availability. Lower income and lower educated young adults and those with lower educated mothers and middle-income parents were found to be most price sensitive. No statistically significant cross-price effects on FV consumption were found with other grocery food (meat, dairy and bread) prices or fast food prices. Fiscal policy instruments such as FV subsidies may help to increase FV intake, particularly among young adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  17. Psychophysical methods in study of consumers' perceived price change for food products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-04-01

    When adjusting product prices, marketers wish information concerning consumers' price perceptions. The present study aimed to develop an optimal pricing framework for food products by applying Weber's Law and Stevens' Power Law in psychophysics. The first phase attempted to measure the differential thresholds when magnitudes of prices were raised and lowered. The second phase was conducted to establish the psychophysical function representing perceived changes. Analysis showed consumers' differential thresholds were positively correlated with the initial price, consistent with Weber's Law. Further, participants' perceived change differed for increased and decreased prices. Products were perceived as cheaper only when medium-and low-priced products dropped dramatically in price. However, small reductions for the high-priced products were perceived as cheaper. Regardless of price changes, participants perceived products were more expensive when prices dropped by a small

  18. Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Igusa, Takeru; Jones-Smith, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affects food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice. We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat. With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets. The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away. Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  20. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  1. What "price" means when buying food: insights from a multisite qualitative study with Black Americans.

    PubMed

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Grier, Sonya A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Baskin, Monica L; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Young, Deborah Rohm; Lassiter, Vikki; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2013-03-01

    We explored the role of price in the food purchasing patterns of Black adults and youths. We analyzed qualitative data from interviews and focus groups with socioeconomically diverse, primarily female, Black adults or parents (n = 75) and youths (n = 42) in 4 US cities. Interview protocols were locality specific, but all were designed to elicit broad discussion of food marketing variables. We performed a conventional qualitative content analysis by coding and analyzing data from each site to identify common salient themes. Price emerged as a primary influence on food purchases across all sites. Other value considerations (e.g., convenience, food quality, healthfulness of product, and family preferences) were discussed, providing a more complex picture of how participants considered the price of a product. Food pricing strategies that encourage consumption of healthful foods may have high relevance for Black persons across income or education levels. Accounting for how price intersects with other value considerations may improve the effectiveness of these strategies.

  2. Effects of food price inflation on infant and child mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Hoon; Lee, Suejin A; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Cyn-Young

    2016-06-01

    After a historic low level in the early 2000s, global food prices surged upwards to bring about the global food crisis of 2008. High and increasing food prices can generate an immediate threat to the security of a household's food supply, thereby undermining population health. This paper aims to assess the precise effects of food price inflation on child health in developing countries. This paper employs a panel dataset covering 95 developing countries for the period 2001-2011 to make a comprehensive assessment of the effects of food price inflation on child health as measured in terms of infant mortality rate and child mortality rate. Focusing on any departure of health indicators from their respective trends, we find that rising food prices have a significant detrimental effect on nourishment and consequently lead to higher levels of both infant and child mortality in developing countries, and especially in least developed countries (LDCs). High food price inflation rates are also found to cause an increase in undernourishment only in LDCs and thus leading to an increase in infant and child mortality in these poorest countries. This result is consistent with the observation that, in lower-income countries, food has a higher share in household expenditures and LDCs are likely to be net food importing countries. Hence, there should be increased efforts by both LDC governments and the international community to alleviate the detrimental link between food price inflation and undernourishment and also the link between undernourishment and infant mortality.

  3. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: acceptability and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2002-01-01

    Prices of four low fat foods were reduced about 25% and prices of three high fat foods were increased about 10% to determine the impact on food purchases in a Midwestern suburban high school cafeteria to explore the impact of price on purchases. Low fat foods averaged about 13% of total sales. Sensitivity analysis was used to estimate that low fat foods would probably have averaged about 9% of total sales without the reduced price.

  4. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  5. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  6. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  7. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2014-05-20

    Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named "fruit and vegetables condition"; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named "nutrient profile condition". The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet quality while increasing socio

  8. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Methods Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named “fruit and vegetables condition”; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named “nutrient profile condition”. The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. Results At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Conclusion Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet

  9. Effects of food price shocks on child malnutrition: The Mozambican experience 2008/2009.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, M Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-09-01

    A propitiously timed household survey carried out in Mozambique over the period 2008/2009 permits us to study the relationship between shifts in food prices and child nutrition status in a low income setting. We focus on weight-for-height and weight-for-age in different survey quarters characterized by very different food price inflation rates. Using propensity score matching techniques, we find that these nutrition measures, which are sensitive in the short run, improve significantly in the fourth quarter of the survey, when the inflation rate for basic food products is low, compared to the first semester or three quarters, when food price inflation was generally high. The prevalence of underweight, in particular, falls by about 40 percent. We conclude that the best available evidence points to food penury, driven by the food and fuel price crisis combined with a short agricultural production year, as substantially increasing malnutrition amongst under-five children in Mozambique.

  10. Identifying sustainable foods: the relationship between environmental impact, nutritional quality, and prices of foods representative of the French diet.

    PubMed

    Masset, Gabriel; Soler, Louis-Georges; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable diets, as defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization, need to combine environment, nutrition, and affordability dimensions. However, it is unknown whether these dimensions are compatible, and no guidance is available in the official recommendations. To identify foods with compatible sustainability dimensions. For 363 of the most commonly consumed foods in the Second French Individual and National Study on Food Consumption, environmental impact indicators (ie, greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, acidification, and eutrophication), and prices were collected. The nutritional quality of the foods was assessed by calculating the score for the nutritional adequacy of individual foods (SAIN) to score for disqualifying nutrients (LIM) ratio. A sustainability score based on the median GHG emissions, price, and SAIN:LIM was calculated for each food; the foods with the best values for all three variables received the highest score. The environmental indicators were strongly and positively correlated. Meat, fish, and eggs and dairy products had the strongest influence on the environment; starchy foods, legumes, and fruits and vegetables had the least influence. GHG emissions were inversely correlated with SAIN:LIM (r=-0.37) and positively correlated with price per kilogram (r=0.59); the correlation with price per kilocalorie was null. This showed that foods with a heavy environmental impact tend to have lower nutritional quality and a higher price per kilogram but not a lower price per kilocalorie. Using price per kilogram, 94 foods had a maximum sustainability score, including most plant-based foods and excluding all foods with animal ingredients except milk, yogurt, and soups. Using price per kilocalorie restricted the list to 42 foods, including 52% of all starchy foods and legumes but only 11% of fruits and vegetables (mainly 100% fruit juices). Overall, the sustainability dimensions seemed to be compatible when considering price per kilogram of food. However

  11. The rising disparity in the price of healthful foods: 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; McLain, Julia; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dense foods that are associated with better health outcomes tend to cost more per kilocalorie (kcal) than do refined grains, sweets and fats. The price disparity between healthful and less healthful foods appears to be growing. This study demonstrates a new method for linking longitudinal retail price data with objective, nutrient-based ratings of the nutritional quality of foods and beverages. Retail prices for 378 foods and beverages were obtained from major supermarket chains in the Seattle, WA for 2004-8. Nutritional quality was based on energy density (kcal/g) and two measures of nutrient density, calculated using the Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) score and the Nutrient Rich Foods index (NRF9.3). Food prices were expressed as $/100g edible portion and as $/1,000 kcal. Foods were stratified by quintiles of energy and nutrient density for analyses. Both measures of nutrient density were negatively associated with energy density and positively associated with cost per 1,000 kcal. The mean cost of foods in the top quintile of nutrient density was $27.20/1,000 kcal and the 4 y price increase was 29.2%. Foods in the bottom quintile cost a mean of $3.32/1000 kcal and the 4 y price increase was 16.1%. There is a growing price disparity between nutrient-dense foods and less nutritious options. Cost may pose a barrier to the adoption of healthier diets and so limit the impact of dietary guidance. Nutrient profiling methods provide objective criteria for tracking retail prices of foods in relation to their nutritional quality and for guiding food and nutrition policy. PMID:25411518

  12. The rising disparity in the price of healthful foods: 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; McLain, Julia; Drewnowski, Adam

    2010-12-01

    Nutrient dense foods that are associated with better health outcomes tend to cost more per kilocalorie (kcal) than do refined grains, sweets and fats. The price disparity between healthful and less healthful foods appears to be growing. This study demonstrates a new method for linking longitudinal retail price data with objective, nutrient-based ratings of the nutritional quality of foods and beverages. Retail prices for 378 foods and beverages were obtained from major supermarket chains in the Seattle, WA for 2004-8. Nutritional quality was based on energy density (kcal/g) and two measures of nutrient density, calculated using the Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) score and the Nutrient Rich Foods index (NRF9.3). Food prices were expressed as $/100g edible portion and as $/1,000 kcal. Foods were stratified by quintiles of energy and nutrient density for analyses. Both measures of nutrient density were negatively associated with energy density and positively associated with cost per 1,000 kcal. The mean cost of foods in the top quintile of nutrient density was $27.20/1,000 kcal and the 4 y price increase was 29.2%. Foods in the bottom quintile cost a mean of $3.32/1000 kcal and the 4 y price increase was 16.1%. There is a growing price disparity between nutrient-dense foods and less nutritious options. Cost may pose a barrier to the adoption of healthier diets and so limit the impact of dietary guidance. Nutrient profiling methods provide objective criteria for tracking retail prices of foods in relation to their nutritional quality and for guiding food and nutrition policy.

  13. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  14. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  15. Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents.

  16. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  17. The inverse relationship between food price and energy density: is it spurious?

    PubMed

    Davis, George C; Carlson, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An important debate in the literature is whether or not higher energy-dense foods are cheaper than less energy-dense foods. The present communication develops and applies an easy statistical test to determine if the relationship between food price and energy density is an artifact of how the data units are constructed (i.e. is it 'spurious' or 'real'?). After matching data on 4430 different foods from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with corresponding prices from the Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion's Food Prices Database, we use a simple regression model to test if the relationship between food price and energy density is 'real' or 'spurious'. USA. Total sample size is 4430 observations of consumed foods from 4578 participants from the non-institutionalized US adult population (aged 19 years and over). Over all 4430 foods, the null hypothesis of a spurious inverse relationship between food price per energy density and energy density is not rejected. When the analysis is broken down by twenty-five food groups, there are only two cases where the inverse relationship is not spurious. In fact, the majority of non-spurious relationships between food price and energy density are positive, not negative. One of the main arguments put forth regarding the poor diet quality of low-income households is that high energy-dense food is cheaper than lower energy-dense food. We find almost no statistical support for higher energy-dense food being cheaper than low energy-dense food. While economics certainly plays a role in explaining low nutritional quality, more sophisticated economic arguments are required and discussed.

  18. [Economic damage caused by lowered prices in the agro-food sector in areas contaminated by radioactive materials leaked from the nuclear power plant severely damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake--consideration from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics and social psychology].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, which was severely damaged by the 2011 Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Economic damage due to lowered prices and supplies of food products produced in the areas contaminated by the radioactive materials leaked from the damaged FDNPP to the agro-food sector in the affected areas is notable. In Japanese, this is known as fuhyo higai. In this study, we investigated fuhyo higai from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics, and social psychology in an effort to seek solutions. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Fuhyo higai, or economic damage of the agro-food sector, which is the main industry in the contaminated areas, is serious because it is difficult to reassure the general population regarding food safety. This fuhyo higai does not derive solely from rumor. It has been reported that improving the science literacy of the general population is important as a countermeasure against fuhyo higai, but this may not be effective because of the human social structure and behavior of people who seek subjective safety. Almost all radiological laboratory results of samples of food produced in the contaminated areas were below detectable limits. Very high values were rarely detected. In general, information about the dose-response relationship is obtained under the assumption that there may be error in the response but not in the dose. The rare cases of extremely high radiological values of food samples from the contaminated areas may correspond to large errors in dose. However, it is difficult to deny a high-dose risk. The reported information on the dose-response relationship obtained under the assumption that there is no error in dose is not sufficient. Thus, response, i.e., health risk, cannot be correctly estimated. This leads the general

  19. The impact of food price increases on caloric intake in China

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Robert T.; Miller, Nolan H.

    2011-01-01

    World food prices have increased dramatically in recent years. We use panel data from 2006 to examine the impact of these increases on the consumption and nutrition of poor households in two Chinese provinces. We find that households in Hunan suffered no nutrition declines. Households in Gansu experienced a small decline in calories, though the decline is on par with usual seasonal effects. The overall nutritional impact of the world price increase was small because households were able to substitute to cheaper foods and because the domestic prices of staple foods remained low due to government intervention in grain markets. PMID:21625411

  20. The impact of food price increases on caloric intake in China.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Robert T; Miller, Nolan H

    2008-12-08

    World food prices have increased dramatically in recent years. We use panel data from 2006 to examine the impact of these increases on the consumption and nutrition of poor households in two Chinese provinces. We find that households in Hunan suffered no nutrition declines. Households in Gansu experienced a small decline in calories, though the decline is on par with usual seasonal effects. The overall nutritional impact of the world price increase was small because households were able to substitute to cheaper foods and because the domestic prices of staple foods remained low due to government intervention in grain markets.

  1. Prices of unhealthy foods, Food Stamp Program participation, and body weight status among U.S. low-income women†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhuo; Diawara, Norou; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the interactive effect between the price of unhealthy foods and Food Stamp Program participation on body weight status among low-income women in the United States. We merged the panel data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort in 1985–2002 and the Cost of Living Index data compiled by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association by using geographic identifiers. Using the merged data, we used panel econometric models to examine the impact of unhealthy food prices on the food stamp-eligible U.S. population. Our results indicate that higher prices for unhealthy food can partially offset the positive association between Food Stamp Program participation and bodyweight among low-income women. PMID:25177147

  2. Food Price Spikes Are Associated with Increased Malnutrition among Children in Andhra Pradesh, India123

    PubMed Central

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Basu, Sanjay; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah; Campbell, Oona; Doyle, Pat; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global food prices have risen sharply since 2007. The impact of food price spikes on the risk of malnutrition in children is not well understood. Objective: We investigated the associations between food price spikes and childhood malnutrition in Andhra Pradesh, one of India’s largest states, with >85 million people. Because wasting (thinness) indicates in most cases a recent and severe process of weight loss that is often associated with acute food shortage, we tested the hypothesis that the escalating prices of rice, legumes, eggs, and other staples of Indian diets significantly increased the risk of wasting (weight-for-height z scores) in children. Methods: We studied periods before (2006) and directly after (2009) India’s food price spikes with the use of the Young Lives longitudinal cohort of 1918 children in Andhra Pradesh linked to food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Two-stage least squares instrumental variable models assessed the relation of food price changes to food consumption and wasting prevalence (weight-for-height z scores). Results: Before the 2007 food price spike, wasting prevalence fell from 19.4% in 2002 to 18.8% in 2006. Coinciding with India’s escalating food prices, wasting increased significantly to 28.0% in 2009. These increases were concentrated among low- (χ2: 21.6, P < 0.001) and middle- (χ2: 25.9, P < 0.001) income groups, but not among high-income groups (χ2: 3.08, P = 0.079). Each 10.0 rupee ($0.170) increase in the price of rice/kg was associated with a drop in child-level rice consumption of 73.0 g/d (β: −7.30; 95% CI: −10.5, −3.90). Correspondingly, lower rice consumption was significantly associated with lower weight-for-height z scores (i.e., wasting) by 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.008), as seen with most other food categories. Conclusion: Rising food prices were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition among children in India. Policies to help ensure the affordability of food

  3. Food Price Spikes Are Associated with Increased Malnutrition among Children in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Basu, Sanjay; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah; Campbell, Oona; Doyle, Pat; Stuckler, David

    2015-08-01

    Global food prices have risen sharply since 2007. The impact of food price spikes on the risk of malnutrition in children is not well understood. We investigated the associations between food price spikes and childhood malnutrition in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's largest states, with >85 million people. Because wasting (thinness) indicates in most cases a recent and severe process of weight loss that is often associated with acute food shortage, we tested the hypothesis that the escalating prices of rice, legumes, eggs, and other staples of Indian diets significantly increased the risk of wasting (weight-for-height z scores) in children. We studied periods before (2006) and directly after (2009) India's food price spikes with the use of the Young Lives longitudinal cohort of 1918 children in Andhra Pradesh linked to food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Two-stage least squares instrumental variable models assessed the relation of food price changes to food consumption and wasting prevalence (weight-for-height z scores). Before the 2007 food price spike, wasting prevalence fell from 19.4% in 2002 to 18.8% in 2006. Coinciding with India's escalating food prices, wasting increased significantly to 28.0% in 2009. These increases were concentrated among low- (χ(2): 21.6, P < 0.001) and middle- (χ(2): 25.9, P < 0.001) income groups, but not among high-income groups (χ(2): 3.08, P = 0.079). Each 10.0 rupee ($0.170) increase in the price of rice/kg was associated with a drop in child-level rice consumption of 73.0 g/d (β: -7.30; 95% CI: -10.5, -3.90). Correspondingly, lower rice consumption was significantly associated with lower weight-for-height z scores (i.e., wasting) by 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.008), as seen with most other food categories. Rising food prices were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition among children in India. Policies to help ensure the affordability of food in the context of economic growth are likely critical for

  4. Rapidly rising food prices and the experience of food insecurity in urban Ethiopia: impacts on health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Craig; Stevenson, Edward Geoffrey Jedediah; Tadesse, Yemesrach; Belachew, Tefera

    2012-12-01

    The rise in food prices since 2007 is widely recognized as signaling a crisis of food insecurity among the world's poor. Scholars sought to chart the impacts of the crisis on food insecurity by conducting simulation studies, assessing anthropometric outcomes, and evaluating shifts in experience-based measures of food security. Few studies, however, have investigated the broader impacts on those most vulnerable and how rapid rises in food prices play out in the everyday lives of those most impacted. We used qualitative methods to investigate the impact of the rise in food prices on the urban poor in Ethiopia. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in August 2011, in the provincial town of Jimma. Themes identified in these interviews included coping strategies, consumption priorities, and impacts on institutional networks of sharing. Our results suggest that several important cultural practices, including funerals and coffee ceremonies, were undermined by the rise in prices, and that respondents linked food prices to increasing food insecurity, which they in turn linked to high levels of stress, poor mental health, and reduced physical health. Our results are consistent with several other studies that suggest that food insecurity has a range of non-nutritional consequences, and that these are due in part to the highly social nature of food. Recognizing the effects of food insecurity on dimensions of everyday life such as interaction with neighbors, and feelings of shame, draws attention to the potential for food price increases to have erosive effects on communal social capital, and to increase the vulnerability of affected peoples to future shocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Budd, Nadine; Jeffries, Jayne K; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Kharmats, Anna; McDermott, Ann Yelmokas; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-02-22

    Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors. Factorial design randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA. Stores were randomized to pricing intervention, communications intervention, combined pricing and communications intervention, or control. Stores that received the pricing intervention were given a 10-30 % price discount by wholesalers on selected healthier food items during the 6-month trial. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests and refrigerators. All interventions showed significantly increased stock of promoted foods v. There was a significant treatment effect for daily unit sales of healthy snacks (β=6·4, 95 % CI 0·9, 11·9) and prices of healthy staple foods (β=-0·49, 95 % CI -0·90, -0·03) for the combined group v. control, but not for other intervention groups. There were no significant intervention effects on storeowner psychosocial factors. All interventions led to increased stock of healthier foods. The combined intervention was effective in increasing sales of healthier snacks, even though discounts on snacks were not passed to the consumer. Experimental research in small stores is needed to understand the mechanisms by which store-directed price promotions can increase healthy food supply and demand.

  6. A farmers' market in a food desert: Evaluating impacts on the price and availability of healthy food.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have examined supermarket access for low-income residents, but few have explored how access to healthy food changes when a new food retailer such as a farmers' market opens in a place previously known as a 'food desert'. This paper uses a 'before and after' approach to examine the impact of the introduction of a farmers' market on the price and availability of healthy food in an underserved urban neighbourhood. The farmers' market had a major impact on grocery prices in the neighbourhood, which decreased by almost 12% in 3 years.

  7. Relationship of mother and child food purchases as a function of price: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Dearing, Kelly K; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Paluch, Rocco A

    2006-07-01

    To our knowledge, there are no data on parental influences on child purchasing behavior of healthy or unhealthy foods. Mothers and children in ten families were given 5.00 US dollars to purchase portions of preferred fruits/vegetables and high energy-dense snack foods for each of ten trials of price manipulations. For five of the trials the price of the fruit/vegetable increased in price from 0.50 US dollars to 2.50 US dollars (in 0.50 US dollar increments), while the price of the energy-dense snack food remained constant at 1.00 US dollar. For the remaining five trials, the commodity that previously rose in price remained constant at 1.00 US dollars and the other commodity varied from 0.50 US dollars to 2.50 US dollars. Same-price elasticity was shown for both the child and parent purchases, and parent purchases were significantly related to child purchases of both healthy (regression estimate = 0.46, p < 0.001) and unhealthy (regression estimate = 0.12, p = 0.036) foods. Children's purchases of unhealthy snack food items were positively related to family socioeconomic status, and negatively related to child age. These results indicate that parental food choice and purchasing behaviors may play a role in the development of children's purchasing of both healthy and unhealthy foods.

  8. Medium- to long-run implications of high food prices for global nutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The combined food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007-2009 had severe and widespread negative impacts around the world. Two key questions challenging governments were: how long would the high prices last and with what effects on food security and nutrition over the longer run? This paper considers the drivers of the crisis and explores if, unlike past shocks, the recent price increases reflect structural changes in food price formation that will have lasting global implications. New cross-commodity relationships allowed prices to spike, although there was no shortage of food at the global level nor indeed a significant downturn in recent yields. Yet recent record levels of farm production were also mirrored by growing numbers of people chronically undernourished and/or micronutrient deficient. The gap between supply and need was underpinned by growing urban demand, consumption of processed and higher-value foods (including meat), biofuel policy, and purchasing power erosion, but also by short-term market-distorting policies implemented by governments responding to perceived shortages of food. Thus, the impact of future food price crises will depend largely on what policymakers chose to do in response to the peaks and what they do not do during the troughs. Appropriate investments are urgently needed not just in smallholder developing country agriculture, but in effective food policies and targeted programming that can reverse the recent negative trends in nutrition and that support access globally to improved diet quality as well as food quantity.

  9. [Price evolution of foods and nutriments in Mexico from 1973 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to know the price changes of foods and nutriments in México during the last three decades. To this end, two sets of data were analyzed: the National Consumer Prices Index for 1973 to 2003, and quotations of food prices for 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2004. Cost estimates were calculated for 100 kcal, 10 g of saturated fat, 100 mg of cholesterol, 10 g of fiber and 1 mg of iron. Regression models were used to analyze the association between nutrient and energy's costs and energetic and nutrimental densities. Our results lead to infer that that in M6xico, the structure of foods prices differed between the eighties and the nineties decades. In the former, vegetables and corn and wheat derived foods had the lowest price increment, whereas their price had the largest increment in the following decade. On the other hand, the prices of fresh meat of cattle and pig, and of fish and seafood rose during the eighties but became cheaper during the nineties. The differences in prices of the meat are inversely related to their energy density and nutrimental value: lean meat became more expensive that those with more fat (i.e., more energy and cholesterol). Canned fish (tuna and sardine), eggs and poultry became cheaper at the turn of the eighties. The prices of the majority of oils and fats have increased less than the inflation of the group of food. Processed and industrialized foods became cheaper than the fresh ones. The energy density of the foods is negatively correlated to their cost. The implications of our results are discussed in terms of public policies.

  10. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-04-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity.

  11. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review1234

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-01-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity. PMID:22378726

  12. Role of expendable income and price in food choice by low income families.

    PubMed

    Burns, Cate; Cook, Kay; Mavoa, Helen

    2013-12-01

    The public health literature suggests that the cheapness of energy-dense foods is driving the obesity epidemic. We examined food purchases in low-income families and its relationship to the price of food and availability of funds. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 parents with children less than 15 years of age whose major source of income was a government pension. A photo taxonomy, where participants sorted 50 photos of commonly purchased foods, was used to explore food choice. The most common food groupings used by the participants were: basic, emergency, treat and comfort. The process of food purchase was described by participants as weighing up the attributes of a food in relation to price and money available. Shoppers nominated the basic unit of measurement as quantity per unit price and the heuristic for food choice when shopping as determining "value for money" in a process of triage relating to food purchase decisions. Participants stated satiation of hunger to be the most common "value" relative to price. Given that the foods nominated as filling tended to be carbohydrate-rich staples, we suggest that public health initiatives need to acknowledge this triage process and shape interventions to promote nutrition over satiation.

  13. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00). Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  14. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  15. The devil is in the details: An investigation of the relationships between conflict, food price and climate across Africa.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, Clionadh; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kniveton, Dominic

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between violent conflict, food price, and climate variability at the subnational level. Using disaggregated data on 113 African markets from January 1997 to April 2010, interrelationships between the three variables are analyzed in simultaneous equation models. We find that: (i) a positive feedback exists between food price and violence - higher food prices increase conflict rates within markets and conflict increases food prices; (ii) anomalously dry conditions are associated with increased frequencies of conflict; and (iii) decreased rainfall exerts an indirect effect on conflict through its impact on food prices. These findings suggest that the negative effects of climate variability on conflict can be mitigated by interventions and effective price management in local markets. Creating environments in which food prices are stable and reliable, and markets are accessible and safe, can lower the impacts of both climate change and conflict feedbacks.

  16. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Determination of equivalent price... products price series in the Dairy Products Sales report released by the Agricultural Marketing Service...

  17. Family income, food prices, and household purchases of fruits and vegetables in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the influence of family income and food prices on the participation of fruits and vegetables in the food purchases of Brazilian households. Data analyzed refers to the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística on a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households between 2002 and 2003. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases was expressed as a percentage of total calories purchased and as calories from fruit and vegetables adjusted for total calories purchased. A multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate elasticity coefficients, controlling for sociodemographic variables and price of other foods. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases increased as the price of these foods decreased, or as income increased. A 1% decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would increase their participation by 0.79%, whereas a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.27%. The effect of income tended to be smaller among higher income strata. Reducing the price of fruit and vegetables, either by supporting their production or through fiscal measures, is a promising public policy instrument, capable of increasing the participation of these foods in the diet of the Brazilian population.

  18. The price of healthy and unhealthy foods in Australian primary school canteens.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Rebecca; Wiggers, John; Delaney, Tessa; Ooi, Jia Ying; Marshall, Josephine; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Wolfenden, Luke

    2017-02-01

    To describe the price of Australian school canteen foods according to their nutritional value. Primary school canteen menus were collected as part of a policy compliance randomised trial. For each menu item, dietitians classified its nutritional value; 'green' ('good sources of nutrients'), 'amber' ('some nutritional value'), 'red' ('lack adequate nutritional value') and assigned a food category (e.g. 'Drinks', 'Snacks'). Pricing information was extracted. Within each food category, ANOVAs assessed differences between the mean price of 'green', 'amber' and 'red' items, and post-hoc tests were conducted. Seventy of the 124 invited schools participated. There were significant differences in the mean price of 'green', 'amber' and 'red foods' across categories, with 'green' items more expensive than 'amber' items in main-meal categories ('Sandwiches' +$0.43, 'Hot Foods' +$0.71), and the reverse true for non-meal categories ('Drinks' -$0.13, 'Snacks' -$0.18, 'Frozen Snacks' -$0.25^). Current pricing may not encourage the purchasing of healthy main-meal items by and for students. Further investigation of pricing strategies that enhance the public health benefit of existing school canteen policies and practices are warranted. Implications for Public Health: Providing support to canteen managers regarding healthy canteen policies may have a positive impact on public health nutrition. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  20. Maternal and young child nutrition adversely affected by external shocks such as increasing global food prices.

    PubMed

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Cogill, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Rising food prices, resulting from the ongoing global economic crisis, fuel price volatility, and climate change, have an adverse impact upon the poor, especially those in food-importing, resource-limited countries. The conventional approach by large organizations has been to advocate for increased staple crop yields of mainly cereals. High food prices are predicted to continue to at least 2015. Past shocks and their known impacts upon nutrition were reviewed. Price instability and increases have long been an existing global problem, which has been exacerbated by recent macroeconomic shocks such as acute emergencies due to war and civil strife, acute climatic events, increase in food prices, fuel price volatility, dysfunction of the global financial systems, long-term climate change, and the emergence of failed states. The FAO estimated that there were 815 million "hungry" people in 2006, with a now additional 75-135 million with increased vulnerability, and currently it is estimated that there are one billion people at risk of food insecurity. The shocks initially compromise maternal and child nutrition, mainly through a reduction in dietary quality and an increase in micronutrient deficiencies and concomitant increases in infectious disease morbidity and mortality. A further reduction in the quantity of diet may follow with greater underweight and wasting. Recent macroeconomic shocks have greatly increased the number of people who are vulnerable to hunger in developing countries. Nutritional surveillance systems need to be strengthened and expanded to inform policy decisions.

  1. Access to fast food and food prices: relationship with fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Auld, M Christopher; Chaloupka, Frank J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2007-01-01

    We examine the extent to which food prices and restaurant outlet density are associated with adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index (BMI), and the probability of overweight. We use repeated cross-sections of individual-level data on adolescents from the Monitoring the Future Surveys from 1997 to 2003 combined with fast food and fruit and vegetable prices obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and fast food and full-service restaurant outlet density measures obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. The results suggest that the price of a fast food meal is an important determinant of adolescents' body weight and eating habits: a 10% increase in the price of a fast food meal leads to a 3.0% increase in the probability of frequent fruit and vegetable consumption, a 0.4% decrease in BMI, and a 5.9% decrease in probability of overweight. The price of fruits and vegetables and restaurant outlet density are less important determinants, although these variables typically have the expected sign and are often statistically associated with our outcome measures. Despite these findings, changes in all observed economic and socio-demographic characteristics together only explain roughly one-quarter of the change in mean BMI and one-fifth of the change in overweight over the 1997-2003 sampling period.

