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Sample records for area history volume

  1. Dinetah: Navajo History. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

    Using archaeological data, written chronicles of Spanish explorers and missionaries, and oral narratives and legends, the book traces the history of the Navajo people to their original homeland, Dinetah, located primarily off the present reservation in an area south and east of Farmington, New Mexico. The book discusses various theories on Navajo…

  2. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  3. Indonesian Basic Course: Volume XIV. Outline of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This 10-unit volume dealing with historical events in Indonesia is used in the advanced phase of the Indonesian Basic Course for United States military personnel. The objectives of the course are: (1) to relate the significant history of the area, (2) to expand the student's vocabulary, and (3) to develop the student's linguistic skills. The ten…

  4. Contemporary Navajo Affairs: Navajo History Volume III, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eck, Norman K.

    Written specifically for Navajo junior high through college students, but also serving those interested in modern reservation developments and processs, the third volume of a curricular series on Navajo history provides a synthesis of data and pictorial records on current events in the areas of Navajo government, economic development, and health.…

  5. Command History 1970. Volume 3. Sanitized

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    H-j-~3t\\) SH0• H H HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES MILITARY ASSISTANCE COMMAND, APO SAN FRANCISCO 96222 .4fair ’I ’COMMAND HISTORY 1970L VOLUME , C,- 41...G-42). UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASS I FIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PACWfl.n 04.0 tI*# * .. ,.~ -~ UNCLASSIFIED - HEADQUA RTERS - UNITED STATES ...Reports from UnifieC Commands in the# Pacific Command. 2. This document contains information affecting the security of the United States within the

  6. Command History. 1969. Volume 3. Sanitized

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    support of USG activities also found great importance in connection with the real estate requirements of our n’ilitary units. (U) The fol*owing is...RCS CINCPAC 5000-4) SEE DISTRIBUTION 1. The USMACV 1969 Command History (Volume III) is promulgated in response to CINCPAC Instruction 5000. 5B, 15 ...30 12 & 13 DEPT OF THE NAVY 31 thru 40 6 & 7 DEPT OF THE AIR FORCE 41 thru 50 14 & 15 COMMANDANT, USMC 51 thru 55 10 & 11 COMMANDANT, USCG 56 & 57

  7. History of 100-B Area

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlen, R.K.

    1989-10-01

    The initial three production reactors and their support facilities were designated as the 100-B, 100-D, and 100-F areas. In subsequent years, six additional plutonium-producing reactors were constructed and operated at the Hanford Site. Among them was one dual-purpose reactor (100-N) designed to supply steam for the production of electricity as a by-product. Figure 1 pinpoints the location of each of the nine Hanford Site reactors along the Columbia River. This report documents a brief description of the 105-B reactor, support facilities, and significant events that are considered to be of historical interest. 21 figs.

  8. Areas and Volumes in Pre-Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests the introduction of the concepts of areas bounded by plane curves and the volumes of solids of revolution in Pre-calculus. It builds on the basic knowledge that students bring to a pre-calculus class, derives a few more formulas, and gives examples of some problems on plane areas and the volumes of solids of revolution that…

  9. Library History Revisited: Research Areas and Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byberg, Lis

    This paper discusses research areas and methods related to library history. The first section outlines research areas, including activities such as services to children in public libraries, mobile libraries, cataloging rules and practice, classification rules and practices, development of bibliographies, organization models, literature offered to…

  10. Early volcanic history of the Rabaul area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Chris O.; Duncan, Robert A.

    2016-04-01

    We conducted an extensive program of 40Ar-39Ar age determinations on a suite of 27 volcanic rock samples from key stratigraphic units at Rabaul, Papua New Guinea in order to improve understanding of the early eruption history of the multiple volcanic systems present in the area. Analyses of whole rock, plagioclase and groundmass separates yielded statistically significant ages for 24 samples. Replicate analyses (groundmass, plagioclase) for 17 of the samples provided concordant ages. The oldest systems in the Rabaul area (>1 Ma to ≈300 ka) are in the south, associated with the caldera-like Varzin Depression, and in the north, at the stratovolcanoes Watom and Tovanumbatir. The earliest known activity of the Rabaul system occurred between about 330 and 200 ka and involved emplacement of lava flows and scoria deposits. Major explosive activity at the Rabaul system commenced at about 200 ka and produced a sequence of dacitic ignimbrites that culminated with the emplacement of the large-volume Malaguna Pyroclastics at about 160 ka. Calderas may have been formed as a consequence of the large volumes of tephra produced during some of these eruptions. Products of the early activity are found in the northern and northeastern walls of Rabaul Caldera and on the northeastern flank of Tovanumbatir. This leads to the conclusion that the source of the early activity at Rabaul probably was located in the northern part of the present caldera complex. A shift in the focus of activity at the Rabaul system took place between about 160 and 125 ka. All of the younger (<125 ka) major pyroclastic formations, including the Karavia Welded Tuff, the Barge Tunnel Ignimbrite and the Latlat Pyroclastics, which make up the bulk of the exposure in the southern and western walls of Rabaul Caldera, were erupted from a source or sources in the south-central part of the complex. The stratovolcanoes Palangiangia and Kabiu, which flank the northeastern part of the complex, had commenced activity by

  11. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  12. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  13. Volumes and surface areas of pendular rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.

    1958-01-01

    A packing of spheres is taken as a suitable model of porous media. The packing may be regular and the sphere size may be uniform, but in general, both should be random. Approximations are developed to give the volumes and surface areas of pendular rings that exist at points of sphere contact. From these, the total free volume and interfacial specific surface area are derived as expressive of the textural character of the packing. It was found that the log-log plot of volumes and surface areas of pendular rings vary linearly with the angle made by the line joining the sphere centers and the line from the center of the largest sphere to the closest edge of the pendular ring. The relationship, moreover, was found not to be very sensitive to variation in the size ratio of the spheres in contact. It also was found that the addition of pendular ring material to various sphere packings results in an unexpected decrease in the surface area of the boundaries that confine the resulting pore space. ?? 1958 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. Vignettes of Military History. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    upon Us" 9 September 1974 lUIGNITTIS OF MILITARY HISTORY No. 1 GT :BR QA* 3 ,OiG ’ft- C fV. It iWAIV ,A L -. 4 * ERNEST . CONFEDERATESOýCCUPIED THE TOWN...limited • ." scale that it would be of no practical value. " All this took place before the days of Middle East "Robber Barons ,’’ * "." homeland...together.".......... 2. In a letter to one of his generals, Baron von Kellar, in 1781, Frederick reviewed a sentence of six years hard labor imposed on a

  15. Command History. 1968. Volume 1. Sanitized.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-01

    thousands of homeless refugees created by the Tet attacks, Project Recovery was instituted to provide emergency assistance in the form of food ...population, and most of its territory. Thus, there will be no attacks around the principal populated areas, or in the food - - producing areas of North...With control of the people, the enemy would have most of the ingredients for success: food , supplies, money, manpower, concealment, and intelligence

  16. Command History. 1967. Volume 1. Sanitized

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    Development func- tions and real estate functions in the II, III, and IV CTZs. Also, in those same corps areas, it constructed and maintained roads...tic programs for military assistance to the RVN and MAP-peculiar items of the FWMAF. (S) NAVFORV perfomed base development functions and real estate ...performed real estate functions of all US and FWMLA forces at air bases where the 7AF had primary mission requirements., e. g., Da Nang, Chu Hanh, Cam

  17. Command History, 1969. Volume 2. Sanitized

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    records, payment of the troops, and cash control. 4. Inadequate real estate , facitities, ammunition, and POL storage areas resulted in unsafe storage c...support, base development (exclusive of air bases as- signed to USAF), and real estate services to US and FWMAF in I CTZ; and for Navy-peculiar S support...for base development (exclusive of air bases assigned to USAF) and real estate services in these CTZs; and for Army- peculiar supply support

  18. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    PubMed

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass(2/3) relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. History and status of the area postrema.

    PubMed

    Borison, H L

    1984-12-01

    The history of morphological and functional studies on the area postrema (AP) is traced for significant landmarks from 1896, when its name was conferred by Retzius, to 1960 when the foundation of inquiry had become firmly set. A comparative anatomical survey of the medulla oblongata identifies the AP in mammals and birds but not in amphibians and lower phyla even though other members of the so-called circumventricular organ system are represented in the more ancient creatures. Existence of the AP in reptiles is insufficiently documented. The transition from water- to land-dwelling animal life affords propitious neural remodeling for the emergence of the AP in evolving species. No vital role is known to be served by the AP. Nonetheless, its physical interposition between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid and its shared functions with the nucleus tractus solitarii indicate a capability for widespread somatovisceral influence in response to particular perturbations. It is suggested that the diverse systemic expressions of postremal activation are encompassed in the general syndrome of nausea and vomiting.

  20. SRP engineering and design history, Vol III, 200 F and H Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Banick, C.J.

    2000-04-17

    This volume combines the record of events relating to the development of design for both the 200-F and H Areas. Chronologically, the definition of plant facilities was first established for the 200-F Area. The second area, 200-H, was projected initially to be a supplementary plutonium separations facility. This history explains the differences in character and capacity of the manufacturing facilities in both areas as production requirements and experience with separations processes advanced.

  1. A History of Psychosis in Bipolar Disorder is Associated With Gray Matter Volume Reduction.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Carl Johan; Petrovic, Predrag; Johansson, Anette G M; Sellgren, Carl; Ingvar, Martin; Landén, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are prevalent in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychiatric and neurological disorders, yet the neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis remain obscure. In the last decade, a large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown differences in local gray matter volume between patients with different psychiatric syndromes and healthy controls. Few studies have focused on the symptoms, which these syndromes are constituted of. Here, we test the association between psychosis and gray matter volume by using a sample of 167 subjects with bipolar disorder, with and without a history of psychosis, and 102 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed on group level using a voxel-wise mass univariate analysis (Voxel-Based Morphometry). We found that patients with a history of psychosis had smaller gray matter volume in left fusiform gyrus, the right rostral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the left inferior frontal gyrus compared with patients without psychosis and with healthy controls. There was no volume difference in these areas between the no-psychosis group and healthy controls. These areas have previously been structurally and functionally coupled to delusions and hallucinations. Our finding adds further evidence to the probability of these regions as key areas in the development of psychotic symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 9: Portland Area, 1966-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The ninth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Portland Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context (early history of the Oregon Territory, geography and tribal…

  3. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  4. The physical basis of glacier volume-area scaling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, D.B.; Meier, M.F.; Peckham, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Ice volumes are known for only a few of the roughly 160,000 glaciers worldwide but are important components of many climate and sea level studies which require water flux estimates. A scaling analysis of the mass and momentum conservation equations shows that glacier volumes can be related by a power law to more easily observed glacier surface areas. The relationship requires four closure choices for the scaling behavior of glacier widths, slopes, side drag and mass balance. Reasonable closures predict a volume-area scaling exponent which is consistent with observations, giving a physical and practical basis for estimating ice volumes. Glacier volume is insensitive to perturbations in the mass balance scaling, but changes in average accumulation area ratios reflect significant changes in the scaling of both mass balance and ice volume. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Volume 3 - Area Sources and Area Source Method Abstracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nonpoint (area) source emission reference materials from the EIIP. Provides nonpoint source guidance on planning, emissions estimation, data collection, inventory documentation and reporting, and quality assurance/quality control.

  6. Diversions: Fixing Misconceptions--Length, Area and Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2008-01-01

    This article presents situations involving perimeter, area, volume and mass, and the misconceptions often encountered with these measurements. The author suggests possible interventions that teachers can use to correct these misconceptions and help students to better understand these properties.

  7. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Negoias, Simona; Symmank, Anja; Schellong, Julia; Joraschky, Peter; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The human olfactory bulb (OB) is the first relay station of the olfactory pathway and may have the potential for postnatal neurogenesis in early childhood. In animals, chronic stress affects the OB and olfactory functioning. For humans, it has been shown that major depressive disorder is accompanied by reduced OB volume and reduced olfactory function. However, it is not clear if major stress in childhood development also affects olfactory functioning and OB volume in humans. OB volume was measured and olfactory function was tested in 17 depressive patients with and 10 without a history of severe childhood maltreatment (CM). CM patients exhibited a significantly reduced olfactory threshold and identification ability. The OB volume of the CM patients was significantly reduced to 80% of the non-CM patients. In conclusion, postnatal neurogenesis might be by reduced in CM, which may affect olfactory function of the brain in later life. Alternatively, a reduced OB volume may enhance psychological vulnerability in the presence of adverse childhood conditions although other areas not analyzed in this study may also be involved.

  8. Oral History Interview Transcripts Tombigbee Historic Townsites Project. Volume 5 (Interview Numbers 123-128).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Of STANDARDS-1963-A AL HISTORY INTERVIEW TRANSCR TOMBIGBEE HISTOMRIC TOWNSITES PROJECT AD ,Id4 3 5 Volume 5 (Interview Numbers 123 -128) Compiled by...HISTORY INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS TOMBIGBEE HISTORIC TOWNSITES PROJECT Volume 5 (Interview Nos. 123 -128) Compiled byJames N. McClurken and Peggy Uland...OH 123 Robert Adair. .. ......... ............. 761 OH 124 Jennie Mae Lenioir. .. ................... 788 OH 125

  9. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

  10. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

  11. Index to Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society, Volume 25, No. 2, 1998 (for Volumes 1-25, 1972-1998)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    This issue of the Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society provides a cumulative index from Volume 1, No. 1 (1972) through Volume 25, No. 1 (1998). Also included are the history of the Midwest History of Education Society, starting with its founding in 1966 (in Editor's Foreword); Officers of the Midwest History of Education Society…

  12. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ron H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom, changing the often-cited boring image of history for students and offering teachers an opportunity to go beyond the regular textbook. The book focuses on: (1) Varied active teaching ideas; (2) Ideas on how to get students…

  13. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ron H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom, changing the often-cited boring image of history for students and offering teachers an opportunity to go beyond the regular textbook. The book focuses on: (1) Varied active teaching ideas; (2) Ideas on how to get students…

  14. Calculus Students' Understanding of Area and Volume Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Units of measure are critical in many scientific fields. While instructors often note that students struggle with units, little research has been conducted about the nature and extent of these difficulties or why they exist. We investigated calculus students' unit use in area and volume computations. Seventy-three percent of students gave…

  15. Calculus Students' Understanding of Area and Volume Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Units of measure are critical in many scientific fields. While instructors often note that students struggle with units, little research has been conducted about the nature and extent of these difficulties or why they exist. We investigated calculus students' unit use in area and volume computations. Seventy-three percent of students gave…

  16. A review of volume-area scaling of glaciers.

    PubMed

    Bahr, David B; Pfeffer, W Tad; Kaser, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Volume-area power law scaling, one of a set of analytical scaling techniques based on principals of dimensional analysis, has become an increasingly important and widely used method for estimating the future response of the world's glaciers and ice caps to environmental change. Over 60 papers since 1988 have been published in the glaciological and environmental change literature containing applications of volume-area scaling, mostly for the purpose of estimating total global glacier and ice cap volume and modeling future contributions to sea level rise from glaciers and ice caps. The application of the theory is not entirely straightforward, however, and many of the recently published results contain analyses that are in conflict with the theory as originally described by Bahr et al. (1997). In this review we describe the general theory of scaling for glaciers in full three-dimensional detail without simplifications, including an improved derivation of both the volume-area scaling exponent γ and a new derivation of the multiplicative scaling parameter c. We discuss some common misconceptions of the theory, presenting examples of both appropriate and inappropriate applications. We also discuss potential future developments in power law scaling beyond its present uses, the relationship between power law scaling and other modeling approaches, and some of the advantages and limitations of scaling techniques.

  17. Effect of annealing history on free volume in thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of thermoplastic glassy polymers have been investigated for the effects of thermal annealing on their free volumes. It has been observed that free volumes in glassy polymers decrease asymptotically to a steady level after about four thermal anneals lasting for 24 hours at a temperature about 50 C below their glass transition temperatures. These results indicate that composites incorporating properly annealed thermoplastic matrices may not experience any additional internal stresses due to subsequent thermal excursions experienced while in service.

  18. Silences and Images: The Social History of the Classroom. History of Schools and Schooling, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Ian, Ed.; Lawn, Martin, Ed.; Rousmaniere, Kate, Ed.

    This collection of essays is drawn from a series of international seminars in which participants explored different methodologies for writing social history of the classroom. The collection features 13 essays divided into 3 parts: Part 1, "Raising Questions about Classroom History," contains: (1) "Sneaking into School: Classroom History at Work"…

  19. California History. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, James J.

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit provides 127 documents from California's history, 38 of which come from the California State Archives in Sacramento, one of the nation's largest and most sophisticated repositories for primary sources. The unit contains three elements: (1) a list of document descriptions, which includes a…

  20. Science in History, Volume 2: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the second of four, includes parts four and five of the eight parts in the series. Part Four deals with what is called the Scientific Revolution from 1440-1690. This "revolution" is divided into three phases: Phase 1 (1440-1540) includes the Renaissance and the Reformation, during which the world-picture adopted from classical times…

  1. Science in History, Volume 2: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the second of four, includes parts four and five of the eight parts in the series. Part Four deals with what is called the Scientific Revolution from 1440-1690. This "revolution" is divided into three phases: Phase 1 (1440-1540) includes the Renaissance and the Reformation, during which the world-picture adopted from classical times…

  2. Science in History, Volume 1: The Emergence of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the first of four, includes the first three of the eight parts in the series. Part One states the major problems and includes some general discussion on the nature and method of science and on the place of science in society. Part Two deals with the emergence of science from the centers of Babylonia, Egypt and India to its full…

  3. Science in History, Volume 1: The Emergence of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the first of four, includes the first three of the eight parts in the series. Part One states the major problems and includes some general discussion on the nature and method of science and on the place of science in society. Part Two deals with the emergence of science from the centers of Babylonia, Egypt and India to its full…

  4. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume VI: English in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, John, Ed.

