Science.gov

Sample records for area generating function

  1. Gas-geochemical condition and ecological functions of urban soils in areas with gas generating grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozharova, Nadezhda; Lebed-Sharlevich, Iana; Kulachkova, Svetlana

    2014-05-01

    Rapid urbanization and expansion of city borders lead to development of new areas, often following with relief changes, covering of gully-ravine systems and river beds with technogenic grounds containing construction and municipal waste. Decomposition of organic matter in these grounds is a source of methane and carbon dioxide. Intensive generation and accumulation of CO2 and CH4 into grounds may cause a fire and explosion risk for constructed objects. Gases emission to the atmosphere changes the global balance of GHGs and negatively influences on human health. The aim of this investigation is to study gas-geochemical condition and ecological functions of urban soils in areas with gas generating grounds. Studied areas are the gully-ravine systems or river beds, covered with technogenic grounds during land development. Stratigraphic columns of these grounds are 5-17 meters of man-made loamy material with inclusion of construction waste. Gas generating layer with increased content of organic matter, reductive conditions and high methanogenic activity (up to 1.0 ng*g-1*h-1) is situated at the certain depth. Maximum CH4 and CO2 concentrations in this layer reach dangerous values (2-10% and 11%, respectively) in the current standards. In case of disturbance of ground layer (e.g. well-drilling) methane is rapidly transferred by convective flux to atmosphere. The rate of CH4 emission reaches 100 mg*m-2*h-1 resulting in its atmospheric concentration growth by an order of magnitude compared with background. In normal occurrence of grounds methane gradually diffuses into the upper layers by pore space, consuming on different processes (e.g. formation of organic matter, nitrogen compounds or specific particles of magnetite), and emits to atmosphere. CH4 emission rate varies from 1 to 40 mg*m-2*h-1 increasing with depth of grounds. Carbon dioxide emission is about 100 mg*m-2*h-1. During soil formation on gas generating grounds bacterial oxidation of methane, one of the most

  2. The terminal area automated path generation problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsin, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The automated terminal area path generation problem in the advanced Air Traffic Control System (ATC), has been studied. Definitions, input, output and the interrelationships with other ATC functions have been discussed. Alternatives in modeling the problem have been identified. Problem formulations and solution techniques are presented. In particular, the solution of a minimum effort path stretching problem (path generation on a given schedule) has been carried out using the Newton-Raphson trajectory optimization method. Discussions are presented on the effect of different delivery time, aircraft entry position, initial guess on the boundary conditions, etc. Recommendations are made on real-world implementations.

  3. Workshop on Grid Generation and Related Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A collection of papers given at the Workshop on Grid Generation and Related Areas is presented. The purpose of this workshop was to assemble engineers and scientists who are currently working on grid generation for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), surface modeling, and related areas. The objectives were to provide an informal forum on grid generation and related topics, to assess user experience, to identify needs, and to help promote synergy among engineers and scientists working in this area. The workshop consisted of four sessions representative of grid generation and surface modeling research and application within NASA LeRC. Each session contained presentations and an open discussion period.

  4. [Generation and functions of dreams].

    PubMed

    Medrano-Martínez, Pablo; Ramos-Platón, M José

    2014-10-16

    Over the last decade an ever-increasing number of articles have been published on dreams, which reflects the interest that several fields of neuroscience have in the topic. In this work we review the main scientific theories that have contributed to the body of knowledge on how they are produced and what function they serve. The article discusses the evolution of their scientific study, following a neurophysiological and neurocognitive approach. The first of these two methods seeks to determine the neurobiological mechanisms that generate them and the brain structures involved, while the second considers dreams to be a kind of cognition interacting with that of wake-fulness. Several different hypotheses about the function of dreams are examined, and more particularly those in which they are attributed with a role in the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotional states. Although the exact mechanism underlying the generation of dreams has not been determined, neurobiological data highlight the importance of the pontine nuclei of the brainstem, several memory systems, the limbic system and the brain reward system and a number of neocortical areas. Neurocognitive data underline the relation between the cognitive and emotional processing that occurs during wakefulness and during sleep, as well as the influence of the surroundings on the content of dreams. With regard to their function, one point to be stressed is their adaptive value, since they contribute to the reprocessing of the information acquired in wakefulness and the control of the emotions. This suggests that dreams participate in the development of the cognitive capabilities.

  5. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  6. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  7. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  8. Three brainstem areas involved in respiratory rhythm generation in bullfrogs

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadwala, Mufaddal I; Duchcherer, Maryana; Paramonov, Jenny; Wilson, Richard J A

    2015-01-01

    Key points For most multiphasic motor patterns, rhythm and pattern are produced by the same circuit elements. For respiration, however, these functions have long been assumed to occur separately. In frogs, the ventilatory motor pattern produced by the isolated brainstem consists of buccal and biphasic lung bursts. Previously, two discrete necessary and sufficient sites for lung and buccal bursts were identified. Here we identify a third site, the Priming Area, important for and having neuronal activity correlated with the first phase of biphasic lung bursts. As each site is important for burst generation of a separate phase, we suggest each major phase of ventilation is produced by an anatomically distinct part of an extensive brainstem network. Embedding of discrete circuit elements producing major phases of respiration within an extensive rhythmogenic brainstem network may be a shared architectural characteristic of vertebrates. Abstract Ventilation in mammals consists of at least three distinct phases: inspiration, post-inspiration and late-expiration. While distinct brainstem rhythm generating and pattern forming networks have long been assumed, recent data suggest the mammalian brainstem contains two coupled neuronal oscillators: one for inspiration and the other for active expiration. However, whether additional burst generating ability is required for generating other phases of ventilation in mammals is controversial. To investigate brainstem circuit architectures capable of producing multiphasic ventilatory rhythms, we utilized the isolated frog brainstem. This preparation produces two types of ventilatory motor patterns, buccal and lung bursts. Lung bursts can be divided into two phases, priming and powerstroke. Previously we identified two putative oscillators, the Buccal and Lung Areas. The Lung Area produces the lung powerstroke and the Buccal Area produces buccal bursts and – we assumed – the priming phase of lung bursts. However, here we identify

  9. 10 CFR 851.24 - Functional areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functional areas. 851.24 Section 851.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.24 Functional areas... minimum, include provisions for the following applicable functional areas in their worker safety...

  10. 10 CFR 851.24 - Functional areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional areas. 851.24 Section 851.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.24 Functional areas... minimum, include provisions for the following applicable functional areas in their worker safety...

  11. 10 CFR 851.24 - Functional areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functional areas. 851.24 Section 851.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.24 Functional areas... minimum, include provisions for the following applicable functional areas in their worker safety...

  12. 10 CFR 851.24 - Functional areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functional areas. 851.24 Section 851.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.24 Functional areas... minimum, include provisions for the following applicable functional areas in their worker safety...

  13. 10 CFR 851.24 - Functional areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Functional areas. 851.24 Section 851.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.24 Functional areas... minimum, include provisions for the following applicable functional areas in their worker safety...

  14. Generating functions for tensor product decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuksa, Jan; Pošta, Severin

    2013-11-01

    The paper deals with the tensor product decomposition problem. Tensor product decompositions are of great importance in the quantum physics. A short outline of the state of the art for the of semisimple Lie groups is mentioned. The generality of generating functions is used to solve tensor products. The corresponding generating function is rational. The feature of this technique lies in the fact that the decompositions of all tensor products of all irreducible representations are solved simultaneously. Obtaining the generating function is a difficult task in general. We propose some changes to an algorithm using Patera-Sharp character generators to find this generating function, which simplifies the whole problem to simple operations over rational functions.

  15. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  16. 18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building, interior view of remaining control panels VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  17. 17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Control Area, Frequency Changer and Generator Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  18. 14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor and Frequency Changer and Generator Building, general view VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  19. Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…

  20. Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…

  1. 30. Launch Area, Generator Building, interior view showing diesel fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Launch Area, Generator Building, interior view showing diesel fuel tank, fuel pump (foreground) and fuel lines leading to power-generating units (removed) VIEW NORTHWEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  2. Functional MRI in Patients with Intracranial Lesions near Language Areas.

    PubMed

    Hakyemez, B; Erdogan, C; Yildirim, N; Bora, I; Bekar, A; Parlak, M

    2006-06-30

    We aimed to depict Broca's area and Wernicke's area by word generation and sentence formation paradigms in patients with various intracranial lesions adjacent to language areas using functional MRI technique and to evaluate the ability of functional MRI to lateralize the hemispheric dominance for language. Twenty-three right-handed patients were included in this study. Lesions were classified as low-grade glioma (n=8), high-grade glioma (n=9), metastasis (n=1), meningioma (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=2) and mesial temporal sclerosis (n=2). We performed blood-oxygenated-level-dependant functional MRI using a 1.5-T unit. Word generation and sentence formation tasks were used to activate language areas. Language areas were defined as Brodmann 44, 45 (Broca's area) and Brodmann 22 area (Wernicke's area). Laterality index was used to show the dominant hemisphere. Two poorly cooperative patients showed no activation and were excluded from the study. Broca's area was localized in 21 patients (100 %). Wernicke's area, on the other hand, could only be localized in eight of the 21 patients (38 %).The left hemisphere was dominant in 86% of patients while atypical language lateralization (right or bilateral) was demonstrated in 14% of the patients. Bilateral activation areas were shown in 10% of those patients while right cerebral hemisphere was dominant in 4% of the patients. Word generation and sentence formation tasks are especially helpful in localizing Broca's area. Wernicke's area could also be demonstrated in some of the cases. Functional MRI can be used as an important and useful means of demonstrating language areas in patients with lesions adjacent to those areas and depicting the hemispheric dominance.

  3. Functional localization of the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Satoru; Anei, Ryogo; Murakami, Noboru; Kamada, Kyousuke

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key structure involved in behavioral planning and execution. Although many reports have indicated that SMA is organized somatotopically, its exact organization remains still unclear. This study aimed to functionally map SMA using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and validate the fMRI-SMA by electrocortical stimulation (ECS) and postsurgical symptoms. Total 32 healthy volunteers and 24 patients participated in this study. Motor tasks were right and left finger tapping and language tasks included simple reading, lexical decision for presented words, and verb generating tasks. SPM8 was used to conduct individual and group analyses. In all subjects, the lexical decision task induced the greatest number of active fMRI pixels in SMA. fMRI during the language tasks showed anterior part of SMA compared to finger tapping tasks. We found an overlap spot with all different tasks in posterior part of SMA, which we termed SMA core. Six patients underwent awake craniotomy for ECS mapping for primary regions and SMA. During awake craniotomy, ECS to posterior part of SMA, which might involve the possible SMA core consistently, evoked both speech arrest and flaccid hemiparesis. The SMA mapping suggested posterior part of SMA might play more important roles in any executions, which might involve the SMA core.

  4. Speech and language functions that require a functioning Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E

    2008-04-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these functions, at least while the neural tissue is dysfunctional. The opportunity to identify the language functions that depend on Broca's area in a particular individual was provided by a patient with hyperacute stroke who showed selective hypoperfusion, with minimal infarct, in Broca's area, and acutely impaired production of grammatical sentences, comprehension of semantically reversible (but not non-reversible) sentences, spelling, and motor planning of speech articulation. When blood flow was restored to Broca's area, as demonstrated by repeat perfusion weighted imaging, he showed immediate recovery of these language functions. The identification of language functions that were impaired when Broca's area was dysfunctional (due to low blood flow) and recovered when Broca's area was functional again, provides evidence for the critical role of Broca's area in these language functions, at least in this individual.

  5. Generating functionals for Green's functions in gauge field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bordag, M.; Kaschlun, L.; Matveev, V.A.; Robaschik, D.

    1987-09-01

    The structure of the generating functional of the one-particle-irreducible Green's functions in gauge field theories is investigated. Both axial as well as covariant gauge conditions are considered. For both cases, the general structure of the functionals is obtained, and a functional expansion with respect to nonlocal operators is given. The appearance of gauge-dependent operators in the case of the covariant gauge follows in a natural manner from the structure of the corresponding functional.

  6. Second generation large area microchannel plate flat panel phototubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertley, C. D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Tedesco, J.; Minot, M. J.; O'Mahony, A.; Craven, C. A.; Popecki, M.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Foley, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Very large (20 cm × 20 cm) flat panel phototubes are being developed which employ novel microchannel plates (MCPs). The MCPs are manufactured using borosilicate microcapillary arrays which are functionalized by the application of resistive and secondary emissive layers using atomic layer deposition (ALD). This allows the operational parameters to be set by tailoring sequential ALD deposition processes. The borosilicate substrates are robust, including the ability to be produced in large formats (20 cm square). ALD MCPs have performance characteristics (gain, pulse amplitude distributions, and imaging) that are equivalent or better than conventional MCPs. They have low intrinsic background (0.045 events cm-2 sec-1)., high open area ratios (74% for the latest generation of borosilicate substrates), and stable gain during >7 C cm-2 charge extraction after preconditioning (vacuum bake and burn-in). The tube assemblies use a pair of 20 cm × 20 cm ALD MCPs comprised of a borosilicate entrance window, a proximity focused bialkali photocathode, and a strip-line readout anode. The second generation design employs an all glass body with a hot indium seal and a transfer photocathode. We have achieved >20% quantum efficiency and good gain uniformity over the 400 cm2 field of view, spatial resolution of <1 cm and obtained event timing accuracy of close to 100 ps FWHM.

  7. Generating functions for weighted Hurwitz numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay-Paquet, Mathieu; Harnad, J.

    2017-08-01

    Double Hurwitz numbers enumerating weighted n-sheeted branched coverings of the Riemann sphere or, equivalently, weighted paths in the Cayley graph of Sn generated by transpositions are determined by an associated weight generating function. A uniquely determined 1-parameter family of 2D Toda τ -functions of hypergeometric type is shown to consist of generating functions for such weighted Hurwitz numbers. Four classical cases are detailed, in which the weighting is uniform: Okounkov's double Hurwitz numbers for which the ramification is simple at all but two specified branch points; the case of Belyi curves, with three branch points, two with specified profiles; the general case, with a specified number of branch points, two with fixed profiles, the rest constrained only by the genus; and the signed enumeration case, with sign determined by the parity of the number of branch points. Using the exponentiated quantum dilogarithm function as a weight generator, three new types of weighted enumerations are introduced. These determine quantum Hurwitz numbers depending on a deformation parameter q. By suitable interpretation of q, the statistical mechanics of quantum weighted branched covers may be related to that of Bosonic gases. The standard double Hurwitz numbers are recovered in the classical limit.

  8. Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin

    2013-08-15

    The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton–Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.

  9. Generation of Wannier functions for photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Christian; Mack, Patrick; Busch, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    We present an approach for the efficient generation of Wannier functions for Photonic Crystal computations that is based on a combination of group-theoretical analysis and efficient minimization strategies. In particular, we describe the symmetry properties that allow for exponential localization of Wannier functions and how they are related to the underlying Bloch mode symmetries of the photonic band structure and we show that no exponentially localized Wannier functions can be created from the physical modes of a three-dimensional crystal. Moreover, we comment on the use of conjugate gradient and randomized minimization algorithms that—together with the group theoretical considerations—facilitate the efficient numerical determination of maximally localized Wannier functions for many bands. This is a requirement for the accurate computation of Photonic Crystal functional elements and devices.

  10. Unstructured grid generation using the distance function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Barna L.; Chakravarthy, Sukumar R.

    1991-01-01

    A new class of methods for obtaining level sets to generate unstructured grids is presented. The consecutive grid levels are computed using the distance functions, which corresponds to solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equations representing the equations of motion of fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The relationship between the distance function and the governing equations will be discussed as well as its application to generating grids. Multi-ply connected domains and complex geometries are handled naturally, with a straightforward generalization to several space dimensions. The grid points for the unstructured grid are obtained simultaneously with the grid levels. The search involved in checking for overlapping triangles is minimized by triangulating the entire domain one level at a time.

  11. Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation

    PubMed Central

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Aromataris, Giuseppe; Cabrini, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio; Moro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca’s area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca’s area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca’s area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard. PMID:25624479

  12. Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation.

    PubMed

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Aromataris, Giuseppe; Cabrini, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio; Moro, Andrea

    2015-02-10

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca's area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca's area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca's area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard.

  13. Emergency Management. Functional Area Qualification Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    TS DOE– STD –1177-2004 January 2004 DOE STANDARD EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 DOE- STD -1177-2004 i This document has been reproduced directly from...Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605–6000. DOE- STD -1177-2004 ii APPROVAL The Federal Technical Capability Panel consists of senior U.S

  14. 21 CFR 870.3630 - Pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3630... generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. A pacemaker generator function analyzer is a device that is connected to a pacemaker pulse generator to test any or all of the generator's parameters, including pulse...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3630 - Pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3630... generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. A pacemaker generator function analyzer is a device that is connected to a pacemaker pulse generator to test any or all of the generator's parameters, including pulse...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3630 - Pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3630... generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. A pacemaker generator function analyzer is a device that is connected to a pacemaker pulse generator to test any or all of the generator's parameters, including pulse...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3630 - Pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3630... generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. A pacemaker generator function analyzer is a device that is connected to a pacemaker pulse generator to test any or all of the generator's parameters, including pulse...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3630 - Pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3630... generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. A pacemaker generator function analyzer is a device that is connected to a pacemaker pulse generator to test any or all of the generator's parameters, including pulse...

  19. Numerical simulation of flow generated in a closed water areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Narisu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Katayama, Yuki; Watanabe, Masaji

    2016-02-01

    Techniques to analyze the bottom topography in a closed water area are described. Positioning data are recorded with a global positioning system, and depth data are recorded with an echo sounder. Positioning data and depth data are synchronized to generate three-dimensional topographical data. Errors due to ship's movement are corrected using outputs from a clinometer and a compass. The change due to sedimentation is investigated for the bottom topography of Kojima Lake. We describe numerical techniques based on a finite-element method and an explicit time integration method to analyze flow generated in Kojima Lake.

  20. Compensation payments for downsides generated by protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, Peter; Li, Guo; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Wei; Wu, Xiaopu; Xu, Jing

    2013-02-01

    Protected areas are powerful instruments to tackle the biodiversity crises. However, local communities believe that protected areas generate downsides for which they should be compensated. We reviewed (1) problem evolution, (2) the idea of compensation schemes, and (3) practical considerations. We found that compensations for conservation-related losses are insufficiently considered when protected areas are established. Schemes include controversial resettlements of human populations, traditional reimbursements, and recently favored incentive payments to encourage local communities to conserve biodiversity on their lands. The compensation process is typically composed of the verification of losses/facts, estimation of costs, and delivery of payments. Compensation schemes promote tolerance and awareness, and responsibility of the broader society while minimizing confrontations. They have the power to mainstream concern about human welfare in protected area management, and are therefore a key to successful conservation. Verifying the impact of compensations on achievement of conservation goals remains, however, difficult to prove.

  1. History of hydrocarbon generation in Tembungo Area, Northwest Sabah Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoesni, M.J.; Mood, M.N.C. )

    1994-07-01

    Tembungo field in Sabah Basin produces oil from upper Miocene turbidite reservoirs. The oil, with low sulfur and wax contents and API gravity of 38-40[degrees], was derived from terrigenous source rock of mainly land-plant origin. The history of hydrocarbon generation in the Tembungo area - that is, the burial, fluid pressure and fluid-flow, thermal, hydrocarbon generation, and migration history - has been studied with the help of a two-dimensional finite difference basin model. Backstripping shows that high sedimentation rates occurred during middle to late Miocene. The Tembungo structure itself began to grow in late Miocene (7.24 Ma), with an accelerated growth rate in the early Pliocene. A constant basement heat flow of 55 mW/m[sup 2] was determined for the area. The faults are known to be sealing, with very low associated permeabilities. The presence of barrier faults and thick shales resulted in development of overpressure in the area. Contribution of hydrocarbon generation to overpressure is insignificant. Maturation models based on kinetic chemical reaction indicate that upper Miocene sediments underlying the reservoir section in the adjacent syncline to the northwest and west began to enter the hydrocarbon generation window at 8.4 Ma and that the hydrocarbons began to be trapped in the Tembungo structure in the late Miocene (6.0 Ma). The oils most likely were sourced from these upper Miocene sediments underlying the reservoirs. Hydrocarbons sourced in middle Miocene sediments were largely retained due to thick overlying shales, and they eventually were cracked to gas.

  2. Effect of dummy area in the generation of computer-generated hologram to improve the reconstruction diffraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaki, Yuki; Koga, Yosuke; Yang, Shiyuan; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2014-11-01

    In most cases of the generation of computer-generated hologram, a zero-valued dummy area is usually added to the desired object in order to avoid the disturbance of high order reconstruction. The high order reconstruction not only disturbs the zero order reconstruction but also decreases the zero order reconstruction diffraction efficiency. In this study, we show a method to improve the zero order reconstruction diffraction efficiency by using a finite dummy area. According to the structure of a general computer-generated hologram, that is each calculated computer-generated hologram point has the same square size, then the high order reconstruction is the product of the zero order reconstruction and a sampling function with a scale factor. We use computer simulation to show the effect of dummy area in the improvement of the zero order reconstruction diffraction efficiency. According to our simulation results, we find that the zero order reconstruction diffraction efficiency increases as increasing the size of dummy area. In addition, we also find that the on-axis reconstruction has a higher reconstruction diffraction efficiency that the off-axis ones.

  3. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skliros, Dimitri P.; Copeland, Edmund J.; Saffin, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES). In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators) in general toroidal compactifications E =R D - 1 , 1 ×T Dcr - D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge fields and torsion). We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a ;reverse engineering; method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string) duality in string theory.

  4. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.

    1991-07-16

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm[sup 2]. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity. 3 figures.

  5. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Gorbatkin, Steven M.; Berry, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm.sup.2. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity.

  6. Function generator eliminates necessity of series summation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callan, J. D.; Mc Call, A. J.; Mead, D.

    1966-01-01

    Diode generator using four building-block circuits produces complex waveforms without the necessity of series summation. This highly specialized method of producing complex waveforms requires less power than present methods and uses simpler circuitry.

  7. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator...

  9. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator...

  10. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator...

  11. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator...

  12. 25 CFR 33.5 - Area education functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Area education functions. 33.5 Section 33.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.5 Area education functions. A Bureau Area Education Programs Director shall perform those Bureau...

  13. 25 CFR 33.5 - Area education functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Area education functions. 33.5 Section 33.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.5 Area education functions. A Bureau Area Education Programs Director shall perform those Bureau...

  14. 25 CFR 33.5 - Area education functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Area education functions. 33.5 Section 33.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.5 Area education functions. A Bureau Area Education Programs Director shall perform those Bureau of...

  15. 25 CFR 33.5 - Area education functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Area education functions. 33.5 Section 33.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.5 Area education functions. A Bureau Area Education Programs Director shall perform those...

  16. 25 CFR 33.5 - Area education functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Area education functions. 33.5 Section 33.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.5 Area education functions. A Bureau Area Education Programs Director shall perform those...

  17. The retinal projectome reveals brain-area-specific visual representations generated by ganglion cell diversity.

    PubMed

    Robles, Estuardo; Laurell, Eva; Baier, Herwig

    2014-09-22

    Visual information is transmitted to the vertebrate brain exclusively via the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The functional diversity of RGCs generates multiple representations of the visual environment that are transmitted to several brain areas. However, in no vertebrate species has a complete wiring diagram of RGC axonal projections been constructed. We employed sparse genetic labeling and in vivo imaging of the larval zebrafish to generate a cellular-resolution map of projections from the retina to the brain. Our data define 20 stereotyped axonal projection patterns, the majority of which innervate multiple brain areas. Morphometric analysis of pre- and postsynaptic RGC structure revealed more than 50 structural RGC types with unique combinations of dendritic and axonal morphologies, exceeding current estimates of RGC diversity in vertebrates. These single-cell projection mapping data indicate that specific projection patterns are nonuniformly specified in the retina to generate retinotopically biased visual maps throughout the brain. The retinal projectome also successfully predicted a functional subdivision of the pretectum. Our data indicate that RGC projection patterns are precisely coordinated to generate brain-area-specific visual representations originating from RGCs with distinct dendritic morphologies and topographic distributions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A generating function for certain coefficients involving several complex variables.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, H M

    1970-10-01

    In an attempt to unify a number of generating functions for certain classes of generalized hypergeometric polynomials, Lagrange's expansion formula is applied to prove a generating relation for an n-dimensional polynomial with arbitrary coefficients. It is also shown how these coefficients can be specialized to obtain the generalized Lauricella function as a generating function for a class of generalized hypergeometric polynomials of several complex variables.

  19. Generating Text from Functional Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisco; Detre, Greg; Botvinick, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent work has shown that it is possible to take brain images acquired during viewing of a scene and reconstruct an approximation of the scene from those images. Here we show that it is also possible to generate text about the mental content reflected in brain images. We began with images collected as participants read names of concrete items (e.g., “Apartment’’) while also seeing line drawings of the item named. We built a model of the mental semantic representation of concrete concepts from text data and learned to map aspects of such representation to patterns of activation in the corresponding brain image. In order to validate this mapping, without accessing information about the items viewed for left-out individual brain images, we were able to generate from each one a collection of semantically pertinent words (e.g., “door,” “window” for “Apartment’’). Furthermore, we show that the ability to generate such words allows us to perform a classification task and thus validate our method quantitatively. PMID:21927602

  20. USAFE Annex to USAF Functional Area Requirement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-20

    receiving deploying units are also considered for their effect on in-place unit readiness. SAC and MAC support to TFW units is also discussed. The...peacetime focus on effective use of flying hours and optimum generation of sorties. Operations trains against the unit’s wartime commitment to support...Parts vehicles) Maintenance personnel Engines Break Rates Munitions Choke points MICAP status Runway obstacles(snow, ice) Supply effectiveness POL

  1. Third generation antipsychotic drugs: partial agonism or receptor functional selectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Mailman, Richard B.; Murthy, Vishakantha

    2010-01-01

    Functional selectivity is the term that describes drugs that cause markedly different signaling through a single receptor (e.g., full agonist at one pathway and antagonist at a second). It has been widely recognized recently that this phenomenon impacts the understanding of mechanism of action of some drugs, and has relevance to drug discovery. One of the clinical areas where this mechanism has particular importance is in the treatment of schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs have been grouped according to both pattern of clinical action and mechanism of action. The original antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol have been called typical or first generation. They cause both antipsychotic actions and many side effects (extrapyramidal and endocrine) that are ascribed to their high affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. Drugs such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and others were then developed that avoided the neurological side effects (atypical or second generation antipsychotics). These compounds are divided mechanistically into those that are high affinity D2 and 5-HT2A antagonists, and those that also bind with modest affinity to D2, 5-HT2A, and many other neuroreceptors. There is one approved third generation drug, aripiprazole, whose actions have been ascribed alternately to either D2 partial agonism or D2 functional selectivity. Although partial agonism has been the more widely accepted mechanism, the available data are inconsistent with this mechanism. Conversely, the D2 functional selectivity hypothesis can accommodate all current data for aripiprazole, and also impacts on discovery compounds that are not pure D2 antagonists. PMID:19909227

  2. Piecewise Linear Membership Function Generator-Divider Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Ron; Martinez, Gene; Yuan, Bo; Zrilic, Djuro; Ramirez, Jaime

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a simple, inexpensive, membership function circuit for fuzzy controllers is presented. The proposed circuit may be used to generate a general trapezoidal membership function. The slope and horizontal shift are fully programmable parameters.

  3. Gate-based decomposition of index generation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuba, Tadeusz; Borowik, Grzegorz; Jankowski, Cezary

    2016-09-01

    Index Generation Functions may be useful in distribution of IP addresses, virus scanning, or undesired data detection. Traditional approach leads to universal cells based decomposition. In this paper an original method is proposed. The proposed multilevel logic synthesis method based on functional decomposition uses gates instead of cells. Furthermore, it preserves advantages of functional decomposition and is well suited for ROM-based synthesis of Index Generation Functions.

  4. The Full Function Test Explosive Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-12-13

    We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the Full Function Test (FFT). These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new US record for magnetic energy was obtained.

  5. Optical Spatial integration methods for ambiguity function generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamura, P. N.; Rebholz, J. J.; Daehlin, O. T.; Lee, T. C.

    1981-01-01

    A coherent optical spatial integration approach to ambiguity function generation is described. It uses one dimensional acousto-optic Bragg cells as input tranducers in conjunction with a space variant linear phase shifter, a passive optical element, to generate the two dimensional ambiguity function in one exposure. Results of a real time implementation of this system are shown.

  6. Restoring Functional Areas of Continuously Casted Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezinová, Janette; Balog, Peter; Viňáš, Ján

    2012-12-01

    the paper proposes the fourth restoration of a roller in continuous casting production lines which can enhance production efficiency and lowers costs. The roller was forged from the material 24CrMoV55 - DIN 17240. The roller has been restored three times and is chosen for further restoration. The roller was restored by submerged arc welding (SAW) where the first layer was made from UP-5-200-CZ wire and the covering layers made from UP-5-45-CZ wire. Quality of the weld deposits were evaluated by measuring the hardness, mixing the weld with basic material and by setting the basic mechanical properties in the critical under-weld deposit area. Structures of the weld deposits were evaluated by light microscopy and their chemical composition was determined by EDX analysis. Based on experiments it can be concluded that rollers can be restored for the fourth time, but the limiting factor is the extent of damage.

  7. Experimental generation of Bessel-Gauss coherence functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Singh, R. P.; Miyamoto, Yoko

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally generate the Bessel-Gauss coherence functions using the cross-correlations between the two speckle patterns obtained using the perfect optical vortices (POV) of different orders. POV beams are generated using the Fourier transform of Bessel-Gauss beams by displaying the axicon hologram on spatial light modulator. A ground glass plate is used for scattering POV beams and the speckles are recorded. The cross-correlation function of two speckle patterns is Bessel-Gauss functions whose order is given by the difference in the orders of two POV beams used for scattering. The auto-correlation function of these speckles is Bessel-Gauss function of order zero.

  8. The area of allowable states in Mooney-Rivlin type dielectric elastomer generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwu; Sun, Shouhua; Yu, Kai; Li, Bo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer(DE) could be used in generator design and fabrication, which has been verified by experiments. The function principle of DE generator is contrary to that of DE actuator. By imposing a low voltage to the dielectric elastomer membrane, electric charges are accumulated on the two surfaces. Then we apply mechanical force to the sides of the membrane to produce pre-stretch, and the thickness of the membrane becomes thinner and the capacitance increases, where mechanical energy is converted to elastic energy. After the mechanical force being withdrawn, because of elasticity, the thickness of membrane increases while the capacitance decreases, and elastic energy is converted to electrical energy. This is a work cycle of conversion from elastic to electric energy. Researchers have always been expecting to find a model that can well predict and evaluate the performance of dielectric elastomer generator. Suo et al. proposed the typical failure model of neo-Hooken type dielectric elastomer generator and calculates the maximal energy converted in a mechanical and electrical cycle. In this paper, we demonstrate the area of allowable states of various Mooney-Rivlin type dielectric elastomer generators, which can be employed to direct the design and fabrication of Mooney-Rivlin silicone generator, and the results coincide with Suo's theory.

  9. Spline methods for approximating quantile functions and generating random samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.; Matthews, C. G.

    1985-01-01

    Two cubic spline formulations are presented for representing the quantile function (inverse cumulative distribution function) of a random sample of data. Both B-spline and rational spline approximations are compared with analytic representations of the quantile function. It is also shown how these representations can be used to generate random samples for use in simulation studies. Comparisons are made on samples generated from known distributions and a sample of experimental data. The spline representations are more accurate for multimodal and skewed samples and to require much less time to generate samples than the analytic representation.

  10. Extrastriate visual cortex in idiopathic occipital epilepsies: The contribution of retinotopic areas to spike generation.

    PubMed

    Meletti, Stefano; Ruggieri, Andrea; Avanzini, Pietro; Caramaschi, Elisa; Filippini, Melissa; Bergonzini, Patrizia; Monti, Giulia; Vignoli, Aglaia; Olivotto, Sara; Mastrangelo, Massimo; Santucci, Margherita; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta

    2016-06-01

    To provide insight into the pathophysiology of idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsies (ICOEs), by mapping the contribution of retinotopic visual areas to the generation and sustainment of epileptic activity. Thirteen patients affected by ICOEs (mean age = 10.9 years) underwent a video electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) study. A flexible-related fMRI analysis was applied to estimate the shape of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in each patient. Second-level analysis was performed using the interictal EEG discharge (IED)-specific response shape for the ICOE group. The resulting fMRI t-maps were warped to the Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS)-B12 atlas in Caret. For localization purposes, functional results were plotted and compared against 19 retinotopic areas for each hemisphere. A correlation analysis was performed between the hemodynamic maps and electroclinical variables. The shape of the group-averaged hemodynamic response in ICOE patients showed an earlier time-to-peak and a more pronounced undershoot than the canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF). The random-effect analysis showed positive hemodynamic changes in the bilateral temporooccipital network. With regard to the retinotopic subdivision of the visual cortex, the primary visual area was consistently spared. Conversely, an extensive involvement of the occipitotemporal cortex, including the fusiform gyrus, and the occipitoparietal areas was observed. Moreover, a linear relationship was detected between the occipital spike-density and BOLD increases at the postcentral gyrus and temporooccipital cortex. Our data indicate that both the ventral and dorsal visual pathways are involved in spike generation in ICOEs, to extents that vary between patients, and reinforce the concept of benign childhood seizure susceptibility syndrome as a substrate for ICOEs. Finally, these results underscore the need for appropriate

  11. Generating functionals for autonomous latching dynamics in attractor relict networks

    PubMed Central

    Linkerhand, Mathias; Gros, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Coupling local, slowly adapting variables to an attractor network allows to destabilize all attractors, turning them into attractor ruins. The resulting attractor relict network may show ongoing autonomous latching dynamics. We propose to use two generating functionals for the construction of attractor relict networks, a Hopfield energy functional generating a neural attractor network and a functional based on information-theoretical principles, encoding the information content of the neural firing statistics, which induces latching transition from one transiently stable attractor ruin to the next. We investigate the influence of stress, in terms of conflicting optimization targets, on the resulting dynamics. Objective function stress is absent when the target level for the mean of neural activities is identical for the two generating functionals and the resulting latching dynamics is then found to be regular. Objective function stress is present when the respective target activity levels differ, inducing intermittent bursting latching dynamics. PMID:23784373

  12. Generating Functions for the Powers of Fibonacci Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrana, D.; Chen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, based on the Binet formulas and the power-reducing techniques, closed forms of generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences as well.

  13. Generating Functions for the Powers of Fibonacci Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrana, D.; Chen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, based on the Binet formulas and the power-reducing techniques, closed forms of generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences as well.

  14. A Genetic Algorithm Optimised Fuzzy Logic Controller for Automatic Generation Control for Single Area System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, J. S.; Jain, V.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA)-based design and optimization of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for automatic generation control (AGC) for a single area. FLCs are characterized by a set of parameters, which are optimized using GA to improve their performance. The design of input and output membership functions (mfs) of an FLC is carried out by automatically tuning (off-line) the parameters of the membership functions. Tuning is based on maximization of a comprehensive fitness function constructed as inverse of a weighted average of three performance indices, i.e., integral square deviation (ISD), the integral of square of the frequency deviation and peak overshoot (Mp), and settling time (ts). The GA-optimized FLC (GAFLC) shows better performance as compared to a conventional proportional integral (PI) and a hand-designed fuzzy logic controller not only for a standard system (displaying frequency deviations) but also under parametric and load disturbances.

  15. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F.; Kelley, William M.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html. PMID:25316338

  16. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F; Kelley, William M; Petersen, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html.

  17. Retirement Function and Community Growth in Michigan Nonmetropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ching-li; Beegle, J. Allan

    In an effort to determine the extent to which the development of the retirement function can contribute to growth and development of rural communities, 42 counties not adjacent to Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in Michigan were studied. The retirement function was treated as a specialized community function, parallel to specialization…

  18. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  19. Association of area socioeconomic status with lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Fan; Wu, Cho-Kai; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2012-12-01

    The study investigates the association between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and children's lung function. Participants were 3994 seventh grade students from the Taiwan Children Health Study living in 14 communities in Taiwan and were recruited in 2007. Area-level SES predictors were population size, occupation type, income and education level. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) were used to examine the effects of area-level SES on lung function, after accounting for area air pollution and individual SES (parental education and family income). Areas with high income were independently associated with lower child lung function. The coefficients for log transformation of area tax per person in HLM were -47.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): -80.9, -14.8) in FEV(1), -43.8 (95% CI: -75.2, -12.5) in FVC, -93.4 (95% CI: -179.3, -7.5) in FEF(25-75) and -203.2 (95% CI: -349.1, -57.2) in PEF. All SES predictors influenced in the same direction and affected males more. The interaction of area tax per person with parental educational level was significant on PEF, suggesting significant association of greater parental education with lower lung function in children. High area SES was inversely associated with lung function in Taiwanese children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Boston Area NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar) Demonstration (BAND).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-08

    R164 426 THE BOSTON ARES NEXRAD (NEXT NERTION WEATHER RAA) 1/K DENONSTRATION (BRND)(U) AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LR HANSCOM RFB MA D E FORSYTH ET AL. 08...8217 ""’""’"-’ -:"-"."ŕ"൓’ - - .6 AD-A164 426 AFGL-TR-85-0098 ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PAPERS, NO. 912 The Boston Area NEXRAD Demonstration (BAND) DOUGLAS E. FORSYTH...CO - NEXRAD JOINT SYSTEM PROGRAM OFFICE SILVER SPRING, MD 20900 LNEDJ. 86 221 015’ .... . - .-... -- .. "..".... "This technical report has been

  1. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  2. Surface area-dependent second harmonic generation from silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Luong, Thanh Tuyen; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-08-17

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of metallic nanoparticles strongly depend on their size and shape. Metallic gold nanorods have already been widely investigated, but other noble metals could also be used for nanorod fabrication towards applications in photonics. Here we report on the synthesis and NLO characterization of silver nanorods (AgNRs) with controllable localized surface plasmon resonance. We have implemented an original, one-step and seedless synthesis method, based on a spontaneous particle growth technique in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. Colloidal solutions of AgNRs with various aspect ratios (5.0; 6.3; 7.5; 8.2 and 9.7) have been obtained and characterized using Harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm, in order to investigate their quadratic NLO properties. From HLS experiments, we demonstrate that hyperpolarizability (β) values of AgNRs display a strong dependence on their surface area.

  3. Inverse solution of ear-canal area function from reflectance.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Neely, Stephen T

    2011-12-01

    A number of acoustical applications require the transformation of acoustical quantities, such as impedance and pressure that are measured at the entrance of the ear canal, to quantities at the eardrum. This transformation often requires knowledge of the shape of the ear canal. Previous attempts to measure ear-canal area functions were either invasive, non-reproducible, or could only measure the area function up to a point mid-way along the canal. A method to determine the area function of the ear canal from measurements of acoustic impedance at the entrance of the ear canal is described. The method is based on a solution to the inverse problem in which measurements of impedance are used to calculate reflectance, which is then used to determine the area function of the canal. The mean ear-canal area function determined using this method is similar to mean ear-canal area functions measured by other researchers using different techniques. The advantage of the proposed method over previous methods is that it is non- invasive, fast, and reproducible.

  4. Inverse solution of ear-canal area function from reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    A number of acoustical applications require the transformation of acoustical quantities, such as impedance and pressure that are measured at the entrance of the ear canal, to quantities at the eardrum. This transformation often requires knowledge of the shape of the ear canal. Previous attempts to measure ear-canal area functions were either invasive, non-reproducible, or could only measure the area function up to a point mid-way along the canal. A method to determine the area function of the ear canal from measurements of acoustic impedance at the entrance of the ear canal is described. The method is based on a solution to the inverse problem in which measurements of impedance are used to calculate reflectance, which is then used to determine the area function of the canal. The mean ear-canal area function determined using this method is similar to mean ear-canal area functions measured by other researchers using different techniques. The advantage of the proposed method over previous methods is that it is non- invasive, fast, and reproducible. PMID:22225043

  5. 24 CFR 901.120 - State/Area Office functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PHA's grade and the grade of the RMC (if any) assuming management functions at any of the PHA's developments, in each indicator; the PHA's management assessment total weighted score and status, and if... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.120 State/Area Office functions. (a...

  6. Precision medicine for cancer with next-generation functional diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Adam A; Letai, Anthony; Fisher, David E; Flaherty, Keith T

    2015-12-01

    Precision medicine is about matching the right drugs to the right patients. Although this approach is technology agnostic, in cancer there is a tendency to make precision medicine synonymous with genomics. However, genome-based cancer therapeutic matching is limited by incomplete biological understanding of the relationship between phenotype and cancer genotype. This limitation can be addressed by functional testing of live patient tumour cells exposed to potential therapies. Recently, several 'next-generation' functional diagnostic technologies have been reported, including novel methods for tumour manipulation, molecularly precise assays of tumour responses and device-based in situ approaches; these address the limitations of the older generation of chemosensitivity tests. The promise of these new technologies suggests a future diagnostic strategy that integrates functional testing with next-generation sequencing and immunoprofiling to precisely match combination therapies to individual cancer patients.

  7. Automated Testcase Generation for Numerical Support Functions in Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Schnieder, Stefan-Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a tool for the automatic generation of test stimuli for small numerical support functions, e.g., code for trigonometric functions, quaternions, filters, or table lookup. Our tool is based on KLEE to produce a set of test stimuli for full path coverage. We use a method of iterative deepening over abstractions to deal with floating-point values. During actual testing the stimuli exercise the code against a reference implementation. We illustrate our approach with results of experiments with low-level trigonometric functions, interpolation routines, and mathematical support functions from an open source UAS autopilot.

  8. A Generative Model of Speech Production in Broca's and Wernicke's Areas.

    PubMed

    Price, Cathy J; Crinion, Jenny T; Macsweeney, Mairéad

    2011-01-01

    Speech production involves the generation of an auditory signal from the articulators and vocal tract. When the intended auditory signal does not match the produced sounds, subsequent articulatory commands can be adjusted to reduce the difference between the intended and produced sounds. This requires an internal model of the intended speech output that can be compared to the produced speech. The aim of this functional imaging study was to identify brain activation related to the internal model of speech production after activation related to vocalization, auditory feedback, and movement in the articulators had been controlled. There were four conditions: silent articulation of speech, non-speech mouth movements, finger tapping, and visual fixation. In the speech conditions, participants produced the mouth movements associated with the words "one" and "three." We eliminated auditory feedback from the spoken output by instructing participants to articulate these words without producing any sound. The non-speech mouth movement conditions involved lip pursing and tongue protrusions to control for movement in the articulators. The main difference between our speech and non-speech mouth movement conditions is that prior experience producing speech sounds leads to the automatic and covert generation of auditory and phonological associations that may play a role in predicting auditory feedback. We found that, relative to non-speech mouth movements, silent speech activated Broca's area in the left dorsal pars opercularis and Wernicke's area in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus. We discuss these results in the context of a generative model of speech production and propose that Broca's and Wernicke's areas may be involved in predicting the speech output that follows articulation. These predictions could provide a mechanism by which rapid movement of the articulators is precisely matched to the intended speech outputs during future articulations.

  9. Vocal tract area functions from magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Story, B H; Titze, I R; Hoffman, E A

    1996-07-01

    There have been considerable research efforts in the area of vocal tract modeling but there is still a small body of information regarding direct 3-D measurements of the vocal tract shape. The purpose of this study was to acquire, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an inventory of speaker-specific, three-dimensional, vocal tract air space shapes that correspond to a particular set of vowels and consonants. A set of 18 shapes was obtained for one male subject who vocalized while being scanned for 12 vowels, 3 nasals, and 3 plosives. The 3-D shapes were analyzed to find the cross-sectional areas evaluated within planes always chosen to be perpendicular to the centerline extending from the glottis to the mouth to produce an "area function." This paper provides a speaker-specific catalogue of area functions for 18 vocal tract shapes. Comparisons of formant locations extracted from the natural (recorded) speech of the imaged subject and from simulations using the newly acquired area functions show reasonable similarity but suggest that the imaged vocal tract shapes may be somewhat centralized. Additionally, comparisons of the area functions reported in this study are compared with those from four previous studies and demonstrate general similarities in shape but also obvious differences that can be attributed to differences in imaging techniques, image processing methods, and anatomical differences of the imaged subjects.

  10. Asymptotics of bivariate generating functions with algebraic singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Torin

    Flajolet and Odlyzko (1990) derived asymptotic formulae the coefficients of a class of uni- variate generating functions with algebraic singularities. Gao and Richmond (1992) and Hwang (1996, 1998) extended these results to classes of multivariate generating functions, in both cases by reducing to the univariate case. Pemantle and Wilson (2013) outlined new multivariate ana- lytic techniques and used them to analyze the coefficients of rational generating functions. After overviewing these methods, we use them to find asymptotic formulae for the coefficients of a broad class of bivariate generating functions with algebraic singularities. Beginning with the Cauchy integral formula, we explicity deform the contour of integration so that it hugs a set of critical points. The asymptotic contribution to the integral comes from analyzing the integrand near these points, leading to explicit asymptotic formulae. Next, we use this formula to analyze an example from current research. In the following chapter, we apply multivariate analytic techniques to quan- tum walks. Bressler and Pemantle (2007) found a (d + 1)-dimensional rational generating function whose coefficients described the amplitude of a particle at a position in the integer lattice after n steps. Here, the minimal critical points form a curve on the (d + 1)-dimensional unit torus. We find asymptotic formulae for the amplitude of a particle in a given position, normalized by the number of steps n, as n approaches infinity. Each critical point contributes to the asymptotics for a specific normalized position. Using Groebner bases in Maple again, we compute the explicit locations of peak amplitudes. In a scaling window of size the square root of n near the peaks, each amplitude is asymptotic to an Airy function.

  11. Using a Function Generator to Produce Auditory and Visual Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Charles B.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies a function generator as an instrument that produces time-varying electrical signals of frequency, wavelength, and amplitude. Sending these signals to a speaker or a light-emitting diode can demonstrate how specific characteristics of auditory or visual stimuli relate to perceptual experiences. Provides specific instructions for using…

  12. Using a Function Generator to Produce Auditory and Visual Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Charles B.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies a function generator as an instrument that produces time-varying electrical signals of frequency, wavelength, and amplitude. Sending these signals to a speaker or a light-emitting diode can demonstrate how specific characteristics of auditory or visual stimuli relate to perceptual experiences. Provides specific instructions for using…

  13. SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.

    1970-01-01

    The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.

  14. The Human Functional Genomics Project: Understanding Generation of Diversity.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Jenna L; Hafler, David A

    2016-11-03

    Generation of biologic diversity is a cornerstone of immunity, yet the tools to investigate the causal influence of genetic and environmental factors have been greatly limited. Studies from the Human Functional Genomics Project, presented in Cell and other Cell Press journals, integrate environmental and genetic factors with the direction and magnitude of immune responses to decipher inflammatory disease pathogenesis.