  2. Longitudinal study of Consumer Price Index (CPI) trends in core and non-core foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Cate; Sacks, Gary; Gold, Lisa

    2008-10-01

    This study examined trends in the price of healthy and less-healthy foods from 1989 to 2007 using the Australian Consumer Price Index (CPI). CPI food expenditure classes were classified as 'core' or 'non-core'. Trends in the CPI were analysed to examine the rise in prices of core compared with non-core foods. On average, the CPI for core foods has risen at a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, rate than non-core foods. Furthermore, selected groupings reveal interesting patterns. 'Bread' has risen in price significantly more than 'cakes and biscuits', and 'milk' has risen in price significantly more than 'soft drinks, waters and juices'. This investigation of food price trends reveals notable differences between core and non-core foods. This should be investigated further to determine the extent to which this contributes to the higher prevalence of diet-related diseases in low socio-economic groups.

  3. An agent-based approach to modelling the effects of extreme events on global food prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, Jacob; Otto, Christian; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts or heat waves affect agricultural production in major food producing regions and therefore can influence the price of staple foods on the world market. There is evidence that recent dramatic spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual and/or expected supply shortages. The reaction of the market to supply changes is however highly nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and export restrictions. Here we present for the first time an agent-based modelling framework that accounts, in simplified terms, for these processes and allows to estimate the reaction of world food prices to supply shocks on a short (monthly) timescale. We test the basic model using observed historical supply, demand, and price data of wheat as a major food grain. Further, we illustrate how the model can be used in conjunction with biophysical crop models to assess the effect of future changes in extreme event regimes on the volatility of food prices. In particular, the explicit representation of storage dynamics makes it possible to investigate the potentially nonlinear interaction between simultaneous extreme events in different food producing regions, or between several consecutive events in the same region, which may both occur more frequently under future global warming.

  4. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  5. Food Prices and Obesity: Evidence and Policy Implications for Taxes and Subsidies

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Pricing policies have been posited as potential policy instruments to address the increasing prevalence of obesity. This article examines whether altering the cost of unhealthy, energy-dense foods, compared with healthy, less-dense foods through the use of fiscal pricing (tax or subsidy) policy instruments would, in fact, change food consumption patterns and overall diet enough to significantly reduce individuals' weight outcomes. Methods: This article examined empirical evidence regarding the food and restaurant price sensitivity of weight outcomes based on a literature search to identify peer-reviewed English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008. Studies were identified from the Medline, PubMed, Econlit, and PAIS databases. The fifteen search combinations used the terms obesity, body mass index, and BMI each in combination with the terms price, prices, tax, taxation, and subsidy. Findings: The studies reviewed showed that when statistically significant associations were found between food and restaurant prices (taxes) and weight outcomes, the effects were generally small in magnitude, although in some cases they were larger for low–socioeconomic status (SES) populations and for those at risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions: The limited existing evidence suggests that small taxes or subsidies are not likely to produce significant changes in BMI or obesity prevalence but that nontrivial pricing interventions may have some measurable effects on Americans' weight outcomes, particularly for children and adolescents, low-SES populations, and those most at risk for overweight. Additional research is needed to be able to draw strong policy conclusions regarding the effectiveness of fiscal-pricing interventions aimed at reducing obesity. PMID:19298422

  6. [Income, food prices, and participation of fruit and vegetables in the diet].

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do; Machado, Flávia Mori Sarti; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2007-08-01

    To analyze the influence of income and food prices on household consumption of fruit and vegetables. Data from the 1998/99 Household Budget Survey were analyzed, which was conducted by the Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (Institute for Economic Research Foundation) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The influence of income and food price on the relative participation of fruit and vegetables in the total household calorie intake was studied using regression analysis to estimate elasticity coefficients. There was an increase in participation of fruit and vegetables in total household calorie purchases along with the recorded decrease in prices, increase in family income, and increase in prices of other foods. A one percent decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would lead to a 0.2% increase in the participation of these items in the total calorie content; a 1% increase in the price of other foods would increase fruit and vegetable participation by 0.07%; and a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.04%. The effect of the prices of other foods was less intense in higher income groups, and in the other two scenarios we were unable to identify consistent income-associated patterns. A reduction in the price of fruit and vegetables, which can be achieved by means of public policies, could lead to an increase in fruit and vegetable intake in households in São Paulo and in other cities with similar scenarios.

  7. Farm Foundation Issue Report: What's Driving Food Prices?

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of the major forces behind the dramatic increases in commodity prices. It is intended to provide objective information that will help all stakeholders meet the challenge to address one of the most critical public policy issues facing the world today.

  8. Price Chopper Joins EPAs Food Recovery Challenge Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, NY - January 14, 2016) Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Judith A. Enck was joined by Mona Golub, Vice President of Public Relations and Consumer Services for Price Chopper and Market 32; Joseph Berman, Manager o

  9. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E.; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. Objective To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Design Systematic review Data Sources Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. Study Selection We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Data Analysis Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. Results 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Conclusion Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the

  10. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Systematic review. Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the effects of personal characteristics on price sensitivity are not supported by the

  11. Food price and diet and health outcomes: 20 years of The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Shikany, James M.; Guilkey, David; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite surging interest in taxation as a policy to address poor food choice, US research directly examining the association of food prices with individual intake is scarce. Methods This 20-year longitudinal study included 12,123 respondent days from 5,115 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Associations between food price, dietary intake, overall energy intake, weight, and HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were assessed using conditional log-log and linear regression models. Results The real price (inflated to 2006 dollars) of soda and pizza decreased over time; the price of whole milk increased. A 10% increase in the price of soda or pizza was associated with a -7.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -63.5, -10.71) or -11.5% (95%CI: -17.50, -5.50) change in energy from these foods respectively. A $1.00 increase in soda price was also associated with lower daily energy intake (-124 [95%CI: -198, -50] kcal), lower weight (-2.34 [95%CI: -4.00, -0.68] lbs), and lower HOMA-IR score (0.42 [95%CI: -0.60, -0.23]); similar trends were observed for pizza. A $1.00 increase in the price of both soda and pizza was associated with greater changes in total energy intake (-181.49 [95%CI: -247.79, -115.18] kcal), body weight (-3.66 [95%CI: -5.19, -2.14] lbs), and HOMA-IR (-0.45 [95%CI: -0.59, -0.31]). Conclusions Policies aimed at altering the price of soda or away-from-home pizza may be effective mechanisms to steer US adults toward a more healthful diet and help reduce long-term weight gain or insulin levels over time. PMID:20212177

  12. The Association Between Food Prices and the Blood Glucose Level of US Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Anekwe, Tobenna D.; Rahkovsky, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between the price of healthy and less-healthy food groups and blood sugar among US adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods. We linked 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey health information to food prices contained in the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database. We regressed blood sugar levels on food prices from the previous calendar quarter, controlling for market region and a range of other covariates. We also examined whether the association between food prices and blood sugar varies among different income groups. Results. The prices of produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Specifically, higher prices for produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose 3 months later. Food prices had a greater association with blood sugar for low-income people than for higher-income people, and in the expected direction. Conclusions. Higher prices of healthy foods were associated with increased blood sugar among people with type 2 diabetes. The association was especially pronounced among low-income people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24524504

  13. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Nghiem, Nhung; Blakely, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption) (objective 1); Health and disease outcomes (objective 2), and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3). Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ≥ 3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake) or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE) estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good). Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1) taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n  =  4 studies), -0.93 (range, -0.06, -2.43), and a modelled -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04%) reduction in energy (calorie) intake for each 1% price increase (n  =  3 studies); (2) taxes on saturated fat: -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04%) reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n  =  5 studies); and (3) subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n = 3 studies), -0.35 (-0.21, -0.77). Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the potential to reduce disparities. Based on modelling

  14. Food Pricing Strategies, Population Diets, and Non-Communicable Disease: A Systematic Review of Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Nghiem, Nhung; Blakely, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption) (objective 1); Health and disease outcomes (objective 2), and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3). Methods and Findings Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ≥3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake) or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE) estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good). Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1) taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n = 4 studies), −0.93 (range, −0.06, −2.43), and a modelled −0.02% (−0.01%, −0.04%) reduction in energy (calorie) intake for each 1% price increase (n = 3 studies); (2) taxes on saturated fat: −0.02% (−0.01%, −0.04%) reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n = 5 studies); and (3) subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n = 3 studies), −0.35 (−0.21, −0.77). Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the

  15. Walkable home neighbourhood food environment and children's overweight and obesity: Proximity, density or price?

    PubMed

    Le, Ha; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    To identify characteristics of the food environment associated with child overweight/obesity that could, if subjected to intervention, mitigate the risk of childhood overweight/obesity. We examined whether the proximity to or density of grocery and convenience stores or fast food restaurants, or the prices of healthy food options were more strongly associated with overweight/obesity risk in children. We collected geocoded data by residential addresses for 1,469 children aged 10-14 years and conducted a census of all food outlets in Saskatoon. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS)-Stores and the NEMS-Restaurants were used to measure availability, quality and relative price of healthy food items in stores and restaurants. Children's weight status was calculated on the basis of measured height and weight. Logistic regression was used to test the associations between overweight/obesity and food environment variables. Within an 800 m walking distance from home, 76% of children did not have access to a grocery store; 58% and 32% had access to at least one convenience store or one fast-food restaurant respectively. A significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity was associated with lower price of healthy food items/options in grocery stores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.99) and fast-food restaurants (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99) within walking distance of home. Neither the distance to the closest food outlet nor the density of food outlets around children's homes was associated with odds of overweight/obesity. Improving economic access to healthy food in food outlets or fast-food restaurants is one strategy to counter childhood overweight/ obesity.

  16. Study protocol: combining experimental methods, econometrics and simulation modelling to determine price elasticities for studying food taxes and subsidies (The Price ExaM Study).

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Blakely, Tony; Nghiem, Nhung; Cleghorn, Christine L; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Wilson, Nick; Jiang, Yannan; Swinburn, Boyd; Jacobi, Liana; Michie, Jo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-07-19

    There is a need for accurate and precise food price elasticities (PE, change in consumer demand in response to change in price) to better inform policy on health-related food taxes and subsidies. The Price Experiment and Modelling (Price ExaM) study aims to: I) derive accurate and precise food PE values; II) quantify the impact of price changes on quantity and quality of discrete food group purchases and; III) model the potential health and disease impacts of a range of food taxes and subsidies. To achieve this, we will use a novel method that includes a randomised Virtual Supermarket experiment and econometric methods. Findings will be applied in simulation models to estimate population health impact (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) using a multi-state life-table model. The study will consist of four sequential steps: 1. We generate 5000 price sets with random price variation for all 1412 Virtual Supermarket food and beverage products. Then we add systematic price variation for foods to simulate five taxes and subsidies: a fruit and vegetable subsidy and taxes on sugar, saturated fat, salt, and sugar-sweetened beverages. 2. Using an experimental design, 1000 adult New Zealand shoppers complete five household grocery shops in the Virtual Supermarket where they are randomly assigned to one of the 5000 price sets each time. 3. Output data (i.e., multiple observations of price configurations and purchased amounts) are used as inputs to econometric models (using Bayesian methods) to estimate accurate PE values. 4. A disease simulation model will be run with the new PE values as inputs to estimate QALYs gained and health costs saved for the five policy interventions. The Price ExaM study has the potential to enhance public health and economic disciplines by introducing internationally novel scientific methods to estimate accurate and precise food PE values. These values will be used to model the potential health and disease impacts of various food pricing policy

  17. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women's eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Levay, Adrienne V; Mumtaz, Zubia; Faiz Rashid, Sabina; Willows, Noreen

    2013-09-26

    Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos' and a patriarchal gender order that limits women's mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women's access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women's access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Rising food prices and resultant food insecurity due to insufficient incomes are

  18. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

    PubMed

    Otten, Jennifer J; Buszkiewicz, James; Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Long, Mark; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-09

    Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results: There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (-$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (-$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions: There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance.

  19. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results: There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (−$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (−$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions: There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle’s minimum wage ordinance. PMID:28891937

  20. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-08-25

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. 

  1. Price, Promotion, and Availability of Nutrition Information: A Descriptive Study of a Popular Fast Food Chain in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study’s aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain’s general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t = 146.9, p < .001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. PMID:24171876

  2. Relationship between financial speculation and food prices or price volatility: applying the principles of evidence-based medicine to current debates in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Gabrysch, Sabine; Müller, Olaf; Neuhann, Florian; Jordan, Irmgard; Knipper, Michael; Razum, Oliver

    2013-10-16

    There is an unresolved debate about the potential effects of financial speculation on food prices and price volatility. Germany's largest financial institution and leading global investment bank recently decided to continue investing in agricultural commodities, stating that there is little empirical evidence to support the notion that the growth of agricultural-based financial products has caused price increases or volatility. The statement is supported by a recently published literature review, which concludes that financial speculation does not have an adverse effect on the functioning of the agricultural commodities market. As public health professionals concerned with global food insecurity, we have appraised the methodological quality of the review using a validated and reliable appraisal tool. The appraisal revealed major shortcomings in the methodological quality of the review. These were particularly related to intransparencies in the search strategy and in the selection/presentation of studies and findings; the neglect of the possibility of publication bias; a lack of objective or rigorous criteria for assessing the scientific quality of included studies and for the formulation of conclusions. Based on the results of our appraisal, we conclude that it is not justified to reject the hypothesis that financial speculation might have adverse effects on food prices/price volatility. We hope to initiate reflections about scientific standards beyond the boundaries of disciplines and call for high quality, rigorous systematic reviews on the effects of financial speculation on food prices or price volatility.

  3. Relationship between financial speculation and food prices or price volatility: applying the principles of evidence-based medicine to current debates in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is an unresolved debate about the potential effects of financial speculation on food prices and price volatility. Germany’s largest financial institution and leading global investment bank recently decided to continue investing in agricultural commodities, stating that there is little empirical evidence to support the notion that the growth of agricultural-based financial products has caused price increases or volatility. The statement is supported by a recently published literature review, which concludes that financial speculation does not have an adverse effect on the functioning of the agricultural commodities market. As public health professionals concerned with global food insecurity, we have appraised the methodological quality of the review using a validated and reliable appraisal tool. The appraisal revealed major shortcomings in the methodological quality of the review. These were particularly related to intransparencies in the search strategy and in the selection/presentation of studies and findings; the neglect of the possibility of publication bias; a lack of objective or rigorous criteria for assessing the scientific quality of included studies and for the formulation of conclusions. Based on the results of our appraisal, we conclude that it is not justified to reject the hypothesis that financial speculation might have adverse effects on food prices/price volatility. We hope to initiate reflections about scientific standards beyond the boundaries of disciplines and call for high quality, rigorous systematic reviews on the effects of financial speculation on food prices or price volatility. PMID:24131565

  4. Examining the changing profile of undernutrition in the context of food price rises and greater inequality.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Shailen; Daoud, Adel; Gordon, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the profile of undernutrition among children in two African countries (Ethiopia and Nigeria) changed over the period of the 2007/08 food, fuel and financial crisis. Using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF), an indicator which allows for a comprehensive assessment of undernutrition in young children, we examine what changes occurred in the composition of undernutrition, and how these changes were distributed amongst children in different socio-economic groups. This is important as certain combinations of anthropometric failure (AF), especially the experience of multiple failures (dual and triple combinations of AF) are associated with higher morbidity and mortality risks, and are also related to poverty. Our hypothesis is that increases in food prices during the crisis contributed to an increase in inequality, which may have resulted in concurrent increases in the prevalence of more damaging forms of undernutrition amongst poorer children. While both countries witnessed large increases in food prices, the effects were quite different. Ethiopia managed reduce the prevalence of multiple anthropometric failure between 2005 and 2011 across most groups and regions. By contrast, in Nigeria prevalence increased between 2008 and 2013, and particularly so in the poorer, northern states. The countries studied applied quite different policies in response to food price increases, with the results from Ethiopia demonstrating that protectionist public health and nutrition interventions can mitigate the impacts of price increases on poor children.

  5. Prices of Healthy and Unhealthy Beverages in High and Low Per Capita Income Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai‘i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai‘anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai‘i Kai and Manoa) on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence. PMID:23520564

  6. Prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages in high and low per capita income areas.

    PubMed

    Watters, Corilee A; Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai'i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai'anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai'i Kai and Manoa) on O'ahu, Hawai'i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence.

  7. 5 CFR 591.215 - Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and DC areas? 591.215 Section 591.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.215 Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas? (a.... John. The Washington, DC, area has three survey areas: the District of Columbia, the Maryland...

  8. 5 CFR 591.215 - Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and DC areas? 591.215 Section 591.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.215 Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas? (a.... John. The Washington, DC, area has three survey areas: the District of Columbia, the Maryland...

  9. 5 CFR 591.215 - Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and DC areas? 591.215 Section 591.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.215 Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas? (a.... John. The Washington, DC, area has three survey areas: the District of Columbia, the Maryland...

  10. 5 CFR 591.215 - Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and DC areas? 591.215 Section 591.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.215 Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas? (a.... John. The Washington, DC, area has three survey areas: the District of Columbia, the Maryland...

  11. 5 CFR 591.215 - Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and DC areas? 591.215 Section 591.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.215 Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas? (a.... John. The Washington, DC, area has three survey areas: the District of Columbia, the Maryland...

  12. High food prices and the global financial crisis have reduced access to nutritious food and worsened nutritional status and health.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; de Pee, Saskia; Sanogo, Issa; Subran, Ludovic; Bloem, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, simulations, regression analysis using a food consumption score (FCS), reflecting diet frequency and diversity, and a review of the impact of such dietary changes on nutritional status and health. The cost of the food basket increased in several countries, forcing households to reduce quality and quantity of food consumed. The FCS, which is a measure of diet diversity, is negatively correlated with food prices. Simulations show that energy consumption declined during 2006-2010 in nearly all developing regions, resulting potentially in an additional 457 million people (of 4.5 billion) at risk of being hungry and many more unable to afford the dietary quality required to perform, develop, and grow well. As a result of the crises, large numbers of vulnerable households have reduced the quality and quantity of foods they consume and are at risk of increased malnutrition. Population groups most affected are those with the highest requirements, including young children, pregnant and lactating women, and the chronically ill (particularly people with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis). Because undernutrition during the first 2 y of life has life-long consequences, even short-term price rises will have long-term effects. Thus, measures to mitigate the impact of the crises are urgently required.

  13. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z.; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes—deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger. PMID:26504216

  15. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-11-10

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger.

  16. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Retail and consumer response to publicizing food price information.

    PubMed

    Greene, B F; Rouse, M; Green, R B; Clay, C

    1984-01-01

    A popular program among consumer action groups involves publicizing comparative food price information (CFPI) gathered from retail stores. Its significance is based on the assumption that publishing CFPI maximizes retail competition (i.e., moderates price levels or price increases) and occasions more frugal store selections among consumers. We tested these assumptions during a 2-year analysis. Specifically, we monitored the prices of two distinct market baskets in the supermarkets of two midwestern cities (target and contrast cities). Following a lengthy baseline, we published the prices of only one of the market baskets at stores in the target city in the local newspaper on five different occasions. The results suggested that reductions in price inflation occurred for both market baskets at the independently operated target stores. The corporate chain stores were not similarly affected. In addition, surveys indicated that many consumers used the CFPI as a basis for store selection. Finally, the analysis included a discussion of the politics, economics, and future of CFPI programs.

  17. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Retail and consumer response to publicizing food price information

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Brandon F.; Rouse, Mark; Green, Richard B.; Clay, Connie

    1984-01-01

    A popular program among consumer action groups involves publicizing comparative food price information (CFPI) gathered from retail stores. Its significance is based on the assumption that publishing CFPI maximizes retail competition (i.e., moderates price levels or price increases) and occasions more frugal store selections among consumers. We tested these assumptions during a 2-year analysis. Specifically, we monitored the prices of two distinct market baskets in the supermarkets of two midwestern cities (target and contrast cities). Following a lengthy baseline, we published the prices of only one of the market baskets at stores in the target city in the local newspaper on five different occasions. The results suggested that reductions in price inflation occurred for both market baskets at the independently operated target stores. The corporate chain stores were not similarly affected. In addition, surveys indicated that many consumers used the CFPI as a basis for store selection. Finally, the analysis included a discussion of the politics, economics, and future of CFPI programs. PMID:16795672

  18. Price and convenience: The influence of supermarkets on consumption of ultra-processed foods and beverages in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Priscila Pereira; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Canella, Daniela Silva; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of convenience and price of ultra-processed foods and beverages on purchases at supermarkets. The study used data on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, performed in a random sample of 55,970 households between 2008 and 2009. Foods and beverages were categorized into four groups, according to characteristics of food processing. Retail stores were grouped into supermarkets and other food stores. Proportion of calories from foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets and other food stores, and respective mean prices (R$/1000 kcal), were calculated according to households' geographical and socioeconomic characteristics. Effect of convenience in household purchases at retail stores was expressed by the acquisition of several food items at the same store. The influence of convenience and prices of ultra-processed products on purchases at supermarkets was analyzed using log-log regression model with estimation of elasticity coefficients. The mean prices of foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets were 37% lower in comparison to other food stores. The share of ultra-processed foods and beverages in purchases made at supermarkets was 25% higher than at other food stores. An increase of 1% in prices of ultra-processed food items led to a 0.59% reduction in calorie acquisition at supermarkets (R(2) = 0.75; p < 0.001). On the other hand, an increase of 1% in the number of food items purchased at supermarkets resulted in 1.83% increase in calorie acquisition of ultra-processed foods and beverages (p < 0.001). Convenience and lower relative prices of food items purchased at supermarkets, in comparison to other food stores, are relevant to explain higher share of purchases of ultra-processed foods and beverages at supermarkets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Food Price Policies May Improve Diet but Increase Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is more prevalent among women and people with a low socioeconomic status. Policies that affect the price of food have been proposed to improve diet quality. The study's objective was to compare the impact of food price policies on the nutritional quality of food baskets chosen by low-income and medium-income women. Experimental economics was used to simulate a fruit and vegetable subsidy and a mixed policy subsidizing healthy products and taxing unhealthy ones. Food classification was based on the Score of Nutritional Adequacy of Individual Foods, Score of Nutrients to Be Limited nutrient profiling system. Low-income (n = 95) and medium-income (n = 33) women selected a daily food basket first at current prices and then at policy prices. Energy density (ED) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline, low-income women selected less healthy baskets than medium-income women (less fruit and vegetables, more unhealthy products, higher ED, lower MAR). Both policies improved nutritional quality (fruit and vegetable quantities increased, ED decreased, the MAR increased), but the magnitude of the improvement was often lower among low-income women. For instance, ED decreased by 5.3% with the fruit and vegetable subsidy and by 7.3% with the mixed subsidy, whereas decreases of 13.2 and 12.6%, respectively, were recorded for the medium-income group. Finally, both policies improved dietary quality, but they increased socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Healthful Nutrition of Foods in Navajo Nation Stores: Availability and Pricing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gayathri; Jim-Martin, Sonlatsa; Piltch, Emily; Onufrak, Stephen; McNeil, Carrie; Adams, Laura; Williams, Nancy; Blanck, Heidi M; Curley, Larry

    2016-09-01

    Low availability and affordability of healthier foods in food stores on the Navajo Nation (NN) may be a community-level risk factor for the high prevalence of obesity among the Navajo people. This study assessed the availability and pricing of foods and beverages in supermarkets and convenience stores throughout the NN. Descriptive study design using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey in Stores audit tool. Supermarkets (n = 13) and convenience stores (n = 50) on NN and border-town supermarkets (n = 9). Not applicable. Availability and pricing of healthy and less-healthy foods. Descriptive and χ(2) analyses. Navajo convenience stores offered fewer healthier food options compared to Navajo supermarkets. In Navajo convenience stores, 100% whole grain products, reduced-fat cheese, lean meats, reduced-fat chips, and fat-free or light hot dogs were available in fewer stores than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). In both Navajo supermarkets and convenience stores, 100% whole wheat bread, lean cold cuts, and reduced-fat cheese were all more expensive per unit than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). According to this study, healthier foods are not as readily available in Navajo convenience stores as they are in Navajo supermarkets. Improving access to and affordability of healthier foods in reservation stores of all sizes may support healthy eating among Navajo residents. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  1. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing.

    PubMed

    Sander, Heather A; Haight, Robert G

    2012-12-30

    A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits provided by tree cover in Dakota County, Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that these services are valued by local residents and that hedonic pricing can be used to elicit at least a portion of this value. We find that many aspects of the aesthetic environment significantly impact home sale prices. Total view area as well as the areas of some land-cover types (water and lawn) in views positively influenced home sale prices while views of impervious surfaces generally negatively influenced home sale price. Access to outdoor recreation areas significantly and positively influenced home sale prices as did tree cover in the neighborhood surrounding a home. These results illustrate the ability of hedonic pricing to identify partial values for ecosystem services and amenities in a manner that is highly relevant to local and regional planning. These values could be used to increase policy-maker and public awareness of ecosystem services and could improve their consideration in planning and policy decisions.

  2. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  3. The prospective impact of food pricing on improving dietary consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Afshin, Ashkan; Peñalvo, José L; Del Gobbo, Liana; Silva, Jose; Michaelson, Melody; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Spiegelman, Donna; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    While food pricing is a promising strategy to improve diet, the prospective impact of food pricing on diet has not been systematically quantified. To quantify the prospective effect of changes in food prices on dietary consumption. We systematically searched online databases for interventional or prospective observational studies of price change and diet; we also searched for studies evaluating adiposity as a secondary outcome. Studies were excluded if price data were collected before 1990. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. Findings were pooled using DerSimonian-Laird's random effects model. Pre-specified sources of heterogeneity were analyzed using meta-regression; and potential for publication bias, by funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests. From 3,163 identified abstracts, 23 interventional studies and 7 prospective cohorts with 37 intervention arms met inclusion criteria. In pooled analyses, a 10% decrease in price (i.e., subsidy) increased consumption of healthful foods by 12% (95%CI = 10-15%; N = 22 studies/intervention arms) whereas a 10% increase price (i.e. tax) decreased consumption of unhealthful foods by 6% (95%CI = 4-8%; N = 15). By food group, subsidies increased intake of fruits and vegetables by 14% (95%CI = 11-17%; N = 9); and other healthful foods, by 16% (95%CI = 10-23%; N = 10); without significant effects on more healthful beverages (-3%; 95%CI = -16-11%; N = 3). Each 10% price increase reduced sugar-sweetened beverage intake by 7% (95%CI = 3-10%; N = 5); fast foods, by 3% (95%CI = 1-5%; N = 3); and other unhealthful foods, by 9% (95%CI = 6-12%; N = 3). Changes in price of fruits and vegetables reduced body mass index (-0.04 kg/m2 per 10% price decrease, 95%CI = -0.08-0 kg/m2; N = 4); price changes for sugar-sweetened beverages or fast foods did not significantly alter body mass index, based on 4 studies. Meta-regression identified direction of price change (tax vs. subsidy), number of intervention components, intervention

  4. The prospective impact of food pricing on improving dietary consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Afshin, Ashkan; Peñalvo, José L.; Del Gobbo, Liana; Silva, Jose; Michaelson, Melody; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Spiegelman, Donna; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Background While food pricing is a promising strategy to improve diet, the prospective impact of food pricing on diet has not been systematically quantified. Objective To quantify the prospective effect of changes in food prices on dietary consumption. Design We systematically searched online databases for interventional or prospective observational studies of price change and diet; we also searched for studies evaluating adiposity as a secondary outcome. Studies were excluded if price data were collected before 1990. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. Findings were pooled using DerSimonian-Laird's random effects model. Pre-specified sources of heterogeneity were analyzed using meta-regression; and potential for publication bias, by funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests. Results From 3,163 identified abstracts, 23 interventional studies and 7 prospective cohorts with 37 intervention arms met inclusion criteria. In pooled analyses, a 10% decrease in price (i.e., subsidy) increased consumption of healthful foods by 12% (95%CI = 10–15%; N = 22 studies/intervention arms) whereas a 10% increase price (i.e. tax) decreased consumption of unhealthful foods by 6% (95%CI = 4–8%; N = 15). By food group, subsidies increased intake of fruits and vegetables by 14% (95%CI = 11–17%; N = 9); and other healthful foods, by 16% (95%CI = 10–23%; N = 10); without significant effects on more healthful beverages (-3%; 95%CI = -16-11%; N = 3). Each 10% price increase reduced sugar-sweetened beverage intake by 7% (95%CI = 3–10%; N = 5); fast foods, by 3% (95%CI = 1–5%; N = 3); and other unhealthful foods, by 9% (95%CI = 6–12%; N = 3). Changes in price of fruits and vegetables reduced body mass index (-0.04 kg/m2 per 10% price decrease, 95%CI = -0.08–0 kg/m2; N = 4); price changes for sugar-sweetened beverages or fast foods did not significantly alter body mass index, based on 4 studies. Meta-regression identified direction of price change (tax vs. subsidy

  5. Nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price: a validation study with linear programming.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Matthieu; Ferguson, Elaine L; Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient content. They may help identify foods with a good nutritional quality for their price. This hypothesis was tested using diet modeling with linear programming. Analyses were undertaken using food intake data from the nationally representative French INCA (enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) survey and its associated food composition and price database. For each food, a nutrient profile score was defined as the ratio between the previously published nutrient density score (NDS) and the limited nutrient score (LIM); a nutritional quality for price indicator was developed and calculated from the relationship between its NDS:LIM and energy cost (in euro/100 kcal). We developed linear programming models to design diets that fulfilled increasing levels of nutritional constraints at a minimal cost. The median NDS:LIM values of foods selected in modeled diets increased as the levels of nutritional constraints increased (P = 0.005). In addition, the proportion of foods with a good nutritional quality for price indicator was higher (P < 0.0001) among foods selected (81%) than among foods not selected (39%) in modeled diets. This agreement between the linear programming and the nutrient profiling approaches indicates that nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price. Linear programming is a useful tool for testing nutrient profiling systems and validating the concept of nutrient profiling.