    This book is one volume in a series that examines the history of English. It traces the history of English in North America during the past 400 years, from its British background to its present position among the varieties of English used worldwide. Influences that have formed American English include political, social, and cultural changes in…

  5. Using History of Mathematics to Teach Volume Formula of Frustum Pyramids: Dissection Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butuner, Suphi Onder

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, history of mathematics (HoM) has become an increasingly popular topic. Studies have shown that student reactions to it depend on the ways they use history of mathematics. The present action research study aimed to make students deduce volume rules of frustum pyramids using the dissection method. Participants were 24 grade…

  6. World History. Volumes I and II. [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Judy

    Volumes I and II of a world history course, part of a high school career curriculum project, are outlined. Objectives are listed by course title. Course titles include: Early Communication - Languages and Writing; World History; Law and Order in Ancient Times; Early Transportation; Women in Ancient Times; Art and Literature in Ancient Times;…

  7. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume VI: English in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, John, Ed.

    This book is one volume in a series that examines the history of English. It traces the history of English in North America during the past 400 years, from its British background to its present position among the varieties of English used worldwide. Influences that have formed American English include political, social, and cultural changes in…

  8. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. A History of Satellite Reconnaissance. Volume 3A - GAMBIT (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    characteristics, numbers, and placement of operational BYE 17017-74 ii handle via Byeman/ Talen Keyhole C.7..rtrois Only -TOP-SECRET NRO APPROVED FOR...contract between the Director, Special Projects, National Reconnaissance Office (Director, Program A), and Technology Service Corporation, of Santa Monica...flight histories in 1972, in association with Robert A . Butler, a consultant to Technology Service Corporation. At various times, parts of the

  11. Right superior temporal gyrus volume in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lisa A; Ramos, Lisa; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Brent, David A; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which observed differences in emotion processing and regulation neural circuitry in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are paralleled by structural differences is unknown. We measured brain cortical thickness and grey- and white-matter volumes in 100 adolescents: 28 with a history of suicide attempt and major depressive disorder (MDD); 31 with a history of MDD but no suicide attempt; and a healthy control group (n = 41). The first group compared with controls showed reduction in grey-matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA38), a region important for social emotion processing. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  12. Regular Topologies for Gigabit Wide-Area Networks. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shacham, Nachum; Denny, Barbara A.; Lee, Diane S.; Khan, Irfan H.; Lee, Danny Y. C.; McKenney, Paul

    1994-01-01

    In general terms, this project aimed at the analysis and design of techniques for very high-speed networking. The formal objectives of the project were to: (1) Identify switch and network technologies for wide-area networks that interconnect a large number of users and can provide individual data paths at gigabit/s rates; (2) Quantitatively evaluate and compare existing and proposed architectures and protocols, identify their strength and growth potentials, and ascertain the compatibility of competing technologies; and (3) Propose new approaches to existing architectures and protocols, and identify opportunities for research to overcome deficiencies and enhance performance. The project was organized into two parts: 1. The design, analysis, and specification of techniques and protocols for very-high-speed network environments. In this part, SRI has focused on several key high-speed networking areas, including Forward Error Control (FEC) for high-speed networks in which data distortion is the result of packet loss, and the distribution of broadband, real-time traffic in multiple user sessions. 2. Congestion Avoidance Testbed Experiment (CATE). This part of the project was done within the framework of the DARTnet experimental T1 national network. The aim of the work was to advance the state of the art in benchmarking DARTnet's performance and traffic control by developing support tools for network experimentation, by designing benchmarks that allow various algorithms to be meaningfully compared, and by investigating new queueing techniques that better satisfy the needs of best-effort and reserved-resource traffic. This document is the final technical report describing the results obtained by SRI under this project. The report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 contains a technical description of the network techniques developed by SRI in the areas of FEC and multicast of real-time traffic. Volume 2 describes the work performed under CATE. Volume 3 contains the source

  13. History of hydrocarbon generation in Tembungo Area, Northwest Sabah Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoesni, M.J.; Mood, M.N.C. )

    1994-07-01

    Tembungo field in Sabah Basin produces oil from upper Miocene turbidite reservoirs. The oil, with low sulfur and wax contents and API gravity of 38-40[degrees], was derived from terrigenous source rock of mainly land-plant origin. The history of hydrocarbon generation in the Tembungo area - that is, the burial, fluid pressure and fluid-flow, thermal, hydrocarbon generation, and migration history - has been studied with the help of a two-dimensional finite difference basin model. Backstripping shows that high sedimentation rates occurred during middle to late Miocene. The Tembungo structure itself began to grow in late Miocene (7.24 Ma), with an accelerated growth rate in the early Pliocene. A constant basement heat flow of 55 mW/m[sup 2] was determined for the area. The faults are known to be sealing, with very low associated permeabilities. The presence of barrier faults and thick shales resulted in development of overpressure in the area. Contribution of hydrocarbon generation to overpressure is insignificant. Maturation models based on kinetic chemical reaction indicate that upper Miocene sediments underlying the reservoir section in the adjacent syncline to the northwest and west began to enter the hydrocarbon generation window at 8.4 Ma and that the hydrocarbons began to be trapped in the Tembungo structure in the late Miocene (6.0 Ma). The oils most likely were sourced from these upper Miocene sediments underlying the reservoirs. Hydrocarbons sourced in middle Miocene sediments were largely retained due to thick overlying shales, and they eventually were cracked to gas.

  14. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, Andre A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Johnson, L. R.; Laybe, P.; Reinke, D.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of 18 convective clusters demonstrates that the extension of the Area-Time-Integral (ATI) technique to the use of satellite data is possible. The differences of the internal structures of the radar reflectivity features, and of the satellite features, give rise to differences in estimating rain volumes by delineating area; however, by focusing upon the area integrated over the lifetime of the storm, it is suggested that some of the errors produced by the differences in the cloud geometries as viewed by radar or satellite are minimized. The results are good and future developments should consider data from different climatic regions and should allow for implementation of the technique in a general circulation model.

  15. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Achim; Thomas, Schraner; Melanie, Fruehauf; Rabia, Liamlahi; Klaghofer, Richard; Weiss, Markus; Kellenberger, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions. Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 ml·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed. Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 ± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 ± 116, 218 ± 112, and 347 ± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 ± 2.8 ml·kg(-1). Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Interrupting History: Rethinking History Curriculum after "The End of History". Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert John

    2011-01-01

    Since the emergence of postmodern social theory, history has been haunted by predictions of its imminent end. Postmodernism has been accused of making historical research and writing untenable, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, providing fertile ground for historical denial, and promoting the adoption of a mournful view of…

  17. Interrupting History: Rethinking History Curriculum after "The End of History". Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert John

    2011-01-01

    Since the emergence of postmodern social theory, history has been haunted by predictions of its imminent end. Postmodernism has been accused of making historical research and writing untenable, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, providing fertile ground for historical denial, and promoting the adoption of a mournful view of…

  18. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history.

    PubMed

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. COMPARED TO NONSMOKING NONALCOHOLICS, ALCOHOLICS WHO SMOKE (THE COMORBID GROUP) HAD VOLUMETRIC ABNORMALITIES IN: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer performance on neuropsychological tests

  19. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    PubMed Central

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  20. Teaching Tennessee History: Lesson Plans for the Classroom. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Lisa, Ed.

    These teacher developed lessons focus on the Civil War's impact on east Tennessee. The forum for develop ling the lessons includes a series of inservice lectures by experts in the areas of Civil War scholarship and interpretation, tours, and hands-on experiences at historic sites in the region. During the week-long program, teachers traveled…

  1. Teaching Mathematics, Volume I: Culture, Motivation, History and Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Edwin J.; And Others

    Independent neighborhood schools in inner-city areas serve primarily minority students. They are in a position to assist American educators in understanding the best methods of teaching minorities who usually do not reach their full academic potential in public schools. Teachers in independent schools use culture and sometimes religion as a basis…

  2. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of rain volume estimation using satellite data following a technique recently developed with radar data called the Arera Time Integral was undertaken. Case studies were selected on the basis of existing radar and satellite data sets which match in space and time. Four multicell clusters were analyzed. Routines for navigation remapping amd smoothing of satellite images were performed. Visible counts were normalized for solar zenith angle. A radar sector of interest was defined to delineate specific radar echo clusters for each radar time throughout the radar echo cluster lifetime. A satellite sector of interest was defined by applying small adjustments to the radar sector using a manual processing technique. The radar echo area, the IR maximum counts and the IR counts matching radar echo areas were found to evolve similarly, except for the decaying phase of the cluster where the cirrus debris keeps the IR counts high.

  3. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rain volume estimation over fixed and floating areas was investigated using rapid scan satellite data following a technique recently developed with radar data, called the Area Time Integral (ATI) technique. The radar and rapid scan GOES satellite data were collected during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) and North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP). Six multicell clusters and cells were analyzed to the present time. A two-cycle oscillation emphasizing the multicell character of the clusters is demonstrated. Three clusters were selected on each day, 12 June and 2 July. The 12 June clusters occurred during the daytime, while the 2 July clusters during the nighttime. A total of 86 time steps of radar and 79 time steps of satellite images were analyzed. There were approximately 12-min time intervals between radar scans on the average.

  4. Teaching the History of Innovation: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    On October 18-19, 2008, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 40 teachers from 21 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching the history of innovation. The Institute was hosted by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. In his opening remarks, Walter A. McDougall noted that while Americans take for granted a frantic pace of change in…

  5. Reduced gray matter volume in normal adults with a maternal family history of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Honea, R A; Swerdlow, R H; Vidoni, E D; Goodwin, J; Burns, J M

    2010-01-12

    A consistently identified risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) is family history of dementia, with maternal transmission significantly more frequent than paternal transmission. A history of maternal AD may be related to AD-like glucose consumption in cognitively healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cognitively healthy people with a family history of AD have less gray matter volume (GMV), an endophenotype for late-onset AD, than individuals with no family history, and whether decreases in GMV are different in subjects with a maternal family history. As part of the Kansas University Brain Aging Project, 67 cognitively intact individuals with a maternal history of late-onset AD (FHm, n = 16), a paternal history of AD (FHp, n = 8), or no parental history of AD (FH-, n = 43), similar in age, gender, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination score, were scanned at 3 T. We used voxel-based morphometry to examine GMV differences between groups, controlling for age, gender, and apoE4. Cognitively healthy individuals with a family history of late-onset AD had significantly decreased GMV in the precuneus, middle frontal, inferior frontal, and superior frontal gyri compared with FH- individuals. FHm subjects had significantly smaller inferior frontal, middle frontal, precuneus, and lingual gyri compared with FH- and FHp subjects. Overall, maternal family history of Alzheimer disease (AD) in cognitively normal individuals is associated with lower gray matter volume in AD-vulnerable brain regions. These data complement and extend reports of cerebral metabolic differences in subjects with a maternal family history.

  6. Indian Education Confronts the Seventies. Five Volumes; Volume I: History and Background of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr., Ed.

    Presenting three position papers, this publication is the first in a series of five volumes on American Indian education. Papers are titled and authored as follows: (1) "Reflections on Contemporary Indian Education" (an introduction to this series, calling for reform via "Indianization" of Indian education) by Vine Deloria,…

  7. SER-LARS, Volume 4. Learning Objective History III. 1975-76 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Intermediate Unit 23, Blue Bell, PA.

    The fourth volume in the SER-LARS (Special Education Resources Location Analysis and Retrieval System) series, a diagnostic-prescriptive instructional data bank for teachers of handicapped children, presents a continuation of learning objectives organized by content descriptions. Entrees give a history of the use of each objective along with…

  8. Navajo Education, 1948-1978: Its Progress and Its Problems. Volume III, Part A, Navajo History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

    One in a continuing series on Navajo history and culture, this volume presents extensive information about Navajo education from 1948 through 1978 and analyzes that information from a Navajo viewpoint with the purpose of promoting quality education directed and controlled by Navajo people. Following a brief introduction to the series and to Navajo…

  9. The Image Empire; A History of Broadcasting in the United States; From 1953. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnouw, Erik

    The year 1953 marks the point at which television in America began its dramatic expansion, and it also marks the starting point of the third and final volume of a history of broadcasting in the United States. The patterns of programing through this period are reviewed and summarized with attention to trends, but special consideration is given…

  10. SER-LARS, Volume 3. Learning Objective History II. 1975-76 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Intermediate Unit 23, Blue Bell, PA.

    The third of nine volumes in the SER-LARS (Special Education Resources Location Analysis and Retrieval System) series, a diagnostic-prescriptive instructional data bank for teachers of handicapped children, presents learning objectives organized by content descriptions. Entries give a history of the use of each objective along with information on…

  11. The natural history of Enewetak Atoll: Volume 1, The ecosystem: Environments, biotas, and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, D.M.; Reese, E.S.; Burch, B.L.; Helfrich, P.

    1987-01-01

    The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. The history of the laboratory and the reasons for its support by the United States Department of Energy are described in Chapter 1 of Volume 1. Volume 1 provides a synthesis of the research carried out under the subject headings of the respective chapters. Certain of the chapters, e.g., those on geology, subtidal and intertidal environments and ecology, and those on reef processes and trophic relationships, summarize a great diversity of research carried out by many scientists for many years. In contrast, the chapters on meteorology and oceanography summarize research carried out under one integrated program involving fewer scientists working over a shorter period. Individual chapters are processed separately for the data base.

  12. Hippocampal Volumes in Adolescents with and without a Family History of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Spadoni, Andrea D.; Gorlick, Amanda; Tapert, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The hippocampus may be vulnerable to the effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, which is a time of continued neurodevelopment. However, differences in hippocampal volume may be due to risk factors such as a family history (FH) of alcoholism. We examined hippocampal volumes in youth with and without a FH of alcoholism prior to the initiation of alcohol use. Methods Participants were demographically matched adolescents (aged 12-14) with positive (n=15; FHP) and negative (n=15; FHN) FH of alcoholism. Each group consisted of 10 males and 5 females with minimal previous substance use. Manual hippocampal tracings were completed on high-resolution magnetic resonance images by reliable raters, and intracranial volumes were controlled in analyses. Results FH groups did not differ on memory or hippocampal volumes, but group × gender interactions (p<.05) indicated that FHP males had larger left hippocampi than FHN males. Females showed greater left versus right hippocampal asymmetry, while males showed larger right versus left asymmetry. For all adolescents, larger right hippocampal volumes predicted poorer delayed visual memory (p<.01). Conclusion and Significance Alcoholism risk factors, such as family history of alcoholism, may differentially influence adolescent hippocampal development for boys as compared to girls. Results suggest that FH does not account for prior findings of reduced left hippocampal volumes in heavy drinking youth. Findings are preliminary, but suggest that future studies examining the effects of alcohol use on the adolescent brain should consider the influence of FH, especially among boys. PMID:20465374

  13. Reliability of tanoak volume equations when applied to different areas

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Pillsbury; Philip M. McDonald; Victor Simon

    1995-01-01

    Tree volume equations for tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) were developed for seven stands throughout its natural range and compared by a volume prediction and a parameter difference method. The objective was to test if volume estimates from a species growing in a local, relatively uniform habitat could be applied more widely. Results indicated...

  14. Drinking history associations with regional white matter volumes in alcoholic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Sawyer, Kayle S; Valmas, Mary M; Urban, Trinity; Harris, Gordon J

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has been repeatedly associated with gray and white matter pathology. Although neuroimaging has shown alcoholism-related brain volume reductions and axonal compromise, the integrity of white matter volumes in chronic alcoholism has been challenging to measure on a regional level. We first examined the effects of alcoholism on cerebral white matter volumes by lobar and gyral subdivisions in 42 abstinent alcoholics and 42 control participants (split evenly by gender). We also examined cerebellar white matter and regions of the corpus callosum, as well as ventricular volumes. Next, relationships between white matter and ventricular volumes with measures of drinking patterns were assessed. Finally, an examination of early versus late abstinence was conducted. Within each examination, gender effects were explored. Differences in regional white matter volumes between alcoholics and controls were observed primarily in the corpus callosum, with a stronger group difference among men than women. Years of heavy drinking had a strong negative impact on frontal and temporal white matter among alcoholic women, and on the corpus callosum among alcoholic men. Quantity of alcohol consumption was associated with smaller corpus callosum and larger ventricular volumes among alcoholic women, whereas abstinence duration was associated with larger corpus callosum volume among alcoholic men. Preliminary data indicated that alcoholic women showed stronger positive associations between sobriety duration and white matter volume than men within the first year of abstinence, whereas men showed this association more so than women after 1 year of abstinence. Effects of drinking history on white matter and ventricular volumes vary by gender, with alcoholic women showing greatest sensitivity in frontal, temporal, ventricular, and corpus callosum regions, and alcoholic men showing effects mainly in the corpus callosum. Preliminary results indicate that recovery of white matter volume may

  15. Drinking History Associations with Regional White Matter Volumes in Alcoholic Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Valmas, Mary; Urban, Trinity; Harris, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcoholism has been repeatedly associated with gray and white matter pathology. Although neuroimaging has shown alcoholism-related brain volume reductions and axonal compromise, the integrity of white matter volumes in chronic alcoholism has been challenging to measure on a regional level. Methods We first examined effects of alcoholism on cerebral white matter volumes by lobar and gyral subdivisions in 42 abstinent alcoholics and 42 control participants (split evenly by gender). We also examined cerebellar white matter and regions of the corpus callosum, as well as ventricular volumes. Next, relationships between white matter and ventricular volumes with measures of drinking patterns were assessed. Finally, an examination of early versus late abstinence was conducted. Within each examination, gender effects were explored. Results Differences in regional white matter volumes between alcoholics and controls were observed primarily in the corpus callosum, with a stronger group difference among men than among women. Years of heavy drinking had a strong negative impact on frontal and temporal white matter among alcoholic women, and on the corpus callosum among alcoholic men. Quantity of alcohol consumption was associated with smaller corpus callosum and larger ventricular volumes among alcoholic women, while abstinence duration was associated with larger corpus callosum volume among alcoholic men. Preliminary data indicated that alcoholic women showed stronger positive associations between sobriety duration and white matter volume than men within the first year of abstinence, while men showed this association more so than women after one year of abstinence. Conclusions Effects of drinking history on white matter and ventricular volumes vary by gender, with alcoholic women showing greatest sensitivity in frontal, temporal, ventricular, and corpus callosum regions, and alcoholic men showing effects mainly in the corpus callosum. Preliminary results indicate

  16. A history of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. Volume VII, 1966-79, integrating the disciplines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biesecker, James E.; Blakey, James F.; Feltz, Herman R.; George, John R.