  15. Efficient heat generation in large-area graphene films by electromagnetic wave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangmin; Choi, Haehyun; Lee, Soo Bin; Park, Seong Chae; Park, Jong Bo; Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Byung Hee

    2017-06-01

    Graphene has been intensively studied due to its outstanding electrical and thermal properties. Recently, it was found that the heat generation by Joule heating of graphene is limited by the conductivity of graphene. Here we suggest an alternative method to generate heat on a large-area graphene film more efficiently by utilizing the unique electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption property of graphene. The EM wave induces an oscillating magnetic moment generated by the orbital motion of moving electrons, which efficiently absorbs the EM energy and dissipate it as a thermal energy. In this case, the mobility of electron is more important than the conductivity, because the EM-induced diamagnetic moment is directly proportional to the speed of electron in an orbital motion. To control the charge carrier mobility of graphene we functionalized substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). As the result, we find that the graphene showing the Dirac voltage close to zero can be more efficiently heated by EM waves. In addition, the temperature gradient also depends on the number of graphene. We expect that the efficient and fast heating of graphene films by EM waves can be utilized for smart heating windows and defogging windshields.

  16. The extrastriate body area (EBA): One structure, multiple functions?

    PubMed

    de Lange, Floris P; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Downing and Peelen argue that the extrastriate body area (EBA) creates an unelaborated visual repre- sentation of the human body, but is not implicated in any higher-order computational process. We believe that this reflects an outdated view of brain function, in which neural regions are informationally encapsulated modules with fixed computational properties. In contrast, there is mounting evidence that functional properties may not be fixed but may be dependent on the context in which the region is recruited. We will illustrate this by taking a closer look at a visual area of which the properties are potentially even simpler: the primary visual cortex.

  17. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46. PMID:25538761

  18. Generating functional for the Green’s functions of a two-flavor bosonic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Jizba, P.; Smaldone, L.

    2017-08-01

    We examine a simple two-flavor scalar model with a non-diagonal mass matrix. We argue that the conventional definition of the QFT partition function does not allow to evaluate the Green’s functions with respect to the flavor vacuum as it favors only the mass vacuum. By using functional-integral techniques, we derive new generating functional for Green’s functions on the flavor vacuum.

  19. [Development of multi-function ECG signal generator].

    PubMed

    Cheng, F; Wei, Y X

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a portable multi-function ECG signal generator, which is based on micro-controller. It uses technique of LCD screen, and realizes man-machine interaction by keyboard. In constructing and disposing data module of the ECG signal, Eigen-heartbeat Code mapping method gets ROM saved greatly. Therefore it can generate all kinds of user-defined ECG signal sequence with no extension of on-board memory chips. This system can also simulate kinds of ECG signals, which have various heart rates and symptoms. It can meet the needs of researching and maintenance of kinds of ECG instruments.

  20. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-02-01

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain "componential" map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory.

  1. Area-efficient physically unclonable function circuit architecture

    DOEpatents

    Gurrieri, Thomas; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2015-04-28

    Generating a physically a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit value includes comparing each of first identification components in a first bank to each of second identification components in a second bank. A given first identification component in the first bank is not compared to another first identification component in the first bank and a given second identification component in the second bank is not compared to another second identification component in the second bank. A digital bit value is generated for each comparison made while comparing each of the first identification components to each of the second identification components. A PUF circuit value is generated from the digital bit values from each comparison made.

  2. Electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material shows that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux.

  3. Electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material shows that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux.

  4. Recombination between defective tombusvirus RNAs generates functional hybrid genomes

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.A.; Morris, T.J.

    1994-04-26

    The tombusviruses represent a group of small icosahedral plant viruses that contain monopartite positive-sense RNA genomes. Tombusviruses are able to generate small replicating deletion mutants of their genomes (i.e., defective interfering RNAs) during infections via RNA recombination and/or rearrangement. To further study the process of RNA recombination and to determine whether tombusviruses were capable of trans-recombination, protoplasts were coinoculated with in vitro-generated transcripts of a nonreplicating 3{prime}-truncated genomic RNA of cucumber necrosis tombusvirus and either replicative or replication-defective DI RNAs of tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus. After 48-hr incubation, two dominant replicative chimeric recombinant viral RNA populations were detected that contained various large contiguous 5{prime} segments of the cucumber necrosis tombusvirus genomic RNA fused to 3{prime}-terminal regions of the tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus defective interfering RNA. Some of the larger chimeric recombinants formed in protoplasts were able to systemically infect plants and induce wild-type symptoms. In addition, a functional chimeric genome was generated in planta after direct coinoculation of whole plants with the defective RNA components. These results indicate that (i) RNA recombination can occur relatively efficiently in single-cell infections, (ii) trans-recombination can occur with nonreplicating viral RNA components, and (iii) functional chimeric genomes can be generated via recombination. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the recombinants are proposed, and evolutionary implications are discussed.

  5. Generation of functional human serotonergic neurons from fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Vadodaria, K C; Mertens, J; Paquola, A; Bardy, C; Li, X; Jappelli, R; Fung, L; Marchetto, M C; Hamm, M; Gorris, M; Koch, P; Gage, F H

    2016-01-01

    The brain's serotonergic system centrally regulates several physiological processes and its dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. While in the past our understanding of serotonergic neurotransmission has come mainly from mouse models, the development of pluripotent stem cell and induced fibroblast-to-neuron (iN) transdifferentiation technologies has revolutionized our ability to generate human neurons in vitro. Utilizing these techniques and a novel lentiviral reporter for serotonergic neurons, we identified and overexpressed key transcription factors to successfully generate human serotonergic neurons. We found that overexpressing the transcription factors NKX2.2, FEV, GATA2 and LMX1B in combination with ASCL1 and NGN2 directly and efficiently generated serotonergic neurons from human fibroblasts. Induced serotonergic neurons (iSNs) showed increased expression of specific serotonergic genes that are known to be expressed in raphe nuclei. iSNs displayed spontaneous action potentials, released serotonin in vitro and functionally responded to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Here, we demonstrate the efficient generation of functional human serotonergic neurons from human fibroblasts as a novel tool for studying human serotonergic neurotransmission in health and disease.

  6. Delineating potential epileptogenic areas utilizing resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Ricardo; Nair, Veena; Meier, Timothy; Holdsworth, Ryan; Tunnell, Evelyn; Rutecki, Paul; Sillay, Karl; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-08-01

    Seizure localization includes neuroimaging like electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with limited ability to characterize the epileptogenic network. Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) characterizes epileptogenic network congruent with interictal epileptiform discharges by clustering together voxels with transient signals. We generated epileptogenic areas for 12 of 13 epilepsy patients with TCA, congruent with different areas of seizure onset. Resting functional MRI (fMRI) scans are noninvasive, and can be acquired quickly, in patients with different levels of severity and function. Analyzing resting fMRI data using TCA is quick and can complement clinical methods to characterize the epileptogenic network.

  7. Precise Time-Tag Generator For A Local-Area-Network Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, David R.; Tran, Khoa Duy

    1995-01-01

    Time-tag-generating circuit designed for use in LAN monitor, monitors frames of data transmitted among computers on local-area network (LAN). To each frame of data that LAN monitor receives from LAN, time-tag generator appends ancillary data on time of arrival of frame, precise to within 1 microsecond of centrally generated time signal. Inserts ancillary time data in place of already used frame-check data before frames of data stored in memory of LAN monitor.

  8. [Progress of clinical application of functional MRI in the localization of brain language area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Lu, Junfeng; Wu, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    For surgical operation in the functional area in the brain, it's commonly demanded to resect the lesion to the maximal extent on the basis of preserve the normal neural function, thus the precise localization of functional area is extremely important. As for the advantages of being widely available, easy to grasp and non-invasive, the functional MRI (fMRI) has come into wide use, while the application of language fMRI is still in the initial stage. It's important to choose appropriate fMRI task according to the individual condition of the subject, the commonly-adopted tasks include verb generation, picture naming, word recognition, word generation, etc. However, the effectiveness of using fMRI to localize language area is not totally satisfactory, adopting multiple task is an effective approach to improve the sensitivity of this technique. The application of resting state fMRI in the localization of language area and the further research of the role of fMRI in localizing the Chinese language area are the important future directions.

  9. FSM test: A functional test generation system for sequential circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fummi, Franco

    1993-03-01

    An approach to test pattern generation for Finite State Machines (FSM's) and the relationships with their gate level implementation is presented. The algorithm is based on a functional fault model. A restricted set of transitions of the FSM is analyzed and particular state distinguishing sequences (EUIO's) are adopted to observe their final state. Overlapping and concatenation of test sequences is performed in order to reduce test length. Test length obtained is in most cases shorter than previously published functional approaches and the CPU (Central Processing Unit) time requirements are very low in comparison with the gate level ATPG's. Some polynomial complexity preserving techniques are introduced in order to improve the final fault coverage. A number of experiments on MCNC benchmarks have shown the effectiveness of the test algorithm both at the functional level and at the gate level, where the coverage of single stuck-at faults in most cases achieves 100.

  10. Generation of functional platelets from canine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Hatoya, Shingo; Kanegi, Ryoji; Sugiura, Kikuya; Wijewardana, Viskam; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Miyuu; Yamate, Jyoji; Izawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-07-15

    Thrombocytopenia (TTP) is a blood disease common to canines and human beings. Currently, there is no valid therapy for this disease except blood transfusion. In this study, we report the generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from canine embryonic fibroblasts, and a novel protocol for creating mature megakaryocytes (MKs) and functional platelets from ciPSCs. The ciPSCs were generated using lentiviral vectors, and differentiated into MKs and platelets on OP9 stromal cells supplemented with growth factors. Our ciPSCs presented in a tightly domed shape and showed expression of a critical pluripotency marker, REX1, and normal karyotype. Additionally, ciPSCs differentiated into cells derived from three germ layers via the formation of an embryoid body. The MKs derived from ciPSCs had hyperploidy and transformed into proplatelets. The proplatelets released platelets early on that expressed specific MK and platelet marker CD41/61. Interestingly, these platelets, when activated with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin, bind to fibrinogen. Moreover, electron microscopy showed that the platelets had the same ultrastructure as peripheral platelets. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time the generation of ciPSCs that are capable of differentiating into MKs and release functional platelets in vitro. Our system for differentiating ciPSCs into MKs and platelets promises a critical therapy for canine TTP and appears to be extensible in principle to resolve human TTP.

  11. Hypergeometric generating functions for values of Dirichlet and other L functions.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Jeremy; Ono, Ken

    2003-06-10

    Although there is vast literature on the values of L functions at nonpositive integers, the recent appearance of some of these values as the coefficients of specializations of knot invariants comes as a surprise. Using work of G. E. Andrews [(1981) Adv. Math. 41, 173-185; (1986) q-Series: Their Development and Application in Analysis, Combinatories, Physics, and Computer Algebra, Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences Regional Conference Series in Mathematics 66 (Am. Math. Soc, Providence, RI); (1975) Problems and Prospects for Basic Hypergeometric Series: The Theory and Application of Special Functions (Academic, New York); and (1992) Illinois J. Math. 36, 251-274], we revisit this old subject and provide uniform and general results giving such generating functions as specializations of basic hypergeometric functions. For example, we obtain such generating functions for all nontrivial Dirichlet L functions.

  12. A probability generating function method for stochastic reaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pilwon; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we present a probability generating function (PGF) approach for analyzing stochastic reaction networks. The master equation of the network can be converted to a partial differential equation for PGF. Using power series expansion of PGF and Padé approximation, we develop numerical schemes for finding probability distributions as well as first and second moments. We show numerical accuracy of the method by simulating chemical reaction examples such as a binding-unbinding reaction, an enzyme-substrate model, Goldbeter-Koshland ultrasensitive switch model, and G2/M transition model.

  13. A probability generating function method for stochastic reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilwon; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2012-06-21

    In this paper we present a probability generating function (PGF) approach for analyzing stochastic reaction networks. The master equation of the network can be converted to a partial differential equation for PGF. Using power series expansion of PGF and Padé approximation, we develop numerical schemes for finding probability distributions as well as first and second moments. We show numerical accuracy of the method by simulating chemical reaction examples such as a binding-unbinding reaction, an enzyme-substrate model, Goldbeter-Koshland ultrasensitive switch model, and G(2)/M transition model.

  14. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  16. Low work function, stable compound clusters and generation process

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; Schildbach, Marcus A.; Hamza, Alex V.; McLean, II, William

    2000-01-01

    Low work function, stable compound clusters are generated by co-evaporation of a solid semiconductor (i.e., Si) and alkali metal (i.e., Cs) elements in an oxygen environment. The compound clusters are easily patterned during deposition on substrate surfaces using a conventional photo-resist technique. The cluster size distribution is narrow, with a peak range of angstroms to nanometers depending on the oxygen pressure and the Si source temperature. Tests have shown that compound clusters when deposited on a carbon substrate contain the desired low work function property and are stable up to 600.degree. C. Using the patterned cluster containing plate as a cathode baseplate and a faceplate covered with phosphor as an anode, one can apply a positive bias to the faceplate to easily extract electrons and obtain illumination.

  17. Generation of functional podocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Osele; Iacone, Roberto; Longaretti, Lorena; Benedetti, Valentina; Graf, Martin; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Patsch, Christoph; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela; Tomasoni, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Generating human podocytes in vitro could offer a unique opportunity to study human diseases. Here, we describe a simple and efficient protocol for obtaining functional podocytes in vitro from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cells were exposed to a three-step protocol, which induced their differentiation into intermediate mesoderm, then into nephron progenitors and, finally, into mature podocytes. After differentiation, cells expressed the main podocyte markers, such as synaptopodin, WT1, α-Actinin-4, P-cadherin and nephrin at the protein and mRNA level, and showed the low proliferation rate typical of mature podocytes. Exposure to Angiotensin II significantly decreased the expression of podocyte genes and cells underwent cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cells were able to internalize albumin and self-assembled into chimeric 3D structures in combination with dissociated embryonic mouse kidney cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the establishment of a robust protocol that, mimicking developmental stages, makes it possible to derive functional podocytes in vitro.

  18. Electrophysiological and functional connectivity of the human supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Shalini; Laird, Angela R; Tandon, Nitin; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2012-08-01

    Neuro-imaging methods for detecting functional and structural inter-regional connectivity are in a rapid phase of development. While reports of regional connectivity patterns based on individual methods are becoming common, studies comparing the results of two or more connectivity-mapping methods remain rare. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation during PET imaging (TMS/PET), a stimulation-based method, and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), a task-based method to map the connectivity patterns of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Further, we drew upon the behavioral domain meta-data of the BrainMap® database to characterize the behavioral domain specificity of two maps. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected multi-synaptic connectivity patterns, with the MACM-detected connections being more extensive. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected connections belonging to multiple behavioral domains, including action, cognition and perception. Finally, we show that the two connectivity-mapping methods are complementary in that, the MACM informed on the functional nature of SMA connections, while TMS/PET identified brain areas electrophysiologically connected with the SMA. Thus, we demonstrate that integrating multimodal database and imaging techniques can derive comprehensive connectivity maps of brain areas.

  19. Electrophysiological and Functional Connectivity of the Human Supplementary Motor Area

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Shalini; Laird, Angela R.; Tandon, Nitin; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Neuro-imaging methods for detecting functional and structural inter-regional connectivity are in a rapid phase of development. While reports of regional connectivity patterns based on individual methods are becoming common, studies comparing the results of two or more connectivity-mapping methods remain rare. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation during PET imaging (TMS/PET), a stimulation-based method, and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), a task-based method to map the connectivity patterns of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Further, we drew upon the behavioral domain meta-data of the BrainMap® database to characterize the behavioral domain specificity of two maps. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected multi-synaptic connectivity patterns, with the MACM-detected connections being more extensive. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected connections belonging to multiple behavioral domains, including action, cognition and perception. Finally, we show that the two connectivity-mapping methods are complementary in that, the MACM informed on the functional nature of SMA connections, while TMS/PET identified brain areas electrophysiologically connected with the SMA. Thus, we demonstrate that integrating multimodal database and imaging techniques can derive comprehensive connectivity maps of brain areas. PMID:22569543

  20. Direct and Indirect Transmission of Relationship Functioning Across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Knous-Westfall, Heather M.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning is assumed to propagate across subsequent generations, but most studies have lacked appropriate methodologies to test this assumption prospectively. In a randomly selected sample of youth (N = 821) followed prospectively for over 25 years across multiple generations, we examined the association of romantic engagement (i.e. emotional involvement and closeness) between parents with offspring romantic relationship quality. We tested two developmental pathways linking parents’ romantic engagement with offspring adult romantic relationship quality, the first operating via parenting practices, and the second operating via adolescent depression. Parents’ romantic engagement predicted offspring romantic relationship quality a mean of 17 years later, net age and socioeconomic status. Results supported a developmental pathway from parents’ romantic engagement at offspring mean age 14, to parenting at offspring mean age 16, to offspring socio-emotional functioning at mean age 22, and offspring romantic relationship quality at mean age 33. However, the influence of parents’ romantic engagement on offspring’s adult romantic relationship quality does not appear to operate via a pathway of adolescent depression. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:22023390

  1. Tunable narrowband THz pulse generation in scalable large area photoconductive antennas.

    PubMed

    Krause, Johannes; Wagner, Martin; Winnerl, Stephan; Helm, Manfred; Stehr, Dominik

    2011-09-26

    The generation and characterization of narrowband THz pulses by means of chirped pulse difference frequency generation in Auston-switch type photoconductive antennas is reported. Using optical pulses with energies in the range from 1 nJ to 1 µJ, we generate THz pulses with up to 50 pJ in energy and electric field strengths on the order of 1 kV/cm. Two emitter concepts are investigated and circumvention of the fast saturation for small area excitation by scaling of the THz emitter is demonstrated.

  2. The Area of a Surface Generated by Revolving a Graph about Any Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Edray Herber; Washington, Talitha M.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general formula for the area of the surface that is generated by a graph [t[subscript 0], t[subscript 1] [right arrow] [the set of real numbers][superscript 2] sending t [maps to] (x(t), y(t)) revolved around a general line L : Ax + By = C. As a corollary, we obtain a formula for the area of the surface formed by revolving y = f(x)…

  3. Release protocol to address DOE moratorium on shipments of waste generated in radiologically controlled areas

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L A; Boothe, G F

    1992-10-01

    On May 17, 1991 the US DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from radiologically contaminated or potentially contaminated areas on DOE sites to offsite facilities not licensed for radiological material. This document describes a release protocol generated by Westinghouse Hanford submitted for US DOE approval. Topics considered include designating Radiological Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), classification of wastes, handling of mixed wastes, detection limits.

  4. The Area of a Surface Generated by Revolving a Graph about Any Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Edray Herber; Washington, Talitha M.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general formula for the area of the surface that is generated by a graph [t[subscript 0], t[subscript 1] [right arrow] [the set of real numbers][superscript 2] sending t [maps to] (x(t), y(t)) revolved around a general line L : Ax + By = C. As a corollary, we obtain a formula for the area of the surface formed by revolving y = f(x)…

  5. Defining Functional Areas in Individual Human Brains using Resting Functional Connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alexander L.; Fair, Damien A.; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Dierker, Donna; Van Essen, David C.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is anatomically organized at many physical scales starting at the level of single neurons and extending up to functional systems. Current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies often focus at the level of areas, networks, and systems. Except in restricted domains, (e.g. topographically-organized sensory regions), it is difficult to determine area boundaries in the human brain using fMRI. The ability to delineate functional areas non-invasively would enhance the quality of many experimental analyses allowing more accurate across-subject comparisons of independently identified functional areas. Correlations in spontaneous BOLD activity, often referred to as resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI), are especially promising as a way to accurately localize differences in patterns of correlated activity across large expanses of cortex. In the current report, we applied a novel set of image analysis tools to explore the utility of rs-fcMRI for defining wide-ranging functional area boundaries. We find that rs-fcMRI patterns show sharp transitions in correlation patterns and that these putative areal boundaries can be reliably detected in individual subjects as well as in group data. Additionally, combining surface-based analysis techniques with image processing algorithms allows automated mapping of putative areal boundaries across large expanses of cortex without the need for prior information about a region’s function or topography. Our approach reliably produces maps of bounded regions appropriate in size and number for putative functional areas. These findings will hopefully stimulate further methodological refinements and validations. PMID:18367410

  6. Testing and Functions of the J2X Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I, NASA s new solid rocket based crew launch vehicle, is a two stage in line rocket that has made its waytothe forefront of NASA s endeavors. The Ares I s Upper Stage (US) will be propelled by a J-2X engine which is fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The J-2X is a variation based on two of its predecessor s, the J-2 and J-2S engines. ET50 is providing the design support for hardware required to run tests on the J-2X Gas Generator (GG) that increases the delivery pressure of the supplied combustion fuels that the engine burns. The test area will be running a series of tests using different lengths and curved segments of pipe and different sized nozzles to determine the configuration that best satisfies the thrust, heat, and stability requirements for the engine. I have had to research the configurations that are being tested and gain an understanding of the purpose of the tests. I then had to research the parts that would be used in the test configurations. I was taken to see parts similar to the ones used in the test configurations and was allowed to review drawings and dimensions used for those parts. My job over this summer has been to use the knowledge I have gained to design, model, and create drawings for the un-fabricated parts that are necessary for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator Phase IIcTest.

  7. Agreement between personally generated areas of quality of life concern and standard outcome measures in people with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Aburub, Ala' S; Gagnon, B; Rodríguez, A M; Mayo, Nancy E

    2016-09-01

    People with advanced cancer experience different sequelae which have unique effects on quality of life (QOL). The patient-generated index (PGI) is a personalized measure that allows patients to nominate, rate, and value areas that have the most impact on QOL. Fatigue, pain, and aspects of physical function are among the top 10 areas with QOL impact. An area of validation that is lacking for the PGI is the extent to which spontaneously nominated areas of QOL that patients are concerned with, agree with ratings obtained from standard patient reported outcomes (PROs). Data from 192 patients were used to compare ratings on fatigue, pain, and physical function obtained from PGI to those from standard outcome measures. Within one severity rating, agreement ranged from 32.1 to 76.9 % within the fatigue domain, 34.2 to 95.24 % for pain, and between 84.2 and 94.7 % for physical function. Of the 10 items where the PGI had the highest agreement, 7 came from the RAND-36. At the domain level, people nominating an area scored in the more impaired range on standard measures than people who did not. PGI gives comparable information as do standard measures. PGI provides important information to guide clinical care of the patient and also produces a legitimate total score suitable for research.

  8. Generation of functional thyroid from embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Antonica, Francesco; Kasprzyk, Dominika Figini; Opitz, Robert; Iacovino, Michelina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Dumitrescu, Alexandra Mihaela; Refetoff, Samuel; Peremans, Kathelijne; Manto, Mario; Kyba, Michael; Costagliola, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The primary function of thyroid gland is to metabolize iodide by synthesizing thyroid hormones that are critical regulators of growth, development and metabolism in virtually all tissues. To date, research on thyroid morphogenesis was missing an efficient stem-cell model system which allows to recapitulate in vitro the molecular and morphogenic events regulating thyroid follicular cells differentiation and subsequent assembly into functional thyroid follicles. Here we report that a transient overexpression of the transcription factors NKX2.1 and PAX8 is sufficient to direct mouse embryonic stem-cells (mESC) differentiation into thyroid follicular cells which organized into three-dimensional follicular structures when treated with thyrotropin. Those in vitro derived follicles showed significant iodide organification activity. Importantly, when grafted in vivo into athyreoid mice, these follicles rescued thyroid hormone plasma levels and promoted subsequent symptomatic recovery. Thus, mESC can be induced to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells in vitro and generate functional thyroid tissue. PMID:23051751

  9. Contribution of generative leisure activities to cognitive function in elderly Sri Lankan adults.

    PubMed

    Maselko, Joanna; Sebranek, Matthew; Mun, Mirna H; Perera, Bilesha; Ahs, Jill; Ostbye, Truls

    2014-09-01

    To examine the unique contribution of generative leisure activities, defined as activities motivated by a concern for others and a need to contribute something to the next generation. Cross-sectional survey. Peri-urban and rural area in southern Sri Lanka. Community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older (N = 252). The main predictors were leisure activities, grouped into generative, social, or solitary. The main outcome was cognitive function, assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). More-frequent engagement in generative leisure activities was associated with higher levels of cognitive function, independent of the effect of other social and solitary leisure activities. In a fully adjusted model combining all three leisure activities, generative activities independently predicted cognitive function as measured using the MoCA (β = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11-0.83) and the IQCODE (β = -0.81, 95% CI = -1.54 to -0.09). In this combined model, solitary activities were also independently associated with slower cognitive decline using the MoCA (β = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.16-0.64) but not the IQCODE (β = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.88-0.12); the association with social activities did not reach statistical significance with either measure. These associations did not differ meaningfully according to sex. Generative leisure activities are a promising area for the development of interventions aimed at reducing cognitive decline in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-17

    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning.

  11. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning. PMID:27051066

  12. Generating functionals and Gaussian approximations for interruptible delay reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2015-10-01

    We develop a generating functional description of the dynamics of non-Markovian individual-based systems in which delay reactions can be terminated before completion. This generalizes previous work in which a path-integral approach was applied to dynamics in which delay reactions complete with certainty. We construct a more widely applicable theory, and from it we derive Gaussian approximations of the dynamics, valid in the limit of large, but finite, population sizes. As an application of our theory we study predator-prey models with delay dynamics due to gestation or lag periods to reach the reproductive age. In particular, we focus on the effects of delay on noise-induced cycles.

  13. Generating function formula of heat transfer in harmonic networks.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek

    2011-04-01

    We consider heat transfer across an arbitrary classical harmonic network connected to two heat baths at different temperatures. The network has N positional degrees of freedom, of which N(L) are connected to a bath at temperature T(L) and N(R) are connected to a bath at temperature T(R). We derive an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two baths. The formula is valid even for N(L)≠N(R) and satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry. Since harmonic crystals in three dimensions are known to exhibit different regimes of transport such as ballistic, anomalous, and diffusive, our result implies validity of the fluctuation theorem in all regimes. Our exact formula provides a powerful tool to study other properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations.

  14. Generating function formula of heat transfer in harmonic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek

    2011-04-01

    We consider heat transfer across an arbitrary classical harmonic network connected to two heat baths at different temperatures. The network has N positional degrees of freedom, of which NL are connected to a bath at temperature TL and NR are connected to a bath at temperature TR. We derive an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two baths. The formula is valid even for NL≠NR and satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry. Since harmonic crystals in three dimensions are known to exhibit different regimes of transport such as ballistic, anomalous, and diffusive, our result implies validity of the fluctuation theorem in all regimes. Our exact formula provides a powerful tool to study other properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations.

  15. Computing exact bundle compliance control charts via probability generating functions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Binchao; Matis, Timothy; Benneyan, James

    2016-06-01

    Compliance to evidenced-base practices, individually and in 'bundles', remains an important focus of healthcare quality improvement for many clinical conditions. The exact probability distribution of composite bundle compliance measures used to develop corresponding control charts and other statistical tests is based on a fairly large convolution whose direct calculation can be computationally prohibitive. Various series expansions and other approximation approaches have been proposed, each with computational and accuracy tradeoffs, especially in the tails. This same probability distribution also arises in other important healthcare applications, such as for risk-adjusted outcomes and bed demand prediction, with the same computational difficulties. As an alternative, we use probability generating functions to rapidly obtain exact results and illustrate the improved accuracy and detection over other methods. Numerical testing across a wide range of applications demonstrates the computational efficiency and accuracy of this approach.

  16. Functional diversity among seed dispersal kernels generated by carnivorous mammals.

    PubMed

    González-Varo, Juan P; López-Bao, José V; Guitián, José

    2013-05-01

    1. Knowledge of the spatial scale of the dispersal service provided by important seed dispersers (i.e. common and/or keystone species) is essential to our understanding of their role on plant ecology, ecosystem functioning and, ultimately, biodiversity conservation. 2. Carnivores are the main mammalian frugivores and seed dispersers in temperate climate regions. However, information on the seed dispersal distances they generate is still very limited. We focused on two common temperate carnivores differing in body size and spatial ecology - red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European pine marten (Martes martes) - for evaluating possible functional diversity in their seed dispersal kernels. 3. We measured dispersal distances using colour-coded seed mimics embedded in experimental fruits that were offered to the carnivores in feeding stations (simulating source trees). The exclusive colour code of each simulated tree allowed us to assign the exact origin of seed mimics found later in carnivore faeces. We further designed an explicit sampling strategy aiming to detect the longest dispersal events; as far we know, the most robust sampling scheme followed for tracking carnivore-dispersed seeds. 4. We found a marked functional heterogeneity among both species in their seed dispersal kernels according to their home range size: multimodality and long-distance dispersal in the case of the fox and unimodality and short-distance dispersal in the case of the marten (maximum distances = 2846 and 1233 m, respectively). As a consequence, emergent kernels at the guild level (overall and in two different years) were highly dependent on the relative contribution of each carnivore species. 5. Our results provide the first empirical evidence of functional diversity among seed dispersal kernels generated by carnivorous mammals. Moreover, they illustrate for the first time how seed dispersal kernels strongly depend on the relative contribution of different disperser species, thus on the

  17. Functional Neuronal Cells Generated by Human Parthenogenetic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ruhel; Wolber, Wanja; Eckardt, Sigrid; Koch, Philipp; Schmitt, Jessica; Semechkin, Ruslan; Geis, Christian; Heckmann, Manfred; Brüstle, Oliver; McLaughlin, John K.; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Müller, Albrecht M.

    2012-01-01

    Parent of origin imprints on the genome have been implicated in the regulation of neural cell type differentiation. The ability of human parthenogenetic (PG) embryonic stem cells (hpESCs) to undergo neural lineage and cell type-specific differentiation is undefined. We determined the potential of hpESCs to differentiate into various neural subtypes. Concurrently, we examined DNA methylation and expression status of imprinted genes. Under culture conditions promoting neural differentiation, hpESC-derived neural stem cells (hpNSCs) gave rise to glia and neuron-like cells that expressed subtype-specific markers and generated action potentials. Analysis of imprinting in hpESCs and in hpNSCs revealed that maternal-specific gene expression patterns and imprinting marks were generally maintained in PG cells upon differentiation. Our results demonstrate that despite the lack of a paternal genome, hpESCs generate proliferating NSCs that are capable of differentiation into physiologically functional neuron-like cells and maintain allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. Thus, hpESCs can serve as a model to study the role of maternal and paternal genomes in neural development and to better understand imprinting-associated brain diseases. PMID:22880113

  18. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-10-25

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46.

  19. Studying municipal solid waste generation and composition in the urban areas of Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Dulal, Ichharam; Yangden, Dechen; Tenzin, Ugyen M; Herat, Sunil; Shon, Hokyong; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2010-06-01

    Bhutan lacks the solid waste data which are essential parameters for planning and scheduling of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. The first ever large-scale research survey on solid waste generation and characterization in the urban areas of Bhutan was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008 using the method of waste sampling at source. The MSW generation rates in the urban centres were 0.53 kg capita(-1) day(- 1), which consists predominantly of organic waste materials of up to 58% indicating a great opportunity for composting. Domestic waste from the households contributed the maximum (47%) component of the total MSW generated from the urban centres followed by wastes from the commercial establishments. Attempt to study the correlation between household monthly income and the waste per capita generation rates did not yield any conclusive result.

  20. Generation of Aligned Functional Myocardial Tissue Through Microcontact Printing

    PubMed Central

    Atmanli, Ayhan; Domian, Ibrahim J.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced heart failure represents a major unmet clinical challenge, arising from the loss of viable and/or fully functional cardiac muscle cells. Despite optimum drug therapy, heart failure represents a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. A major challenge in drug development is the identification of cellular assays that accurately recapitulate normal and diseased human myocardial physiology in vitro. Likewise, the major challenges in regenerative cardiac biology revolve around the identification and isolation of patient-specific cardiac progenitors in clinically relevant quantities. These cells have to then be assembled into functional tissue that resembles the native heart tissue architecture. Microcontact printing allows for the creation of precise micropatterned protein shapes that resemble structural organization of the heart, thus providing geometric cues to control cell adhesion spatially. Herein we describe our approach for the isolation of highly purified myocardial cells from pluripotent stem cells differentiating in vitro, the generation of cell growth surfaces micropatterned with extracellular matrix proteins, and the assembly of the stem cell-derived cardiac muscle cells into anisotropic myocardial tissue. PMID:23542789

  1. Functional and Taxonomic Diversity of Stinging Wasps in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Areas.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, E F; Noll, F B; Brandão, C R F

    2014-04-01

    Vespoidea are the most functionally diverse superfamily of Hymenoptera. Ecological studies involving this family are primarily based on eusocial groups, including ants and social paper wasps. In the present study, we examine stinging wasp (Vespoidea) faunal diversity in the Atlantic Rain Forest, which is one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems in the World. Three conservation areas were sampled employing a standardized sample protocol. Families and functional groups of Vespoidea were collected in each area, with the exception ants (Formicidae), and analyzed using diversity analyses, to generate taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices. Results indicated Pompilidae was the most diverse family, and the idiobiont parasitoid type was the most diverse functional group in the three study areas. Núcleo Picinguaba of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar was taxonomically and functionally the most diverse and species rich area. Parque Estadual Intervales showed the highest number of dominant species and diversity of koinobiont parasitoids, while the Rebio Sooretama exhibited a decrease in several diversity parameters.

  2. Surface functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Photo-stability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Kacie M.

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are becoming increasingly prevalent in society for applications of sunscreens, cosmetics, paints, biomedical imaging, and photovoltaics. Due to the increased surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles compared to bulk materials, it is important to know the health and safety impacts of these materials. One mechanism of toxicity of nominally "safe" materials such as TiO 2 is through the photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production and ligand degradation can affect the bioavailability of these particles in aqueous organisms. We have investigated ROS generation by functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles and its influence on aggregation and bioavailability and toxicity to zebrafish embryos/larvae. For these studies we investigated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. For application purposes and solution stability, the TiO2 nanoparticles were functionalized with a variety of ligands such as citrate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and ascorbate. We quantitatively examined the amount of ROS produced in aqueous solution using fluorescent probes and see that more ROS is produced under UV light than in the dark control. Our measurements show that TiO2 toxicity reaches a maximum for nanoparticles with smaller diameters, and is correlated with surface area dependent changes in ROS generation. In an effort to reduce toxicity through control of the surface and surface ligands, we synthesized anatase nanoparticles of different sizes, functionalized them with different ligands, and examined the resulting ROS generation and ligand stability. Using a modular ligand containing a hydrophobic inner region and a hydrophilic outer region, we synthesized water-stable nanoparticles, via two different chemical reactions, having much-reduced ROS generation and thus reduced toxicity. These results suggest new strategies for making safer nanoparticles while still retaining their desired properties. We also examine the degradation of the different ligands

  3. Survey of solid waste generation and composition in a rapidly growing urban area in Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sha'Ato, R; Aboho, S Y; Oketunde, F O; Eneji, I S; Unazi, G; Agwa, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a field survey of the solid waste generation profile in parts of Makurdi, a rapidly growing urban city in north central Nigeria. The areas surveyed covered low, medium and high-density residential quarters, representing high/medium/low income groups in the area. Results of the survey show that the bulk ( approximately 82%) of the solid waste generated in the area originates from households, rather than from commercial, institutional or industrial premises. Of the waste from households, a substantial proportion consists of various putrescible materials (36-57%), with ash, dust and sand (combined) forming another significant proportion (21-41%). From the non-household sources, putrescible matter is also significant (23-45%), as is the combined ash/dust/sand fraction (32-36%). The quantity of plastics/cellophane materials from household and non-household sources was, however, comparable (6-10%). There was more paper from commercial and institutional premises (9-12%) than from household or small/medium scale industrial premises (2-4%). Glass (0.1-6.9%), metals (mostly cans and bottle corks, 0.7-3.4%) and textiles (0.3-6%) form only a minor proportion of the waste across generators. Waste generation rates were for households, 0.54kg/cap/day; for commercial, 0.018kg/m(2)/day; institutional, 0.015kg/m(2)/day while for small and medium scale industries, the rate was 0.47kg/m(2)/day. As there is no previous study of this kind in the Makurdi urban area, what is reported here may be taken as baseline for the entire area. The implications of the findings for solid waste management planning are discussed.

  4. Solid images generated from UAVs to analyze areas affected by rock falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The study of rock fall affected areas is usually based on the recognition of principal joints families and the localization of potential instable sectors. This requires the acquisition of field data, although as the areas are barely accessible and field inspections are often very dangerous. For this reason, remote sensing systems can be considered as suitable alternative. Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been proposed as platform to acquire the necessary information. Indeed, mini UAVs (in particular in the multi-rotors configuration) provide versatility for the acquisition from different points of view a large number of high resolution optical images, which can be used to generate high resolution digital models relevant to the study area. By considering the recent development of powerful user-friendly software and algorithms to process images acquired from UAVs, there is now a need to establish robust methodologies and best-practice guidelines for correct use of 3D models generated in the context of rock fall scenarios. In this work, we show how multi-rotor UAVs can be used to survey areas by rock fall during real emergency contexts. We present two examples of application located in northwestern Italy: the San Germano rock fall (Piemonte region) and the Moneglia rock fall (Liguria region). We acquired data from both terrestrial LiDAR and UAV, in order to compare digital elevation models generated with different remote sensing approaches. We evaluate the volume of the rock falls, identify the areas potentially unstable, and recognize the main joints families. The use on is not so developed but probably this approach can be considered the better solution for a structural investigation of large rock walls. We propose a methodology that jointly considers the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach for the generation of 3D solid images, and a geotechnical analysis for the identification of joint families and potential failure planes.

  5. Long life electrodes for large-area x-ray generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothe, Dietmar E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This invention is directed to rugged, reliable, and long-life electrodes for use in large-area, high-current-density electron gun and x-ray generators which are employed as contamination-free preionizers for high-energy pulsed gas lasers. The electron source at the cathode is a corona plasma formed at the interface between a conductor, or semiconductor, and a high-permittivity dielectric. Detailed descriptions are provided of a reliable cold plasma cathode, as well as an efficient liquid-cooled electron beam target (anode) and x-ray generator which concentrates the x-ray flux in the direction of an x-ray window.

  6. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  7. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  8. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

  9. Interface-Free Area-Scalable Self-Powered Electroluminescent System Driven by Triboelectric Generator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao Yan; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Li, Hua Yang; Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-09-04

    Self-powered system that is interface-free is greatly desired for area-scalable application. Here we report a self-powered electroluminescent system that consists of a triboelectric generator (TEG) and a thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) lamp. The TEG provides high-voltage alternating electric output, which fits in well with the needs of the TFEL lamp. Induced charges pumped onto the lamp by the TEG generate an electric field that is sufficient to excite luminescence without an electrical interface circuit. Through rational serial connection of multiple TFEL lamps, effective and area-scalable luminescence is realized. It is demonstrated that multiple types of TEGs are applicable to the self-powered system, indicating that the system can make use of diverse mechanical sources and thus has potentially broad applications in illumination, display, entertainment, indication, surveillance and many others.

  10. Interface-Free Area-Scalable Self-Powered Electroluminescent System Driven by Triboelectric Generator

    PubMed Central

    Yan Wei, Xiao; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Yang Li, Hua; Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Self-powered system that is interface-free is greatly desired for area-scalable application. Here we report a self-powered electroluminescent system that consists of a triboelectric generator (TEG) and a thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) lamp. The TEG provides high-voltage alternating electric output, which fits in well with the needs of the TFEL lamp. Induced charges pumped onto the lamp by the TEG generate an electric field that is sufficient to excite luminescence without an electrical interface circuit. Through rational serial connection of multiple TFEL lamps, effective and area-scalable luminescence is realized. It is demonstrated that multiple types of TEGs are applicable to the self-powered system, indicating that the system can make use of diverse mechanical sources and thus has potentially broad applications in illumination, display, entertainment, indication, surveillance and many others. PMID:26338365

  11. [Brodmann Areas 39 and 40: Human Parietal Association Area and Higher Cortical Function].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia). Damage to either gyrus causes Gerstmann's syndrome (finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) and verbal short-term memory impairment. "Angular alexia with agraphia" results from damage to the middle occipital gyrus posterior to the angular gyrus. Alexia and agraphia, with lesions in the angular or supramarginal gyrus, are characterized by kana transposition errors in reading words, which suggests the impairment of sequential phonological processing.

  12. Fine tuning points of generating function construction for linear recursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolcu, Bahar; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-01

    Recursions are quite important mathematical tools since many systems are mathematically modelled to ultimately take us to these equations because of their rather easy algebraic natures. They fit computer programming needs quite well in many circumstances to produce solutions. However, it is generally desired to find the asymptotic behaviour of the general term in the relevant sequence for convergence and therefore practicality issues. One of the general tendencies to find the general term asymptotic behaviour, when its ordering number grows unboundedly, is the integral representation over a generating function which does not depend on individual sequence elements. This is tried to be done almost for all types of recursions, even though the linear cases gain more importance than the others because they can be more effectively investigated by using many linear algebraic tools. Despite this may seem somehow to be rather trivial, there are a lot of theoretical fine tuning issues in the construction of true integral representations over true intervals on real axis or paths in complex domains. This work is devoted to focus on this issue starting from scratch for better understanding of the matter. The example cases are chosen to best illuminate the situations to get information for future generalization even though the work can be considered at somehow introductory level.

  13. Functional imaging of muscle cells by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, Valentina; Sacconi, Leonardo; Linari, Marco; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Piroddi, Nicoletta; Poggesi, Corrado; Tesi, Chiara; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2006-02-01

    The intrinsically ordered arrays of proteins (mainly actin and myosin) constituting the myofibrils within muscle cells are at the basis of a strong Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) from muscle fibers and isolated myofibrils. We have characterized the SHG signal with regard to its polarization and potential source within the muscle cell. The lateral resolution that can be achieved through SHG imaging of muscle strongly depends on sample depth. In fact, a comparison between intact muscle fibers and single myofibrils demonstrates that, whereas in both cases the alternation of dark I bands and bright A bands is visible, the contours of these bands are much better resolved in myofibrils than in fibers. Further, imaging of myofibrils revealed the presence of a darker zone in the centre of the A band. These effects of scattering by tissue on the image resolution were also studied with regard to the polarization of the SHG signal. The polarization-dependence of SHG intensity represents a powerful tool for the investigation of the structural dynamics occurring in the emitting proteins during the active cycle of muscle contraction. The prospective to perform functional studies requires a complete characterization of the effects of scattering and possibly multiple emitting populations on the measured SHG signal. Also, SHG is extremely sensitive to the degree of order present in the filament array, offering an interesting potential in the development of non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of degenerative diseases affecting skeletal muscles.

  14. Neurons Generated in Senescence Maintain Capacity for Functional Integration

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Diano F.; Ramirez-Amaya, Victor; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) can survive for long periods, are capable of integrating into neuronal networks, and are important for hippocampus-dependent learning. Neurogenesis is dramatically reduced during senescence, and it remains unknown whether those few neurons that are produced remain capable of network integration. The expression of Arc, a protein coupled to neuronal activity, was used to measure activity among granule cells that were labeled with BrdU four months earlier in young (9 months) and aged (25 months) Fischer344 rats. The results indicate that while fewer cells are generated in the senescent DG, those that survive are (a) more likely to respond to spatial processing by expressing Arc relative to the remainder of the granule cell population, and (b) equally responsive to spatial exploration as granule cells of the same age from young animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that newborn granule cells in the aged DG retain the capacity for participation in functional hippocampal networks. PMID:21695743

  15. On the generating function of weight multiplicities for the representations of the Lie algebra C2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Núñez, José; García-Fuertes, Wifredo; Perelomov, Askold M.

    2015-04-01

    We use the generating function of the characters of C2 to obtain a generating function for the multiplicities of the weights entering in the irreducible representations of that simple Lie algebra. From this generating function, we derive some recurrence relations among the multiplicities and a simple graphical recipe to compute them.

  16. Generation of Parametric Equivalent-Area Targets for Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood

    2011-01-01

    A tool with an Excel visual interface is developed to generate equivalent-area (A(sub e)) targets that satisfy the volume constraints for a low-boom supersonic configuration. The new parametric Ae target explorer allows users to interactively study the tradeoffs between the aircraft volume constraints and the low-boom characteristics (e.g., loudness) of the ground signature. Moreover, numerical optimization can be used to generate the optimal A(sub e) target for given A(sub e) volume constraints. A case study is used to demonstrate how a generated low-boom Ae target can be matched by a supersonic configuration that includes a fuselage, wing, nacelle, pylon, aft pod, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. The low-boom configuration is verified by sonic-boom analysis with an off-body pressure distribution at three body lengths below the configuration

  17. Development of Closed-Loop Simulation Methods for a Next-Generation Terminal Area Automation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John E., III; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    A next-generation air traffic decision support tool, known as the Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST), will generate heading, speed and altitude commands to achieve more precise separation of aircraft in the terminal area. The techniques used to analyze the performance of earlier generation decision support tools are not adequate to analyze the performance of aFAST. This paper summarizes the development of a new and innovative fully closed-loop testing method for aFAST. This method, called trajectory feedback testing, closes each aircraft's control loop inside of the aFAST scheduling algorithm. Validation of trajectory feedback testing by examination of the variation of aircraft time-of-arrival predictions between schedule updates and the variation of aircraft excess separation distances between simulation runs is presented.

  18. Generation of large-area and glow-like surface discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ying; Bi, Zhenhua; Wang, Xueyang; Qi, Zhihua; Ji, Longfei; Liu, Dongping; Xia, Yang; Li, Bin

    2016-08-15

    A large-area (6 cm × 6 cm) air surface dielectric barrier discharge has been generated at atmospheric pressure by using well-aligned and micron-sized dielectric tubes with tungsten wire electrodes. Intensified CCD images with an exposure time of 5 ns show that the uniform surface air discharge can be generated during the rising and falling time of pulsed DC voltage. Current and voltage and optical measurements confirm the formation of glow-like air discharges on the surface of micron-sized dielectric tubes. Simulation results indicate that the microelectrode configuration contributes to the formation of strong surface electric field and plays an important role in the generation of uniform surface air discharge.

  19. Development of Closed-Loop Simulation Methods for a Next-Generation Terminal Area Automation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John E., III; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    A next-generation air traffic decision support tool, known as the Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST), will generate heading, speed and altitude commands to achieve more precise separation of aircraft in the terminal area. The techniques used to analyze the performance of earlier generation decision support tools are not adequate to analyze the performance of aFAST. This paper summarizes the development of a new and innovative fully closed-loop testing method for aFAST. This method, called trajectory feedback testing, closes each aircraft's control loop inside of the aFAST scheduling algorithm. Validation of trajectory feedback testing by examination of the variation of aircraft time-of-arrival predictions between schedule updates and the variation of aircraft excess separation distances between simulation runs is presented.

  20. Photogrammetric Point Clouds Generation in Urban Areas from Integrated Image Matching and Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Wu, B.