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  8. Mitigation Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture and Land-Use Change: Consequences for Food Prices.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Miodrag; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Humpenöder, Florian; Müller, Christoph; Weindl, Isabelle; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Rolinski, Susanne; Biewald, Anne; Wang, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-03

    The land use sector of agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) plays a central role in ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. Yet, mitigation policies in agriculture may be in conflict with food security related targets. Using a global agro-economic model, we analyze the impacts on food prices under mitigation policies targeting either incentives for producers (e.g., through taxes) or consumer preferences (e.g., through education programs). Despite having a similar reduction potential of 43-44% in 2100, the two types of policy instruments result in opposite outcomes for food prices. Incentive-based mitigation, such as protecting carbon-rich forests or adopting low-emission production techniques, increase land scarcity and production costs and thereby food prices. Preference-based mitigation, such as reduced household waste or lower consumption of animal-based products, decreases land scarcity, prevents emissions leakage, and concentrates production on the most productive sites and consequently lowers food prices. Whereas agricultural emissions are further abated in the combination of these mitigation measures, the synergy of strategies fails to substantially lower food prices. Additionally, we demonstrate that the efficiency of agricultural emission abatement is stable across a range of greenhouse-gas (GHG) tax levels, while resulting food prices exhibit a disproportionally larger spread.

  9. Food prices, household income, and resource allocation: socioeconomic perspectives on their effects on dietary quality and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bouis, Howarth E; Eozenou, Patrick; Rahman, Aminur

    2011-03-01

    The recent rise in agricultural commodity prices has been dramatic, and food prices are likely to follow an upward trend, at least in the medium-term. Moreover, the recent financial crisis has also lowered incomes and increased food prices. Not only does this reduce dietary quality, but expenditures for health, sanitation, and education will decline, all of which will have a detrimental effect on health and nutrition outcomes. To provide some perspectives on the role of major socioeconomic factors in driving health and nutrition outcomes. We use demand elasticity parameters estimated from household-level survey data to simulate an increase in food prices, which is then mapped into energy and nutrient intakes. Furthermore, we also use household-level data to analyze the implications of unequal intrahousehold distribution of food for the nutritional status of adult women and female children. A 50% increase in food prices results in a decrease in energy intake of 5% to 15% and in a decrease in iron intake of 10% to 30%, depending on the strength of the induced income effect. In a country like the Philippines, this would be equivalent to an increase of 25 percentage points in the proportion of women not meeting their requirements for iron intake. Increasing food prices will make fighting micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries more difficult. In societies where preference is given to males in the intrahousehold distribution of nonstaple foods, this objective will be even more challenging.

  10. The Sensitivity of Food Prices to Climate Dynamics in the Informal Markets of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Pinzon, J. E.; Prince, S. D.

    2006-05-01

    Systematic evaluation of food security throughout the West African Sahel has been attempted for nearly two decades. Food security analyses use food prices to determine the ability of the population to access food, and satellite derived vegetation indices to establish how much food is available each year. The relationship between these different food security indicators was explored in this study using correspondence analysis and through the use of Markov chain models. Two sources of quantitative data were used in these analysis that are readily available: 8km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the NOAA series of satellites carrying the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and monthly millet grain prices from 445 markets in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The results of this study show that the quality of the growing season affects the price of millet at the annual and the seasonal time scales. If the growing season was characterized by erratic, sparse rainfall it resulted in higher prices, and well- distributed, abundant rainfall resulted in lower prices. Model output was used to determine the impact of coupled price pressure and production deficits on the livelihoods of three demographic groups in Niger, demonstrating the power of integrating disparate datasets for food security estimation. The model can be used to estimate the economic and societal impacts resulting from climate variation, causing significant changes in human consumptions patterns. These changes can have global consequences when drought affects large portions of the growing regions simultaneously in the same year.

  11. The growing price gap between more and less healthy foods: analysis of a novel longitudinal UK dataset.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas R V; Conklin, Annalijn I; Suhrcke, Marc; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002-2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either "more healthy" or "less healthy" using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. The mean (standard deviation) 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29) for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27) for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002-2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (p<0.001). Since 2002, more healthy foods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy.

  12. The Growing Price Gap between More and Less Healthy Foods: Analysis of a Novel Longitudinal UK Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nicholas R. V.; Conklin, Annalijn I.; Suhrcke, Marc; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. Methods We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002–2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either “more healthy” or “less healthy” using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results The mean (standard deviation) 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29) for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27) for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002–2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions Since 2002, more healthy foods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy. PMID:25296332

  13. THE FORGOTTEN POPULATION? YOUTH, FOOD IN SECURITY, AND RISING PRICES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Craig; Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil

    2009-11-01

    The global food crisis has led to increased interest in food insecurity and its causes and consequences. Much of the focus however has been on mothers and young children, with little attention paid to the possible impacts on the large population of youth in developing countries. The objectives of this paper are to (1) draw attention to the food insecurity experience of a forgotten population, youth; (2) test whether the prevalence of food insecurity among Ethiopian adolescents is increasing with the rising cost of foods; and (3) to identify some individual, household, temporal, and spatial predictors of vulnerability. Data are drawn from a baseline survey in 2006 and a follow-up survey round conducted in 2007 of an ongoing population-based longitudinal study of approximately 2,100 youth living in southwestern Ethiopia. Results show high levels of food insecurity among youth, a marked increase in the experience of food insecurity among youth, and a bias in vulnerability toward youth in the poorest households and in rural households. During the intersurvey period boys were also more likely than girls to become food insecure. This latter finding effectively eliminates the gender bias in food insecurity observed in the baseline survey. Youth who became food insecure between survey rounds were also more likely to report worse health in 2007 than in 2006. Collectively our results suggest that youth are not being adequately buffered from food insecurity, and that generalizations about the current food crisis may be too broad and, thus, misrepresent vulnerable groups. Future research should focus on how to best protect vulnerable youth from the experience of food insecurity and its consequences.

  14. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  15. Comparison of the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program on household food security and dietary diversity in the face of rising food prices: ways forward for a more nutrition-sensitive program.

    PubMed

    Baye, Kaleab; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet

    2014-09-01

    In light of the continuing rise in food prices during and after the 2008 world food crisis, whether food and cash transfers are equally effective in improving food security and diet quality is debatable. To compare the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security and dietary diversity. Data on household dietary diversity, child anthropometry, food security, and preference of transfer modalities (food, cash, or mixed) were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 195 PSNP beneficiary households (67 receiving food and 128 receiving cash) in Hawella Tulla District, Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Most beneficiaries (96%) reported food shortages, and 47% reported food shortages that exceeded 3 months. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity scores (p = .02) and higher consumption of oils and fats (p = .003) and vitamin A-rich foods (p = .002). Compared with households receiving food, households receiving cash were more affected by increases in food prices that forced them to reduce their number of daily meals (p < .001) and spend less on nonstaples (p < .001). While most households receiving food (82%) preferred to continue receiving food, households receiving cash (56%) preferred a mix of food and cash. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity than households receiving food, a result suggesting that cash transfers may be more effective. However, the continuing rise infood prices may offset these benefits unless cash transfers are index-linked to food price fluctuations.

  16. Nutritional quality and price of food hampers distributed by a campus food bank: a Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Abedi, Arvin; Wong, Alexander; Eslamian, Ghazaleh

    2014-06-01

    Food insecurity is a mounting concern among Canadian post-secondary students. This study was conducted to evaluate the content of food hampers distributed by University of Alberta Campus Food Bank (CFB) and to assess the cost savings to students, using these hampers. Contents of hampers distributed among 1,857 students and their dependants since 2006 were evaluated against Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Hampers were aimed at serving university students and one to five members of their households located in Edmonton, Western Canada. One thousand eight hundred fifty-seven clients in Alberta, Canada, were included in the study. Although all hampers provided adequate energy, their fat and animal protein contents were low. Compared to the CFG recommendations, the requirements of milk and alternatives and meat and alternatives were not sufficiently met for clients using > or = 3-person hampers. None of food hampers (i.e. one- to five-person hampers) met the DRI recommendations for vitamin A and zinc. Clients of CFB received Canadian dollar (CN$) 14.88 to 64.3 worth of non-perishable food items in one- to five-person hampers respectively. Hampers provided from the CFB need improvement. Nutrients missing from the food hampers could be provided from fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat products; however, these foods are more expensive than processed food items. The CFB provides a significant amount of savings to its clients even without considering the additional perishable donations that are provided to clients. Interpretation of our data required the assumption that all clients were consuming all of their hampers, which may not always be the case. Clients that do not fully consume their hampers may benefit less from the food bank.

  17. Nutritional Quality and Price of Food Hampers Distributed by a Campus Food Bank: A Canadian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Arvin; Wong, Alexander; Eslamian, Ghazaleh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Food insecurity is a mounting concern among Canadian post-secondary students. This study was conducted to evaluate the content of food hampers distributed by University of Alberta Campus Food Bank (CFB) and to assess the cost savings to students, using these hampers. Contents of hampers distributed among 1,857 students and their dependants since 2006 were evaluated against Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Hampers were aimed at serving university students and one to five members of their households located in Edmonton, Western Canada. One thousand eight hundred fifty-seven clients in Alberta, Canada, were included in the study. Although all hampers provided adequate energy, their fat and animal protein contents were low. Compared to the CFG recommendations, the requirements of milk and alternatives and meat and alternatives were not sufficiently met for clients using ≥3-person hampers. None of food hampers (i.e. one- to five-person hampers) met the DRI recommendations for vitamin A and zinc. Clients of CFB received Canadian dollar (CN$) 14.88 to 64.3 worth of non-perishable food items in one- to five-person hampers respectively. Hampers provided from the CFB need improvement. Nutrients missing from the food hampers could be provided from fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat products; however, these foods are more expensive than processed food items. The CFB provides a significant amount of savings to its clients even without considering the additional perishable donations that are provided to clients. Interpretation of our data required the assumption that all clients were consuming all of their hampers, which may not always be the case. Clients that do not fully consume their hampers may benefit less from the food bank. PMID:25076666

  18. Essays on the Economics of Climate Change, Biofuel and Food Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, Charles

    Climate change is likely to be the most important global pollution problem that humanity has had to face so far. In this dissertation, I tackle issues directly and indirectly related to climate change, bringing my modest contribution to the body of human creativity trying to deal with climate change. First, I look at the impact of non-convex feedbacks on the optimal climate policy. Second, I try to derive the optimal biofuel policy acknowledging the potential negative impacts that biofuel production might have on food supply. Finally, I test empirically for the presence of loss aversion in food purchases, which might play a role in the consumer response to food price changes brought about by biofuel production. Non-convexities in feedback processes are increasingly found to be important in the climate system. To evaluate their impact on the optimal greenhouse gas (GHG) abate- ment policy, I introduce non-convex feedbacks in a stochastic pollution control model. I numerically calibrate the model to represent the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global climate change. This approach makes two contributions to the literature. First, it develops a framework to tackle stochastic non-convex pollu- tion management problems. Second, it applies this framework to the problem of climate change. This approach is in contrast to most of the economic literature on climate change that focuses either on linear feedbacks or environmental thresholds. I find that non-convex feedbacks lead to a decision threshold in the optimal mitigation policy, and I characterize how this threshold depends on feedback parameters and stochasticity. There is great hope that biofuel can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel. However, there are some concerns that biofuel would increase food prices. In an optimal control model, a co-author and I look at the optimal biofuel production when it competes for land with food production. In addition oil is not

  19. Effects of price and pellet type on food waste in mice.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Vanessa; Galuska, Chad M; Rowland, Neil E

    2014-03-01

    When laboratory mice are provided with free access to food, they often fragment their food such that it collects on the cage floor - wasted. An operant analysis of food waste, however, has not yet been conducted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of response requirement and pellet type on food waste using a behavioral economic paradigm. Sixteen mice responded under a series of escalating fixed ratio schedules. Nose pokes were reinforced with either a grain-based pellet or a fiber-based pellet (diluted with non-digestible cellulose) across conditions. We found that mice spilled a greater percent of the total earned pellets at low response requirements. Additionally, mice spilled more fiber-based pellets relative to grain-based pellets. This difference was most pronounced when the fixed ratio requirement was low and was attenuated as the fixed ratio was increased, and this decrease in food waste across prices was well accounted for by an exponential model. Mice may have been extracting the calorically dense components of the fiber-based pellets only when the schedule of reinforcement was rich. When the schedule of reinforcement was lean, responding for a new pellet likely was a more functional behavior than fragmenting a pellet and discarding portions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Price and healthfulness of snacks in 32 YMCA after-school programs in 4 US metropolitan areas, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S; Andry, Analisa; Lee, Rebekka M; Wiecha, Jean L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    A common perception is that healthful foods are more expensive than less healthful foods. We assessed the cost of beverages and foods served at YMCA after-school programs, determined whether healthful snacks were more expensive, and identified inexpensive, healthful options. We collected daily snack menus from 32 YMCAs nationwide from 2006 to 2008 and derived prices of beverages and foods from the US Department of Agriculture price database. Multiple linear regression was used to assess associations of healthful snacks and of beverage and food groups with price (n = 1,294 snack-days). We identified repeatedly served healthful snacks consistent with Child and Adult Care Food Program guidelines and reimbursement rate ($0.74/snack). On average, healthful snacks were approximately 50% more expensive than less healthful snacks ($0.26/snack; SE, 0.08; P = .003). Compared to water, 100% juice significantly increased average snack price, after controlling for other variables in the model. Similarly, compared to refined grains with trans fats, refined grains without trans fat significantly increased snack price, as did fruit and canned or frozen vegetables. Fresh vegetables (mostly carrots or celery) or whole grains did not alter price. Twenty-two repeatedly served snacks met nutrition guidelines and the reimbursement rate. In this sample of after-school programs, healthful snacks were typically more expensive than less healthful options; however, we identified many healthful snacks served at or below the price of less healthful options. Substituting tap water for 100% juice yielded price savings that could be used toward purchasing more healthful foods (eg, an apple). Our findings have practical implications for selecting snacks that meet health and reimbursement guidelines.

  1. Taking dietary habits into account: A computational method for modeling food choices that goes beyond price.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Igusa, Takeru

    2017-01-01

    Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1) quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2) simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs), or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP). Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.

  2. The market value of cultural heritage in urban areas: an application of spatial hedonic pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrak, Faroek; Nijkamp, Peter; Rietveld, Piet; Rouwendal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The current literature often values intangible goods like cultural heritage by applying stated preference methods. In recent years, however, the increasing availability of large databases on real estate transactions and listed prices has opened up new research possibilities and has reduced various existing barriers to applications of conventional (spatial) hedonic analysis to the real estate market. The present paper provides one of the first applications using a spatial autoregressive model to investigate the impact of cultural heritage—in particular, listed buildings and historic-cultural sites (or historic landmarks)—on the value of real estate in cities. In addition, this paper suggests a novel way of specifying the spatial weight matrix—only prices of sold houses influence current price—in identifying the spatial dependency effects between sold properties. The empirical application in the present study concerns the Dutch urban area of Zaanstad, a historic area for which over a long period of more than 20 years detailed information on individual dwellings, and their market prices are available in a GIS context. In this paper, the effect of cultural heritage is analysed in three complementary ways. First, we measure the effect of a listed building on its market price in the relevant area concerned. Secondly, we investigate the value that listed heritage has on nearby property. And finally, we estimate the effect of historic-cultural sites on real estate prices. We find that, to purchase a listed building, buyers are willing to pay an additional 26.9 %, while surrounding houses are worth an extra 0.28 % for each additional listed building within a 50-m radius. Houses sold within a conservation area appear to gain a premium of 26.4 % which confirms the existence of a `historic ensemble' effect.

  3. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change. PMID:19061510

  4. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-12-05

    Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  5. Store type and demographic influence on the availability and price of healthful foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008.

    PubMed

    Leone, Angela F; Rigby, Samantha; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Lee, Jung Sun

    2011-11-01

    The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, Florida. We analyzed the price and availability of foods defined by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as "food groups to encourage." We used descriptive statistics, t tests, analysis of variance, and χ(2) tests in the analysis. Measures of availability for all more healthful foods differed by store type (P < .001). Overall, supermarkets provided the lowest price for most fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole-wheat bread. Availability of 10 of the 20 fruits and vegetables surveyed, shelf space devoted to low-fat milk, and varieties of whole-wheat bread differed by neighborhood income level (P < .05), but no trends were seen for the availability or price of more healthful foods by neighborhood racial composition. Store type affects the availability and price of more healthful foods. In particular, people without access to supermarkets may have limited ability to purchase healthful foods. Nutrition environment studies such as this one can be used to encourage improvements in neighborhoods that lack adequate access to affordable, healthful food, such as advocating for large retail stores, farmer's markets, and community gardens in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  6. Impact of the economic crisis and increase in food prices on child mortality: exploring nutritional pathways.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    The current economic crisis and food price increase may have a widespread impact on the nutritional and health status of populations, especially in the developing world. Gains in child survival over the past few decades are likely to be threatened and millennium development goals will be harder to achieve. Beyond starvation, which is one of the causes of death in famine situations, there are numerous nutritional pathways by which childhood mortality can increase. These include increases in childhood wasting and stunting, intrauterine growth restriction, and micronutrient deficiencies such as that of vitamin A, iron, and zinc when faced with a food crisis and decreased food availability. These pathways are elucidated and described. Although estimates of the impact of the current crisis on child mortality are yet to be made, data from previous economic crises provide evidence of an increase in childhood mortality that we review. The current situation also emphasizes that there are vast segments of the world's population living in a situation of chronic food insecurity that are likely to be disproportionately affected by an economic crisis. Nutritional and health surveillance data are urgently needed in such populations to monitor both the impacts of a crisis and of interventions. Addressing the nutritional needs of children and women in response to the present crisis is urgent. But, ensuring that vulnerable populations are also targeted with known nutritional interventions at all times is likely to have a substantial impact on child mortality.

  7. Individual and area-level socioeconomic associations with fast food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that those with lower socioeconomic characteristics would be more likely to seek energy-dense food options such as fast food because of cheaper prices; however, to date the evidence has been inconsistent. This study examines both individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics and their independent associations with chain-brand fast food purchasing. Data from the 2003 Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES); a multilevel study of 2,547 adults from 49 small-areas in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Multilevel multinomial models adjusted for confounders were used to assess associations between individual socioeconomic position (education, occupation and income) and area socioeconomic characteristics in relation to fast food purchasing from five major fast food chains with outcome categories: never, at least monthly and at least weekly. The study finally assessed whether any potential area-level associations were mediated by fast food access. Increased fast food purchasing was independently associated with lower education, being a blue-collar employee and decreased household income. Results for area-level disadvantage were marginally insignificant after adjustment for individual-level characteristics, although they were suggestive that living in an area with greater levels of disadvantage increased an individual's odds of more frequent fast food purchasing. This effect was further attenuated when measures of fast food restaurant access were included in the models. Independent effects of lower individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and more frequent fast food purchasing for home consumption are demonstrated. Although evidence was suggestive of an independent association with area-level disadvantage this did not reach statistical significance.

  8. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Inglis, Victoria; McNeilly, Briohny; Le, Ha N D; Leslie, Deborah; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David

    2011-09-22

    In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to examine the effects of two promising

  9. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  10. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of part of the headwaters area of the Price River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, Robert M.

    1963-01-01

    The area investigated comprises 33 square miles in the Price River drainage basin ad is in the High Plateaus section of Utah. Precipitation on most of the area ranges from about 20 to 23 inches per year, and the average annual precipitation for the entire area was assumed to be 22 inches, of which approximately 65 percent is lost by evapotranspiration. The geologic formations underlying the area are the Blackhawk and Price River Formations of Cretaceous age, the North Horn Formation of Cretaceous and Tertiary age, the Flagstaff Limestone and Colton Formation of tertiary age, and unconsolidated deposits of probable Quaternary age.Some ground water issues from springs and seeps and is used by stock and the cities of Price and Helper. The annual discharge from the springs and seeps in the area averages about 3,000 acre-feet. Two deep wells supply about 400 acre-feet per year for use at a steam-generating plant. The aquifers penetrated by the wells are in the Flagstaff Limestone and the North Horn formation, the deepest aquifer being about 1,500 feet below the land surface. Most of the ground water in the area is suitable for municipal and industrial use.The surface discharge from the area is approximately 6,000 acre-feet per year. By means of a water budget, it is calculated that approximately 4,000 acre-feet per year leaves the area by subsurface flow. Further development of ground water on a large scale can be accomplished only by the use of wells. It is possible, however, that part of any newly developed supply from wells may be drawn from existing spring discharge or streamflow.

  11. The economic value of protecting Inventoried Roadless Areas: A spatial hedonic price study in New Mexico

    Treesearch

    German N. Izon; Michael S. Hand; Matias Fontenla; Robert P. Berrens

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the off-site benefits, as capitalized into housing values, of protecting 1.6 million acres of Inventoried Roadless Areas (IRAs) in the state of New Mexico, United States. In light of petitions filed by various U.S. states to maintain the status of IRAs as roadless lands, spatial hedonic price models are estimated and used to...

  12. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. Data Sources: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Study Selection: Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Data Extraction: Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Data Synthesis: Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. PMID:26307238

  13. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Nicole; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-10-01

    It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurants in the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Shikany, James M.; Guilkey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=−0.68 (95% CI: (−0.85, −0.51); 1st tertile: β=−0.22 (95% CI: −0.42, −0.02) ; p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=−1.34 (95% CI: −1.54, −1.14); 1st tertile: β=−0.45 (95% CI: −0.66, −0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=− 0.07 (95% CI: −0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: −0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  15. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=-0.07 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels.

  16. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women’s eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos’ and a patriarchal gender order that limits women’s mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women’s access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Methods Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. Results The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women’s access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Conclusions Rising food prices and resultant food

  17. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, p<0.001), accumulated more total shopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, p<0.001) and showed differences in perceived healthy food availability (p<0.001) and shopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  18. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    PubMed

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P < .001), accumulated more total shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P < .001), and showed differences in perceived healthy food availability (P < .001) and shopping access (P < .001). These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national levels toward multiple goals and mitigate the conflicts that arise from competing resource demands. In this analysis, we adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand how coherent policy combinations can manage trade-offs among environmental conservation initiatives and food prices. Our scenario results indicate that SDG strategies constructed around Sustainable Consumption and Production policies can minimize problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We conclude that Sustainable Consumption and Production policies (goal 12) are most effective at minimizing trade-offs and argue for their centrality to the formulation of coherent SDG strategies. We also find that alternative socioeconomic futures-mainly, population and economic growth pathways-generate smaller impacts on the eventual achievement of land resource-related SDGs than do resource-use and management policies. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policy-makers to negotiate trade-offs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.

  20. Assessing the land resource–food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national levels toward multiple goals and mitigate the conflicts that arise from competing resource demands. In this analysis, we adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand how coherent policy combinations can manage trade-offs among environmental conservation initiatives and food prices. Our scenario results indicate that SDG strategies constructed around Sustainable Consumption and Production policies can minimize problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We conclude that Sustainable Consumption and Production policies (goal 12) are most effective at minimizing trade-offs and argue for their centrality to the formulation of coherent SDG strategies. We also find that alternative socioeconomic futures—mainly, population and economic growth pathways—generate smaller impacts on the eventual achievement of land resource–related SDGs than do resource-use and management policies. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policy-makers to negotiate trade-offs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs. PMID:27652336

  1. 13. Interior view of food storage area looking towards hallway; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view of food storage area looking towards hallway; southeast corner of building on lower floor; view to north. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  2. Assessment of some Australian red wines for price, phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and vintage in relation to functional food prospects.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yung J; Prenzler, Paul D; Saliba, Anthony J; Ryan, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-three Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Mudgee region and thirty-two Shiraz wines from the Hunter Valley region were analyzed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Concentrations of (+)-catechin, quercetin, and transresveratrol, total phenolic content, and DPPH antioxidant activity varied considerably, both within and between varieties. Individual phenols, total phenols, and antioxidant activity were correlated with price and vintage. Shiraz wines showed positive and significant correlations for catechin and quercetin concentrations with total phenols, antioxidant activity, and vintage; and for total phenols and antioxidant activity with vintage. Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed positive and significant correlations for quercetin concentration with total phenols and antioxidant activity. There was a negative and significant correlation found between price and antioxidant activity for Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for wine to be considered a functional food. We report on potential health benefits (antioxidant activity) of 55 wines typical of 2 geographically close, but distinct, wine regions of Australia. Our results highlight the variability in functional components as an issue that needs further research and consideration in relation to wine as a functional food. The price of studied wines is not reflective of their health functionality, based on antioxidant activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Food and beverage price discounts to improve health in remote Aboriginal communities: mixed method evaluation of a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Holden, Stacey; Miles, Eddie; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Retrospectively evaluate food price discounts in remote Aboriginal community stores. Four price discount strategies of 10% were designed in 2010, aiming to influence grocery, fruit, vegetables and diet soft-drink sales. This natural experiment across a group of stores was evaluated using an explanatory, sequential mixed method design through analysis of store point-of-sale, document, observation and interview data. The outcome was measured by change in: 1) percentage of grocery sales to total food and beverage; 2) fruit and vegetable sales; and 3) diet soft-drink sales. Qualitative data enabled the interpretation of outcomes through understanding perceived success and benefits, and enablers and barriers to implementation. Eighteen community stores and 54 informants participated. While targeted price discounts were considered important to improving health, no discernible effect was evident, due to inadequate design and communication of discount promotion, and probably inadequate magnitude of discount. Strategy impact on food and beverage sales was limited by promotion and magnitude of discount. Implication for Public Health: This study demonstrates key factors and commitment required to design, communicate, implement and monitor strategies to improve health in this challenging remote retail context. Evaluation of natural experiments can contribute evidence to policy-making. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  5. Determinants, Health Problems, and Food Insecurity in Urban Areas of the Largest City in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Craveiro, Isabel; Alves, Daniela; Amado, Miguel; Santos, Zélia; Fortes, Argentina Tomar; Delgado, António Pedro; Correia, Artur; Gonçalves, Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project “UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities—moving from macro to micro statistics”. Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor. PMID:27879689

  6. Determinants, Health Problems, and Food Insecurity in Urban Areas of the Largest City in Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Craveiro, Isabel; Alves, Daniela; Amado, Miguel; Santos, Zélia; Fortes, Argentina Tomar; Delgado, António Pedro; Correia, Artur; Gonçalves, Luzia

    2016-11-22

    Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project "UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities-moving from macro to micro statistics". Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor.

  7. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks.

  8. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  9. Fast-food environments and family fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; MacKenzie, Todd A; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent-parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07, 1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. PMID:22608373

  11. [Evolution of salaries and the price of food and domestic fuels in the city of La Paz (1975-1985)].

    PubMed

    Laure, J

    1987-03-01

    An analysis was performed on the variations of the food purchasing power of the average industry wage during the period comprised between 1975 and 1984 (increase of 7%), and of the minimum wage between November 1982 and August 1985 (decline of 73%). Development of retail prices in La Paz, for the main food groups, beverages and fuels, was analyzed over the same periods. Variations in work time, paid at average industry wage or at minimum wage, needed to acquire such foodstuffs, beverages or fuels, were also carefully studied. Similarly, development of the cost of calories and proteins was examined. Trends in accessibility of calories and proteins are described. Between 1975 and 1984 these included: a progressive decline in the number of foods that are sources of "cheap" or "very cheap" calories; the same trend was observed with regard to foods which are sources of "cheap" or "very cheap" proteins: A decline in their number and even the disappearance of any source of "very cheap" proteins, and an ever-increasing dependence on agro-industry and foreign imports (notably wheat). Finally, some proposals are made for the purpose of contributing to the establishment of food and nutrition planning. In particular, suggestion is made to automatically reevaluate the minimum wage on the basis of monetary inflation, in order to maintain at least the food purchasing power of the minimum wage. Maintaining this purchasing power greatly determines the nutritional status of the wage-earning population which purchases the most essential foodstuffs.