    2000-01-01

    This volume is the seventh in the series of reports on the history of the water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey. The first four volumes were written by Robert Follansbee, and each is entitled "A History of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey."

  17. An upper-bound estimate for the accuracy of volume-area scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinotti, D.; Huss, M.

    2013-06-01

    Volume-area scaling is the most popular method for estimating the ice volume of large glacier samples. Here, a series of resampling experiments based on different sets of synthetic data are presented in order to derive an upper-bound estimate (i.e. a level achieved only with ideal conditions) for the accuracy of its application. We also quantify the maximum accuracy expected when scaling is used for determining the glacier volume change, and area change of a given glacier population. A comprehensive set of measured glacier areas, volumes, area and volume changes is evaluated to investigate the impact of real-world data quality on the so assessed accuracies. For populations larger than a few thousand glaciers, the total ice volume can be recovered within 30% if all measurements available worldwide are used for estimating the scaling coefficients. Assuming no systematic biases in ice volume measurements, their uncertainty is of secondary importance. Knowing the individual areas of a glacier sample for two points in time allows recovering the corresponding ice volume change within 40% for populations larger than a few hundred glaciers, both for steady-state and transient geometries. If ice volume changes can be estimated without bias, glacier area changes derived from volume-area scaling show similar uncertainties as for the volume changes. This paper does not aim at making a final judgement about the suitability of volume-area scaling, but provides the means for assessing the accuracy expected from its application.

  18. Time history solution program, L225 (TEV126). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, R. I.; Tornallyay, A.; Clemmons, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 1 of a two volume document is presented. The usage of the convolution program L225 (TEV 126) is described. The program calculates the time response of a linear system by convoluting the impulsive response function with the time-dependent excitation function. The convolution is performed as a multiplication in the frequency domain. Fast Fourier transform techniques are used to transform the product back into the time domain to obtain response time histories. A brief description of the analysis used is presented.

  19. A Pictorial History of the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea. Volume 1: 1970-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-28

    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3289 April 2016 A Pictorial History of the Code 717 Unmanned Systems Group: Air, Land, and Sea Volume 1: 1970–1999 H. R...Everett Approved for public release. SSC Pacific San Diego, CA 92152-5001 TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3289 April 2016 A Pictorial History of...Officer C. A. Keeney Executive Director ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION The work described in the first volume of the Pictorial History of the Code

  20. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and rcontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at LANL TA-54 Area L. This report summarizes the operation. This is Volume 2 of five volumes.

  1. Vital capacities in acute and chronic airway obstruction: dependence on flow and volume histories.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, V; Pellegrino, R; Rodarte, J R

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether measurements of vital capacity (VC) are affected by the direction of the manoeuvre (inspiratory vs expiratory) and by the rate of expiratory flow. The study was performed on 25 individuals with chronic airway obstruction (CAO) and a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (expressed in standardized residuals (SR)) of -2.0+/-1.4 SD (CAO group), and 10 asthmatic subjects with methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction (FEV1 -23+/-1.02 SR) (MCh group). VCs were measured during fast inspiration following both slow (FIVCse) and forced (FIVCfe) expiration from end-tidal inspiration to residual volume (RV), and during slow (EVC) or forced (FVC) expiration from total lung capacity (TLC). In the CAO group, FVC was the smallest volume (3.75+/-1.03 L) and significantly different from the other three estimates of VC; FIVCse (4.03+/-0.91 L) was the largest volume and significantly different from FVC and FIVCfe (3.83+/-0.98 L). In the MCh group, FVC (4.16+/-0.94 L) and EVC (4.19+/-0.89 L) were the largest volumes, although only the difference between FVC and FIVCfe (3.76+/-0.81 L) reached statistical significance. These data suggest that both flow and volume histories contribute to decreased vital capacities during bronchoconstriction. However, whereas increasing expiratory flow always tends to decrease vital capacity, the volume history of full inflation has different effects in chronic and acute bronchoconstriction, probably due to different effects on airway calibre. These results stress the importance of using standardized manoeuvres in order to obtain comparable values of vital capacity.

  2. World History (Volume Two): Upper Middle School Textbook for the Full-time Ten Year School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Contains a translation of the second volume of a two-volume world history textbook for senior secondary students published in China in 1978. This volume covers the period from 1848 to World War II. Particular attention is given to uprisings, rebellions, revolutions, and the development of the Communist movement. (AM)

  3. Multiple missions: The 300 Area in Hanford Site history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the role of the 300 Area buildings at the Hanford Reservation. Topics covered are: Early fuel fabrication at the Hanford site (313 and 314 Buildings); N reactor fuel fabrication in the 300 Area; 305 test pile was Hanford`s first operating reactor; Early process improvement chemical research (321 and 3706 Buildings); Major 1952 and 1953 expansions in the 300 area (325 and 329 Buildings); Early 300 area facilities constructed to support reactor development (326 and 327 Buildings); Hanford site ventures with the peaceful atom (309, 308 and 318 Buildings); Modern 300 Area Buildings; Significant miscellaneous buildings in the 300 area; 300 Area process waste handling and disposal.

  4. Comparison of Mammographic Density Assessed as Volumes and Areas among Women Undergoing Diagnostic Image-Guided Breast Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; Geller, Berta M.; Shepherd, John A.; Patel, Deesha A.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Chicoine, Rachael E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Fan, Bo; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Wang, Jeff; Johnson, Jason M.; Herschorn, Sally D.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD), the area of non-fatty appearing tissue divided by total breast area, is a strong breast cancer risk factor. Most MD analyses have employed visual categorizations or computer-assisted quantification, which ignore breast thickness. We explored MD volume and area, using a volumetric approach previously validated as predictive of breast cancer risk, in relation to risk factors among women undergoing breast biopsy. Methods Among 413 primarily white women, ages 40–65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsies between 2007–2010 at an academic facility in Vermont, MD volume (cm3) was quantified in cranio-caudal views of the breast contralateral to the biopsy target using a density phantom, while MD area (cm2) was measured on the same digital mammograms using thresholding software. Risk factor associations with continuous MD measurements were evaluated using linear regression. Results Percent MD volume and area were correlated (r=0.81) and strongly and inversely associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and menopause. Both measures were inversely associated with smoking and positively associated with breast biopsy history. Absolute MD measures were correlated (r=0.46) and inversely related to age and menopause. Whereas absolute dense area was inversely associated with BMI, absolute dense volume was positively associated. Conclusions Volume and area MD measures exhibit some overlap in risk factor associations, but divergence as well, particularly for BMI. Impact Findings suggest that volume and area density measures differ in subsets of women; notably, among obese women, absolute density was higher with volumetric methods, suggesting that breast cancer risk assessments may vary for these techniques. PMID:25139935

  5. STAGE 64: OUTPUT PROCESSOR PROGRAMMING SPECIFICATIONS MANUAL, VOLUME I. HISTORY PROGRAMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This volume contains a detailed description of the history programs used in the STAGE 64 Output Processor Programming Specifications. The STAGE ...Output Processor sorts, compiles tallies, and presents the output of the STAGE model in printed form. The complete program presently consists of 38...processes for each side, but in view of the fact that the processes are run under an executive control , new tasks can be added to the model as they are

  6. The natural history of Enewetak Atoll: Volume 2, Biogeography and systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, D.M.; Reese, E.S.; Burch, B.L.; Helfrich, P.

    1987-01-01

    The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. Volume 2 of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll provides information on the taxonomy of animals and plants known to occur at Enewetak Atoll. The collections on which the checklists in each chapter are based are housed at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu and the US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. In addition to the species checklists, each chapter in Volume 2 provides a succinct summary of the biota with respect to endemism, range extensions, and other features that set the Enewetak biota apart from those one might expect to find on equivalent Indo-Pacific islands. This compendium of taxonomic information for an atoll should prove of immense value to scientists interested in biogeography and evolutionary biology of island ecosystems for years to come. Individual chapters are processed separately for the data base.

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of intragastric volume in neonates: factors affecting the relationship between intragastric volume and antral cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Tomomasa, T; Tabata, M; Nako, Y; Kaneko, H; Morikawa, A

    1996-11-01

    Measuring antral cross-sectional area by ultrasonography can be an ideal way to evaluate intragastric milk volume in infants. Technical details, however, remain to be established before its clinical application. We investigated the effects of posture and ultrasonographic plane on the correlation between milk volume and antral cross-sectional area. After gastric aspiration through a nasogastric tube, healthy newborns were fed 0, 10, 20, and 40 ml of milk cumulatively, and antral cross-sectional area was measured in either upright, sitting, or right lateral position. To determine the best sonographic plane, subjects were put in the right lateral position and antral cross-sectional area was measured in the plane of the aorta and either the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein, the midline of the abdominal surface, 1 cm right of midline, or 2 cm right of midline. The results showed that antral cross-sectional area reflects intragastric milk volume most accurately, with minimal gas interference when measured in the right lateral position. The area correlates well with milk volume in the plane of the aorta and either the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein, or the midline. Next, we studied the effect of intragastric gas on the antral cross-sectional area in subjects who were given 40 ml of milk followed by an injection of air. More than 20 ml of intragastric gas increases antral cross-sectional area significantly. Ultrasonographic evaluation of intragastric volume requires attention to the above factors.

  8. Family History Density of Alcoholism Relates to Left Nucleus Accumbens Volume in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Gillespie, Alicia J; Michael, Paul G; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A family history of alcoholism is a significant risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Because common structural abnormalities are present in reward and affective brain regions in alcoholics and those with familial alcoholism, the current study examined the relationship between familial loading of AUDs and volumes of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in largely alcohol-naive adolescents, ages 12–16 years (N = 140). Method: The amygdala and NAcc were delineated on each participant’s T1-weighted anatomical scan, using FMRIB Software Library’s FMRIB Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool, and visually inspected for accuracy and volume outliers. In the 140 participants with accurate segmentation (75 male/65 female), subcortical volumes were represented as a ratio to intracranial volume (ICV). A family history density (FHD) score was calculated for each adolescent based on the presence of AUDs in first- and second-degree relatives (range: 0.03–1.50; higher scores represent a greater prevalence of familial AUDs). Multiple regressions, with age and sex controlled for, examined the association between FHD and left and right amygdala and NAcc volume/ICV. Results: There was a significant positive relationship between FHD and left NAcc volume/ICV (ΔR2 = .04, p = .02). Post hoc regressions indicated that this effect was only significant in females (ΔR2 = .11, p = .006). Conclusions: This finding suggests that the degree of familial alcoholism, genetic or otherwise, is associated with alterations in reward-related brain structure. Further work will be necessary to examine whether FHD is related to future alcohol-related problems and reward-related behaviors. PMID:25486393

  9. F-Area Northeast Expansion Report, Volumes 1

    SciTech Connect

    Syms, F.H.

    1999-08-23

    A geotechnical program has been complexed in F-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as the ''northeast expansion'' located in the F-Area.

  10. The History of the Establishment and Management Philosophies of the Portuguese Protected Areas: Combining Written Records and Oral History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Bruno; Partidário, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The history of the establishment and management philosophies of the mainland Portuguese Protected Areas was reconstructed through the use of written records and oral history interviews. The objectives were to review the main philosophies in the creation and management of these areas, to assess the influence of international PA models, to compare the Portuguese case with other European and international literature concerning PAs and to discuss the value of the oral history in this research. As main results, it was found that the initial management model of "Wilderness (or Yellowstone)" was replaced by the "new paradigm" of PAs when the democracy was re-established. Changes in the management philosophies within this "new paradigm" were also identified, which resulted in the transition of a "Landscape" to a "Nature conservation" model. After the establishment of the Natura 2000 network, the "Biodiversity conservation" model prevailed. It was also found that the initiative for the establishment of most PAs came from the government, although there were few cases of creation due to the action of NGOs and municipalities. Finally, oral history interviews enabled the addition of information to the literature review, but also provided more insight and detail to this history.

  11. A Study of Number Conservation With Tasks Which Vary in Length, Area and Volume. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taranto, Maria; Mermelstein, Egon

    The objective of this study was an attempt to clarify the nature of number conservation with number conservation tasks using variations in length, area, and volume. According to Piagetian theory, conservation is attained successively for number, length, area, and, finally, volume. It was hypothesized that success on the number conservation tasks…

  12. Stem Cubic-Foot Volume Tables for Tree Species in the Appalachian Area

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter

    1996-01-01

    Stemwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 20 species and 8 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Appalachian Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,870 trees sampled in the Appalachian Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented...

  13. An upper-bound estimate for the accuracy of glacier volume-area scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinotti, D.; Huss, M.

    2013-11-01

    Volume-area scaling is the most popular method for estimating the ice volume of large glacier samples. Here, a series of resampling experiments based on different sets of synthetic data is presented in order to derive an upper-bound estimate (i.e. a level achieved only within ideal conditions) for its accuracy. For real-world applications, a lower accuracy has to be expected. We also quantify the maximum accuracy expected when scaling is used for determining the glacier volume change, and area change of a given glacier population. A comprehensive set of measured glacier areas, volumes, area and volume changes is evaluated to investigate the impact of real-world data quality on the so-assessed accuracies. For populations larger than a few thousand glaciers, the total ice volume can be recovered within 30% if all data currently available worldwide are used for estimating the scaling parameters. Assuming no systematic bias in ice volume measurements, their uncertainty is of secondary importance. Knowing the individual areas of a glacier sample for two points in time allows recovering the corresponding ice volume change within 40% for populations larger than a few hundred glaciers, both for steady-state and transient geometries. If ice volume changes can be estimated without bias, glacier area changes derived from volume-area scaling show similar uncertainties to those of the volume changes. This paper does not aim at making a final judgement on the suitability of volume-area scaling as such, but provides the means for assessing the accuracy expected from its application.

  14. History, extent, and future of Arizona BLM-managed roadless areas in the Madrean Archipelago

    Treesearch

    Trevor Hare; Cory Jones

    2005-01-01

    Roadless areas of southeastern Arizona managed by the Bureau of Land Management are becoming rare. Fragmentation by roads and development, all-terrain vehicle use, erosion, and altered hydrology are a few of the causes of loss and degradation of roadless areas. The history of BLM and publicly identified roadless areas includes the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964...

  15. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  16. A Distillation of Subject-Matter Content for the Subject Areas of Geography and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.; Schoch-Roberts, Lisa; Young-Reynolds, Sara

    This study was designed to provide schools, districts, and states with a means for identifying the knowledge and skills that are most important for students to learn for the subject areas of geography and history. Five state standards documents were selected to represent the exemplary content in geography and history. These documents were selected…

  17. Volume 3a - Area Source Methods - Additional Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nonpoint (area) source emission reference materials from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides nonpoint source guidance on ammonia emissions from natural landscapes, fertilized soils, and nonagricultural sources.

  18. Late Tectonic history of Beaufort Sea - North Pacific area

    SciTech Connect

    McWhae, J.R.H.

    1985-02-01

    The Kaltag fault (and its northern associated splay, the Rapid fault array) is the sheared suture between the Eurasian-Alaskan plate and the North American plate in the area between the Mackenzie Delta and the Alaskan Border. This condition has been maintained throughout considerable additional phases of faulting and folding from mid-Cretaceous to the present. Previously, the Alaskan plate had been the northwestern nose of the North America plate. The interplate suture was deflected to the north as the Canadian Shield was approached. The Kaltag fault continued northeastward 2000 km seaward of the Sverdrup rim, northwest of the Canadian Arctic Island, and north of Greenland. The driving force was directed from the southwest by the Eurasian plate after its collision in Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) with the North American plate and the docking of north-moving exotic terranes from the Pacific. During the early Tertiary, perhaps in concert with the accretion of the Okhotsk block to the Asian plate north of Japan, the northern Pacific subduction zone jumped southward to the Aleutian Arc where it has persisted until today. A distance of 800 km separates the stable shelf of the Canadian craton, at the Alberta Foothills thrust belt, from the subduction zone off Vancouver Island. The foreland thrust belt and the accretion of exotic terranes in Mesozoic and Tertiary times extended the continental crust of the North American plate westward to the present active transform margin with the Pacific plate along the Queen Charlotte fault zone.