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution imagery is an attractive option for surveying and mapping applications due to the advantages of high quality imaging, short revisit time, and lower cost. Automated reliable and dense image matching is essential for photogrammetric 3D data derivation. Such matching, in urban areas, however, is extremely difficult, owing to the complexity of urban textures and severe occlusion problems on the images caused by tall buildings. Aimed at exploiting high-resolution imagery for 3D urban modelling applications, this paper presents an integrated image matching and segmentation approach for reliable dense matching of high-resolution imagery in urban areas. The approach is based on the framework of our existing self-adaptive triangulation constrained image matching (SATM), but incorporates three novel aspects to tackle the image matching difficulties in urban areas: 1) occlusion filtering based on image segmentation, 2) segment-adaptive similarity correlation to reduce the similarity ambiguity, 3) improved dense matching propagation to provide more reliable matches in urban areas. Experimental analyses were conducted using aerial images of Vaihingen, Germany and high-resolution satellite images in Hong Kong. The photogrammetric point clouds were generated, from which digital surface models (DSMs) were derived. They were compared with the corresponding airborne laser scanning data and the DSMs generated from the Semi-Global matching (SGM) method. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to produce dense and reliable matches comparable to SGM in flat areas, while for densely built-up areas, the proposed method performs better than SGM. The proposed method offers an alternative solution for 3D surface reconstruction in urban areas.

  1. Semiautomatic transfer function initialization for abdominal visualization using self-generating hierarchical radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Selver, M Alper; Güzeliş, Cüneyt

    2009-01-01

    As being a tool that assigns optical parameters used in interactive visualization, Transfer Functions (TF) have important effects on the quality of volume rendered medical images. Unfortunately, finding accurate TFs is a tedious and time consuming task because of the trade off between using extensive search spaces and fulfilling the physician's expectations with interactive data exploration tools and interfaces. By addressing this problem, we introduce a semi-automatic method for initial generation of TFs. The proposed method uses a Self Generating Hierarchical Radial Basis Function Network to determine the lobes of a Volume Histogram Stack (VHS) which is introduced as a new domain by aligning the histograms of slices of a image series. The new self generating hierarchical design strategy allows the recognition of suppressed lobes corresponding to suppressed tissues and representation of the overlapping regions which are parts of the lobes but can not be represented by the Gaussian bases in VHS. Moreover, approximation with a minimum set of basis functions provides the possibility of selecting and adjusting suitable units to optimize the TF. Applications on different CT and MR data sets show enhanced rendering quality and reduced optimization time in abdominal studies.

  2. A method to evaluate the generation area of local wave climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa

    2013-04-01

    The description of wave conditions at a local scale is of paramount importance for off-shore and coastal engineering applications (maritime works, ship design and route definition, offshore structures design, harbours operability). However, wave characteristics at a specific location cannot be fully understood studying only information of such location. They are the integrated result of the dynamics of the ocean surface over an area of influence. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location in the world. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographic and oceanographic criteria. The geographic criterion relies on the realistic assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths, taking into account the spherical shape of the Earth. This allows limiting the study area by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The oceanographic criterion is applied to global wave reanalysis data (Reguero et al., 2012), considering different spectral parameters such as mean direction, directional spread, wave energy period and energy flux, and taking into account in its specific location, the fraction of energy of the directional sector that travels towards the target point. A better understanding of the spatial generation and propagation area and an estimation of the time span the waves take to arrive to the target point is obtained. We have applied the methodology worldwide to obtain detailed maps of the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the climate of any location. Results show important spatial patterns that cannot be inferred from local parameters and validation with different climate analysis of other authors (Izaguirre et al., 2012; Alves et al., 2006) confirm the robustness of the method. This methodology facilitates enormously the study of wave generation area that induces local wave climate.

  3. VennMaster: Area-proportional Euler diagrams for functional GO analysis of microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kestler, Hans A; Müller, André; Kraus, Johann M; Buchholz, Malte; Gress, Thomas M; Liu, Hongfang; Kane, David W; Zeeberg, Barry R; Weinstein, John N

    2008-01-01

    Background Microarray experiments generate vast amounts of data. The functional context of differentially expressed genes can be assessed by querying the Gene Ontology (GO) database via GoMiner. Directed acyclic graph representations, which are used to depict GO categories enriched with differentially expressed genes, are difficult to interpret and, depending on the particular analysis, may not be well suited for formulating new hypotheses. Additional graphical methods are therefore needed to augment the GO graphical representation. Results We present an alternative visualization approach, area-proportional Euler diagrams, showing set relationships with semi-quantitative size information in a single diagram to support biological hypothesis formulation. The cardinalities of sets and intersection sets are represented by area-proportional Euler diagrams and their corresponding graphical (circular or polygonal) intersection areas. Optimally proportional representations are obtained using swarm and evolutionary optimization algorithms. Conclusion VennMaster's area-proportional Euler diagrams effectively structure and visualize the results of a GO analysis by indicating to what extent flagged genes are shared by different categories. In addition to reducing the complexity of the output, the visualizations facilitate generation of novel hypotheses from the analysis of seemingly unrelated categories that share differentially expressed genes. PMID:18230172

  4. Electrolysis cell functions as water vapor dehumidifier and oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Water vapor is absorbed in hygroscopic electrolyte, and oxygen generated by absorbed water electrolysis at anode is added simultaneously to air stream. Cell applications include on-board aircraft oxygen systems, portable oxygen generators, oxygen concentration requirements, and commercial air conditioning and dehumidifying systems.

  5. Generating Accurate Urban Area Maps from Nighttime Satellite (DMSP/OLS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.

  6. Generating Accurate Urban Area Maps from Nighttime Satellite (DMSP/OLS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.

  7. Bioactive peptides from meat muscle and by-products: generation, functionality and application as functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Lafarga, Tomas; Hayes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive peptides are sequences of between 2-30 amino acids in length that impart a positive health effect to the consumer when ingested. They have been identified from a range of foods, including milk and muscle sources including beef, chicken, pork and marine muscles. The myriad of peptides identified from these sources have known antihypertensive, opioid, antioxidant, antithrombotic and other bioactivities. Indeed, bioactive peptides could play a role in the prevention of diseases associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and mental health diseases. The aim of this work is to present an overview of the bioactive peptides identified in muscle proteins and by-products generated during the processing of meat. The paper looks at the isolation, enrichment and characterisation strategies that have been employed to date to generate bioactive peptides and the potential future applications of these peptides in functional foods for the prevention of heart and mental health problems and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproducibility of activations in Broca area with two language tasks: a functional MR imaging study.

    PubMed

    Rau, S; Fesl, G; Bruhns, P; Havel, P; Braun, B; Tonn, J-C; Ilmberger, J

    2007-08-01

    Functional MR imaging (fMRI) is rapidly evolving and claims to complement or even substitute intraoperative mapping (IOM) of language functions. However, little is known about the reproducibility of imaging data in the language domain. The aim of our study was to assess the reproducibility of activations for 2 widely used paradigms: naming and word generation. Individual analysis was focused on the Broca area and the left insula. We examined 13 healthy right-handed subjects in 3 sessions with fMRI. Two conditions were assessed: overt naming and overt naming plus noun generation. The same stimuli were used in all of the sessions. A random-effects analysis was performed to analyze whole-brain activation on a group level. For the regions of interest, the number of voxels classified as active were counted for each subject, and individual reproducibility coefficients were calculated over sessions. For the naming condition, the random-effects analysis did not reveal significant activations in the specified regions; small individual activations were not reproducible. For the combined task, all of the subjects showed activations in the Broca area that were more extensive and reproducible than in the naming task. Activations in the insula were only poorly reproducible. Naming is an approved task in IOM but does not identify the Broca area with fMRI in a reproducible way. Priming may have affected our results, but the use of a combined task, in which naming is paired with noun generation, improves the reproducibility of activations and is also suitable for IOM.

  9. Automatic Generation Control Study in Two Area Reheat Thermal Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritam, Anita; Sahu, Sibakanta; Rout, Sushil Dev; Ganthia, Sibani; Prasad Ganthia, Bibhu

    2017-08-01

    Due to industrial pollution our living environment destroyed. An electric grid system has may vital equipment like generator, motor, transformers and loads. There is always be an imbalance between sending end and receiving end system which cause system unstable. So this error and fault causing problem should be solved and corrected as soon as possible else it creates faults and system error and fall of efficiency of the whole power system. The main problem developed from this fault is deviation of frequency cause instability to the power system and may cause permanent damage to the system. Therefore this mechanism studied in this paper make the system stable and balance by regulating frequency at both sending and receiving end power system using automatic generation control using various controllers taking a two area reheat thermal power system into account.

  10. Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional, Morphological, and Functional Property Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional...Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional, Morphological, and Functional Property Relationships...and carefully measured compositions and nanofiber morphologies. From these membranes, fundamental structure/function relationships will be generated

  11. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ...

  12. Dendrimer functional hydroxyapatite nanoparticles generated by functionalization with siloxane-cored PAMAM dendrons.

    PubMed

    Huysal, Merve; Şenel, Mehmet

    2017-04-04

    The surface modification of nano-hydroxyapatite with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer has potential for biomedical applications due to their unique and well-defined secondary structures. This paper presents a facile method to synthesize siloxane-cored PAMAM dendrons modified Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Firstly, the siloxane-cored PAMAM dendrons with different generations (G1 to G5, respectively) were synthesized using repetitive reactions between Michael addition and amidation starting from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Then, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization method and functionalized with siloxane-cored PAMAM dendrons. These synthesized materials were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the PAMAM dendrimer functionalization was carried out successfully and these materials may be applicable in biocomposite material and/or bone tissue engineering.

  13. Characterizing scale-dependent community assembly using the functional-diversity--area relationship.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Sandel, Brody; Kraft, Nathan J B; Carey, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Phenotypic traits mediate organisms' interactions with the environment and determine how they affect and are affected by their biotic and abiotic milieu. Thus, dispersion of trait values, or functional diversity (FD) of a community can offer insights into processes driving community assembly. For example, underdispersion of FD suggests that habitat "filtering" of species with unfavorable trait values restricts the species that can exist in a particular habitat, while even spacing of FD suggests that interspecific competition, or biotic "sorting," discourages the coexistence of species with similar trait values. Since assembly processes are expected to vary as a function of spatial scale, we should also expect patterns of FD to reflect scale dependence in filtering and biotic sorting. Here we present the concept of the functional-diversity-area relationship (FAR), which is similar to the species-area relationship but plots a measure of phenotypic trait diversity as a function of spatial scale. We develop a set of null model tests that discriminate between FARs generated predominantly by filtering or biotic sorting and indicate the scales at which these effects are pronounced. The utility of the FAR for addressing long-standing issues in ecology is illustrated with several examples. A multi-scale examination of FD and its pattern relative to null expectations provides an important tool for ecologists interested in understanding the scale dependence of community assembly processes.

  14. Broca’s area network in language function: a pooling-data connectivity study

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Modern neuroimaging developments have demonstrated that cognitive functions correlate with brain networks rather than specific areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Broca’s area based on language tasks. Methods: A connectivity modeling study was performed by pooling data of Broca’s activation in language tasks. Fifty-seven papers that included 883 subjects in 84 experiments were analyzed. Analysis of Likelihood Estimates of pooled data was utilized to generate the map; thresholds at p < 0.01 were corrected for multiple comparisons and false discovery rate. Resulting images were co-registered into MNI standard space. Results: A network consisting of 16 clusters of activation was obtained. Main clusters were located in the frontal operculum, left posterior temporal region, supplementary motor area, and the parietal lobe. Less common clusters were seen in the sub-cortical structures including the left thalamus, left putamen, secondary visual areas, and the right cerebellum. Conclusion: Broca’s area-44-related networks involved in language processing were demonstrated utilizing a pooling-data connectivity study. Significance, interpretation, and limitations of the results are discussed. PMID:26074842

  15. Broca's area network in language function: a pooling-data connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Modern neuroimaging developments have demonstrated that cognitive functions correlate with brain networks rather than specific areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Broca's area based on language tasks. A connectivity modeling study was performed by pooling data of Broca's activation in language tasks. Fifty-seven papers that included 883 subjects in 84 experiments were analyzed. Analysis of Likelihood Estimates of pooled data was utilized to generate the map; thresholds at p < 0.01 were corrected for multiple comparisons and false discovery rate. Resulting images were co-registered into MNI standard space. A network consisting of 16 clusters of activation was obtained. Main clusters were located in the frontal operculum, left posterior temporal region, supplementary motor area, and the parietal lobe. Less common clusters were seen in the sub-cortical structures including the left thalamus, left putamen, secondary visual areas, and the right cerebellum. Broca's area-44-related networks involved in language processing were demonstrated utilizing a pooling-data connectivity study. Significance, interpretation, and limitations of the results are discussed.

  16. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  17. Estimation of municipal solid waste generation and landfill area in Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Anupam; Yamamoto, Yugo; Morioka, Tohru

    2010-09-01

    In developing Asian countries, the municipal cooperations are unable to handle the increasing amount of municipal solid waste, which into the uncollected waste being spread on roads and in other public areas leading to tremendous pollution and destruction of land and negative impact on human health. Generation of municipal solid waste increases with the rapid urbanization and accelerated economic development with in the rapidly growing advanced technological societies. The nature of municipal solid waste is a term usually applied to a heterogeneous collection group of waste produced in urban areas, the nature of which varies from region to region. The common problem faced by all developing Asian countries, is the disposal of municipal solid waste and availability of land fill site area. Present study explains the correlation analysis of among different factors of municipal solid waste and the objective is to assess the future municipal solid waste stream in Asian developing countries. The other goal of this study was to calculate the future land area that would be required for landfill site disposal in Asian developing countries.

  18. Variable source areas of runoff generation: influence on soil carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemi, L.; Costa Silva, R. W.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; De Moraes, J.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Variable source areas (VSA) might be considered the main mechanism of runoff generation within humid areas. In this paper we assess the soil carbon stocks within 3 flow convergence zones (FCZs) under high influence of overland-flow (OV). These FCZs had different land-cover (riparian forest and sugarcane plantations) and were subdivided into 3 portions, that is downslope, middleslope and upslope (FCZ-1 and 2: downslope - forest; middleslope and upslope -sugarcane; FCZ-3 downslope and middleslope - forest; upslope -sugarcane). Stocks under riparian forests (FCZ-1) were significantly higher than under sugarcane plantations. More importantly, riparian forests under high OV influence (FCZ-3) presented lower soil carbon stocks compared to riparian forests under lower OV influence. Similarly, sugarcane plantations within high OV areas presented in some cases (FCZ-2) significantly lower carbon stocks compared to sugarcane areas under low OV influence. These results suggest that OV within VSAs is a major driver for particulate carbon fluxes from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems or for carbon redistribution within riparian ecosystems.

  19. [The language area of the brain: a functional reassessment].

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. Hacia finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX, y basandose en observaciones clinicas, se propuso que existe un 'area del lenguaje' en el cerebro que corresponde, en general, a la region perisilviana del hemisferio izquierdo. Tal idea ha continuado existiendo desde entonces. Objetivo. Partiendo de los estudios contemporaneos de imagenes cerebrales, reanalizar la localizacion y extension del area del lenguaje con relacion a las diferentes areas de Brodmann. Materiales y metodos. Utilizando la metodologia conocida como metaanalytic connectivity modeling, se revisan varios estudios metaanaliticos en los cuales se analizan las imagenes de resonancia magnetica funcional durante la realizacion de tareas linguisticas. Resultados. Se encontro que existen dos sistemas linguisticos diferentes en el cerebro: un sistema lexico/semantico, relacionado con el area de Wernicke, y que incluye un area de Wernicke central (reconocimiento de palabras) y un area de Wernicke extendida (asociaciones linguisticas); y un sistema gramatical, dependiente del complejo de Broca (produccion del lenguaje y gramatica), en el lobulo frontal, y que se extiende subcorticalmente. Se propone tambien que la insula desempeña un papel de coordinacion de estos dos sistemas linguisticos cerebrales. Conclusion. Los estudios contemporaneos de neuroimagen sugieren que el area del lenguaje en el cerebro es notoriamente mas amplia de lo que se supuso hace un siglo basandose en observaciones clinicas. Tal como se consideraba durante el siglo XIX, la insula parece desempeñar un papel critico en el lenguaje.

  20. Advances in generating functional diversity for directed protein evolution.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Amol V; Marienhagen, Jan; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schenk, Alexander; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2009-02-01

    Despite advances in screening technologies, only a very small fraction of theoretical protein sequence can be sampled in directed evolution experiments. At the current state of random mutagenesis technologies mutation frequencies have often been adjusted to values that cause a limited number of amino acid changes (often one to four amino acid changes per protein). For harvesting the power of directed evolution algorithms it is therefore important that generated mutant libraries are rich in diversity and enriched in active population. Insufficient knowledge about protein traits, mutational robustness of protein folds and technological limitations in diversity generating methods are main challenges for managing the complexity of protein sequence space. This review covers computational and experimental advances for high quality mutant library generation that have been achieved in the past two years.

  1. Initiation processes for run-off generated debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Dong, X. J.; Xu, Q.; Wang, G. H.; van Asch, T. W. J.; Hicher, P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of huge debris flows greatly increased in the epicenter area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Field investigation revealed that runoff during rainstorm played a major role in generating debris flows on the loose deposits, left by coseismic debris avalanches. However, the mechanisms of these runoff-generated debris flows are not well understood due to the complexity of the initiation processes. To better understand the initiation mechanisms, we simulated and monitored the initiation process in laboratory flume test, with the help of a 3D laser scanner. We found that run-off incision caused an accumulation of material down slope. This failed as shallow slides when saturated, transforming the process into debris in a second stage. After this initial phase, the debris flow volume increased rapidly by a chain of subsequent cascading processes starting with collapses of the side walls, damming and breaching, leading to a rapid widening of the erosion channel. In terms of erosion amount, the subsequent mechanisms were much more important than the initial one. The damming and breaching were found to be the main reasons for the huge magnitude of the debris flows in the post-earthquake area. It was also found that the tested material was susceptible to excess pore pressure and liquefaction in undrained triaxial, which may be a reason for the fluidization in the flume tests.

  2. The impact of runoff generation mechanisms on the location of critical source areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyon, S.W.; McHale, M.R.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Identifying phosphorus (P) source areas and transport pathways is a key step in decreasing P loading to natural water systems. This study compared the effects of two modeled runoff generation processes - saturation excess and infiltration excess - on total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in 10 catchment streams of a Catskill mountain watershed in southeastern New York. The spatial distribution of runoff from forested land and agricultural land was generated for both runoff processes; results of both distributions were consistent with Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) theory. These spatial runoff distributions were then used to simulate stream concentrations of TP and SRP through a simple equation derived from an observed relation between P concentration and land use; empirical results indicate that TP and SRP concentrations increased with increasing percentage of agricultural land. Simulated TP and SRP stream concentrations predicted for the 10 catchments were strongly affected by the assumed runoff mechanism. The modeled TP and SRP concentrations produced by saturation excess distribution averaged 31 percent higher and 42 percent higher, respectively, than those produced by the infiltration excess distribution. Misrepresenting the primary runoff mechanism could not only produce erroneous concentrations, it could fail to correctly locate critical source areas for implementation of best management practices. Thus, identification of the primary runoff mechanism is critical in selection of appropriate models in the mitigation of nonpoint source pollution. Correct representation of runoff processes is also critical in the future development of biogeochemical transport models, especially those that address nutrient fluxes.

  3. Finite-order universal portfolios generated by probability mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Chu, Sin Yen; Pan, Wei Yeing

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the finite-order universal portfolios generated by independent discrete random variables are constant rebalanced portfolios. The case where the universal portfolios are generated by the moments of the joint Dirichlet distribution is studied. The performance of the low-order Dirichlet universal portfolios on some stock-price data set is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the performance is comparable and in some cases outperform the moving-order Cover-Ordentlich universal portfolios with faster implementation time and higher wealth achieved.

  4. A functional on-chip pressure generator using solid chemical propellant for disposable lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien-Chong; Murugesan, Suresh; Kim, Sanghyo; Beaucage, Gregory; Choi, Jin-Woo; Ahn, Chong H

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a functional on-chip pressure generator that utilizes chemical energy from a solid chemical propellant to perform fluidic delivery in applications of plastic-based disposable biochips or lab-on-a-chip systems. In this functional on-chip pressure generator, azobis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the solid chemical propellant is deposited on a microheater using a screen-printing technique, which can heat the AIBN at 70 degrees C to produce nitrogen gas. The output pressure of nitrogen gas, generated from the solid chemical propellant, is adjustable to a desired pressure by controlling the input power of the heater. Using this chemical energy source, the generated pressure depends on the deposited amount of the solid chemical propellant and the temperature of the microheater. Experimental measurements show that this functional on-chip pressure generator can achieve around 3 000 Pa pressure when 189 mJ of energy is applied to heat the 100 microg of AIBN. This pressure can drive 50 nl of water through a microfluidic channel of 70 mm and cross-sectional area of 100 microm x 50 microm. Due to its compact size, ease of fabrication and integration, high reliability (no moving parts), biologically inert gas output along with functionality of gas generation, this pressure generator will be an excellent pressure source for handling the fluids of disposable lab-on-a-chip, biochemical analysis systems or drug delivery systems.

  5. Drainage Area-Dependent Knickpoint Generation Mechanisms, Smith River, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, D. J.; Kelsey, H. M.

    2011-12-01

    Knickpoints and knickzones (reaches of relatively high gradient located immediately downstream of a knickpoint) are a prominent characteristic of the channel slopes of both mainstem and tributary channels of the 1,575 km2 Smith River drainage in northern California. We have investigated these knickpoints using aerial photos, 10 m and 1 m digital elevation models (DEM's), and NAIP images supplemented by Schmidt hammer rock strength measurements and field verification of channel and terrace elevations using real time kinematic GPS surveys. Two types of knickpoints occur. At higher drainage areas (threshold of greater than ~250 km2), knickpoints occur within rock types with no significant difference in rock strength. There is a distinct upstream convergence of the modern channel with the lowest elevated strath surface along these knickzones, resulting in elevated strath surfaces downstream of the knickzones. We infer that the knickpoints are transient and that the straths are more vertically separated from the modern channel only after the knickpoint has migrated upstream. The causative baselevel fall that generates migrating knickpoints in the Smith River may be eustatic sea level fall following Quaternary highstands. For instance, fluvial terraces are cut into stage 5 marine terraces at the coast and these fluvial terraces likely are generated in the wake of knickpoints migrating upstream. In contrast, at drainage areas less than ~250 km2, the only knickpoints present in channels are those associated with large landslides that mobilize entire hillslopes into the channel, forcing a channel response. Notably absent along the Smith River are any knickpoints associated with changes in rock strength, as measured by Schmidt hammer values. From these observations, we infer that, first, major knickpoints along channels above a threshold drainage area of about 250 km2 are generated by baselevel fall that propagates upstream through channels of varying rock type; and second

  6. Generation of 2D Land Cover Maps for Urban Areas Using Decision Tree Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhle, J.

    2014-09-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objects like buildings, roads, grassland, trees, hedges, and walls from such an "intelligent" point cloud. The decision tree is derived from training areas which borders are digitized on top of a false-colour orthoimage. The produced 2D land cover map with six classes is then subsequently refined by using image analysis techniques. The proposed methodology is described step by step. The classification, assessment, and refinement is carried out by the open source software "R"; the generation of the dense and accurate digital surface model by the "Match-T DSM" program of the Trimble Company. A practical example of a 2D land cover map generation is carried out. Images of a multispectral medium-format aerial camera covering an urban area in Switzerland are used. The assessment of the produced land cover map is based on class-wise stratified sampling where reference values of samples are determined by means of stereo-observations of false-colour stereopairs. The stratified statistical assessment of the produced land cover map with six classes and based on 91 points per class reveals a high thematic accuracy for classes "building" (99 %, 95 % CI: 95 %-100 %) and "road and parking lot" (90 %, 95 % CI: 83 %-95 %). Some other accuracy measures (overall accuracy, kappa value) and their 95 % confidence intervals are derived as well. The proposed methodology has a high potential for automation and fast processing and may be applied to other scenes and sensors.

  7. Function generator for synthesizing complex vibration mode patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, E. C.; Hagood, G. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A simple highly flexible device for synthesizing complex vibration mode patterns is described. These mode patterns can be used to identify vibration mode data. This device sums selected sine and cosine functions and then plots the sum against a linear function.

  8. Implementation Alternatives to Analog Graphic Function Generation: Some Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karayanakis, Nicholas M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanization of mathematical functions by means of analog electronics. Five different approaches are described which demonstrate the versatility of the analog technique by using parabolic function, exponential decay technique, projectile trajectory, trigonometry, and piecewise linear approximation techniques. (YP)

  9. Generation of the relationship between glacier area and volume for a tropical glacier in Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Tsuda, M.; Iwami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Mendoza, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Andes, retreat of tropical glaciers is rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments would be changed in its volume and temporal variations due to climate change and glacier shrinkage. The relationship between glacier area and volume is difficult to define however which is important to monitor glaciers especially those are remote or inaccessible. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from glacierized headwater catchments in the Cordillera Real, Andes, which is therefore selected as our study region.To predict annual glacier mass balances, PWRI-Distributed Hydrological Model (PWRI-DHM) was applied to simulate runoff from the partially glacierized catchments in high mountains (i.e. Condoriri-Huayna West headwater catchment located in the Cordillera Real, Bolivian Andes). PWRI-DHM is based on tank model concept in a distributed and 4-tank configuration including surface, unsaturated, aquifer, and river course tanks. The model was calibrated and validated with observed meteorological and hydrological data from 2011 to 2014 by considering different phases of precipitation, various runoff components from glacierized and non-glacierized areas, and the retarding effect by glacial lakes and wetlands. The model is then applied with MRI-AGCM outputs from 1987 to 2003 considering the shrinkage of glacier outlines since 1980s derived from Landsat data. Annual glacier mass balance in each 100m-grid was reproduced, with which the glacier area-volume relationship was generated with reasonable initial volume setting. Out study established a method to define the relationship between glacier area and volume by remote sensing information and glacier mass balances simulated by distributed hydrological model. Our results demonstrated that the changing trend of local glacier had a consistency the previous observed glacier area-volume relationship in the Cordillera Real.

  10. A segmental genomic duplication generates a functional intron

    PubMed Central

    Hellsten, Uffe; Aspden, Julie L.; Rio, Donald C.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    An intron is an extended genomic feature whose function requires multiple constrained positions—donor and acceptor splice sites, a branch point, a polypyrimidine tract and suitable splicing enhancers—that may be distributed over hundreds or thousands of nucleotides. New introns are therefore unlikely to emerge by incremental accumulation of functional sub-elements. Here we demonstrate that a functional intron can be created de novo in a single step by a segmental genomic duplication. This experiment recapitulates in vivo the birth of an intron that arose in the ancestral jawed vertebrate lineage nearly half-a-billion years ago. PMID:21878908

  11. Computer Corner: Spreadsheets, Power Series, Generating Functions, and Integers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Implements a table algorithm on a spreadsheet program and obtains functions for several number sequences such as the Fibonacci and Catalan numbers. Considers other applications of the table algorithm to integers represented in various number bases. (YP)

  12. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Michael F.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  13. Neutron generators with size scalability, ease of fabrication and multiple ion source functionalities

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-11-18

    A neutron generator is provided with a flat, rectilinear geometry and surface mounted metallizations. This construction provides scalability and ease of fabrication, and permits multiple ion source functionalities.

  14. An Efficient Functional Test Generation Method For Processors Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, Ján; Gramatová, Elena

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a new functional test generation method for processors testing based on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. The tests are generated over an instruction set architecture and a processor description. Such functional tests belong to the software-oriented testing. Quality of the tests is evaluated by code coverage of the processor description using simulation. The presented test generation method uses VHDL models of processors and the professional simulator ModelSim. The rules, parameters and fitness functions were defined for various genetic algorithms used in automatic test generation. Functionality and effectiveness were evaluated using the RISC type processor DP32.

  15. Rediscovering area CA2: unique properties and functions

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Serena M.; Alexander, Georgia M.; Farris, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal area CA2 has several features that distinguish it from CA1 and CA3, including a unique gene expression profile, failure to display long-term potentiation and relative resistance to cell death. A recent increase in interest in the CA2 region, combined with the development of new methods to define and manipulate its neurons, has led to some exciting new discoveries on the properties of CA2 neurons and their role in behaviour. Here, we review these findings and call attention to the idea that the definition of area CA2 ought to be revised in light of gene expression data. PMID:26806628

  16. Generators of certain function Banach algebras and related questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürdal, M.; Yamancı, U.; Saltan, S.

    2012-09-01

    We study the structure of generators of the Banach algebras (Wp(n)[0,1],*) and (Wp(n)[0,1],⊛), where * denotes the usual convolution and ⊛ the so-called Duhamel product. We also give a new characterization of a special class of composition operators acting in the Sobolev space Wp(n)[0,1] by the formula (Cθf)(x) = f(θ(x)).

  17. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    MedlinePlus

    ... it to be expelled as stool. This prolonged transit time is an important aspect of colonic function ... occur in adults. Nerves and muscles regulate the transit time of the colon. Derangements in either element ...

  18. Deficient topological measures and functionals generated by them

    SciTech Connect

    Svistula, Marina G

    2013-05-31

    This paper looks at the properties of deficient topological measures, which are a generalization of topological measures. Integration of a real function that is continuous on a compact set with respect to a deficient topological measure is also investigated. The notions of r- and l-functionals are introduced and an analogue of the Riesz representation theorem is obtained for them. As corollaries, both well-known and new results for quasi-integrals and topological measures are presented (for example, a new version of the definition of a quasi-integral). Bibliography: 16 titles.

  19. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway...

  20. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  1. The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

    2009-09-25

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the services of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical support for the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) activity within the Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project. A portion of the support provided in FY2009, was to extend the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using an alternative approach. This alternative approach incorporates the Brooks and Corey (1964), van Genuchten (1980), and a modified van Genuchten water-retention models into the interfacial-area-based relative permeability model presented by Embid (1997). The general performance of the incorporated models is shown using typical hydraulic parameters. The relative permeability models for the wetting phase were further examined using data from literature. Results indicate that the interfacial-area-based model can describe the relative permeability of the wetting phase reasonably well.

  2. Nonanalytic function generation routines for 16-bit microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, J. F.; Shaufl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Interpolation techniques for three types (univariate, bivariate, and map) of nonanalytic functions are described. These interpolation techniques are then implemented in scaled fraction arithmetic on a representative 16 bit microprocessor. A FORTRAN program is described that facilitates the scaling, documentation, and organization of data for use by these routines. Listings of all these programs are included in an appendix.

  3. Functional Requirements for the Next Generation of Mass Notification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Berkly

    2012-01-01

    While the latest update to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) redefines mass notification as "emergency communications systems" (ECS), the end user community is formulating expectations related to the future functionality of today's alerting solutions. Numerous best practices have surfaced since alerting technology began its rapid,…

  4. Functional Requirements for the Next Generation of Mass Notification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Berkly

    2012-01-01

    While the latest update to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) redefines mass notification as "emergency communications systems" (ECS), the end user community is formulating expectations related to the future functionality of today's alerting solutions. Numerous best practices have surfaced since alerting technology began its rapid,…

  5. Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L.; Curtis, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown. PMID:23409117

  6. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  7. Future's operation areas: new-generation suppression enemy air defence (SEAD) elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazinedar, Ä.°lker

    2015-05-01

    Since air vehicles took place in the theater of operations, they have become the indispensable elements and the strongest attack power of armed forces. In the following period, with technological development, supersonic aircrafts took place in the operation area and this increased effectiveness of air vehicles much more. Air forces have used these aircrafts during important missions like strategic attack and air defense operations. On the other hand, decision makers understood that it was not feasible to intercept fighter aircrafts by executing combat air patrol flight missions. Since there is not enough reaction time to intercept the high speed aircrafts, ground stationed Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) system requirement has emerged. Therefore, SAM systems took place in the operation scene as well. Due to the fact that SAM systems emerged against the attack power, the attack aircrafts are to keep away from the fire of the ground stationed SAM systems. Hence, the requirement of Suppression Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) arose. SEAD elements take under suppression the radar of the SAM systems. In this way, attack aircrafts are able to attack without the risk of SAM systems. The purpose of this study is to find new methods or concepts in order to protect friendly attack aircrafts against ground based surface to air missiles' fires. Modernization of SAM systems and new generation SAM system producing activities have proceeded with positive acceleration. So, current SEAD elements and concepts are not able to cover the requirements due to the increased SAM system ranges. According to the concepts, SEAD weapons` ranges must be longer than the SAM weapons' ranges to protect friendly aircrafts. In this study, new concept was offered to overcome the deficiencies of current SEAD concept. The elements of new concepts were put forward. Classic SEAD concept and new generation concepts were assessed by using SWOT analysis technique. As a result, this study has revealed that, air forces

  8. Multiferroic cantilever for power generation using dual functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Reema; Tomar, Monika; Rammohan, S.; Katiyar, R. S.; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-11-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/Ni cantilevers have been developed using the pulsed laser deposition technique for harnessing magnetic as well as mechanical energy. High voltage (1.2 mV, 1.8 mV, and 8.5 mV) and power density (1100, 2400, and 3600 mW/m3) were generated across the PZT/Ni cantilevers (in 3-3 mode) having PZT thin films deposited at 100 mTorr, 200 mTorr, and 300 mTorr oxygen pressures, respectively, at their respective resonance frequencies with 0.5 g acceleration. Maximum power response (3600 mW/m3) was observed at a load resistance of 100 kΩ for the cantilever having PZT film deposited at 300 mTorr oxygen pressure, which is manifested to the efficient ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties of PZT/Ni system. The power generated from the PZT/Ni cantilever was further enhanced to 18 700 mW/m3 by superimposing magnetic energy with mechanical vibrations. These results are extremely promising for the realization of an efficient energy harvester utilizing both magnetic and mechanical energy.

  9. Generation and Function of Induced Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Erica G.; Williams, Calvin B.

    2013-01-01

    CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential to the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. There are two major subsets of Treg cells, “natural” Treg (nTreg) cells that develop in the thymus, and “induced” Treg (iTreg) cells that arise in the periphery from CD4+ Foxp3− conventional T cells and can be generated in vitro. Previous work has established that both subsets are required for immunological tolerance. Additionally, in vitro-derived iTreg cells can reestablish tolerance in situations where Treg cells are decreased or defective. This review will focus on iTreg cells, drawing comparisons to nTreg cells when possible. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of iTreg cell induction, both in vivo and in vitro, review the Foxp3-dependent and -independent transcriptional landscape of iTreg cells, and examine the proposed suppressive mechanisms utilized by each Treg cell subset. We also compare the T cell receptor repertoire of the Treg cell subsets, discuss inflammatory conditions where iTreg cells are generated or have been used for treatment, and address the issue of iTreg cell stability. PMID:23801990

  10. Nano-hetero functional materials for photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongying, Pornthip

    This dissertation focuses on designing nanomaterials and investigating their photocatalytic response for H2 generation. Hydrogen has gained a lot of attention as a new source of sustainable energy. It can be used to directly generate power in fuel cells and to produce liquid fuels such as methanol. Water splitting is an ideal (clean) way of producing H2 because it uses water and sunlight, two renewable resources. To explore the use of nanostructures and particularly nanostructure heterojunctions for photocatalytic H2 generation, four different systems have been synthesized: (i) CdSe nanowires (NWs), (ii) CdSe/CdS core/shell NWs, (iii) CdSe NWs decorated with Au or Pt nanoparticles, and (iv) CdSe/CdS NWs decorated with Au or Pt nanoparticles. This is motivated by (a) the fact that CdSe NWs absorb light from the UV to the near infrared (b) the NW morphology simultaneously enables us to explore the role of nanoscale dimensionality in photocatalytic processes (c) a CdS coating can enhance photogenerated carrier lifetimes, and (d) metal nanoparticles are catalytically active and can also enhance charge separation efficiencies. Charge separation and charge transfer across interfaces are key aspects in the design of efficient photocatalysts for solar energy conversion. Femtosecond transient differential absorption (TDA) spectroscopy has been used as a tool to reveal how semiconductor/semiconductor and metal/semiconductor heterojunctions affect the charge separation and hydrogen generation efficiencies of these hybrid photocatalysts. The use of this technique in concert with hydrogen evolution tests also reveal how CdS, CdSe and metal NP interact within metal NP decorated CdSe and CdSe/CdS NWs during photocatalytic hydrogen generation reactions. Electron transfer events across both semiconductor/semiconductor and metal/semiconductor heterojunctions are followed to identify where H 2 is evolved and the role each heterojunction plays in determining a system's overall

  11. Large-area functionalized CVD graphene for work function matched transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bointon, Thomas H.; Jones, Gareth F.; de Sanctis, Adolfo; Hill-Pearce, Ruth; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency of flexible photovoltaic and organic light emitting devices is heavily dependent on the availability of flexible and transparent conductors with at least a similar workfunction to that of Indium Tin Oxide. Here we present the first study of the work function of large area (up to 9 cm2) FeCl3 intercalated graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on Nickel, and demonstrate values as large as 5.1 eV. Upon intercalation, a charge density per graphene layer of 5 ṡ 1013 ± 5 ṡ 1012 cm-2 is attained, making this material an attractive platform for the study of plasmonic excitations in the infrared wavelength spectrum of interest to the telecommunication industry. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of this material for flexible electronics in a transparent circuit on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate.

  12. Large-area functionalized CVD graphene for work function matched transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Bointon, Thomas H.; Jones, Gareth F.; De Sanctis, Adolfo; Hill-Pearce, Ruth; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of flexible photovoltaic and organic light emitting devices is heavily dependent on the availability of flexible and transparent conductors with at least a similar workfunction to that of Indium Tin Oxide. Here we present the first study of the work function of large area (up to 9 cm2) FeCl3 intercalated graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on Nickel, and demonstrate values as large as 5.1 eV. Upon intercalation, a charge density per graphene layer of 5 ⋅ 1013 ± 5 ⋅ 1012 cm−2 is attained, making this material an attractive platform for the study of plasmonic excitations in the infrared wavelength spectrum of interest to the telecommunication industry. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of this material for flexible electronics in a transparent circuit on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate. PMID:26548711

  13. Large-area functionalized CVD graphene for work function matched transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bointon, Thomas H; Jones, Gareth F; De Sanctis, Adolfo; Hill-Pearce, Ruth; Craciun, Monica F; Russo, Saverio

    2015-11-09

    The efficiency of flexible photovoltaic and organic light emitting devices is heavily dependent on the availability of flexible and transparent conductors with at least a similar workfunction to that of Indium Tin Oxide. Here we present the first study of the work function of large area (up to 9 cm(2)) FeCl3 intercalated graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on Nickel, and demonstrate values as large as 5.1 eV. Upon intercalation, a charge density per graphene layer of 5 ⋅ 10(13) ± 5 ⋅ 10(12) cm(-2) is attained, making this material an attractive platform for the study of plasmonic excitations in the infrared wavelength spectrum of interest to the telecommunication industry. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of this material for flexible electronics in a transparent circuit on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate.

  14. Characteristics of strong ground motion generation areas by fully dynamic earthquake cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Somerville, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Petukhin, A.; Yindi, L.

    2016-12-01

    During recent subduction zone earthquakes (2010 Mw 8.8 Maule and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku), high frequency ground motion radiation has been detected in deep regions of seismogenic zones. By semblance analysis of wave packets, Kurahashi & Irikura (2013) found strong ground motion generation areas (SMGAs) located in the down dip region of the 2011 Tohoku rupture. To reproduce the rupture sequence of SMGA's and replicate their rupture time and ground motions, we extended previous work on dynamic rupture simulations with slip reactivation (Galvez et al, 2016). We adjusted stresses on the most southern SMGAs of Kurahashi & Irikura (2013) model to reproduce the observed peak ground velocity recorded at seismic stations along Japan for periods up to 5 seconds. To generate higher frequency ground motions we input the rupture time, final slip and slip velocity of the dynamic model into the stochastic ground motion generator of Graves & Pitarka (2010). Our results are in agreement with the ground motions recorded at the KiK-net and K-NET stations.While we reproduced the recorded ground motions of the 2011 Tohoku event, it is unknown whether the characteristics and location of SMGA's will persist in future large earthquakes in this region. Although the SMGA's have large peak slip velocities, the areas of largest final slip are located elsewhere. To elucidate whether this anti-correlation persists in time, we conducted earthquake cycle simulations and analysed the spatial correlation of peak slip velocities, stress drops and final slip of main events. We also investigated whether or not the SMGA's migrate to other regions of the seismic zone.To perform this study, we coupled the quasi-dynamic boundary element solver QDYN (Luo & Ampuero, 2015) and the dynamic spectral element solver SPECFEM3D (Galvez et al., 2014; 2016). The workflow alternates between inter-seismic periods solved with QDYN and coseismic periods solved with SPECFEM3D, with automated switch based on slip rate

  15. Fast and low-cost method for VBES bathymetry generation in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Carnero, N.; Aceña, S.; Rodríguez-Pérez, D.; Couñago, E.; Fraile, P.; Freire, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sea floor topography is key information in coastal area management. Nowadays, LiDAR and multibeam technologies provide accurate bathymetries in those areas; however these methodologies are yet too expensive for small customers (fishermen associations, small research groups) willing to keep a periodic surveillance of environmental resources. In this paper, we analyse a simple methodology for vertical beam echosounder (VBES) bathymetric data acquisition and postprocessing, using low-cost means and free customizable tools such as ECOSONS and gvSIG (that is compared with industry standard ArcGIS). Echosounder data was filtered, resampled and, interpolated (using kriging or radial basis functions). Moreover, the presented methodology includes two data correction processes: Monte Carlo simulation, used to reduce GPS errors, and manually applied bathymetric line transformations, both improving the obtained results. As an example, we present the bathymetry of the Ría de Cedeira (Galicia, NW Spain), a good testbed area for coastal bathymetry methodologies given its extension and rich topography. The statistical analysis, performed by direct ground-truthing, rendered an upper bound of 1.7 m error, at 95% confidence level, and 0.7 m r.m.s. (cross-validation provided 30 cm and 25 cm, respectively). The methodology presented is fast and easy to implement, accurate outside transects (accuracy can be estimated), and can be used as a low-cost periodical monitoring method.

  16. Generation of blue light by sum-frequency generation of a spectrally combined broad-area diode laser array.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanda; Jiang, Menghua; Yu, Haoyang; Hui, Yongling; Lei, Hong; Li, Qiang

    2016-10-15

    We present the first demonstration of a spectrally beam combined diode laser array with subsequent sum-frequency generation (SFG). The combined beam of the diode laser array with 19 emitters has the same beam quality as a single emitter, and the wavelength of each emitter is different. The blue light is generated by sum-frequency mixing of pairs of emitters in the diode laser array. About 93 mW of blue light power is produced using a PPLN crystal. Compared with the SFG of two emitters, this approach can increase the number of lasers participating in nonlinear frequency conversion. Thus, it can enhance the available power.

  17. Generating functions and multiplicity formulas: The case of rank two simple Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Núñez, José; García Fuertes, Wifredo; Perelomov, Askold M.

    2015-09-01

    A procedure is described that makes use of the generating function of characters to obtain a new generating function H giving the multiplicities of each weight in all the representations of a simple Lie algebra. The way to extract from H explicit multiplicity formulas for particular weights is explained and the results corresponding to rank two simple Lie algebras are shown.

  18. Structuring feature space: a non-parametric method for volumetric transfer function generation.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Ross; Woo, Insoo; Chen, Wei; Ebert, David S

    2009-01-01

    The use of multi-dimensional transfer functions for direct volume rendering has been shown to be an effective means of extracting materials and their boundaries for both scalar and multivariate data. The most common multi-dimensional transfer function consists of a two-dimensional (2D) histogram with axes representing a subset of the feature space (e.g., value vs. value gradient magnitude), with each entry in the 2D histogram being the number of voxels at a given feature space pair. Users then assign color and opacity to the voxel distributions within the given feature space through the use of interactive widgets (e.g., box, circular, triangular selection). Unfortunately, such tools lead users through a trial-and-error approach as they assess which data values within the feature space map to a given area of interest within the volumetric space. In this work, we propose the addition of non-parametric clustering within the transfer function feature space in order to extract patterns and guide transfer function generation. We apply a non-parametric kernel density estimation to group voxels of similar features within the 2D histogram. These groups are then binned and colored based on their estimated density, and the user may interactively grow and shrink the binned regions to explore feature boundaries and extract regions of interest. We also extend this scheme to temporal volumetric data in which time steps of 2D histograms are composited into a histogram volume. A three-dimensional (3D) density estimation is then applied, and users can explore regions within the feature space across time without adjusting the transfer function at each time step. Our work enables users to effectively explore the structures found within a feature space of the volume and provide a context in which the user can understand how these structures relate to their volumetric data. We provide tools for enhanced exploration and manipulation of the transfer function, and we show that the initial

  19. Inter-species activity correlations reveal functional correspondences between monkey and human brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G.; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. In cases where functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assess similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by means of temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we reveal regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This novel framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models. PMID:22306809

  20. Interspecies activity correlations reveal functional correspondence between monkey and human brain areas.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-02-05

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. For cases in which functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assessed similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we revealed regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models.

  1. Floating-point function generation routines for 16-bit microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, M. A.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Several computer subroutines have been developed that interpolate three types of nonanalytic functions: univariate, bivariate, and map. The routines use data in floating-point form. However, because they are written for use on a 16-bit Intel 8086 system with an 8087 mathematical coprocessor, they execute as fast as routines using data in scaled integer form. Although all of the routines are written in assembly language, they have been implemented in a modular fashion so as to facilitate their use with high-level languages.

  2. Data-Oriented Algorithm for Route Choice Set Generation in a Metropolitan Area with Mobile Phone GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Sekimoto, Y.; Usui, T.; Shibasaki, R.

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, for the estimation of traffic demand or people flow, modelling route choice activity in road networks is an important task and many algorithms have been developed to generate route choice sets. However, developing an algorithm based on a small amount of data that can be applied generally within a metropolitan area is difficult. This is because the characteristics of road networks vary widely. On the other hand, recently, the collection of people movement data has lately become much easier, especially through mobile phones. Lately, most mobile phones include GPS functionality. Given this background, we propose a data-oriented algorithm to generate route choice sets using mobile phone GPS data. GPS data contain a number of measurement errors; hence, they must be adjusted to account for these errors before use in advanced people movement analysis. However, this is time-consuming and expensive, because an enormous amount of daily data can be obtained. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop an algorithm that can easily manage GPS data. Specifically, at first movement data from all GPS data are selected by calculating the speed. Next, the nearest roads in the road network are selected from the GPS location and count such data for each road. Then An algorithm based on the GSP (Gateway Shortest Path) algorithm is proposed, which searches the shortest path through a given gateway. In the proposed algorithm, the road for which the utilization volume calculated by GPS data is large is selected as the gateway. Thus, route choice sets that are based on trends in real GPS data are generated. To evaluate the proposed method, GPS data from 0.7 million people a year in Japan and DRM (Digital Road Map) as the road network are used. DRM is one of the most detailed road networks in Japan. Route choice sets using the proposed algorithm are generated and the cover rate of the utilization volume of each road under evaluation is calculated. As a result, the proposed

  3. Ionic channel function in action potential generation: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Gytis

    2007-04-01

    Over 50 years ago, Hodgkin and Huxley laid down the foundations of our current understanding of ionic channels. An impressive progress has been made during the following years that culminated in the revelation of the details of potassium channel structure. Nevertheless, even today, we cannot separate well currents recorded in central mammalian neurons. Many modern concepts about the function of sodium and potassium currents are based on experiments performed in nonmammalian cells. The recent recognition of the fast delayed rectifier current indicates that we need to reevaluate the biophysical role of sodium and potassium currents. This review will consider high quality voltage clamp data obtained from the soma of central mammalian neurons in the view of our current knowledge about proteins forming ionic channels. Fast sodium currents and three types of outward potassium currents, the delayed rectifier, the subthreshold A-type, and the D-type potassium currents, are discussed here. An updated current classification with biophysical role of each current subtype is provided. This review shows that details of kinetics of both sodium and outward potassium currents differ significantly from the classical descriptions and these differences may be of functional significance.