  12. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.; Frias, O.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  13. Effects of nutrient profiling and price changes based on NuVal® scores on food purchasing in an online experimental supermarket.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katz, David L; Jankowiak, Noelle; Pudlewski, Corrin; Paluch, Rocco A

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to apply experimental economic methods in an online supermarket to examine the effects of nutrient profiling, and differential pricing based on the nutrient profile, on the overall diet quality, energy and macronutrients of the foods purchased, and diet cost. Participants were provided nutrient profiling scores or price adjustments based on nutrient profile scores while completing a hypothetical grocery shopping task. Prices of foods in the top 20 % of nutrient profiling scores were reduced (subsidized) by 25 % while those in the bottom 20 % of scores were increased (taxed) by 25 %. We evaluated the independent and interactive effects of nutrient profiling or price adjustments on overall diet quality of foods purchased as assessed by the NuVal® score, energy and macronutrients purchased and diet cost in a 2×2 factorial design. A large (>10 000 food items) online experimental supermarket in the USA. Seven hundred and eighty-one women. Providing nutrient profiling scores improved overall diet quality of foods purchased. Price changes were associated with an increase in protein purchased, an increase in energy cost, and reduced carbohydrate and protein costs. Price changes and nutrient profiling combined were associated with no unique benefits beyond price changes or nutrient profiling alone. Providing nutrient profile score increased overall NuVal® score without a reduction in energy purchased. Combining nutrient profiling and price changes did not show an overall benefit to diet quality and may be less useful than nutrient profiling alone to consumers who want to increase overall diet quality of foods purchased.

  14. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  15. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  16. Impact of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Package Policy on Fruit and Vegetable Prices

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Powell, Lisa M.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants’ purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. PMID:24183996

  17. Impact of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policy on fruit and vegetable prices.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants' purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used.

  18. Where are the food animal veterinarian shortage areas anyway?

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Hennessy, David A; O'Connor, Annette M

    2012-05-01

    In 2010 the United States implemented the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) to address perceived regional shortages in certain veterinary occupations, including food animal practice. With county as the unit of analysis, this paper describes a pair of models to evaluate factors associated with being designated a private practice shortage area in 2010. One model is used to explain food animal veterinarian location choices so as to provide an objective evaluation of comparative shortage. The other model seeks to explain the counties chosen as shortage areas. Model results are then used to evaluate the program. On the whole the program appears to perform quite well. For several states, however, VMLRP shortage designations are inconsistent with the food animal veterinarian location model. Comparative shortage is generally more severe in states that have no VMLRP designated private practice shortage counties than in states that do. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 8. Interior view of former food service and storage area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of former food service and storage area looking towards hall way; showing closed and open doorways to walk-in storage; near southwest corner of building on main floor; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  20. Instructional Materials for Occupational Home Economics; Food Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Materials were developed by subject matter specialists at an Indiana State University workshop for teacher use when planning a cooperative occupational training program for supervised food service workers. Content areas, each printed on a different color paper, include: (1) Grooming and Public Relations, (2) Counter and Cafeteria Service, (3)…

  1. Food Prices Are Associated with Dietary Quality, Fast Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index among U.S. Children and Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-01-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994–1998) for 6759 children (2–9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10–18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals’ CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2–9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (β ± SE: −0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (β ± SE: −3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10–18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2–9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2–9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

  2. Food prices are associated with dietary quality, fast food consumption, and body mass index among U.S. children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-02-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994-1998) for 6759 children (2-9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10-18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals' CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2-9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (β ± SE: -0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (β ± SE: -3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10-18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2-9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2-9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables.

  3. Correlation between cocaine prices and purity with trends in emergency department visits in a major metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Pagán, José A

    2014-10-01

    Illicit drug use not only causes acute and chronic adverse health outcomes but also results in a significant burden to health care providers. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between cocaine prices and purity with emergency department (ED) visits for the Chicago-Naperville-Joliet metropolitan area. Our primary outcome was number of cocaine-related ED visits per quarter provided by the Drug Abuse Warning Network. The predictor variables of cocaine purity and price were provided by the System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence database. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions were used to estimate the effects of cocaine price and purity on cocaine-related ED visits. Although cocaine prices did not change substantially over time, cocaine purity decreased by over 30 % between 2006 and 2010. ARIMA regression results suggest that cocaine-related ED visits were not significantly associated with powder or crack cocaine prices; however, a decrease in powder cocaine purity was associated with 2,081 fewer ED visits overall from 2007 to 2010. The cocaine trade continues to be a major public health and law enforcement threat to large metropolitan cities like Chicago. Regular monitoring of cocaine purity levels may provide early warning of impending changes in cocaine-related ED visits for law enforcement and health care providers.

  4. Quantifying the impact of rising food prices on child mortality in India: a cross-district statistical analysis of the District Level Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Khan, Zaky; Ebrahim, Shah; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of child malnutrition and mortality in India remain high. We tested the hypothesis that rising food prices are contributing to India’s slow progress in improving childhood survival. Methods: Using rounds 2 and 3 (2002—08) of the Indian District Level Household Survey, we calculated neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in 364 districts, and merged these with district-level food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Multivariate models were estimated, stratified into 27 less deprived states and territories and 8 deprived states (‘Empowered Action Groups’). Results: Between 2002 and 2008, the real price of food in India rose by 11.7%. A 1% increase in total food prices was associated with a 0.49% increase in neonatal (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13% to 0.85%), but not infant or under-five mortality rates. Disaggregating by type of food and level of deprivation, in the eight deprived states, we found an elevation in neonatal mortality rates of 0.33% for each 1% increase in the price of meat (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.60%) and 0.10% for a 1% increase in dairy (95% CI: 0.01% to 0.20%). We also detected an adverse association of the price of dairy with infant (b = 0.09%; 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.16%) and under-five mortality rates (b = 0.10%; 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.17%). These associations were not detected in less deprived states and territories. Conclusions: Rising food prices, particularly of high-protein meat and dairy products, were associated with worse child mortality outcomes. These adverse associations were concentrated in the most deprived states. PMID:27063607

  5. Quantifying the impact of rising food prices on child mortality in India: a cross-district statistical analysis of the District Level Household Survey.

    PubMed

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Khan, Zaky; Ebrahim, Shah; Stuckler, David

    2016-04-01

    Rates of child malnutrition and mortality in India remain high. We tested the hypothesis that rising food prices are contributing to India's slow progress in improving childhood survival. Using rounds 2 and 3 (2002-08) of the Indian District Level Household Survey, we calculated neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in 364 districts, and merged these with district-level food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Multivariate models were estimated, stratified into 27 less deprived states and territories and 8 deprived states ('Empowered Action Groups'). Between 2002 and 2008, the real price of food in India rose by 11.7%. A 1% increase in total food prices was associated with a 0.49% increase in neonatal (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13% to 0.85%), but not infant or under-five mortality rates. Disaggregating by type of food and level of deprivation, in the eight deprived states, we found an elevation in neonatal mortality rates of 0.33% for each 1% increase in the price of meat (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.60%) and 0.10% for a 1% increase in dairy (95% CI: 0.01% to 0.20%). We also detected an adverse association of the price of dairy with infant (b = 0.09%; 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.16%) and under-five mortality rates (b = 0.10%; 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.17%). These associations were not detected in less deprived states and territories. Rising food prices, particularly of high-protein meat and dairy products, were associated with worse child mortality outcomes. These adverse associations were concentrated in the most deprived states. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Hydrology of the Price River basin, Utah, with emphasis on selected coal-field areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Dodge, J.E.; Darby, D.W.; Theobald, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Data obtained during a hydrologic study of the Price River basin, Utah, are used to describe seasonal variations of flow of springs, relation between ground water and surface water, hydraulic properties of the ground-water reservoir, ground-water recharge and discharge, flood characteristics of streams, mineralogic composition and depositional rates of sediments, nutrient and inorganic loading in streams and Scofield Reservoir, and water budgets for selected basins. Additional study and monitoring are needed to detect possible hydrologic changes caused by coal mining. Much of the ground-water discharge from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mesaverde Group in the Wasatch Plateau occurs along faults. In the Book Cliffs, where faulting is less extensive, most of the ground-water discharge is from the Flagstaff Limestone. The Flagstaff Limestone is greatly diffusive, has a small storage coefficient, and contains water which is perched. Springs issuing from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mud Creek drainage (Wasatch Plateau) had recession indexes greater than 365 days per log cycle. Springs issuing at higher altitudes from the Colton Formation and the Flagstaff Limestone in the Soldier Creek area (Book Cliffs) have great seasonal variability, with recession indexes ranging from 24 to 115 days per log cycle. Estimated transmissivities in the Soldier Creek area ranged from 0.003 foot squared per day in the lower part of the Castlegate Sandstone to 0.07 foot squared per day in the Price River Formation. Seepage from the Star Point Sandstone is the major contributor to base flow of the stream in Eccles Canyon (Wasatch Plateau). Gains of as much as 230 gallons per minute occurred near a fault zone which crosses Eccles Canyon at the junction with South Fork Canyon. The potentiometric surface of water in the Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau (Mud Creek drainage) and the Book Cliffs (Soldier Creek area) generally is above the coal zones, and dewatering will be necessary

  7. The association of fast food, fruit and vegetable prices with dietary intakes among US adults: is there modification by family income?

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Wang, Youfa

    2008-06-01

    We examined the effects of prices of fast foods and fruits and vegetables on dietary intake, body mass index (BMI) and obesity risks and whether the associations varied across groups according to their family income. Data from the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-96) for 7331 individuals aged 20-65 years with complete data on two 24-h recalls were used. We computed two food price indices (FFPI and FVPI) which were linked to individuals through geocoded identifiers. Main outcomes included dietary intakes of energy, selected nutrients and food groups, fast food consumption, and diet quality measured using two indices (HEI and aMED), BMI and obesity. Interaction terms between key variables were tested in regression analyses and in further stratified analysis by family income. Higher fast food price indices (FFPIs) were associated with higher fiber intake, lower saturated fat, and better overall diet quality as measured by aMED. FVPI was positively associated with improved dietary quality as well as in terms of lower cholesterol and sodium intakes, improved HEI and lower BMI. Most of these associations showed homogeneous strengths across income groups as evidenced by a non-significant FFPIxPIR or FVPIxPIR interaction term (p>0.10). While increasing FFPI by 1 standard deviation was only borderline protective against fast food consumption, its association with other binary outcomes that were considered was non-significant. In contrast, FVPI was protective against obesity, particularly among the near poor. It was also associated with improved aMED score. Analyses of these national data suggest that changing fast food and fruit and vegetable prices may affect people's dietary quality and to some extent their adiposity, although the present study is limited by the available food price data.

  8. Impact of the Economic Crisis and Increase in Food Prices on Child Mortality: Exploring Nutritional Pathways1–3

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    The current economic crisis and food price increase may have a widespread impact on the nutritional and health status of populations, especially in the developing world. Gains in child survival over the past few decades are likely to be threatened and millennium development goals will be harder to achieve. Beyond starvation, which is one of the causes of death in famine situations, there are numerous nutritional pathways by which childhood mortality can increase. These include increases in childhood wasting and stunting, intrauterine growth restriction, and micronutrient deficiencies such as that of vitamin A, iron, and zinc when faced with a food crisis and decreased food availability. These pathways are elucidated and described. Although estimates of the impact of the current crisis on child mortality are yet to be made, data from previous economic crises provide evidence of an increase in childhood mortality that we review. The current situation also emphasizes that there are vast segments of the world's population living in a situation of chronic food insecurity that are likely to be disproportionately affected by an economic crisis. Nutritional and health surveillance data are urgently needed in such populations to monitor both the impacts of a crisis and of interventions. Addressing the nutritional needs of children and women in response to the present crisis is urgent. But, ensuring that vulnerable populations are also targeted with known nutritional interventions at all times is likely to have a substantial impact on child mortality. PMID:19923384

  9. Higher household expenditure on animal-source and nongrain foods lowers the risk of stunting among children 0-59 months old in Indonesia: implications of rising food prices.

    PubMed

    Sari, Mayang; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W; Sun, Kai; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Akhter, Nasima; Kraemer, Klaus; Semba, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Because the global financial crisis and high food prices affect food consumption, we characterized the relationship between stunting and nongrain food expenditure at the household level among children 0-59 mo old in Indonesia's rural and urban poor population. Expenditure and height-for-age data were obtained from a population-based sample of 446,473 children in rural and 143,807 in urban poor areas in Indonesia. Expenditure on food was grouped into categories: animal, plant, total nongrain, and grain. The prevalence of stunting in rural and urban poor areas was 33.8 and 31.2%, respectively. In rural areas, the odds ratios (OR) (5th vs. first quintile) for stunting were similar for proportion of household expenditure on animal (0.87; 95% CI = 0.85-0.90; P < 0.0001), plant (0.86; 95% CI = 0.84-0.88; P < 0.0001), and total nongrain (0.85; 95% CI = 0.83-0.87; P < 0.0001). In urban poor areas, the relationship between stunting and proportion of household expenditure on animal sources was stronger than in rural areas (OR 0.78; 95% CI = 0.74-0.81; P < 0.0001), whereas the relationship with nongrain was similar to rural areas (OR 0.88; 95% CI = 0.85-0.92; P < 0.0001) and no relationship was observed with plant sources (OR 0.97; 95% CI = 0.93-1.01; P = 0.13). For grain expenditure, OR for stunting in highest vs. lowest quintile was 1.21 (95% CI = 1.18-1.24; P < 0.0001) in rural and 1.09 (95%CI = 1.04-1.13; P < 0.0001) in urban poor areas. Thus, households that spent a greater proportion on nongrain foods, in particular animal source foods, had a lower prevalence of child stunting. This suggests potential increased risk of malnutrition associated with reductions of household expenditure due to the current global crises.

  10. B'More Healthy: Retail Rewards--design of a multi-level communications and pricing intervention to improve the food environment in Baltimore City.

    PubMed

    Budd, Nadine; Cuccia, Alison; Jeffries, Jayne K; Prasad, Divya; Frick, Kevin D; Powell, Lisa; Katz, Fred A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-03-24

    Low-income black residents of Baltimore City have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than other Maryland residents. Increasing the availability and affordability of healthy food are key strategies to improve the food environment and can lead to healthier diets. This paper describes B'More Healthy: Retail Rewards (BHRR), an intervention that tests the effectiveness of performance-based pricing discounts and health communications, separately and combined, on healthy food purchasing and consumption among low-income small store customers. BHRR is 2x2 factorial design randomized controlled trial. Fifteen regular customers recruited from each of 24 participating corner stores in Baltimore City were enrolled. Food stores were randomized to 1) pricing intervention, 2) communications intervention, 3) combined intervention, or 4) control. Pricing stores were given a 10-30% price discount on selected healthier food items, such as fresh fruits, frozen vegetables, and baked chips, at the point of purchase from two food wholesale stores during the 6-month trial. Storeowners agreed to pass on the discount to the consumer to increase demand for healthy food. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests, and refrigerators. Primary outcome measures include consumer food purchasing and associated psychosocial variables. Secondary outcome measures include consumer food consumption, store sales, and associated storeowner psychosocial factors. Process evaluation was monitored throughout the trial at wholesaler, small store, and consumer levels. This is the first study to test the impact of performance-based pricing and communications incentives in small food stores, an innovative strategy to encourage local wholesalers and storeowners to share responsibility in creating a healthier food supply by stocking, promoting, and reducing costs of healthier foods in their stores. Local food

  11. A computer program for calculation of doses and prices of injectable medications based on body weight or body surface area

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A computer program (CalcAnesth) was developed with Visual Basic for the purpose of calculating the doses and prices of injectable medications on the basis of body weight or body surface area. The drug names, concentrations, and prices are loaded from a drug database. This database is a simple text file, that the user can easily create or modify. The animal names and body weights can be loaded from a similar database. After typing the dose and the units into the user interface, the results will be automatically displayed. The program is able to open and save anesthetic protocols, and export or print the results. This CalcAnesth program can be useful in clinical veterinary anesthesiology and research. The rationale for dosing on the basis of body surface area is also discussed in this article. PMID:14979437

  12. Local Food Prices: Effects on Child Eating Patterns, Food Insecurity, and Overweight. Fast Focus. No. 16-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this research brief were co-principal investigators on a grant awarded by the IRP RIDGE Center for National Food and Nutrition Assistance Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in partnership with the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their project, summarized here, was one of five proposals…

  13. Local Food Prices: Effects on Child Eating Patterns, Food Insecurity, and Overweight. Fast Focus. No. 16-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this research brief were co-principal investigators on a grant awarded by the IRP RIDGE Center for National Food and Nutrition Assistance Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in partnership with the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their project, summarized here, was one of five proposals…

  14. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Colchero, M. Arantxa; Salgado, Juan Carlos; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Molina, Mariana; Ng, Shuwen; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Angel

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB) was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption. PMID:26675166

  15. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Salgado, Juan Carlos; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Molina, Mariana; Ng, Shuwen; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Angel

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB) was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption.

  16. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing

    Treesearch

    Heather A. Sander; Robert G. Haight

    2012-01-01

    A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits...

  17. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7-percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P < 0.01). The magnitude of the sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher-socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the population diet but would be

  18. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  19. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-05-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser.

  20. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  1. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  2. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  3. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  4. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  5. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  6. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  7. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  8. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  9. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  10. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  11. Using theory to identify beliefs associated with support for policies to raise the price of high-fat and high-sugar foods.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Porticella, Norman; Shapiro, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Public policies designed to dramatically raise the price of high-fat and high-sugar foods have received substantial attention from researchers and the media. Although econometric studies suggest that these policies could reduce obesity rates, they are likely to face substantial public opposition. This study used the theory of perceived responsibility and social motivation as a framework to analyze data from a politically diverse convenience sample of 500 adults in upstate New York. The authors examined associations between attribution beliefs and policy support to identify what types of scientific evidence and accompanying messages appear most likely to generate public support for price-raising policies. Results suggest that public health advocates and health communicators could benefit from an increased emphasis on advertising for unhealthy foods as a cause of obesity and the food industry's (manufacturers, advertisers, markets, and restaurants) responsibility for addressing the problem.

  12. Tradition of healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods: Price and variety of curbside produce vending compared to conventional retailers.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Catherine; Chrisinger, Benjamin; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the longstanding, naturally emergent model of curbside vending of whole fruit and vegetable produce across several low-income, low-health Philadelphia neighborhoods. We conducted open-ended interviews with managers of 11 curbside produce vendors and compared prices and varieties of fruits and vegetables with the 11 closest conventional outlets. We find that produce trucks offer significantly lower prices on common fruit and vegetable items and they carry a variety of items comparable to that carried by limited-assortment grocery stores. We conclude with recommendations regarding zoning, licensing, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) authorization that could stabilize and expand this model of healthy food access.

  13. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module III-C-1: Food Availability in Economically Depressed Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on food availability in economically depressed areas (EDA) is the first in a set of three modules on foods and nutrition in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  14. Risk assessment for sustainable food security in China according to integrated food security--taking Dongting Lake area for example.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoxing; Liu, Liming; Liu, Yabin; Yao, Lan

    2013-06-01

    Integrated food security covers three aspects: food quantity security, food quality security, and sustainable food security. Because sustainable food security requires that food security must be compatible with sustainable development, the risk assessment of sustainable food security is becoming one of the most important issues. This paper mainly focuses on the characteristics of sustainable food security problems in the major grain-producing areas in China. We establish an index system based on land resources and eco-environmental conditions and apply a dynamic assessment method based on status assessments and trend analysis models to overcome the shortcomings of the static evaluation method. Using fuzzy mathematics, the risks are categorized into four grades: negligible risk, low risk, medium risk, and high risk. A case study was conducted in one of China's major grain-producing areas: Dongting Lake area. The results predict that the status of the sustainable food security in the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The number of districts at the medium-risk range will increase from six to ten by 2015 due to increasing population pressure, a decrease in the cultivated area, and a decrease in the effective irrigation area. Therefore, appropriate policies and measures should be put forward to improve it. The results could also provide direct support for an early warning system-which could be used to monitor food security trends or nutritional status so to inform policy makers of impending food shortages-to prevent sustainable food security risk based on some classical systematic methods. This is the first research of sustainable food security in terms of risk assessment, from the perspective of resources and the environment, at the regional scale.

  15. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.50 Section 1032.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  20. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in food access and affordability.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated whether the availability and accessibility of supermarkets and fruit and vegetable stores, and the availability, variety and price of foods within these stores, varied across areas of different levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in Melbourne, Australia. Data on food store locations, and food variety and price within stores were obtained through objective audits of 45 neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic disadvantage. Geographical accessibility of healthy food stores was mostly better amongst those living in more advantaged neighbourhoods. Availability of healthy foods within stores only slightly favoured those in advantaged neighbourhoods. However food prices favoured those living in disadvantaged areas.

  1. Comparing the availability, price, variety and quality of fruits and vegetables across retail outlets and by area-level socio-economic position.

    PubMed

    Millichamp, Anna; Gallegos, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To explore whether area-level socio-economic position or the form of retail stream (conventional v. farmers' market) is associated with differences in the price, availability, variety and quality of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. A multi-site cross-sectional pilot study of farmers' markets, supermarkets and independent fruit and vegetable retailers. Each was surveyed to assess the price, availability, variety and quality of fifteen fruit and eighteen vegetable items. Retail outlets were located in south-east Queensland. Fifteen retail outlets were surveyed (five of each retail stream). Average basket prices were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum, but prices in low socio-economic areas were cheapest. Availability, variety and quality did not differ significantly across levels of socio-economic position; however, the areas with the most socio-economic disadvantage scored poorest for quality and variety. Supermarkets had significantly better fruit and vegetable availability than farmers' markets, although price, variety and quality scores were not different across retail streams. Results demonstrate a trend to fruit and vegetable prices being more expensive at farmers' markets, with the price of the fruit basket being significantly greater at the organic farmers' market compared with the non-organic farmers' markets. Neither area-level socio-economic position nor the form of retail stream was significantly associated with differences in the availability, price, variety and quality of fruit and vegetables, except for availability which was higher in supermarkets than farmers' markets. Further research is needed to determine what role farmers' markets can play in affecting fruit and vegetable intake.

  2. Measuring potential access to food stores and food-service places in rural areas in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    Geographic access to healthy food resources remains a major focus of research that examines the contribution of the built environment to healthful eating. Methods used to define and measure spatial accessibility can significantly affect the results. Considering the implications for marketing, policy, and programs, adequate measurement of the food environment is important. Little of the published work on food access has focused on rural areas, where the burden of nutrition-related disease is greater. This article seeks to expand our understanding of the challenges to measurement of potential spatial access to food resources in rural areas in the U.S. Key challenges to the accurate measurement of the food environment in rural areas include: (1) defining the rural food environment while recognizing that market factors may be changing; (2) describing characteristics that may differentiate similar types of food stores and food-service places; and (3) determining location coordinates for food stores and food-service places. In order to enhance measurements in rural areas, "ground-truthed" methodology, which includes on-site observation and collection of GPS data, should become the standard for rural areas. Measurement must also recognize the emergence of new and changing store formats. Efforts should be made to determine accessibility, in terms of both proximity to a single location and variety of multiple locations within a specified buffer, from origins other than the home, and consider multipurpose trips and trip chaining. The measurement of food access will be critical for community-based approaches to meet dietary needs. Researchers must be willing to take the steps necessary for rigorous measurement of a dynamic food environment.

  3. Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

  4. Impact of a targeted direct marketing price promotion intervention (Buywell) on food-purchasing behaviour by low income consumers: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; Findlay, A; Sparks, L; Anderson, A S; Barton, K; Eadie, D

    2017-08-01

    Price promotions are a promising intervention for encouraging healthier food purchasing. We aimed to assess the impact of a targeted direct marketing price promotion combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions on the purchase of selected healthier foods by low income consumers. We conducted a randomised controlled trial (n = 53 367) of a direct marketing price promotion (Buywell) combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions for low income consumers identified as 'less healthy' shoppers. Impact was assessed using electronic point of sale data for UK low income shoppers before, during and after the promotion. The proportion of customers buying promoted products in the intervention month increased by between 1.4% and 2.8% for four of the five products. There was significantly higher uptake in the promotion month (P < 0.001) for the intervention group than would have been expected on the basis of average uptake in the other months. When product switching was examined for semi-skimmed/skimmed milk, a modest increase (1%) was found in the intervention month of customers switching from full-fat to low-fat milk. This represented 8% of customers who previously bought only full-fat milk. The effects were generally not sustained after the promotion period. Short-term direct marketing price promotions combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions targeted at low income consumers are feasible and can have a modest impact on short-term food-purchasing behaviour, although further approaches are needed to help sustain these changes. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. A multilevel study of area socio-economic status and food purchasing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Thomas, Lyndal R; Jolley, Damien; Subramanian, Sv; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the association between area socio-economic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Data were collected by mail survey (64.2 % response rate). Area SES was indicated by the proportion of households in each area earning less than $AUS 400 per week, and individual-level socio-economic position was measured using education, occupation and household income. Food purchasing was measured on the basis of compliance with dietary guideline recommendations (for grocery foods) and variety of fruit and vegetable purchase. Multilevel regression analysis examined the association between area SES and food purchase after adjustment for individual-level demographic (age, sex, household composition) and socio-economic factors. Melbourne city, Australia, 2003. Residents of 2564 households located in fifty small areas. Residents of low-SES areas were significantly less likely than their counterparts in advantaged areas to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar; and they purchased a smaller variety of fruits. There was no evidence of an association between area SES and vegetable variety. In Melbourne, area SES was associated with some food purchasing behaviours independent of individual-level factors, suggesting that areas in this city may be differentiated on the basis of food availability, accessibility and affordability, making the purchase of some types of foods more difficult in disadvantaged areas.

  6. Growing Together: Boston Area Youth Follow Food from Field to Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVaux, Ari

    2001-01-01

    The Food Project brings together Boston-area youth to grow and distribute food for the hungry and in the process, develop leadership and job skills. Summer crew workers (high school students) grow vegetables, distribute them to food pantries, and sell them at farmer's markets. Crew leaders learn more about sustainable agriculture and hone…

  7. Growing Together: Boston Area Youth Follow Food from Field to Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVaux, Ari

    2001-01-01

    The Food Project brings together Boston-area youth to grow and distribute food for the hungry and in the process, develop leadership and job skills. Summer crew workers (high school students) grow vegetables, distribute them to food pantries, and sell them at farmer's markets. Crew leaders learn more about sustainable agriculture and hone…

  8. Tradition of healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods: Price and variety of curbside produce vending compared to conventional retailers

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine; Chrisinger, Benjamin; Hillier, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the longstanding, naturally emergent model of curbside vending of whole fruit and vegetable produce across several low-income, low-health Philadelphia neighborhoods. We conducted open-ended interviews with managers of 11 curbside produce vendors and compared prices and varieties of fruits and vegetables with the 11 closest conventional outlets. We find that produce trucks offer significantly lower prices on common fruit and vegetable items and they carry a variety of items comparable to that carried by limited-assortment grocery stores. We conclude with recommendations regarding zoning, licensing, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) authorization that could stabilize and expand this model of healthy food access. PMID:25541595

  9. The impact of a large reduction in the price of alcohol on area differences in interpersonal violence: a natural experiment based on aggregate data.

    PubMed

    Herttua, K; Mäkelä, P; Martikainen, P; Sirén, R

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the effect of a drastic reduction in the price of alcohol that occurred in Finland in 2004 on interpersonal violence in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, and how these changes varied at the small-area level. This study comprised 86 administrative tracts from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Data pertaining to the social structure of the tracts and interpersonal violence were collected from archival sources in the cities and the police in 2002-2005, and analysed using regression analysis. Interpersonal violence rates did not increase after a large reduction in alcohol prices and an increase in consumption. For domestic violence, the rate even decreased. There was a significant relationship between measures of social disadvantage and interpersonal violence. A low educational level and a high outmigration level were the most salient factors. The differences in impact of the reduction in alcohol prices on interpersonal violence between high-, intermediate- and low-status areas were small. It would appear that a radical reduction in the price of alcohol and an increase in consumption do not necessarily lead to detrimental consequences in interpersonal violence or to an adverse development in areas of social disadvantage.

  10. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Methods: Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Results: Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75.5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77.3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76.7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Conclusions: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand. PMID:25146935

  11. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75·5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77·3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76·7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand.

  12. Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment.