  19. Early Mesozoic history of the Black-Sea - Caucasus area

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1988-08-01

    Marginal basins with ocean crust existed in the Black Sea area in Triassic time behind a volcanic arc built on top of the Hercynian basement of Pontides. The eastern extension of the arc was in the fore-Caucasus. Triassic sediments and volcanics, formed in forearc basins, can be traced from the southern slope of the Great Caucasus (Svanetia) to the Karakaya belt of Turkey. These sediments were deformed at the end of the Triassic when terranes derived from Gondwana collided with the active margin of Paleotethys. In Svanetia a succession of middle Paleozoic clastics (the Dizi series) deposited at the base of the north-facing continental slope, presumably on the passive margin of Gondwana. The Dizi series is either an independent terrane or forms a western extension of Iran, which collided with Eurasia at the same time. Displacement of the subduction zone to the south of the accreted terranes was accompanied by a major episode of extension on the active margin in Early Jurassic time; the marginal sea of the Great Caucasus and the intra-Pontide basin in Turkey were opened. In the late Middle Jurassic, Pontides collided with Crimea, closing the Triassic proto-Black Sea. Immediately after collision, continental rifting commenced, once again separating Pontides from Eurasia and manifesting the birth of the Black Sea basin. Oceanic crust began to grow in the latter in Senonian time.

  20. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area and volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Chengfeng; Lehrter, John C.; Hu, Chuanmin; Obenour, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L-1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and volume were related to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived monthly estimates of river plume area (km2) and average, inner shelf chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a, mg m-3). River plume area in June was negatively related with midsummer hypoxic area (km2) and volume (km3), while July inner shelf Chl a was positively related to hypoxic area and volume. Multiple regression models using river plume area and Chl a as independent variables accounted for most of the variability in hypoxic area (R2 = 0.92) or volume (R2 = 0.89). These models explain more variation in hypoxic area than models using Mississippi River nutrient loads as independent variables. The results here also support a hypothesis that confinement of the river plume to the inner shelf is an important mechanism controlling hypoxia area and volume in this region.

  1. Cortical morphometry in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Contribution of thickness and surface area to volume.

    PubMed

    Silk, Timothy J; Beare, Richard; Malpas, Charles; Adamson, Chris; Vilgis, Veronika; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Although lower brain volume is a consistent neuroimaging finding in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we lack an understanding of whether this effect is driven by changes in cortical thickness or surface area, which are governed by distinct neurodevelopmental processes. This study examined ADHD-control differences in cortical thickness, surface area and volume, and tests whether thickness and surface area mediates any observed volume differences. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was collected from 35 males with ADHD-combined type and 35 typically developing control participants aged 9-17 years. Morphometric measures were examined for between group differences and the specific contribution of surface area and thickness to group differences in volume tested using mediation analysis. Individuals with ADHD had smaller total cortical volume (7.3%), surface area (4.3%), and mean cortical thickness (2.8%) compared to controls. Differences were pronounced in frontal and parietal lobes. Variance in volume as a function of ADHD diagnosis was accounted for at least in part by the relationship between diagnosis and each of cortical thickness and surface area, with regional variation in the relative contributions of these measures. The surface area of the precuneus was a major driver of volume differences, attesting to the potential relevance of this region for neurodevelopment in ADHD. Both surface area and cortical thickness play a significant mediating role in determining diagnostic differences in volume, with regional variation in the contribution of thickness and surface area to those volume differences, highlighting the importance of examining both cortical thickness and surface area in examining ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

  3. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  4. Relationship between body size, fill volume, and mass transfer area coefficient in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Keshaviah, P; Emerson, P F; Vonesh, E F; Brandes, J C

    1994-04-01

    A peritoneal dialysate fill volume of 2 L has become the standard of clinical practice, but the relationships between body size, fill volume, and mass transfer area coefficient (KoA) have not been well established. These relationships were studied in 10 stable peritoneal dialysis patients who underwent six peritoneal equilibration studies (2 h each) at fill volumes of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 L. The concentration-time profiles for urea, creatinine, and glucose were measured at each fill volume, and residual volumes were calculated from the preceding dwell period. A modified Henderson equation was used to calculate the KoA for the three solutes as a function of fill volume. By normalizing the KoA for each solute to the value at 2 L, the data for all three solutes collapsed onto the same trend line when plotting the normalized KoA versus dialysate volume. Between 0.5- and 2-L fill volumes, the average normalized KoA increases in an almost linear fashion, its value almost doubling over this range. Between 2- and 3-L fill volumes, there is less than a 10% change in the normalized KoA. However, fill volumes for peak urea KoA were found to increase with increasing body surface area (R = 0.76), being around 2.5 L for an average-sized patient and increasing to between 3 and 3.5 L for body surface areas > 2 m2. To maximize solute transport, these relationships between body size, volume, and KoA should be considered when choosing fill volumes for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis and when deciding reserve and tidal volumes for tidal peritoneal dialysis.

  5. 76 FR 76299 - Higher Volume Port Area-State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 155 RIN 1625-AB75 Higher Volume Port Area--State of Washington AGENCY... and within a 50-mile arc measured from Cape Flattery, Washington, to the HVPA. Higher volume port... Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday...

  6. Managing Leaf Area for Maximum Volume Production in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Treesearch

    Shufang Yu; Quang V. Cao; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James D. Haywood

    1999-01-01

    To manage loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands for maximum volume growth, the relationships between volume growth and leaf area at the tree and stand level under different cultural practices (thinning and fertilization) were examined. Forty-eight trees were harvested in 1995, six years after treatment, for individual tree measurements, and 336...

  7. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and recontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at Los Alamos TA-54 Area L. A vapor containment structure was erected. A total of 179 cylinders was processed; 39 were repackaged; and 55 were decommissioned. This report summarizes the operation; this is Volume 1 of five volumes.

  8. Cardiac output assessment using oxygen consumption estimated from the left ventricular pressure-volume area.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Jorge A; Lascano, Elena C; Bertolotti, Alejandro M; Gómez, Carmen B; Rodríguez Correa, Carlos A; Favaloro, Roberto R

    2010-01-01

    Use of a majority of structural variables (age, sex, height) to estimate oxygen consumption in the calculation of cardiac output (CO) by the Fick principle does not account for changes in physiological conditions. To improve this limitation, oxygen consumption was estimated based on the left ventricular pressure-volume area. A pilot study with 10 patients undergoing right cardiac catheterization showed that this approach was successful to estimate CO (r=0,73, vs. thermodilution measured CO). Further essays changing end-diastolic-volume in the pressure-volume area formula by body weight or body surface area showed that this last yielded the best correlation with the thermodilution measured CO (slope=1, ordinate =0.01 and r=0.93). These preliminary results indicate that use of a formula originated from the pressure-volume-area concept is a good alternative to estimate oxygen consumption for CO calculation.

  9. Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

  10. Subsurface contamination focus area technical requirements. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is our vision, a vision that replaces the ad hoc or {open_quotes}delphi{close_quotes} method which is to get a group of {open_quotes}experts{close_quotes} together and make decisions based upon opinion. To fulfill our vision for the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), it is necessary to generate technical requirements or performance measures which are quantitative or measurable. Decisions can be supported if they are based upon requirements or performance measures which can be traced to the origin (documented) and are verifiable, i.e., prove that requirements are satisfied by inspection (show me), demonstration, analysis, monitoring, or test. The data from which these requirements are derived must also reflect the characteristics of individual landfills or plumes so that technologies that meet these requirements will necessarily work at specific sites. Other subjective factors, such as stakeholder concerns, do influence decisions. Using the requirements as a basic approach, the SCFA can depend upon objective criteria to help influence the areas of subjectivity, like the stakeholders. In the past, traceable requirements were not generated, probably because it seemed too difficult to do so. There are risks that the requirements approach will not be accepted because it is new and represents a departure from the historical paradigm.

  11. The origin and history of alteration and carbonatization of the Yucca Mountain ignimbrites. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, J.S.

    1992-04-01

    This document contains Volume I of the report entitled The Origin and History of Alteration and Carbonatization of the Yucca Mountain Ignimbrites by Jerry S. Szymanski and a related correspondence with comments by Donald E. Livingston. In the Great Basin, the flow of terrestrial heat through the crust is affected in part by the flow of fluids. At Yucca Mountain, the role of fluids in crustal heat transport is manifested at the surface by youthful calcretes, sinters, bedrock veins, hydrothermal eruption breccias and hydrothermal alteration. This report discusses evidence for recent metasomatism high in the stratigraphic section at Yucca Mountain. Over the last several hundred years, episodes of calcite emplacement contemporaneous with local mafic volcanism have occurred at intervals that are not long in comparison with the isolation time required for a High-Level Radioactive Waste repository.

  12. Positive pressure ventilation during anesthesia in dogs: Assessment of surface area derived tidal volume.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Doris H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of surface area derived tidal volume in anesthetized ventilated dogs (n = 71, random assignment) compared to settings by experienced personnel. There was no significant difference (P = 0.1030) between methods (p(a)CO(2) of 43.1 ± 7 mmHg and 39.8 ± 7 mmHg, respectively). Surface area derived tidal volume can achieve satisfactory ventilation.

  13. Stem Cubic-Foot Volume Tabies for Tree Species in the Delta Area

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter

    1996-01-01

    Stemwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 13 species and 8 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Delta Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 990 trees sampled in the Delta Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species...

  14. Stem Cubic-Volume Tables for Tree Species in the Deep South Area

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter

    1996-01-01

    Stemwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 21 species and 8 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Deep South Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,390 trees sampled in the Deep South Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for...

  15. Stem Cubic-Foot Volume Tables for Tree Species in the Arkansas Area

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter

    1996-01-01

    Stemwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 9 species and 6 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Arkansas Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 1,417 trees sampled in the Arkansas Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each...

  16. Positive pressure ventilation during anesthesia in dogs: Assessment of surface area derived tidal volume

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Doris H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of surface area derived tidal volume in anesthetized ventilated dogs (n = 71, random assignment) compared to settings by experienced personnel. There was no significant difference (P = 0.1030) between methods (paCO2 of 43.1 ± 7 mmHg and 39.8 ± 7 mmHg, respectively). Surface area derived tidal volume can achieve satisfactory ventilation. PMID:22753965

  17. The terminal area simulation system. Volume 2: Verification cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, F. H.

    1987-01-01

    The numerical simulation of five case studies are presented and are compared with available data in order to verify the three-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS). A spectrum of convective storm types are selected for the case studies. Included are: a High-Plains supercell hailstorm, a small and relatively short-lived High-Plains cumulonimbus, a convective storm which produced the 2 August 1985 DFW microburst, a South Florida convective complex, and a tornadic Oklahoma thunderstorm. For each of the cases the model results compared reasonably well with observed data. In the simulations of the supercell storms many of their characteristic features were modeled, such as the hook echo, BWER, mesocyclone, gust fronts, giant persistent updraft, wall cloud, flanking-line towers, anvil and radar reflectivity overhang, and rightward veering in the storm propagation. In the simulation of the tornadic storm a horseshoe-shaped updraft configuration and cyclic changes in storm intensity and structure were noted. The simulation of the DFW microburst agreed remarkably well with sparse observed data. The simulated outflow rapidly expanded in a nearly symmetrical pattern and was associated with a ringvortex. A South Florida convective complex was simulated and contained updrafts and downdrafts in the form of discrete bubbles. The numerical simulations, in all cases, always remained stable and bounded with no anomalous trends.

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Volume III (this volume) provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are reference by a TEDS code number in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II. Data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each sheet.

  19. Path integral for stochastic inflation: Nonperturbative volume weighting, complex histories, initial conditions, and the end of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Steven

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we present a path integral formulation of stochastic inflation. Volume weighting can be naturally implemented from this new perspective in a very straightforward way when compared to conventional Langevin approaches. With an in-depth study of inflation in a quartic potential, we investigate how the inflaton evolves and how inflation typically ends both with and without volume weighting. The calculation can be carried to times beyond those accessible to conventional Fokker-Planck approaches. Perhaps unexpectedly, complex histories sometimes emerge with volume weighting. The reward for this excursion into the complex plane is an insight into how volume-weighted inflation both loses memory of initial conditions and ends via slow roll. The slow-roll end of inflation mitigates certain “Youngness Paradox”-type criticisms of the volume-weighted paradigm. Thus it is perhaps time to rehabilitate proper-time volume weighting as a viable measure for answering at least some interesting cosmological questions.

  20. The natural history of the growth of the hand: I. Hand area as a percentage of body surface area.

    PubMed

    Amirsheybani, H R; Crecelius, G M; Timothy, N H; Pfeiffer, M; Saggers, G C; Manders, E K

    2001-03-01

    The use of a patient's own hand as a tool to estimate the area of burn injury is well documented. The area of the palmar surface of one hand has been estimated to be 1 percent of the body surface area. The area of the palmar surface of the hand was measured to test the accuracy of this estimate and then compared with the body surface area as calculated by formulas in common use. This study also sought to determine the natural history of the growth of the hand to permit development of a readily available, bedside means of estimating hand area and body surface area. Bilateral hand tracings were obtained from 800 volunteers ranging in age from 2 to 89 years. The area of each tracing was determined using an integrating planimeter. The height and weight of each individual were measured, and his/her body surface area was calculated. The palmar hand's percentage of body surface area was determined by calculating the quotient for hand area divided by body surface area. Additionally, the width of the hand was measured from the ulnar aspect at the palmar digital crease of the small finger to the point where the thumb rested against the base of the index finger. The length of the hand was measured from the middle of the interstylon to the tip of the middle finger. These two figures were multiplied together to obtain a product which approximated the area of the hand. Based on the most commonly used DuBois formula for calculating body surface area, the area of palmar surface of the hand corresponds to 0.78 +/- 0.08 percent of the body surface area in adults. The percentage varies somewhat with age and reaches a maximum of 0.87 +/- 0.06 percent in young children. Multiplying the length of the hand by its width overestimates the area of the hand as determined by planimetry by only 2 percent. A patient's own hand may be used as a complementary, readily available template for estimation of burn area or other areas of disease or injury. In adults, the area of tracing of the outline

  1. Exploring the unknown: Selected documents in the history of the US Civil Space Program. Volume 1; Organizing for exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Lear, Linda J. (Editor); Warren--Findley, Jannelle (Editor); Williamson, Ray A. (Editor); Day, Dwayne A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    A selection of key documents in the history of the U.S. civil space program is presented. This volume deals with organizational developments of the space program. More than 200 documents are printed. Each is introduced by a headnote providing context, bibliographical information, and background information necessary to understanding the document. These are organized into four major sections, each beginning with an introductory essay that keys the documents to major events in the history of the space program.

  2. Successful increase in uterine volume and subsequent pregnancy in a patient with a history of radiation and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Miriam S; Johnson, M Symmes; Delaney, Abigail A; Bohler, Henry; Nakajima, Steven T

    2014-08-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a history of cranial radiation and chemotherapy desired pregnancy. Pelvic ultrasound scanning demonstrated a small uterine volume of 7 mL. After 25 weeks of estrogen therapy, her uterine volume increased to 37 mL. The patient had an uncomplicated pregnancy with the use of donor oocytes and delivered a term healthy daughter. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mi Carrera. Volume II: Exploring Five Vocational Areas = Explorando Cinco Areas Vocacionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Sally; Douglas, Denise

    This curriculum guide is the second of a four-volume set that is intended to improve career and vocational guidance services to Spanish-speaking students in grades 9 through 12. The first section, an introduction to the teacher, includes a discussion of why students need vocational guidance, the goals and organization of the materials, a note on…

  4. A general method for assessing the effects of uncertainty in individual-tree volume model predictions on large-area volume estimates with a subtropical forest illustration

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Paolo Moser; Laio Zimermann Oliveira; Alexander C. Vibrans

    2015-01-01

    Forest inventory estimates of tree volume for large areas are typically calculated by adding the model predictions of volumes for individual trees at the plot level, calculating the mean over plots, and expressing the result on a per unit area basis. The uncertainty in the model predictions is generally ignored, with the result that the precision of the large-area...

  5. California's western juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands: area, stand characteristics, wood volume, and fenceposts.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1989-01-01

    The results of a statewide inventory of western juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands are presented. Included are statistics on area of woodland by type and ownership; area of rangeland with scattered juniper and pinyon trees; wood volume by ownership, species, and tree size; juniper fenceposts; tree and stand age distribution; stand characteristics, including overstory...

  6. Post-stratified estimation of forest area and growing stock volume using lidar-based stratifications

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Terje Gobakken; Erik. Næsset

    2012-01-01

    National forest inventories report estimates of parameters related to forest area and growing stock volume for geographic areas ranging in size from municipalities to entire countries. Landsat imagery has been shown to be a source of auxiliary information that can be used with stratified estimation to increase the precision of estimates, although the increase is...

  7. Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

    1980-09-01

    Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

  8. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 2: Papers and presentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  9. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 1, Introduction and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies or exercise. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. This volume, Volume 1, contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  10. Foundations of Education, Volume I: History and Theory of Teaching Children and Youths with Visual Impairments. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, M. Cay, Ed.; Koenig, Alan J., Ed.

    This text, one of two volumes on the instruction of students with visual impairments, focuses on the history and theory of teaching such students. The following chapters are included: (1) "Historical Perspectives" (Phil Hatlen) with emphasis on the last 50 years; (2) "Visual Impairment" (Kathleen M. Huebner) which provides general information…

  11. Foundations of Education, Volume I: History and Theory of Teaching Children and Youths with Visual Impairments. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, M. Cay, Ed.; Koenig, Alan J., Ed.