  4. Functional properties of ultrasonically generated flaxseed oil-dairy emulsions.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Akalya; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-09-01

    This study reports on the functional properties of 7% flaxseed oil/milk emulsion obtained by sonication (OM) using 20 kHz ultrasound (US) at 176 W for 1-8 min in two different delivery formulae, viz., ready-to-drink (RTD) and lactic acid gel. The RTD emulsions showed no change in viscosity after sonication for up to 8 min followed by storage up to a minimum of 9 days at 4±2 °C. Similarly, the oxidative stability of the RTD emulsion was studied by measuring the conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CD). The CD was unaffected after 8 min of ultrasonic processing. The safety aspect of US processing was evaluated by measuring the formation of CD at different power levels. The functional properties of OM gels were evaluated by small and large scale deformation studies. The sonication process improved the gelation characteristics, viz., decreased gelation time, increased elastic nature, decreased syneresis and increased gel strength. The presence of finer sono-emulsified oil globules, stabilized by partially denatured whey proteins, contributed to the improvements in the gel structure in comparison to sonicated and unsonicated pasteurized homogenized skim milk (PHSM) gels. A sono-emulsification process of 5 min followed by gelation for about 11 min can produce gels of highest textural attibutes.

  5. Next Generation Sequencing in Predicting Gene Function in Podophyllotoxin Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Kim, Kye-Won; Lee, Choonseok; Costa, Michael A.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Podophyllum species are sources of (−)-podophyllotoxin, an aryltetralin lignan used for semi-synthesis of various powerful and extensively employed cancer-treating drugs. Its biosynthetic pathway, however, remains largely unknown, with the last unequivocally demonstrated intermediate being (−)-matairesinol. Herein, massively parallel sequencing of Podophyllum hexandrum and Podophyllum peltatum transcriptomes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses of the corresponding assemblies were carried out. Validation of the assembly process was first achieved through confirmation of assembled sequences with those of various genes previously established as involved in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis as well as other candidate biosynthetic pathway genes. This contribution describes characterization of two of the latter, namely the cytochrome P450s, CYP719A23 from P. hexandrum and CYP719A24 from P. peltatum. Both enzymes were capable of converting (−)-matairesinol into (−)-pluviatolide by catalyzing methylenedioxy bridge formation and did not act on other possible substrates tested. Interestingly, the enzymes described herein were highly similar to methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzymes from alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas candidates more similar to lignan biosynthetic enzymes were catalytically inactive with the substrates employed. This overall strategy has thus enabled facile further identification of enzymes putatively involved in (−)-podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and underscores the deductive power of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to probe and deduce medicinal plant biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23161544

  6. Three mutations in Escherichia coli that generate transformable functional flagella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Jiang, Zhengzeng; Westermann, Martin; Ping, Liyan

    2012-11-01

    Hydrodynamics predicts that swimming bacteria generate a propulsion force when a helical flagellum rotates because rotating helices necessarily translate at a low Reynolds number. It is generally believed that the flagella of motile bacteria are semirigid helices with a fixed pitch determined by hydrodynamic principles. Here, we report the characterization of three mutations in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli that produce different steady-state flagella without losing cell motility. E. coli flagella rotate counterclockwise during forward swimming, and the normal form of the flagella is a left-handed helix. A single amino acid exchange A45G and a double mutation of A48S and S110A change the resting flagella to right-handed helices. The stationary flagella of the triple mutant were often straight or slightly curved at neutral pH. Deprotonation facilitates the helix formation of it. The helical and curved flagella can be transformed to the normal form by torsion upon rotation and thus propel the cell. These mutations arose in the long-term laboratory cultivation. However, flagella are under strong selection pressure as extracellular appendages, and similar transformable flagella would be common in natural environments.

  7. Formant frequency estimates for abruptly changing area functions: a comparison between calculations and measurements.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J; Lindblom, B; Liljencrants, J

    1992-06-01

    Vocal tract area functions may contain quite abrupt changes in cross-sectional area. In formant frequency calculations for such area functions, an inner length correction (ILC) should be applied. The relevance of this correction was investigated by comparing acoustic measurements obtained from a physical model of the vocal tract with data gathered by means of computer simulations. Calculating formant frequencies without applying internal length corrections caused substantial errors, particularly for area functions representing apical stops just anterior to occlusion. Decentering and axial symmetry in the arrangement of the area elements of the physical model were briefly studied and found to have effects on the formant frequency values.

  8. Real-time imaging of brain areas involved in the generation of spontaneous skin sympathetic nerve activity at rest.

    PubMed

    James, Cheree; Henderson, Luke; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2013-07-01

    In thermoneutral conditions resting skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is related to the level of arousal and emotional state. The brain regions responsible for the generation of spontaneous SSNA are not known. In the present study we used concurrent recordings of SSNA and brain activity in awake humans to identify cortical and subcortical areas involved in the generation of spontaneous SSNA in 13 healthy subjects. Blood oxygen level dependent signal intensity increases covaried with SSNA in the left thalamus in the region of the ventromedial nucleus, the left posterior and right anterior insula, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right frontal cortex, and bilaterally in the mid-cingulate cortex and precuneus. Functional connectivity analysis revealed a strong positive coupling between the right orbitofrontal cortex and the right anterior insula. Furthermore, signal intensity changes within the precuneus were temporally coupled to the left anterior and posterior insula, cerebellum, cingulate cortex and thalamus. It has been hypothesized that these brain regions monitor the internal state of the body and may regulate emotional state changes. Our results show that the activities within these regions are also correlated to spontaneous fluctuations in SSNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional viral metagenomics and the next generation of molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Thomas; Liles, Mark; Wommack, K Eric; Polson, Shawn W; Godiska, Ronald; Mead, David

    2010-01-01

    The enzymes of bacteriophages and other viruses have been essential research tools since the first days of molecular biology. However, the current repertoire of viral enzymes only hints at their overall potential. The most commonly used enzymes are derived from a surprisingly small number of cultivated viruses, which is remarkable considering the extreme abundance and diversity of viruses revealed over the past decade by metagenomic analysis. To access the treasure trove of enzymes hidden in the global virosphere and develop them for research, therapeutic and diagnostic uses, improvements are needed in our ability to rapidly and efficiently discover, express and characterize viral genes to produce useful proteins. In this paper, we discuss improvements to sampling and cloning methods, functional and genomics-based screens, and expression systems, which should accelerate discovery of new enzymes and other viral proteins for use in research and medicine.

  10. Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy of cellular structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Andrew C.; Jin, Lei; Loew, Leslie M.

    2005-03-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy is an important emerging technique for biological research, with many advantages over existing one- or two-photon fluorescence techniques. A non-linear phenomenon employing mode-locked Ti:sapphire or fiber-based lasers, SHG results in intrinsic optical sectioning without the need for a confocal aperture. Furthermore, as a second-order process SHG is confined to loci lacking a center of symmetry. Many important structural proteins such as collagen and cellulose show intrinsic SHG, thus providing access to sub-resolution information on symmetry. However, we are particularly interested here in "resonance-enhanced" SHG from styryl dyes. In general SHG is a combination of a true second-order process and a third-order process dependent on a static electric field, such that SHG from membrane-bound dyes depends on a cell's trans-membrane potential. With simultaneous patch-clamping and non-linear imaging of cells, we have found that SHG is a sensitive probe of trans-membrane potential with sensitivities that are up to four times better than those obtained under optimal conditions using one-photon fluorescence imaging. With the sensitivity of SHG to local electric fields from other sources such as the membrane dipole potential as well as the quadratic dependence of SHG on concentration, we have found that SHG imaging of styryl dyes is also a powerful technique for the investigation of lipid phases and rafts and for the visualization of the dynamics of membrane-vesicle fusion following fertilization of an ovum.

  11. Distribution of neurons in functional areas of the mouse cerebral cortex reveals quantitatively different cortical zones.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2013-01-01

    How are neurons distributed along the cortical surface and across functional areas? Here we use the isotropic fractionator (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005) to analyze the distribution of neurons across the entire isocortex of the mouse, divided into 18 functional areas defined anatomically. We find that the number of neurons underneath a surface area (the N/A ratio) varies 4.5-fold across functional areas and neuronal density varies 3.2-fold. The face area of S1 contains the most neurons, followed by motor cortex and the primary visual cortex. Remarkably, while the distribution of neurons across functional areas does not accompany the distribution of surface area, it mirrors closely the distribution of cortical volumes-with the exception of the visual areas, which hold more neurons than expected for their volume. Across the non-visual cortex, the volume of individual functional areas is a shared linear function of their number of neurons, while in the visual areas, neuronal densities are much higher than in all other areas. In contrast, the 18 functional areas cluster into three different zones according to the relationship between the N/A ratio and cortical thickness and neuronal density: these three clusters can be called visual, sensory, and, possibly, associative. These findings are remarkably similar to those in the human cerebral cortex (Ribeiro et al., 2013) and suggest that, like the human cerebral cortex, the mouse cerebral cortex comprises two zones that differ in how neurons form the cortical volume, and three zones that differ in how neurons are distributed underneath the cortical surface, possibly in relation to local differences in connectivity through the white matter. Our results suggest that beyond the developmental divide into visual and non-visual cortex, functional areas initially share a common distribution of neurons along the parenchyma that become delimited into functional areas according to the pattern of connectivity established later.

  12. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-11-06

    Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. © Speizer et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits

  13. Functional breadth and home-field advantage generate functional differences among soil microbial decomposers.

    PubMed

    Fanin, Nicolas; Fromin, Nathalie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    In addition to the effect of litter quality (LQ) on decomposition, increasing evidence is demonstrating that carbon mineralization can be influenced by the past resource history, mainly through following two processes: (1) decomposer communities from recalcitrant litter environments may have a wider functional ability to decompose a wide range of litter species than those originating from richer environments, i.e., the functional breadth (FB) hypothesis; and/or (2) decomposer communities may be specialized towards the litter they most frequently encounter, i.e., the home-field advantage (HFA) hypothesis. Nevertheless, the functional dissimilarities among contrasting microbial communities, which are generated by the FB and the HFA, have rarely been simultaneously quantified in the same experiment, and their relative contributions over time have never been assessed. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a reciprocal transplant decomposition experiment under controlled conditions using litter and soil originating from four ecosystems along a land-use gradient (forest, plantation, grassland, and cropland) and one additional treatment using 13C-labelled flax litter allowing us to assess the priming effect (PE) in each ecosystem. We found substantial effects of LQ on carbon mineralization (more than two-thirds of the explained variance), whereas the contribution of the soil type was fairly low (less than one-tenth), suggesting that the contrasting soil microbial communities play only a minor role in regulating decomposition rates. Although the results on PE showed that we overestimated litter-derived CO2 fluxes, litter-microbe interactions contributed significantly to the unexplained variance observed in carbon mineralization models. The magnitudes of FB and HFA were relatively similar, but the directions of these mechanisms were sometimes opposite depending on the litter and soil types. FB and HFA estimates calculated on parietal sugar mass loss were positively

  14. Investigation of the Mixing Behavior and the Generation of Contact-Area in a Continuous Twin-Shaft Kneader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seck, Oliver; Maxisch, Tobias; Bothe, Dieter; Warnecke, Hans-Joachim

    2010-03-01

    The technical synthesis and processing of polymer materials is the basis for major branches of the chemical industry. Well introduced for high-viscosity processes are screw extruders. However, in case of large residence times, a kneader with its large volume is more appropriate, but the latter still requires further understanding for intensification purposes. First, the axial mixing behavior is characterized by studying the residence time distribution under continuous operation. For this purpose silicone oil of high viscosity is used as kneading material. At the inlet dye tracer is injected and detected at the outlet via photometry. The response functions show that the classical dispersion model leads to an appropriate description of the experimental data. By means of a fast chemical reaction of second order the radial mixing behavior including transport on the molecular scale is studied. The generation of contact-area between two fluid elements, each one charged with one of the educts is the characteristic quantity since the two reactants cannot coexist and, hence, react directly at the interface. Thus the amount of detected product is a measure for the contact-area produced by kneading. Based on these data, a simplified model for the mixing process in the kneader is developed.

  15. New generation of hydraulic pedotransfer functions for Europe

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, B; Weynants, M; Nemes, A; Makó, A; Bilas, G; Tóth, G

    2015-01-01

    A range of continental-scale soil datasets exists in Europe with different spatial representation and based on different principles. We developed comprehensive pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for applications principally on spatial datasets with continental coverage. The PTF development included the prediction of soil water retention at various matric potentials and prediction of parameters to characterize soil moisture retention and the hydraulic conductivity curve (MRC and HCC) of European soils. We developed PTFs with a hierarchical approach, determined by the input requirements. The PTFs were derived by using three statistical methods: (i) linear regression where there were quantitative input variables, (ii) a regression tree for qualitative, quantitative and mixed types of information and (iii) mean statistics of developer-defined soil groups (class PTF) when only qualitative input parameters were available. Data of the recently established European Hydropedological Data Inventory (EU-HYDI), which holds the most comprehensive geographical and thematic coverage of hydro-pedological data in Europe, were used to train and test the PTFs. The applied modelling techniques and the EU-HYDI allowed the development of hydraulic PTFs that are more reliable and applicable for a greater variety of input parameters than those previously available for Europe. Therefore the new set of PTFs offers tailored advanced tools for a wide range of applications in the continent. PMID:25866465

  16. New generation of hydraulic pedotransfer functions for Europe.

    PubMed

    Tóth, B; Weynants, M; Nemes, A; Makó, A; Bilas, G; Tóth, G

    2015-01-01

    A range of continental-scale soil datasets exists in Europe with different spatial representation and based on different principles. We developed comprehensive pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for applications principally on spatial datasets with continental coverage. The PTF development included the prediction of soil water retention at various matric potentials and prediction of parameters to characterize soil moisture retention and the hydraulic conductivity curve (MRC and HCC) of European soils. We developed PTFs with a hierarchical approach, determined by the input requirements. The PTFs were derived by using three statistical methods: (i) linear regression where there were quantitative input variables, (ii) a regression tree for qualitative, quantitative and mixed types of information and (iii) mean statistics of developer-defined soil groups (class PTF) when only qualitative input parameters were available. Data of the recently established European Hydropedological Data Inventory (EU-HYDI), which holds the most comprehensive geographical and thematic coverage of hydro-pedological data in Europe, were used to train and test the PTFs. The applied modelling techniques and the EU-HYDI allowed the development of hydraulic PTFs that are more reliable and applicable for a greater variety of input parameters than those previously available for Europe. Therefore the new set of PTFs offers tailored advanced tools for a wide range of applications in the continent.

  17. Classification of acoustically stable areas using empirical orthogonal functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjelmervik, Karl Thomas; Jensen, Jan Kristian; Østenstad, Petter; Ommundsen, Atle

    2012-02-01

    Sonar performance modeling is crucial for submarine and anti-submarine operations. The validity of sonar performance models is generally limited by environmental uncertainty, and particularly uncertainty in the vertical sound speed profile (SSP). Rapid environmental assessment (REA) products, such as oceanographic surveys and ocean models may be used to reduce this uncertainty prior to sonar operations. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) applied on the SSPs inherently take into account the vertical gradients and therefore the acoustic properties. We present a method that employs EOFs and a grouping algorithm to divide a large group of SSPs from an ocean model simulation into smaller groups with similar SSP characteristics. Such groups are henceforth called acoustically stable groups. Each group represents a subset in space and time within the ocean model domain. Regions with low acoustic variability contain large and geographically contiguous acoustically stable groups. In contrast, small or fragmented acoustically stable groups are found in regions with high acoustic variability. The main output is a map of the group distribution. This is a REA product in itself, but the map may also be used as a planning aid for REA survey missions.

  18. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  19. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives.

  20. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives. PMID:25709690

  1. Similar numbers of neurons are generated in the male and female rat preoptic area in utero.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Chitose; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Usui, Sumiko; Sakuma, Yasuo

    2010-09-01

    The birth date of neurons comprising the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the rat preoptic area (SDN-POA) was determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injections at a prescribed time during the embryonic period. Calbindin immunostaining was used as a marker to identity the SDN-POA. The animals were bred from dams injected with BrdU on days 14, 16 or 18 of pregnancy (fertilization defined as day 1). On day 15 after birth (PD), all offspring were euthanized and brain sections were prepared for histology. Neurogenesis in the SDN-POA began around embryonic day (ED) 14 and culminated on ED 18, whereas the preoptic neurons surrounding the SDN-POA generated earlier than did those of the SDN-POA. Although the SDN-POA was significantly larger in males than in females at PD15, the total numbers of neurons comprising the SDN-POA were not significantly different between sexes. Similar aggregates of somatostatin mRNA-positive cells in the central portion of the SDN-POA were observed in both sexes at PD8. On PD15, the aggregates became scattered in males, whereas the aggregates in females remained congested. These data suggest that sexual dimorphism in the SDN-POA results from male-specific postnatal radial spreading of cells rather than cell proliferation during embryonic neurogenesis. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Proposal and Development of Radial Air-gap Coreless Generator Suitable for Small Wind Turbine using in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ohmoto, Shingo; Hara, Takehisa

    Independent distributed generations using small wind turbines are widely spread as increasing of wind power generation. Installation of small wind turbines in densely-populated urban area is not only useful from the viewpoint of digging up wind power source in weak-wind area but also for enlightenment of renewable energy due to closing power supplies to consumptions. From the point of view, the authors proposed “urban wind power generation" using collective system with a number of small vertical wind turbines and have developed a suitable generator for low-speed vertical wind turbines such as Savonius windmill. Standardized on a coreless generator, the proposed generator is designed to let direction of magnetic fluxes radial in order to install the magnets and coils on the outer end of the generator. The change of magnet composition and flux direction gives realization of maximized speed of flux change and output voltage in the limited space. With above composition, the power of the proposed one is independent on the diameter. In this report, we describe evaluated fundamental performance of a prototype of the proposed generator. As the result of the experiments, the maximum output power of 283W was obtained. The obtained starting torque is enough small to begin to rotate at weak wind condition of no more than 1m/s. Therefore, it is clear that the proposed “radial” coreless generator is suitable for self-starting and producing high power at low speed wind.

  3. The Data Collection Matrix Model: A Tool for Functional Area and Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Dana Rosenberg; Friedel, Janice Nahra

    1991-01-01

    The data collection matrix makes possible the integration of functional area data from numerous assessment sources and presentation of the information in a unified composite report. This model is discussed in relation to the various assessment instruments and the evaluation of functional areas and programs in colleges and universities. (Author/MSE)

  4. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hechun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Liang; Ma, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xuexin; Sun, Shengyu; Jia, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors. PMID:25657694

  5. Microscopic functional specificity can be predicted from fMRI signals in ventral visual areas.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daehun; Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan

    2014-10-01

    Functional areas specialized for recognition can be activated by a non-preferred stimulus as well as a preferred stimulus. The functional magnetic resonance imaging signals detected in response to different stimuli in an area may have the same or different amplitudes. However, it is uncertain whether the responses originate from the same neuronal populations or heterogeneous ones. To address this concern, we propose a novel method that uses multi-echo echo-planar imaging sequences to evaluate changes in the transverse relaxation profile caused by stimulation. According to this method, the areas related with visual recognition, i.e. fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area, have different transverse relaxation profiles to preferred and non-preferred stimuli, which can be considered as reflecting a difference in neuronal population processing stimuli in those areas. The proposed method can be useful for probing the microscopic functional specificity of brain areas.

  6. How Doctors Generate Diagnostic Hypotheses: A Study of Radiological Diagnosis with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Marcio; Scarpin, Daniel J.; Amaro, Edson; Passos, Rodrigo B. D.; Sato, João R.; Friston, Karl J.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life. Methodology and Principal Findings To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals) embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs) and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14) seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13) seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds). The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals. Conclusions Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of clinical signs and

  7. On the Geometry of the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation and Generating Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Sebastián; de León, Manuel; Marrero, Juan Carlos; Martín de Diego, David; Vaquero, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we develop a geometric version of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the Poisson setting. Specifically, we "geometrize" what is usually called a complete solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We use some well-known results about symplectic groupoids, in particular cotangent groupoids, as a keystone for the construction of our framework. Our methodology follows the ambitious program proposed by Weinstein (In Mechanics day (Waterloo, ON, 1992), volume 7 of fields institute communications, American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1996) in order to develop geometric formulations of the dynamical behavior of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems on Lie algebroids and Lie groupoids. This procedure allows us to take symmetries into account, and, as a by-product, we recover results from Channell and Scovel (Phys D 50(1):80-88, 1991), Ge (Indiana Univ. Math. J. 39(3):859-876, 1990), Ge and Marsden (Phys Lett A 133(3):134-139, 1988), but even in these situations our approach is new. A theory of generating functions for the Poisson structures considered here is also developed following the same pattern, solving a longstanding problem of the area: how to obtain a generating function for the identity transformation and the nearby Poisson automorphisms of Poisson manifolds. A direct application of our results gives the construction of a family of Poisson integrators, that is, integrators that conserve the underlying Poisson geometry. These integrators are implemented in the paper in benchmark problems. Some conclusions, current and future directions of research are shown at the end of the paper.

  8. On Wiener-Masani's algorithm for finding the generating function of multivariate stochastic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the algorithms for determining the generating function and prediction error matrix of multivariate stationary stochastic processes developed by Wiener and Masani (1957), and later by Masani (1960) will work in some more general setting.

  9. Controlling surface functionality through generation of thiol groups in a self-assembled monolayer.

    SciTech Connect

    Lud, S. Q.; Neppl, S.; Richter, G.; Bruno, P.; Gruen, D. M.; Jordan, R.; Feulner, P.; Stutzmann, M.; Garrido, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Technische Univ. Munchen

    2010-01-01

    A lithographic method to generate reactive thiol groups on functionalized synthetic diamond for biosensor and molecular electronic applications is developed. We demonstrate that ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films covalently functionalized with surface-generated thiol groups allow controlled thiol-disulfide exchange surface hybridization processes. The generation of the thiol functional head groups was obtained by irradiating phenylsulfonic acid (PSA) monolayers on UNCD surfaces. The conversion of the functional headgroup of the self-assembled monolayer was verified by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and fluorescence microscopy. Our findings indicate the selective generation of reactive thiol surface groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate the grafting of yeast cytochrome c to the thiol-modified diamond surface and the electron transfer between protein and electrode.

  10. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  11. Parameterized approximation of lacunarity functions derived from airborne laser scanning point clouds of forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Székely, Balázs; Kania, Adam; Varga, Katalin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    Lacunarity, a measure of the spatial distribution of the empty space is found to be a useful descriptive quantity of the forest structure. Its calculation, based on laser-scanned point clouds, results in a four-dimensional data set. The evaluation of results needs sophisticated tools and visualization techniques. To simplify the evaluation, it is straightforward to use approximation functions fitted to the results. The lacunarity function L(r), being a measure of scale-independent structural properties, has a power-law character. Previous studies showed that log(log(L(r))) transformation is suitable for analysis of spatial patterns. Accordingly, transformed lacunarity functions can be approximated by appropriate functions either in the original or in the transformed domain. As input data we have used a number of laser-scanned point clouds of various forests. The lacunarity distribution has been calculated along a regular horizontal grid at various (relative) elevations. The lacunarity data cube then has been logarithm-transformed and the resulting values became the input of parameter estimation at each point (point of interest, POI). This way at each POI a parameter set is generated that is suitable for spatial analysis. The expectation is that the horizontal variation and vertical layering of the vegetation can be characterized by this procedure. The results show that the transformed L(r) functions can be typically approximated by exponentials individually, and the residual values remain low in most cases. However, (1) in most cases the residuals may vary considerably, and (2) neighbouring POIs often give rather differing estimates both in horizontal and in vertical directions, of them the vertical variation seems to be more characteristic. In the vertical sense, the distribution of estimates shows abrupt changes at places, presumably related to the vertical structure of the forest. In low relief areas horizontal similarity is more typical, in higher relief areas

  12. The perimeter generating functions of three-choice, imperfect, and one-punctured staircase polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, M.; van Hoeij, M.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the isotropic perimeter generating functions of three-choice, imperfect, and one-punctured staircase polygons, whose 8th order linear Fuchsian ODEs are previously known. We derive simple relationships between the three generating functions, and show that all three generating functions are joint solutions of a common 12th order Fuchsian linear ODE. We find that the 8th order differential operators can each be rewritten as a direct sum of a direct product, with operators no larger than 3rd order. We give closed-form expressions for all the solutions of these operators in terms of 2 F 1 hypergeometric functions with rational and algebraic arguments. The solutions of these linear differential operators can in fact be expressed in terms of two modular forms, since these 2 F 1 hypergeometric functions can be expressed with two, rational or algebraic, pullbacks. Dedicated to A J Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  13. Generating Global Leaf Area Index from Landsat: Algorithm Formulation and Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Zhang, Gong; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Milesi, Cristina; Michaelis, Andrew; Wang, Weile; Votava, Petr; Samanta, Arindam; Melton, Forrest; hide

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the implementation of a physically based algorithm for the retrieval of vegetation green Leaf Area Index (LAI) from Landsat surface reflectance data. The algorithm is based on the canopy spectral invariants theory and provides a computationally efficient way of parameterizing the Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) as a function of spatial resolution and wavelength. LAI retrievals from the application of this algorithm to aggregated Landsat surface reflectances are consistent with those of MODIS for homogeneous sites represented by different herbaceous and forest cover types. Example results illustrating the physics and performance of the algorithm suggest three key factors that influence the LAI retrieval process: 1) the atmospheric correction procedures to estimate surface reflectances; 2) the proximity of Landsatobserved surface reflectance and corresponding reflectances as characterized by the model simulation; and 3) the quality of the input land cover type in accurately delineating pure vegetated components as opposed to mixed pixels. Accounting for these factors, a pilot implementation of the LAI retrieval algorithm was demonstrated for the state of California utilizing the Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 Landsat data archive. In a separate exercise, the performance of the LAI algorithm over California was evaluated by using the short-wave infrared band in addition to the red and near-infrared bands. Results show that the algorithm, while ingesting the short-wave infrared band, has the ability to delineate open canopies with understory effects and may provide useful information compared to a more traditional two-band retrieval. Future research will involve implementation of this algorithm at continental scales and a validation exercise will be performed in evaluating the accuracy of the 30-m LAI products at several field sites. ©

  14. First-generation students’ underperformance at university: the impact of the function of selection

    PubMed Central

    Jury, Mickaël; Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    According to recent research, university not only has the role to educate and train students, it also has the role to select the best students. We argue that this function of selection disadvantages first-generation students, in comparison with continuing-generation students. Thus, the mere activation of the function of selection should be sufficient to produce achievement differences between first-generation and continuing-generation students in a novel academic task. Furthermore, we propose that when the function of selection is salient, first-generation students would be more vigilant to a cue that may confirm their inferiority, which should explain their underperformance. In the present experiment, participants were asked to complete an arithmetic modular task under two conditions, which either made the function of selection salient or reduced its importance. Participants’ vigilance to a threatening cue (i.e., their performance relative to others) was measured through an eye-tracking technique. The results confirmed that first-generation students performed more poorly compared to continuing-generation students only when the function of selection was salient while no differences appeared in the no-selection condition. Regarding vigilance, the results did not confirm our hypothesis; thus, mediation path could not be tested. However, results indicated that at a high level of initial performance, first-generation students looked more often at the threatening cue. In others words, these students seemed more concerned about whether they were performing more poorly than others compared to their continuing-generation counterparts. Some methodological issues are discussed, notably regarding the measure of vigilance. PMID:26074854

  15. A hardware-oriented algorithm for floating-point function generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Grady, E. Pearse; Young, Baek-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for performing accurate, high-speed, floating-point function generation for univariate functions defined at arbitrary breakpoints. Rapid identification of the breakpoint interval, which includes the input argument, is shown to be the key operation in the algorithm. A hardware implementation which makes extensive use of read/write memories is used to illustrate the algorithm.

  16. An improved nearly-orthogonal structured mesh generation system with smoothness control functions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper presents an improved nearly-orthogonal structured mesh generation system with a set of smoothness control functions, which were derived based on the ratio between the Jacobian of the transformation matrix and the Jacobian of the metric tensor. The proposed smoothness control functions are...

  17. A hardware-oriented algorithm for floating-point function generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Grady, E. Pearse; Young, Baek-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for performing accurate, high-speed, floating-point function generation for univariate functions defined at arbitrary breakpoints. Rapid identification of the breakpoint interval, which includes the input argument, is shown to be the key operation in the algorithm. A hardware implementation which makes extensive use of read/write memories is used to illustrate the algorithm.

  18. Laterality of brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-ting; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wei

    2005-04-20

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions: arithmetic calculation may be one of these phenomena. In this study, first, laterality of brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations was revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Second, the relationship among laterality, handedness, and types of arithmetic task was assessed. Third, we postulate possible reasons for laterality. Using a block-designed experiment, twenty-five right-handed and seven left-handed healthy volunteers carried out simple calculations, complex calculations and proximity judgments. T1WI and GRE-EPI fMRI were performed with a GE 1.5T whole body MRI scanner. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) was used to process data and localize functional areas. Numbers of activated voxels were recorded to calculate laterality index for evaluating the laterality of functional brain areas. For both groups, the activation of functional areas in the frontal lobe showed a tendency towards the nonpredominant hand side, but the functional areas in the inferior parietal lobule had left laterality. During simple and complex calculations, the laterality indices of the prefrontal cortex and premotor area were higher in the right-handed group than that in the left-handed group, whereas the laterality of the inferior parietal lobule had no such significant difference. In both groups, when the difficulty of the task increased, the laterality of the prefrontal cortex, premotor area, and inferior parietal lobule decreased, but the laterality of posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus increased. The laterality of the functional brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations can be detected with fMRI. The laterality of the functional areas was related to handedness and task difficulty.

  19. Localized detection of reversal nucleation generated by high moment magnetic nanoparticles using a large-area magnetic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yinglong; Liu, Jinming; Klein, Todd; Wu, Kai; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-09-01

    This report introduces a local-magnetic-reversal-nucleation based giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor with a large sensing area and further discusses its novel sensing scheme of high magnetic moment nanoparticles (MNPs). We demonstrated experimentally that this large-area GMR sensor could successfully detect high moment MNPs. The detection scheme of localized reversal nucleation of GMR sensor induced by MNPs was analyzed and further confirmed by the micromagnetic simulations. This work may provide one pathway in designing next generation GMR biosensors with large area and high sensitivity. This sensing scheme could be applicable to other magnetic biosensors such as magnetic tunnel junction sensors and planar Hall sensors.

  20. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  1. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  2. The Road Less Travelled: Tracing the Path of First-Generation Students from Rural Areas to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsdon, Michelle Caron

    2012-01-01

    Narrative inquiry was used to trace the educational journeys of 11 first-generation university students from rural areas of Colorado in an effort to identify the experiences, beliefs, and people that impacted their decision to attend a 4-year institution. Students were asked to convey their experiences growing up within the contexts of their…

  3. Older Adults and the Fear of Death: The Protective Function of Generativity.

    PubMed

    Major, Rochelle J; Whelton, William J; Schimel, Jeff; Sharpe, Donald

    2016-06-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that cultural worldviews function to allay concerns about human mortality. Preliminary research with older adults has indicated that seniors do not respond to death reminders in the same way as their younger counterparts. The purpose of the current study was to test a developmentally relevant construct that may buffer death anxiety in later life. It was hypothesized that Erikson's concept of generativity may encompass death-denying properties for older adults. One hundred and seventy-nine seniors were recruited to determine if subtle mortality salience inductions would lead participants to rate their own generativity as higher than after a blatant induction, or no induction, after controlling for pre-induction generativity. As expected, participants exposed to subtle death primes rated themselves as having higher levels of generativity than the other two groups after co-varying pre-induction generativity. Explanations are discussed in light of the literatures on TMT and generativity.

  4. In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas

    PubMed Central

    Hira, Riichiro; Ohkubo, Fuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro R.; Masamizu, Yoshito; Augustine, George J.; Kasai, Haruo; Matsuzaki, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between distinct motor cortical areas are essential for coordinated motor behaviors. In rodents, the motor cortical forelimb areas are divided into at least two distinct areas: the rostral forelimb area (RFA) and the caudal forelimb area (CFA). The RFA is thought to be an equivalent of the premotor cortex (PM) in primates, whereas the CFA is believed to be an equivalent of the primary motor cortex. Although reciprocal connections between the RFA and the CFA have been anatomically identified in rats, it is unknown whether there are functional connections between these areas that can induce postsynaptic spikes. In this study, we used an in vivo Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) photostimulation method to trace the functional connections between the mouse RFA and CFA. Simultaneous electrical recordings were utilized to detect spiking activities induced by synaptic inputs originating from photostimulated areas. This method, in combination with anatomical tracing, demonstrated that the RFA receives strong functional projections from layer 2/3 and/or layer 5a, but not from layer 5b (L5b), of the CFA. Further, the CFA receives strong projections from L5b neurons of the RFA. The onset latency of electrical responses evoked in remote areas upon photostimulation of the other areas was approximately 10 ms, which is consistent with the synaptic connectivity between these areas. Our results suggest that neuronal activities in the RFA and the CFA during movements are formed through asymmetric reciprocal connections. PMID:23554588

  5. Analysis of Graph Invariants in Functional Neocortical Circuitry Reveals Generalized Features Common to Three Areas of Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gururangan, Suchin S.; Sadovsky, Alexander J.; MacLean, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in local neocortical spiking activity can provide insight into the underlying organization of cortical microcircuitry. However, identifying structure in patterned multi-neuronal spiking remains a daunting task due to the high dimensionality of the activity. Using two-photon imaging, we monitored spontaneous circuit dynamics in large, densely sampled neuronal populations within slices of mouse primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex. Using the lagged correlation of spiking activity between neurons, we generated functional wiring diagrams to gain insight into the underlying neocortical circuitry. By establishing the presence of graph invariants, which are label-independent characteristics common to all circuit topologies, our study revealed organizational features that generalized across functionally distinct cortical regions. Regardless of sensory area, random and -nearest neighbors null graphs failed to capture the structure of experimentally derived functional circuitry. These null models indicated that despite a bias in the data towards spatially proximal functional connections, functional circuit structure is best described by non-random and occasionally distal connections. Eigenvector centrality, which quantifies the importance of a neuron in the temporal flow of circuit activity, was highly related to feedforwardness in all functional circuits. The number of nodes participating in a functional circuit did not scale with the number of neurons imaged regardless of sensory area, indicating that circuit size is not tied to the sampling of neocortex. Local circuit flow comprehensively covered angular space regardless of the spatial scale that we tested, demonstrating that circuitry itself does not bias activity flow toward pia. Finally, analysis revealed that a minimal numerical sample size of neurons was necessary to capture at least 90 percent of functional circuit topology. These data and analyses indicated that functional circuitry

  6. Next Generation Air Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation air measurements (NGAM) is an EPA term for the advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and geospatial modeling strategies. Ranging from personal sensors to satellite remote sensing, NGAM systems may provide revolutionary n...

  7. Next Generation Air Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation air measurements (NGAM) is an EPA term for the advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and geospatial modeling strategies. Ranging from personal sensors to satellite remote sensing, NGAM systems may provide revolutionary n...

  8. Next Generation Emission Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation emissions measurements (NGEM) is an EPA term for the rapidly advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and associated geospatial modeling strategies for source emissions measurements. Ranging from low coat sensors to satelli...

  9. Next Generation Emission Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation emissions measurements (NGEM) is an EPA term for the rapidly advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and associated geospatial modeling strategies for source emissions measurements. Ranging from low coat sensors to satelli...

  10. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  11. Generation and propagation of partially coherent beams with nonconventional correlation functions: a review [invited].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Chen, Yahong; Wang, Fei

    2014-09-01

    Partially coherent beams with nonconventional correlation functions have displayed many extraordinary properties, such as self-focusing and self-splitting, which are totally different from those of partially coherent beams with conventional Gaussian correlated Schell-model functions and are useful in many applications, such as optical trapping, free-space optical communications, and material thermal processing. In this paper, we present a review of recent developments on generation and propagation of partially coherent beams with nonconventional correlation functions.

  12. Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function.

    PubMed

    DeFries, Ruth; Hansen, Andrew; Turner, B L; Reid, Robin; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-06-01

    Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

  13. Incorporating Religiosity into a Developmental Model of Positive Family Functioning across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Spilman, Sarah K.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a developmental model of intergenerational continuity in religiosity and its association with observed competency in romantic and parent-child relationships across two generations. Using multi-informant data from the Family Transitions Project, a 20-year longitudinal study of families that began during early adolescence (N = 451), we found that parental religiosity assessed during the youth’s adolescence was positively related to the youth’s own religiosity during adolescence which, in turn, predicted their religiosity after the transition to adulthood. The findings also supported the theoretical model guiding the study, which proposes that religiosity acts as a personal resource that will be uniquely and positively associated with the quality of family relationships. Especially important, the findings demonstrate support for the role of religiosity in a developmental process that promotes positive family functioning after addressing earlier methodological limitations in this area of study, such as cross-sectional research designs, single informant measurement, retrospective reports, and the failure to control for other individual differences. PMID:22545832

  14. Network asymmetry of motor areas revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Rong; Wu, Yi-Bo; Hu, De-Wen; Qin, Shang-Zhen; Xu, Guo-Zheng; Zeng, Xiao-Hua; Song, Hua

    2012-02-01

    There are ample functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on functional brain asymmetries, and the asymmetry of cerebral network in the resting state may be crucial to brain function organization. In this paper, a unified schema of voxel-wise functional connectivity and asymmetry analysis was presented and the network asymmetry of motor areas was studied. Twelve healthy male subjects with mean age 29.8 ± 6.4 were studied. Functional network in the resting state was described by using functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis. Motor areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs). Network asymmetry, including intra- and inter-network asymmetries, was formulated and analyzed. The intra-network asymmetry was defined as the difference between the left and right part of a particular functional network. The inter-network asymmetry was defined as the difference between the networks for a specific ROI in the left hemisphere and its homotopic ROI in the right hemisphere. Primary motor area (M1), primary sensory area (S1) and premotor area (PMA) exhibited higher functional correlation with the right parietal-temporal-occipital circuit and the middle frontal gyrus than they did with the left hemisphere. Right S1 and right PMA exhibited higher functional correlation with the ipsilateral precentral and supramarginal areas. There exist the large-scale hierarchical network asymmetries of the motor areas in the resting state. These asymmetries imply the right hemisphere dominance for predictive motor coding based on spatial attention and higher sensory processing load for the motor performance of non-dominant hemisphere.

  15. ADM. Service Building (TAN603). Floor plan. Names of functional areas. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Service Building (TAN-603). Floor plan. Names of functional areas. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANY-603-A 43. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 033-0603-00-693-106718 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  17. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  18. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  19. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. 470.105 Section 470.105 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and...

  20. Tooth development in a model reptile: functional and null generation teeth in the gecko Paroedura picta.

    PubMed

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Horacek, Ivan; Tucker, Abigail S

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes tooth development in a basal squamate, Paroedura picta. Due to its reproductive strategy, mode of development and position within the reptiles, this gecko represents an excellent model organism for the study of reptile development. Here we document the dental pattern and development of non-functional (null generation) and functional generations of teeth during embryonic development. Tooth development is followed from initiation to cytodifferentiation and ankylosis, as the tooth germs develop from bud, through cap to bell stages. The fate of the single generation of non-functional (null generation) teeth is shown to be variable, with some teeth being expelled from the oral cavity, while others are incorporated into the functional bone and teeth, or are absorbed. Fate appears to depend on the initiation site within the oral cavity, with the first null generation teeth forming before formation of the dental lamina. We show evidence for a stratum intermedium layer in the enamel epithelium of functional teeth and show that the bicuspid shape of the teeth is created by asymmetrical deposition of enamel, and not by folding of the inner dental epithelium as observed in mammals.

  1. Tooth development in a model reptile: functional and null generation teeth in the gecko Paroedura picta

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Horacek, Ivan; Tucker, Abigail S

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tooth development in a basal squamate, Paroedura picta. Due to its reproductive strategy, mode of development and position within the reptiles, this gecko represents an excellent model organism for the study of reptile development. Here we document the dental pattern and development of non-functional (null generation) and functional generations of teeth during embryonic development. Tooth development is followed from initiation to cytodifferentiation and ankylosis, as the tooth germs develop from bud, through cap to bell stages. The fate of the single generation of non-functional (null generation) teeth is shown to be variable, with some teeth being expelled from the oral cavity, while others are incorporated into the functional bone and teeth, or are absorbed. Fate appears to depend on the initiation site within the oral cavity, with the first null generation teeth forming before formation of the dental lamina. We show evidence for a stratum intermedium layer in the enamel epithelium of functional teeth and show that the bicuspid shape of the teeth is created by asymmetrical deposition of enamel, and not by folding of the inner dental epithelium as observed in mammals. PMID:22780101

  2. Visual language and handwriting movement: functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla during generation of ideographic characters.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Tanaka, S; Sugio, T; Matsuzawa, M; Inui, T; Moriya, T; Glover, G H; Nakai, T

    2001-07-01

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment at 3 tesla was performed to investigate the collaborative mechanism between visuospatial processing and motor execution in performing visual language generation tasks. Japanese Kanji, ideographic characters, were utilized to design tasks. The bilateral border portions between the inferior parietal lobule and the occipital lobe were involved during a Kanji puzzle task, which required subjects to combine several parts into a Kanji. The higher motor areas, such as the premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor areas, were also activated bilaterally during the puzzle task. The parieto-occipital activation may be related to analysis of configuration or segmentation/integration of Kanji figures. Activation in the higher motor areas may be induced by cognitive components related to motor function to perform the visuospatial language task, such as intense reference for displayed characters and finding a proper character for puzzle solution. A collaborative mechanism in these areas may explain the effectiveness of tactile reading in letter recognition by patients with pure alexia or kinesthetic facilitation by Kanji users when recalling difficult Kanji.

  3. Human cortical potentials evoked by stimulation of the median nerve. II. Cytoarchitectonic areas generating long-latency activity.

    PubMed

    Allison, T; McCarthy, G; Wood, C C; Williamson, P D; Spencer, D D

    1989-09-01

    1. The anatomic generators of human median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in the 40 to 250-ms latency range were investigated in 54 patients by means of cortical-surface and transcortical recordings obtained during neurosurgery. 2. Contralateral stimulation evoked three groups of SEPs recorded from the hand representation area of sensorimotor cortex: P45-N80-P180, recorded anterior to the central sulcus (CS) and maximal on the precentral gyrus; N45-P80-N180, recorded posterior to the CS and maximal on the postcentral gyrus; and P50-N90-P190, recorded near and on either side of the CS. 3. P45-N80-P180 inverted in polarity to N45-P80-N180 across the CS but was similar in polarity from the cortical surface and white matter in transcortical recordings. These spatial distributions were similar to those of the short-latency P20-N30 and N20-P30 potentials described in the preceding paper, suggesting that these long-latency potentials are generated in area 3b of somatosensory cortex. 4. P50-N90-P190 was largest over the anterior one-half of somatosensory cortex and did not show polarity inversion across the CS. This spatial distribution was similar to that of the short-latency P25-N35 potentials described in the preceding paper and, together with our and Goldring et al. 1970; Stohr and Goldring 1969 transcortical recordings, suggest that these long-latency potentials are generated in area 1 of somatosensory cortex. 5. SEPs of apparently local origin were recorded from several regions of sensorimotor cortex to stimulation of the ipsilateral median nerve. Surface and transcortical recordings suggest that the ipsilateral potentials are generated not in area 3b, but rather in other regions of sensorimotor cortex perhaps including areas 4, 1, 2, and 7. This spatial distribution suggests that the ipsilateral potentials are generated by transcallosal input from the contralateral hemisphere. 6. Recordings from the periSylvian region were characterized by P100 and N

  4. Human cortical potentials evoked by stimulation of the median nerve. I. Cytoarchitectonic areas generating short-latency activity.

    PubMed

    Allison, T; McCarthy, G; Wood, C C; Darcey, T M; Spencer, D D; Williamson, P D

    1989-09-01

    1. The anatomic generators of human median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in the 40 to 250-ms latency range were investigated in 54 patients by means of cortical-surface and transcortical recordings obtained during neurosurgery. 2. Contralateral stimulation evoked three groups of SEPs recorded from the hand representation area of sensorimotor cortex: P45-N80-P180, recorded anterior to the central sulcus (CS) and maximal on the precentral gyrus; N45-P80-N180, recorded posterior to the CS and maximal on the postcentral gyrus; and P50-N90-P190, recorded near and on either side of the CS. 3. P45-N80-P180 inverted in polarity to N45-P80-N180 across the CS but was similar in polarity from the cortical surface and white matter in transcortical recordings. These spatial distributions were similar to those of the short-latency P20-N30 and N20-P30 potentials described in the preceding paper, suggesting that these long-latency potentials are generated in area 3b of somatosensory cortex. 4. P50-N90-P190 was largest over the anterior one-half of somatosensory cortex and did not show polarity inversion across the CS. This spatial distribution was similar to that of the short-latency P25-N35 potentials described in the preceding paper and, together with our and Goldring et al. 1970; Stohr and Goldring 1969 transcortical recordings, suggest that these long-latency potentials are generated in area 1 of somatosensory cortex. 5. SEPs of apparently local origin were recorded from several regions of sensorimotor cortex to stimulation of the ipsilateral median nerve. Surface and transcortical recordings suggest that the ipsilateral potentials are generated not in area 3b, but rather in other regions of sensorimotor cortex perhaps including areas 4, 1, 2, and 7. This spatial distribution suggests that the ipsilateral potentials are generated by transcallosal input from the contralateral hemisphere. 6. Recordings from the periSylvian region were characterized by P100 and N

  5. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  6. Unexpected high vulnerability of functions in wilderness areas: evidence from coral reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Vigliola, Laurent; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Wantiez, Laurent; Parravicini, Valeriano; Villéger, Sébastien; Mou-Tham, Gerard; Frolla, Philippe; Friedlander, Alan M.; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-01-01

    High species richness is thought to support the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions and services under changing environments. Yet, some species might perform unique functional roles while others are redundant. Thus, the benefits of high species richness in maintaining ecosystem functioning are uncertain if functions have little redundancy, potentially leading to high vulnerability of functions. We studied the natural propensity of assemblages to be functionally buffered against loss prior to fishing activities, using functional trait combinations, in coral reef fish assemblages across unfished wilderness areas of the Indo-Pacific: Chagos Archipelago, New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Fish functional diversity in these wilderness areas is highly vulnerable to fishing, explained by species- and abundance-based redundancy packed into a small combination of traits, leaving most other trait combinations (60%) sensitive to fishing, with no redundancy. Functional vulnerability peaks for mobile and sedentary top predators, and large species in general. Functional vulnerability decreases for certain functional entities in New Caledonia, where overall functional redundancy was higher. Uncovering these baseline patterns of functional vulnerability can offer early warning signals of the damaging effects from fishing, and may serve as baselines to guide precautionary and even proactive conservation actions. PMID:27928042

  7. Unexpected high vulnerability of functions in wilderness areas: evidence from coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    D'agata, Stéphanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wantiez, Laurent; Parravicini, Valeriano; Villéger, Sébastien; Mou-Tham, Gerard; Frolla, Philippe; Friedlander, Alan M; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-12-14

    High species richness is thought to support the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions and services under changing environments. Yet, some species might perform unique functional roles while others are redundant. Thus, the benefits of high species richness in maintaining ecosystem functioning are uncertain if functions have little redundancy, potentially leading to high vulnerability of functions. We studied the natural propensity of assemblages to be functionally buffered against loss prior to fishing activities, using functional trait combinations, in coral reef fish assemblages across unfished wilderness areas of the Indo-Pacific: Chagos Archipelago, New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Fish functional diversity in these wilderness areas is highly vulnerable to fishing, explained by species- and abundance-based redundancy packed into a small combination of traits, leaving most other trait combinations (60%) sensitive to fishing, with no redundancy. Functional vulnerability peaks for mobile and sedentary top predators, and large species in general. Functional vulnerability decreases for certain functional entities in New Caledonia, where overall functional redundancy was higher. Uncovering these baseline patterns of functional vulnerability can offer early warning signals of the damaging effects from fishing, and may serve as baselines to guide precautionary and even proactive conservation actions.