    PubMed

    Vedovato, G M; Trude, A C B; Kharmats, A Y; Martins, P A

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08-5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88). The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food portion size area mediates energy effects on expected anxiety in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Musya; Douglas, Christopher R; Kissileff, Harry R; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Halmi, Katherine Ann

    2017-05-01

    A study in which adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) rated their expected food-anxiety in response to images of portions of food (potatoes, rice pizza, and M&Ms) showed that lower energy-dense foods elicited higher expected anxiety per kilocalorie than higher energy-dense foods. However, the area of the portion sizes could be an unmeasured variable driving the anxiety response. To test the hypothesis that area mediates the effects of energy content on expected anxiety, the same images of portions were measured in area (cm(2)), and standardized values of expected anxiety were regressed from standardized values of energy and area of portions. With regression of expected anxiety from portion size in area, M&Ms, which had the highest energy density of the four foods, elicited the highest expected anxiety slope (β = 1.75), which was significantly different from the expected anxiety slopes of the other three foods (β range = 0.67 - 0.96). Area was confirmed as a mediator of energy effects from loss of significance of the slopes when area was added to the regression of expected anxiety from energy x food. When expected anxiety was regressed from food, area, energy and area by energy interaction, area accounted for 5.7 times more variance than energy, and β for area (0.7) was significantly larger (by 0.52, SE = 0.15, t = 3.4, p = 0.0007) than β for energy (0.19). Area could be a learned cue for the energy content of food portions, and thus, for weight gain potential, which triggers anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  14. The Centre for Food Innovation -- Research Areas and Potential Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    pocket breads , pureed apple with additives (Appletizer), associated technologies such as self heating rations, HPP, PEF and other novel technologies...a business case for pilot-scale manufacturing infrastructure to support Tasmanian food production. Both consultancies conclude in April 2013, and

  15. New nutritional composition data on selected traditional foods consumed in Black Sea Area countries.

    PubMed

    Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Hayran, Osman; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Traditional foods are an important part of the culture, history, identity and heritage of a region or country and are key elements in dietary patterns. In most countries there is limited information on the nutritional composition of such foods and therefore there is a need to investigate, register and promote traditional foods. One of the aims within the 'Sustainable exploitation of bioactive components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods' (BaSeFood) project is to generate for the first time new data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods from six Black Sea Area countries to promote their sustainable development and exploitation. Thirty-three traditional foods were analysed in an accredited laboratory to determine their nutritional composition, and the data were fully documented. The nutrient content varied widely because of the nature and variety of the analysed foods. The energy content ranged between 4 kcal per 100 g for kvass southern and 900 kcal per 100 g for mustard oil, with the exception of the analysed teas, which did not contribute to energy intake. The use of a common methodology for the study of traditional foods will enable countries to further investigate these foods. Moreover, a new nutritional knowledge base of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries will contribute to promote local biodiversity and sustainable diets by maintaining healthy dietary patterns within local cultures. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  1. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  2. Impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional long-term care: a comparative study of Japanese and German metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The need for institutional long-term care is increasing as the population ages and the pool of informal care givers declines. Care services are often limited when funding is controlled publicly. Fees for Japanese institutional care are publicly fixed and supply is short, particularly in expensive metropolitan areas. Those insured by universal long-term care insurance (LTCI) are faced with geographically inequitable access. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional care in terms of equity. Methods The data were derived from official statistics sources in both Japan and Germany, and a self-administered questionnaire was used in Japan in 2011. Cross-sectional multiple regression analyses were used to examine factors affecting bed supply of institutional/residential care in fixed price and free prices systems in Tokyo (Japan), and an individually-bargained price system in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Variables relating to costs and needs were used to test hypotheses of cost-dependency and need-orientation of bed supply in each price system. Analyses were conducted using data both before and after the introduction of LTCI, and the results of each system were qualitatively compared. Results Total supply of institutional care in Tokyo under fixed pricing was found to be cost-dependent regarding capital costs and scale economies, and negatively related to need. These relationships have however weakened in recent years, possibly caused by political interventions under LTCI. Supply of residential care in Tokyo under free pricing was need-oriented and cost-dependent only regarding scale economies. Supply in North Rhine-Westphalia under individually bargained pricing was cost-independent and not negatively related to need. Conclusions Findings suggest that publicly funded fixed prices have a negative impact on geographically equitable supply of institutional care. The contrasting results of the non-fixed-price

  3. Impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional long-term care: a comparative study of Japanese and German metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiko; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    The need for institutional long-term care is increasing as the population ages and the pool of informal care givers declines. Care services are often limited when funding is controlled publicly. Fees for Japanese institutional care are publicly fixed and supply is short, particularly in expensive metropolitan areas. Those insured by universal long-term care insurance (LTCI) are faced with geographically inequitable access. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional care in terms of equity. The data were derived from official statistics sources in both Japan and Germany, and a self-administered questionnaire was used in Japan in 2011. Cross-sectional multiple regression analyses were used to examine factors affecting bed supply of institutional/residential care in fixed price and free prices systems in Tokyo (Japan), and an individually-bargained price system in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Variables relating to costs and needs were used to test hypotheses of cost-dependency and need-orientation of bed supply in each price system. Analyses were conducted using data both before and after the introduction of LTCI, and the results of each system were qualitatively compared. Total supply of institutional care in Tokyo under fixed pricing was found to be cost-dependent regarding capital costs and scale economies, and negatively related to need. These relationships have however weakened in recent years, possibly caused by political interventions under LTCI. Supply of residential care in Tokyo under free pricing was need-oriented and cost-dependent only regarding scale economies. Supply in North Rhine-Westphalia under individually bargained pricing was cost-independent and not negatively related to need. Findings suggest that publicly funded fixed prices have a negative impact on geographically equitable supply of institutional care. The contrasting results of the non-fixed-price systems for Japanese

  4. Feelings about food: the ventral tegmental area in food reward and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Meye, Frank J; Adan, Roger A H

    2014-01-01

    Overconsumption of high caloric food plays an important role in the etiology of obesity. Several factors drive such hedonic feeding. High caloric food is often palatable. In addition, when an individual is sated, stress and food-related cues can serve as potent feeding triggers. A better understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of food palatability and environmentally triggered overconsumption would aid the development of new treatment strategies. In the current review we address the pivotal role of the mesolimbic dopamine reward system in the drive towards high caloric palatable food and its relation to stress- and cue-induced feeding. We also discuss how this system may be affected by both established and potential anti-obesity drug targets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimutagenic effect of eight natural foods on moldy foods in a high liver cancer incidence area.

    PubMed

    Ruan, C C; Liang, Y; Liu, J L; Tu, W S; Liu, Z H

    1992-05-01

    Ames test procedures were used to test 8 natural food extracts for their antimutagenic activity against the mutagenic activity induced in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or metabolic extracts from A. versicolor or A. ochraceus. The tested substances were extracted repeatedly with acetone. The revertants induced by AFB1, metabolic extracts of A. versicolor or A. ochraceus were significantly decreased when extracts of the 8 natural foods were added to the media. The results showed that these extracts had marked inhibitory effects on the mutagenic activity induced by AFB1 or metabolic extracts of the two molds and also suggested that antimutagenic substances were present in these natural foods. These experiments provide a scientific basis for the study of food substances for the prevention of carcinogenesis. It is considered that these 8 natural food extracts produce marked antimutagenic effects and are practically valuable in the field of chemoprophylaxis of liver cancer in humans.

  6. Not as bad as you think: a comparison of the nutrient content of best price and brand name food products in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Khalatbari-Soltani, Saman; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown that low-cost foods have an equivalent nutrient composition compared to high-cost foods, but such information is lacking in Switzerland. Thus, we compared the caloric and nutrient content of "best price" (BPF) and brand name foods (BNF) in Switzerland using the version 5.0 (April 2015) of the Swiss Food and Nutrient composition database. Over 4000 processed food items were included and 26 food categories were compared regarding total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, sugar, fiber and sodium. BPF, namely core food categories like Bread, Red meat, White meat and Fish products, were 42%, 39%, 42% and 46% less expensive than their BNF equivalents, respectively. No differences were found between BPF and BNF regarding total energy and protein, fat and carbohydrates for most food categories. In the Cheese category, BPF had a lower caloric content than BNF [Median (interquartile range, IQR): 307 (249-355) vs. 365 (308-395) kcal/100 g, respectively, p < 0.001]; BPF also had lower fat and saturated fatty acid content but higher carbohydrate content than BNF (both p < 0.01). In the Creams and puddings group, BPF had lower fat 1.3 (0.9-1.7) vs. 6.0 (3.5-11.0) g/100 g and saturated fatty acid 0.6 (0.6-0.8) vs. 2.9 (2.3-6.0) g/100 g content than BNF (both p < 0.005). In the Tinned fruits and vegetables group, BPF had lower sodium content than BNF: 175 (0-330) vs. 370 (150-600) mg/100 g, p = 0.006. BPF might be a reasonable and eventually healthier alternative of BNF for economically deprived people in Switzerland.

  7. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  8. Patterns of fruit and vegetable availability and price competitiveness across four seasons are different in local food outlets and supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Valpiani, Natalie; Wilde, Parke; Rogers, Beatrice; Stewart, Hayden

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effect of seasonality on fruit and vegetable availability and prices across three outlet types (farmers' markets, roadside stands and conventional supermarkets). Cross-sectional survey of geographically clustered supermarkets, farmers' markets and roadside stands. Enumerators recorded the availability and lowest price for eleven fruits and eighteen vegetables in each season of 2011. Price data were collected at retail outlets located in central and eastern North Carolina. The sample consisted of thirty-three supermarkets, thirty-four farmers' markets and twenty-three roadside stands. Outside the local harvest season, the availability of many fruits and vegetables was substantially lower at farmers' markets and roadside stands compared with supermarkets. Given sufficient availability, some items were significantly cheaper (P<0·05) at direct retail outlets in the peak season (e.g. cantaloupe cost 36·0 % less at roadside stands than supermarkets), while others were significantly more expensive (e.g. carrots cost 137·9 % more at farmers' markets than supermarkets). Although small samples limited statistical power in many non-peak comparisons, these results also showed some differences by item: two-thirds of fruits were cheaper at one or both direct outlets in the spring and autumn, whereas five of eighteen vegetables cost more at direct retail year-round. Commonly consumed fruits and vegetables were more widely available at supermarkets in central and eastern North Carolina than at direct retail outlets, in each season. Contingent on item availability, price competitiveness of the direct retail outlets varied by fruit and vegetable. For many items, the outlets compete on price in more than one season.

  9. Food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas: potential health and dietary consequences.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Rebecca; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin; Gallegos, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity is the limited or uncertain availability or access to nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate and safe foods. Food insecurity may result in inadequate dietary intakes, overweight or obesity and the development of chronic disease. Internationally, few studies have focused on the range of potential health outcomes related to food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged locations and no such Australian studies exist. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between food insecurity, sociodemographic and health factors and dietary intakes among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas. Data were collected by mail survey (n 505, 53 % response rate), which ascertained information about food security status, demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, household income, education) fruit and vegetable intakes, takeaway and meat consumption, general health, depression and chronic disease. Disadvantaged suburbs of Brisbane city, Australia, 2009. Individuals aged ≥ 20 years. Approximately one in four households (25 %) was food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with lower household income, poorer general health, increased health-care utilisation and depression. These associations remained after adjustment for age, gender and household income. Food insecurity is prevalent in urbanised disadvantaged areas in developed countries such as Australia. Low-income households are at high risk of experiencing food insecurity. Food insecurity may result in significant health burdens among the population, and this may be concentrated in socio-economically disadvantaged suburbs.

  10. Disparities in the Availability and Price of Low-Fat and Higher-Fat Milk in US Food Stores by Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rimkus, Leah; Isgor, Zeynep; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Barker, Dianne C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-12-01

    National surveillance data identify disparities in low-fat milk consumption by race/ethnicity and income. Some localized studies have shown disparities in access to low-fat milk by community characteristics. Our aim was to assess the availability and price of low-fat and higher-fat milk in food stores throughout the United States and examine associations with community characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving observational data collection in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The study included 8,959 food stores in 468 communities where nationally representative samples of students attending traditional public middle and high schools resided. We studied the availability and price of whole, 2%, 1%, and skim milk. Multivariate logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression analyses were performed. Models included store type, race/ethnicity, median household income, urbanicity, US Census division, and year of data collection. Less than half of all stores carried 1% and skim milk, and more than three-quarters of stores carried whole and 2% milk. Regression results indicated that the odds of carrying any type of milk were 31% to 67% lower in stores in majority black and 26% to 45% lower in other/mixed race compared with majority white communities. The odds of carrying specifically low-fat milk were 50% to 58% lower in majority Hispanic compared with majority white communities, and 32% to 44% lower in low-income compared with high-income communities. Some significant differences in milk prices by community characteristics were observed in grocery and limited-service stores. On average, low-fat milk options were more expensive in grocery stores in majority black and rural and suburban communities compared with such stores in majority white and urban communities. This is the first nationwide study to examine the availability and price of low-fat and higher-fat milk in food stores and show disparities in access by community characteristics. Policies and

  11. Food security in an era of economic volatility.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Rosamond L; Falcon, Walter P

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes international commodity price movements, assesses food policies in response to price fluctuations, and explores the food security implications of price volatility on low-income groups. It focuses specifically on measurements, causes, and consequences of recent food price trends, variability around those trends, and price spikes. Combining these three components of price dynamics shows that the variation in real prices post-2000 was substantially greater than that in the 1980s and 1990s, and was approximately equal to the extreme volatility in commodity prices that was experienced in the 1970s. Macro policy, exchange rates, and petroleum prices were important determinants of price variability over 2005–2010, highlighting the new linkages between the agriculture-energy and agriculture-finance markets that affect the world food economy today. These linkages contributed in large part to misguided expectations and uncertainty that drove prices to their peak in 2008. The article also argues that there is a long-lasting effect of price spikes on food policy around the world, often resulting in self-sufficiency policies that create even more volatility in international markets. The efforts by governments to stabilize prices frequently contribute to even greater food insecurity among poor households, most of which are in rural areas and survive on the margin of net consumption and net production. Events of 2008—and more recently in 2010—underscore the impact of price variability for food security and the need for refocused policy approaches to prevent and mitigate price spikes.

  12. [Food and health risks: views on healthy food and food consumption practices among middle-class women and men in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Freidin, Betina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.

  13. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

  14. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  15. Consumers' perceptions of food risks: A snapshot of the Italian Triveneto area.

    PubMed

    Tiozzo, Barbara; Mari, Silvia; Ruzza, Mirko; Crovato, Stefania; Ravarotto, Licia

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the food risk perceptions of people living in the Triveneto area (Northeast Italy), a territory characterized by a particular interest in the production of quality foodstuffs, to determine what aspects people associate with food risk and to understand what beliefs underlie these perceptions. Four focus groups were conducted in the major towns of the target area (N = 45). A semi-structured interview was used that focused on beliefs about food risks, the use of information and media sources in relation to food risk, and the behaviours adopted when eating outside the home. A homogeneous view of food risk emerged among the respondents, and a common definition of risky food was identified. The concept of risk was in opposition to the quality and controllability of food, which emerged as major strategies to cope with food risks. Quality was linked to freshness and local origin, whereas controllability reflected a direct (e.g., checking labels, having a relationship with the vendor, cultivating one's own vegetable garden) or indirect (e.g., control guarantees provided by suppliers and the government) means to check the safety and quality of food. Although people seemed quite informed about food risks, a common sense of impotence with regard to one's own protection prevailed, together with a fatalistic sense of incomplete control over risk. The results identified food concerns for consumers living in this specific territory and might represent a starting point for public health authorities to increase compliance with responsible behaviours for risk mitigation and to define successful food policies for this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II.

    PubMed

    Robsahm, Trude Eid; Tretli, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that World War II influenced breast cancer risk among Norwegian women by affecting adolescent growth. Diet changed substantially during the war, and the reduction in energy intake was assumed to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing municipalities. In the present study, we have looked at the influence of residential history in areas with and without food production on the incidence of breast cancer in a population-based cohort study consisting of 597,906 women aged between 30 and 64 years. The study included 7311 cases of breast cancer, diagnosed between 1964 and 1992. The risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The results suggest that residential history may influence the risk of breast cancer, where the suggested advantageous effect of World War II seems to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing areas. Breast cancer incidence was observed to decline for the post-war cohorts, which is discussed in relation to diet. Copyright 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign

  17. Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II

    PubMed Central

    Robsahm, T E; Tretli, S

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that World War II influenced breast cancer risk among Norwegian women by affecting adolescent growth. Diet changed substantially during the war, and the reduction in energy intake was assumed to be larger in non-food- producing than in food-producing municipalities. In the present study, we have looked at the influence of residential history in areas with and without food production on the incidence of breast cancer in a population-based cohort study consisting of 597 906 women aged between 30 and 64 years. The study included 7311 cases of breast cancer, diagnosed between 1964 and 1992. The risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The results suggest that residential history may influence the risk of breast cancer, where the suggested advantageous effect of World War II seems to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing areas. Breast cancer incidence was observed to decline for the post-war cohorts, which is discussed in relation to diet. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 362–366. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600084 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11875700

  18. [Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Zhuo; Xie, Yong-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population (Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi, and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the minimum standard of 0.14 bm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  19. Eating habits and factors affecting food choice of adolescents living in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Bargiota, Alexandra; Pelekanou, Maria; Tsitouras, Andreas; Koukoulis, Georgios N

    2013-01-01

    To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.5±2.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.

  20. [Food and nutritional security in a risk area for malaria].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Valentina; Correa, Adriana María; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Blair, Silvia

    2003-09-01

    To explore some relationships between alimentary and nutritional security (SAN) and nutritional status in an endemic malaria community, applying qualitative and quantitative methods simultaneously. The study was descriptive and prospective. The population were all farming Afro-American families who live in the basin of the river Valle (Bahía Solano. Chocó, Colombia) that derived the base of their feeding of the agriculture. The SAN was measured from the monthly availability of foods and was classified in adequate and inadequate according to the available monthly caloric balance percentage. We determined the risk of acute malnutrition (indicative P/T), chronic (T/E), global (P/E) and risk of thinness (BMI). We sought for malarian cases. The official data of illness were revised. We applied surveys to know the morbidity and knowledge, attitudes and practices in malaria infections, 29% of homes had alimentary insecurity. There was protein deficit and iron of high availability, calcium and vitamin A in 100% of families. In children under 6 years old, we found 31% and 69%, in same order, with low P/T and T/E, while in the 6-10 year old children had 14% and 41%, respectively. In adolescents (11 to 17 years old) the risk of thinness was 15% and in adults 3%. There was not association between alimentary available and family nutritional status. These results suggest subclinics deficiencies of micronutrients.

  1. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E; Bell, Bethany A; Hibbert, James D; Barnes, Timothy L; Liese, Angela D

    2013-12-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called "food deserts" have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50-65% sensitivity, and 60-64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88-91% concordance, 80-86% sensitivity and 78-82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access.

  2. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E.; Bell, Bethany A.; Hibbert, James D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called “food deserts” have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50–65% sensitivity, and 60–64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88–91% concordance, 80–86% sensitivity and 78–82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access. PMID:24367136

  3. A multilevel analysis of socioeconomic (small area) differences in household food purchasing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Turrell, G; Blakely, T; Patterson, C; Oldenburg, B

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the association between area and individual level socioeconomic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Design: The sample comprised 1000 households and 50 small areas. Data were collected by face to face interview (66.4% response rate). SES was measured using a composite area index of disadvantage (mean 1026.8, SD = 95.2) and household income. Purchasing behaviour was scored as continuous indices ranging from 0 to 100 for three food types: fruits (mean 50.5, SD = 17.8), vegetables (61.8, 15.2), and grocery items (51.4, 17.6), with higher scores indicating purchasing patterns more consistent with dietary guideline recommendations. Setting: Brisbane, Australia, 2000. Participants: Persons responsible for their household's food purchasing. Main results: Controlling for age, gender, and household income, a two standard deviation increase on the area SES measure was associated with a 2.01 unit increase on the fruit purchasing index (95% CI -0.49 to 4.50). The corresponding associations for vegetables and grocery foods were 0.60 (-1.36 to 2.56) and 0.94 (-1.35 to 3.23). Before controlling for household income, significant area level differences were found for each food, suggesting that clustering of household income within areas (a composition effect) accounted for the purchasing variability between them. Conclusions: Living in a socioeconomically advantaged area was associated with a tendency to purchase healthier food, however, the association was small in magnitude and the 95% CI for area SES included the null. Although urban areas in Brisbane are differentiated on the basis of their socioeconomic characteristics, it seems unlikely that where you live shapes your procurement of food over and above your personal characteristics. PMID:14966233

  4. Social inequalities in food exposure around schools in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The obesity epidemic among children and youth, and the social gradient in this relationship, could be related to differential exposure to food sources in primary environments. Although the positive association between area-level deprivation and fast-food outlets offering high-calorie foods has been well documented, few studies have evaluated food sources around school settings. This study evaluated the relationships among food sources around schools, neighborhood income, and commercial density. A GIS was used to derive measures of exposure to fast-food outlets, fruit and vegetable stores, and full-service restaurants near primary and secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, in 2005. Food source availability was analyzed in 2009 in relation to neighborhood income for the area around schools, accounting for commercial density. For the 1168 schools identified, strong neighborhood income gradients were observed in relation to food sources. Relative to the highest income-quartile schools, the odds of a fast-food outlet being located within 750 m of a low income-quartile school was 30.9 (95% CI=19.6, 48.9). Similar relationships were observed for full-service restaurants (OR=77, 95% CI=35, 169.3) and fruit and vegetable stores (OR=29.6, 95% CI=18.8, 46.7). These associations were reduced, but remained significant in models accounting for commercial density. Food source exposure around schools is inversely associated with neighborhood income, but commercial density partly accounts for this association. Further research is necessary to document food consumption among youth attending schools in relation to nearby food source opportunities. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. Design An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting The UK. Participants The UK adult population. Interventions Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Outcome measures Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Results Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18 683 (14 665to 22 889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15 228 (11 245to 19 492) ktCO2e/year. Conclusions Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets. PMID:24154517

  6. Coverage and Utilization in Food Fortification Programs: Critical and Neglected Areas of Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Baker, Shawn; Garrett, Greg S; Haddad, Lawrence

    2017-04-12

    The need for evidence to inform nutrition program design and implementation has long been recognized, yet the generation and use of evidence for program decision making has lagged. The results of the coverage surveys reported in this supplement highlight some of the strengths and areas for improvement of current population-based (i.e., staple foods and condiments) and targeted (e.g., foods for infants and young children) fortification programs. Among other topics, the results identify a few striking successful fortification programs whereby the majority of the food vehicle used is fortifiable and fortified, and coverage is equitable among those classified as vulnerable and not. Other programs have great potential based on very high use of a fortifiable food vehicle, including in most cases among the vulnerable, but that potential is not currently reached because of low compliance with fortification requirements. Programs were also identified whereby the food vehicle has limited potential to make public health contributions to micronutrient intake, given the low proportions of the population who consume the food vehicle in general or who consume the fortifiable food vehicle. Four key lessons were learned: 1) the potential for impact of food fortification depends on the appropriate choice of food fortification vehicle but also on the proportion of the food vehicle consumed that is fortifiable; 2) the design of fortification programs should be informed by the magnitude and distribution of inadequate intake and deficiency and consumption of fortifiable foods, and part of micronutrient deficiency control strategies to ensure coordination with other programs; 3) effective quality control of fortification levels in foods urgently needs strengthening, including the many governance and other policy factors that influence the capacity, resources, and commitment to do this; 4) periodic review of the assumptions related to dietary patterns that underpin food fortification is

  7. The costs and cost-efficiency of providing food through schools in areas of high food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Gelli, Aulo; Al-Shaiba, Najeeb; Espejo, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The provision of food in and through schools has been used to support the education, health, and nutrition of school-aged children. The monitoring of financial inputs into school health and nutrition programs is critical for a number of reasons, including accountability, transparency, and equity. Furthermore, there is a gap in the evidence on the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of providing food through schools, particularly in areas of high food insecurity. To estimate the programmatic costs and cost-efficiency associated with providing food through schools in food-insecure, developing-country contexts, by analyzing global project data from the World Food Programme (WFP). Project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The average yearly expenditure per child, standardized over a 200-day on-site feeding period and an average ration, excluding school-level costs, was US$21.59. The costs varied substantially according to choice of food modality, with fortified biscuits providing the least costly option of about US$11 per year and take-home rations providing the most expensive option at approximately US$52 per year. Comparisons across the different food modalities suggested that fortified biscuits provide the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery (particularly vitamin A and iodine), whereas on-site meals appear to be more efficient in terms of calories delivered. Transportation and logistics costs were the main drivers for the high costs. The choice of program objectives will to a large degree dictate the food modality

  8. Food offerings in Marshfield area businesses: a survey conducted in collaboration with the healthy lifestyles--Marshfield Area Coalition.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Catherine A; Lee, Laura; Lee, J Douglas

    2005-07-01

    To survey Marshfield area businesses to determine the types of foods currently available to employees at the workplace and the potential need for nutrition information to facilitate the ordering of healthy food options at workplaces. A 2-page self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all businesses registered with the Marshfield Area of Chamber of Commerce. Questionnaires were mailed a second time to non-responders to improve the response rate. The questionnaire included items about foods available to employees at the workplace, cooking and eating facilities available to employees, and reasons for food choices made. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, verified against the hard copies and transferred to SPSS for analysis. Completed questionnaires were returned by 249 businesses (41.1% participation). The reported number of minutes that most employees take for their lunch ranged from 0 to 60 (median = 30). Eighty-one percent of businesses (n = 184) reported that most employees take 30 or more minutes for their lunch. Respondents were asked to list the most common menu items purchased for consumption on-site. One hundred fifteen respondents listed sandwiches (46.2%), 101 listed pizza (40.6%), 30 listed salad (12.0%), and 17 listed various sweets (6.8%). Employees were thought to be less likely than managers to select foods lower in calories if the foods are more expensive. There is great potential to improve the health of employees through the provision of nutrition information to businesses. The survey employed in the current study can be used again in the future to track changes after implementation of worksite initiatives through the Business and Industry Committee of the Healthy Lifestyles--Marshfield Area Coalition.

  9. Cadmium Exposure and Potential Health Risk from Foods in Contaminated Area, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chunhabundit, Rodjana

    2016-01-01

    Man-made cadmium (Cd) emissions can be transported between environmental matrices and the food chain. Food is the primary source of Cd exposure among general population as a consequence of the bio-concentration of Cd from soil. Chronic Cd exposure has been reported to be associated with chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established the safe level of Cd intake as provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 25 μg/kg bw in 2010. The major food groups that contribute to the most Cd exposure are rice and grains, shellfish and sea food, meat including edible offal, and vegetables. A number of studies reported the high Cd contaminated levels in foods from polluted areas in Thailand. The results are of high concern since the contaminations occur in foods that are major Cd contributors. Thus, in this review, the current situations of Cd contaminated foods in polluted areas of Thailand are summarized. In addition, the Cd intakes from selected scenarios are estimated to assess the potential health risk to consumers and the suggestions are also included.

  10. Cadmium Exposure and Potential Health Risk from Foods in Contaminated Area, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chunhabundit, Rodjana

    2016-01-01

    Man-made cadmium (Cd) emissions can be transported between environmental matrices and the food chain. Food is the primary source of Cd exposure among general population as a consequence of the bio-concentration of Cd from soil. Chronic Cd exposure has been reported to be associated with chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established the safe level of Cd intake as provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 25 μg/kg bw in 2010. The major food groups that contribute to the most Cd exposure are rice and grains, shellfish and sea food, meat including edible offal, and vegetables. A number of studies reported the high Cd contaminated levels in foods from polluted areas in Thailand. The results are of high concern since the contaminations occur in foods that are major Cd contributors. Thus, in this review, the current situations of Cd contaminated foods in polluted areas of Thailand are summarized. In addition, the Cd intakes from selected scenarios are estimated to assess the potential health risk to consumers and the suggestions are also included. PMID:26977260

  11. Early Childhood Safety Checklist #3: Kitchen and Food Preparation and Storage Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    This checklist of 24 specific health and safety concerns dealing with kitchen and food preparation storage areas can be used by day-care staff to identify and correct hazardous conditions. Areas of concern include hand washing, refrigeration, cooking, trash disposal, cleanliness, fire safety, burn hazards, and adult supervision. (MDM)

  12. Early Childhood Safety Checklist #3: Kitchen and Food Preparation and Storage Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    This checklist of 24 specific health and safety concerns dealing with kitchen and food preparation storage areas can be used by day-care staff to identify and correct hazardous conditions. Areas of concern include hand washing, refrigeration, cooking, trash disposal, cleanliness, fire safety, burn hazards, and adult supervision. (MDM)

  13. Definition and documentation of traditional foods of the Black Sea Area Countries: potential nutrition claims.

    PubMed

    Dilis, Vardis; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Bondrea, Aurelian; Fedosov, Sergey; Hayran, Osman; Jorjadze, Mariam; Karpenko, Dmitry; Costa, Helena S; Finglas, Paul; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2013-11-01

    Nutrition and health claims are permitted in foods marketed in the European Union under Regulation 1924/2006. Quality products such as traditional foods might benefit from this act, as it can highlight their nutritional richness. In this study the nutritional content of 33 traditional foods from the Black Sea Area Countries was evaluated against the thresholds of the Regulation for nutrition claims. Most of the foods were eligible to bear several nutrition claims, mostly related to their fat, sugar, fiber and sodium content. The average number of claims per traditional food was two, with a range between zero and nine. Overall, about 72 nutrition claims were potentially relevant for the 33 traditional foods studied. Foods linked with the most claims were nuts and seeds. The inclusion of traditional foods under this standardized European scheme could be an efficient way to highlight their possible beneficial nutritional properties. The production and marketing of traditional foods could be of benefit to both the health of consumers and the economic viability of producers, especially small- and medium-size enterprises. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  15. Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK--A pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan; Purshouse, Robin; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John; Meier, Petra Sylvia

    2014-03-01

    The estimation of price elasticities of alcohol demand is valuable for the appraisal of price-based policy interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation. This study applies a pseudo-panel approach to the cross-sectional Living Cost and Food Survey 2001/2-2009 to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade beer, cider, wine, spirits and ready-to-drinks in the UK. A pseudo-panel with 72 subgroups defined by birth year, gender and socioeconomic status is constructed. Estimated own-price elasticities from the base case fixed effect models are all negative and mostly statically significant (p<0.05). Off-trade cider and beer are most elastic (-1.27 and -0.98) and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks are least elastic (-0.08 and -0.19). Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs. The results appear plausible and robust and could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions in the UK. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of own and cross price elasticities of alcohol demand in the UK—A pseudo-panel approach using the Living Costs and Food Survey 2001–2009☆

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan; Purshouse, Robin; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John; Meier, Petra Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of price elasticities of alcohol demand is valuable for the appraisal of price-based policy interventions such as minimum unit pricing and taxation. This study applies a pseudo-panel approach to the cross-sectional Living Cost and Food Survey 2001/2–2009 to estimate the own- and cross-price elasticities of off- and on-trade beer, cider, wine, spirits and ready-to-drinks in the UK. A pseudo-panel with 72 subgroups defined by birth year, gender and socioeconomic status is constructed. Estimated own-price elasticities from the base case fixed effect models are all negative and mostly statically significant (p < 0.05). Off-trade cider and beer are most elastic (−1.27 and −0.98) and off-trade spirits and on-trade ready-to-drinks are least elastic (−0.08 and −0.19). Estimated cross-price elasticities are smaller in magnitude with a mix of positive and negative signs. The results appear plausible and robust and could be used for appraising the estimated impact of price-based interventions in the UK. PMID:24508846

  17. Comparative approaches to measuring food access in urban areas: the case of Portland, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Andrea L; Bania, Neil; Leete, Laura

    2011-01-01

    GIS methods are used to construct measures of food access for neighbourhoods in the Portland, Oregon, US metropolitan area and the sensitivity of such measures to methodological variation is examined. The level of aggregation of data inputs is varied and the effect of using both Euclidean and street network distances is tested. It is found that, regardless of the level of geographical disaggregation, distance-based measures generate approximately the same conclusions about the distribution of food access in the area. It is also found that, while the relationship between street network and Euclidean distances varies with population density, measures computed with either construct generate the same relative patterns of food access. These findings suggest that results from food access studies employing disparate methodologies can often be compared.