    This text, one of two volumes on the instruction of students with visual impairments, focuses on the history and theory of teaching such students. The following chapters are included: (1) "Historical Perspectives" (Phil Hatlen) with emphasis on the last 50 years; (2) "Visual Impairment" (Kathleen M. Huebner) which provides general information…

  12. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  13. Soil volume estimation in debris flow areas using lidar data in the 2014 Hiroshima, Japan rainstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-10-01

    Debris flows triggered by the rainstorm in Hiroshima, Japan on August 20th, 2014 produced extensive damage to the built-up areas in the northern part of Hiroshima city. In order to consider various emergency response activities and early-stage recovery planning, it is important to evaluate the distribution of the soil volumes in the debris flow areas immediately after the disaster. In this study, automated nonlinear mapping technique is applied to light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) observed before and after the disaster to quickly and accurately correct geometric locational errors of the data. The soil volumes generated from the debris flows are estimated by subtracting the pre- and post-event DEMs. The geomorphologic characteristics in the debris flow areas are discussed from the distribution of the estimated soil volumes.

  14. Variation in the measurement of cranial volume and surface area using 3D laser scanning technology.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Flores, Louise M; Miller, Kevin W P; Walker, Phillip L

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner models of human crania can be used for forensic facial reconstruction, and for obtaining craniometric data useful for estimating age, sex, and population affinity of unidentified human remains. However, the use of computer-generated measurements in a casework setting requires the measurement precision to be known. Here, we assess the repeatability and precision of cranial volume and surface area measurements using 3D laser scanner models created by different operators using different protocols for collecting and processing data. We report intraobserver measurement errors of 0.2% and interobserver errors of 2% of the total area and volume values, suggesting that observer-related errors do not pose major obstacles for sharing, combining, or comparing such measurements. Nevertheless, as no standardized procedure exists for area or volume measurements from 3D models, it is imperative to report the scanning and postscanning protocols employed when such measurements are conducted in a forensic setting.

  15. Visceral adipose tissue area measurement at a single level: can it represent visceral adipose tissue volume?

    PubMed

    Noumura, Yusuke; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Nishimura, Hideho

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) needs to be accurate and sensitive to change for risk monitoring. The purpose of this study is to determine the CT slice location where VAT area can best reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. 60 plain abdominal CT images from 30 males [mean age (range) 51 (41-68) years, mean body weight (range) 71.1 (101.9-50.9) kg] who underwent workplace screenings twice within a 1-year interval were evaluated. Automatically calculated and manually corrected areas of the VAT of various scan levels using "freeform curve" region of interest on CT were recorded and compared with body weight changes. The strongest correlations of VAT area with VAT volume and body weight changes were shown in a slice 3 cm above the lower margin of L3 with r values of 0.853 and 0.902, respectively. VAT area measurement at a single level 3 cm above the lower margin of the L3 vertebra is feasible and can reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. Advances in knowledge: As VAT area at a CT slice 3cm above the lower margin of L3 can best reflect interval changes in VAT volume and body weight, VAT area measurement should be selected at this location.

  16. Volarea - a bioinformatics tool to calculate the surface area and the volume of molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João V; Tamames, Juan A C; Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a computer program named 'VolArea' that allows for a rapid and fully automated analysis of molecular structures. The software calculates the surface area and the volume of molecular structures, as well as the volume of molecular cavities. The surface area facility can be used to calculate the solvent-exposed surface area of a molecule or the contact area between two molecules. The volume algorithm can be used to predict not only the space occupied by any molecular structure, but also the volume of cavities, such as tunnels or clefts. The software finds wide application in the characterization of systems, such as protein/ligand complexes, enzyme active sites, protein/protein interfaces, enzyme channels, membrane pores, solvent tunnels, among others. Some examples are given to illustrate its potential. VolArea is as a plug-in of the widely distributed software Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) and is freely available at http://www.fc.up.pt/PortoBioComp/Software/Volarea/Home.html. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. An insight into the role of hydraulic history on the volume changes of anisotropic clayey soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Enrique; Jommi, Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Volume changes of natural and compacted soils induced by changes in their water content have many practical implications in the service life of earth dams, river and canal embankments, and waste disposal facilities. An insight into the overall strain response of a clayey soil upon gradual wetting and drying is provided here. Experimental data coming from oedometer and isotropic tests under suction and net stress control are presented for a compacted clay with an initial anisotropic fabric, highlighting the relevant role played by the hydraulic path on collapse, swelling, and shrinkage strains. Irreversible strains could be observed after wetting-drying paths and the subsequent drying-wetting cycle. Both stress and hydraulic histories play a role in the evolution of the directional fabric of clayey soils. The experimental data could be reproduced with a rather simple elastic-plastic constitutive model with a mixed isotropic-rotational hardening, previously conceived for saturated soils. The model is extended to unsaturated conditions by substituting the saturated effective stress with a measure of the average stress acting on the soil skeleton and by introducing generalized hardening rules governed by both plastic strains and degree of saturation. Coupling between the mechanical and the hydraulic behavior is provided by the water retention curve, in which degree of saturation is adopted as a useful measure of the soil water content.

  18. Increased Training Volume Improves Bone Density and Cortical Area in Adolescent Football Players.

    PubMed

    Varley, Ian; Hughes, David C; Greeves, Julie P; Fraser, William D; Sale, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Habitual football participation has been shown to be osteogenic, although the specific volume of football participation required to cause bone adaptations are not well established. The aim of the present study is to investigate tibial bone adaptations in response to 12 weeks of increased training volume in elite adolescents who are already accustomed to irregular impact training. 99 male adolescent elite footballers participated (age 16±0 y; height 1.76±0.66 m; body mass 70.2±8.3 kg). Tibial scans were performed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography immediately before and 12 weeks after an increase in football training volume. Scans were obtained at 4, 14, 38 and 66% of tibial length. Trabecular density (mg/cm(3)), cortical density (mg/cm(3)), cross-sectional area, cortical area (mm(2)), cortical thickness (mm) and strength strain index (mm(3)) were assessed. Trabecular (4%) and cortical density (14, 38%), cortical cross-sectional area (14, 38%), total cross-sectional area (66%), cortical thickness (14, 38%) and strength strain index (14, 38%) increased following 12 weeks of augmented volume training (P<0.05). Increased density of trabecular and cortical compartments and cortical thickening were shown following an increased volume of training. These adaptive responses may have been enhanced by the adolescent status of the cohort, supporting the role of early exercise intervention in improving bone strength.

  19. A seismologically consistent expression for the total area and volume of earthquake-triggered landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, Odin; Hovius, Niels; Meunier, Patrick; Gorum, Tolga; Uchida, Taro

    2016-04-01

    We present a new, seismologically consistent expression for the total area and volume of populations of earthquake-triggered landslides. This model builds on a set of scaling relationships between key parameters, such as landslide spatial density, seismic ground acceleration, fault length, earthquake source depth, and seismic moment. To assess the model we have assembled and normalized a catalog of landslide inventories for 40 shallow, continental earthquakes. Low landscape steepness causes systematic overprediction of the total area and volume of landslides. When this effect is accounted for, the model predicts the total landslide volume of 63% of 40 cases to within a factor 2 of the volume estimated from observations (R2=0.76). The prediction of total landslide area is also sensitive to the landscape steepness, but less so than the total volume, and it appears to be sensitive to controls on the landslide size-frequency distribution, and possibly the shaking duration. Some outliers are likely associated with exceptionally strong rock mass in the epicentral area, while others may be related to seismic source complexities ignored by the model. However, the close match between prediction and estimate for about two thirds of cases in our database suggests that rock mass strength is similar in many cases and that our simple seismic model is often adequate, despite the variety of lithologies and tectonic settings covered. This makes our expression suitable for integration into landscape evolution models and application to the anticipation or rapid assessment of secondary hazards associated with earthquakes.

  20. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 2: Aberdeen Area, 1965-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The second volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Aberdeen Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) Description of the Area (geography of the Area's Western Portion and…

  1. Teaching Military History--Why and How: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 12, Number 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    On September 29-30, 2007, FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education presented a weekend of discussion on "Teaching Military History: Why and How" for 35 teachers from 22 states across the country. The institute was held at the First Division Museum in Wheaton, Illinois and co-sponsored by the Cantigny First Division Foundation.…

  2. Teaching About the Military in American History: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 12, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    On March 24-25, 2007 FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 23 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about the Military in U.S. history. The Institute was held at and co-sponsored by the Cantigny First Division Museum. Sessions included: (1) War and the Military in American…

  3. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  4. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  5. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume II - Potentiometric Data Document Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume II of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the potentiometric data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  6. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  7. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume IV - Hydrologic Parameter Data Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Volume IV of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the hydrologic parameter data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  8. Estimation of Surface Area and Volume of a Nematode from Morphometric Data

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Simon; Pedley, Kevin C.; Simcock, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Nematode volume and surface area are usually based on the inappropriate assumption that the animal is cylindrical. While nematodes are approximately circular in cross section, the radius varies longitudinally. We use standard morphometric data to obtain improved estimates of volume and surface area based on (i) a geometrical approach and (ii) a Bézier representation of the nematode. These new estimators require only the morphometric data available from Cobb's ratios, but if fewer coordinates are available the geometric approach reduces to the standard estimates. Consequently, these new estimators are better than the standard alternatives. PMID:27110427

  9. Cortical thickness, volume and surface area in patients with bipolar disorder types I and II

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Sellgren, Carl; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Landén, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. The disorder is associated with cognitive impairments and structural brain abnormalities, such as lower cortical volumes in primarily frontal brain regions than healthy controls. Although bipolar disorder types I (BDI) and II (BDII) exhibit different symptoms and severity, previous studies have focused on BDI. Furthermore, the most frequently investigated measure in this population is cortical volume. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in patients with BDI and BDII by simultaneously analyzing cortical volume, thickness and surface area, which yields more information about disease- and symptom-related neurobiology. Methods We used MRI to measure cortical volume, thickness and area in patients with BDI and BDII as well as in healthy controls. The large study cohort enabled us to adjust for important confounding factors. Results We included 81 patients with BDI, 59 with BDII and 85 controls in our analyses. Cortical volume, thickness and surface area abnormalities were present in frontal, temporal and medial occipital regions in patients with BD. Lithium and antiepileptic drug use had an effect on the observed differences in medial occipital regions. Patients with the subtypes BDI and BDII displayed common cortical abnormalities, such as lower volume, thickness and surface area than healthy controls in frontal brain regions but differed in temporal and medial prefrontal regions, where only those with BDI had abnormally low cortical volume and thickness. Limitations The group differences can be explained by progressive changes, but also by premorbid conditions. They could also have been influenced by unknown factors, such as social, environmental or genetic factors. Conclusion Our findings suggest diagnosis-related neurobiological differences between the BD subtypes, which could explain distinct symptoms and

  10. Significance of measurements of herniary area and volume and abdominal cavity volume in the treatment of incisional hernia: application of CT 3D reconstruction in 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sheng; Li, Ji-ye; Liu, Fei-de; Pei, Li-juan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the value of CT 3D reconstruction in the diagnosis and treatment of incisional hernia and the related factor of abdominal cavity volume. Abdominal wall defect and herniary volume were measured using 3D reconstruction based on plain CT scans in 17 patients with incisional hernias. The herniary diameter, area and volume could be measured in the 17 patients and the abdominal cavity volume was also measured in 10 patients using the 3D reconstruction technique. The correlation indices of the abdominal cavity volume with the patient's height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were all less than 0.01. Herniary area and volume and abdominal cavity volume can be accurately calculated through CT 3D reconstruction. The patch area should be more than 5 times as large as the defect area; combined with the perioperative overlap margin measurement method, this results in more scientific surgical management. The ratio of the herniary volume to the abdominal cavity volume may be conducive to preoperative assessment of the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); however, the ratio that may lead to postoperative ACS remains to be determined. There are correlations of abdominal cavity volume with patient height, weight and BMI, especially with weight. We therefore propose that the abdominal cavity volume should be evaluated with internationally accepted indices.

  11. Stormwater Runoff Characterized by GIS Determined Source Areas and Runoff Volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Soonthornnonda, Puripus; Li, Jin; Christensen, Erik R.

    2011-02-01

    Runoff coefficients are usually considered in isolation for each drainage area with resulting large uncertainties in the areas and coefficients. Accurate areas and coefficients are obtained here by optimizing runoff coefficients for characteristic Geographic Information Systems (GIS) subareas within each drainage area so that the resulting runoff coefficients of each drainage area are consistent with those obtained from runoff and rainfall volumes. Lack of fit can indicate that the ArcGIS information is inaccurate or more likely, that the drainage area needs adjustment. Results for 18 drainage areas in Milwaukee, WI for 2000-2004 indicate runoff coefficients ranging from 0.123 for a mostly residential area to 0.679 for a freeway-related land, with a standard error of 0.047. Optimized runoff coefficients are necessary input parameters for monitoring, and for the analysis and design of in situ stormwater unit operations and processes for the control of both urban runoff quantity and quality.

  12. Generation of the relationship between glacier area and volume for a tropical glacier in Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Tsuda, M.; Iwami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Mendoza, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Andes, retreat of tropical glaciers is rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments would be changed in its volume and temporal variations due to climate change and glacier shrinkage. The relationship between glacier area and volume is difficult to define however which is important to monitor glaciers especially those are remote or inaccessible. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from glacierized headwater catchments in the Cordillera Real, Andes, which is therefore selected as our study region.To predict annual glacier mass balances, PWRI-Distributed Hydrological Model (PWRI-DHM) was applied to simulate runoff from the partially glacierized catchments in high mountains (i.e. Condoriri-Huayna West headwater catchment located in the Cordillera Real, Bolivian Andes). PWRI-DHM is based on tank model concept in a distributed and 4-tank configuration including surface, unsaturated, aquifer, and river course tanks. The model was calibrated and validated with observed meteorological and hydrological data from 2011 to 2014 by considering different phases of precipitation, various runoff components from glacierized and non-glacierized areas, and the retarding effect by glacial lakes and wetlands. The model is then applied with MRI-AGCM outputs from 1987 to 2003 considering the shrinkage of glacier outlines since 1980s derived from Landsat data. Annual glacier mass balance in each 100m-grid was reproduced, with which the glacier area-volume relationship was generated with reasonable initial volume setting. Out study established a method to define the relationship between glacier area and volume by remote sensing information and glacier mass balances simulated by distributed hydrological model. Our results demonstrated that the changing trend of local glacier had a consistency the previous observed glacier area-volume relationship in the Cordillera Real.

  13. Essays on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics: Proceedings of the Third through the Sixth History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    This two volume publication presents the proceedings of the third through sixth history symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics. Thirty-nine papers are divided into four categories: (1) Early Solid Propellant Rocketry; (2) Rocketry and Astronautics: Concepts, Theory, and Analyses after 1880; (3) The Development of Liquid and Solid Propellant Rockets from 1880 to 1945; and (4) Rocketry and Astronautics after 1945. Categories 1 and 2 will be found in volume 1 and the remainder in volume 2. Among other diciplines, Rocketry and Astronautics encompasses the physical and engineering sciences including fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, vibration theory, structural mechanics, and celestial mechanics. Papers presented in these two volumes range from those of empirical experimenters who used the time-honored cut and try methods to scientists wielding theoretical principles. The work traces the coupling of the physical and engineering sciences, industrial advances, and state support that produced the awesome progress in rocketry and astronautics for the most part within living memory. The proceedings of the four symposia present in these two volumes contain information on the work of leading investigators and their associates carried out in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century.