  8. Next-Generation High-Throughput Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Baric, Ralph S.; Damania, Blossom; Miller, Samuel I.; Rubin, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Host infection by microbial pathogens cues global changes in microbial and host cell biology that facilitate microbial replication and disease. The complete maps of thousands of bacterial and viral genomes have recently been defined; however, the rate at which physiological or biochemical functions have been assigned to genes has greatly lagged. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) addressed this gap by creating functional genomics centers dedicated to developing high-throughput approaches to assign gene function. These centers require broad-based and collaborative research programs to generate and integrate diverse data to achieve a comprehensive understanding of microbial pathogenesis. High-throughput functional genomics can lead to new therapeutics and better understanding of the next generation of emerging pathogens by rapidly defining new general mechanisms by which organisms cause disease and replicate in host tissues and by facilitating the rate at which functional data reach the scientific community. PMID:27703071

  9. Fins effectiveness and efficiency with position function of rhombus sectional area in unsteady condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, Tito Dwi; Purwadi, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    The function of the fin is to extend surfaces so that objects fitted with fin can remove the heat to the surrounding environment so that the cooling process can take place more quickly. The purpose of this study is to calculate and determine the effect of (a) the convective heat transfer coefficient of fluid on the value of the fin on the efficiency and effectiveness of non-steady state, and (b) the fin material to the value of the fins on the efficiency and effectiveness of non-steady state. The studied fins are in the form of straight fins with rhombus sectional area which is a function of position x with the short diagonal length of D1 and D2 as long diagonal length, L as fin's length and α as fin's tilt angle. Research solved numerical computation, using a finite difference method on the explicit way. At first, the fin has the same initial temperature with essentially temperature Ti = Tb, then abruptly fin conditioned on fluid temperature environment T∞. Fin's material is assumed with uniform properties, does not change with changes in temperature, and fin does not change the shape and volume during the process. The temperature of the fluid around the fins and the value of the convective heat transfer coefficient are permanently constant, and there is no energy generation in the fin. Fin's heat transfer conduction only take place in one direction, namely in the direction perpendicular to the fin base (or x-direction). The entire surface of the fin makes the process of heat transfer to a fluid environment around the fins. The results show that (a) the greater the value of heat transfer coefficient of convection h, the smaller the efficiency fin and effectiveness fins (b) In circumstances of unsteady state, the efficiency and effectivity influenced by the value of density, specific heat, heat transfer coefficient of conduction and thermal diffusivity fin material.

  10. Modified functionally generated path technique for single complete denture against non-modified natural dentition

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Snehal Rashmikant; Singh, Saumyendra V; Bhalla, Gaurav; Kumar, Lakshya; Singh, Balendra P

    2012-01-01

    Background A clinical report of a patient complaining of frequent fractures of her maxillary complete denture opposing dentulous mandibular arch is presented. Materials and Methods The patient was rehabilitated with a maxillary complete denture using modified functionally generated path technique to achieve harmonious occlusion between the complete denture and the natural dentition. Discussion Using the patient's own denture to record the functionally generated path made the technique much easier and also saved valuable chair-side time. Occlusal balancing in the trial denture bases gave us the flexibility to move the teeth slightly, or grind them in order to balance the occlusion. Summary and Conclusion Our modification of the functionally generated path technique resulted in successful rehabilitation of the patient without any fracture of the prosthesis in the 2-year follow-up, and has saved valuable chair-side time and laboratory effort. PMID:25756037

  11. Graphene-Based Functional Architectures: Sheets Regulation and Macrostructure Construction toward Actuators and Power Generators.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huhu; Huang, Yaxin; Shi, Gaoquan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2017-07-18

    Graphene, with large delocalized π electron cloud on a two-dimensional (2D) atom-thin plane, possesses excellent carrier mobility, large surface area, high light transparency, high mechanical strength, and superior flexibility. However, the lack of intrinsic band gap, poor dispersibility, and weak reactivity of graphene hinder its application scope. Heteroatom-doping regulation and surface modification of graphene can effectively reconstruct the sp(2) bonded carbon atoms and tailor the surface chemistry and interfacial interaction, while microstructure mediation on graphene can induce the special chemical and physical properties because of the quantum confinement, edge effect, and unusual mass transport process. Based on these regulations on graphene, series of methods and techniques are developed to couple the promising characters of graphene into the macroscopic architectures for potential and practical applications. In this Account, we present our effort on graphene regulation from chemical modification to microstructure control, from the morphology-designed macroassemblies to their applications in functional systems excluding the energy-storage devices. We first introduce the chemically regulative graphene with incorporated heteroatoms into the honeycomb lattice, which could open the intrinsic band gap and provide many active sites. Then the surface modification of graphene with functional components will improve dispersibility, prevent aggregation, and introduce new functions. On the other hand, microstructure mediation on graphene sheets (e.g., 0D quantum dots, 1D nanoribbons, and 2D nanomeshes) is demonstrated to induce special chemical and physical properties. Benefiting from the effective regulation on graphene sheets, diverse methods including dimension-confined strategy, filtration assembly, and hydrothermal treatment have been developed to assemble individual graphene sheets to macroscopic graphene fibers, films, and frameworks. These rationally

  12. Functional connectivity between brain areas estimated by analysis of gamma waves.

    PubMed

    Kheiri, Farshad; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome

    2013-04-15

    The goal of this study is to investigate functional connectivity between different brain regions by analyzing the temporal relationship of the maxima of gamma waves recorded in multiple brain areas. Local field potentials were recorded from motor cortex, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and piriform cortex of rats. Gamma activity was filtered and separated into two bands; high (65-90Hz) and low (30-55Hz) gamma. Maxima for gamma activity waves were detected and functional connectivity between different brain regions was determined using Shannon entropy for perievent histograms for each pair channels. Significant Shannon entropy values were reported as connectivity factors. We defined a connectivity matrix based the connectivity factors between different regions. We found that maxima of low and high frequency gamma occur in strong temporal relationship between some brain areas, indicating the existence of functional connections between these areas. The spatial pattern of functional connections between brain areas was different for slow wave sleep and waking states. However for each behavioral state in the same animal the pattern of functional connections was stable over time within 30min of continuous analysis and over a 5 day period. With the same electrode montage the pattern of functional connectivity varied from one subject to another. Analysis of the temporal relationship of maxima of gamma waves between various brain areas could be a useful tool for investigation of functional connections between these brain areas. This approach could be applied for analysis of functional alterations occurring in these connections during different behavioral tasks and during processes related to learning and memory. The specificity in the connectivity pattern from one subject to another can be explained by the existence of unique functional networks for each subject. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Isoforms of the human histamine H3 receptor: Generation, expression in the central nervous system and functional implications].

    PubMed

    García-Gálvez, Ana Maricela; Arias-Montaño, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Histamine plays a significant role as a neuromodulator in the human central nervous system. Histamine-releasing neurons are exclusively located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, project to all major areas of the brain, and participate in functions such as the regulation of sleep/wakefulness, locomotor activity, feeding and drinking, analgesia, learning, and memory. The functional effects of histamine are exerted through the activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4), and in the central nervous system the first three receptors are widely expressed. The H3 receptor (H3R) is found exclusively in neuronal cells, where it functions as auto- and hetero-receptor. One remarkable characteristic of the H3R is the existence of isoforms, generated by alternative splicing of the messenger RNA. For the human H3R, 20 isoforms have been reported; although a significant number lack those regions required for agonist binding or receptor signaling, at least five isoforms appear functional upon heterologous expression. In this work we review the evidence for the generation of human H3R isoforms, their expression, and the available information regarding the functionality of such receptors.

  14. A software tool for interactive generation, representation, and systematical storage of transfer functions for 3D medical images.

    PubMed

    Alper Selver, M; Fischer, Felix; Kuntalp, Mehmet; Hillen, Walter

    2007-06-01

    As being a tool that assigns optical parameters, i.e. color, transparency, used in interactive visualization, transfer functions have very important effects on the quality of volume rendered medical images. However, finding accurate transfer functions is a very difficult, tedious, and time consuming task because of the variety of all possibilities. By addressing this problem, a software module, which can be easily plugged into any visualization program, is developed based on the specific expectations of medical experts. Its design includes both a new user interface to ease the interactive generation of the volume rendered medical images and a volumetric histogram based method for initial generation of transfer functions. In addition, a novel file system has been implemented to represent 3D medical images using transfer functions based on the DICOM standard. For evaluation of the system by various medical experts, the software is installed into a DICOM viewer. Based on the feedback obtained from the medical experts, several improvements are made, especially to increase the flexibility of the program. The final version of the implemented system shortens the transfer function design process and is applicable to various application areas.

  15. An Approximation of the Smoothing Effect on the Output Variation of Photovoltaic Generation Systems Installed Densely in a Bounded Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Akinobu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Otani, Kenji

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method to evaluate approximately a geographical smoothing effect on the output fluctuation of photovoltaic generation systems installed densely in a bounded area. This paper comprises two parts. The first part shows the result of analysis about output fluctuation, which is observed during four months in summer at ten groups of photovoltaic generation systems, located in AIST Tsukuba Central and totaling 844kW, and presents findings about a geographical smoothing effect on output fluctuation in the light of statistical characteristics such as the standard deviation of output variation and correlation factors between the output variations of different systems. The second part contains a mathematical modeling of a geographical smoothing effect in a bounded area based on the findings presented in the previous part and proposes a set of formulas to evaluate approximately a geographical smoothing effect on the output fluctuation of photovoltaic generation systems installed densely in a bounded area only using geometrical information about the area.

  16. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahrous, Mazen

    1990-08-01

    A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

  18. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one

    PubMed Central

    Karadimou, Elpida K.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1–128 m2), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space. PMID:27752086

  19. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one.

    PubMed

    Karadimou, Elpida K; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-10-18

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1-128 m(2)), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space.

  20. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-08-15

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  1. Walsh function generator for the Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chren, William A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype Walsh Function Generator (WFG) for the ESTAR (Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer) instrument has been designed and tested. Implemented in a single Xilinx XC3020PC68-50 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), it generates a user-programmable set of 32 consecutive Walsh Functions for noise cancellation in the analog circuitry of the Front-End Modules (FEM's). It is implemented in a 68-pin plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC) package, is fully testable, and can be used for noise cancellation periods as small as 2 msec.

  2. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  3. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  4. Piecewise Arithmetic Expressions of Numeric Functions and Their Application to Design of Numeric Function Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    expression. Note that, in the piece- wise arithmetic expression, we partition the domain into segments using the most significant bits ( MSBs ) of X . Thus...the MSBs are used to select a seg- ment, and the remaining lower bits of X are used to compute an arithmetic expression for the segment. Other ways...Zero: the number of zero coefficents. Distinct: the number of distinct nonzero coefficients. Domain of functions is 0 ≤ X < 1. The number of MSBs for

  5. Non-invasive mapping of bilateral motor speech areas using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Mervi; Tamsi, Niko; Säisänen, Laura; Kemppainen, Samuli; Määttä, Sara; Julkunen, Petro; Jutila, Leena; Äikiä, Marja; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Niskanen, Eini; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Mervaala, Esa

    2015-06-15

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a modern precise method to activate and study cortical functions noninvasively. We hypothesized that a combination of nTMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could clarify the localization of functional areas involved with motor control and production of speech. Navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS) with short bursts was used to map speech areas on both hemispheres by inducing speech disruption during number recitation tasks in healthy volunteers. Two experienced video reviewers, blinded to the stimulated area, graded each trial offline according to possible speech disruption. The locations of speech disrupting nTMS trials were overlaid with fMRI activations of word generation task. Speech disruptions were produced on both hemispheres by nTMS, though there were more disruptive stimulation sites on the left hemisphere. Grade of the disruptions varied from subjective sensation to mild objectively recognizable disruption up to total speech arrest. The distribution of locations in which speech disruptions could be elicited varied among individuals. On the left hemisphere the locations of disturbing rTMS bursts with reviewers' verification followed the areas of fMRI activation. Similar pattern was not observed on the right hemisphere. The reviewer-verified speech disruptions induced by nTMS provided clinically relevant information, and fMRI might explain further the function of the cortical area. nTMS and fMRI complement each other, and their combination should be advocated when assessing individual localization of speech network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a Durable, Large Area Cathode for Repetitive, Uniform Electron Beam Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Mechanism of explosive electron emission for dielectric fiber ( velvet ) cathodes ”, J. Appl...area must be examined. The issue of uniformity must also be more closely studied. Dielectric fiber ( velvet ) cathodes have been researched in...a) velvet , b) carbon flock, c) carbon fiber , and d) metal/ dielectric cathodes . The current density variation σ is noted in each case. In

  7. A GIS-based simulation architecture and prototype for realistic spectral scene generation of vegetated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Christopher E.; Moulton, Joseph R., Jr.; Ortalano, Michael; Helmsen, John; Soiguine, Alexander; Kaplan, Raymond; Seng, William; Haren, Raymond E.

    2004-08-01

    Vehicles concealed in highly cluttered, vegetated scene environments pose significant challenges for passive sensor systems and algorithms. System analysts working hyperspectral exploitation research require an at-aperture simulation capability that allows them to reliably investigate beyond the highly-limited scenarios that expensive field data sets afford. To be useful to the analyst, such a simulation should address the following requirements: (1) the ability to easily generate scene representations for arbitrary Earth regions of tactical interest; (2) the ability to represent scene components, like terrain, trees and bushes, to an extremely high spatial resolution for calculation of accurate multiple spectral reflections, occlusions and shadowing; (3) the ability to stimulate the 3D scene with realistic natural spectral irradiances for arbitrary 3D model atmospheres; (4) the ability to appropriately integrate constantly improving, rigorous thermal, spectral signature and atmospheric propagation models; (5) the ability to efficiently render at-aperture hyperspectral data sets in a reasonable run-time. Herein the authors describe their work toward a comprehensive ray-tracer-based simulation architecture and prototype capability that addresses these requirements. They describe their development of a GIS-based toolset for database generation, tools for 3D vegetated terrain-model development, and a prototype raytracer-based spectral scene generator.

  8. Interictal high-frequency oscillations generated by seizure onset and eloquent areas may be differentially coupled with different slow waves.

    PubMed

    Nonoda, Yutaka; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Ojeda, Alejandro; Makeig, Scott; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be spontaneously generated by seizure-onset and functionally-important areas. We determined if consideration of the spectral frequency bands of coupled slow-waves could distinguish between epileptogenic and physiological HFOs. We studied a consecutive series of 13 children with focal epilepsy who underwent extraoperative electrocorticography. We measured the occurrence rate of HFOs during slow-wave sleep at each electrode site. We subsequently determined the performance of HFO rate for localization of seizure-onset sites and undesirable detection of nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites defined by neurostimulation. We likewise determined the predictive performance of modulation index: MI(XHz)&(YHz), reflecting the strength of coupling between amplitude of HFOsXHz and phase of slow-waveYHz. The predictive accuracy was quantified using the area under the curve (AUC) on receiver-operating characteristics analysis. Increase in HFO rate localized seizure-onset sites (AUC⩾0.72; p<0.001), but also undesirably detected nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites (AUC⩾0.58; p<0.001). Increase in MI(HFOs)&(3-4Hz) also detected both seizure-onset (AUC⩾0.74; p<0.001) and nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites (AUC⩾0.59; p<0.001). Increase in subtraction-MIHFOs [defined as subtraction of MI(HFOs)&(0.5-1Hz) from MI(HFOs)&(3-4Hz)] localized seizure-onset sites (AUC⩾0.71; p<0.001), but rather avoided detection of nonepileptic sensorimotor-visual sites (AUC⩽0.42; p<0.001). Our data suggest that epileptogenic HFOs may be coupled with slow-wave3-4Hz more preferentially than slow-wave0.5-1Hz, whereas physiologic HFOs with slow-wave0.5-1Hz more preferentially than slow-wave3-4Hz during slow-wave sleep. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to determine if consideration of the spectral frequency bands of slow-waves coupled with HFOs can positively contribute to presurgical evaluation of patients with focal epilepsy. Copyright

  9. Somatotopical relationships between cortical activity and reflex areas in reflexology: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Tomomi; Miura, Naoki; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2008-12-19

    We examined the somatotopical relationship between cortical activity and sensory stimulation of reflex areas in reflexology using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Three reflex areas on the left foot, relating to the eye, shoulder, and small intestine were stimulated during the experiment. A statistical analysis showed that reflexological stimulation of the foot reflex areas corresponding to the eye, shoulder, and small intestine activated not only the somatosensory areas corresponding to the foot, but also the somatosensory areas corresponding to the eye, shoulder, and small intestine or neighboring body parts. Thus, the findings showed that reflexological stimulation induced a somatosensory process corresponding to the stimulated reflex area and that a neuroimaging approach can be used to examine the basis of reflexology effects.

  10. Event mean concentration and first flush effect from different drainage systems and functional areas during storms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Gao, Xue-Long; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) and first flush effect (FFE) during typical rainfall events in outfalls from different drainage systems and functional areas. Stormwater outfall quality data were collected from five outfalls throughout Fuzhou City (China) during 2011-2012. Samples were analyzed for water quality parameters, such as COD, NH3-N, TP, and SS. Analysis of values indicated that the order of the event mean concentrations (EMCs) in outfalls was intercepting combined system > direct emission combined system > separated system. Most of the rainfall events showed the FFE in all outfalls. The order of strength of the FFE was residential area of direct emission combined system > commercial area of separated system > residential area of intercepting combined system > office area of separated system > residential area of separated system. Results will serve as guide in managing water quality to reduce pollution from drainage systems.

  11. The Krigifier: A Procedure for Generating Pseudorandom Nonlinear Objective Functions for Computational Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosset, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    Comprehensive computational experiments to assess the performance of algorithms for numerical optimization require (among other things) a practical procedure for generating pseudorandom nonlinear objective functions. We propose a procedure that is based on the convenient fiction that objective functions are realizations of stochastic processes. This report details the calculations necessary to implement our procedure for the case of certain stationary Gaussian processes and presents a specific implementation in the statistical programming language S-PLUS.

  12. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Supplementary Motor Area Proper: A Functional Connectivity Study of the Motor Network.

    PubMed

    Dinomais, Mickael; Chinier, Eva; Richard, Isabelle; Ricalens, Emmanuel; Aubé, Christophe; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Ter Minassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral asymmetry is a common feature of human functions. However, there are discrepancies in the literature about functional hemispheric asymmetries in the supplementary motor area (SMA), specifically in the posterior part (SMA-proper). We used resting state functional connectivity MRI to investigate the left-right asymmetries of the functional networks associated with primary motor cortex (M1) and SMA-proper using a "seed"-based correlation analysis in 30 healthy right-handed subjects. We showed that left M1 was more connected with areas involved in the motor system than right M1, and that right SMA-proper had more functional connections than its left counterpart. Our results are in agreement with a leftward asymmetry for M1 connectivity, whereas there is a rightward asymmetry of the SMA-proper connectivity.

  13. On hydrologic similarity: A dimensionless flood frequency model using a generalized geomorphologic unit hydrograph and partial area runoff generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Wood, Eric F.; Beven, Keith J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the shortcomings of the original theory of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph (GUH) is that it assumes that runoff is generated uniformly from the entire catchment area. It is now recognized that in many catchments much of the runoff during storm events is produced on partial areas which usually form on narrow bands along the stream network. A storm response model that includes runoff generation on partial areas by both Hortonian and Dunne mechanisms was recently developed by the authors. In this paper a methodology for integrating this partial area runoff generation model with the GUH-based runoff routing model is presented; this leads to a generalized GUH. The generalized GUH and the storm response model are then used to estimate physically based flood frequency distributions. In most previous work the initial moisture state of the catchment had been assumed to be constant for all the storms. In this paper we relax this assumption and allow the initial moisture conditions to vary between storms. The resulting flood frequency distributions are cast in a scaled dimensionless framework where issues such as catchment scale and similarity can be conveniently addressed. A number of experiments are performed to study the sensitivity of the flood frequency response to some of the 'similarity' parameters identified in this formulation. The results indicate that one of the most important components of the derived flood frequency model relates to the specification of processes within the runoff generation model; specifically the inclusion of both saturation excess and Horton infiltration excess runoff production mechanisms. The dominance of these mechanisms over different return periods of the flood frequency distribution can significantly affect the distributional shape and confidence limits about the distribution. Comparisons with observed flood distributions seem to indicate that such mixed runoff production mechanisms influence flood distribution shape. The

  14. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resting functional connectivity in patients with brain tumors in eloquent areas

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Juan; Honma, Susanne M.; Findlay, Anne M.; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Resection of brain tumors adjacent to eloquent areas represents a challenge in neurosurgery. If maximal resection is desired without inducing postoperative neurological deficits, a detailed knowledge of the functional topography in and around the tumor is crucial. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the value of preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging of functional connectivity to predict the results of intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES) mapping, the clinical gold standard for neurosurgical localization of functional areas. Methods Resting-state whole-cortex MEG recordings were obtained from 57 consecutive subjects with focal brain tumors near or within motor, sensory or language areas. Neural activity was estimated using adaptive spatial filtering algorithms, and the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and voxels in and around brain tumors were compared to the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and contralesional voxels as an index of functional connectivity. IES mapping was performed in all subjects. The cortical connectivity pattern near the tumor was compared to IES results. Results Maps with decreased resting-state functional connectivity in the entire tumor area had a negative predictive value of 100% for absence of eloquent cortex during IES. Maps showing increased resting-state functional connectivity within the tumor area had a positive predictive value of 64% for finding language, motor or sensory cortical sites during IES mapping. Interpretation Preoperative resting state MEG connectivity analysis is a useful noninvasive tool to evaluate the functionality of the tissue surrounding tumors within eloquent areas, and could potentially contribute to surgical planning and patient counseling. PMID:21400562

  16. Linking structure and function in food webs: maximization of different ecological functions generates distinct food web structures.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jian D L; Cabral, Reniel B; Cantor, Mauricio; Hatton, Ian; Kortsch, Susanne; Patrício, Joana; Yamamichi, Masato

    2016-03-01

    Trophic interactions are central to ecosystem functioning, but the link between food web structure and ecosystem functioning remains obscure. Regularities (i.e. consistent patterns) in food web structure suggest the possibility of regularities in ecosystem functioning, which might be used to relate structure to function. We introduce a novel, genetic algorithm approach to simulate food webs with maximized throughput (a proxy for ecosystem functioning) and compare the structure of these simulated food webs to real empirical food webs using common metrics of food web structure. We repeat this analysis using robustness to secondary extinctions (a proxy for ecosystem resilience) instead of throughput to determine the relative contributions of ecosystem functioning and ecosystem resilience to food web structure. Simulated food webs that maximized robustness were similar to real food webs when connectance (i.e. levels of interaction across the food web) was high, but this result did not extend to food webs with low connectance. Simulated food webs that maximized throughput or a combination of throughput and robustness were not similar to any real food webs. Simulated maximum-throughput food webs differed markedly from maximum-robustness food webs, which suggests that maximizing different ecological functions can generate distinct food web structures. Based on our results, food web structure would appear to have a stronger relationship with ecosystem resilience than with ecosystem throughput. Our genetic algorithm approach is general and is well suited to large, realistically complex food webs. Genetic algorithms can incorporate constraints on structure and can generate outputs that can be compared directly to empirical data. Our method can be used to explore a range of maximization or minimization hypotheses, providing new perspectives on the links between structure and function in ecological systems.

  17. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  18. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  19. Municipal solid waste flow and waste generation characteristics in an urban--rural fringe area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hara, Yuji; Sekiyama, Makiko; Honda, Ryo; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2009-12-01

    In the urban-rural fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, rapid urbanization is creating a land-use mixture of agricultural fields and residential areas. To develop appropriate policies to enhance recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW), current MSW management was investigated in the oboto (local administrative district) of Bang Maenang in Nonthaburi Province, adjoining Bangkok. The authors conducted a structural interview survey with waste-related organizations and local residents, analysed household waste generation, and performed global positioning system (GPS) tracking of municipal garbage trucks. It was found that MSW was collected and treated by local government, private-sector entities, and the local community separately. Lack of integrated management of these entities complicated waste flow in the study area, and some residences were not served by MSW collection. Organic waste, such as kitchen garbage and yard waste, accounted for a large proportion of waste generation but was underutilized. Through GPS/GIS analysis, the waste collection rate of the generated waste amount was estimated to be 45.5- 51.1% of total generation.

  20. Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls on runoff generation. 2. Timing of runoff storm response

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-12-09

    Hortonian overland flow, Dunne overland flow and subsurface stormflow are the three dominant mechanisms contributing to both the volume and timing of streamflow. A previous study quantified the climatic and landscape controls on the relative dominance of the volumes of the different runoff components. In this paper we explore the impacts of climate, soil and topography on the timing of these runoff components in small catchments within the framework of the Connected Instantaneous Response Functions (CIRF). The CIRF here is viewed as a probability density function of travel times of water droplets associated with a given runoff generation mechanism (from the locations where they are generated to the catchment outlet). CIRF is a refinement of the traditional catchment IRF in that it explicitly accounts for variable contributing areas: only those partial areas of runoff generation which are hydrologically connected to the outlet are regarded as contributing areas. The CIRFs are derived for each runoff mechanism through the numerical simulations with a spatially distributed hydrological model which accounts for spatially distributed runoff generation and routing, involving all three mechanisms, under multiple combinations of climate, soil and topographic properties. The advective and dispersive aspects of catchment’s runoff routing response are captured through the use of, respectively, the mean travel times and dimensionless forms of the CIRFs (i.e., scaled by their respective mean travel times). It was found that the CIRFs, upon non-dimensionalization, collapsed to common characteristic shapes, which could be explained in terms of the relative contributions of hillslope and channel network flows, and especially of the size of the runoff contributing areas. The contributing areas are themselves governed by the competition between drainage and recharge to the water table, and could be explained by a dimensionless drainage index which quantifies this competition. On

  1. Identification of multi-attribute functional urban areas under a perspective of community detection: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Jiao, Pengfei; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-11-01

    Identifying functional urban areas is a significant research of considerable interest in many important fields such as city planning and facility location problem. Traditionally, we identify the function of urban areas from the macro-level perspective. With the availability of human digital footprints, investigation of functional urban areas from a micro-level perspective becomes possible. In this paper, we identified the functional urban areas of a metropolitan city in China by some metrics of community detection based on the social network of mobile phone users. The result shows that there are close relations between urban area and individual communication network, which can help us identify the function of areas more conveniently.

  2. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  3. Applications of Lagrangian blending functions for grid generation around airplane geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Tiwari, Surendra N.; Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    A simple procedure has been developed and applied for the grid generation around an airplane geometry. This approach is based on a transfinite interpolation with Lagrangian interpolation for the blending functions. A monotonic rational quadratic spline interpolation has been employed for the grid distributions.

  4. Strong Coupling Expansion of the Generating Functional for Gauge Systems on a Lattice with Arbitrary Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, Jaap

    1983-02-01

    A set of programs to calculate algebraically the generating functional (free energy) of a gauge system with arbitrary external sources on a lattice has been developed. It makes use of the strong coupling expansion. For theories with the standard Tr(UUU †U †) action results have been obtained up to fourth order.

  5. On an approach for computing the generating functions of the characters of simple Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Núñez, José; García Fuertes, Wifredo; Perelomov, Askold M.

    2014-04-01

    We describe a general approach to obtain the generating functions of the characters of simple Lie algebras which is based on the theory of the quantum trigonometric Calogero-Sutherland model. We show how the method works in practice by means of a few examples involving some low rank classical algebras.

  6. Weaving properties of generalized continuous frames generated by an iterated function system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashisht, L. K.; Deepshikha

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present some classes of generalized continuous weaving frames. It is shown that if the sets of lower frame bounds of discrete frames for a Hilbert space are bounded below, then the corresponding generalized continuous frames are woven. Necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized continuous weaving frames generated by an iterated function system are given.

  7. Applications of Lagrangian blending functions for grid generation around airplane geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Tiwari, Surendra N.; Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    A simple procedure has been developed and applied for the grid generation around an airplane geometry. This approach is based on a transfinite interpolation with Lagrangian interpolation for the blending functions. A monotonic rational quadratic spline interpolation has been employed for the grid distributions.

  8. Cognitive-Perceptual Distortion in Depression as a Function of Generational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stehouwer, R. Scott; Bultsma, Craig A.

    Since adolescent depression has become more frequently recognized, its manifestations need to be identified. To explore cognitive-perceptual distortions in depression as a function of generational (adolescent vs. adult) differences, 25 adult and 25 adolescent female inpatients diagnosed as depressed were administered the Beck Depression Inventory…

  9. Application of Lagrangian blending functions for grid generation around airplane geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed and applied for the grid generation around an airplane geometry. This approach is based on a transfinite interpolation with Lagrangian interpolation for the blending functions. A monotonic rational quadratic spline interpolation was employed for the grid distributions.

  10. Experimental demonstration of linear precompensation of a nonlinear transfer function due to second-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Sébastien; Luce, Jacques; Penninckx, Denis

    2011-01-01

    We report on what we believe is the first experimental demonstration of the linear precompensation of a nonlinear transfer function due to frequency conversion. As a proof of principle, we show the effective precompensation with an interferometric filter of FM-to-AM conversion due to second-harmonic generation in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal.

  11. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  12. 2D nearly orthogonal mesh generation with controls on distortion functions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method to control the distortion function of the Ryskin and Leal (RL) orthogonal mesh generation system is presented. The proposed method considers the effects from not only the local orthogonal condition but also the local smoothness condition (the geometry and the mesh size) on the distortion fu...

  13. [Language Functions in the Frontal Association Area: Brain Mechanisms That Create Language].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2016-11-01

    Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing. Here, we review how neuroimaging studies, combined with research paradigms based on theoretical linguistics, have contributed to clarifying the critical roles of the left IFG in syntactic processing and those of language-related networks, including cortical and cerebellar regions.

  14. Generation of hepatocytes expressing functional cytochromes P450 from a pancreatic progenitor cell line in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Carylyn J; Cameron, Gary A; Elrick, Lucy J; Hawksworth, Gabrielle M; Wright, Matthew C

    2003-01-01

    The proliferating AR42J-B13 pancreatic cell line is known to respond to glucocorticoid treatment by producing foci of cells that express the liver-specific albumin gene. We demonstrate that this cell line also expresses liver-specific or liver-enriched functional cytochrome P450 proteins when stimulated to trans-differentiate into hepatocytes by glucocorticoid. These data suggest that this cell line has an unusual ability to trans-differentiate into functional hepatocytes and that it could be possible to generate a limitless supply of functional hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. PMID:12542397

  15. 2D nearly orthogonal mesh generation with controls on distortion function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoxin; Jia, Yafei; Wang, Sam S. Y.

    2006-11-01

    A method to control the distortion function of the Ryskin and Leal (RL) orthogonal mesh generation system is presented. The proposed method considers the effects from not only the local orthogonal condition but also the local smoothness condition (the geometry and the mesh size) on the distortion function. The distortion function is determined by both the scale factors and the averaged scale factors of the constant mesh lines. Two adjustable parameters are used to control the local balance of the orthogonality and the smoothness. The proposed method is successfully applied to several benchmark examples and the natural river channels with complex geometries.

  16. Applications of wind generation for power system frequency control, inter-area oscillations damping and parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilches-Bernal, Felipe

    Power systems around the world are experiencing a continued increase in wind generation as part of their energy mix. Because of its power electronics interface, wind energy conversion systems interact differently with the grid than conventional generation. These facts are changing the traditional dynamics that regulate power system behavior and call for a re-examination of traditional problems encountered in power systems like frequency response, inter-area oscillations and parameter identification. To address this need, realistic models for wind generation are necessary. The dissertation implements such models in a MATLAB-based flexible environment suited for power system research. The dissertation continues with an analysis of the frequency response of a test power system dependent mainly on a mode referred to as the frequency regulation mode. Using this test system it is shown that its frequency regulation capability is reduced with wind penetration levels of 25% and above. A controller for wind generation to restore the frequency response of the system is then presented. The proposed controller requires the WTG to operate in a deloaded mode, a condition that is obtained through pitching the wind turbine blades. Time simulations at wind penetration levels of 25% and 50% are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Next, the dissertation evaluates how the inter-area oscillation of a two-machine power system is affected by wind integration. The assessment is performed based on the positioning of the WTG, the level of wind penetration, and the loading condition of the system. It is determined that integrating wind reduces the damping of the inter-area mode of the system when performed in an area that imports power. For this worst-case scenario, the dissertation proposes two controllers for wind generation to improve the damping of the inter-area mode. The first controller uses frequency as feedback signal for the active power control

  17. Functional Gene Networks: R/Bioc package to generate and analyse gene networks derived from functional enrichment and clustering

    PubMed Central

    Aibar, Sara; Fontanillo, Celia; Droste, Conrad; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Functional Gene Networks (FGNet) is an R/Bioconductor package that generates gene networks derived from the results of functional enrichment analysis (FEA) and annotation clustering. The sets of genes enriched with specific biological terms (obtained from a FEA platform) are transformed into a network by establishing links between genes based on common functional annotations and common clusters. The network provides a new view of FEA results revealing gene modules with similar functions and genes that are related to multiple functions. In addition to building the functional network, FGNet analyses the similarity between the groups of genes and provides a distance heatmap and a bipartite network of functionally overlapping genes. The application includes an interface to directly perform FEA queries using different external tools: DAVID, GeneTerm Linker, TopGO or GAGE; and a graphical interface to facilitate the use. Availability and implementation: FGNet is available in Bioconductor, including a tutorial. URL: http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/FGNet.html Contact: jrivas@usal.es Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25600944

  18. Can the Charon-forming giant impact generate elongated dark areas on Pluto?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Y.; Genda, H.; Funatsu, T.

    2015-12-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft has found elongated dark areas in the equatorial region of Pluto, which were informally called "the Whale". Here we examine the possibility that the dark areas on Pluto were formed by thermal alterations and subsequent polymerization of interstellar volatiles by a Charon-forming giant impact. Based on the satellite-to-planet mass ratio, the Pluto-Charon system is suggested to be of a giant impact origin [Canup, 2005]. However, the occurrence of the giant impact has been poorly constrained by factual evidence. On the other hand, Pluto is one of the largest Kuiper belt objects, which is highly likely to contain various interstellar volatiles, including aldehyde and ammonia. The previous studies show that these soluble volatiles are thermally polymerized in solutions at high temperatures, leading to a formation of complex insoluble organic solids [Cody et al., 2011; Kebukawa et al., 2013]. Thus, impact-induced heating could have melted the icy crust and converted the interstellar volatile into complex organic solids near the impact site. In the present study, we produce complex organic solids by thermal polymerization of formaldehyde and ammonia in solutions for various temperatures. By comparing the colors (in UV-VIS range) of the produced organic solids, we constrain possible temperatures achieved in the dark areas on Pluto, assuming that they were formed by thermal alterations of interstellar volatiles. In addition, we perform hydrodynamic simulations of a giant impact onto Pluto in order to examine whether both the formations of a Charon-sized moon and the spatial distribution and achieved temperatures of heated materials can be reproduced. Based on the combination of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will examine the giant-impact hypothesis for the origin of the Pluto-Charon system.

  19. Current microseismicity and generating faults in the Gyeongju area, southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minhui; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Son, Moon; Kang, Su Young

    2017-01-01

    A study of microseismicity in a 15 × 20 km2 subregion of Gyeongju, southeastern Korea, establishes a direct link between minor earthquakes and known fault structures. The study area has a complex history of tectonic deformation and has experienced large historic earthquakes, with small earthquakes recorded since the beginning of modern instrumental monitoring. From 5 years of continuously recorded local seismic data, 311 previously unidentified microearthquakes can be reliably located using the double-difference algorithm. These newly discovered events occur in linear streaks that can be spatially correlated with active faults, which could pose a serious hazard to nearby communities. At-risk infrastructure includes the largest industrial park in South Korea, nuclear power plants, and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The current work suggests that the southern segment of the Yeonil Tectonic Line and segments of the Seokup and Waup Basin boundary faults are active. For areas with high rates of microseismic activity, reliably located hypocenters are spatially correlated with mapped faults; in less active areas, earthquake clusters tend to occur at fault intersections. Microearthquakes in stable continental regions are known to exist, but have been largely ignored in assessments of seismic hazard because their magnitudes are well below the detection thresholds of seismic networks. The total number of locatable microearthquakes could be dramatically increased by lowering the triggering thresholds of network detection algorithms. The present work offers an example of how microearthquakes can be reliably detected and located with advanced techniques. This could make it possible to create a new database to identify subsurface fault geometries and modes of fault movement, which could then be considered in the assessments of seismic hazard in regions where major earthquakes are rare.

  20. Connecting to create: expertise in musical improvisation is associated with increased functional connectivity between premotor and prefrontal areas.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Ana Luísa; de Manzano, Örjan; Fransson, Peter; Eriksson, Helene; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-04-30

    Musicians have been used extensively to study neural correlates of long-term practice, but no studies have investigated the specific effects of training musical creativity. Here, we used human functional MRI to measure brain activity during improvisation in a sample of 39 professional pianists with varying backgrounds in classical and jazz piano playing. We found total hours of improvisation experience to be negatively associated with activity in frontoparietal executive cortical areas. In contrast, improvisation training was positively associated with functional connectivity of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, dorsal premotor cortices, and presupplementary areas. The effects were significant when controlling for hours of classical piano practice and age. These results indicate that even neural mechanisms involved in creative behaviors, which require a flexible online generation of novel and meaningful output, can be automated by training. Second, improvisational musical training can influence functional brain properties at a network level. We show that the greater functional connectivity seen in experienced improvisers may reflect a more efficient exchange of information within associative networks of importance for musical creativity.

  1. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy.

  2. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  3. Method for Generating Frequent Landsat-like NDVI Datasets in Large Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.; Liao, L.; Wang, J.; Wu, Q.; Yu, B.

    2016-12-01

    In order to get reliable high spatial and temporal resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets to support other land surface process studies, we propose a new method for accurately and effectively building frequent high spatial resolution Landsat-like NDVI datasets by integrating Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat NDVI. The implementation of the proposed method mainly includes two steps. First, the MODIS NDVI was downscaled into the Landsat resolution, and then an prediction model was applied to combine the downscaled MODIS NDVI and Landsat NDVI observations to obtain the Landsat-like NDVI estimators. Experiment in a large-scale area was conducted, and the results comparing with the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model showed that our proposed method can achieve more accurate estimates with more spatial details, and its prediction accuracy is less dependent on the quality of the MODIS NDVI on the specific prediction date. These features suggested that the proposed method was more applicable in mass NDVI production in large areas. However, the proposed method also has limitations on computation and automation, and future studies should focus on simplifying the current method. In summery, this study provides a new data fusion algorithm, which may contribute to applications that require NDVI products with both high spatial resolution and frequent coverage.

  4. Tactile perception recruits functionally related visual areas in the late-blind.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manu S; Hansen, Peter J; Blakemore, Colin B

    2006-09-18

    When blind people touch Braille characters, blood flow increases in visual areas, leading to speculation that visual circuitry assists tactile discrimination in the blind. We tested this hypothesis in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study designed to reveal activation appropriate to the nature of tactile stimulation. In late-blind individuals, hMT/V5 and fusiform face area activated during visual imagery of moving patterns or faces. When they touched a doll's face, right fusiform face area was again activated. Equally, hMT/V5 was activated when objects moved over the skin. We saw no difference in hMT/V5 or fusiform face area activity during motion or face perception in the congenitally blind. We conclude that specialized visual areas, once established through visual experience, assist equivalent tactile identification tasks years after the onset of blindness.

  5. Window generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William K.; May, Roger A.

    1989-03-01

    The present invention relates generally to video target recognition systems and more specifically to a window generator which receives a field of video data and applies an identification code to rectangular subregions to identify distinct target areas within a given background area. The present invention comprises a window generator which provides a 6 bit target identification number for up to 63 target areas and one background area in a frame of serially scanned data. The window generator receives a field of video data from an image data source. This video data consists of digitized frames of serially scanned data similar to a conventional television screen image, which is divided horizontally in pixels, and vertically in lines. The window generator permits any given frame to be subdivided into specific rectangular subregions, which may be located anywhere on the video picture. By allowing statistics to be collected on the individual subregions (or target areas) the window generator permits local processing of video data within the specified target areas as opposed to processing of video data over the entire video field. One embodiment of the window generator is composed of: a microprocessor, a random access memory (RAM), a comparator, a line memory, two counters, an OR gate, a frame initialization circuit, and a buffer. These elements function as described below.

  6. Brain generators of laser-evoked potentials: from dipoles to functional significance.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Larrea, L; Frot, M; Valeriani, M

    2003-12-01

    In this work we review data on cortical generators of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) in humans, as inferred from dipolar modelling of scalp EEG/MEG results, as well as from intracranial data recorded with subdural grids or intracortical electrodes. The cortical regions most consistently tagged as sources of scalp LERs are the suprasylvian region (parietal operculum, SII) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Variability in opercular sources across studies appear mainly in the anterior-posterior direction, where sources tend to follow the axis of the Sylvian fissure. As compared with parasylvian activation described in functional pain imaging studies, LEP opercular sources tended to cluster at more superior sites and not to involve the insula. The existence of suprasylvian opercular LEPs has been confirmed by both epicortical (subdural) and intracortical recordings. In dipole-modelling studies, these sources appear to become active less than 150 ms post-stimulus, and remain in action for longer than opercular responses recorded intracortically, thus suggesting that modelled opercular dipoles reflect a "lumped" activation of several sources in the suprasylvian region, including both the operculum and the insula. Participation of SI sources to explain LEP scalp distribution remains controversial, but evidence is emerging that both SI and opercular sources may be concomitantly activated by laser pulses, with very similar time courses. Should these data be confirmed, it would suggest that a parallel processing in SI and SII has remained functional in humans for noxious inputs, whereas hierarchical processing from SI toward SII has emerged for other somatosensory sub-modalities. The ACC has been described as a source of LEPs by virtually all EEG studies so far, with activation times roughly corresponding to scalp P2. Activation is generally confined to area 24 in the caudal ACC, and has been confirmed by subdural and intracortical recordings. The inability of most MEG

  7. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2001-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  8. Generation and functional assessment of 3D multicellular spheroids in droplet based microfluidics platform.

    PubMed

    Sabhachandani, P; Motwani, V; Cohen, N; Sarkar, S; Torchilin, V; Konry, T

    2016-02-07

    Here we describe a robust, microfluidic technique to generate and analyze 3D tumor spheroids, which resembles tumor microenvironment and can be used as a more effective preclinical drug testing and screening model. Monodisperse cell-laden alginate droplets were generated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices that combine T-junction droplet generation and external gelation for spheroid formation. The proposed approach has the capability to incorporate multiple cell types. For the purposes of our study, we generated spheroids with breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 drug sensitive and resistant) and co-culture spheroids of MCF-7 together with a fibroblast cell line (HS-5). The device has the capability to house 1000 spheroids on chip for drug screening and other functional analysis. Cellular viability of spheroids in the array part of the device was maintained for two weeks by continuous perfusion of complete media into the device. The functional performance of our 3D tumor models and a dose dependent response of standard chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (Dox) and standard drug combination Dox and paclitaxel (PCT) was analyzed on our chip-based platform. Altogether, our work provides a simple and novel, in vitro platform to generate, image and analyze uniform, 3D monodisperse alginate hydrogel tumors for various omic studies and therapeutic efficiency screening, an important translational step before in vivo studies.

  9. Interfacial enhancement of carbon fiber composites by generation 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lichun; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Dapeng; He, Jinmei; Yu, Jiali; Qi, Meiwei; Chen, Zhongwu; Huang, Yudong

    2014-03-01

    PAN-based carbon fibers (CF) were functionalized with generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) (denoted as CF-Gn-HMTA, n = 1, 2 and 3) in an attempt to improve the interfacial properties between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic contact angle analysis (DCA), interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and single fiber tensile testing were carried out to investigate the functionalization process of carbon fibers and the interfacial properties of the composites. Experimental results showed that generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine was grafted uniformly on the fiber surface through the chemical reaction, and then it increased significantly the fiber surface polarity and roughness. The surface energy and IFSS of carbon fibers increased obviously after the graft CF-G3-HMTA, by 147.6% and 81%, respectively. Generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine enhanced effectively the interfacial adhesion of the composites by improving resin wettability, increasing chemical bonding and mechanical interlocking, and the interfacial adhesion increased with dendritic generation number. Moreover, the grafting of generation (n) 1-3 dendritic hexamethylenetetramine on the carbon fiber surface improved the fiber tensile strength, which is beneficial to the in-plane properties of the resulting composites.