  18. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain12345

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. Objective: We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? Design: With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. Results: A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7–percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P < 0.01). The magnitude of the sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher–socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Conclusion: Attempts to limit promotions on less

  19. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  20. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  1. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  2. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  3. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  4. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  5. [Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and food intolerance and their associated factors in 3 - 12 year-old children in 9 areas in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yarong; Chen, Yun; Zhao, Ai; Li, Hongliang; Mu, Zhishen; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-03-01

    To measure the prevalence and the associated factors of food allergy and food intolerance in 3 - 12 year-old children in 9 areas in China. 1792 children selected by multistage cluster sampling method from 7 cities and 2 rural areas, from November 2011 to April 2012, with a face-to-face survey to children and their parents, and the logistic regression was used to analyze the associated factors of food allergy and food intolerance of children. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy and food intolerance were 8. 4% and 7. 7%, respectively. The common foods led to food allergy reported by children's parents were seafood, fish, egg, fruit and milk. The parental allergy was risk factors of food allergy of children (OR = 4. 49 (95% CI 2. 52 - 8. 01), P <0. 01). The picky eating was risk factor of food intolerance of children(OR = 2. 40(95% CI 1. 43 - 4. 02), P < 0. 01). And the education of mother was protective factor of food intolerance of children (the mother with college degree and above relative to with middle school degree and below (OR = 0. 40 (95% CI 0. 20 - 0. 80), P = 0. 01). Children' s food allergy and food intolerance were associated with genetic factors and environmental factors included parental education and family economic status. Variable foods were necessary for children' s growth and development, therefore, it is demanded to conduct intervention studies based on the associated factors.

  6. Household capacities, vulnerabilities and food insecurity: shifts in food insecurity in urban and rural Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Craig; Linzer, Drew A; Belachew, Tefera; Mariam, Abebe Gebre; Tessema, Fasil; Lindstrom, David

    2011-11-01

    The global food crisis of 2008 led to renewed interest in global food insecurity and how macro-level food prices impact household and individual level wellbeing. There is debate over the extent to which food price increases in 2008 eroded food security, the extent to which this effect was distributed across rural and urban locales, and the extent to which rural farmers might have benefited. Ethiopia's food prices increased particularly dramatically between 2005 and 2008 and here we ask whether there was a concomitant increase in household food insecurity, whether this decline was distributed equally across rural, urban, and semi-urban locales, and to what extent pre-crisis household capacities and vulnerabilities impacted 2008 household food insecurity levels. Data are drawn from a random sample of 2610 households in Southwest Ethiopia surveyed 2005/6 and again in mid to late 2008. Results show broad deterioration of household food insecurity relative to baseline but declines were most pronounced in the rural areas. Wealthier households and those that were relatively more food secure in 2005/6 tended to be more food secure in 2008, net of other factors, and these effects were most pronounced in urban areas. External shocks, such as a job loss or loss of crops, experienced by households were also associated with worse food insecurity in 2008 but few other household variables were associated with 2008 food insecurity. Our results also showed that rural farmers tended to produce small amounts for sale on markets, and thus were not able to enjoy the potential benefits that come from greater crop prices. We conclude that poverty, and not urban/rural difference, is the important variable for understanding the risk of food insecurity during a food crisis and that many rural farmers are too poor to take advantage of rapid rises in food prices.

  7. Household capacities, vulnerabilities and food insecurity: Shifts in food insecurity in urban and rural Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Craig; Linzer, Drew A.; Belachew, Tefera; Mariam, Abebe Gebre; Tessema, Fasil; Lindstrom, David

    2014-01-01

    The global food crisis of 2008 led to renewed interest in global food insecurity and how macro-level food prices impact household and individual level wellbeing. There is debate over the extent to which food price increases in 2008 eroded food security, the extent to which this effect was distributed across rural and urban locales, and the extent to which rural farmers might have benefited. Ethiopia’s food prices increased particularly dramatically between 2005 and 2008 and here we ask whether there was a concomitant increase in household food insecurity, whether this decline was distributed equally across rural, urban, and semi-urban locales, and to what extent pre-crisis household capacities and vulnerabilities impacted 2008 household food insecurity levels. Data are drawn from a random sample of 2610 households in Southwest Ethiopia surveyed 2005/6 and again in mid to late 2008. Results show broad deterioration of household food insecurity relative to baseline but declines were most pronounced in the rural areas. Wealthier households and those that were relatively more food secure in 2005/6 tended to be more food secure in 2008, net of other factors, and these effects were most pronounced in urban areas. External shocks, such as a job loss or loss of crops, experienced by households were also associated with worse food insecurity in 2008 but few other household variables were associated with 2008 food insecurity. Our results also showed that rural farmers tended to produce small amounts for sale on markets, and thus were not able to enjoy the potential benefits that come from greater crop prices. We conclude that poverty, and not urban/rural difference, is the important variable for understanding the risk of food insecurity during a food crisis and that many rural farmers are too poor to take advantage of rapid rises in food prices. PMID:21996022

  8. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence.

  9. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  10. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R; Godoy, Maria Luisa D P; Santos, Eliane E; Hacon, Sandra S

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for (210)Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. (228)Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena.

  11. Intralateral hypothalamic area injection of isoproterenol and propranolol affects food and water intake in broilers.

    PubMed

    Baghbanzadeh, Ali; Hajinezhad, Mohammad Reza; Shohreh, Bahram; Maleklou, Reza

    2010-03-01

    The role played by adrenergic system in water intake, especially food intake, has long been known in mammals. In avian species, there have been many experiments exploring the effects of the adrenergic system in different sites in the central nervous system in meat- and egg-type poultry. This study was designed to examine the possible effects of intralateral hypothalamic area (ILHy) microinjections of a beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, and a beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol, on food and water intake in 3-h food-deprived and 3-h water-deprived broiler cockerels. Our findings suggest that the beta-adrenergic system directly affects food especially water intake in broilers. Although isoproterenol significantly (P < or = 0.05) decreased food intake for the first 15 min, it reduced food intake during the experiment. Isoproterenol reduced water intake significantly (P < or = 0.05), which was abolished by pretreatment with propranolol. It is proposed that beta-adrenoceptors in LHy play a direct and indirect role in the regulation of food especially water intake in broiler cockerels.

  12. Malnutrition in food-surplus areas: experience from nutritional surveillance for decentralized planning in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Mulder-Sibanda, Menno; Sibanda-Mulder, Flora S; d'Alois, Lydia; Verna, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    In Haiti, a novel approach to nutritional surveillance was developed on the basis of a low-cost, simple-to-repeat set of household surveys in all nine administrative departments using sentinel community sites. This system allows each department to independently conduct follow-up surveys as needed. The results of the first round of surveys conducted in 1995 show lower malnutrition rates in typical food-deficient departments and high levels of malnutrition in several food-surplus areas. Further analyses underscore the importance of variables related to child-care practices and of care-enabling factors such as household food security, health environment, and caregivers' time and education. These findings challenge the traditional thinking among a majority of Haitian policy makers who look at the malnutrition problem solely from the perspective of local food production.

  13. Urban wild boars prefer fragmented areas with food resources near natural corridors.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Contreras, Raquel; Carvalho, João; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Colom, Andreu; González-Crespo, Carlos; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge R

    2017-10-02

    Wild boar populations are expanding throughout the world and intruding into periurban and urban areas. In the last years, wild boar has colonized several European cities, including our study area, the city of Barcelona. It is required to identify the main factors driving wild boar into urban areas prior to establish management measures. We built Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) using 3148 wild boar presences registered in the urban area of Barcelona from 2010 to 2014 to identify the variables correlated with these presences. The variables analysed included proxies for distance to source population, urban food resources, climate and urban habitat structure. Wild boars enter the urban area from close natural habitat using corridors such as streams, preferably in fragmented urban environment, looking for food such as urban green areas or dry pet food from cat colonies. Wild boar presence is higher in spring possibly due to the births of piglets and the dispersion of yearlings during that season, and also when natural resources in the Mediterranean habitat fail to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wild boar population during the summer season. Management measures derived from this study are currently being applied in the city of Barcelona, including vegetation clearings in the wild boar entrance areas and an awareness campaign aimed at reducing the anthropogenic food availability for wild boars. The methodology used can be applied to other cities with wild boar or even other wildlife species issues. The comparison between the factors attracting wild boars into different urban areas would be helpful to understand the global phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The rising cost of low-energy-density foods.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2007-12-01

    Consuming lower-energy-density foods is one recommended strategy for management of body weight. This cross-sectional study used retail food prices to test the hypothesis that low-energy-density foods are not only more costly per kilocalorie, but have increased disproportionately in price as compared to high-energy-density foods. For a list of 372 foods and beverages belonging to a food frequency questionnaire database, retail prices were obtained from major supermarket chains in the Seattle, WA, metropolitan area in 2004 and 2006. Energy density of all items was calculated and prices were expressed as $/100 g edible portion and as $/1,000 kcal. Foods were stratified by quintiles of energy density and the differences in energy cost and in percent price change were tested using analyses of variance. High-energy-density foods provided the most dietary energy at least cost. Energy cost of foods in the bottom quintile of energy density, beverages excluded, was $18.16/1,000 kcal as compared to only $1.76/1,000 kcal for foods in the top quintile. The 2-year price change for the least energy-dense foods was +19.5%, whereas the price change for the most energy-dense foods was -1.8%. The finding that energy-dense foods are not only the least expensive, but also most resistant to inflation, may help explain why the highest rates of obesity continue to be observed among groups of limited economic means. The sharp price increase for the low-energy-density foods suggests that economic factors may pose a barrier to the adoption of more healthful diets and so limit the impact of dietary guidance.

  15. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Food insecurity among elderly people in 15 districts of the Great Santiago area; an unresolved issue].

    PubMed

    Vargas Puello, Vianny; Alvarado Orellana, Sergio; Atalah Samur, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To experience food insecurity determines negative consequences regarding nutrition, health and general wellness among older adults and their families. In Chile it practically doesn't exist any information related to it, despite this matter represents a major public health issue in other countries in the region. To determine the prevalence of food insecurity and it's relation with socio-demographic, economic and nutritional factors among older adults residing in medium-low and low-income status districts, in the Great Santiago area. A cross-sectional observational study in 344 older adults, between 65 and 74 year-old; a socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional and food-insecurity survey at the homes (HFIAS). A prevalence of food insecurity and it relation with the independent variables was determined, by means of multi-variety logistic regression models. The 40.4% of the sample presented food insecurity (95% IC 35.2-45.6%), predominantly of the mild type, with a higher proportion of women, at the limit of the statistic significance. The probability of perceiving food insecurity was significantly associated to low family income (OR 4.2 IC 2.1-8.6), with a greater number of members in the home (OR 2.4), malnutrition by deficit and/or excess (OR 2.0), not to be the owner of the house (OR 2.0), and low individual income (OR 1.8). There exists a high prevalence of food insecurity among this population, which is associated with socio-demographic, economic and nutritional status. The food security represents an important public health and nutritional issue in the country, which needs to be investigated further. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  18. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  19. Evaluation of the Implementation of Good Handling Practices in Food and Beverage Areas of Hotels.

    PubMed

    Serafim, A L; Hecktheuer, L H R; Stangarlin-Fiori, L; Medeiros, L B; Martello, L; Machado, C E

    2015-11-01

    Because of the major international-level events that have recently been held in Brazil, concerns about the sensory and hygienic-sanitary conditions of food have increased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of good handling practices in food and beverage areas of hotels, with and without outsourced professional intervention. We evaluated 19 food and beverage areas in hotels in Porto Alegre, Rio do Sul, Brazil, using a checklist that was developed by a municipal surveillance team based on existing laws for good handling practices. The evaluation was done by a skilled professional in the food safety area on two occasions, at the beginning of the study (January to May 2013) and at the end (July to November 2014), and the establishments were classified as good, regular, or poor. After the baseline evaluation, an action plan listing the noncompliance found at each location was given to those responsible for the establishments, and a period of 1 year 6 months was stipulated for improvements to be made. In the repeat evaluation, those responsible for the establishments were asked whether they had hired an outsourced professional to assist them in the improvements. The hotels showed improvement during the repeat evaluation, but a significant increase in the percentage of overall adequacy was seen only in the food and beverages areas of the 12 hotels that used the intervention of an outsourced professional. The better percentage of adequacy in establishments with outsourced professional intervention underlines the importance of an external and impartial view of routine activities in the implementation of good handling practices.

  20. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  1. Pricing of new vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  2. Factors regulating benthic food chains in tropical river deltas and adjacent shelf areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Robertson, A. I.

    1995-09-01

    Benthic food chains of the Amazon (Brazil) and Fly (Papua New Guinea) river deltas and adjacent shelves are compared. Abundance patterns of the major trophic groups (bacteria, meiofauna, and macroinfauna) are similar between regions, with very low densities, or the absence of benthos, within and near the deltas. For muds in the more quiescent areas, benthic abundance and productivity are highest, commonly coinciding with maximum pelagic primary production. Episodes of physical disturbance, erratic food supply, and dilution of river-derived, particulate organic matter foster the development of opportunistic benthic communities of variable diversity and low biomass, dominated by bacteria. These pioneering assemblages are the main food of penaeid shrimp, which dominate the demersal trawl fisheries of both fluvial-dominated regions.

  3. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers.

    PubMed

    Sabo, John L; Finlay, Jacques C; Kennedy, Theodore; Post, David M

    2010-11-12

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  4. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  5. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-25

    Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  6. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

  7. Korean adolescents' perceptions of nutrition and health towards fast foods in Busan area

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji-young; Lee, Kyung-a

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in Busan area were asked in a survey about their perception and attitudes towards fast food. Most respondents answered that they consume fast food once a month because it is fast, easily accessible and tasty. Although they perceived fast food as unhealthy and less nutritious, they were less aware of its effect on their health and nutritional status. The more knowledgeable respondents were about nutrition and health the less likely they were to choose fast food over other meals. However, respondents who had little or no knowledge about the nutritional factors of fast food accounted for 43.1%. As to their source of dietary information, students relied on themselves (31.0%), parents (20.5%) and friends (19.9%). The medium through which students got the most nutrition and health information was television (66.8%), followed by the Internet (36.7%) and magazines (29.7%). This study will enable educators to plan more effective strategies for improving the dietary knowledge of the adolescent population. PMID:20126603

  8. Korean adolescents' perceptions of nutrition and health towards fast foods in Busan area.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in Busan area were asked in a survey about their perception and attitudes towards fast food. Most respondents answered that they consume fast food once a month because it is fast, easily accessible and tasty. Although they perceived fast food as unhealthy and less nutritious, they were less aware of its effect on their health and nutritional status. The more knowledgeable respondents were about nutrition and health the less likely they were to choose fast food over other meals. However, respondents who had little or no knowledge about the nutritional factors of fast food accounted for 43.1%. As to their source of dietary information, students relied on themselves (31.0%), parents (20.5%) and friends (19.9%). The medium through which students got the most nutrition and health information was television (66.8%), followed by the Internet (36.7%) and magazines (29.7%). This study will enable educators to plan more effective strategies for improving the dietary knowledge of the adolescent population.

  9. Microbiological and parasitological investigation among food handlers in hotels in the Dead Sea area, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al Zou'bi, Renad; Hani, Rehan Bani; Amr, Zuhair Sami

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections constitute a major health issue in developing countries. The present study investigates and assesses infection rates among food handlers with intestinal parasites and microbial agents in luxurious hotels in the Dead Sea area of Jordan. A total of 901 stool samples were collected from food handlers (35 females and 866 males) employed in four main hotels in the Dead Sea area. Fecal samples were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. Standard culture and biochemical techniques were used for the isolation and identification of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in stool samples. Five species of protozoan (Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana), one helminth (Hymenolepis nana), and one cylindrical worm (Enterobius vermicularis) were recovered with an overall infection rate of 3.7%. G. intestinalis was the most prevalent parasitic infection with infection rate of 2.44%. All samples were negative for both Salmonella and Shigella. Findings highlight the important role of food handlers in the transmission of intestinal parasites to high-class clients accommodated in luxury hotels, and stress the urgent need for regular health and parasitologic examination of food handlers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Obtaining Fruit and Vegetables for the Lowest Prices: Pricing Survey of Different Outlets and Geographical Analysis of Competition Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Amber L.; Winter, Pieta R.; McBreen, Ben; Stewart, Georgia; Roets, Rianda; Nutsford, Daniel; Bowie, Christopher; Donnellan, Niamh; Wilson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Aims Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. Methods Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM) selling local produce (n = 3), other F&V markets (OFVM) (n = 5), supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8), and more distant supermarkets (n = 8), (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand). Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. Results A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18) were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18) were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate ‘halo effect’ in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek) prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant) supermarkets, supporting evidence for a ‘halo effect’. Ideal weekly ‘food basket’ prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76), online supermarket ($113), nearby supermarkets ($124), distant supermarkets ($127), and FMs ($138). This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26) by using OFVMs relative to (non-online) supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. Conclusions In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations. PMID

  11. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program...

  12. Trophic relationships in tidal flat areas: To what extent are tidal flats dependent on imported food?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild M.

    In four intertidal areas of 'Königshafen' (island of Sylt, FRG), biomass and production of macrozoobenthos were measured monthly in 1980 and 1984. The areas were characterized by different macrofauna assemblages ( Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed, Arenicola flat and mussel bed). Biomass and production of macrofauna were partitioned with regard to food preference of single species as well as to the food availability within their habitat. In the Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed and the Arenicola flat, most of the secondary production of the macrofauna was formed by grazing animals. Secondary production of mussel beds was nearly 10 times higher than in the other three assemblages. The suspension feeder assemblage depended on planktonic food imported from outside the bay. Considering the secondary production of the total tidal flat area, suspension feeders dominated the other trophic groups, indicating a key position of this group relative to the other macrofaunal assemblages. Mussel beds regulate the seston input to other communities situated further landward. Because of this dominance of the suspension feeder group, the energy and material flow of the total tidal flat is strongly dependent on the seston input from the coastal waters of the North Sea or from other parts of the Wadden Sea.

  13. Friction variation in common working areas of fast-food restaurants in the USA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Li, Kai Way; Filiaggi, Alfred; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Courtney, Theodore K

    2008-12-01

    Friction variation has been related to employees' perception of slipperiness in a field study conducted in fast-food restaurants. However, details of friction variation in actual workplaces have not been reported in the literature. This field study investigated friction variations in 10 fast-food restaurants in the USA. The results indicated that friction reductions in a step exceeding 10% were proportional to the ages of the floor tiles in most restaurants. There were more friction reductions exceeding 10% in the sink areas than the other five areas measured, but all the areas had more than 10% friction reductions in at least one of the restaurants. As expected, significant relative friction reductions are common on older floors. A small portion of the newer tiles had significant relative friction reductions, despite their overall higher friction levels. Therefore, slip and fall preventions should not be overlooked in restaurants with newer floors. Friction variation is speculated to be a significant contributor to slip and fall incidents. However, friction variation has not been quantified in the literature. Understanding of potential friction variations in field environments helps identify potential issues for interventions. This field study investigated friction variations in fast-food restaurants in the USA.

  14. Knowledge of food production methods informs attitudes toward food but not food choice in adults residing in socioeconomically deprived rural areas within the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J

    2011-01-01

    Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed. Attitudes to food and health were influenced by knowledge of food production and processing. Healthful foods were considered those which were fresh and unprocessed, and taste was taken as an indicator of how the food had been produced. Despite negative views of food production, processed foods were consumed. Explanations for this tension between what people wanted to eat (unprocessed food) and what they actually chose to eat (processed food) were attributed to lifestyle compression. Dietary health promotion initiatives targeted at deprived rural dwellers should consider perceived issues regarding food production and processing that may influence views on food. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas.

    PubMed

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Della, Athena; Giusti, Maria Elena; De Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Elena; Gonzales-Tejero, Maria Reyes; Sanchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutierrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    The use of local Mediterranean food plants is at the brink of disappearance. Even though there is relatively abundant information on inventories of wild edible taxa, there is also a crucial need to understand how these plants are consumed and when and how these consumption phenomena change over time and place around the Mediterranean. Additionally, it is important to study such knowledge systems and find innovative ways of infusing them to the future Mediterranean generations. During the years 2003-2006 a circum-Mediterranean ethnobotanical field survey for wild food plants was conducted in selected study sites in seven Mediterranean areas (European Union-funded RUBIA Project). Structured and semi-structured questionnaires have been administered to indigenous people and 294 wild food plant taxa were documented in the survey. A comparative analysis of the data was undertaken showing that the quantity and quality of traditional knowledge varies among the several study areas and is closely related to the traditions, environment and cultural heritage of each country. More similarities of wild edible popular use were revealed between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Mediterranean.

  16. Assessment and application of potential food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yongzhong; Gao, Yanghua; Zhu, Lifen

    2006-08-01

    The assessment of food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas is helpful for better understanding the function of ecosystems in local human well-beings. In this paper, process-based models are used to assess the potential food provisioning services derived from agriculture ecosystems and grassland ecosystems, a modifying model along with normal woodlands and a set of modifying coefficients is built to assess the potential food from woodland ecosystems. A set of power regression models based on environment factors are built to estimate the potential fish production from water ecosystems. Land cover data stemmed from Landsat TM images, as well as other natural and social-economic data in 1km resolution such as temperature, precipitation, and DEM, are used to support these assessment models. It shows that the four ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can provide 85.98×10 12 calories heat, 2.49 billion kilograms protein and 823.4 million kilograms fat. Human carrying capacity model under the balance nutrition pattern is built in this paper, which results in two key findings: ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can feed 45.92 million people under wealthy living standard which is 1.53 times of the current population, and the sustainable population is from 9.69 to 36.23 million under that living standard. Multi-scale population pressure model is built to calculate the population pressure index in Three-gorge areas. The grain for green pressure index, a multivariate linear weighed model, is used to determine the spatial distribution of farmland fit for grain for green and fit for protecting.

  17. Household vulnerability to food crisis and mortality in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ezra, M; Kiros, G E

    2000-07-01

    This study examines the association between a household's degree of vulnerability to food crisis and the incidence of deaths using primary survey data carried out to look at the demographic consequences of drought and famine in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia. Retrospective data on the occurrences of deaths within a household were collected for the period 1984 to 1994. Consistent with previous studies, the findings confirm that mortality was clustered among the age groups 1-4 and 5-9 and varied considerably by famine and non-famine years. Enormous variation in incidence of deaths was also observed by region, ethnicity and religion. Most importantly, the analysis provides substantial evidence that the level of household vulnerability to food crisis is strongly related to the number of hunger-related deaths reported in a household.

  18. Estimation Of Cultivated Area In Small Plot Agriculture In Africa For Food Security Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecz, Francesco; Collivignarelli, Francesco; Barbieri, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    Cultivated area in small plot agriculture in Africa is estimated using a synergetic approach based on multi-sensor, multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The method - which is based on the utilization of ALOS PALSAR-1, Cosmo-SkyMed, ENVISAT ASAR data involving different processing techniques - consists in the generation of three independent and complementary products, which in turn they are fused, enabling the generation of the cultivated area. Each intermediate product has a clear meaning within agriculture and food security: i) the potential crop extent prior to the crop season; ii) the potential area at start of the crop season; iii) the crop growth extent during the rainfed crop season. The proposed methodology has been implemented and demonstrated in Malawi. The obtained results show an overall accuracy exceeding 90%.

  19. Water - Food Nexus: Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Fishery Production in Jakarta Bay Area, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.; Martosuparno, S.; Bakti, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    An enormous land-use change is envisaged along the coastline of Jakarta Bay both housing, commercial and industrial zones. Housing and business projects in Jakarta coastal area started from late 1980s have had great impact on mangrove areas and coastal water quality. The next mega project will also be conducted, such as giant sea wall as a sea wall defence and reclamation the north coast of Jakarta as a waterfront city. These reclamation projects should ideally not marginalize fishery production and local fisher communities, but hopefully it will increase their welfare. Therefore, some policy concept base on water-food resilience at coastal area should be carried out before the next activities implemented.

  20. Analysis of Food Safety and Security Challenges in Emerging African Food Producing Areas through a One Health Lens: The Dairy Chains in Mali.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rachel; Mantovani, Alberto; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e.g., sustainable use of fertilizers, feeds, veterinary drugs, and pesticides) to protect consumers from food safety hazards. Social innovation based on the empowerment of the primary food producers emerges as crucial for sustainable and safe food production. Sustainable policies should be supported by the mobilization of stakeholders of One Health, which is a science-based approach to linking human health and nutrition with the health and management of food producing animals and environmental safety. In the context of the complex, multifaceted scenario of Mali dairy production, this article presents how a cost-effective animal health and food safety scheme could be established in the dairy production chain. Because milk is a major commodity in this country, benefits could be derived in food security, public health, the resilience of the farming system, animal husbandry, and international trade.

  1. The food and growth of 0-group flatfish on nursery grounds in the Clyde Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poxton, M. G.; Eleftheriou, A.; McIntyre, A. D.

    1983-09-01

    In early summer plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.) in the Clyde Sea Area eat Tellina siphons and spionid palps. As they grow, they take progressively larger siphons, fragments of spionids and some crustaceans. In late summer they eat entire spionids and other sedentary polychaetes. There is no significant predation on fish. The common dab [ Limanda limanda (L.)] took a wider range of prey species than the plaice, but also depended mainly on polychaetes, crustaceans and bivalves. Depth distribution may limit both intra- and interspecific competition between these fish and also influence the choice of prey. The results from the main nursery areas of Irvine and Ayr Bays were similar to those from the other bays throughout the Clyde Sea Area and support earlier work at Firemore Bay in north-west Scotland and in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The growth rate of the fish increases during the early summer and may be related to increasing food availability, feeding experience of the fish and longer day length. Growth rate between areas appeared to be correlated with benthic productivity. 0-group plaice in Irvine, Ayr and Firemore Bays grew to different mean lengths by the end of the summer growth season, being 82 mm, 73 mm and 61 mm, respectively, for the period 1972-1974. This agrees with the known differences in standing stocks of intertidal macrobenthos in these bays (17·0, 11·1 and 1·3 g m -2 dry weight, respectively). The significance of this in relation to survival is discussed. Offshore migration of the larger fish in the autumn may result in apparent slowing of growth rates prematurely in inshore areas. The year-class strength depends more on the food availability in the nursery areas than on the number of plaice that settle on the bottom.

  2. Using Satellite Remote Sensing Data in a Spatially Explicit Price Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Prince, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Famine early warning organizations use data from multiple disciplines to assess food insecurity of communities and regions in less-developed parts of the World. In this paper we integrate several indicators that are available to enhance the information for preparation for and responses to food security emergencies. The assessment uses a price model based on the relationship between the suitability of the growing season and market prices for coarse grain. The model is then used to create spatially continuous maps of millet prices. The model is applied to the dry central and northern areas of West Africa, using satellite-derived vegetation indices for the entire region. By coupling the model with vegetation data estimated for one to four months into the future, maps are created of a leading indicator of potential price movements. It is anticipated that these maps can be used to enable early warning of famine and for planning appropriate responses.

  3. The effect of socio-economic status and area of residence on household food variety in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Anzid, Karim; Elhamdani, Fatima Zahra; Baali, Abdellatif; Boëtsch, Gilles; Levy-Desroches, Susan; Lôpez, Pilar Montero; Cherkaoui, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    In Morocco, few studies have specifically addressed the association between food variety and household socio-economic status and area of residence. The study's objective was to obtain a qualitative description of food consumption in samples of Moroccan households and to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and area of residence on their food variety. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered by adolescent school pupils in their own households between March 2005 and March 2006 in 526 households in the regions of Marrakesh north of the High Atlas range and Ouarzazate to the south. We calculated the Food Variety Index (FVI) based on 183 food items and compared scores for advantaged/disadvantaged and urban/rural households. Mean FVI scores for all individuals and total food groups differ significantly between the area of residence, urban and peri-urban Marrakesh and urban Ouarzazate having the highest scores. The mean total FVI scores, presented according to the household's socio-economic status from highest to lowest, are 123.8 +/- 17.1 for urban Marrakesh, 107.6 +/- 21.6 for urban Ouarzazate, 92.0 +/- 22.4 for rural Skoura, 110.5 +/- 21.5 for peri-urban Marrakesh and 89.9 +/- 10.8 for rural Iguerferouane (F-test = 26.7, p < 0.001). Advantaged households have significantly greater variety than disadvantaged households for all variables only in the two urban samples. In peri-urban Marrakesh and rural Skoura, there are no significant differences between advantaged and disadvantaged households. In our Moroccan sample, food variety is distributed according to two patterns: One based on area of residence, urban areas having greater variety than rural areas, and the other on socio-economic factors, with advantaged households having higher FVI values but only in urban areas. The limited availability of certain foods and food preferences by the populations mean that not all households are able to diversify their diets.