  14. Efficient gaussian density formulation of volume and surface areas of macromolecules on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baofeng; Kilburg, Denise; Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay S; Gallicchio, Emilio

    2017-04-15

    We present an algorithm to efficiently compute accurate volumes and surface areas of macromolecules on graphical processing unit (GPU) devices using an analytic model which represents atomic volumes by continuous Gaussian densities. The volume of the molecule is expressed by means of the inclusion-exclusion formula, which is based on the summation of overlap integrals among multiple atomic densities. The surface area of the molecule is obtained by differentiation of the molecular volume with respect to atomic radii. The many-body nature of the model makes a port to GPU devices challenging. To our knowledge, this is the first reported full implementation of this model on GPU hardware. To accomplish this, we have used recursive strategies to construct the tree of overlaps and to accumulate volumes and their gradients on the tree data structures so as to minimize memory contention. The algorithm is used in the formulation of a surface area-based non-polar implicit solvent model implemented as an open source plug-in (named GaussVol) for the popular OpenMM library for molecular mechanics modeling. GaussVol is 50 to 100 times faster than our best optimized implementation for the CPUs, achieving speeds in excess of 100 ns/day with 1 fs time-step for protein-sized systems on commodity GPUs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Association of Competition Volume, Club Sports, and Sport Specialization With Sex and Lower Extremity Injury History in High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ(2) = 84.7, P < 0.001), participate on a club team (61.2% vs 37.2%, χ(2) = 88.3, P < 0.001), and be highly specialized (16.4% vs 10.4%, χ(2) = 19.7, P < 0.001). Athletes with high competition volume, who participated in a club sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P < 0.001), no club sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P < 0.001), or low specialization (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.88-3.54; P < 0.001), even after adjusting for sex. Participating in high sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized

  16. Hispanics in U.S. History. Volume 1: Through 1865. Volume 2: 1865 to the Present. The Newcomers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Varona, Frank; And Others

    Each of these two textbooks on Hispanic-American history contains 4 units divided into 20 chapters. Each chapter includes an overarching question; text; reading comprehension questions; study tips; an activity involving geography skills, links between past and present, or daily life; an activity involving arts and technology or using primary…

  17. Hispanics in U.S. History. Volume 1: Through 1865. Volume 2: 1865 to the Present. The Newcomers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Varona, Frank; And Others

    Each of these two textbooks on Hispanic-American history contains 4 units divided into 20 chapters. Each chapter includes an overarching question; text; reading comprehension questions; study tips; an activity involving geography skills, links between past and present, or daily life; an activity involving arts and technology or using primary…

  18. Hypothalamic tumors impact gray and white matter volumes in fronto-limbic brain areas.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Jale; Müller, Hermann L; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Thiel, Christiane M

    2017-04-01

    Patients with hypothalamic involvement of a sellar/parasellar tumor often suffer from cognitive and social-emotional deficits that a lesion in the hypothalamus cannot fully explain. It is conceivable that these deficits are partly due to distal changes in hypothalamic networks, evolving secondary to a focal lesion. Focusing on childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients, we aimed at investigating the impact of hypothalamic lesions on gray and white matter areas densely connected to the hypothalamus, and to relate structural changes to neuropsychological deficits frequently observed in patients. We performed a voxel-based morphometric analysis based on data of 11 childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients with hypothalamic tumor involvement, and 18 healthy controls (median age: 17.2 and 17.4 yrs.). Whole-brain analyses were used to test for volumetric differences between the groups (T-tests) and subsequent regression analyses were used to correlate neuropsychological performance with gray and white matter volumes within the patient group. Patients compared to controls had significantly reduced gray matter volumes in areas of the anterior and posterior limbic subsystems which are densely connected with the hypothalamus. In addition, a reduction in white matter volumes was observed in tracts connecting the hypothalamus to other limbic areas. Worse long-term memory retrieval was correlated with smaller gray matter volumes in the posterior cingulate cortex. Our data provide the first evidence that hypothalamic tumor involvement impacts gray and white matter volumes in limbic areas, outside the area of tumor growth. Notably, the functional range of the two limbic subsystems affected, strikingly parallels the two major domains of psychological complaints in patients i.e., deficits in episodic memory and in socio-emotional functioning. We suggest that focal hypothalamic lesions may trigger distal changes in connected brain areas, which then contribute to the impairments in

  19. Lower anterior cingulate volume in seriously violent men with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia and a history of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Veena; Uddin, Shahir; Premkumar, Preethi; Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Raghuvanshi, Satya; Barkataki, Ian; Sumich, Alexander; Taylor, Pamela; Das, Mrigendra

    2014-02-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and schizophrenia, as well as childhood abuse, are associated with violent behaviour and show marked volumetric reduction in the anterior cingulate (AC), a brain region implicated in regulation of violence through its involvement in decision making, empathy, impulse control, and emotion regulation. The present study examined, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, the grey matter volume of the AC in relation to seriously violent behaviour and childhood psychosocial deprivation (including physical and sexual abuse) in the context of a mental disorder (schizophrenia or ASPD). Fifty-seven men [14 with ASPD and a history of serious violence; 13 with schizophrenia and a history of serious violence (VSZ); 15 with schizophrenia without a violence history (SZ); 15 nonviolent healthy participants] underwent whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging and were rated on the presence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, extreme poverty, foster home placement, criminal parent, severe family conflict, and broken home (collectively 'psychosocial deprivation'). Stereological volumetric ratings of the AC were examined for group differences and their association with childhood psychosocial deprivation. A higher proportion of ASPD and VSZ patients had suffered psychosocial deprivation as children, in particular severe physical abuse, relative to SZ patients and healthy participants. ASPD and VSZ, but not SZ, patients had significantly lower AC volume relative to healthy participants. AC volumes correlated negatively with (total) psychosocial deprivation as well as physical and sexual abuse ratings. Group differences in AC volume became nonsignificant when psychosocial deprivation ratings were covaried for. Violent mentally disordered individuals with ASPD or schizophrenia suffer from a significant AC volume loss and this deficit, at least in part, is explained by their histories of stressful childhood experiences. Current and future

  20. A Study on Sixth Grade Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Spatial Measurement: Length, Area, and Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to portray students' misconceptions and errors while solving conceptually and procedurally oriented tasks involving length, area, and volume measurement. The data were collected from 445 sixth grade students attending public primary schools in Ankara, Türkiye via a test composed of 16 constructed-response…

  1. Economic Development Program, St. Louis. Volume 2. An Economic Profile of a St. Louis Poverty Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Management and Economics Research, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    Volume 2 of a larger study to formulate an economic development program for St. Louis, this is a comprehensive economic profile of an inner city poverty zone designated as the Target Area (TA). Data are presented on age, sex, race, income, education, and other socioeconomic characteristics of the TA population, together with information on the…

  2. Tomorrow's Manpower Needs. Volume I, Developing Area Manpower Projections. Bulletin No. 1606.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication is the first of four volumes of "Tomorrow's Manpower Needs," publications devoted to the subject of national, state, and area projections of manpower requirements. The objective of this publication is to provide projections of probable need in particular occupations as guides for education, training, and other policies aimed at…

  3. Whole object surface area and volume of partial-view 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulukutla, Gopal K.; Genareau, Kimberly D.; Durant, Adam J.; Proussevitch, Alexander A.

    2017-08-01

    Micro-scale 3D models, important components of many studies in science and engineering, are often used to determine morphological characteristics such as shape, surface area and volume. The application of techniques such as stereoscopic scanning electron microscopy on whole objects often results in ‘partial-view’ models with a portion of object not within the field of view thus not captured in the 3D model. The nature and extent of the surface not captured is dependent on the complex interaction of imaging system attributes (e.g. working distance, viewing angle) with object size, shape and morphology. As a result, any simplistic assumptions in estimating whole object surface area or volume can lead to significant errors. In this study, we report on a novel technique to estimate the physical fraction of an object captured in a partial-view 3D model of an otherwise whole object. This allows a more accurate estimate of surface area and volume. Using 3D models, we demonstrate the robustness of this method and the accuracy of surface area and volume estimates relative to true values.

  4. A Study on Sixth Grade Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Spatial Measurement: Length, Area, and Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to portray students' misconceptions and errors while solving conceptually and procedurally oriented tasks involving length, area, and volume measurement. The data were collected from 445 sixth grade students attending public primary schools in Ankara, Türkiye via a test composed of 16 constructed-response…

  5. Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

  6. Supplementary motor area (SMA) volume is associated with psychotic aberrant motor behaviour of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stegmayer, Katharina; Horn, Helge; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Bracht, Tobias; Laimböck, Karin; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian

    2014-07-30

    We aimed to investigate whether aberrant motor behavior in schizophrenia was associated with structural alterations in the motor system. Whole brain voxel based morphometry of patients with different severity of motor symptoms identified altered gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), a key region of the motor system.

  7. Epitympanum volume and tympanic isthmus area in temporal bones with retraction pockets.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Ömer; Kwon, Geeyoun; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-11-01

    To compare the volume of the epitympanic space, as well as the area of the tympanic isthmus, in human temporal bones with retraction pockets to those with chronic otitis media without retraction pockets and to those with neither condition. Comparative human temporal bone study. We generated a three-dimensional model of the bony epitympanum and measured the epitympanic space. We also compared the area of the tympanic isthmus. The mean total volume of the epitympanum was 40.55 ± 7.14 mm(3) in the retraction pocket group, 50.03 ± 8.49 mm(3) in the chronic otitis media group, and 48.03 ± 9.16 mm(3) in the neither condition group. The mean volume of the anterior, lateral, and medial compartments in temporal bones in the retraction pocket group was significantly smaller than in the two control groups (P < 0.05). Total epitympanic volume was also significantly smaller in the retraction pocket group than in both control groups (P < 0.05). The mean area of the tympanic isthmus was significantly smaller in the retraction pocket group (8.11 ± 2.44 mm(2) ) than in the chronic otitis media group (9.82 ± 2.06 mm(2) ) or the neither condition group (10.66 ± 1.78 mm(2) ) (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that temporal bones with retraction pockets have a smaller volume bony epitympanum and a smaller tympanic isthmus area as compared with temporal bones from both control groups. The smaller volume tympanic isthmus in the retraction pocket group may suggest that a blockage in the aeration pathways to the epitympanum could create dysventilation, resulting in negative pressure and ultimately in retraction pockets and cholesteatomas. NA Laryngoscope, 126:E369-E374, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, John A.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…

  9. Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, John A.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…

  10. An assessment of Landsat data acquisition history on identification and area estimation of corn and soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.; Scholz, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    During the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of satellite remote sensing for providing accurate and timely crop area information. This study assessed the impact of Landsat data acquisition history on classification and area estimation accuracy of corn and soybeans. Multitemporally registered Landsat MSS data from four acquisitions during the 1978 growing season were used in classification of eight sample segments in the U.S. Corn Belt. The results illustrate the importance of selecting Landsat acquisitions based on spectral differences in crops at certain growth stages.

  11. Relationship of Serum Estrogens and Metabolites with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities

    PubMed Central

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; Patel, Deesha A.; Falk, Roni T.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Geller, Berta M.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Chicoine, Rachael E.; Shepherd, John A.; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Wang, Jeff; Fan, Bo; Herschorn, Sally D.; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy; Fuhrman, Barbara; Sherman, Mark E.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Elevated mammographic density is a breast cancer risk factor, which has a suggestive, but unproven, relationship with increased exposure to sex-steroid hormones. We examined associations of serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites with area and novel volume mammographic density measures among 187 women, ages 40–65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsies at an academic facility in Vermont. Methods Serum parent estrogens, estrone and estradiol, and their 2-, 4-, and 16-hydroxylated metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Area mammographic density was measured in the breast contralateral to the biopsy using thresholding software; volume mammographic density was quantified using a density phantom. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of estrogens with mammographic densities, adjusted for age and body mass index, and stratified by menopausal status and menstrual cycle phase. Results Weak, positive associations between estrogens, estrogen metabolites and mammographic density were observed, primarily among postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal luteal phase women, the 16-pathway metabolite estriol was associated with percent area (p=0.04) and volume (p=0.05) mammographic densities and absolute area (p=0.02) and volume (p=0.05) densities. Among postmenopausal women, levels of total estrogens, the sum of parent estrogens, and 2-, 4- and 16-hydroxylation pathway metabolites were positively associated with area density measures (percent: p=0.03, p=0.04, p=0.01, p=0.02, p=0.07; absolute: p=0.02, p=0.02, p=0.01, p=0.02, p=0.03, respectively), but not volume density measures. Conclusions Our data suggest that serum estrogen profiles are weak determinants of mammographic density and that analysis of different density metrics may provide complementary information about relationships of exposures to breast tissue composition. PMID:25757805

  12. Relationship of serum estrogens and metabolites with area and volume mammographic densities.

    PubMed

    Gierach, Gretchen L; Patel, Deesha A; Falk, Roni T; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Geller, Berta M; Vacek, Pamela M; Weaver, Donald L; Chicoine, Rachael E; Shepherd, John A; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Wang, Jeff; Fan, Bo; Herschorn, Sally D; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy; Fuhrman, Barbara; Sherman, Mark E; Brinton, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Elevated mammographic density is a breast cancer risk factor, which has a suggestive, but unproven, relationship with increased exposure to sex steroid hormones. We examined associations of serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites with area and novel volume mammographic density measures among 187 women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsies at an academic facility in Vermont. Serum parent estrogens, estrone and estradiol, and their 2-, 4-, and 16-hydroxylated metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Area mammographic density was measured in the breast contralateral to the biopsy using thresholding software; volume mammographic density was quantified using a density phantom. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of estrogens with mammographic densities, adjusted for age and body mass index, and stratified by menopausal status and menstrual cycle phase. Weak, positive associations between estrogens, estrogen metabolites, and mammographic density were observed, primarily among postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal luteal phase women, the 16-pathway metabolite estriol was associated with percent area (p = 0.04) and volume (p = 0.05) mammographic densities and absolute area (p = 0.02) and volume (p = 0.05) densities. Among postmenopausal women, levels of total estrogens, the sum of parent estrogens, and 2-, 4- and 16-hydroxylation pathway metabolites were positively associated with area density measures (percent: p = 0.03, p = 0.04, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.07; absolute: p = 0.02, p = 0.02, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.03, respectively) but not volume density measures. Our data suggest that serum estrogen profiles are weak determinants of mammographic density and that analysis of different density metrics may provide complementary information about relationships of estrogen exposure to breast tissue composition.

  13. Regional Brain Differences in Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  14. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  15. Effect of degassing temperature on specific surface area and pore volume measurements of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Hüffer, Thorsten; Kah, Melanie; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution are key biochar properties that have been related to water and nutrient cycling, microbial activity as well as sorption potential for organic compounds. Specific surface area and pore volume are commonly determined by measurement of physisorption of N2 and/or CO2. The measurement requires prior degassing of the samples, which may change the structure of the materials. Information on degassing temperature is rarely reported in literature, and recommendations differ considerably between existing guidelines for biochar characterization. Therefore, the influence of degassing temperature on N2 and CO2physisorption measurements was investigated by systematically degassing a range of materials, including four biochars, Al2O3 and carbon nanotubes at different temperatures (105 ˚ C, 150 ˚ C, 200 ˚ C, 250 ˚ C and 300 ˚ C for ≥ 14 h each). Measured specific surface area and pore volume increased with increasing degassing temperature for all biochars. Additional surface area and pore volume may have become available as components in biochars volatilized during the degassing phase. The results of our study showed that (i) degassing conditions change material properties, and influence physisorption measurements for biochar (ii) comparison between parameters derived from different degassing protocols may not be appropriate, and (iii) degassing protocols should be harmonized in the biochar community [1]. [1] Sigmund, et al. (2016), "Biochar total surface area and total pore volume determined by N2 and CO2 physisorption are strongly influenced by degassing temperature", STOTEN, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.023.

  16. The impact of surface area, volume, curvature, and Lennard-Jones potential to solvation modeling.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc D; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2017-01-05

    This article explores the impact of surface area, volume, curvature, and Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential on solvation free energy predictions. Rigidity surfaces are utilized to generate robust analytical expressions for maximum, minimum, mean, and Gaussian curvatures of solvent-solute interfaces, and define a generalized Poisson-Boltzmann (GPB) equation with a smooth dielectric profile. Extensive correlation analysis is performed to examine the linear dependence of surface area, surface enclosed volume, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, mean curvature, and Gaussian curvature for solvation modeling. It is found that surface area and surfaces enclosed volumes are highly correlated to each other's, and poorly correlated to various curvatures for six test sets of molecules. Different curvatures are weakly correlated to each other for six test sets of molecules, but are strongly correlated to each other within each test set of molecules. Based on correlation analysis, we construct twenty six nontrivial nonpolar solvation models. Our numerical results reveal that the LJ potential plays a vital role in nonpolar solvation modeling, especially for molecules involving strong van der Waals interactions. It is found that curvatures are at least as important as surface area or surface enclosed volume in nonpolar solvation modeling. In conjugation with the GPB model, various curvature-based nonpolar solvation models are shown to offer some of the best solvation free energy predictions for a wide range of test sets. For example, root mean square errors from a model constituting surface area, volume, mean curvature, and LJ potential are less than 0.42 kcal/mol for all test sets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 8: Phoenix Area, 1966-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The eighth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Phoenix Area Office and the Tucson Sub-Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context: Political and Geographic (the…

  18. Experimental determination of the PTW 60019 microDiamond dosimeter active area and volume.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G

    2016-09-01

    Small field output correction factors have been studied by several research groups for the PTW 60019 microDiamond (MD) dosimeter, by comparing the response of such a device with both reference dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations. A general good agreement is observed for field sizes down to about 1 cm. However, evident inconsistencies can be noticed when comparing some experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations obtained for smaller irradiation fields. This issue was tentatively attributed by some authors to unintentional large variations of the MD active surface area. The aim of the present study is a nondestructive experimental determination of the MD active surface area and active volume. Ten MD dosimeters, one MD prototype, and three synthetic diamond samples were investigated in the present work. 2D maps of the MD response were recorded under scanned soft x-ray microbeam irradiation, leading to an experimental determination of the device active surface area. Profiles of the device responses were measured as well. In order to evaluate the MD active volume, the thickness of the diamond sensing layer was independently evaluated by capacitance measurements and alpha particle detection experiments. The MD sensitivity, measured at the PTW calibration laboratory, was also used to calculate the device active volume thickness. An average active surface area diameter of (2.19 ± 0.02) mm was evaluated by 2D maps and response profiles of all the MDs. Average active volume thicknesses of (1.01 ± 0.13) μm and (0.97 ± 0.14) μm were derived by capacitance and sensitivity measurements, respectively. The obtained results are well in agreement with the nominal values reported in the manufacturer dosimeter specifications. A homogeneous response was observed over the whole device active area. Besides the one from the device active volume, no contributions from other components of the housing nor from encapsulation materials were observed in the 2D response maps. The

  19. Relationship of Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Breast with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities

    PubMed Central

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; Patel, Deesha A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Johnson, Jason M.; Chicoine, Rachael E.; Herschorn, Sally D.; Shepherd, John A.; Wang, Jeff; Malkov, Serghei; Vacek, Pamela M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Fan, Bo; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Palakal, Maya; Xiang, Jackie; Oh, Hannah; Horne, Hisani N.; Sprague, Brian L.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated mammographic density (MD) is an established breast cancer risk factor. Reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the histologic source of most breast cancers, has been associated with higher MD and breast cancer risk. We investigated relationships of TDLU involution with area and volumetric MD, measured throughout the breast and surrounding biopsy targets (peri-lesional). Three measures inversely related to TDLU involution (TDLU count/mm2, median TDLU span, median acini count/TDLU) assessed in benign diagnostic biopsies from 348 women, ages 40–65, were related to MD area (quantified with thresholding software) and volume (assessed with a density phantom) by analysis of covariance, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, TDLU count was directly associated with percent peri-lesional MD (P-trend=0.03), but not with absolute dense area/volume. Greater TDLU span was associated with elevated percent dense area/volume (P-trend<0.05) and absolute peri-lesional MD (P=0.003). Acini count was directly associated with absolute peri-lesional MD (P=0.02). Greater TDLU involution (all metrics) was associated with increased nondense area/volume (P-trend≤0.04). Among postmenopausal women, TDLU measures were not significantly associated with MD. Among premenopausal women, reduced TDLU involution was associated with higher area and volumetric MD, particularly in peri-lesional parenchyma. Data indicating that TDLU involution and MD are correlated markers of breast cancer risk suggest that associations of MD with breast cancer may partly reflect amounts of at-risk epithelium. If confirmed, these results could suggest a prevention paradigm based on enhancing TDLU involution and monitoring efficacy by assessing MD reduction. PMID:26645278

  20. Calculation of area and volume for the south part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife Resources, collected bathymetric data for the south part of Great Salt Lake during 2002-04 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 7.6 million depth measurements were collected along more than 930 miles (1,690 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 508,000 acres (2,056 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 9,257,000 acre-feet (11.42 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum water-surface altitude of the south part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,279 meters) in the area just south of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Promontory Point and the western edge of the lake. At this altitude, and continuing up to about 4,176 feet (1,279 meters), the south part of the lake is separated into two areas by a ridge extending from Promontory Point to Hat Island. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,279 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  1. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the US Civilian Space Program. Volume 3; Using Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Onkst, David H. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important developments of the twentieth century has been the movement of humanity into space with machines and people. The underpinnings of that movement -why it took the shape it did; which individuals and organizations were involved; what factors drove a particular choice of scientific objectives and technologies to be used; and the political, economic, managerial, and international contexts in which the events of the space age unfolded- are all important ingredients of this epoch transition from an earthbound to spacefaring people. This desire to understand the development of spaceflight in the United States sparked this documentary history series. 'Exploring the Unknown' is a multi-volume series containing a selection of key documents in history of the U.S. civil space program. This current volume, Volume III, focusing on the use of space for practical applications, prints 112 key documents on the history of satellite communications, remote sensing of earth, and space as an investment in economic growth, edited for ease of use. Each is introduced by a headnote providing context, bibliographical information, and background information necessary to understanding the document.