  10. Uppermost synchronized generators of spike-wave activity are localized in limbic cortical areas in late-onset absence status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Piros, Palma; Puskas, Szilvia; Emri, Miklos; Opposits, Gabor; Spisak, Tamas; Fekete, Istvan; Clemens, Bela

    2014-03-01

    Absence status (AS) epilepticus with generalized spike-wave pattern is frequently found in severely ill patients in whom several disease states co-exist. The cortical generators of the ictal EEG pattern and EEG functional connectivity (EEGfC) of this condition are unknown. The present study investigated the localization of the uppermost synchronized generators of spike-wave activity in AS. Seven patients with late-onset AS were investigated by EEG spectral analysis, LORETA (Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source imaging, and LSC (LORETA Source Correlation) analysis, which estimates cortico-cortical EEGfC among 23 ROIs (regions of interest) in each hemisphere. All the patients showed generalized ictal EEG activity. Maximum Z-scored spectral power was found in the 1-6 Hz and 12-14 Hz frequency bands. LORETA showed that the uppermost synchronized generators of 1-6 Hz band activity were localized in frontal and temporal cortical areas that are parts of the limbic system. For the 12-14 Hz band, abnormally synchronized generators were found in the antero-medial frontal cortex. Unlike the rather stereotyped spectral and LORETA findings, the individual EEGfC patterns were very dissimilar. The findings are discussed in the context of nonconvulsive seizure types and the role of the underlying cortical areas in late-onset AS. The diversity of the EEGfC patterns remains an enigma. Localizing the cortical generators of the EEG patterns contributes to understanding the neurophysiology of the condition. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the significance of the area under the after-effect function curve of a magnetic fluid.

    PubMed

    Fannin, P C; Marin, C N; Couper, C

    2008-05-21

    The after-effect function, b(t), describes how the magnetization of a dissipative magnetic fluid decreases with time when a polarizing field, H, is suddenly removed. It is shown that with increasing H, the rate of decay of b(t) increases and also that the area, [Formula: see text], under each decay curve decreases. Here we investigate the significance of this and by means of a simple model, show that the normalized function, B/b(0), is in fact equal to the Debye relaxation time τ(D). The results of applying the model to theoretically generated data and also to data obtained from a magnetic fluid sample are presented.

  12. Study of production functions for modeling forest biomass: An area for research

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, J.C. ); Belli, K.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The usefulness of production functions, mathematical descriptions of production processes, has long been recognized by economists in manufacturing industries, and more recently by agricultural scientists in the field of biological production. As increasing emphasis in forestry is placed on short-rotation, intensive crop management it would seem that foresters would also require production functions for rational timber management planning. These functions could be useful in a number of areas such as: crop tree growth prediction, control of stand development, economic analysis for decision-making purposes, and for determining the so-called elasticities of inputs and outputs. A very general functional form that may be appropriate for the development of forestry models is the transcendental logarithmic, or translog, function. Unfortunately, at this time, sufficiently detailed data do not seem to be available for any tree species to estimate a production function that could make sophisticated intensive forest management possible.

  13. Connectivity precedes function in the development of the visual word form area

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, Z.M.; Osher, D.E.; Norton, E.S.; Youssoufian, D.A.; Beach, S.D.; Feather, J.; Gaab, N.; Gabrieli, J.D.E.; Kanwisher, N.

    2016-01-01

    What determines the cortical location where a given functionally specific region will arise in development? Here we test the hypothesis that functionally specific regions develop in their characteristic locations because of pre-existing differences in the extrinsic connectivity of that region to the rest of the brain. We exploit the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) as a test case, scanning children with diffusion and functional imaging at age five, before they learned to read, and at age 8, after they learned to read. We find the VWFA develops functionally in this interval and that its location in a particular child at age 8 can be predicted from that child’s connectivity fingerprints (but not functional responses) at age 5. These results suggest that early connectivity instructs the functional development of the VWFA, possibly reflecting a general mechanism of cortical development. PMID:27500407

  14. Connectivity precedes function in the development of the visual word form area.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Zeynep M; Osher, David E; Norton, Elizabeth S; Youssoufian, Deanna A; Beach, Sara D; Feather, Jenelle; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    What determines the cortical location at which a given functionally specific region will arise in development? We tested the hypothesis that functionally specific regions develop in their characteristic locations because of pre-existing differences in the extrinsic connectivity of that region to the rest of the brain. We exploited the visual word form area (VWFA) as a test case, scanning children with diffusion and functional imaging at age 5, before they learned to read, and at age 8, after they learned to read. We found the VWFA developed functionally in this interval and that its location in a particular child at age 8 could be predicted from that child's connectivity fingerprints (but not functional responses) at age 5. These results suggest that early connectivity instructs the functional development of the VWFA, possibly reflecting a general mechanism of cortical development.

  15. A multi-function IEC 61850 packet generator based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Hong-bin; Cheng, Han-miao

    2016-07-01

    An IEC 61850 packet generator is used to produce IEC 61850-9-2 packets by simulating the merging unit and testing the IEC 61850 digital device. While the existing IEC packet generator can produce ideal digital without any noise, it does not take into account the fact that the merging unit output signal packets will be inevitably superimposed with noise. Since the International Electrical Commission standard of the electronic current transformer specifies the minimum output signal-to-noise ratio of the merging unit to be 30 dB, and the signal superimposed with noise will influence the operation performance of the digital device, it is necessary to design a multi-function IEC 61850-9-2 packet generator for a digital device test. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-function IEC 61850 packet generator has been developed, which not only can output various IEC 61850-9-2 packets, but also can add white Gaussian noise to the signal for digital device testing. By testing three digital electricity meters from different manufacturers, we showed that the error of the digital electricity meter is significantly larger when the signal packet is superimposed with noise. Also when the signal-to-noise ration is 30 dB, the error of one of the meters exceeds the allowed range of the accuracy class. This indicates that the noise testing and the noise setting function of the system has an important role in the testing of a digital device.

  16. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for charged particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruili; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa; Liu, Jian; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics of a charged particle in the canonical coordinates is a Hamiltonian system, and the well-known symplectic algorithm has been regarded as the de facto method for numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems due to its long-term accuracy and fidelity. For long-term simulations with high efficiency, explicit symplectic algorithms are desirable. However, it is generally believed that explicit symplectic algorithms are only available for sum-separable Hamiltonians, and this restriction limits the application of explicit symplectic algorithms to charged particle dynamics. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the familiar sum-split method and a generating function method to construct second- and third-order explicit symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particle. The generating function method is designed to generate explicit symplectic algorithms for product-separable Hamiltonian with form of H(x,p)=p_{i}f(x) or H(x,p)=x_{i}g(p). Applied to the simulations of charged particle dynamics, the explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions demonstrate superiorities in conservation and efficiency.

  17. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for charged particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruili; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa; Liu, Jian; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics of a charged particle in the canonical coordinates is a Hamiltonian system, and the well-known symplectic algorithm has been regarded as the de facto method for numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems due to its long-term accuracy and fidelity. For long-term simulations with high efficiency, explicit symplectic algorithms are desirable. However, it is generally believed that explicit symplectic algorithms are only available for sum-separable Hamiltonians, and this restriction limits the application of explicit symplectic algorithms to charged particle dynamics. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the familiar sum-split method and a generating function method to construct second- and third-order explicit symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particle. The generating function method is designed to generate explicit symplectic algorithms for product-separable Hamiltonian with form of H (x ,p ) =pif (x ) or H (x ,p ) =xig (p ) . Applied to the simulations of charged particle dynamics, the explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions demonstrate superiorities in conservation and efficiency.

  18. Constellation-X to Generation-X: evolution of large collecting area moderate resolution grazing incidence x-ray telescopes to larger area high-resolution adjustable optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Cameron, Robert A.; Cohen, Lester; Elvis, Martin; Gorenstein, Paul; Jerius, Diab; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William A.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Zhang, William W.

    2004-10-01

    Large collecting area x-ray telescopes are designed to study the early Universe, trace the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, study the chemical evolution of the Universe, and study matter in extreme environments. The Constellation-X mission (Con-X), planned for launch in 2016, will provide ~ 10^4 cm^2 collecting area with 15 arc-sec resolution, with a goal of 5 arc-sec. Future missions require larger collecting area and finer resolution. Generation-X (Gen-X), a NASA Visions Mission, will achieve 100 m^2 effective area at 1 keV and angular resolution of 0.1 arc-sec, half power diameter. We briefly describe the Con-X flowdown of imaging requirements to reflector figure error. To meet requirements beyond Con-X, Gen-X optics will be thinner and more accurately shaped than has ever been accomplished. To meet these challenging goals, we incorporate for the first time active figure control with grazing incidence optics. Piezoelectric material will be deposited in discrete cells directly on the back surface of the optical segments, with the strain directions oriented parallel to the surface. Differential strain between the two layers of the mirror causes localized bending in two directions, enabling local figure control. Adjusting figure on-orbit eases fabrication and metrology. The ability to make changes to mirror figure adds margin by mitigating risk due to launch-induced deformations and/or on-orbit degradation. We flowdown the Gen-X requirements to mirror figure and four telescope designs, and discuss various trades between the designs.

  19. Generation of time histories with a specified auto spectral density and probability density function

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, D.O.

    1996-08-01

    It is recognized that some dynamic and noise environments are characterized by time histories which are not Gaussian. An example is high intensity acoustic noise. Another example is some transportation vibration. A better simulation of these environments can be generated if a zero mean non-Gaussian time history can be reproduced with a specified auto (or power) spectral density (ASD or PSD) and a specified probability density function (pdf). After the required time history is synthesized, the waveform can be used for simulation purposes. For example, modem waveform reproduction techniques can be used to reproduce the waveform on electrodynamic or electrohydraulic shakers. Or the waveforms can be used in digital simulations. A method is presented for the generation of realizations of zero mean non-Gaussian random time histories with a specified ASD, and pdf. First a Gaussian time history with the specified auto (or power) spectral density (ASD) is generated. A monotonic nonlinear function relating the Gaussian waveform to the desired realization is then established based on the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the desired waveform and the known CDF of a Gaussian waveform. The established function is used to transform the Gaussian waveform to a realization of the desired waveform. Since the transformation preserves the zero-crossings and peaks of the original Gaussian waveform, and does not introduce any substantial discontinuities, the ASD is not substantially changed. Several methods are available to generate a realization of a Gaussian distributed waveform with a known ASD. The method of Smallwood and Paez (1993) is an example. However, the generation of random noise with a specified ASD but with a non-Gaussian distribution is less well known.

  20. Generation of Tissue-Specific Mouse Models to Analyze HDAC Functions.

    PubMed

    Hagelkruys, Astrid; Moser, Mirjam A; Seiser, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles during mammalian development and for cellular homeostasis. In addition, these enzymes are promising targets for small molecule inhibitors in the treatment of cancer and neurological diseases. Conditional HDAC knock-out mice are excellent tools for defining the functions of individual HDACs in vivo and for identifying the molecular targets of HDAC inhibitors in disease. Here, we describe the generation of tissue-specific HDAC knock-out mice and delineate a strategy for the generation of conditional HDAC knock-in mice.

  1. Channel based generating function approach to the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal system.

    PubMed

    Ling, Anqi; Huang, Yandong; Shuai, Jianwei; Lan, Yueheng

    2016-03-04

    Internal and external fluctuations, such as channel noise and synaptic noise, contribute to the generation of spontaneous action potentials in neurons. Many different Langevin approaches have been proposed to speed up the computation but with waning accuracy especially at small channel numbers. We apply a generating function approach to the master equation for the ion channel dynamics and further propose two accelerating algorithms, with an accuracy close to the Gillespie algorithm but with much higher efficiency, opening the door for expedited simulation of noisy action potential propagating along axons or other types of noisy signal transduction.

  2. Channel based generating function approach to the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Anqi; Huang, Yandong; Shuai, Jianwei; Lan, Yueheng

    2016-03-01

    Internal and external fluctuations, such as channel noise and synaptic noise, contribute to the generation of spontaneous action potentials in neurons. Many different Langevin approaches have been proposed to speed up the computation but with waning accuracy especially at small channel numbers. We apply a generating function approach to the master equation for the ion channel dynamics and further propose two accelerating algorithms, with an accuracy close to the Gillespie algorithm but with much higher efficiency, opening the door for expedited simulation of noisy action potential propagating along axons or other types of noisy signal transduction.

  3. Geologic factors contributing to landslide generation in a pyroclastic area: August 1998 Nishigo Village, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro

    2002-07-01

    Vertical contrasts in permeability, particularly where permeable surface materials overlie impermeable materials that prohibit the downward infiltration of groundwater, concentrate the groundwater and become an important focus of landslides that are triggered by intense rainfall. Just such a hydrogeological structure is present within the pyroclastics in Nishigo Village in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, where intense rainfall of 1200 mm in 6 days generated more than 1000 landslides in August 1998. Three types of landslides occurred. The first type occurred along the edges of small plateaus, where horizontal beds of permeable ash, scoria, and pumice overlie impermeable mudflow deposits consisting of tuffaceous fines and andesite blocks, and massive, weakly consolidated ignimbrites. The rainfall on the plateaus infiltrated downward first, then laterally within the permeable beds, finally gushing out at the plateau edges and triggering landslides. The second type of landslide occurred where weathered tuff of the same ignimbrite was present with a slip surface at the base of the heavily weathered zone. Within this heavily weathered zone, the tuff exfoliated into thin weak plates running parallel to the slope surface. The third type of landslide involved failure of colluvium or ash that filled hollows. This type occurred as a result of subsurface erosion caused by the groundwater infiltrating the superficial beds above the impermeable tuff.

  4. True Ortho Generation of Urban Area Using High Resolution Aerial Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong; Stanley, David; Xin, Yubin

    2016-06-01

    The pros and cons of existing methods for true ortho generation are analyzed based on a critical literature review for its two major processing stages: visibility analysis and occlusion compensation. They process frame and pushbroom images using different algorithms for visibility analysis due to the need of perspective centers used by the z-buffer (or alike) techniques. For occlusion compensation, the pixel-based approach likely results in excessive seamlines in the ortho-rectified images due to the use of a quality measure on the pixel-by-pixel rating basis. In this paper, we proposed innovative solutions to tackle the aforementioned problems. For visibility analysis, an elevation buffer technique is introduced to employ the plain elevations instead of the distances from perspective centers by z-buffer, and has the advantage of sensor independency. A segment oriented strategy is developed to evaluate a plain cost measure per segment for occlusion compensation instead of the tedious quality rating per pixel. The cost measure directly evaluates the imaging geometry characteristics in ground space, and is also sensor independent. Experimental results are demonstrated using aerial photos acquired by UltraCam camera.

  5. Mechanisms of flash-flood generation in a gullied high-plains grassland: evidence for partial contributing area runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, A.; Tucker, G. E.; Rengers, F. K.

    2014-12-01

    Flash floods commonly cause rapid gully erosion, creating headwalls that erode into previously stable surfaces, thereby reducing arable land and releasing sediment that can contaminate water supplies. In semi-arid landscapes, gully erosion tends to be driven by flash floods. Here, we study the mechanisms for flash-flood generation, seeking to answer two questions: (1) how spatially variable is runoff production, and (2) what combination of rainfall intensity and duration is required to produce runoff? To answer these questions, we combine field data from a study site on the Colorado High Plains, USA, with numerical modeling. The site is characterized by patchy, dryland shrub vegetation dispersed throughout the otherwise bare slopes and gullies. Analysis of six years of rainfall and runoff data indicate that flash flood generation requires a 15-minute intensity of approximately 38 mm/hr. Sprinkler experiments on isolated bare and vegetated plots revealed a large contrast between infiltration capacities: bare areas can produce runoff when the rainfall exceeds 10-15 mm/hr, whereas vegetated areas permit infiltration of at least 45 mm/hr during relatively brief, intense events. These findings imply that high-intensity rainstorms associated with summertime moist convective systems drive gully incision. They also suggest that a self-enhancing feedback may exist in which initial incision creates steep and relatively bare slopes that tend to generate more runoff, leading to more aggressive gully incision.

  6. Functional requirements of the borrow area and haul route for the Waste Area Grouping projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the mission and functional requirements for the development of a borrow area and the associated haul route to support closure and/or remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 and other WAGs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document specifies the basic functional requirements that must be met by the borrow area and haul route developed to produce low-permeability soil for the covers or caps at WAG 6.

  7. A xenogeneic-free system generating functional human gut organoids from pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Hajime; Machida, Masakazu; Miura, Takumi; Kawasaki, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Kengo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kasahara, Mureo; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    Functional intestines are composed of cell types from all 3 primary germ layers and are generated through a highly orchestrated and serial developmental process. Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has been shown to yield gut-specific cell types; however, these structures do not reproduce critical functional interactions between cell types of different germ layers. Here, we developed a simple protocol for the generation of mature functional intestinal organoids from hPSCs under xenogeneic-free conditions. The stem cell–derived gut organoids produced here were found to contain distinct types of intestinal cells, including enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells, that were derived from all 3 germ layers; moreover, they demonstrated intestinal functions, including peptide absorption, and showed innervated bowel movements in response to stimulation with histamine and anticholinergic drugs. Importantly, the gut organoids obtained using this xenogeneic-free system could be stably maintained in culture for prolonged periods and were successfully engrafted in vivo. Our xenogeneic-free approach for generating gut organoids from hPSCs provides a platform for studying human intestinal diseases and for pharmacological testing. PMID:28097227

  8. Automotive Radar and Lidar Systems for Next Generation Driver Assistance Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Gresser, K.

    2005-05-01

    Automotive radar and lidar sensors represent key components for next generation driver assistance functions (Jones, 2001). Today, their use is limited to comfort applications in premium segment vehicles although an evolution process towards more safety-oriented functions is taking place. Radar sensors available on the market today suffer from low angular resolution and poor target detection in medium ranges (30 to 60m) over azimuth angles larger than ±30°. In contrast, Lidar sensors show large sensitivity towards environmental influences (e.g. snow, fog, dirt). Both sensor technologies today have a rather high cost level, forbidding their wide-spread usage on mass markets. A common approach to overcome individual sensor drawbacks is the employment of data fusion techniques (Bar-Shalom, 2001). Raw data fusion requires a common, standardized data interface to easily integrate a variety of asynchronous sensor data into a fusion network. Moreover, next generation sensors should be able to dynamically adopt to new situations and should have the ability to work in cooperative sensor environments. As vehicular function development today is being shifted more and more towards virtual prototyping, mathematical sensor models should be available. These models should take into account the sensor's functional principle as well as all typical measurement errors generated by the sensor.

  9. A xenogeneic-free system generating functional human gut organoids from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hajime; Machida, Masakazu; Miura, Takumi; Kawasaki, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Takuya; Sasaki, Kengo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kasahara, Mureo; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2017-01-12

    Functional intestines are composed of cell types from all 3 primary germ layers and are generated through a highly orchestrated and serial developmental process. Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has been shown to yield gut-specific cell types; however, these structures do not reproduce critical functional interactions between cell types of different germ layers. Here, we developed a simple protocol for the generation of mature functional intestinal organoids from hPSCs under xenogeneic-free conditions. The stem cell-derived gut organoids produced here were found to contain distinct types of intestinal cells, including enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells, that were derived from all 3 germ layers; moreover, they demonstrated intestinal functions, including peptide absorption, and showed innervated bowel movements in response to stimulation with histamine and anticholinergic drugs. Importantly, the gut organoids obtained using this xenogeneic-free system could be stably maintained in culture for prolonged periods and were successfully engrafted in vivo. Our xenogeneic-free approach for generating gut organoids from hPSCs provides a platform for studying human intestinal diseases and for pharmacological testing.

  10. A Comparison of Two Area Measures for Detecting Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seock-Ho; Cohen, Allan S.

    1991-01-01

    The exact and closed-interval area measures for detecting differential item functioning are compared for actual data from 1,000 African-American and 1,000 white college students taking a vocabulary test with items intentionally constructed to favor 1 set of examinees. No real differences in detection of biased items were found. (SLD)

  11. Student Government; Organization and Function in Married-Student Housing Areas of Selected Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Norman F.

    This study, conducted in 12 institutions in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, and Arizona, investigated the form and function of student government in college and university family housing areas; examined pertinent literature, legislative action, and litigation; sought problems common to students in family housing that could be…

  12. Photolithographic patterning of organosilane monolayer for generating large area two-dimensional B lymphocyte arrays†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan

    2009-01-01

    High-density live cell array serves as a valuable tool for the development of high-throughput immunophenotyping systems and cell-based biosensors. In this paper, we have, for the first time, demonstrated a simple fabrication process to form the hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) binary molecular surface which can be used to effectively form high fidelity cell arrays. The HMDS self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on glass substrates was photolithographically patterned and its ability to physically adsorb proteins was characterized by contact angle measurement and fluorescence microscopy respectively. Passivation of the non-HMDS coated background by PEG was verified to have no impact on the pre-patterned HMDS and greatly inhibited the non-specific protein binding. Using the biotin–streptavidin complexation as an intermediate, uniform orientation and high bioactivity were achieved for the immobilized B lymphocyte specific anti-CD19 antibodies and therefore ensured the formation of high resolution B lymphocyte arrays. The cell–ligand interaction specificity was investigated and the anti-CD19 decorated micropatterns presented a much higher cell-capturing rate (88%) than those modified by non-specific ligands (15% for anti-CD5 and 7% for streptavidin). The approach was verified to be biocompatible and the properties of the antibody-modified surface were maintained after 12 h cell culture. The HMDS monolayer formation and patterning processes, and the universal HMDS/biotin-BSA/streptavidin template, provide a very simple and convenient process to generate high resolution micropatterns of cell-adhesive ligands and are extendable to form arrays of other types of cells as well. PMID:19023473

  13. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians

  14. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  15. Quantitative CT analysis of honeycombing area in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Correlations with pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ogawa, Emiko; Tho, Nguyen Van; Ryujin, Yasushi; Nagao, Taishi; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 official statement of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) mentions that the extent of honeycombing and the worsening of fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in IPF are associated with the increased risk of mortality. However, there are few reports about the quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis of honeycombing area. In this study, we first proposed a computer-aided method for quantitative CT analysis of honeycombing area in patients with IPF. We then evaluated the correlations between honeycombing area measured by the proposed method with that estimated by radiologists or with parameters of PFTs. Chest HRCTs and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of 36 IPF patients, who were diagnosed using HRCT alone, were retrospectively evaluated. Two thoracic radiologists independently estimated the honeycombing area as Identified Area (IA) and the percentage of honeycombing area to total lung area as Percent Area (PA) on 3 axial CT slices for each patient. We also developed a computer-aided method to measure the honeycombing area on CT images of those patients. The total honeycombing area as CT honeycombing area (HA) and the percentage of honeycombing area to total lung area as CT %honeycombing area (%HA) were derived from the computer-aided method for each patient. HA derived from three CT slices was significantly correlated with IA (ρ=0.65 for Radiologist 1 and ρ=0.68 for Radiologist 2). %HA derived from three CT slices was also significantly correlated with PA (ρ=0.68 for Radiologist 1 and ρ=0.70 for Radiologist 2). HA and %HA derived from all CT slices were significantly correlated with FVC (%pred.), DLCO (%pred.), and the composite physiologic index (CPI) (HA: ρ=-0.43, ρ=-0.56, ρ=0.63 and %HA: ρ=-0.60, ρ=-0.49, ρ=0.69, respectively). The honeycombing area measured by the proposed computer-aided method was correlated with that estimated by expert radiologists and with parameters of PFTs. This quantitative CT analysis of

  16. CLMSZ, Garnet Mountain area, southern California: A collisionally generated contractional shear zone

    SciTech Connect

    Bracchi, K.A.; Girty, G.H.; Girty, M.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The Harper Creek gneiss (HCg) and Oriflamme Canyon unit (OCu) underlie the central portion of the Cuyamaca Laguna Mountains shear zone (CLMSZ) in and around Garnet Mountain, Peninsular Ranges, California, and may have been deformed during Cretaceous arc-continent collision. U-Pb zircon work and petrological and geochemical analyses suggest that in the Garnet Mountain area, the 140 Ma HCg is derived from granite and granodiorite, whereas the 122 [+-] 1 Ma OCu is a protomylonite derived from a granite. Both units appear to be per aluminous calc-alkaline magmatic arc granitoids. Mineral assemblages suggest uppermost greenschist to lower amphibolite grade conditions during deformation. In the HCg, S-1hc is a mylonitic gneissosity with a mean attitude of N11W, 60 NE. A mineral streaking lineation lies within the plane of S-1hc and has a mean attitude of 61[degree] N76E. In the OCu, S-1oc strikes about N13W and dips 52 NE and contains a mineral streaking lineation with an attitude of 49 N52E. Dextral and sinistral shear bands, S-2d and S-2s (looking NW), transect S-1hc and S-1oc. S-2d and S-2s strike subparallel to S-1. In the HCg S-2s is weakly developed and dips about 32 NE, whereas S-2d is more dominant and dips about 76 NE. On the OCu these relationships are reversed. S-2d does not cross cut S-2s: hence, the two sets of shear bands are interpreted to be conjugates reflecting NE-SW contraction and subvertical extension during collisional development of the CLMSZ.

  17. Wild mushroom--an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tibuhwa, Donatha D

    2013-07-10

    This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually. This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.

  18. Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

  19. The contribution of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal areas in processing instrumental versus functional semantic violations in action representation.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the contribution of different cortical areas in processing different semantic violations in action representation--that is, instrumental or functional violations. The cortical contribution in object-related action comprehension was verified by measuring changes in event-related potential (N400 effect), error rates (ERs), and response times (RTs), by applying an inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-three subjects performed the detection task (action frames ending with a congruous vs. incongruous action). The tDCS effect was analyzed by comparing the N400, ERs, and RTs before and after stimulation. A significant reduction of the N400 and increased RTs were observed for incongruous stimuli in the case of inhibitory stimulation of the DLPFC. These results highlighted that DLPFC inhibition may limit the ability to analyze a semantically incongruous action, with a reduced N400 ERP effect and increased "cognitive costs" (higher RTs). Moreover, functional violation showed also the contribution of the temporoparietal areas to modulate the N400 amplitude. Therefore the existence of different cortical generators was supposed for the instrumental (more frontal) and the functional (more frontal and temporoparietal) semantic anomaly processing.

  20. The impact of acemannan on the generation and function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Womble, D; Helderman, J H

    1992-01-01

    Acemannan, an antiviral agent with immune enhancement capabilities, was studied for its impact on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (Tc) function generated in response to alloantigen. To investigate whether acemannan directly stimulated the generation of Tc from primary mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), the drug was added at the initiation of the MLC. There was a dose-related, statistical increase in killer T-cell generation produced by acemannan in the clinically relevant dose range. The lowest test dose of the drug (2.6 x 10(-9) M) increased chromium release nearly two-fold; the 2.6 x 10(-8) M dose gave a maximal 3.5 fold increase in cytotoxic T-cells. To study whether acemannan enhanced the capacity of Tc once generated to alloantigen to destroy targets bearing the sensitizing antigens, MLR were established in the absence of any drug. Acemannan at the two highest doses increased the functional capacity of Tc to destroy target cells to which they had been sensitized in the MLR. To control for the possibility that acemannan was directly cytotoxic to target cells, targets were incubated alone with drug and without sensitized killer T-cells. No dose of acemannan was found to be cytotoxic to these cells. In conclusion, acemannan did enhance the generation of cytotoxic T-cells when added at the initiation of the MLR. When acemannan was added at the completion of allostimulation, an increase of almost 50% killing by Tc was also observed. These effects can not be explained by direct drug related toxicity and suggest a functional correlate to the previously described immune enhancing properties of the agent. As this drug is being tested for the treatment of HIV infections, these data provide at least one immunologic mechanism by which acemannan may be clinically salutory.

  1. Partition and generating function zeros in adsorbing self-avoiding walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.

    2017-03-01

    The Lee–Yang theory of adsorbing self-avoiding walks is presented. It is shown that Lee–Yang zeros of the generating function of this model asymptotically accumulate uniformly on a circle in the complex plane, and that Fisher zeros of the partition function distribute in the complex plane such that a positive fraction are located in annular regions centred at the origin. These results are examined in a numerical study of adsorbing self-avoiding walks in the square and cubic lattices. The numerical data are consistent with the rigorous results; for example, Lee–Yang zeros are found to accumulate on a circle in the complex plane and a positive fraction of partition function zeros appear to accumulate on a critical circle. The radial and angular distributions of partition function zeros are also examined and it is found to be consistent with the rigorous results.

  2. [Fully functional salivary gland regeneration as a next-generation regenerative therapy].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction, or xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome), induces various clinical problems, such as dental decay, bacterial infection, and swallowing dysfunction. Xerostomia caused by autoimmune disease and aging affects an increasing number of patients. The development of novel functional treatments for xerostomia is needed, as currently available therapies are only palliative in nature. Tissue stem cell transplantation and gene therapy are currently being investigated as potential approaches to the restoration of salivary gland function. The final goal of regenerative therapy is fully functional regenerative organ replacement for dysfunctional organs. Previously, we developed a technology to reconstitute the organ germ (Organ Germ Method) using epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells. We have recently reported the regeneration of fully functional organs, such as teeth, hair and lacrimal glands, can be achieved by the transplantation of bioengineered organ germs. In this review, we describe the regeneration of the salivary gland as part of a feasibility study of a next-generation regenerative therapy.

  3. Thermodynamic formula for the cumulant generating function of time-averaged current.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2011-12-01

    The cumulant generating function of time-averaged current is studied from an operational viewpoint. Specifically, for interacting Brownian particles under nonequilibrium conditions, we show that the first derivative of the cumulant generating function is equal to the expectation value of the current in a modified system with an extra force added, where the modified system is characterized by a variational principle. The formula reminds us of Einstein's fluctuation theory in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Furthermore, since the formula leads to the fluctuation-dissipation relation when the linear response regime is focused on, it is regarded as an extension of the linear response theory to that valid beyond the linear response regime. The formula is also related to previously known theories such as the Donsker-Varadhan theory, the additivity principle, and the least dissipation principle, but it is not derived from them. Examples of its application are presented for a driven Brownian particle on a ring subject to a periodic potential.

  4. Dual representation for the generating functional of the Feynman path-integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-09-01

    The generating functional for scalar theories admits a representation which is dual with respect to the one introduced by Schwinger, interchanging the role of the free and interacting terms. It maps ∫ V (δJ) and JΔJ to δϕc Δδϕc and ∫ V (ϕc), respectively, with ϕc = ∫ JΔ and Δ the Feynman propagator. Comparing the Schwinger representation with its dual version one gets a little known relation that we prove to be a particular case of a more general operatorial relation. We then derive a new representation of the generating functional T [ϕc ] = W [ J ] expressed in terms of covariant derivatives acting on 1

  5. Regional structural differences across functionally parcellated Brodmann areas of human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-María; Besle, Julien; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI is ideally suited for structural and functional imaging of the brain. High-resolution structural MRI can be used to map the anatomical boundaries between functional domains of the brain by identifying changes related to the pattern of myelination within cortical gray matter, opening up the possibility to study the relationship between functional domains and underlying structure in vivo. In a recent study, we demonstrated the correspondence between functional (based on retinotopic mapping) and structural (based on changes in T2(⁎)-weighted images linked to myelination) parcellations of the primary visual cortex (V1) in vivo at 7T (Sanchez-Panchuelo et al., 2012b). Here, we take advantage of the improved BOLD CNR and high spatial resolution achievable at 7T to study regional structural variations across the functionally defined areas within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in individual subjects. Using a traveling wave fMRI paradigm to map the internal somatotopic representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers in S1, we were able to identify multiple map reversals at the tip and base, corresponding to the boundaries between Brodmann areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2. Based on high resolution structural MRI data acquired in the same subjects, we inspected these functionally-parcellated Brodmann areas for differences in cortical thickness and MR contrast measures (magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and signal intensity in phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images) that are sensitive to myelination. Consistent area-related differences in cortical thickness and MTR/PSIR measurements were found across subjects. However these measures did not have sufficient sensitivity to allow definition of areal boundaries.

  6. Large Deviation Generating Function for Currents in the Pauli-Fierz Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Roeck, Wojciech

    We consider a finite quantum system coupled to quasifree thermal reservoirs at different temperatures. We construct the statistics of energy transport between the reservoirs and we show that the corresponding large deviation generating function exists and it is analytic on a compact set. This result is valid for small coupling and exponentially decaying reservoir correlation functions. Our technique consists of a diagrammatic expansion that uses the Markovian limit of the system as a reference. As a corollary, we derive the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation for the entropy production.

  7. Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtoniszak, M.; Rogińska, D.; Machaliński, B.; Drozdzik, M.; Mijowska, E.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on graphene oxide (GO). • Characterization of graphene oxide–methylene blue nanocomposite (MB–GO). • Examination of MB–GO efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (SOG). • MB–GO performs higher SOG efficiency than pristine MB. - Abstract: Due to unique electronic, mechanical, optical and structural properties, graphene has shown promising applications in many fields, including biomedicine. One of them is noninvasive anticancer therapy – photodynamic therapy (PDT), where singlet oxygen (SO), generated under the irradiation of light with appropriate wavelengths, kills cancer cells. In this study, authors report graphene oxide (GO) noncovalent functionalization with methylene blue (MB). MB molecules underwent adsorption on the surface of GO. Detailed characterization of the obtained material was carried out with UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, its performance in singlet oxygen generation (SOG) under irradiation of laser with excitation wavelengths of 785 nm was investigated. Interestingly, GO functionalized with MB (MB–GO) showed enhanced efficiency in singlet oxygen generation compared to pristine MB. The efficiency in SOG was detected by photobleaching of 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABMDMA). These results indicate the material is promising in PDT anticancer therapy and further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  8. Potential Reductions in Variability with Alternative Approaches to Balancing Area Cooperation with High Penetrations of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

    2010-08-01

    The work described in this report was performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (EERE DOE). This project is a joint project with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report evaluates the physical characteristics that improve the ability of the power system to absorb variable generation. It then uses evidence from electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnection of the United States to show how large, fast energy markets can help with integration. The concept of Virtual Balancing Area is introduced, a concept that covers a broad range of cooperative measures that can be undertaken by balancing areas to help manage variability.

  9. Different Recovery Profiles of Coagulation Factors, Thrombin Generation, and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhagic Shock in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-06

    Different recovery profiles of coagulation factors, thrombin generation, and coagulation function after hemorrhagic shock in pigs Wenjun Z. Martini ...Defense. Address for reprints: Wenjun Z. Martini , PhD, The US Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3698 Chambers Pass, Ft. Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martini W. Z., Cortez D. S., Dubick M. A., Blackbourne L. H., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  10. MCPath: Monte Carlo path generation approach to predict likely allosteric pathways and functional residues

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Cihan; Armutlulu, Andac; Ekesan, Solen; Haliloglu, Turkan

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric mechanism of proteins is essential in biomolecular signaling. An important aspect underlying this mechanism is the communication pathways connecting functional residues. Here, a Monte Carlo (MC) path generation approach is proposed and implemented to define likely allosteric pathways through generating an ensemble of maximum probability paths. The protein structure is considered as a network of amino acid residues, and inter-residue interactions are described by an atomistic potential function. PDZ domain structures are presented as case studies. The analysis for bovine rhodopsin and three myosin structures are also provided as supplementary case studies. The suggested pathways and the residues constituting the pathways are maximally probable and mostly agree with the previous studies. Overall, it is demonstrated that the communication pathways could be multiple and intrinsically disposed, and the MC path generation approach provides an effective tool for the prediction of key residues that mediate the allosteric communication in an ensemble of pathways and functionally plausible residues. The MCPath server is available at http://safir.prc.boun.edu.tr/clbet_server. PMID:23742907

  11. Automated protein motif generation in the structure-based protein function prediction tool ProMOL.

    PubMed

    Osipovitch, Mikhail; Lambrecht, Mitchell; Baker, Cameron; Madha, Shariq; Mills, Jeffrey L; Craig, Paul A; Bernstein, Herbert J

    2015-12-01

    ProMOL, a plugin for the PyMOL molecular graphics system, is a structure-based protein function prediction tool. ProMOL includes a set of routines for building motif templates that are used for screening query structures for enzyme active sites. Previously, each motif template was generated manually and required supervision in the optimization of parameters for sensitivity and selectivity. We developed an algorithm and workflow for the automation of motif building and testing routines in ProMOL. The algorithm uses a set of empirically derived parameters for optimization and requires little user intervention. The automated motif generation algorithm was first tested in a performance comparison with a set of manually generated motifs based on identical active sites from the same 112 PDB entries. The two sets of motifs were equally effective in identifying alignments with homologs and in rejecting alignments with unrelated structures. A second set of 296 active site motifs were generated automatically, based on Catalytic Site Atlas entries with literature citations, as an expansion of the library of existing manually generated motif templates. The new motif templates exhibited comparable performance to the existing ones in terms of hit rates against native structures, homologs with the same EC and Pfam designations, and randomly selected unrelated structures with a different EC designation at the first EC digit, as well as in terms of RMSD values obtained from local structural alignments of motifs and query structures. This research is supported by NIH grant GM078077.

  12. Functional relationship of the cytochrome b to the superoxide-generating oxidase of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Schervish, E W; Santinga, J T

    1982-04-25

    A subcellular particulate fraction containing the NADPH-dependent O2.--generating oxidase from stimulated human neutrophils was prepared. This fraction was depleted of certain enzyme markers of primary and secondary granules and was devoid of measurable myeloperoxidase, both enzymatically and spectrally. When prepared from neutrophils which had been previously stimulated with phorbal myristate acetate, this fraction contained cyanide-insensitive, pyridine nucleotide-dependent O2.--generating activity with a specific activity of 260 nmol min-1 mg-1. O2.--generating activity is completely ablated by p-chloromercuribenzoate exposure. Preparations from normal unstimulated neutrophils or stimulated neutrophils from a male patient with chronic granulomatous disease had negligible amounts of this O2.--generating enzymatic activity. The dominant chromophore in this preparation was a b-type cytochrome, the spectral and functional characteristics of which are further described herein. Pyridine nucleotide-dependent reduction of the intrinsic cytochrome b closely parallels O2.- generation in this preparation. Specifically, reduction occurs in preparations from phorbal myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils and is absent in unstimulated or stimulated p-chloromercuribenzoate-inactivated preparations.

  13. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  14. Associative Encoding and Retrieval Are Predicted by Functional Connectivity in Distinct Hippocampal Area CA1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Katherine; Tompary, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    Determining how the hippocampus supports the unique demands of memory encoding and retrieval is fundamental for understanding the biological basis of episodic memory. One possibility proposed by theoretical models is that the distinct computational demands of encoding and retrieval are accommodated by shifts in the functional interaction between the hippocampal CA1 subregion and its input structures. However, empirical tests of this hypothesis are lacking. To test this in humans, we used high-resolution fMRI to measure functional connectivity between hippocampal area CA1 and regions of the medial temporal lobe and midbrain during extended blocks of associative encoding and retrieval tasks. We found evidence for a double dissociation between the pathways supporting successful encoding and retrieval. Specifically, during the associative encoding task, but not the retrieval task, functional connectivity only between area CA1 and the ventral tegmental area predicted associative long-term memory. In contrast, connectivity between area CA1 and DG/CA3 was greater, on average, during the retrieval task compared with the encoding task, and, importantly, the strength of this connectivity significantly correlated with retrieval success. Together, these findings serve as an important first step toward understanding how the demands of fundamental memory processes may be met by changes in the relative strength of connectivity within hippocampal pathways. PMID:25143600

  15. Privileged Functional Connectivity between the Visual Word Form Area and the Language System.

    PubMed

    Stevens, W Dale; Kravitz, Dwight J; Peng, Cynthia S; Tessler, Michael Henry; Martin, Alex

    2017-05-24

    The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region in the left occipitotemporal sulcus of literate individuals that is purportedly specialized for visual word recognition. However, there is considerable controversy about its functional specificity and connectivity, with some arguing that it serves as a domain-general, rather than word-specific, visual processor. The VWFA is a critical region for testing hypotheses about the nature of cortical organization, because it is known to develop only through experience (i.e., reading acquisition), and widespread literacy is too recent to have influenced genetic determinants of brain organization. Using a combination of advanced fMRI analysis techniques, including individual functional localization, multivoxel pattern analysis, and high-resolution resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses, with data from 33 healthy adult human participants, we demonstrate that (1) the VWFA can discriminate words from nonword letter strings (pseudowords); (2) the VWFA has preferential RSFC with Wernicke's area and other core regions of the language system; and (3) the strength of the RSFC between the VWFA and Wernicke's area predicts performance on a semantic classification task with words but not other categories of visual stimuli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the VWFA is specialized for lexical processing of real words because of its functional connectivity with Wernicke's area.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The visual word form area (VWFA) is critical for determining the nature of category-related organization of the ventral visual system. However, its functional specificity and connectivity are fiercely debated. Recent work concluded that the VWFA is a domain-general, rather than word-specific, visual processor with no preferential functional connectivity with the language system. Using more advanced techniques, our results stand in stark contrast to these earlier findings. We demonstrate that the VWFA is highly

  16. Functional size of human visual area V1: a neural correlate of top-down attention.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Ashika; Kolbe, Scott C; Anderson, Andrew J; Egan, Gary F; Vidyasagar, Trichur R

    2014-06-01

    Heavy demands are placed on the brain's attentional capacity when selecting a target item in a cluttered visual scene, or when reading. It is widely accepted that such attentional selection is mediated by top-down signals from higher cortical areas to early visual areas such as the primary visual cortex (V1). Further, it has also been reported that there is considerable variation in the surface area of V1. This variation may impact on either the number or specificity of attentional feedback signals and, thereby, the efficiency of attentional mechanisms. In this study, we investigated whether individual differences between humans performing attention-demanding tasks can be related to the functional area of V1. We found that those with a larger representation in V1 of the central 12° of the visual field as measured using BOLD signals from fMRI were able to perform a serial search task at a faster rate. In line with recent suggestions of the vital role of visuo-spatial attention in reading, the speed of reading showed a strong positive correlation with the speed of visual search, although it showed little correlation with the size of V1. The results support the idea that the functional size of the primary visual cortex is an important determinant of the efficiency of selective spatial attention for simple tasks, and that the attentional processing required for complex tasks like reading are to a large extent determined by other brain areas and inter-areal connections.

  17. Adaptive functioning and its associated factors among girl children residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Das, Sai C; Sahoo, Prabhudarsan

    2017-08-10

    Adaptive functioning develops throughout early childhood, and its limitation is a reflection that the child has developmental or emotional problems or even mental retardation. Little is known about the adaptive functioning or developmental status of slum children. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during the year 2014 to assess the status of adaptive functioning among girl children aged between 3 and 9 years residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar and to explore the factors associated with poor adaptive functioning. Stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was used to select the study population; 256 mother-child pairs from 256 households in selected slum areas were studied. Demographic information was collected, and adaptive functioning was assessed using the modified Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Univariate and multivariate analyses was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. One-fifth (54, 21%) of the girls sampled had poor adaptive functioning, and 44 (17%) had poor cognitive functioning. Multivariate analysis revealed that the age of the child, parents' education, presence of stunting in children and attending school/early childhood centre were strong predictors of adaptive functioning in slum children. One-fifth of girls from slums are developmentally vulnerable; parental education, stunting and early childhood education or exposure to schooling are modifiable factors influencing children's adaptive functioning. Health, education and welfare sectors need to be aware of this so that a multi-pronged approach can be planned to properly address this issue in one of the most disadvantaged sections of the society. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Evidence of functional connectivity between auditory cortical areas revealed by amplitude modulation sound processing.

    PubMed

    Guéguin, Marie; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Chauvel, Patrick; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the interarea connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus (IG), primary and secondary cortices (Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale), and associative areas (Brodmann area [BA] 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in 4 epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between 2 signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed 1) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency, 2) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, 3) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones, particularly at 8, 16, and 32 Hz, and 4) a particular role of Heschl's sulcus dispatching information to the different auditory areas. These findings suggest that cortical processing of auditory information is performed in serial and parallel streams. Our data showed that the auditory propagation could not be associated to a unidirectional traveling wave but to a constant interaction between these areas that could reflect the large adaptive and plastic capacities of auditory cortex. The role of the IG is discussed.

  19. Parceling of mesial frontal motor areas during ideation and movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 tesla.

    PubMed

    Tyszka, J M; Grafton, S T; Chew, W; Woods, R P; Colletti, P M

    1994-06-01

    Finger movement-related responses were identified in three discrete sites of mesial frontal cortex in 7 normal subjects using high resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging. During imagination of the same movements there was a differential response with rostral areas more active than caudal areas. Humans have multiple motor areas in mesial frontal cortex that subserve different functions in motor planning and execution.

  20. On an easy transition from operator dynamics to generating functionals by Clifford algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauser, Bertfried

    1998-09-01

    Clifford geometric algebras of multivectors are treated in detail. These algebras are built over a graded space and exhibit a grading or multivector structure. The careful study of the endomorphisms of this space makes it clear that opposite Clifford algebras have to be used for obtaining all endomorphisms. Based on these mathematics, we give a fully Clifford algebraic account on generating functionals, which is thereby geometric. The field operators are shown to be Clifford and opposite Clifford maps. This picture, relying on geometry, does not need positivity in principle. Furthermore, we propose a transition from operator dynamics to generating functionals, which is based on the algebraic techniques. As a calculational benefit, this transition is considerably short compared to standard ones. The transition is not injective (unique) and depends additionally on the choice of an ordering. We obtain a direct and constructive connection between orderings and the explicit form of the functional Hamiltonian. These orderings depend on the propagator of the theory and thus on the ground state. This is invisible in path integral formulations. The method is demonstrated within two examples, a nonlinear spinor field theory and spinor QED. Antisymmetrized and normal-ordered functional equations are derived in both cases.

  1. Generation of functional neurons from feeder-free, keratinocyte-derived equine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Livesey, Matthew Robert; Wyllie, David J A; Proudfoot, Christopher; Whitelaw, Christopher Bruce Alexander; Hay, David Christopher; Donadeu, Francesc Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer unprecedented biomedical potential not only in relation to humans but also companion animals, particularly the horse. Despite this, attempts to generate bona fide equine embryonic stem cells have been unsuccessful. A very limited number of induced PSC lines have so far been generated from equine fibroblasts but their potential for directed differentiation into clinically relevant tissues has not been explored. In this study, we used retroviral vectors to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with comparatively high efficiency from equine keratinocytes. Expression of endogenous PSC markers (OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, NANOG, DNMT3B, and REX1) was effectively restored in these cells, which could also form in vivo several tissue derivatives of the three germ layers, including functional neurons, keratinized epithelium, cartilage, bone, muscle, and respiratory and gastric epithelia. Comparative analysis of different reprogrammed cell lines revealed an association between the ability of iPSCs to form well-differentiated teratomas and the distinct endogenous expression of OCT4 and REX1 and reduced expression of viral transgenes. Importantly, unlike in previous studies, equine iPSCs were successfully expanded using simplified feeder-free culture conditions, constituting significant progress toward future biomedical applications. Further, under appropriate conditions equine iPSCs generated cells with features of cholinergic motor neurons including the ability to generate action potentials, providing the first report of functional cells derived from equine iPSCs. The ability to derive electrically active neurons in vitro from a large animal reveals highly conserved pathways of differentiation across species and opens the way for new and exciting applications in veterinary regenerative medicine.