  4. Are we indeed what we eat? Street food consumption in the Market Circle area of Takoradi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hiamey, Stephen Edem; Amuquandoh, Francis Eric; Boison, Grace Aba

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines street foods consumption in the Market Circle of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. The data used for the study were obtained from individuals who were either purchasing or consuming street foods in the Market Circle in August of 2011. The results revealed that the average consumer makes use of street foods six times in a week and there was a penchant for carbohydrate based foods over other types of street foods. Reasons including cost saving, convenience and eating on credit were noted to underlie the consumption of street foods in the area. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the high consumption of street foods in the Market Circle was for reasons other than nutrition and health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Crop Monitoring as a Tool for Modelling the Genesis of Millet Prices in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, D.; Marinho, E.; Defourny, P.; Waldner, F.; d'Andrimont, R.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in Sahelian countries strongly relies on the ability of markets to transfer staplesfrom surplus to deficit areas. Market failures, leading to the inefficient geographical allocation of food,are expected to emerge from high transportation costs and information asymmetries that are commonin moderately developed countries. As a result, important price differentials are observed betweenproducing and consuming areas which damages both poor producers and food insecure consumers. Itis then vital for policy makers to understand how the prices of agricultural commodities are formed byaccounting for the existing market imperfections in addition to local demand and supply considerations. To address this issue, we have gathered an unique and diversified set of data for Senegal andintegrated it in a spatially explicit model that simulates the functioning of agricultural markets, that isfully consistent with the economic theory. Our departure point is a local demand and supply modelaround each market having its catchment areas determined by the road network. We estimate the localsupply of agricultural commodities from satellite imagery while the demand is assumed to be a functionof the population living in the area. From this point on, profitable transactions between areas with lowprices to areas with high prices are simulated for different levels of per kilometer transportation costand information flows (derived from call details records i.e. mobile phone data). The simulated prices are then comparedwith the actual millet prices. Despite the parsimony of the model that estimates only two parameters, i.e. the per kilometertransportation cost and the information asymmetry resulting from low levels of mobile phone activitybetween markets, it impressively explains more than 80% of the price differentials observed in the 40markets included in the analysis. In one hand these results can be used in the assessment of the socialwelfare impacts of the further development of

  6. Family food insecurity and nutritional risk in adolescents from a low-income area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Taís S; Sichieri, Rosely; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Veiga, Gloria V; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2013-09-01

    The study objective was to analyse the association between food insecurity and the weight and height status of adolescents from a low-income area in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The population-based cross-sectional survey included 523 adolescents aged 12-18 years, selected by a three-stage cluster sample. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire and family food insecurity was assessed with a validated questionnaire. The analysis estimated weighted means of energy and nutrient intakes by families' socioeconomic characteristics and the association between dietary intake with overweight and stunting. The prevalence of mild family food insecurity was 36%, and 24% of the families reported moderate or severe food insecurity. Overweight prevalence was 24%, and the prevalence of stunting was 9%, with no significant differences between sex or age groups. Family food insecurity was associated with unfavourable socioeconomic characteristics, but there was no association between socioeconomic characteristics (including family food insecurity) and overweight or stunting. Moderate or severe family food insecurity was inversely associated with intake of protein and calcium. In addition, stunting was associated with low calcium and iron intake. The co-existence of family food insecurity with overweight and stunting implies a high nutritional risk for adolescents from poor areas of Rio de Janeiro. Nevertheless, the observed absence of a statistical association between family food insecurity and weight status attests to the complexity of this issue.

  7. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  8. Recognition of body image and food behavior factors among middle school students in San Francisco area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recognition of body image and food behavior factors according to the BMI. The subjects of this study were 242 7th grade students resided in San Francisco area. The degree of recognition for self-estimated physique of subjects by gender and by race showed no significant differences by gender but significant differences by race, showing that 20.0% was considered as underweight in Asian and 7.5% was considered as underweight in White students. This showed the same tendency as actual physique status (BMI). Also, the ratio of being recognized as more than overweight was 17.3% in Asian, 23.3% in Hispanic, and 13.4% in White students. In case of female students, the ratio of dieting experience was 63.3%, and 49.3% of White students and 63.3% of Hispanic students experienced dieting. In case of students answered not healthy, their body weight were significantly higher than those answered as healthy, and the BMI was also over 19, showing significant differences. Thus cases that answered as not healthy had greater body weight and BMI. Also it showed that frequent dieting experience is related to higher height and weight. The analysis of food behavior factors perceived by body shape showed that the group perceived itself as overweight consumed more 'fast food' but had low scores in 'vegetables' intake, with frequent intake of 'soda' and tendency to 'overeat'. Also, the tendency for 'balanced life' was significantly lower and for skipping breakfast was significantly higher, suggesting problematic food behavior.

  9. [Food habits of the school population from La Mancha-Centro Health Area (Ciudad Real)].

    PubMed

    González-González, A; Falero-Gallego, M P; Redondo-González, O; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the dietary pattern of the school population from La Mancha-Centro Health Area (Ciudad Real). A cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample of schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years, using a questionnaire to determine their general dietary habits and a record of their 24-hour intake. A total of 1142 schoolchildren were included, with 612 boys (53.6%) and 530 girls (46.4%), and a mean age of 9.3 ± 1.7 years of age. The frequency of food intake was 4.62 ± 0.6 times a day, which decreased with the age of the schoolchildren (P=.044), and increased with the educational level of parents (P=.004). Food preference influenced the choice in the meals consumed. The level of appetite was related directly with weight and body mass index (BMI) (P<.001), age (P=.02), and number of daily food intakes by the children (P=.038). The food groups most frequently consumed were cereals and their derivatives (92.8%), milk and dairy products (90.45%), while vegetables were the least consumed (35.46%). Over 70% of the sample usually consumed olive oil. The dietary pattern of the school population maintains some of the features of traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern, such as the habit of daily breakfast, the greater consumption of olive oil and cereals. On the other hand, other characteristics are remarkable, such as the low consumption of fruit and vegetables and the high consumption of meat. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic evaluation of price discounts and skill-building strategies on purchase and consumption of healthy food and beverages: The SHELf randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Le, Ha N D; Gold, Lisa; Abbott, Gavin; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Pollard, Christina; Ball, Kylie

    2016-06-01

    Pricing strategies are a promising approach for promoting healthier dietary choices. However, robust evidence of the cost-effectiveness of pricing manipulations on dietary behaviour is limited. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of a 20% price reduction on fruits and vegetables and a combined skills-based behaviour change and price reduction intervention. Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective was undertaken for the randomized controlled trial Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf). Female shoppers in Melbourne, Australia were randomized to: (1) skill-building (n = 160); (2) price reductions (n = 161); (3) combined skill-building and price reduction (n = 161); or (4) control group (n = 161). The intervention was implemented for three months followed by a six month follow-up. Costs were measured in 2012 Australian dollars. Fruit and vegetable purchasing and consumption were measured in grams/week. At three months, compared to control participants, price reduction participants increased vegetable purchases by 233 g/week (95% CI 4 to 462, p = 0.046) and fruit purchases by 364 g/week (95% CI 95 to 633, p = 0.008). Participants in the combined group purchased 280 g/week more fruits (95% CI 27 to 533, p = 0.03) than participants in the control group. Increases were not maintained six-month post intervention. No effect was noticed in the skill-building group. Compared to the control group, the price reduction intervention cost an additional A$2.3 per increased serving of vegetables purchased per week or an additional A$3 per increased serving of fruit purchased per week. The combined intervention cost an additional A$12 per increased serving of fruit purchased per week compared to the control group. A 20% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in promoting overall fruit and vegetable purchases during the period the discount was active and may be cost-effective. The price discount program gave better value for money

  11. Long-term impacts on sewers following food waste disposer installation in housing areas.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To increase biogas generation and decrease vehicle transportation of solid waste, the integration of food waste disposers (FWDs) into the wastewater system has been proposed. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of the additional load of the FWDs on sewer systems. To examine the said impact, this study has used closed-circuit television inspection techniques to evaluate the status of 181 concrete pipes serving single family housing areas with a diameter of 225 mm, ranging from a 100% connection rate of households with an FWD to none. A minor study was also performed on a multi-family housing area, where mainly plastic pipes (200 mm) were used. The extent and distribution of deposits related to the ratio of FWDs, inclination and pipe sagging (backfalls) were ascertained by using linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that FWDs have had an impact on the level of deposits in the sewer, but this has, in turn, been of minor significance. With a high connection rate of FWDs upstream of a pipe, the extent of the total level of deposits, as well as finer sediments, was statistically determined to be greater. However, the majority of the deposits were observed to be small, which would suggest the impact of FWDs on sewer performance to be minor. As food waste not compatible with the FWD was seen in the sewers, educational campaigns could be beneficial to further lower the risks of sewer blocking.

  12. Visual Analytics for the Food-Water-Energy Nexus in the Phoenix Active Management Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.; Ruddell, B. L.; Aggarwal, R.; Sarjoughian, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Phoenix Active Management Area (AMA) is an administrative region of 14,500 km2 identified by the Arizona Department of Water Resources with the aim of reaching and maintaining the safe yield (i.e. balance between annual amount of groundwater withdrawn and recharged) by 2025. The AMA includes the Phoenix metropolitan area, which has experienced a dramatic population growth over the last decades with a progressive conversion of agricultural land into residential land. As a result of these changes, the water and energy demand as well as the food production in the region have significantly evolved over the last 30 years. Given the arid climate, a crucial role to support this growth has been the creation of a complex water supply system based on renewable and non-renewable resources, including the energy-intensive Central Arizona Project. In this talk, we present a preliminary characterization of the evolution in time of the feedbacks between food, water, and energy in the Phoenix AMA by analyzing secondary data (available from water and energy providers, irrigation districts, and municipalities), as well as satellite imagery and primary data collected by the authors. A preliminary visual analytics framework is also discussed describing current design practices and ideas for exploring networked components and cascading impacts within the FEW Nexus. This analysis and framework represent the first steps towards the development of an integrated modeling, visualization, and decision support infrastructure for comprehensive FEW systems decision making at decision-relevant temporal and spatial scales.

  13. [Situation of environmental and food area disinfectants registered in Spain under directive 98/8/CE].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Otazua Font, Mónica; Maiztegi Gallastegi, Pepa; Serrano Ibarbia, Elena; Juaristi Arrieta, Ana; Santa Marina Rodríguez, Loreto

    2011-01-01

    Directive 98/8/EC harmonizes and regulates in the European market authorization and registration of biocides and establishes a period of 14 years for review of active substances. This study analyzes the most significant changes produced in the registry of biocides used as disinfectants registered since the publication of the Directive. Information was obtained from the registry of biocides published in the website of the Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality in May 2010. We used an Excel data base for the dump and data processing. There are 1575 biocides with intended use as environmental and food area disinfectants registered in Spain (1137 formulas and 438 active ingredients). Formulas are composed of 56 active sustances which are being assessed for their inclusion in the Community list of authorized substances. 54% of the formulas are registered as both bactericide and fungicide, 79% are contact disinfectants, 42% of the formulas correspond to those composed of quaternary ammonium compounds and 67.9% are made with a single active substance. Regarding hazardous properties 45.3% are corrosive, 25.7% irritant, 9.8% harmful, 1.1% toxic , and 33.1% are dangerous to the environment. The Spanish registry of biocides has complied with the provisions of the Directive cancelling the registrations of the formulas containing substances not included in the list. Of all the substances which are under review in Europe, 58% of environmental disinfectants and 76.4% of food area disinfectants are authorized in Spain.

  14. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  15. Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies.

    PubMed

    Miraldo, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Within a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices.

  16. Integrating Ecosystem Engineering and Food Web Ecology: Testing the Effect of Biogenic Reefs on the Food Web of a Soft-Bottom Intertidal Area.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Bart; Fournier, Jérôme; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The potential of ecosystem engineers to modify the structure and dynamics of food webs has recently been hypothesised from a conceptual point of view. Empirical data on the integration of ecosystem engineers and food webs is however largely lacking. This paper investigates the hypothesised link based on a field sampling approach of intertidal biogenic aggregations created by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta, Terebellidae). The aggregations are known to have a considerable impact on the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of their environment and subsequently on the abundance and biomass of primary food sources and the macrofaunal (i.e. the macro-, hyper- and epibenthos) community. Therefore, we hypothesise that L. conchilega aggregations affect the structure, stability and isotopic niche of the consumer assemblage of a soft-bottom intertidal food web. Primary food sources and the bentho-pelagic consumer assemblage of a L. conchilega aggregation and a control area were sampled on two soft-bottom intertidal areas along the French coast and analysed for their stable isotopes. Despite the structural impacts of the ecosystem engineer on the associated macrofaunal community, the presence of L. conchilega aggregations only has a minor effect on the food web structure of soft-bottom intertidal areas. The isotopic niche width of the consumer communities of the L. conchilega aggregations and control areas are highly similar, implying that consumer taxa do not shift their diet when feeding in a L. conchilega aggregation. Besides, species packing and hence trophic redundancy were not affected, pointing to an unaltered stability of the food web in the presence of L. conchilega.

  17. Integrating Ecosystem Engineering and Food Web Ecology: Testing the Effect of Biogenic Reefs on the Food Web of a Soft-Bottom Intertidal Area

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Bart; Fournier, Jérôme; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The potential of ecosystem engineers to modify the structure and dynamics of food webs has recently been hypothesised from a conceptual point of view. Empirical data on the integration of ecosystem engineers and food webs is however largely lacking. This paper investigates the hypothesised link based on a field sampling approach of intertidal biogenic aggregations created by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta, Terebellidae). The aggregations are known to have a considerable impact on the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of their environment and subsequently on the abundance and biomass of primary food sources and the macrofaunal (i.e. the macro-, hyper- and epibenthos) community. Therefore, we hypothesise that L. conchilega aggregations affect the structure, stability and isotopic niche of the consumer assemblage of a soft-bottom intertidal food web. Primary food sources and the bentho-pelagic consumer assemblage of a L. conchilega aggregation and a control area were sampled on two soft-bottom intertidal areas along the French coast and analysed for their stable isotopes. Despite the structural impacts of the ecosystem engineer on the associated macrofaunal community, the presence of L. conchilega aggregations only has a minor effect on the food web structure of soft-bottom intertidal areas. The isotopic niche width of the consumer communities of the L. conchilega aggregations and control areas are highly similar, implying that consumer taxa do not shift their diet when feeding in a L. conchilega aggregation. Besides, species packing and hence trophic redundancy were not affected, pointing to an unaltered stability of the food web in the presence of L. conchilega. PMID:26496349

  18. Trophic transfer of methyl siloxanes in the marine food web from coastal area of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongliang; Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Chaoqun; Hong, Wen-Jun; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-03-03

    Methyl siloxanes, which belong to organic silicon compounds and have linear and cyclic structures, are of particular concern because of their potential characteristic of persistent, bioaccumulated, toxic, and ecological harm. This study investigated the trophic transfer of four cyclic methyl siloxanes (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), and tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (D7)) in a marine food web from coastal area of Northern China. Trophic magnification of D4, D5, D6, and D7 were assessed as the slope of lipid equivalent concentrations regressed against trophic levels of marine food web configurations. A significant positive correlation (R = 0.44, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized D5 concentrations and trophic levels in organisms, showing the trophic magnification potential of this chemical in the marine food web. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of D5 was estimated to be 1.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-2.24, 99.8% probability of the observing TMF > 1). Such a significant link, however, was not found for D4 (R = 0.14 and p = 0.16), D6 (R = 0.01 and p = 0.92), and D7 (R = -0.15 and p = 0.12); and the estimated values of TMFs (95% CI, probability of the observing TMF > 1) were 1.16 (0.94-1.44, 94.7%), 1.01 (0.84-1.22, 66.9%) and 0.85 (0.69-1.04, 48.6%) for D4, D6, and D7, respectively. The TMF value for the legacy contaminant BDE-99 was also estimated as a benchmark, and a significant positive correlation (R = 0.65, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized concentrations and trophic levels in organisms. The TMF value of BDE-99 was 3.27 (95% CI: 2.49-4.30, 99.7% probability of the observing TMF > 1), showing the strong magnification in marine food webs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the trophic magnification of methyl siloxanes in China, which provided important information for trophic transformation of these compounds in marine

  19. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    PubMed

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance.

  20. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  1. Food and nutrition security and the economic crisis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Soekirman

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia has been afflicted by an economic crisis since July 1997. The economic crisis was preceded by a long drought associated with El Nino. The result has been a decline in food production, especially rice. In the eastern part of the country, especially in Irian Jaya, there was food insecurity during the early stages of the economic crisis. When the crisis escalated to become an economic, social and political crisis in 1998, food insecurity spread to other provinces, especially to urban areas in Java. The crisis led to increasingly high inflation. unemployment, poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. The official figures indicate that poverty in Indonesia increased from 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996 to 36.5 million (17.9%) in 1998. Food production decreased by 20-30% in some parts of the country. Compared with prices in January 1998, food prices had escalated 1.5- to threefold by August/November 1998 when acute food shortages occurred, especially in urban Java. Coupled with a drop in purchasing power, the higher food prices worsened health, nutritional status and education of children of urban poor and unemployed families. Despite social and political uncertainties, the Indonesian Government has taken prompt action to prevent a worsening of the situation by massive imports of rice, instituting food price subsidies for the poor and launching social safety net programmes to cope with food shortages and malnutrition. The present paper attempts to highlight the impact of the economic crisis on food insecurity and malnutrition in Indonesia.

  2. Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.

    PubMed

    Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified.

  3. Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for middle-aged inhabitants in the Chaoshan area, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feng-Yan; Toshiro, Takezaki; Li, Ke; Yu, Ping; Lin, Xu-Kai; Yang, He-Lin; Deng, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Lv, Lai-Wen; Huang, Xin-En; Kazuo, Tajima

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This paper aims to develop a data-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) covering both urban and rural areas in the Chaoshan region of Guang-dong Province, China, for the investigation of relationships between food intake and lifestyle-related diseases among middle-aged Chinese. METHODS: We recruited 417 subjects from the general population and performed an assessment of the diet, using a 3-d weighed dietary record survey. We employed contribution analysis (CA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) to select food items covering up to a 90% contribution and a 0.90 R2, respectively. The total number of food items consumed was 523 (443 in the urban and 417 in the rural population) and the intake of 29 nutrients was calculated according to the actual consumption by foods/ recipes. RESULTS: The CA selected 233, 194, and 183 foods/recipes for the combined, the urban and the rural areas, respectively, and then 196, 157, and 160 were chosen by the MRA. Finally, 125 foods/recipes were selected for the final questionnaire. The frequencies were classified into eight categories and standard portion sizes were also calculated. CONCLUSION: For adoption of the area-specific SQFFQ, validity and reproducibility tests are now planned to determine how the combined SQFFQ performs in actual assessment of disease risk and benefit. PMID:15996034

  4. Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for middle-aged inhabitants in the Chaoshan area, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Yan; Toshiro, Takezaki; Li, Ke; Yu, Ping; Lin, Xu-Kai; Yang, He-Lin; Deng, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Lv, Lai-Wen; Huang, Xin-En; Kazuo, Tajima

    2005-07-14

    This paper aims to develop a data-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) covering both urban and rural areas in the Chaoshan region of Guangdong Province, China, for the investigation of relationships between food intake and lifestyle-related diseases among middle-aged Chinese. We recruited 417 subjects from the general population and performed an assessment of the diet, using a 3-d weighed dietary record survey. We employed contribution analysis (CA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) to select food items covering up to a 90% contribution and a 0.90 R(2), respectively. The total number of food items consumed was 523 (443 in the urban and 417 in the rural population) and the intake of 29 nutrients was calculated according to the actual consumption by foods/recipes. The CA selected 233, 194, and 183 foods/recipes for the combined, the urban and the rural areas, respectively, and then 196, 157, and 160 were chosen by the MRA. Finally, 125 foods/recipes were selected for the final questionnaire. The frequencies were classified into eight categories and standard portion sizes were also calculated. For adoption of the area-specific SQFFQ, validity and reproducibility tests are now planned to determine how the combined SQFFQ performs in actual assessment of disease risk and benefit.

  5. The use of home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food to treat malnutrition in a rural area during a food crisis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When the international community declared a famine in Malawi in January 2006, emergency food aid reached only populations with pre-existing health care services. To treat the widespread childhood malnutrition in Machinga district, a rural area lacking health care facilities, in February 2006 five ou...

  6. Food mirages: geographic and economic barriers to healthful food access in Portland, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Betsy; Voss-Andreae, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigated the role of grocery store prices in structuring food access for low-income households in Portland, Oregon. We conducted a detailed healthful foods market basket survey and developed an index of store cost based on the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. Using this index, we estimated the difference in street-network distance between the nearest low-cost grocery store and the nearest grocery store irrespective of cost. Spatial regression of this metric in relation to income, poverty, and gentrification at the census tract scale lead to a new theory regarding food access in the urban landscape. Food deserts are sparse in Portland, but food mirages are abundant, particularly in gentrifying areas where poverty remains high. In a food mirage, grocery stores are plentiful but prices are beyond the means of low-income households, making them functionally equivalent to food deserts in that a long journey to obtain affordable, nutritious food is required in either case. Results suggested that evaluation of food environments should, at a minimum, consider both proximity and price in assessing healthy food access for low-income households.

  7. Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

    2014-05-01

    Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the

  8. Employers making use of price, quality data.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, P J

    1991-11-18

    In efforts they hope will reduce costs, healthcare purchasers are becoming more active in helping beneficiaries choose providers. Such efforts include increased use of widely available price and quality data. Quaker Oats, for example, publishes hospital price guides, while Navistar International and Hershey Foods are developing their own provider networks.

  9. Stores Healthy Options Project in Remote Indigenous Communities (SHOP@RIC): a protocol of a randomised trial promoting healthy food and beverage purchases through price discounts and in-store nutrition education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden of preventable chronic disease compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts – much of it diet-related. Increasing fruit and vegetable intakes and reducing sugar-sweetened soft-drink consumption can reduce the risk of preventable chronic disease. There is evidence from some general population studies that subsidising healthier foods can modify dietary behaviour. There is little such evidence relating specifically to socio-economically disadvantaged populations, even though dietary behaviour in such populations is arguably more likely to be susceptible to such interventions. This study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of a price discount intervention with or without an in-store nutrition education intervention on purchases of fruit, vegetables, water and diet soft-drinks among remote Indigenous communities. Methods/Design We will utilise a randomised multiple baseline (stepped wedge) design involving 20 communities in remote Indigenous Australia. The study will be conducted in partnership with two store associations and twenty Indigenous store boards. Communities will be randomised to either i) a 20% price discount on fruit, vegetables, water and diet soft-drinks; or ii) a combined price discount and in-store nutrition education strategy. These interventions will be initiated, at one of five possible time-points, spaced two-months apart. Weekly point-of-sale data will be collected from each community store before, during, and for six months after the six-month intervention period to measure impact on purchasing of discounted food and drinks. Data on physical, social and economic factors influencing weekly store sales will be collected in order to identify important covariates. Intervention fidelity and mediators of behaviour change will also be assessed. Discussion This study will provide original evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of price discounts with or

  10. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., with respect to a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), as defined in § 22.909(a) of this chapter, or the non-MSA parts of a study area, must show that the price cap LEC has met the relevant thresholds... each MSA for which the petitioner seeks pricing flexibility, and for the portion of the study area...

  11. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., with respect to a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), as defined in § 22.909(a) of this chapter, or the non-MSA parts of a study area, must show that the price cap LEC has met the relevant thresholds... each MSA for which the petitioner seeks pricing flexibility, and for the portion of the study area that...

  12. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., with respect to a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), as defined in § 22.909(a) of this chapter, or the non-MSA parts of a study area, must show that the price cap LEC has met the relevant thresholds... each MSA for which the petitioner seeks pricing flexibility, and for the portion of the study area that...

  13. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., with respect to a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), as defined in § 22.909(a) of this chapter, or the non-MSA parts of a study area, must show that the price cap LEC has met the relevant thresholds... each MSA for which the petitioner seeks pricing flexibility, and for the portion of the study area that...

  14. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., with respect to a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), as defined in § 22.909(a) of this chapter, or the non-MSA parts of a study area, must show that the price cap LEC has met the relevant thresholds... each MSA for which the petitioner seeks pricing flexibility, and for the portion of the study area that...

  15. Food insecurity, a determinant of obesity? - an analysis from a population-based survey in the Paris metropolitan area, 2010.

    PubMed

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Caillavet, France; Lhuissier, Anne; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food insecurity and obesity is discussed in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine whether food insecurity and obesity were associated in the Paris metropolitan area. We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort study, a longitudinal population-based, representative health and socioepidemiological survey of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area. The participants' BMI (calculated using self-reported height and weight) was analyzed as a continuous variable, and a dichotomous variable (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)/BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was constructed. Food insecurity was estimated using the Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) and was treated as a trichotomous variable (food security / low food security / very low food security). Multilevel models were estimated for men and women separately. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) prevalence was 10.2%. The determinant of obesity differs according to gender. After adjustment for age, income and the sociooccupational group, very low food security was associated with obesity in women (OR = 2.01, 95%CI 1.05-3.82), and women with very low food security had a higher BMI (Coef. = 1.78, 95% CI 0.24-3.31). This association, however, was not significant for men (OR = 1.84, 95%CI 0.64-5.30). In times of economic crisis, it is increasingly essential to explore and understand the pathway through which very low food security is linked to obesity.

  16. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    PubMed

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  17. The future of food security in the Three Areas of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Matus, Jason

    2007-03-01

    Currently, the pace of recovery in the 'Three Areas' is moving faster than the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). This gap is leading to greater imbalances in income, unsustainable urbanization, overexploitation of the environment and resource based conflict. Unless regulated, the likely result will be chronic poverty and an undermining of the success of the CPA. Agencies must be mindful of how they provide assistance so that they support the CPA. The analysis of food security should take place in the context of a larger political, social and economic analysis of the emerging situation. The least developed areas should be prioritised and interventions should provide benefits to the full range of socioeconomic groups. WFP must identify its role in the wider and integrated response. It should support the emerging peace process and the key reforms. If WFP chooses to consolidate its activities, it will require capable strategic partners. If it chooses to invest more in building the capacity of government and community structures, it must improve its skill base and field presence.

  18. 5 CFR 591.209 - What is a price index?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is a price index? 591.209 Section... Allowances § 591.209 What is a price index? (a) The price index is the COLA area price divided by the DC area... Price for Item A = $1.164 Computation: $1.233/$1.164 = 1.0592783 1.0592783 × 100 = 105.92783. (c) In the...

  19. 5 CFR 591.209 - What is a price index?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is a price index? 591.209 Section... Allowances § 591.209 What is a price index? (a) The price index is the COLA area price divided by the DC area... Price for Item A = $1.164 Computation: $1.233/$1.164 = 1.0592783 1.0592783 × 100 = 105.92783. (c) In the...

  20. 5 CFR 591.209 - What is a price index?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is a price index? 591.209 Section... Allowances § 591.209 What is a price index? (a) The price index is the COLA area price divided by the DC area... Price for Item A = $1.164 Computation: $1.233/$1.164 = 1.0592783 1.0592783 × 100 = 105.92783. (c) In the...

  1. 5 CFR 591.209 - What is a price index?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is a price index? 591.209 Section... Allowances § 591.209 What is a price index? (a) The price index is the COLA area price divided by the DC area... Price for Item A = $1.164 Computation: $1.233/$1.164 = 1.0592783 1.0592783 × 100 = 105.92783. (c) In the...

  2. 5 CFR 591.209 - What is a price index?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a price index? 591.209 Section... Allowances § 591.209 What is a price index? (a) The price index is the COLA area price divided by the DC area... Price for Item A = $1.164 Computation: $1.233/$1.164 = 1.0592783 1.0592783 × 100 = 105.92783. (c) In the...

  3. Wild mushroom--an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tibuhwa, Donatha D

    2013-07-10

    This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually. This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.

  4. Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

  5. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged < 2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI = 1.08-19.1). Conclusions Overall poor mother’s food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea. PMID:24138899

  6. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas.

    PubMed

    Agustina, Rina; Sari, Tirta P; Satroamidjojo, Soemilah; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J; Feskens, Edith J M; Kok, Frans J

    2013-10-19

    Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child's defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother's and child's hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child's bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged < 2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI = 1.08-19.1). Overall poor mother's food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea.

  7. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  8. 5 CFR 591.213 - What prices does OPM collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-business prices, or area-wide distress sale prices. (2) OPM prices automobiles at dealers and obtains the... items, such as health insurance and K-12 education, based on employee usage of the item. For example, OPM estimates health insurance prices based on the employee's share of the premium costs and...

  9. 5 CFR 591.213 - What prices does OPM collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-business prices, or area-wide distress sale prices. (2) OPM prices automobiles at dealers and obtains the... items, such as health insurance and K-12 education, based on employee usage of the item. For example, OPM estimates health insurance prices based on the employee's share of the premium costs and...