  2. Maximal area and conformal welding heuristics for optimal slice selection in splenic volume estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Peng, Hao; Gu, Xianfeng; Barish, Mathew; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate estimation of splenic volume is crucial for the determination of disease progression and response to treatment for diseases that result in enlargement of the spleen. However, there is no consensus with respect to the use of single or multiple one-dimensional, or volumetric measurement. Existing methods for human reviewers focus on measurement of cross diameters on a representative axial slice and craniocaudal length of the organ. We propose two heuristics for the selection of the optimal axial plane for splenic volume estimation: the maximal area axial measurement heuristic and the novel conformal welding shape-based heuristic. We evaluate these heuristics on time-variant data derived from both healthy and sick subjects and contrast them to established heuristics. Under certain conditions our heuristics are superior to standard practice volumetric estimation methods. We conclude by providing guidance on selecting the optimal heuristic for splenic volume estimation.

  3. Development of the meshless finite volume particle method with exact and efficient calculation of interparticle area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, Nathan J.; Lobovský, Libor; Nestor, Ruairi M.

    2014-06-01

    The Finite Volume Particle Method (FVPM) is a meshless method based on a definition of interparticle area which is closely analogous to cell face area in the classical finite volume method. In previous work, the interparticle area has been computed by numerical integration, which is a source of error and is extremely expensive. We show that if the particle weight or kernel function is defined as a discontinuous top-hat function, the particle interaction vectors may be evaluated exactly and efficiently. The new formulation reduces overall computational time by a factor between 6.4 and 8.2. In numerical experiments on a viscous flow with an analytical solution, the method converges under all conditions. Significantly, in contrast with standard FVPM and SPH, error depends on particle size but not on particle overlap (as long as the computational domain is completely covered by particles). The new method is shown to be superior to standard FVPM for shock tube flow and inviscid steady transonic flow. In benchmarking on a viscous multiphase flow application, FVPM with exact interparticle area is shown to be competitive with a mesh-based volume-of-fluid solver in terms of computational time required to resolve the structure of an interface.

  4. Calculation of area and volume for the north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands, collected bathymetric data for the north part of Great Salt Lake during the spring and early summer of 2006 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 5.2 million depth measurements were collected along more than 765 miles (1,230 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 385,000 acres (1,560 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 5,693,000 acre-feet (about 7 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum natural water-surface altitude of the north part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) in the area just north of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Saline and the western edge of the lake. The north part of Great Salt Lake generally grades gradually to the west and north and is bounded by steep scarps along its eastern border. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  5. Interfacial Area per Volume: The link between capillary pressure and saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Cheng, J.; Nolte, D. D.; Giordano, N.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements were performed on micro-models to quantify interfacial area per volume for a known pore geometry as a function of fluid pressure and saturation. The micro-models are completely transparent and measure 600 µm x 600 µm with an aperture of 1.08 µm. Because the micro-models are transparent, full visualization and quantification of the fluid distributions is possible. Initially the micro-models are saturated with decane (wetting phase). Nitrogen (non-wetting phase) is invaded into the system by the application of pressure in increments. At each increment, the system is allowed to equilibrate and then digital images of fluid distributions within the pore structure are acquired. The images are analyzed to determined fluid saturations, interfacial areas per volume and curvature of the interfaces. The curvatures of the interfaces are calculated using level set methods Pressure measurements are also made with pressure transducers during the experiment. From the data, we have established that the interfacial area per volume between non-wetting and wetting fluids lifts the ambiguity associated with the hysteretic relationship between capillary pressure and saturation in porous media. The interface between the non-wetting and wetting phases is composed of two subsets: one with a unique curvature determined by the capillary pressure, and the other with a distribution of curvatures dominated by disjoining pressure. This work provides experimental support for theoretical predictions that the capillary-dominated subset plays a role analogous to a state variable. Any comprehensive description of multiphase flow properties must include this interfacial area with the traditional variables of pressure and fluid saturation. Research is continuing to examine the role of pore structure on the relationship among capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area per volume. Acknowledgments: Geosciences Research Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences US Department of

  6. NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

  7. Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, A. G.; Westbrook, C. J.; van der Kamp, G.

    2009-05-01

    There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h methods to accurately estimate volume for the range of wetland shapes occurring across the Prairie Pothole Region. These results were contrasted with two commonly implemented V-A regression equations to determine which method estimates volume most accurately. We used detailed topographic data for 27 wetlands in Smith Creek and St. Denis watersheds, Saskatchewan that ranged in surface area and basin shape. The full V-A-h method was found to accurately estimate storage (errors <3%) across wetlands of various shapes, and is therefore suitable for calculating water storage in the variety of wetland surface shapes found in the prairies. Both V-A equations performed poorly, with volume underestimated by an average of 15% and 50% Analysis of the simplified V-A-h method showed that volume errors of <10% can be achieved if the basin and shape coefficients are derived properly. This would involve measuring depth and area twice, with sufficient time between measurements that the natural fluctuations in water storage are reflected. Practically, wetland area and depth should be measured in spring, following snowmelt when water levels are near the peak, and also in late summer prior to water depths dropping below 10 cm. These guidelines for applying the simplified V-A-h method will allow for accurate volume estimations when detailed topographic data are not available. Since the V-A equations were outperformed by the full and simplified V-A-h methods, we conclude that wetland depth and basin morphology should be considered when estimating volume. This will improve storage estimations of natural and human

  8. Breaking Away from the Textbook, Volume II: Creative Ways to Teach World History. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ron H.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching history should not simply be an endless recitation of irrelevant facts, entombed between the covers of a textbook. Instead, "Breaking Away from the Textbook" offers a fascinating journey through world history. Not a comprehensive, theory-heavy guide, this book instead focuses on exciting classroom activities, methods for students to…

  9. Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society. Volume 17, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The 18 papers of this conference were divided into five topics ranging from literacy to the history of progressive reform to history of education from an international perspective. Part 1 includes: "Isabella Graham and Joanna Bethune's Early American Experiments in Educating Illiterates" (L. Townsend); "The Dilemma of Equivalency:…

  10. United States and New York State History, Grade 7. A Multicultural Perspective. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This resource guide, designed for use by New York City teachers, provides a wide range of suggested approaches and materials from which teachers can select as they teach the grade 7 and grade 8 course "United States and New York State History." The resource guide strives to include the histories, perspectives, and contributions of all…

  11. United States and New York State History, Grade 7. A Multicultural Perspective. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This resource guide, designed for use by New York City teachers, provides a wide range of suggested approaches and materials from which teachers can select as they teach the grade 7 and grade 8 course "United States and New York State History." The resource guide strives to include the histories, perspectives, and contributions of all…

  12. United States and New York State History, Grade 7. A Multicultural Perspective. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This resource guide, designed for use by New York City teachers, provides a wide range of suggested approaches and materials from which teachers can select as they teach the grade 7 and grade 8 course "United States and New York State History." The resource guide strives to include the histories, perspectives, and contributions of all…

  13. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2006-06-30

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period January 01, 2006 to June 30, 2006 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse completed obtaining additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in a previous reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed obtaining raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (Cd/m) information for 9 more biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated before in this project. Results of the mean mass data obtained to date are reported here, and analysis of the raw data collected by REM is in progress.

  14. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2006-01-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2005 to December 31, 2005 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse continued to obtain additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in the last reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has obtained raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (C{sub d}/m) information for several biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated in the last reporting period. Preliminary results of the mean mass and the shape data obtained are reported here, and more data collection is in progress.

  15. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  16. Soft tissue facial areas and volumes in subjects with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Zanotti, Gianfranco; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2004-10-15

    The objective of this study was to supply quantitative information about the facial soft-tissues of a group of subjects with Down syndrome. The three-dimensional coordinates of 28 soft-tissue facial landmarks were obtained by an electromechanic digitizer in 17 male and 11 female subjects with Down syndrome aged 12-45 years, and in 429 healthy individuals of the same age, ethnicity, and sex. From the landmarks, facial areas (eyes, ears, nose, and lips) and volumes (nose and lips) were calculated according to a geometrical model of face. Data were compared to those collected in the normal subjects by computing z-scores. Male and female z-scores were not significantly different. Most of the facial volumes were significantly (Student's t, P < 0.05) smaller in subjects with Down syndrome than in their normal controls. Ear areas were significantly reduced (mean z-scores in males -2.07 right, -1.9 left; in females -2.11 right, -2.21 left), as well as nasal surface area (mean z-score -1.53 in males, -2.45 in females). In women, age and some z-scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.05): upper lip volume (r = 0.714), left and right eye area (r = 0.635, right; 0.604, left), nasal area (r = 0.603): with increasing age, the negative values of the z-scores approached the 0 value of the reference population. In the pooled sample, age and the z-score of the total lip area were significantly correlated (r = 0.423): increasing age corresponded to a larger z-score value. The method allowed a simple, low cost, fast, and noninvasive examination of the subjects, and provided a quantitative assessment of the deviation from the norm.

  17. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  18. Mass-independent area (or entropy) and thermodynamic volume products in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of conformal gravity in four dimensions. We compute the area (or entropy) functional relation for this black hole (BH). We consider both de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) cases. We derive the Cosmic-Censorship-Inequality which is an important relation in general relativity that relates the total mass of a spacetime to the area of all the BH horizons. Local thermodynamic stability is studied by computing the specific heat. The second-order phase transition occurs at a certain condition. Various types of second-order phase structure have been given for various values of a and the cosmological constant Λ in the Appendix. When a = 0, one obtains the result of Schwarzschild-dS and Schwarzschild-AdS cases. In the limit aM ≪ 1, one obtains the result of Grumiller spacetime, where a is nontrivial Rindler parameter or Rindler acceleration and M is the mass parameter. The thermodynamic volume functional relation is derived in the extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate variable as a thermodynamic volume. The mass-independent area (or entropy) functional relation and thermodynamic volume functional relation that we have derived could turn out to be a universal quantity.

  19. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    8217 AD-AI13 146 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 B/7 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN AGOITI--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED E-TR...50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY SEVEN ADDITIONAL VALLEYS NEVADA/UTAH SITING AREA VOLUME IV 4Prepared for: U. S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic...VALLEY MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEfV STUDY AREA OXJNOARY SEPT. 26, 1960 I MX SITING INVESTIGATION 27 FEDC t97 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE I ik 320’- 36 37 4

  20. Volumes of recent floods and potential for storage in upland watershed areas of Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.; Eash, David A.; Harvey, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    During the autumn of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, began a study to determine the volume of water associated with recent flood events in parts of the Midwestern United States and a preliminary evaluation of the potential upland areas for storage of flood-waters in selected watersheds. This analysis, although preliminary, may be useful in determining the feasibility of conducting additional, more detailed studies into the role of upland areas in a watershed management strategy. The methods and results of this preliminary hydrologic study are presented in this report.

  1. Distinct activated cortical areas and volumes in Uygur-Chinese bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mei; Yang, Li-Xia; Jia, Lin; Shi, Xin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Lin-yun; Abaydulla, Yari; Zhu, Li-Na; Jia, Wen-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate variations in cortical activation in early and late Uygur-Chinese bilinguals from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Methodology: During a semantic judgment task with visual stimulation by a single Chinese or Uygur word, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. The fMRI data regarding activated cortical areas and volumes by both languages were analyzed. Results The first language (L1) and second language (L2) activated language-related hemispheric regions, including the left inferior frontal and parietal cortices, and L1 specifically activated the left middle temporal gyrus. For both L1 and L2, cortical activation was greater in the left hemisphere, and there was no significant difference in the lateralization index (LI) between the two languages (p > 0.05). Although the total activated cortical areas were larger in early than late bilinguals, the activation volumes were not significantly different. Conclusion Activated brains areas in early and late fluent bilinguals largely overlapped. However, these areas were more scattered upon presentation of L2 than L1, and L1 had a more specific pattern of activation than L2. For both languages, the left hemisphere was dominant. We found that L2 proficiency level rather than age of acquisition had a greater influence on which brain areas were activated with semantic processing. PMID:28123807

  2. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 5: Billings Area, 1963-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The fifth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Billings Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) General Description (geography, demography, and transportation facilities…

  3. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  4. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  5. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Europe and Central Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  6. Glacier volume and area change by 2050 in high mountain Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyun; Ding, Ran; Moore, John C.

    2014-11-01

    We estimate individual area and volume change by 2050 of all 67,028 glaciers, with a total area of 122,969 km2, delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory 2.0 of high mountain Asia (HMA). We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model RegCM 3.0 temperature and precipitation change projections forced by the IPCC A1B scenario. Glacier simulations were based on a novel surface mass balance-altitude parameterization fitted to observational data, and various volume-area scaling approaches using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission surface topography of each individual glacier. We generate mass balance-altitude relations for all the glaciers by region using nearest available glacier measurements. Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) sensitivities to temperature and precipitation change vary by region based on the relative importance of sublimation and melting processes. We also made simulations with mass balance tuned to match satellite observations of glacier thickness changes in HMA from 2003 to 2009. Net mass loss is half as much using the tuned model than using just glaciological calibration data, suggesting the representativity of benchmark glaciers is a larger source of uncertainty in future HMA contributions to sea level rise than errors in glacier inventories or volume-area scaling. Both models predict that about 35% of the glaciers in Karakoram and the northwestern Himalaya are advancing, which is consistent with the observed slight mass gain of glaciers in these regions in recent years. However, we find that 76% of all the glaciers will retreat, most of which are of the maritime type. We project total glacier area loss in high mountain Asia in 2050 to be 22% (in the tuned model) or 35% (un-tuned) of their extent in 2000, and they will contribute 5 mm (tuned model) to global sea level rise.

  7. Internodal myelin volume and axon surface area. A relationship determining myelin thickness?

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Blakemore, W F; Murray, J A; Patterson, R C

    1982-08-01

    Internodes from normal, remyelinated and regenerated nerve fibres have been isolated from rat spinal roots and sciatic nerve. The internodes have been examined quantitatively by light and electron microscopy to determine their internodal length, myelin thickness, and the circumference and cross-sectional area of both the axons and fibre. Comparison of these measurements of the axon and myelin sheath has revealed a close relationship between the volume of myelin comprising the internode and the area over which the Schwann cell and axon are in close proximity, i.e. the surface area of the axolemma beneath the internodal myelin sheath. The same relationship described not only the internodes on normal nerve fibres, where internodal length is proportional to axon diameter, but also the short and thinly myelinated internodes formed in the adult animal on remyelinated and on regenerated axons. Examination of data presented by Berthold (1978) revealed that a closely similar relationship is also present in feline nerve fibres. In view of the constancy of the relationship between such different types of internode it is suggested that the regulation of myelin volume, and thereby of myelin thickness, may be mediated via the area of the axolemma or of the Schwann cell membrane beneath the myelin sheath.