  2. Differences in Parental Involvement Typologies among Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y Parents: A Study of Select Bay Area Region of Houston Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloz, Elizabeth Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y) regarding the levels of parental involvement within each of these generations. Also examined were additional factors such as the parents. socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status, and ethnicity. The…

  3. Probabilistic map of critical functional regions of the human cerebral cortex: Broca's area revisited.

    PubMed

    Tate, Matthew C; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Tate, Joseph E; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-10-01

    The organization of basic functions of the human brain, particularly in the right hemisphere, remains poorly understood. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have improved our understanding of cortical organization but do not allow for direct interrogation or determination of essential (versus participatory) cortical regions. Direct cortical stimulation represents a unique opportunity to provide novel insights into the functional distribution of critical epicentres. Direct cortical stimulation (bipolar, 60 Hz, 1-ms pulse) was performed in 165 consecutive patients undergoing awake mapping for resection of low-grade gliomas. Tasks included motor, sensory, counting, and picture naming. Stimulation sites eliciting positive (sensory/motor) or negative (speech arrest, dysarthria, anomia, phonological and semantic paraphasias) findings were recorded and mapped onto a standard Montreal Neurological Institute brain atlas. Montreal Neurological Institute-space functional data were subjected to cluster analysis algorithms (K-means, partition around medioids, hierarchical Ward) to elucidate crucial network epicentres. Sensorimotor function was observed in the pre/post-central gyri as expected. Articulation epicentres were also found within the pre/post-central gyri. However, speech arrest localized to ventral premotor cortex, not the classical Broca's area. Anomia/paraphasia data demonstrated foci not only within classical Wernicke's area but also within the middle and inferior frontal gyri. We report the first bilateral probabilistic map for crucial cortical epicentres of human brain functions in the right and left hemispheres, including sensory, motor, and language (speech, articulation, phonology and semantics). These data challenge classical theories of brain organization (e.g. Broca's area as speech output region) and provide a distributed framework for future studies of neural networks. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  4. A study of the feasibility of directly applying gas generator systems to space shuttle mechanical functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the current status and potential application of pyrotechnic gas generators and energy convertors for the space shuttle program. While most pyrotechnic devices utilize some form of linear actuation, only limited use of rotary actuators has been observed. This latter form of energy conversion, using a vane-type actuator as optimum, offers considerable potential in the area of servo, as well as non-servo systems, and capitalizes on a means of providing prolonged operating times. Pyrotechnic devices can often be shown to provide the optimum means of attaining a truly redundant back-up to a primary, non-pyrotechnic system.

  5. CAP: A Computer Code for Generating Tabular Thermodynamic Functions from NASA Lewis Coefficients. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.

    2002-01-01

    For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.

  6. CAP: A Computer Code for Generating Tabular Thermodynamic Functions from NASA Lewis Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.

    2001-01-01

    For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.

  7. Quantum transport: A unified approach via a multivariate hypergeometric generating function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo-Junior, A. F.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a characteristic function method to describe charge-counting statistics (CCS) in phase coherent systems that directly connects the three most successful approaches to quantum transport: random-matrix theory (RMT), the nonlinear σ-model and the trajectory-based semiclassical method. The central idea is the construction of a generating function based on a multivariate hypergeometric function, which can be naturally represented in terms of quantities that are well-defined in each approach. We illustrate the power of our scheme by obtaining exact analytical results for the first four cumulants of CCS in a chaotic quantum dot coupled ideally to electron reservoirs via perfectly conducting leads with arbitrary number of open scattering channels.

  8. Functional second harmonic generation microscopy probes molecular dynamics with high temporal resolution

    PubMed Central

    Förderer, Moritz; Georgiev, Tihomir; Mosqueira, Matias; Fink, Rainer H. A.; Vogel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for label free ex vivo or in vivo imaging, widely used to investigate structure and organization of endogenous SHG emitting proteins such as myosin or collagen. Polarization resolved SHG microscopy renders supplementary information and is used to probe different molecular states. This development towards functional SHG microscopy is calling for new methods for high speed functional imaging of dynamic processes. In this work we present two approaches with linear polarized light and demonstrate high speed line scan measurements of the molecular dynamics of the motor protein myosin with a time resolution of 1 ms in mammalian muscle cells. Such a high speed functional SHG microscopy has high potential to deliver new insights into structural and temporal molecular dynamics under ex vivo or in vivo conditions. PMID:26977360

  9. Generating functional Z/sub 0/ for the one-wormhole sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hajicek, P.

    1982-12-15

    We proceed in constructing a quantum theory of wormholes by adapting the method of Gervais, Jevicki, and Sakita. We calculate the transition amplitude for one-wormhole processes and separate the motion of the wormhole in the tree approximation: it is the motion of a free relativistic particle with the mass m/G, the classical mass of the wormhole. The quantum corrections can be calculated from the generating functional Z for the Green's functions. We derive a formula for the zero approximation Z/sub 0/ to this functional, find a suitable gauge which simplifies the formula, and show that this gauge is compatible with our boundary conditions. The problem of zero modes is solved and a regular propagator shown to exist. Finally, we estimate the cross section for the capture of photons and gravitons by a wormhole and find that it increases with energy reaching the value (4m)/sup 2/ asymptotically.

  10. The Impact of Function Extraction Technology on Next-Generation Software Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    sections summarize this research stream. 2.2 Fundamentals of Program Behavior Calculation The function-theoretic model of software [ Hausler 90...for FX technology to be applied in these areas. The central thesis of this research is that the ultra-large-scale systems of the fu - ture can be...Productivity Perceptions on the Use of Software Process Improve- ment Innovations." Information and Software Technology 47, 8 (June 2005): 543-553. [ Hausler 90

  11. Improvement of Gas-Sensing Performance of Large-Area Tungsten Disulfide Nanosheets by Surface Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung Yong; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Youngjun; Choi, Taejin; Shin, Sera; Lee, Chang Wan; Lee, Kyounghoon; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Hoonkyung; Kim, Jongbaeg; Lee, Taeyoon; Park, Jusang; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-10-05

    Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are promising gas-sensing materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. However, their poor gas-sensing performance resulting from the low response, incomplete recovery, and insufficient selectivity hinders the realization of high-performance 2D TMDC gas sensors. Here, we demonstrate the improvement of gas-sensing performance of large-area tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets through surface functionalization using Ag nanowires (NWs). Large-area WS2 nanosheets were synthesized through atomic layer deposition of WO3 followed by sulfurization. The pristine WS2 gas sensors exhibited a significant response to acetone and NO2 but an incomplete recovery in the case of NO2 sensing. After AgNW functionalization, the WS2 gas sensor showed dramatically improved response (667%) and recovery upon NO2 exposure. Our results establish that the proposed method is a promising strategy to improve 2D TMDC gas sensors.

  12. Area functional relation for 5D-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-08-01

    We present area (or entropy) functional relation for multi-horizons five dimensional (5D) Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole. It has been observed by exact and explicit calculation that some complicated function of two or three horizons area is mass-independent whereas the entropy product relation is not mass-independent. We also study the local thermodynamic stability of this black hole. The phase transition occurs at certain condition. Smarr mass formula and first law of thermodynamics have been derived. This mass-independent relation suggests they could turn out to be an universal quantity and further helps us to understanding the nature of black hole entropy (both interior and exterior) at the microscopic level. In the "Appendix", we have derived the thermodynamic products for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet black hole with vanishing cosmological constant.

  13. Efficient Generation of Functional Dopaminergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Under Defined Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Swistowski, Andrzej; Peng, Jun; Liu, Qiuyue; Mali, Prashant; Rao, Mahendra S; Cheng, Linzhao; Zeng, Xianmin

    2010-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from somatic cells represent a promising unlimited cell source for generating patient-specific cells for biomedical research and personalized medicine. As a first step, critical to clinical applications, we attempted to develop defined culture conditions to expand and differentiate human iPSCs into functional progeny such as dopaminergic neurons for treating or modeling Parkinson's disease (PD). We used a completely defined (xeno-free) system that we previously developed for efficient generation of authentic dopaminergic neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and applied it to iPSCs. First, we adapted two human iPSC lines derived from different somatic cell types for the defined expansion medium and showed that the iPSCs grew similarly as hESCs in the same medium regarding pluripotency and genomic stability. Second, by using these two independent adapted iPSC lines, we showed that the process of differentiation into committed neural stem cells (NSCs) and subsequently into dopaminergic neurons was also similar to hESCs. Importantly, iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons were functional as they survived and improved behavioral deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine-leasioned rats after transplantation. In addition, iPSC-derived NSCs and neurons could be efficiently transduced by a baculoviral vector delivering episomal DNA for future gene function study and disease modeling using iPSCs. We also performed genome-wide microarray comparisons between iPSCs and hESCs, and we derived NSC and dopaminergic neurons. Our data revealed overall similarity and visible differences at a molecular level. Efficient generation of functional dopaminergic neurons under defined conditions will facilitate research and applications using PD patient-specific iPSCs. Stem Cells 2010;28:1893–1904 PMID:20715183

  14. A detailed analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the frontal language area: a comparative study with extraoperative electrocortical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Naoto; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ota, Takahiro; Kawai, Kensuke; Saito, Nobuhito

    2011-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a less invasive way of mapping brain functions. The reliability of fMRI for localizing language-related function is yet to be determined. We performed a detailed analysis of language fMRI reliability by comparing the results of 3-T fMRI with maps determined by extraoperative electrocortical stimulation (ECS). This study was performed on 8 epileptic patients who underwent subdural electrode placement. The tasks performed during fMRI included verb generation, abstract/concrete categorization, and picture naming. We focused on the frontal lobe, which was effectively activated by these tasks. In extraoperative ECS, 4 tasks were combined to determine the eloquent areas: spontaneous speech, picture naming, reading, and comprehension. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity with different Z score thresholds for each task and appropriate matching criteria. For further analysis, we divided the frontal lobe into 5 areas and investigated intergyrus variations in sensitivity and specificity. The abstract/concrete categorization task was the most sensitive and specific task in fMRI, whereas the picture naming task detected eloquent areas most efficiently in ECS. The combination of the abstract/concrete categorization task and a 3-mm matching criterion gave the best tradeoff (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 61%) when the Z score was 2.24. As for intergyrus variation, the posterior inferior frontal gyrus showed the best tradeoff (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 59%), whereas the anterior middle frontal gyrus had low specificity. Despite different tasks for fMRI and extraoperative ECS, the relatively low specificity might be caused by a fundamental discrepancy between the 2 techniques. Reliability of language fMRI activation might differ, depending on the brain region.

  15. Comparative analysis of HOG pathway proteins to generate hypotheses for functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Krantz, Marcus; Becit, Evren; Hohmann, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    Comparative genomics allows comparison of different proteins that execute presumably identical functions in different organisms. In contrast to paralogues, orthologues per definition perform the same function and interact with the same partners and, consequently, should display conservation in all these properties. We have employed 20 fungal genomes to analyse key components of the high osmolarity glycerol signalling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Among the proteins scrutinised are a complete phosphotransfer module, a MAP kinase, two scaffold proteins, one of which is also a MAPKK, and two transcription factors. Sequence alignments, domain structure and size analysis, combined with the rich information available in the literature, allowed us to probe previous structural and functional studies and to generate hypotheses for future experimental studies. Although certain domains are too highly conserved across fungal species for meaningful comparative studies, others, like interaction domains, can be studied in closely related species. Moreover, putative functionally relevant sites for protein modifications can be identified in such comparative studies. We provide several relevant examples and present a number of previously un(der)characterised domains of potential functional significance in osmosensing and signal transduction. We propose that any functional protein analysis in fungi should make use of the unique resource that fungal genome sequences offer.

  16. Importance of Having Low-Density Functional Groups for Generating High-Performance Semiconducting Polymer Dots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanjun; Yu, Jiangbo; Wu, Changfeng; Jin, Yuhui; Rong, Yu; Ye, Fangmao

    2012-01-01

    Semiconducting polymers with low-density side-chain carboxylic acid groups were synthesized to form stable, functionalized, and highly fluorescent polymer dots (Pdots). The influence of the molar fraction of hydrophilic side-chains on Pdot properties and performance was systematically investigated. Our results show that the density of side-chain carboxylic acid groups significantly affects Pdot stability, internal structure, fluorescence brightness, and nonspecific binding in cellular labeling. Fluorescence spectroscopy, single-particle imaging, and a dye-doping method were employed to investigate the fluorescence brightness and the internal structure of the Pdots. The results of these experiments indicate that semiconducting polymers with low density of side-chain functional groups can form stable, compact, and highly bright Pdots as compared to those with high density of hydrophilic side-chains. The functionalized polymer dots were conjugated to streptavidin (SA) by carbodiimide-catalyzed coupling and the Pdot-SA probes effectively and specifically labeled the cancer cell-surface marker Her2 in human breast cancer cells. The carboxylate-functionalized polymer could also be covalently modified with small functional molecules to generate Pdot probes for click chemistry-based bioorthogonal labeling. This study presents a promising approach for further developing functional Pdot probes for biological applications. PMID:22607220

  17. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3) or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil) vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001), bradykinin (P < 0.05), sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05) and verapamil (P < 0.001). In addition, the net release of tissue plasminogen activator during bradykinin infusion was impaired following diesel exhaust exposure (P < 0.05). Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust

  18. Analysis of Thermal Power Generation Capacity for a Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Functional Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yajing; Chen, Gang; Bai, Guanghui; Yang, Xuqiu; Li, Peng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2017-05-01

    Due to military or other requirements for hypersonic aircraft, the energy supply devices with the advantages of small size and light weight are urgently needed. Compared with the traditional energy supply method, the skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) functional structure is expected to generate electrical energy with a smaller structural space in the hypersonic aircraft. This paper mainly focuses on the responded thermal and electrical characteristics of the skutterudite-based TE functional structure (TEFS) under strong heat flux loads. We conduct TE simulations on the transient model of the TEFS with consideration of the heat flux loads and thermal radiation in the hot end and the cooling effect of the phase change material (PCM) in the cold end. We investigate several influential factors on the power generation capacity, such as the phase transition temperature of the PCM, the heat flux loads, the thickness of the TE materials and the thermal conductivity of the frame materials. The results show that better power generation capacity can be achieved with thicker TE materials, lower phase transition temperature and suitable thermal conductivity of the frame materials.

  19. "Small axonless neurons": postnatally generated neocortical interneurons with delayed functional maturation.

    PubMed

    Le Magueresse, Corentin; Alfonso, Julieta; Khodosevich, Konstantin; Arroyo Martín, Angel A; Bark, Christine; Monyer, Hannah

    2011-11-16

    GABAergic interneurons of the mouse cortex are generated embryonically in the ventral telencephalon. Recent evidence, however, indicated that a subset of cortical cells expressing interneuronal markers originate in the neonatal subventricular zone. This has raised interest in the functional development and incorporation of these postnatally generated cells into cortical circuits. Here we demonstrate that these cells integrate in the cortex, and that they constitute two distinct GABAergic interneuronal classes. Whereas one class reflects the tail end of embryonic interneuron genesis, the other class comprises interneurons that are exclusively generated perinatally and postnatally. The latter constitute a novel subclass of interneurons. They are preferentially located in the deeper layers of the olfactory and orbital cortices, exhibit a unique firing pattern and slow functional maturation. Based on their distinct morphology we termed them "small axonless neurons" and indeed, unlike other cortical neurons, they communicate with their neuronal partners via dendrodendritic synapses. Finally, we provide evidence that the number of small axonless neurons is enhanced by odor enrichment, a further indication that they integrate into neural circuits and participate to olfactory processing.

  20. Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: generation-after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Genik, Richard J; Green, Christopher C; Graydon, Francis X; Armstrong, Robert E

    2005-06-01

    Confinement and isolation have always confounded the extraordinary endeavor of human spaceflight. Psychosocial health is at the forefront in considering risk factors that imperil missions of 1- to 2-yr duration. Current crewmember selection metrics restricted to behavioral observation by definition observe rather than prevent performance degradation and are thus inadequate when preflight training cannot simulate an entire journey. Nascent techniques to monitor functional and task-related cortical neural activity show promise and can be extended to include whole-brain monitoring. Watching spaceflight crews think can reveal the efficiency of training procedures. Moreover, observing subcortical emotion centers may provide early detection of developing neuropsychiatric disorders. The non-invasive functional neuroimaging modalities electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and highlights of how they may be engineered for spacecraft are detailed. Preflight and in-flight applications to crewmember behavioral health from current generation, next generation, and generation-after-next neuroscience research studies are also described. The emphasis is on preventing the onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, thus reducing the risk of mission failure due to human error.

  1. Analysis of Thermal Power Generation Capacity for a Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Functional Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yajing; Chen, Gang; Bai, Guanghui; Yang, Xuqiu; Li, Peng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Due to military or other requirements for hypersonic aircraft, the energy supply devices with the advantages of small size and light weight are urgently needed. Compared with the traditional energy supply method, the skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) functional structure is expected to generate electrical energy with a smaller structural space in the hypersonic aircraft. This paper mainly focuses on the responded thermal and electrical characteristics of the skutterudite-based TE functional structure (TEFS) under strong heat flux loads. We conduct TE simulations on the transient model of the TEFS with consideration of the heat flux loads and thermal radiation in the hot end and the cooling effect of the phase change material (PCM) in the cold end. We investigate several influential factors on the power generation capacity, such as the phase transition temperature of the PCM, the heat flux loads, the thickness of the TE materials and the thermal conductivity of the frame materials. The results show that better power generation capacity can be achieved with thicker TE materials, lower phase transition temperature and suitable thermal conductivity of the frame materials.

  2. Triple Therapy with First Generation Protease Inhibitors for Hepatitis C Markedly Impairs Function of Neutrophil Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Spindelboeck, Walter; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Schmerböck, Bianca; Zettel, Gabriele; Posch, Andreas; Streit, Andrea; Jurse, Petra; Lemesch, Sandra; Horn, Martin; Wuensch, Gerit; Stiegler, Philipp; Stauber, Rudolf E; Leber, Bettina; Stadlbauer, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    First-generation HCV protease inhibitors represent a milestone in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), but substantially increased rates of viral clearance are offset by increased rates of infection and infection-associated deaths, especially of patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to assess whether first generation protease inhibitors interfere with neutrophil function. We included 108 consecutive, retrospective CHC patients and 44 consecutive, prospective CHC patients who were treated with peginterferon and ribavirin with or without protease inhibitors according to the guidelines in the period of November 2012 to June 2015. 33 healthy volunteers served as controls. Infection data were evaluated in all patients. Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, elastase and diamine oxidase levels during 12 weeks of triple (n = 23) or dual therapy (n = 21) were studied in the prospective part. In the retro- and prospective cohorts patients experiencing clinically relevant infections were significantly more frequent during protease inhibitor therapy (31% and 26%) than during therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin (13% and 0%). Neutrophil phagocytosis decreased to 40% of baseline with addition of protease inhibitors to P/R but recovered 6 months after end of treatment. Protease inhibitors also seemed to reduce serum elastase levels but did not impact on gut permeability. Impaired neutrophil function during triple therapy with first generation HCV protease inhibitors may explain the high infection rate associated to these treatments and be of relevance for treatment success and patient survival.

  3. The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, INSTRUMENT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND CALIBRATION...dimensional ( 3D ) imaging calorimeter. This is achieved by arranging the CsI crystals in each tower module in 8 layers, each with 12 crystal logs (with...Thus, the CAL provides a 3D image of the energy deposition for each event. Since the CAL is only 8.6 radiation lengths thick at normal incidence

  4. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Inappropriate Vocalizations Using a Speech-Generating Device for a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Lang, Russell L.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Rispoli, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on functional communication training by examining the use of a speech-generating device (SGD) for a 7-year-old child with autism and no spoken language who demonstrated inappropriate vocalizations that served multiple functions. An analog functional analysis was used to determine the function of…

  5. Rapid generation of single-tumor spheroids for high-throughput cell function and toxicity analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivascu, Andrea; Kubbies, Manfred

    2006-12-01

    Spheroids are widely used in biology because they provide an in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) model to study proliferation, cell death, differentiation, and metabolism of cells in tumors and the response of tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The methods of generating spheroids are limited by size heterogeneity, long cultivation time, or mechanical accessibility for higher throughput fashion. The authors present a rapid method to generate single spheroids in suspension culture in individual wells. A defined number of cells ranging from 1000 to 20,000 were seeded into wells of poly-HEMA-coated, 96-well, round-or conical-bottom plates in standard medium and centrifuged for 10 min at 1000 g. This procedure generates single spheroids in each well within a 24-h culture time with homogeneous sizes, morphologies, and stratification of proliferating cells in the rim and dying cells in the core region. Because a large number of tumor cell lines form only loose aggregates when cultured in 3D, the authors also performed a screen for medium additives to achieve a switch from aggregate to spheroid morphology. Small quantities of the basement membrane extract Matrigel, added to the culture medium prior to centrifugation, most effectively induced compact spheroid formation. The compact spheroid morphology is evident as early as 24 h after centrifugation in a true suspension culture. Twenty tumor cell lines of different lineages have been used to successfully generate compact, single spheroids with homogenous size in 96-well plates and are easily accessible for subsequent functional analysis.

  6. Random Number Generation and Executive Functions in Parkinson's Disease: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Münte, Thomas F; Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Schrader, Christoph; Dengler, Reinhard; Heldmann, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax executive functions and has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) previously. To assess the neurophysiological markers of random number generation in PD. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched normal controls (NC) while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus at a rate of 1 tone every 1800 ms. As a secondary task subjects had to monitor the tone-sequence for a particular target tone to which the number "0" key had to be pressed. This target tone occurred randomly and infrequently, thus creating a secondary oddball task. Behaviorally, PD patients showed an increased tendency to count in steps of one as well as a tendency towards repetition avoidance. Electrophysiologically, the amplitude of the P3 component of the ERP to the target tone of the secondary task was reduced during RNG in PD but not in NC. The behavioral findings indicate less random behavior in PD while the ERP findings suggest that this impairment comes about, because attentional resources are depleted in PD.

  7. Functional MRI evaluation of supplementary motor area language dominance in right- and left-handed subjects.

    PubMed

    Dalacorte, Amauri; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Maurer das Neves, Carlos Magno; Anes, Maurício; Dacosta, Jaderson Costa

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique widely used in the evaluation of the brain function that provides images with high temporal and spatial resolution. Investigation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) function is critical in the pre-surgical evaluation of neurological patients, since marked individual differences and complex overlapping with adjacent cortical areas exist, and it is important to spare the SMA from lesions when adjacent cortical tissue is surgically removed. We used fMRI to assess the activity of SMA in six right-handed and six left-handed healthy volunteers when a task requiring silent repetition of a series of words was given. Brain activation areas in each of the subjects were localized according to the standard Talairach coordinate space, and the individual voxels for each map were compared after 3D sagittal images were created and SMA was delimited. Quantitative analysis of hemispheric and bilateral SMA activation was described as mean ± standard deviation of hot points/total points. The results show that the language task induced bilateral SMA activation. Left SMA activation was significantly higher than right SMA activation in both right-handed and left-handed subjects.

  8. Cortical areas related to performance of WAIS Digit Symbol Test: a functional imaging study.

    PubMed

    Usui, Nobuo; Haji, Tomoki; Maruyama, Masakazu; Katsuyama, Narumi; Uchida, Shinya; Hozawa, Atsushi; Omori, Kahoru; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kawashima, Ryuta; Taira, Masato

    2009-09-29

    Many neuropsychological studies have shown that the Digit Symbol Test (DST) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is useful for screening for dysfunctions of the brain. However, it remains unclear which brain areas are actually involved in the performance of DST and what brain functions are used for executing this test. In this study, we examined the cortical areas related to cognitive aspects of DST using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and determined executive brain functions involved in this test on the basis of fMRI results. Eleven healthy young adults (mean=21.6 years) performed a modified DST (mDST) task and its control task, which required a simple graphomotor response during fMRI data acquisition. The direct comparison of brain activations between the mDST task and the control task revealed greater activations in a fronto-parietal cortical network, including the bilateral inferior frontal sulci, left middle frontal gyrus (close to the frontal eye field) and left posterior parietal cortex. These activations are interpreted as reflecting the visual search process and/or the updating process of working memory during the mDST task execution. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the number of correct responses and activations in the bilateral inferior frontal regions, suggesting that these prefrontal areas have a crucial role in the performance of DST in a healthy young adult population.

  9. Preservation of mitochondrial functional integrity in mitochondria isolated from small cryopreserved mouse brain areas.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Filippis, Bianca; Ricceri, Laura; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial bioenergetics in brain pathophysiology are often precluded by the need to isolate mitochondria immediately after tissue dissection from a large number of brain biopsies for comparative studies. Here we present a procedure of cryopreservation of small brain areas from which mitochondrial enriched fractions (crude mitochondria) with high oxidative phosphorylation efficiency can be isolated. Small mouse brain areas were frozen and stored in a solution containing glycerol as cryoprotectant. Crude mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation from both cryopreserved and freshly explanted brain samples and were compared with respect to their ability to generate membrane potential and produce ATP. Intactness of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes was verified by polarographic ascorbate and cytochrome c tests and spectrophotometric assay of citrate synthase activity. Preservation of structural integrity and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was successfully obtained in crude mitochondria isolated from different areas of cryopreserved mouse brain samples. Long-term cryopreservation of small brain areas from which intact and phosphorylating mitochondria can be isolated for the study of mitochondrial bioenergetics will significantly expand the study of mitochondrial defects in neurological pathologies, allowing large comparative studies and favoring interlaboratory and interdisciplinary analyses.

  10. Ionic photoacid generators containing functionalized semifluorinated sulfonates for high-resolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yi; Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Ober, Christopher K.; Yueh, Wang; Cao, Heidi

    2008-03-01

    To meet the challenges for resist materials raised by high resolution lithography technologies, tailor-made photoacid generators (PAGs) with controlled acid diffusion and improved miscibility with polymers are very important. We have developed new ionic PAGs containing functionalized semifluorinated sulfonates. These PAGs have excellent solubility in polymer matrices and common organic solvents, high thermal stability, high acid strength and low volatility of the generated acids, and make them attractive PAGs for high resolution lithography. In this contribution, the preparation and characterization of several new ionic PAGs, the influence of the host matrix on PAG properties, and a comparison of their lithographic performance are presented. Specifically their lithographic performance at EUV wavelength is discussed.

  11. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sarada Devi; Schirmer, Katharina; Münst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Wölfl, Stefan; Simon-Keller, Katja; Marx, Alexander; Øie, Cristina Ionica; Ebert, Matthias P.; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process). Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions. PMID:26488607

  12. Generation of functionally distinct isoforms of PTBP3 by alternative splicing and translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lit-Yeen; Whitfield, Peter; Llorian, Miriam; Monzon-Casanova, Elisa; Diaz-Munoz, Manuel D.; Turner, Martin; Smith, Christopher W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a widely expressed RNA binding protein that acts as a regulator of alternative splicing and of cytoplasmic mRNA functions. Vertebrates contain two closely-related paralogs with >75% amino acid sequence identity. Early replacement of PTBP1 by PTBP2 during neuronal differentiation causes a concerted set of splicing changes. By comparison, very little is known about the molecular functions or physiological roles of PTBP3, although its expression and conservation throughout the vertebrates suggest a role in haematopoietic cells. To begin to understand its functions we have characterized the mRNA and protein isoform repertoire of PTBP3. Combinatorial alternative splicing events at the 5′ end of the gene allow for the generation of eight mRNA and three major protein isoforms. Individual mRNAs generate up to three protein isoforms via alternative translation initiation by re-initiation and leaky scanning using downstream AUG codons. The N-terminally truncated PTBP3 isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and/or most of the RRM1 domain and vary in their RNA binding properties and nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution, suggesting that PTBP3 may have major post-transcriptional cytoplasmic roles. Our findings set the stage for understanding the non-redundant physiological roles of PTBP3. PMID:25940628

  13. Cumulant generating function formula of heat transfer in ballistic systems with lead-lead coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Based on a two-time observation protocol, we consider heat transfer in a given time interval tM in a lead-junction-lead system taking coupling between the leads into account. In view of the two-time observation, consistency conditions are carefully verified in our specific family of quantum histories. Furthermore, its implication is briefly explored. Then using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we obtain an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two leads, valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. Also, a compact formula for the cumulant generating function in the long-time limit is derived, for which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is explicitly verified. In addition, we briefly discuss Di Ventra's repartitioning trick regarding whether the repartitioning procedure of the total Hamiltonian affects the nonequilibrium steady-state current fluctuation. All kinds of properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations, such as the fluctuation theorem in different time regimes, could be readily given according to these exact formulas.

  14. Efficient generation of functional Schwann cells from adipose-derived stem cells in defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Songtao; Lu, Fan; Han, Juntao; Tao, Ke; Wang, Hongtao; Simental, Alfred; Hu, Dahai; Yang, Hao

    2017-03-15

    Schwann cells (SCs) are hitherto regarded as the most promising candidates for viable cell-based therapy to peripheral nervous system (PNS) injuries or degenerative diseases. However, the extreme drawbacks of transplanting autologous SCs for clinical applications still represent a significant bottleneck in neural regenerative medicine, mainly owing to the need of sacrificing a functional nerve to generate autologous SCs and the nature of slow expansion of the SCs. Thus, it is of great importance to establish an alternative cell system for the generation of sufficient SCs. Here, we demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) of rat robustly give rise to morphological, phenotypic and functional SCs using an optimized protocol. After undergoing a 3-week in vitro differentiation, almost all of treated ADSCs exhibited spindle shaped morphology similar to genuine SCs and expressed SC markers GFAP and S100. Most importantly, apart from acquisition of SC antigenic and biochemical features, the ADSC-derived SCs were functionally identical to native SCs as they possess a potential ability to form myelin, and secret nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). The current study may provide an ideal strategy for harvesting sufficient SCs for cell-based treatment of various peripheral nerve injuries or disorders.

  15. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied

  16. Generation of Functional Lentoid Bodies From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived From Urinary Cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuli; Qin, Zhenwei; Jin, Xiuming; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Zhijian; He, Jiliang; Ji, Junfeng; Yao, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying cataract formation remain largely unknown on account of the lack of appropriate in vitro cellular models. The aim of this study is to develop a stable in vitro system for human lens regeneration using pluripotent stem cells. Isolated human urinary cells were infected with four Yamanaka factors to generate urinary human induced pluripotent stem cells (UiPSCs), which were induced to differentiate into lens progenitor cells and lentoid bodies (LBs). The expression of lens-specific markers was examined by real-time PCR, immunostaining, and Western blotting. The structure and magnifying ability of LBs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and observing the magnification of the letter "X," respectively. We developed a "fried egg" differentiation method to generate functional LBs from UiPSCs. The UiPSC-derived LBs exhibited crystalline lens-like morphology and a transparent structure and expressed lens-specific markers αA-, αB-, β-, and γ-crystallin and MIP. During LB differentiation, the placodal markers SIX1, EYA1, DLX3, PAX6, and the specific early lens markers SOX1, PROX1, FOXE3, αA-, and αB-crystallin were observed at certain time points. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of lens epithelial cells adjacent to the lens capsule as well as both immature and mature fiber-like cells. Optical analysis further demonstrated the magnifying ability (1.7×) of the LBs generated from UiPSCs. Our study provides the first evidence toward generating functional LBs from UiPSCs, thereby establishing an in vitro system that can be used to study human lens development and cataractogenesis and perhaps even be useful for drug screening.

  17. Computational analysis of functional connectivity between areas of primate cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Stephan, K E; Hilgetag, C C; Burns, G A; O'Neill, M A; Young, M P; Kötter, R

    2000-01-29

    Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra-connected and hierarchically organized structural systems. Corresponding analyses of data on functional connectivity are required to establish the significance of these structural systems. We therefore built up a relational database by systematically collating published data on the spread of activity after strychnine-induced disinhibition in the macaque cerebral cortex in vivo. After mapping these data to two different parcellation schemes, we used three independent methods of analysis which demonstrate that the cortical network of functional interactions is not homogeneous, but shows a clear segregation into functional assemblies of mutually interacting areas. The assemblies suggest a principal division of the cortex into visual, somatomotor and orbito-temporo-insular systems, while motor and somatosensory areas are inseparably interrelated. These results are largely compatible with corresponding analyses of structural data of mammalian cerebral cortex, and deliver the first functional evidence for 'small-world' architecture of primate cerebral cortex.

  18. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    PubMed Central

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  19. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia).

    PubMed

    de Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n = 21), to a matched group of typically developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs paediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indices assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke's area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas.

  20. Computational analysis of functional connectivity between areas of primate cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, K E; Hilgetag, C C; Burns, G A; O'Neill, M A; Young, M P; Kötter, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra-connected and hierarchically organized structural systems. Corresponding analyses of data on functional connectivity are required to establish the significance of these structural systems. We therefore built up a relational database by systematically collating published data on the spread of activity after strychnine-induced disinhibition in the macaque cerebral cortex in vivo. After mapping these data to two different parcellation schemes, we used three independent methods of analysis which demonstrate that the cortical network of functional interactions is not homogeneous, but shows a clear segregation into functional assemblies of mutually interacting areas. The assemblies suggest a principal division of the cortex into visual, somatomotor and orbito-temporo-insular systems, while motor and somatosensory areas are inseparably interrelated. These results are largely compatible with corresponding analyses of structural data of mammalian cerebral cortex, and deliver the first functional evidence for 'small-world' architecture of primate cerebral cortex. PMID:10703047

  1. Dosage effects of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on cortical surface area and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yuanchao; Liu, Bing; Long, Haixia; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-02-12

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that leads to a valine-to-methionine substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) in BDNF is correlated with differences in cognitive and memory functions, as well as with several neurological and psychiatric disorders. MRI studies have already shown that this genetic variant contributes to changes in cortical thickness and volume, but whether the Val66Met polymorphism affects the cortical surface area of healthy subjects remains unclear. Here, we used multimodal MRI to study whether this polymorphism would affect the cortical morphology and resting-state functional connectivity of a large sample of healthy Han Chinese human subjects. An SNP-wise general linear model analysis revealed a "dosage effect" of the Met allele, specifically a stepwise increase in cortical surface area of the right anterior insular cortex with increasing numbers of the Met allele. Moreover, we found enhanced functional connectivity between the anterior insular and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices that was linked with the dosage of the Met allele. In conclusion, these data demonstrated a "dosage effect" of BDNF Val66Met on normal cortical structure and function, suggesting a new path for exploring the mechanisms underlying the effects of genotype on cognition.

  2. The temporal characteristics of functional activation in Broca's area during overt picture naming.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Schiller, Niels O; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2009-10-01

    The opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus, also known as Broca's area, have been shown to be involved in various language tasks. In the current study we investigated both the functional role, as well as the precise temporal involvement of Broca's area during picture naming. We applied online event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to Broca's area at five different time points after picture presentation, aiming to cover the complete language production process. Applying real TMS at 300 msec after picture presentation led to an increase in picture naming latency, whereas sham stimulation and real stimulation at earlier and later time windows did not result in any changes in reaction time (RT). Our methodological approach enabled us to get insight into the temporal characteristics of the involvement of this brain area during picture naming. Making use of this information and directly relating it to psycholinguistic models, we conclude that Broca's area may be involved in the process of syllabification during overt speech production.

  3. Noise monitoring and adverse health effects in residents in different functional areas of Luzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Xia; Lei, Zhang-Heng; Zhang, Chun-Lian; Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong-Lin; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Qing-Bi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the noise pollution situation and the resulting adverse effect on residents' health in Luzhou, China, to provide data for noise pollution prevention policies and interventions. Four different functional areas (commercial, construction, residential, and transportation hub areas) were chosen to monitor noise level for 3 months. The survey was performed by questionnaire on the spot on randomly selected individuals; it collected data on the impact of noise on residents' health (quality of sleep, high blood pressure, subjective feeling of nervous system damage, and attention) as well as the knowledge of noise-induced health damage, the degree of adaptation to noise, and their solutions. The noise levels of residential, commercial, transportation, and construction areas exceeded the national standards (P < .001). Sleep quality, prevalence of hypertension, and attention in transportation hub areas were significantly different from those in the other 3 areas (P < .05); only 24.46% of people knew the health hazards associated with noise; 64.57% of residents have adapted to the current noise environment. Most of them have to close the doors and windows to reduce noise. The noise pollution situation in Luzhou, China, is serious, especially the traffic noise pollution. Residents pay less attention to it and adopt single measures to reduce the noise. We should work toward the prevention and control of traffic noise and improve the residents' awareness to reduce the adverse health effects of noise.

  4. Multimodal navigation in the functional microsurgical resection of intrinsic brain tumors located in eloquent motor areas: role of tractography.

    PubMed

    González-Darder, José M; González-López, Pablo; Talamantes, Fernando; Quilis, Vicent; Cortés, Victoria; García-March, Guillermo; Roldán, Pedro

    2010-02-01

    Nowadays the role of microsurgical management of intrinsic brain tumors is to maximize the volumetric resection of the tumoral tissue, minimizing the postoperative morbidity. The purpose of this paper was to study the benefits of an original protocol developed for the microsurgical treatment of tumors located in eloquent motor areas where the navigation and electrical stimulation of motor subcortical pathways have been implemented. A total of 17 patients who underwent resection of cortical or subcortical tumors in motor areas have been included in the series. The preoperative planning for multimodal navigation was done by integrating anatomical studies, motor functional MR (fMR) imaging, and subcortical pathway volumes generated by diffusion tensor (DT) imaging. Intraoperative neuromonitoring included motor mapping by direct cortical stimulation (CS) and subcortical stimulation (sCS), and localization of the central sulcus by using cortical multipolar electrodes and the N20 wave inversion technique. The location of all cortically and subcortically stimulated points with positive motor response was stored in the navigator and correlated with the cortical and subcortical motor functional structures defined preoperatively. The mean tumoral volumetric resection was 89.1 +/- 14.2% of the preoperative volume, with a total resection (> or = 100%) in 8 patients. Preoperatively a total of 58.8% of the patients had some kind of motor neurological deficit, increasing 24 hours after surgery to 70.6% and decreasing to 47.1% at 1 month later. There was a great correlation between anatomical and functional data, both cortically and subcortically. A total of 52 cortical points submitted to CS had positive motor response, with a positive correlation of 83.7%. Also, a total of 55 subcortical points had positive motor response; in these cases the mean distance from the stimulated point to the subcortical tract was 7.3 +/- 3.1 mm. The integration of anatomical and functional studies

  5. Developing fragility functions for the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, H.; Koshimura, S.; Imai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Namegaya, Y.; Nishimura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Fragility functions in terms of flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force are developed to evaluate structural vulnerability in the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. First, numerical simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation are conducted to reproduce the features of tsunami inundation. To validate the results, flow depths measured in field surveys and waveforms measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) gauges are utilized. Next, building damage is investigated by visually interpreting changes between pre- and post-tsunami high-resolution satellite images. Finally, the data related to tsunami features and building damage are integrated using Geographic Information System (GIS), and tsunami fragility functions are developed based on the statistical analyses. From the developed fragility functions, we quantitatively understood the vulnerability of a coastal region in American Samoa characterized by steep terrains and ria coasts.

  6. Phantom pain is associated with preserved structure and function in the former hand area.

    PubMed

    Makin, Tamar R; Scholz, Jan; Filippini, Nicola; Henderson Slater, David; Tracey, Irene; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Phantom pain after arm amputation is widely believed to arise from maladaptive cortical reorganization, triggered by loss of sensory input. We instead propose that chronic phantom pain experience drives plasticity by maintaining local cortical representations and disrupting inter-regional connectivity. Here we show that, while loss of sensory input is generally characterized by structural and functional degeneration in the deprived sensorimotor cortex, the experience of persistent pain is associated with preserved structure and functional organization in the former hand area. Furthermore, consistent with the isolated nature of phantom experience, phantom pain is associated with reduced inter-regional functional connectivity in the primary sensorimotor cortex. We therefore propose that contrary to the maladaptive model, cortical plasticity associated with phantom pain is driven by powerful and long-lasting subjective sensory experience, such as triggered by nociceptive or top-down inputs. Our results prompt a revisiting of the link between phantom pain and brain organization.

  7. THE HETEROGENEITY OF VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA NEURONS: PROJECTION FUNCTIONS IN A MOOD-RELATED CONTEXT

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J.J.; Han, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain’s reward circuitry is composed of a heterogeneous population of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons that play important roles in mediating mood-related functions including depression. These neurons project to different brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the amygdala. The functional understanding of these projection pathways has been improved since the extensive use of advanced techniques such as viral-mediated gene transfer, cell-type specific neurophysiology and circuit-probing optogenetics. In this article, we will discuss the recent progress in understanding these VTA projection-specific functions, focusing on mood-related disorders. PMID:24931766

  8. Phantom pain is associated with preserved structure and function in the former hand area

    PubMed Central

    Makin, Tamar R.; Scholz, Jan; Filippini, Nicola; Henderson Slater, David; Tracey, Irene; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Phantom pain after arm amputation is widely believed to arise from maladaptive cortical reorganization, triggered by loss of sensory input. We instead propose that chronic phantom pain experience drives plasticity by maintaining local cortical representations and disrupting inter-regional connectivity. Here we show that, while loss of sensory input is generally characterized by structural and functional degeneration in the deprived sensorimotor cortex, the experience of persistent pain is associated with preserved structure and functional organization in the former hand area. Furthermore, consistent with the isolated nature of phantom experience, phantom pain is associated with reduced inter-regional functional connectivity in the primary sensorimotor cortex. We therefore propose that contrary to the maladaptive model, cortical plasticity associated with phantom pain is driven by powerful and long-lasting subjective sensory experience, such as triggered by nociceptive or top–down inputs. Our results prompt a revisiting of the link between phantom pain and brain organization. PMID:23463013

  9. Improved prediction of accessible surface area results in efficient energy function application.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sumaiya; Mishra, Avdesh; Hoque, Md Tamjidul

    2015-09-07

    An accurate prediction of real value accessible surface area (ASA) from protein sequence alone has wide application in the field of bioinformatics and computational biology. ASA has been helpful in understanding the 3-dimensional structure and function of a protein, acting as high impact feature in secondary structure prediction, disorder prediction, binding region identification and fold recognition applications. To enhance and support broad applications of ASA, we have made an attempt to improve the prediction accuracy of absolute accessible surface area by developing a new predictor paradigm, namely REGAd(3)p, for real value prediction through classical Exact Regression with Regularization and polynomial kernel of degree 3 which was further optimized using Genetic Algorithm. ASA assisting effective energy function, motivated us to enhance the accuracy of predicted ASA for better energy function application. Our ASA prediction paradigm was trained and tested using a new benchmark dataset, proposed in this work, consisting of 1001 and 298 protein chains, respectively. We achieved maximum Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 and 1.45% improved PCC when compared with existing top performing predictor, SPINE-X, in ASA prediction on independent test set. Furthermore, we modeled the error between actual and predicted ASA in terms of energy and combined this energy linearly with the energy function 3DIGARS which resulted in an effective energy function, namely 3DIGARS2.0, outperforming all the state-of-the-art energy functions. Based on Rosetta and Tasser decoy-sets 3DIGARS2.0 resulted 80.78%, 73.77%, 141.24%, 16.52%, and 32.32% improvement over DFIRE, RWplus, dDFIRE, GOAP and 3DIGARS respectively.

  10. Form--a matter of generation: the relation of generation, form, and function in the epigenetic theory of Caspar F. Wolff.

    PubMed

    Witt, Elke

    2008-12-01

    The question, how organisms obtain their specific complex and functional forms, was widely discussed during the eighteenth century. The theory of preformation, which was the dominant theory of generation, was challenged by different alternative epigenetic theories. By the end of the century it was the vitalist approach most famously advocated by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach that prevailed. Yet the alternative theory of generation brought forward by Caspar Friedrich Wolff was an important contribution to the treatment of this question. He turned his attention from the properties of matter and the forces acting on it towards the level of the processes of generation in order to explain the constitution of organismic forms. By regarding organic structures and forms to be the result of the lawfulness of ongoing processes, he opened up the possibility of a functional but non-teleological explanation of generation, and thereby provided an important complement to materialist and vitalist approaches.

  11. Generating the Infrared Spectra of Large Interstellar Molecules with Density Functional Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It is now possible to compute IR (infrared) spectra of large molecules with an accuracy of 30 per cm, or better, using density function theory. This is true for cations, anions, and neutrals. Thus it possible to generate synthetic IR spectra that can help interpret experimental spectra and fill in for missing experimental data. These synthetic spectra can be used as input into interstellar models. In addition to IR spectra, it is possible to compute energetic properties to help understand which molecules can be formed in the interstellar environment.

  12. Generation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampus after functional modification of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Garkun, Yu S; Yakubovich, N V; Denisov, A A; Molchanov, P G; Emel'janova, A A; Pashkevich, S G; Kulchitsky, V A

    2008-04-01

    Experiments on hippocampal slices form 4-week-old rats (n=28) showed that addition of lidase (1.0 and 10.0 U/ml) to the perfusion solution (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) was accompanied by the impaired generation or blockade of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes in the hippocampal CA1 region during stimulation of Schaffer collaterals. Removal of lidase from this solution normalized the amplitude of evoked responses. Hence, lidase in these concentrations produced a reversible effect on synaptic transmission. Our results indicate that structure and function of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix determine signal transduction in the nervous tissue.

  13. Laser interference lithography for large area patterning and the fabrication of functional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wathuthanthri, Ishan

    Nature-inspired phenomena such as the "moth eye" and "lotus leaf" effects have gained a lot of interest in recent years due to potential applications in a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. To practically achieve a majority of these biomimetic applications it is necessary to fabricate such nano-featured surfaces in a low-cost and high-throughput manner. To this end, this dissertation focuses on developing and using the Interference Lithography (IL) technologies to achieve large-area nanopatterning. IL is a parallel-type nanolithography technique that shares many of the advantages of other parallel-type techniques such as deep-UV photolithography while alleviating a majority of concerns such as cost and complexity. IL relies on the interference of two or more beams of light where the resulting interference fringes are generally recorded on a light sensitive polymeric material such as photoresist. In simple two-beam IL systems, the periodicity of the interference fringes is simply a function of wavelength and the angle of separation of the two beams, while the maximum coverage area is a constrained by the optical path and the exposed area. To this extent, in the design of interferometers for nanopatterning, the challenge remains in designing systems where a simple mechanism exists for varying the angle of separation of the interfering beams and in turn periodicity of the interference fringes while also enabling large-area exposures. To this end, the first half of this dissertation demonstrates three different IL systems (Lloyd-mirror, two-degree-of freedom Lloyd-mirror, and the tunable two-mirror systems) designed and established at Stevens capable of fast tuning of periodicities while also achieving wafer-scale (4") large-area nanopatterning. Using the large-area nanopatterns of photoresist, various pattern transfer techniques have also been investigated where the photoresist film is used as a template layer to transfer the large-area periodic

  14. Mode-locked laser realized by selective area growth for short pulse generation and optical clock recovery in TDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Eugen; Baums, Dieter; Bouayad-Amine, Jamal; Hache, Claudia; Haisch, Hansjorg; Kuhn, Edgar; Satzke, Klaus; Schilling, Michael; Weber, Juergen; Zielinski, Erich

    1996-04-01

    We report on monolithically integrated active/passive coupled cavity mode locked lasers for 1.55 micrometer realized by selective area growth technology of InGaAs(P) quantum wells. Mode locked FP or DBR lasers are fabricated with an integrated cavity comprising up to three different band gaps. The devices emit short light pulses at around 10 GHz repetition rate with pulse width down to 8.7 ps. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 is achieved for mode locked DBR lasers. Active/passive integrated mode locked laser is used for generation of optical 10 GHz clock signal from optical 10 Gb/s PRBS RZ data stream injected into the laser cavity.