  10. 5 CFR 591.213 - What prices does OPM collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-business prices, or area-wide distress sale prices. (2) OPM prices automobiles at dealers and obtains the... items, such as health insurance and K-12 education, based on employee usage of the item. For example, OPM estimates health insurance prices based on the employee's share of the premium costs and...

  11. 5 CFR 591.213 - What prices does OPM collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-business prices, or area-wide distress sale prices. (2) OPM prices automobiles at dealers and obtains the... items, such as health insurance and K-12 education, based on employee usage of the item. For example, OPM estimates health insurance prices based on the employee's share of the premium costs and...

  12. Food items consumed by students attending schools in different socioeconomic areas in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P; Myburgh, Neil G; Nel, Johanna H

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the food consumption patterns of adolescent students at schools. Our findings are intended to reveal the overall nutritional quality of foods eaten by students at school, including foods brought to school and foods purchased at school. A questionnaire was completed by 476 students, mostly from grades 7 and 10, from 14 schools in Cape Town, South Africa. The schools were representative of the various ethnic groups and socioeconomic strata of the population. The questionnaire requested information on eating habits at school, foods brought to school and food purchases, and breakfast consumption before school. We also tested whether students knew which foods are healthy and which are less healthy choices. The students were mostly 12 to 16 y of age (mean age 14.5 y). The large majority had breakfast before school (77.8%) and ate at school (79.7%). Food was brought to school by 41% to 56%, whereas 69.3% purchased food at school, mainly at the school store (tuck shop). Predefined "unhealthy" foods brought to school outnumbered "healthy" ones by 2 to 1. Among students who purchased food at school, 70.0% purchased no healthy items, whereas 73.2% purchased two or more unhealthy items. With six foods 84% of students correctly stated whether they were healthy or unhealthy; however, with cola drinks, samoosas (deep-fried pastry with spicy filling), and pies, only 47% to 61% knew that these were less healthy choices. Students' scores on this question were unrelated to whether they purchased healthy or unhealthy foods. Students who attended schools of high socioeconomic status were twice as likely to bring food to school (64.7% versus 31.0%, P<0.001), scored higher marks on the quiz of healthy versus unhealthy foods (P<0.01), but were no more likely to purchase healthy food. The large majority of food eaten by adolescent students in Cape Town is classified as being unhealthy choices. This applies to foods brought to school and food purchases. Consideration needs

  13. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Ashurova, Zebunisso J; Kukaniev, Mukhamadcho A; Avloev, Hakbarqul K; Khaidarov, Karim K; Jamshedov, Jamshed N; Rahmatullova, Oygul S; Atolikshoeva, Sunbula S; Mamadshova, Sakina S; Manzenyuk, Oksana

    2017-05-01

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. Study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan. Each site was visited multiple times and over 500 samples of surface soil and raw foods were collected and analyzed for twenty legacy organochlorine pesticides. Various local food products were sampled to represent the range of raw foods potentially containing residues of banned pesticides, including dairy products, meat, edible plant and cotton seed products. The pesticide analytes included DDTs (DDT, DDD, DDE), lindane isomers (α, β, γ, δ BHC), endosulfan isomers (endosulfan I, II, sulfate), other cyclodienes (aldrin, α and γ chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde and ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), and methoxychlor. Pesticide analytes were selected based on availability of commercial standards and known or suspected historical pesticide use and burial. Pesticide contamination was highest in soil and generally low in meat, dairy, and plant products. DDT was consistently the highest measured individual pesticide at each of the four sampling areas, along with BHC isomers and endosulfan II. Soil concentrations of pesticides were extremely heterogeneous at the Vakhsh and Konibodam disposal sites with many soil samples greater than 10 ppm. In contrast, samples from farms in Chimbuloq and Garm had low concentrations of pesticides. Pesticide contamination in raw foods was generally low, indicating minimal transfer from the pesticide sites into local food

  14. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    PubMed

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states.

  15. Uranium analysis in some food samples collected from Bathinda area of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Prasher, Sangeeta; Singh, Surinder

    2009-07-01

    To strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Bathinda, the uranium concentration in daily diet of the residents has been measured and its associated radiation risks were estimated for the adult population. Food samples were collected from major cancer prone areas of the district, from which daily diets were prepared. These diet samples were analyzed using fission track technique. The measured values of the uranium content were found to vary from 0.38 mBq/g in mustard seeds to 4.60 mBq/g in wheat. In case of milk the uranium content is found to vary from 28.57-213.36 mBq/ℓ with mean concentration of 61.35 mBq/ℓ. This leads to a daily dietary intake of 0.90 Bq/day. The measured value of 0.90 Bq d-1, contributes to 1.12 mSv to the cumulative effective dose to the population. This dose is much large than the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public [1]. Therefore, it would pose significant health hazard.

  16. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  17. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...

  18. [Contamination of the food products by lead, cadmium and copper in the area at risk of Gela (Sicily)].

    PubMed

    Granata, Tiziano; Alfa, Maria; Giuffrida, Daniele; Rando, Rossana; Dugo, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    to make an initial evaluation on the impact of environmental pollution on the food safety of some agricultural products in the area of Gela, an official area of environmental crisis according to Italian legislation. Gela (Caltanisetta ) Sicily the investigation looked at the contamination of the food chain, one of the main sources of exposure for the local population. A sample of 13 artichokes and 13 tomatoes where sprayed with contaminated water and the levels of Pb (II), Cd (II) end Cu (II) where then measured. the analysis of the samples investigated shows a high level of metal contamination which can be linked to both the polluted water and air. It is therefore easier to forecast a scenario of exposure for the local population through the food chain.

  19. Castel Gandolfo workshop: an introduction to the impact of climate change, the economic crisis, and the increase in the food prices on malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D; Kraemer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The global food supply system is facing serious new challenges from economic and related crises and climate change, which directly affect the nutritional well-being of the poor by reducing their access to nutritious food. To cope, vulnerable populations prioritize consumption of calorie-rich but nutrient-poor food. Consequently, dietary quality and eventually quantity decline, increasing micronutrient malnutrition (or hidden hunger) and exacerbating preexisting vulnerabilities that lead to poorer health, lower incomes, and reduced physical and intellectual capabilities. This article introduces the series of papers in this supplement, which explore the relationships between crises and their cumulative impacts among vulnerable populations, particularly through hidden hunger.

  20. Knowledge and use of wild food plants in areas of dry seasonal forests in Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Viviany Teixeira; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; Maciel, Maria Inês Sucupira; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The investigation aimed to compare the knowledge about food plants in rural communities of the Caatinga. The study was conducted in two rural communities in northeastern Brazil. Data collection utilized different ethnobotanical methods, including free listing, semi-structured interviews, and recall. Native species are less frequently consumed as food in both locations. Fruits are the most frequently cited wild resource, but in practice, most of this food availability potential is wasted. Despite community knowledge about wild species with potential food, few species are actually utilized, and thus, many plants are not included in the diets of the populations studied.

  1. The use of home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food to treat malnutrition in a rural area during a food crisis.

    PubMed

    Amthor, Rachel E; Cole, Stephanie M; Manary, Mark J

    2009-03-01

    When the international community declared a famine in Malawi in January of 2006, emergency food aid reached only populations with pre-existing health care services. To treat the widespread childhood malnutrition in Machinga district, a rural area lacking health care facilities, in February 2006 five outpatient therapeutic programs were implemented that utilized home-based therapy and ready-to-use therapeutic food. Children with severe malnutrition, defined as the presence of edema and/or a weight-for-height less than 70% of the reference standard, were enrolled in the program. Two senior clinical nurses trained village health aides in each of the five communities. Children visited the health aides biweekly. During the visits, health aides collected demographic and anthropometric information and distributed a 2-week supply of ready-to-use therapeutic food, providing 175 kcal/kg/d. Treatment continued for 8 weeks; children were discharged before 8 weeks if they reached a weight-for-height more than 100% of the reference standard, or required admission to the hospital due to systemic infection or recurrence of edema. Of the 826 children enrolled, 775 (93.7%) recovered, 13 (1.8%) remained malnourished, 30 (3.6%) defaulted, and 8 (0.9%) died. Mean weight gained was 2.7+/-3.7 g/kg/d, height gained 0.3+/-0.9 mm/d, and mid-upper arm circumference gained 0.2+/-0.3 mm/d. Home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food administered by village health aides is an effective approach to treating malnutrition during food crises in areas lacking health services.

  2. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  3. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  4. Residues in food and feed topic area at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of pesticide chemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The organizers of two symposia in the “Residues in Food and Feed” topic area held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry introduce the papers that were contributed to this special section in the Journal. The symposia were titled “Taking Advantage of Advanced Analytical Tool...

  5. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1986

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $47.20, a decrease of 6 percent from the 1985 price. The average price for a green ton of chipped residues also decreased, down 1 percent to $21.77. The average price for a green ton of sawdust fell to $10.25, 3 percent below the 1985 price. Between 1977 and 1986, real prices for roundwood fell, but real...

  6. Association between Longevity and Element Levels in Food and Drinking Water of Typical Chinese Longevity Area.

    PubMed

    Hao, Z; Liu, Y; Li, Y; Song, W; Yu, J; Li, H; Wang, W

    2016-01-01

    To carrying out an integrated analysis on regional environment and human health in China and to detect the association between longevity and daily element intake from food and drinking water. Cross-sectional study. All the 18 cities and counties in Hainan Province. The distribution of elderly population and longevity indexes at a county level in Hainan Province were investigated. Quality of food and drinking water in Hainan was evaluated by comparing the chemical elements with National Standards. In addition, the association between element concentrations in food and water and longevity was examined using spearman's rank correlation. The proportion of elderly people is higher in the northern part of the province compared with southern counties. Food contributes a greater proportion of daily element intake than drinking water. Compared with the National Standards, reaching rates for elements were over 85% for both food and drinking water. There was a positive correlation between daily intake of Cu, Se, and Zn from food and water and aging and longevity indexes, and a negative correlation between Pb intake and these indexes. The quality of food and water in Hainan Province are good and that, compared with water, food is a more important source of trace elements. An appropriate supply of Cu, Se, and Zn is important, whereas excessive intake of Pb should be avoided. The findings also provide basic data to support further studies on regional variations in longevity and their relationship to diet and drinking water.

  7. The City in the Country: Growing Alternative Food Networks in Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Alternative food networks (AFNs) are commonly defined by attributes such as the spatial proximity between farmers and consumers, the existence of retail venues such as farmers markets, community supported agriculture (CSA) and a commitment to sustainable food production and consumption. Focusing upon processes rather than attributes, this paper…

  8. The City in the Country: Growing Alternative Food Networks in Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Alternative food networks (AFNs) are commonly defined by attributes such as the spatial proximity between farmers and consumers, the existence of retail venues such as farmers markets, community supported agriculture (CSA) and a commitment to sustainable food production and consumption. Focusing upon processes rather than attributes, this paper…

  9. Program Evaluation: Food Stamps and Commodity Distribution in Rural Areas of Central Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden J. Patrick; Yoder, Marion D.

    Since one primary goal of the Commodity Distribution (CD) Program and the Food Stamp (FS) Program is to improve diets of low-income families, this 1969-70 study focused on whether the adequacy of a low-income family's dietary intake was improved by their participation in a food-assistance program. As stated, the adequacy of a family's dietary…

  10. Food groups consumed by infants and toddlers in urban areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pan; Denney, Liya; Zheng, Yingdong; Vinyes-Parés, Gerard; Reidy, Kathleen C.; Eldridge, Alison L.; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    Background Food consumption patterns of young children in China are not well known. Objective Characterised food groups consumed by infants and young children in urban China using data from the Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study. Design One 24-h dietary recall was completed for 1,350 infants and young children (436 infants aged 6–11 months and 914 young children aged 12–35 months), who were recruited from maternal and child care centres in eight cities via face-to-face interviews with the primary caregiver. All foods, beverages and supplements reported were assigned to one of 64 food groups categorised into the following: milk and milk products, grains, vegetables, fruits, protein foods and desserts/sweets. The percentage of infants and young children consuming foods from specific food groups was calculated, regardless of the amount consumed. Results Less than half of infants consumed breast milk (47%), whereas 59% of infants consumed infant formula and 53–75% of young children consumed growing-up (fortified) milk. Rice was the number one grain food consumed after 6 months (up to 88%) and the consumption of infant cereal was low. About 50% of infants did not consume any fruits or vegetables, and 38% of young children did not consume any fruits on the day of the recall. Only 40% of all children consumed dark green leafy vegetables and even fewer consumed deep yellow vegetables. Eggs and pork were the most commonly consumed protein foods. Conclusions The data provide important insight for developing detailed food consumption guidelines for this population group. Mothers of infants should be encouraged to continue breastfeeding after the first 6 months. Parents should be advised to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, particularly dark green leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. The consumption of fortified infant cereal should be advocated to improve the iron intake of Chinese infants. PMID:26864648

  11. Sanitation in classroom and food preparation areas in child-care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wohlgenent, Kelly C; Cates, Sheryl C; Fraser, Angela; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 60% of U.S. children aged five and younger spend time in child-care settings. Such environments increase the risk of diarrheal disease, including diseases caused by enteric pathogens. To describe adherence to sanitation standards in classrooms and food preparation areas in child-care facilities, the authors conducted site visits in 40 North Carolina and South Carolina child-care facilities. Audits in up to two classrooms (rooms providing care for infants and toddlers) and the kitchen were performed using a form similar to a regulatory inspection form. Audit data were used to calculate indices to describe adherence to sanitation standards and were based on state environmental health regulations for child-care centers, the Food and Drug Administration's Food Code 2009, and guidance from food safety experts. Most facilities participating in the authors' study adhered to sanitation standards within the classroom; however, deficiencies with regard to sanitation in food preparation areas and refrigerator operating temperatures were noted. These results provide insight into possible risk factors for enteric disease transmission in child-care facilities.

  12. Inconsistent labeling of food effect for oral agents across therapeutic areas: differences between oncology and non-oncology products

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonmo Peter; Ratain, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Several recent oral oncology drug labels were labeled to be administered in fasted states despite the fact that food increases their bioavailability. Since this was inconsistent with principles of oral drug delivery, we hypothesized that there were inconsistencies across therapeutic areas. Experimental Design Oral agents approved by US FDA from January 2000 to May 2009 were included in our study. Comparison of the food labeling patterns between oncology and non-oncology drugs was made using Fisher's exact test. Results Of 99 drugs evaluated, 34 showed significant food effects on bioavailability. When food markedly enhanced bioavailability, 8 out of 9 non-oncology drugs were labeled “fed” to take advantage of the food-drug interaction while all oncology drugs (n=3) were labeled to be administered in “fasted” states (Fisher's exact; p= 0.01). Conclusions Drug labeling pattern with respect to food-drug interactions observed with oncology drugs is in contradiction to fundamental pharmacological principles, as exemplified in the labeling of non-oncology drugs. PMID:20736327

  13. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56′ to 33°01′S, 71°36′ to 71°46′W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird’s MSFF dynamics. PMID:26125630

  14. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area.

    PubMed

    Rispo, A; Williams, I D; Shaw, P J

    2015-10-01

    A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste's weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of "don't know" were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no "quick and easy fix", regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are "hard-to-reach" in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional efforts and additional resources are usually required to improve performance.

  15. Food supply for waders (Aves: Charadrii) in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masero, José A.; Pérez-González, Maite; Basadre, Marta; Otero-Saavedra, Mónica

    1999-07-01

    We studied the composition, density, size distribution and biomass of the food supply for waders in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula), in winter (January-February) and in the pre-migratory period (late March). The estuarine area comprises an intertidal mudflat and an adjacent salina or salt-pan. On the intertidal mudflat, the biomass was 53 and 37 g AFDW .m -2in winter and the pre-migratory period, respectively. The main food source on mudflat was the polychaete Nereis diversicolor (44-54 % of the total biomass). On the other hand, the biomass in the salina was comparatively very poor, ranging from 0.008 to 0.079 g AFDW .m -2in winter and ranging from 0.011 to 0.09 g AFDW in late March. The main source of food in the salina was the crustacean Artemia. The total biomass on the mudflat during the pre-migratory period was 1.4 times lower than in February. This depletion could be caused by wader predation, mainly by Nereis diversicolor consumption. Although the potential food on the mudflats could allow high intertidal densities of waders, the availability of high tide foraging areas in the salina seems to contribute to the maintenance of these high intertidal densities.

  16. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  17. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    SciTech Connect

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D. Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  18. Arsenic intake via water and food by a population living in an arsenic-affected area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Yanase, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Yuki; Kimura, Tetsuro; Rahman, M Hamidur; Magara, Yasumoto; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2007-08-01

    More and more people in Bangladesh have recently become aware of the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater, and have been trying to obtain drinking water from less arsenic-contaminated sources. In this study, arsenic intakes of 18 families living in one block of a rural village in an arsenic-affected district of Bangladesh were evaluated to investigate their actual arsenic intake via food, including from cooking water, and to estimate the contribution of each food category and of drinking water to the total arsenic intake. Water consumption rates were estimated by the self-reporting method. The mean drinking water intake was estimated as about 3 L/d without gender difference. Arsenic intakes from food were evaluated by the duplicate portion sampling method. The duplicated foods from each family were divided into four categories (cooked rice, solid food, cereals for breakfast, and liquid food), and the arsenic concentrations of each food category and of the drinking water were measured. The mean arsenic intake from water and food by all 18 respondents was 0.15 +/-0.11 mg/d (range, 0.043 - 0.49), that by male subjects was 0.18 +/- 0.13 mg/d (n = 12) and that by female subjects was 0.096 +/- 0.007 mg/d (n = 6). The average contributions to the total arsenic intake were, from drinking water, 13%; liquid food, 4.4%; cooked rice, 56%; solid food, 11%; and cereals, 16%. Arsenic intake via drinking water was not high despite the highly contaminated groundwater in the survey area because many families had changed their drinking water sources to less-contaminated ones. Instead, cooked rice contributed most to the daily arsenic intake. Use of contaminated water for cooking by several families was suspected based on comparisons of arsenic concentrations between drinking water and liquid food, and between rice before and after cooking. Detailed investigation suggested that six households used contaminated water for cooking but not drinking, leading to an increase of

  19. Transit pricing and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pickerell, D.H.; Abkowitz, M.; Tozzi, J.; McCord, M.R.; Cheng, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 9 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Federal operating assistance for urban mass transit; a decade of experience; transit route characteristics and headway-based reliability control; day-of-week and part-of-month variation in bus ridership; job satisfaction and transit operator recognition programs; results of a survey of muni operators; bus marketing costs: the experience of 18 section 15 reporters from 1981 to 1983; prospects for differential transit pricing in the United States; an initial analysis of total factor productivity for public-transit coordination of transportation resources: the Georgia experience; absenteeism, accidents, and attrition: part-time versus full-time bus drivers.

  20. The potential of various foods to serve as a carrier for micronutrient fortification, data from remote areas in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Melse-Boonstra, A; Pee, S; Martini, E; Halati, S; Sari, M; Kosen, S; Muhilal; Bloem, M

    2000-11-01

    To estimate the potential of various industrially produced foods, to serve as a carrier for micronutrient fortification based on the frequency of their consumption in different socio-economic strata; to determine the role of fortified instant noodles as a source of micronutrients; to assess the contribution of plant foods, animal foods and fortified foods to vitamin A intake. A survey was conducted in rural South Sulawesi and urban South Kalimantan between November 1996 and January 1997. Households (1500 in South Sulawesi; 2112 in South Kalimantan) were selected randomly by multi-stage cluster sampling. From each household, data were collected from the mother and her youngest child (0-5 y). Mothers were interviewed on various topics, including socio-economic status, food consumption, receipt of high-dose vitamin A capsules, health and nutritional status. Monosodium glutamate and salt were consumed daily in almost all households in both areas, and consumption was not associated with socio-economic status. Instant noodles were consumed in nearly all households in both areas, but consumption of fortified noodles was related to socio-economic status; it was highest among households of government employees and private investors, and lowest among farmers and share-croppers. Vegetables were the most important source of vitamin A in rural South Sulawesi, while foods of animal origin were the most important source in urban South Kalimantan. The results support double or triple fortification of salt and/or monosodium glutamate with iodine, vitamin A and/or iron. Efforts to overcome associated technical and logistical difficulties are urgently needed. Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions (OMNI); United States Agency for International Development (USAID). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 822-827

  1. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  2. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria).

    PubMed

    Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-06-21

    Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The

  3. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  4. Regional Hospital Input Price Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price indexes that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price Index. The feasibility of developing regional indexes was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional indexes incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associated with hospital type and location, and variations in the rate of input price increases for various regions. We found that between 1972 and 1979 none of the regional price indexes increased at average annual rates significantly different from the national rate. For the more recent period 1977 through 1979, the increase in one Census Region was significantly below the national rate. Further analyses indicated that variations in cost-share weights for various types of hospitals produced no substantial variations in the regional price indexes relative to the national index. We consider these findings preliminary because of limitations in the availability of current, relevant, and reliable data, especially for local area wage rate increases. PMID:10309557

  5. Import-export balance of nitrogen and phosphorus in food, fodder and fertilizers in the Baltic Sea drainage area.

    PubMed

    Asmala, Eero; Saikku, Laura; Vienonen, Sanna

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements for life, but in excess they contribute to aquatic eutrophication. The Baltic Sea is a brackish semi-enclosed sea that is heavily influenced by anthropogenic loading of nutrients, resulting in a major environmental problem, eutrophication. In this study, the nutrient balance of the food production and consumption system in seven countries in the Baltic Sea drainage area was quantified for the period 2002-2005. The food production and consumption system accumulates nutrients in the Baltic Sea drainage area, due to extensive imports to the system. The average annual net surplus of nutrients was 1,800,000 tons N and 320,000 tons P in 2002-2005, or annually 28 kg N and 5 kg P per capita. The average total annual import was 2,100,000 tons N and 340,000 tons P during 2002-2005. The largest imports to the system were fertilizers, totaling 1,700,000 tons N and 290,000 tons P. Traded nutrients in food and fodder amounted to a net annual surplus of 180,000 tons N and 25,000 tons P. The nutrient load to the Baltic Sea due to the food consumption and production system was 21% N and 6% P of the respective annual net inputs to the region. This study shows that large amounts of nutrients to Baltic Sea drainage area are inputs from outside the region, eventually contributing to eutrophication. To reduce the nutrient imports, fertilizers should be used more efficiently, nutrients should be recycled more efficiently inside the region, and food system should be guided toward low-nutrient intensive diets.

  6. Provisioning in Agricultural Communities: Local, Regional and Global Cereal Prices and Local Production on Three Continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Essam, Timothy; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Mann, Bristol F.; Eilerts, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and incorporating diverse market and staple food information into food price indices is critical for food price analyses. Satellite remote sensing data and earth science models have an important role to play in improving humanitarian aid timing, delivery and distribution. Incorporating environmental observations into econometric models will improve food security analysis and understanding of market functioning.

  7. Methods for estimating comparable prevalence rates of food insecurity experienced by adults in 147 countries and areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Mark; Cafiero, Carlo; Viviani, Sara

    2016-11-01

    Statistical methods based on item response theory are applied to experiential food insecurity survey data from 147 countries, areas, and territories to assess data quality and develop methods to estimate national prevalence rates of moderate and severe food insecurity at equal levels of severity across countries. Data were collected from nationally representative samples of 1,000 adults in each country. A Rasch-model-based scale was estimated for each country, and data were assessed for consistency with model assumptions. A global reference scale was calculated based on item parameters from all countries. Each country's scale was adjusted to the global standard, allowing for up to 3 of the 8 scale items to be considered unique in that country if their deviance from the global standard exceeded a set tolerance. With very few exceptions, data from all countries were sufficiently consistent with model assumptions to constitute reasonably reliable measures of food insecurity and were adjustable to the global standard with fair confidence. National prevalence rates of moderate-or-severe food insecurity assessed over a 12-month recall period ranged from 3 percent to 92 percent. The correlations of national prevalence rates with national income, health, and well-being indicators provide external validation of the food security measure.

  8. Understanding the local food environment: A participatory photovoice project in a low-income area in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Díez, Julia; Conde, Paloma; Sandin, María; Urtasun, María; López, Remedios; Carrero, José Luis; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to partner between researchers, practitioners and residents to increase our understanding of environmental influences on dietary behaviors. We used the participatory method of Photovoice to understand key determinants of the local food environment influencing residents' diets. This project was conducted in Villaverde, a low-income area located in Madrid, Spain. From February to May 2015, 24 residents working in four Photovoice groups, took photographs related to their local food environment. Each group analyzed and critically discussed their photographs in small group sessions. Through a consensus-building process, participants identified 30 emerging categories, which followed five conceptual themes related to their food environment: 1) eating in moderation, 2) cultural diversity, 3) food stores, 4) social relationships and 5) economic crisis and poverty. Participants, researchers and practitioners successfully collaborated in analyzing, writing, disseminating the project results, and directly informing local policy-makers, media, and other residents. The project results may guide community-generated interventions for promoting a healthier food environment.

  9. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2015-11-26

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km(2)) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species' abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area.

  10. The implementation of anaerobic digestion of food waste in a highly populated urban area: an LCA evaluation.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Mario; Nava, Chiara; Testori, Roberta; Rigamonti, Lucia; Viganò, Federico

    2012-09-01

    While source separation of waste packaging materials for recycling is well established in several metropolitan areas, the collection of food waste from the households is less widespread because of its more difficult implementation. Source segregation of food waste in densely populated areas is raising new interest, as the availability of biogas following its anaerobic digestion (AD) paves the road to a number of possibilities, from electric energy production to its upgrading to biomethane and subsequent feeding in to the natural gas network or in vehicles as a fuel. The study addresses this waste management option by analysing a real metropolitan situation where food waste currently ends up mixed with the residual waste in a waste-to-energy plant (WTE). We assume to establish a new collection scheme for household food waste, followed by its treatment in a new AD and post-composting facility. A comparative life cycle assessment was carried out, where possible synergies between the existing WTE plant and the new one were evaluated. All new scenarios based on AD attained similar or better results compared with the reference scenario for almost all of the impact indicators. The most robust indication is related to global warming potential, with a potential improvement of up to 37%. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the effect of the variation of the most relevant parameters. Results have proven to be very sensible to the hypothesis on the type of substituted electric energy. All the other examined sensitivities resulted in variations well below 10%.

  11. Amylin Receptor Signaling in the Ventral Tegmental Area is Physiologically Relevant for the Control of Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Rupprecht, Laura E; Olivos, Diana R; Zimmer, Derek J; Alter, Mark D; Pierce, R Christopher; Schmidt, Heath D; Hayes, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    The ability of amylin, a pancreatic β-cell-derived neuropeptide, to promote negative energy balance has been ascribed to neural activation at the area postrema. However, despite amylin binding throughout the brain, the possible role of amylin signaling at other nuclei in the control of food intake has been largely neglected. We show that mRNA for all components of the amylin receptor complex is expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a mesolimbic structure mediating food intake and reward. Direct activation of VTA amylin receptors reduces the intake of chow and palatable sucrose solution in rats. This effect is mediated by reductions in meal size and is not due to nausea/malaise or prolonged suppression of locomotor activity. VTA amylin receptor activation also reduces sucrose self-administration on a progressive ratio schedule. Finally, antagonist studies provide novel evidence that VTA amylin receptor blockade increases food intake and attenuates the intake-suppressive effects of a peripherally administered amylin analog, suggesting that amylin receptor signaling in the VTA is physiologically relevant for food intake control and potentially clinically relevant for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23474592

  12. Amylin receptor signaling in the ventral tegmental area is physiologically relevant for the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Rupprecht, Laura E; Olivos, Diana R; Zimmer, Derek J; Alter, Mark D; Pierce, R Christopher; Schmidt, Heath D; Hayes, Matthew R

    2013-08-01

    The ability of amylin, a pancreatic β-cell-derived neuropeptide, to promote negative energy balance has been ascribed to neural activation at the area postrema. However, despite amylin binding throughout the brain, the possible role of amylin signaling at other nuclei in the control of food intake has been largely neglected. We show that mRNA for all components of the amylin receptor complex is expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a mesolimbic structure mediating food intake and reward. Direct activation of VTA amylin receptors reduces the intake of chow and palatable sucrose solution in rats. This effect is mediated by reductions in meal size and is not due to nausea/malaise or prolonged suppression of locomotor activity. VTA amylin receptor activation also reduces sucrose self-administration on a progressive ratio schedule. Finally, antagonist studies provide novel evidence that VTA amylin receptor blockade increases food intake and attenuates the intake-suppressive effects of a peripherally administered amylin analog, suggesting that amylin receptor signaling in the VTA is physiologically relevant for food intake control and potentially clinically relevant for the treatment of obesity.

  13. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km2) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species’ abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area. PMID:27340314

  14. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1983

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1985-01-01

    The average price per cord for Midsouth roundwood pulpwood increased less than 1 percent to $48.38 in 1983. The average price for a green ton of chipped mill residues fell 9.3 percent to $23.34. Sawdust prices averaged $13.04 per green ton, a 42.2 percent increase over 1982 prices. Prices for rail delivery of wood fiber continue to be slightly lower than truck...

  15. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1985

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $50.12, a decrease of less than 1 percent from the 1984 price. In contrast, the average price for a green ton of chipped residues decreased to $21.97, 14 percent below the price paid in 1984. The average price for a green ton of sawdust also fell in 1985, dropping 2 percent to $10.60. The 1985 expenditure...

  16. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three