  15. Do terrestrial animals avoid areas close to turbines in functioning wind farms in agricultural landscapes?

    PubMed

    Łopucki, Rafał; Klich, Daniel; Gielarek, Sylwia

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of wind energy on animals have focused on avian and bat activity, habitat use, and mortality, whereas very few have been published on terrestrial, non-volant wildlife. In this paper, we studied the utilization of functioning wind farm areas by four terrestrial animals common to agricultural landscapes: European roe deer, European hare, red fox, and the common pheasant. Firstly, we expected that the studied animals do not avoid areas close to turbines and utilize the whole area of functioning wind farms with a frequency similar to the control areas. Secondly, we expected that there is no relation between the turbine proximity and the number of tracks of these animals. The study was conducted over two winter seasons using the snow-tracking method along 100 m linear transects. In total, 583 transects were recorded. Wind farm operations may affect terrestrial animals both in wind farm interiors and in a 700-m buffer zone around the edge of turbines. The reactions of animals were species specific. Herbivorous mammals (roe deer and European hare) avoided wind farm interiors and proximity to turbines. The common pheasant showed a positive reaction to wind turbine proximity. The red fox had the most neutral response to wind turbines. Although this species visited wind farm interiors less often than the control area, there was no relation between fox track density and turbine proximity. Greater weight should be given to the effects of wind farms on non-flying wildlife than at present. Investors and regulatory authorities should always consider the likely impacts of wind farms during environmental impact assessments and try to reduce these negative effects.

  16. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD.

  17. Generation of Functional Kidney Organoids In Vivo Starting from a Single-Cell Suspension.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Valentina; Brizi, Valerio; Xinaris, Christodoulos

    2016-08-19

    Novel methods in developmental biology and stem cell research have made it possible to generate complex kidney tissues in vitro that resemble whole organs and are termed organoids. In this chapter we describe a technique using suspensions of fully dissociated mouse kidney cells to yield organoids that can become vascularized in vivo and mature and display physiological functions. This system can be used to produce fine-grained human-mouse chimeric organoids in which the renal differentiation potential of human cells can be assessed. It can also be an excellent method for growing chimeric organoids in vivo using human stem cells, which can differentiate into specialized kidney cells and exert nephron-specific functions. We provide detailed methods, a brief discussion of critical points, and describe some successfully implemented examples of the system.

  18. Generation of a Functionally Distinct Rhizopus oryzae Lipase through Protein Folding Memory.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Atsushi; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) has a propeptide at its N-terminus that functions as an intramolecular chaperone and facilitates the folding of mature ROL (mROL). In this study, we successfully generated a functionally distinct imprinted mROL (mROLimp) through protein folding memory using a mutated propeptide. The mutated propeptide left its structural memory on mROL and produced mROLimp that exhibited different substrate specificities compared with mROLWT (prepared from the wild type propeptide), although the amino acid sequences of both mROLs were the same. mROLimp showed a preference for substrates with medium chain-length acyl groups and, noticeably, recognized a peptidase-specific substrate. In addition, ROLimp was more stable than mROLWT. These results strongly suggest that proteins with identical amino acid sequences can fold into different conformations and that mutations in intramolecular chaperones can dynamically induce changes in enzymatic activity.

  19. CDFTBL: A statistical program for generating cumulative distribution functions from data

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W. )

    1991-06-01

    This document describes the theory underlying the CDFTBL code and gives details for using the code. The CDFTBL code provides an automated tool for generating a statistical cumulative distribution function that describes a set of field data. The cumulative distribution function is written in the form of a table of probabilities, which can be used in a Monte Carlo computer code. A a specific application, CDFTBL can be used to analyze field data collected for parameters required by the PORMC computer code. Section 2.0 discusses the mathematical basis of the code. Section 3.0 discusses the code structure. Section 4.0 describes the free-format input command language, while Section 5.0 describes in detail the commands to run the program. Section 6.0 provides example program runs, and Section 7.0 provides references. The Appendix provides a program source listing. 11 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. In vivo generation of a mature and functional artificial skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fuoco, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Biondo, Antonella; Longa, Emanuela; Mascaro, Anna; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossovar, Olga; Benedetti, Sara; Salvatori, Maria L; Santoleri, Sabrina; Testa, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Bottinelli, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano M; Seliktar, Dror; Cossu, Giulio; Gargioli, Cesare

    2015-04-01

    Extensive loss of skeletal muscle tissue results in mutilations and severe loss of function. In vitro-generated artificial muscles undergo necrosis when transplanted in vivo before host angiogenesis may provide oxygen for fibre survival. Here, we report a novel strategy based upon the use of mouse or human mesoangioblasts encapsulated inside PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel. Once engineered to express placental-derived growth factor, mesoangioblasts attract host vessels and nerves, contributing to in vivo survival and maturation of newly formed myofibres. When the graft was implanted underneath the skin on the surface of the tibialis anterior, mature and aligned myofibres formed within several weeks as a complete and functional extra muscle. Moreover, replacing the ablated tibialis anterior with PEG-fibrinogen-embedded mesoangioblasts also resulted in an artificial muscle very similar to a normal tibialis anterior. This strategy opens the possibility for patient-specific muscle creation for a large number of pathological conditions involving muscle tissue wasting.

  1. THE critical exponent of the tree lattice generating function in the eden model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, V. E.

    2010-11-01

    We consider the increase in the number of trees as their size increases in the Eden growth model on simple and face-centered hypercubic lattices in different space dimensions. We propose a first-order partial differential equation for the tree generating function, which allows relating the exponent at the critical point of this function to the perimeter of the most probable tree. We estimate tree perimeters for the lattices considered. The theoretical values of the exponents agree well with the values previously obtained by computer modeling. We thus explain the closeness of the dimension dependences of the exponents of the simple and face-centered lattices and their difference from the results in the Bethe lattice approximation.

  2. In vivo generation of a mature and functional artificial skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fuoco, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Biondo, Antonella; Longa, Emanuela; Mascaro, Anna; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossovar, Olga; Benedetti, Sara; Salvatori, Maria L; Santoleri, Sabrina; Testa, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Bottinelli, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano M; Seliktar, Dror; Cossu, Giulio; Gargioli, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Extensive loss of skeletal muscle tissue results in mutilations and severe loss of function. In vitro-generated artificial muscles undergo necrosis when transplanted in vivo before host angiogenesis may provide oxygen for fibre survival. Here, we report a novel strategy based upon the use of mouse or human mesoangioblasts encapsulated inside PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel. Once engineered to express placental-derived growth factor, mesoangioblasts attract host vessels and nerves, contributing to in vivo survival and maturation of newly formed myofibres. When the graft was implanted underneath the skin on the surface of the tibialis anterior, mature and aligned myofibres formed within several weeks as a complete and functional extra muscle. Moreover, replacing the ablated tibialis anterior with PEG-fibrinogen-embedded mesoangioblasts also resulted in an artificial muscle very similar to a normal tibialis anterior. This strategy opens the possibility for patient-specific muscle creation for a large number of pathological conditions involving muscle tissue wasting. PMID:25715804

  3. Student Commons Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Rhonda

    2001-01-01

    Explores the new philosophy, lighting arrangements, and planning considerations behind the next generation of school common area design. Designs that enhance safety and security, and that can be flexible for other school functions are also discussed. (GR)

  4. Linking trade-offs in habitat selection with the occurrence of functional responses for moose living in two nearby study areas.

    PubMed

    Mabille, Géraldine; Dussault, Christian; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre; Laurian, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    A species may modify its relative habitat use with changing availability, generating functional responses in habitat selection. Functional responses in habitat selection are expected to occur when animals experience trade-offs influencing their habitat selection, but only a few studies to date have explicitly linked functional responses to the underlying trade-offs faced by the animals. We used data from 39 female moose fitted with GPS telemetry collars in two nearby study areas in Canada to investigate if moose (1) were faced with a food/cover trade-off in habitat selection, as typically acknowledged in the literature, and (2) showed a functional response in their use of food/cover-rich habitats. We also examined how habitat selection patterns varied seasonally, and between study areas. The occurrence of functional responses varied strongly between study areas, and could not always be related to a measurable food/cover trade-off. Functional responses were observed more often in the study area where the environmental conditions were more severe (colder temperatures, higher precipitations, and lower food availability). Selection coefficients were also less variable among individuals in that study area, suggesting that severe environmental conditions may constrain individuals to a few selection tactics and promote the development of functional responses. Moose reacted to the availability of different habitat types in different seasons, reflecting the changing trade-offs faced by the animals. We found considerable behavioral differences between individuals from two adjacent study areas, and therefore recommend caution when extrapolating habitat selection results. We advocate for the wider use of functional responses to identify critical habitats for a species from a management or conservation perspective.

  5. The influence of executive functions and memory on self-generation benefit in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goverover, Yael; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2013-01-01

    Self-generation is a learning strategy, demonstrated to improve learning in healthy persons as well as persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examines the relative influence of memory performance and executive functioning on the ability to benefit from self-generated learning in persons with MS. Participants consisted of 70 individuals with MS. A within-groups design was employed examining recall of words that were presented in two learning conditions: (a) a condition in which the to-be-learned information was provided to the participant and (b) a condition in which the to-be-learned information was self-generated by the participant. Participants were divided into 2 groups based on their benefit from self-generation. Participants who benefited from using self-generation strategy were included in the responders group, and participants who did not benefit from using self-generation were included in the nonresponders group. Executive functions were assessed with the D-KEFS (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System) Sorting Test, and learning and memory were assessed via the Open-Trial Selective Reminding Test and the Brief Visual Spatial Memory Test-Revised. Responders had significantly better executive functions than nonresponders, while no significant differences were noted between the 2 groups on memory abilities. Logistic regression analysis revealed that performance on the executive functioning task significantly predicted benefit from self-generation. Executive functioning is critical for the ability of an individual with MS to benefit from self-generation strategy use.

  6. Optimal design of an atmospheric water generator (AWG) based on thermo-electric cooler (TEC) for drought in rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaningsih, Sri; Nurhilal, Otong

    2016-02-01

    Drinking water availability is a major issue in some rural area in Indonesia during the summer season due to lack of rainfall, which peoples in this area have to fetch the water a few kilometers away from home. The Atmospheric Water Generator (AWG) is one of the alternative solution for fresh water recovery from atmosphere which is directly condensed the moisture content of water vapor from the air. This paper presents the method to develop a prototype of an AWG based on Thermo-electric cooler (TEC) that used 12 Volt DC, hence its suitability for using renewable energy resource. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is utilized to optimize the design process in the flow region only, it's not suitable for recent CFD software to use in Multi physics, because inaccuracy, cost and time saving. Some parameters such as temperature, moisture content, air flow, pressure, form of air flow channel and the water productivity per unit input of energy are to be considered. The result is presented as an experimental prototype of an AWG based on TEC and compared with other conventional commercial products.

  7. Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, G.B.; Crowley, S.S.; Carey, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

  8. A generating function approach to HIV transmission with dynamic contact rates.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, E O; Meadors, G D; Volz, E M

    2014-03-01

    The basic reproduction number, R0, is often defined as the average number of infections generated by a newly infected individual in a fully susceptible population. The interpretation, meaning, and derivation of R0 are controversial. However, in the context of mean field models, R0 demarcates the epidemic threshold below which the infected population approaches zero in the limit of time. In this manner, R0 has been proposed as a method for understanding the relative impact of public health interventions with respect to disease eliminations from a theoretical perspective. The use of R0 is made more complex by both the strong dependency of R0 on the model form and the stochastic nature of transmission. A common assumption in models of HIV transmission that have closed form expressions for R0 is that a single individual's behavior is constant over time. In this paper we derive expressions for both R0 and probability of an epidemic in a finite population under the assumption that people periodically change their sexual behavior over time. We illustrate the use of generating functions as a general framework to model the effects of potentially complex assumptions on the number of transmissions generated by a newly infected person in a susceptible population. We find that the relationship between the probability of an epidemic and R0 is not straightforward, but, that as the rate of change in sexual behavior increases both R0 and the probability of an epidemic also decrease.

  9. Functional Human Podocytes Generated in Organoids from Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xinaris, Christodoulos; Benedetti, Valentina; Novelli, Rubina; Abbate, Mauro; Rizzo, Paola; Conti, Sara; Tomasoni, Susanna; Corna, Daniela; Pozzobon, Michela; Cavallotti, Daniela; Yokoo, Takashi; Morigi, Marina; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Generating kidney organoids using human stem cells could offer promising prospects for research and therapeutic purposes. However, no cell-based strategy has generated nephrons displaying an intact three-dimensional epithelial filtering barrier. Here, we generated organoids using murine embryonic kidney cells, and documented that these tissues recapitulated the complex three-dimensional filtering structure of glomerular slits in vivo and accomplished selective glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Exploiting this technology, we mixed human amniotic fluid stem cells with mouse embryonic kidney cells to establish three-dimensional chimeric organoids that engrafted in vivo and grew to form vascularized glomeruli and tubular structures. Human cells contributed to the formation of glomerular structures, differentiated into podocytes with slit diaphragms, and internalized exogenously infused BSA, thus attaining in vivo degrees of specialization and function unprecedented for donor stem cells. In conclusion, human amniotic fluid stem cell chimeric organoids may offer new paths for studying renal development and human podocyte disease, and for facilitating drug discovery and translational research.

  10. Generation of Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vectors for Vaccines and Gene Knockout Function Studies.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Cao, Jingxin; Babiuk, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate capripoxvirus through gene knockouts and gene insertions has become an increasingly valuable research tool in elucidating the function of individual genes of capripoxvirus, as well as in the development of capripoxvirus-based recombinant vaccines. The homologous recombination technique is used to generate capripoxvirus knockout viruses (KO), and is based on the targeting a particular viral gene of interest. This technique can also be used to insert a gene of interest. A protocol for the generation of a viral gene knockout is described. This technique involves the use of a plasmid which encodes the flanking sequences of the regions where the homologous recombination will occur, and will result in the insertion of an EGFP reporter gene for visualization of recombinant virus, as well as the E. coli gpt gene as a positive selection marker. If an additional gene is to be incorporated, this can be achieved by inserting a gene of interest for expression under a poxvirus promoter into the plasmid between the flanking regions for insertion. This chapter describes a protocol for generating such recombinant capripoxviruses.

  11. Next generation PhotoCORMs: polynuclear tricarbonylmanganese(I)-functionalized polypyridyl metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Govender, Preshendren; Pai, Sandesh; Schatzschneider, Ulrich; Smith, Gregory S

    2013-05-06

    The first CO-releasing metallodendrimers, based on polypyridyl dendritic scaffolds functionalized with Mn(CO)3 moieties, of the general formula [DAB-PPI-{MnBr(bpy(CH3,CH═N))(CO)3}n], where DAB = 1,4-diaminobutane, PPI = poly(propyleneimine), bpy = bipyridyl, and n = 4 for first- or n = 8 for second-generation dendrimers, were synthesized and comprehensively characterized by analytical (HR-ESI mass spectrometry and elemental analysis) and spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C{(1)H}-NMR, infrared, and UV/vis spectroscopy) methods. The CO-release properties of these compounds were investigated in pure buffer and using the myoglobin assay. Both metallodendrimer generations are stable in the dark in aqueous buffer for up to 16 h but show photoactivated CO release upon excitation at 410 nm, representing a novel class of macromolecular photoactivatable CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs). No scaling effects were observed since both metallodendrimers release ∼65% of the total number of CO ligands per molecule, regardless of the generation number. In addition, the mononuclear model complex [MnBr(bpy(CH3,CH═NCH2CH2CH3))(CO)3] was prepared and comprehensively studied, including DFT/TDDFT calculations. These metallodendrimer-based PhotoCORMs afford new methods of targeted delivery of large amounts of carbon monoxide to cellular systems.

  12. Benchmarking next-generation transcriptome sequencing for functional and evolutionary genomics.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, John G; Janson, Eric M; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Johnston, Mark; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2009-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing has opened the door to genomic analysis of nonmodel organisms. Technologies generating long-sequence reads (200-400 bp) are increasingly used in evolutionary studies of nonmodel organisms, but the short-sequence reads (30-50 bp) that can be produced at lower cost are thought to be of limited utility for de novo sequencing applications. Here, we tested this assumption by short-read sequencing the transcriptomes of the tropical disease vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, for which complete genome sequences are available. Comparison of our results to the reference genomes allowed us to accurately evaluate the quantity, quality, and functional and evolutionary information content of our "test" data. We produced more than 0.7 billion nucleotides of sequenced data per species that assembled into more than 21,000 test contigs larger than 100 bp per species and covered approximately 27% of the Aedes reference transcriptome. Remarkably, the substitution error rate in the test contigs was approximately 0.25% per site, with very few indels or assembly errors. Test contigs of both species were enriched for genes involved in energy production and protein synthesis and underrepresented in genes involved in transcription and differentiation. Ortholog prediction using the test contigs was accurate across hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Our results demonstrate the considerable utility of short-read transcriptome sequencing for genomic studies of nonmodel organisms and suggest an approach for assessing the information content of next-generation data for evolutionary studies.

  13. Functional Human Podocytes Generated in Organoids from Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Valentina; Novelli, Rubina; Abbate, Mauro; Rizzo, Paola; Conti, Sara; Tomasoni, Susanna; Corna, Daniela; Pozzobon, Michela; Cavallotti, Daniela; Yokoo, Takashi; Morigi, Marina; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Generating kidney organoids using human stem cells could offer promising prospects for research and therapeutic purposes. However, no cell-based strategy has generated nephrons displaying an intact three-dimensional epithelial filtering barrier. Here, we generated organoids using murine embryonic kidney cells, and documented that these tissues recapitulated the complex three-dimensional filtering structure of glomerular slits in vivo and accomplished selective glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Exploiting this technology, we mixed human amniotic fluid stem cells with mouse embryonic kidney cells to establish three-dimensional chimeric organoids that engrafted in vivo and grew to form vascularized glomeruli and tubular structures. Human cells contributed to the formation of glomerular structures, differentiated into podocytes with slit diaphragms, and internalized exogenously infused BSA, thus attaining in vivo degrees of specialization and function unprecedented for donor stem cells. In conclusion, human amniotic fluid stem cell chimeric organoids may offer new paths for studying renal development and human podocyte disease, and for facilitating drug discovery and translational research. PMID:26516208

  14. Functional disability among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Priti; Mani, Kalaivani; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The number and proportion of elderly persons is increasing, in India, as well as the world. Disability is an important indicator to measure disease burden in this group. While some chronic conditions may not be amenable to complete cure, their functional disabilities can be improved with timely and appropriate management. The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of functional disability and study its association with socio-demographic variables and self-reported chronic conditions among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana. All persons aged 60 years and above in the randomly selected six clusters were included in this community-based cross-sectional study. Information was collected on socio-demographic variables and self-reported chronic conditions. Functional disability was defined as having disability in activities of daily living, or blindness or hearing impairment, or a combination of these. In multivariate analysis, backward stepwise logistic regression was carried out to study the association between the independent and dependent variables, after adjusting for confounding variables. Among the 836 participants studied, the prevalence of functional disability was estimated to be 37.4% (95% confidence interval: 34.2, 40.7). The prevalence was less among men (35.9%) than women (38.8%). The prevalence increased with age, was more common among persons who were not currently married, had diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Functional disability is common among elderly persons in the rural area. Community-based interventions are needed to address them. Management of chronic conditions should include prevention and control of associated disability.

  15. Are Protected Areas Required to Maintain Functional Diversity in Human-Modified Landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Bregman, Tom P.; Barua, Maan; Tamuly, Jatin; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of forest to agriculture across the world’s tropics, and the limited space for protected areas, has increased the need to identify effective conservation strategies in human-modified landscapes. Isolated trees are believed to conserve elements of ecological structure, providing micro-sites for conservation in matrix landscapes, and facilitating seed dispersal and forest restoration. Here we investigate the role of isolated Ficus trees, which are of critical importance to tropical forest ecosystems, in conserving frugivore composition and function in a human-modified landscape in Assam, India. We surveyed the frugivorous birds feeding at 122 isolated Ficus trees, 33 fruit trees, and 31 other large trees across a range of 32 km from the nearest intact forest. We found that Ficus trees attracted richer and more abundant assemblages of frugivores than the other tree categories. However, incidence function estimates revealed that forest specialist species decreased dramatically within the first kilometre of the forest edge. Despite this, species richness and functional diversity remained consistent across the human-modified landscape, as habitat generalists replaced forest-dependent frugivores, and accounted for most of the ecological function found in Ficus trees near the forest edge. We recommend that isolated Ficus trees are awarded greater conservation status, and suggest that their conservation can support ecologically functional networks of frugivorous bird communities. PMID:25946032

  16. Are protected areas required to maintain functional diversity in human-modified landscapes?

    PubMed

    Cottee-Jones, H Eden W; Matthews, Thomas J; Bregman, Tom P; Barua, Maan; Tamuly, Jatin; Whittaker, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of forest to agriculture across the world's tropics, and the limited space for protected areas, has increased the need to identify effective conservation strategies in human-modified landscapes. Isolated trees are believed to conserve elements of ecological structure, providing micro-sites for conservation in matrix landscapes, and facilitating seed dispersal and forest restoration. Here we investigate the role of isolated Ficus trees, which are of critical importance to tropical forest ecosystems, in conserving frugivore composition and function in a human-modified landscape in Assam, India. We surveyed the frugivorous birds feeding at 122 isolated Ficus trees, 33 fruit trees, and 31 other large trees across a range of 32 km from the nearest intact forest. We found that Ficus trees attracted richer and more abundant assemblages of frugivores than the other tree categories. However, incidence function estimates revealed that forest specialist species decreased dramatically within the first kilometre of the forest edge. Despite this, species richness and functional diversity remained consistent across the human-modified landscape, as habitat generalists replaced forest-dependent frugivores, and accounted for most of the ecological function found in Ficus trees near the forest edge. We recommend that isolated Ficus trees are awarded greater conservation status, and suggest that their conservation can support ecologically functional networks of frugivorous bird communities.

  17. Generation of functional CD8+ T Cells by human dendritic cells expressing glypican-3 epitopes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glypican 3 (GPC-3) is an oncofoetal protein that is expressed in most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Since it is a potential target for T cell immunotherapy, we investigated the generation of functional, GPC-3 specific T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods Dendritic cells (DC) were derived from adherent PBMC cultured at 37°C for 7 days in X-Vivo, 1% autologous plasma, and 800 u/ml GM-CSF plus 500 u/ml IL-4. Immature DC were transfected with 20 μg of in vitro synthesised GPC-3 mRNA by electroporation using the Easy-ject plus system (Equibio, UK) (300 V, 150 μF and 4 ms pulse time), or pulsed with peptide, and subsequently matured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six predicted GPC-3 peptide epitopes were synthesized using standard f-moc technology and tested for their binding affinity to HLA-A2.1 molecules using the cell line T2. Results DC transfected with GPC-3 mRNA but not control DC demonstrated strong intracellular staining for GPC-3 and in vitro generated interferon-gamma expressing T cells from autologous PBMC harvested from normal subjects. One peptide, GPC-3522-530 FLAELAYDL, fulfilled our criteria as a naturally processed, HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope: i) it showed high affinity binding to HLA-A2, in T2 cell binding assay; ii) it was generated by the MHC class I processing pathway in DC transfected with GPC-3 mRNA, and iii) HLA-A2 positive DC loaded with the peptide stimulated proliferation in autologous T cells and generated CTL that lysed HLA-A2 and GPC-3 positive target cells. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that electroporation of GPC-3 mRNA is an efficient method to load human monocyte-derived DC with antigen because in vitro they generated GPC-3-reactive T cells that were functional, as shown by interferon-gamma production. Furthermore, this study identified a novel naturally processed, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope, GPC-3522-530 FLAELAYDL, which can be used to monitor HLA-A2

  18. Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of the Western Interconnection with Wind and Solar Generation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Lew, D.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation describes the analysis of the impact of balancing area cooperation on the operation of the Western Interconnection with wind and solar generation, including a discussion of operating reserves, ramping, production simulation, and conclusions.

  19. The chemical biology of protein hydropersulfides: Studies of a possible protective function of biological hydropersulfide generation.

    PubMed

    Millikin, Robert; Bianco, Christopher L; White, Corey; Saund, Simran S; Henriquez, Stephanie; Sosa, Victor; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito; Soeda, Shuhei; Toscano, John P; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M

    2016-08-01

    The recent discovery of significant hydropersulfide (RSSH) levels in mammalian tissues, fluids and cells has led to numerous questions regarding their possible physiological function. Cysteine hydropersulfides have been found in free cysteine, small molecule peptides as well as in proteins. Based on their chemical properties and likely cellular conditions associated with their biosynthesis, it has been proposed that they can serve a protective function. That is, hydropersulfide formation on critical thiols may protect them from irreversible oxidative or electrophilic inactivation. As a prelude to understanding the possible roles and functions of hydropersulfides in biological systems, this study utilizes primarily chemical experiments to delineate the possible mechanistic chemistry associated with cellular protection. Thus, the ability of hydropersulfides to protect against irreversible electrophilic and oxidative modification was examined. The results herein indicate that hydropersulfides are very reactive towards oxidants and electrophiles and are modified readily. However, reduction of these oxidized/modified species is facile generating the corresponding thiol, consistent with the idea that hydropersulfides can serve a protective function for thiol proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Chemical Biology of Protein Hydropersulfides: Studies of a Possible Protective Function of Biological Hydropersulfide Generation

    PubMed Central

    Millikin, Robert; Bianco, Christopher L.; White, Corey; Saund, Simran S.; Henriquez, Stephanie; Sosa, Victor; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito; Soeda, Shuhei; Toscano, John P.; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of significant hydropersulfide (RSSH) levels in mammalian tissues, fluids and cells has led to numerous questions regarding their possible physiological function. Cysteine hydropersulfides have been found in free cysteine, small molecule peptides as well as in proteins. Based on their chemical properties and likely cellular conditions associated with their biosynthesis, it has been proposed that they can serve a protective function. That is, hydropersulfide formation on critical thiols may protect them from irreversible oxidative or electrophilic inactivation. As a prelude to understanding the possible roles and functions of hydropersulfides in biological systems, this study utilizes primarily chemical experiments to delineate the possible mechanistic chemistry associated with cellular protection. Thus, the ability of hydropersulfides to protect against irreversible electrophilic and oxidative modification was examined. The results herein indicate that hydropersulfides are very reactive towards oxidants and electrophiles and are modified readily. However, reduction of these oxidized/modified species is facile generating the corresponding thiol, consistent with the idea that hydropersulfides can serve a protective function for thiol proteins. PMID:27242269

  1. Platinum nanoparticles from size adjusted functional colloidal particles generated by a seeded emulsion polymerization process

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Nicolas; Ziener, Ulrich; Manzke, Achim; Plettl, Alfred; Ziemann, Paul; Biskupek, Johannes; Weiss, Clemens K

    2011-01-01

    Summary The benefits of miniemulsion and emulsion polymerization are combined in a seeded emulsion polymerization process with functional seed particles synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization. A systematic study on the influence of different reaction parameters on the reaction pathway is conducted, including variations of the amount of monomer fed, the ratio of initiator to monomer and the choice of surfactant and composition of the continuous phase. Critical parameters affecting the control of the reaction are determined. If carefully controlled, the seeded emulsion polymerization with functional seed particles yields monodisperse particles with adjustable size and functionalities. Size-adjusted platinum-acetylacetonate containing latex particles with identical seed particles and varied shell thicknesses are used to produce arrays of highly ordered platinum nanoparticles with different interparticle distances but identical particle sizes. For that, a self-assembled monolayer of functional colloids is prepared on a solid substrate and subsequently treated by oxygen plasma processing in order to remove the organic constituents. This step, however, leads to a saturated state of a residual mix of materials. In order to determine parameters influencing this saturation state, the type of surfactant, the amount of precursor loading and the size of the colloids are varied. By short annealing at high temperatures platinum nanoparticles are generated from the saturated state particles. Typically, the present fabrication method delivers a maximum interparticle distance of about 260 nm for well-defined crystalline platinum nanoparticles limited by deformation processes due to softening of the organic material during the plasma applications. PMID:22003452

  2. Functional genomics of a living fossil tree, Ginkgo, based on next-generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jin; Li, Ying; Luo, Hongmei; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Chao; Song, Jingyuan; Li, Xiwen; Wei, Jianhe; Lu, Aiping; Qian, Zhongzhi; Khan, Ikhlas A; Chen, Shilin

    2011-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba is monotypic species native to China and has old, dioecious, medicinally important characteristics. The functional genes related to these characteristics have not been effectively explored due to a limited number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Ginkgo. To discover novel functional genes efficiently and to understand the development of a living fossil tree, Ginkgo, we used massive parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium platform to generate 64 057 ESTs. The ESTs combined with the 21 590 Ginkgo ESTs in genbank were assembled into 22 304 unique putative transcripts, in which 13 922 novel unique putative transcripts were identified by 454 sequencing. After being assigned to putative functions with Gene Ontology terms, a detailed view of the Ginkgo biological systems was displayed, including characterization of unique putative transcripts with homology to known key enzymes and transcription factors involved in ginkgolide/bilobalide and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, as well as unique putative transcripts related to development, response to disease and defence. The fact that three full-length Ginkgo genes encoding key enzymes were found and cloned, suggests that high-throughput sequencing technology is superior to traditional gene-by-gene approach in discovery of genes. Additionally, a total of 204 simple sequence repeat motifs were detected. Our study not only lays the foundations for transcriptome-led studies in biosynthetic mechanisms, but also contributes significantly to the understanding of functional genomics and development in non-model plants.

  3. Be together, not the same: Spatiotemporal organization of different cilia types generates distinct transport functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawroth, Janna; Guo, Hanliang; Ruby, Edward; Dabiri, John; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Motile cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures on the cell surface that can sense and propel the extracellular fluid environment. Cilia are often thought to be limited to stereotypic morphologies, beat kinematics and non-discriminatory clearance functions, but we find that the spatiotemporal organization of different cilia types and beat behaviors can generate complex flow patterns and transport functions. Here, we present a case study in the Hawaiian bobtail squid where collective ciliary activity and resulting flow fields help recruit symbiont bacteria to the animal host. In particular, we demonstrate empirically and computationally how the squid's internal cilia act like a microfluidic device that actively filters the water for potential bacterial candidates and also provides a sheltered zone allowing for accumulation of mucus and bacteria into a biofilm. Moreover, in this sheltered zone, different cilia-driven flows enhance diffusion of biochemical signals, which could accelerate specific bacteria-host recognition. These results suggest that studying cilia activity on the population level might reveal a diverse range of biological transport and sensing functions. Moreover, understanding cilia as functional building blocks could inspire the design of ciliated robots and devices.

  4. Ectodomain Shedding of Interleukin-2 Receptor β and Generation of an Intracellular Functional Fragment*

    PubMed Central

    de Oca B., Pavel Montes; Malardé, Valerie; Proust, Richard; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Gesbert, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) regulates different functions of various lymphoid cell subsets. These are mediated by its binding to the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) composed of three subunits (IL2-Rα, -β, and -γc). IL-2Rβ is responsible for the activation of several signaling pathways. Ectodomain shedding of membrane receptors is thought to be an important mechanism for down-regulation of cell surface receptor abundance but is also emerging as a mechanism that cell membrane-associated molecules require for proper action in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that IL-2Rβ is cleaved in cell lines of different origin, including T cells, generating an intracellular 37-kDa fragment (37βic) that comprises the full intracellular C-terminal and transmembrane domains. Ectodomain shedding of IL-2Rβ decreases in a mutant deleted of the juxtamembrane region, where cleavage is predicted to occur, and is inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-3. 37βic is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associates with STAT-5, a canonic signal transducer of IL-2R. Finally, lymphoid cell transfection with a truncated form of IL-2Rβ mimicking 37βic increases their proliferation. These data indicate that IL-2Rβ is subject to ectodomain shedding generating an intracellular fragment biologically functional, because (i) it is phosphorylated, (ii) it associates with STAT5A, and (iii) it increases cell proliferation. PMID:20495002

  5. Generalized generating function with tucker decomposition and alternating least squares for underdetermined blind identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Fanglin; Zhang, Hang; Wang, Wenwu; Zhu, Desheng

    2013-12-01

    Generating function (GF) has been used in blind identification for real-valued signals. In this paper, the definition of GF is first generalized for complex-valued random variables in order to exploit the statistical information carried on complex signals in a more effective way. Then an algebraic structure is proposed to identify the mixing matrix from underdetermined mixtures using the generalized generating function (GGF). Two methods, namely GGF-ALS and GGF-TALS, are developed for this purpose. In the GGF-ALS method, the mixing matrix is estimated by the decomposition of the tensor constructed from the Hessian matrices of the GGF of the observations, using an alternating least squares (ALS) algorithm. The GGF-TALS method is an improved version of the GGF-ALS algorithm based on Tucker decomposition. More specifically, the original tensor, as formed in GGF-ALS, is first converted to a lower-rank core tensor using the Tucker decomposition, where the factors are obtained by the left singular-value decomposition of the original tensor's mode-3 matrix. Then the mixing matrix is estimated by decomposing the core tensor with the ALS algorithm. Simulation results show that (a) the proposed GGF-ALS and GGF-TALS approaches have almost the same performance in terms of the relative errors, whereas the GGF-TALS has much lower computational complexity, and (b) the proposed GGF algorithms have superior performance to the latest GF-based baseline approaches.

  6. Scalable and enhanced triboelectric output power generation by surface functionalized nanoimprint patterns.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yang Hyeog; Shin, Sung-Ho; Jung, Joo-Yun; Nah, Junghyo

    2016-05-20

    We report nanoimprint lithographic submicron surface patterning for scalable output power generation and performance enhancement in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). Specifically, one contact surface of a TENG is nanoimprinted with polyurethane acrylate (PUA) lines in different pitches and the counter contact surface is coated with perfluoropolyether (PFPE). The results show that a TENG with 200 nm pitch PUA lines exhibits voltage and current up to ∼430 V and ∼55 μA cm(-2), generating about a sixfold higher output power than that with a flat PUA surface at an applied force of 0.3 MPa. In addition, scalable output power was obtained by adjusting line pitches. Further enhancement in output power was also demonstrated by chemically functionalizing the PUA line patterns with poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The PDDA functionalization boosted voltage and current up to ∼500 V and ∼100 μA cm(-2), respectively, which corresponds to ∼50% power density enhancement. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, scalable and reproducible way to fabricate TENGs.

  7. Scalable and enhanced triboelectric output power generation by surface functionalized nanoimprint patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyeog Kwon, Yang; Shin, Sung-Ho; Jung, Joo-Yun; Nah, Junghyo

    2016-05-01

    We report nanoimprint lithographic submicron surface patterning for scalable output power generation and performance enhancement in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). Specifically, one contact surface of a TENG is nanoimprinted with polyurethane acrylate (PUA) lines in different pitches and the counter contact surface is coated with perfluoropolyether (PFPE). The results show that a TENG with 200 nm pitch PUA lines exhibits voltage and current up to ˜430 V and ˜55 μA cm-2, generating about a sixfold higher output power than that with a flat PUA surface at an applied force of 0.3 MPa. In addition, scalable output power was obtained by adjusting line pitches. Further enhancement in output power was also demonstrated by chemically functionalizing the PUA line patterns with poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The PDDA functionalization boosted voltage and current up to ˜500 V and ˜100 μA cm-2, respectively, which corresponds to ˜50% power density enhancement. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, scalable and reproducible way to fabricate TENGs.

  8. Biosystem models, generated from a complex rule/reaction/influence network and from two functionality prototypes.

    PubMed

    Varga, M; Prokop, A; Csukas, B

    2017-02-01

    In this work we have further developed the Direct Computer Mapping (DCM) based modelling and simulation methodology. A unified, transition-based representation of complex rule, reaction and influence networks has been introduced and two prototypes (one general state- and another general transition-prototype) have been developed for the unified functional modelling of the state and transition nodes. Starting from the network and from the functional prototypes, an automatic generation method of the graphically editable and extensible GraphML description of biosystem models has been elaborated. The new developments have been implemented in the improved kernel of DCM models. The applied knowledge representation makes possible the unified generation and execution of the balance-based quantitative and influence- or rule-based qualitative, as well as optionally time-driven, multiscale biosystem models. Application of the developed methodology has been illustrated by the improved implementation of the formerly studied and upgraded example biosystem model for combining the detailed, quantitative p53/miR34a signalling system with the pathological model through an extended rule-based coupling model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dopaminergic neurons generated from monkey embryonic stem cells function in a Parkinson primate model.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasushi; Takahashi, Jun; Saiki, Hidemoto; Morizane, Asuka; Hayashi, Takuya; Kishi, Yo; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yo; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Ideguchi, Makoto; Hayashi, Hideki; Imazato, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Suemori, Hirofumi; Omachi, Shigeki; Iida, Hidehiko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sasai, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. ES cells are currently the most promising donor cell source for cell-replacement therapy in PD. We previously described a strong neuralizing activity present on the surface of stromal cells, named stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). In this study, we generated neurospheres composed of neural progenitors from monkey ES cells, which are capable of producing large numbers of DA neurons. We demonstrated that FGF20, preferentially expressed in the substantia nigra, acts synergistically with FGF2 to increase the number of DA neurons in ES cell-derived neurospheres. We also analyzed the effect of transplantation of DA neurons generated from monkey ES cells into 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated (MPTP-treated) monkeys, a primate model for PD. Behavioral studies and functional imaging revealed that the transplanted cells functioned as DA neurons and attenuated MPTP-induced neurological symptoms.

  10. Neoclassic drug discovery: the case for lead generation using phenotypic and functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan A; Berg, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Innovation and new molecular entity production by the pharmaceutical industry has been below expectations. Surprisingly, more first-in-class small-molecule drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between 1999 and 2008 were identified by functional phenotypic lead generation strategies reminiscent of pre-genomics pharmacology than contemporary molecular targeted strategies that encompass the vast majority of lead generation efforts. This observation, in conjunction with the difficulty in validating molecular targets for drug discovery, has diminished the impact of the "genomics revolution" and has led to a growing grassroots movement and now broader trend in pharma to reconsider the use of modern physiology-based or phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) strategies. This "From the Guest Editors" column provides an introduction and overview of the two-part special issues of Journal of Biomolecular Screening on PDD. Terminology and the business case for use of PDD are defined. Key issues such as assay performance, chemical optimization, target identification, and challenges to the organization and implementation of PDD are discussed. Possible solutions for these challenges and a new neoclassic vision for PDD that combines phenotypic and functional approaches with technology innovations resulting from the genomics-driven era of target-based drug discovery (TDD) are also described. Finally, an overview of the manuscripts in this special edition is provided.

  11. In vivo functional and myeloarchitectonic mapping of human primary auditory areas

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Frederic; Tierney, Adam Taylor; Lutti, Antoine; Josephs, Oliver; Sereno, Martin I.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to vision, where retinotopic mapping alone can define areal borders, primary auditory areas such as A1 are best delineated by combining in vivo tonotopic mapping with post mortem cyto- or myelo-architectonics from the same individual. We combined high-resolution (800 μm) quantitative T1 mapping with phase-encoded tonotopic methods to map primary auditory areas (A1 and R) within the ‘auditory core’ of human volunteers. We first quantitatively characterize the highly myelinated auditory core in terms of shape, area, cortical depth profile, and position, with our data showing considerable correspondence to post-mortem myeloarchitectonic studies, both in cross-participant averages and in individuals. The core region contains two ‘mirror-image‘ tonotopic maps oriented along the same axis as observed in macaque and owl monkey. We suggest that thee two maps within the core are the human analogues of primate auditory areas A1 and R. The core occupies a much smaller portion of tonotopically organized cortex on the superior temporal plane and gyrus than is generally supposed. The multi-modal approach to defining the auditory core will facilitate investigations of structure-function relationships, comparative neuroanatomical studies, and promises new biomarkers for diagnosis and clinical studies. PMID:23152594

  12. Functional MRI evidence for the decline of word retrieval and generation during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Baciu, M; Boudiaf, N; Cousin, E; Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Pichat, C; Fournet, N; Chainay, H; Lamalle, L; Krainik, A

    2016-02-01

    This fMRI study aimed to explore the effect of normal aging on word retrieval and generation. The question addressed is whether lexical production decline is determined by a direct mechanism, which concerns the language operations or is rather indirectly induced by a decline of executive functions. Indeed, the main hypothesis was that normal aging does not induce loss of lexical knowledge, but there is only a general slowdown in retrieval mechanisms involved in lexical processing, due to possible decline of the executive functions. We used three tasks (verbal fluency, object naming, and semantic categorization). Two groups of participants were tested (Young, Y and Aged, A), without cognitive and psychiatric impairment and showing similar levels of vocabulary. Neuropsychological testing revealed that older participants had lower executive function scores, longer processing speeds, and tended to have lower verbal fluency scores. Additionally, older participants showed higher scores for verbal automatisms and overlearned information. In terms of behavioral data, older participants performed as accurate as younger adults, but they were significantly slower for the semantic categorization and were less fluent for verbal fluency task. Functional MRI analyses suggested that older adults did not simply activate fewer brain regions involved in word production, but they actually showed an atypical pattern of activation. Significant correlations between the BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signal of aging-related (A > Y) regions and cognitive scores suggested that this atypical pattern of the activation may reveal several compensatory mechanisms (a) to overcome the slowdown in retrieval, due to the decline of executive functions and processing speed and (b) to inhibit verbal automatic processes. The BOLD signal measured in some other aging-dependent regions did not correlate with the behavioral and neuropsychological scores, and the overactivation of these uncorrelated

  13. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Montemagni, Cristiana; Frieri, Tiziana; Rocca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs) combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL). Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other SGA-LAIs are still lacking. Lastly, some data on their use, especially in first-episode or recent-onset schizophrenia and in refractory or treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is available. PMID:27143893

  14. [Trophie webs of reef fishes at Cuba's NW area. II. Functional groups].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ivet; Aguilar, Consuelo; González Sansón, Gaspar

    2008-09-01

    A conceptual model of the food webs, mainly with fish, was built in a rocky shore of Havana City with data covering from October 2004 to February 2006. The stomach contents of the most abundant fish was complemented with the literature. We used the Relative Importance Index method to describe diets of carnivorous and omnivorous fish; and a modification of the Relative Abundance method for sponge eaters and herbivorous fish. Agglomerative numeric classification techniques were used to determine the diet's similarity. The matrix was made using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index. Ten functional trophic groups were formed on the basis of diet similarity. The cascade effect is evidenced in this area by the big top predator shortage and the dominance of a few low trophic level species. The regulator role of top predators is low because of over-fishing: the trophic web of this area is highly altered.

  15. Generating functionals for harmonic expectation values of paths with fixed end points: Feynman diagrams for nonpolynomial interactions.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, H; Pelster, A; Bachmann, M

    1999-09-01

    We introduce a general class of generating functionals for the calculation of quantum-mechanical expectation values of arbitrary functionals of fluctuating paths with fixed end points in configuration or momentum space. The generating functionals are calculated explicitly for the harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency, and used to derive a smearing formula for correlation functions of polynomial and nonpolynomial functions of time-dependent positions and momenta. This formula summarizes the effect of quantum fluctuations, and serves to derive generalized Wick rules and Feynman diagrams for perturbation expansions of nonpolynomial interactions.

  16. Pedotransfer functions for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity: implications for modeling storm flow generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieraj, J. A.; Elsenbeer, H.; Vertessy, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    We evaluated the performance of nine published pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in modeling the stormflow generated in a rainforest catchment. Using available input data consisting of particle size distribution, bulk density, and saturated moisture content information, these empirically-based PTFs were found to be inadequate in estimating Ks for this catchment. At shallow depths (0-0.1 m), PTFs commonly underestimated Ks by variable amounts with the exception of the Jabro PTF, which either overestimated Ks or was not significantly different from measured values. At subsequent depths (0.1-0.4 m), PTFs typically overestimated Ks by variable amounts, the exception being the Campbell and Shiozawa PTF, which typically underestimated Ks. We used TOPOG_SBM to model storm flow generation by replacing measured Ks values from the 0 to 0.1 m depth interval with PTF-estimated Ks values. The simulation set using Rosetta SSC (PTF with input of % sand, silt, clay) Ks values overestimated runoff for all events, and overland flow occurred across the entire catchment for all events. Simulations using Rosetta SSC-BD (PTF with input of % sand, silt, clay, and bulk density) Ks values predicted hydrograph attributes as well as the simulations using measured Ks values, but the Rosetta SSC-BD simulation set predicted a much larger spatial frequency of overland flow across the catchment than the measured Ks simulation set. Model simulations using the Jabro PTF, which generated large estimates of Ks, produced hydrographs that overestimated total runoff and time of rise but underestimated peak runoff. This model predicted much less overland flow than other models. Currently published PTFs used in this study are inadequate in estimating Ks for the La Cuenca catchment, which in turn make them inadequate for modeling storm flow generation. Enhanced model performance could likely be achieved by utilizing PTFs that better account for the influence

  17. Demonstration of the Subjective Transfer Function Approach Applied to Air-Force-Wide Mission Area Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    V AA113 677 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/0 11/1A DA EMONSTRATION OF THE SUBJECTIVE TRANSFER FUNCTION APPROACH APPL--ETC(U) FES l2S C T VEIT, M CALLERO ...S .J ROSE F�-62-CvOO18 UNLSIIDRAN/N1831-A NLEmhmhhhm MURN AAsAMYT dC4 Clairic. T. Volt. Nouti Callero , -. HBarbara J. Rose February 1982 N...FORCE-WIDE MISSION AREA ANALYSIS Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero . Barbara J. Rose February 1982 N- 1831-AF Prepared For The United States Air Force SANTA

  18. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  19. The point-spread function of fiber-coupled area detectors

    PubMed Central

    Holton, James M.; Nielsen, Chris; Frankel, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The point-spread function (PSF) of a fiber-optic taper-coupled CCD area detector was measured over five decades of intensity using a 20 µm X-ray beam and ∼2000-fold averaging. The ‘tails’ of the PSF clearly revealed that it is neither Gaussian nor Lorentzian, but instead resembles the solid angle subtended by a pixel at a point source of light held a small distance (∼27 µm) above the pixel plane. This converges to an inverse cube law far from the beam impact point. Further analysis revealed that the tails are dominated by the fiber-optic taper, with negligible contribution from the phosphor, suggesting that the PSF of all fiber-coupled CCD-type detectors is best described as a Moffat function. PMID:23093762

  20. The point-spread function of fiber-coupled area detectors.

    PubMed

    Holton, James M; Nielsen, Chris; Frankel, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    The point-spread function (PSF) of a fiber-optic taper-coupled CCD area detector was measured over five decades of intensity using a 20 µm X-ray beam and ~2000-fold averaging. The `tails' of the PSF clearly revealed that it is neither Gaussian nor Lorentzian, but instead resembles the solid angle subtended by a pixel at a point source of light held a small distance (~27 µm) above the pixel plane. This converges to an inverse cube law far from the beam impact point. Further analysis revealed that the tails are dominated by the fiber-optic taper, with negligible contribution from the phosphor, suggesting that the PSF of all fiber-coupled CCD-type detectors is best described as a Moffat function.