  8. Determination of burning area and port volume in complex burning regions of a solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the geometry of the burning in both star-cylindrical port interface regions and regions of partially inhibited slots is presented. Some characteristics parameters are defined and illustrated. Methods are proposed for calculating burning areas which functionally depend only on the total distance burned. According to this method, several points are defined where abrupt changes in geometry occur, and these are tracked throughout the burn. Equations are developed for computing port perimeter and port area at pre-established longitudinal positions. Some common formulas and some newly developed formulas are then used to compute burning surface area and port volume. Some specific results are presented for the solid rocket motor committed to the space shuttle project.

  9. Reduced thalamic volume in men with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia and a history of serious violence and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Kumari, V; Gudjonsson, G H; Raghuvanshi, S; Barkataki, I; Taylor, P; Sumich, A; Das, K; Kuipers, E; Ffytche, D H; Das, M

    2013-05-01

    Violent behaviour has been associated with presence of certain mental disorders, most notably antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and schizophrenia, childhood abuse, and multiple brain abnormalities. This study examined for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, the role of psychosocial deprivation (PSD), including childhood physical and sexual abuse, in structural brain volumes of violent individuals with ASPD or schizophrenia. Fifty-six men (26 with ASPD or schizophrenia and a history of serious violence, 30 non-violent) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were assessed on PSD. Stereological volumetric brain ratings were examined for group differences and their association with PSD ratings. PSD-brain associations were examined further using voxel-based-morphometry. The findings revealed: reduced thalamic volume in psychosocially-deprived violent individuals, relative to non-deprived violent individuals and healthy controls; negative association between thalamic volume and abuse ratings (physical and sexual) in violent individuals; and trend-level negative associations between PSD and hippocampal and prefrontal volumes in non-violent individuals. The voxel-based-morphometry analysis detected a negative association between PSD and localised grey matter volumes in the left inferior frontal region across all individuals, and additionally in the left middle frontal and precentral gyri in non-violent individuals. Violent mentally-disordered individuals with PSD, relative to those with no or minimal PSD, suffer from an additional brain deficit, i.e., reduced thalamic volume; this may affect sensory information processing, and have implications for management, of these individuals. PSD may have a stronger relationship with volumetric loss of stress-linked regions, namely the frontal cortex, in non-violent individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Hudziak, James J.; Mateos-Pérez, J.M.; Labbe, Aurelie; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753) from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear) was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26702424

  11. Archaeology and History of Lake Ray Roberts. Volume 2. Construction Area Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-09

    frequent and severe flooding in the Rio Grande and Pecos River valleys between 7000 and 3000 years B.P., as reported by Patton (1977). After the period of... carnival , and I white milk glass), and 2 metal items (I electric light bulb base and I wire nail). Summary Site 41 DNI 28 is an abandoned farmstead

  12. Postglacial relative sea-level history of the Prince Rupert area, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letham, Bryn; Martindale, Andrew; Macdonald, Rebecca; Guiry, Eric; Jones, Jacob; Ames, Kenneth M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a history of relative sea level (RSL) change for the last 15,000 years in the Prince Rupert region on the northern coast of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred twenty-three radiocarbon ages of organic material from isolation basin cores, sediment sequence exposures, and archaeological sites having a recognized relation to past sea levels constrain postglacial RSL. The large number of new measurements relating to past sea-level provides a well constrained RSL curve that differs in significant ways from previously published results. After deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum, the region experienced an isostatically-induced rapid RSL drop from as much 50 m asl to as low as -6.3 m asl in as little as a few centuries between 14,500 BP and 13,500 BP. After a lowstand below current sea level for about 2000 years during the terminal Pleistocene, RSL rose again to a highstand at least 6 m asl after the end of the Younger Dryas. RSL slowly dropped through the Holocene to close to its current position by 2000-1500 BP, with some potential fluctuations between 3500 and 1500 BP. This study highlights variation in RSL histories across relatively short distances, which must be accounted for by local RSL reconstructions such as this one. This RSL curve aided in the identification of an 8000-9000 year old archaeological site on a 10-12 m asl terrace, which is currently the earliest dated archaeological site in the area, and it provides guidance for searching for even older archaeological remains. We highlight the utility and potential of this refined RSL history for developing surveys for other archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines.

  13. Prior history of allergies and pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Holly, Elizabeth A; Eberle, Carey A; Bracci, Paige M

    2003-09-01

    Data from a large population-based case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed to examine the association between pancreatic cancer and history of allergic conditions. Pancreatic cancer cases (n = 532) had to be 21-85 years of age and were identified using rapid case ascertainment. Random digit dialing and Health Care Financing Administration lists (age, > or = 65 years) were used to obtain 1,701 controls who were frequency-matched to cases by sex and age within 5 years. In-person interviews were conducted and detailed allergy history data were obtained for all participants. Prior history of any allergy was associated with a reduced risk estimate for pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.95). Inverse associations were observed for common allergens, including house dust (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.94), cats (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.85), plants (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96), and mold (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.75), and for all allergic symptoms, although some confidence intervals included unity. Trends were observed for decreased risks associated with increasing number of allergies (p = 0.0006) and severity of allergic symptoms (p = 0.003). These results provide support for the plausibility that immune function in relation to allergies may play a role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Changes in area and volume of all Swiss glaciers over the last 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias; Hoelzle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s, glaciers in the European Alps have shown widespread and accelerating mass losses. These glacier changes have been investigated in several studies both focusing on area and length changes as well as on volume losses. Because the Alps are dominated by relatively small glaciers, we argue that a sound analysis of glacier elevation changes can only satisfactorily be done if source data of sufficient quality is available. For the Swiss Alps, these prerequisites are now given with the new Swiss Glacier Inventory INVGLAZ10MF derived by manual digitization from high-resolution (50cm) aerial orthophotographs and a new digital elevation model swissALTI3D of the same acquisition dates. By comparing the DHM25 level1 Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) acquired during the 1980s with the swissALTI3D DEMs from 2008-2011 and combining the former with the 1973 inventory and the latter with the 2010 inventory, we present glacier-specific changes in area, surface elevation, volume and geodetic mass balance for every single glacier in Switzerland. Because there are - depending on the individual acquisition dates of the source data - significant differences in the observation period over which glacier elevation changes have been derived by DEM differencing, we present an approach to temporally homogenize resulting changes. This is necessary for directly comparing individual glaciers or glacierized catchments. Furthermore, we validate our results using volume changes calculated over the same periods from photogrammetrically derived DEMs. According to the latest Swiss Glacier Inventory, the total area still glacierized in Switzerland by 2010 amounts to 944 km2 (-28% or 366 km2 since 1973). Very small glaciers (< 0.5 km2) account for 82% of the total number, but in relative terms even more glacierized area (and volume) belongs to fewer glacier entities compared to 1973. Observed area changes are largest between 2800-2900 m a.s.l. and still significant even above 3500 m a

  15. Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world's seas, oceans, and countries.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark John; Cheung, Alan; De Hauwere, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be considered the foundation for any standardized classification of ocean ecosystems and important correlates of metrics of biodiversity (e.g., species richness and composition, fisheries). While statistics on ocean depth and topography are often quoted, how they were derived is rarely cited, and unless calculated using the same spatial resolution the resulting statistics will not be strictly comparable. We provide such statistics using the best available resolution (1-min) global bathymetry, and open source digital maps of the world's seas and oceans and countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, using a standardized methodology. We created a terrain map and calculated sea surface and seabed area, volume, and mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum, of both depth and slope. All the source data and our database are freely available online. We found that although the ocean is flat, and up to 71% of the area has a < 1 degree slope. It had over 1 million approximately circular features that may be seamounts or sea-hills as well as prominent mountain ranges or ridges. However, currently available global data significantly underestimate seabed slopes. The 1-min data set used here predicts there are 68,669 seamounts compared to the 30,314 previously predicted using the same method but lower spatial resolution data. The ocean volume exceeds 1.3 billion km(3) (or 1.3 sextillion liters), and sea surface and seabed areas over 354 million km(2). We propose the coefficient of variation of slope as an index of topographic heterogeneity. Future studies may improve on this database, for example by using a more detailed bathymetry

  16. Relationship Between the Surface Area to Volume Ratio and Temperature across Geologic Time in Ostracods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Zaroff, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    In 1877 Joseph Allen proposed that endothermic terrestrial organisms would have lower surface area to volume ratios (SAVR) in colder climates and higher SAVRs in warmer climates. With a smaller surface area compared to volume, organisms can retain more heat in cold climates. We tested to see if this principle applied to ostracods, a type of ectothermic marine invertebrate. We hypothesised that Allen's rule applies to ostracods, as Allen's rule has been demonstrated in frogs (Alho 2011), which are also ectotherms . We used the linear dimensions of the three major carapace axes of ostracod holotypes to estimate the SAVR. We compared ostracod SAVRs with paleotemperatures from Royer et al. (2004). We found that there was a correlation between surface area and temperature; it is a small, but statistically significant correlation (adj. R2=0.0167). This means that as temperature increased, the SAVR also increased. We also found a negative correlation between ostracod SAVR to geologic time(adj. R2=0.0114), which shows us that as time has gone on, ostracod SAVR has decreased. We then plotted the correlation coefficient of SAVR to temperature over geologic time to explore trends in the strength of Allen's rule. For most of time there was no relationship but during the Devonian, Allen's Rule did explain the trend. In short, temperature does explain some of the correlation between the SAVR and temperature, but it is likely there were other environmental factors affecting this relationship.

  17. Decoding individuated finger movements using volume-constrained neuronal ensembles in the M1 hand area.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Soumyadipta; Tenore, Francesco; Aggarwal, Vikram; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Schieber, Marc H; Thakor, Nitish V

    2008-02-01

    Individuated finger and wrist movements can be decoded using random subpopulations of neurons that are widely distributed in the primary motor (M1) hand area. This work investigates 1) whether it is possible to decode dexterous finger movements using spatially-constrained volumes of neurons as typically recorded from a microelectrode array; and 2) whether decoding accuracy differs due to the configuration or location of the array within the M1 hand area. Single-unit activities were sequentially recorded from task-related neurons in two rhesus monkeys as they performed individuated movements of the fingers and the wrist. Simultaneous neuronal ensembles were simulated by constraining these activities to the recording field dimensions of conventional microelectrode array architectures. Artificial neural network (ANN) based filters were able to decode individuated finger movements with greater than 90% accuracy for the majority of movement types, using as few as 20 neurons from these ensemble activities. Furthermore, for the large majority of cases there were no significant differences (p < 0.01) in decoding accuracy as a function of the location of the recording volume. The results suggest that a brain-machine interface (BMI) for dexterous control of individuated fingers and the wrist can be implemented using microelectrode arrays placed broadly in the M1 hand area.

  18. A Brief History of Attempts To Monitor Testing. NBETPP Statements, Volume 2, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, George F.

    This paper provides a brief history of attempts to monitor testing in the United States. It describes proposals for monitoring from the first attempts in the 1920s to similar proposals in the 1990s. The discussion focuses on: (1) Giles Ruche's proposal for a consumer research bureau on tests; (2) Oscar K. Burros' reviews of tests and efforts to…

  19. Black History at Your Doorstep: Resource Packet 1985-1986. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Commission on Afro-American History and Culture, Annapolis.

    This packet of resource materials was compiled to help teachers infuse the study of Afro-American history and culture into the curriculum throughout the school year. The packet contains both informational materials and sample activities. In order to assist teachers in studying the Afro-American experience in their own communities, special emphasis…

  20. Our Documents: A National Initiative on American History, Civics, and Service. Teacher Sourcebook, Volume III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Julie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Thousands of educators are using America's most important historic documents to help students learn the story of their nation and its citizens, thanks to the Our Documents initiative. This was one of the main objectives of Our Documents, which is part of the "National Initiative on American History, Civics, and Service," launched by President…

  1. Community Connections for Science Education, Volume II: History and Theory You Can Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis, Ed.

    Science beyond the schoolhouse is the subject of this close-up look at informal science--education in non-traditional settings, including Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, zoos, aquariums, and public television. More than a dozen writers draw on personal experiences to tell why they became informal science educators and how they use the history and…

  2. United States History: Eyes on the Economy. Volume One: Through the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Caldwell, Jean; Wentworth, Donald R.; Kraig, Beth; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This lesson guide is designed to help U.S. history teachers and students in grades 8-11 examine historic events through basic economic reasoning. It lends itself to instruction grounded in inquiry learning, direct instruction, and cooperative learning. It calls for students to be engaged in case studies, simulation exercises, and group work, as…

  3. United States History: Eyes on the Economy. Volume Two: Through the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Caldwell, Jean; Wentworth, Donald R.; Kraig, Beth; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This lesson guide is designed to help U.S. history teachers and students in grades 8-11 examine historic events through basic economic reasoning. It lends itself to instruction grounded in inquiry learning, direct instruction, and cooperative learning. It calls for students to be engaged in case studies, simulation exercises, and group work, as…

  4. China's Encounter with the West: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    On March 1-2, 2008, FPRI's Wachman Center presented a weekend of discussion on "China's Encounter with the West" for 45 teachers from 21 states across the country, held at and co-sponsored by the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Asia Program. Sessions included: (1) China's Early Encounters with the West: A History in Reverse…

  5. Community Connections for Science Education, Volume II: History and Theory You Can Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis, Ed.

    Science beyond the schoolhouse is the subject of this close-up look at informal science--education in non-traditional settings, including Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, zoos, aquariums, and public television. More than a dozen writers draw on personal experiences to tell why they became informal science educators and how they use the history and…

  6. Black History at Your Doorstep: Resource Packet 1985-1986. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Commission on Afro-American History and Culture, Annapolis.

    This packet of resource materials was compiled to help teachers infuse the study of Afro-American history and culture into the curriculum throughout the school year. The packet contains both informational materials and sample activities. In order to assist teachers in studying the Afro-American experience in their own communities, special emphasis…

  7. The Archaeology and History of Lake Ray Roberts. Volume 1. Cultural Resources Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico and speculations about the cultural processes. In Man, settlement and urbanism. Ucko, Tringham and Dimbleby...The prehistory of the Tehuacan Valley, Volume 5: Excavations and reconnaissance. The University of Texas Press. Mattson, Richard 1980 The bungalow

  8. Personality and Biography: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the History of Adult Education. Volume I: General, Comparative, and Synthetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha, Ed.

    This volume includes the following papers: "Foreword: The Standing International Conference on the History of Adult Education (AE)" (Franz Poeggeler); "Editor's Introduction: Perspectives on the Sixth International Conference on the History of AE" (Martha Friedenthal-Haase); two special addresses by Joerg Prinzhausen and Ursula…

  9. A Study of Selected Eighth Grade United States History Textbooks. 1982-83 Michigan Social Studies Textbook Study. Volume I. Overview, Summary of Findings, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This volume describes a study of 10 frequently used eighth grade U. S. history textbooks which were examined to determine the extent to which they reflected pluralism in the United States, promoted the concept of global interdependence, and were educationally sound. The ten texts examined were: "American History for Today" (Ginn), "America: Its…

  10. Personality and Biography: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the History of Adult Education. Volume I: General, Comparative, and Synthetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha, Ed.

    This volume includes the following papers: "Foreword: The Standing International Conference on the History of Adult Education (AE)" (Franz Poeggeler); "Editor's Introduction: Perspectives on the Sixth International Conference on the History of AE" (Martha Friedenthal-Haase); two special addresses by Joerg Prinzhausen and Ursula…

  11. From Forge to Fast Food: A History of Child Labor in New York State. Volume II: Civil War to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Richard B.; And Others

    This volume of essays and activities is written for use in the eighth grade course "United States and New York State History." The volume follows the chronology from the Civil War to the present, emphasizing child labor during those years. The essays are intended for teachers but can be mastered by many students. The activities focus on…

  12. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions.

  13. Understanding the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes via the ``cluster volume to surface area" model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandati, Sreekanth; Kunstmann, Jens; Boerrnert, Felix; Schoenfelder, Ronny; Ruemmeli, Mark; Kar, Kamal K.; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2010-03-01

    The influence of mixed catalysts for the high yield production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been studied systematically. Based on extensive experimental data a ``Catalyst Volume to Surface Area'' (CVSA) model was developed to understand the influence of the process parameters on the yield and CNT diameter distribution [1]. In our study, we present a refined version of the CVSA model developed by combining experiments and simulations. We discuss our current understanding of the growth mechanism and how the model might be used to increase CNT yields by using mixed catalysts.[4pt] [1] S. Tetali et al., ACS Nano (2009), DOI: 10.1021/nn9012548.

  14. Quantitative analysis of molecular surfaces: areas, volumes, electrostatic potentials and average local ionization energies.

    PubMed

    Bulat, Felipe A; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Brinck, Tore; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2010-11-01

    We describe a procedure for performing quantitative analyses of fields f(r) on molecular surfaces, including statistical quantities and locating and evaluating their local extrema. Our approach avoids the need for explicit mathematical representation of the surface and can be implemented easily in existing graphical software, as it is based on the very popular representation of a surface as collection of polygons. We discuss applications involving the volumes, surface areas and molecular surface electrostatic potentials, and local ionization energies of a group of 11 molecules.

  15. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 1. Illinois Except Illinois River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    UAD-AOBE 172 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CHAPAIGN IL WATER RESOURCES DIV F/6 8/8 RIVER MI1LEASES AND DR INAGE AREAS FOR ILLINOIS STREAMS. VOLUME -ETC(U...Name and Address 10. Prolect/Task/Work Unit N. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 11. CotatC or Grant(G) No. 605 N. Neil StreetM...Champaign, IL 61820(G 12. Sponsoring Organization Namei and Address 23. Type of Report A Period Corered U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 605 N

  16. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 7. Eastern Study Area, Section 1. 0, Version 3.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    locations. Dithiane and 1,4-oxathiane were detected in near surface soil samples at these spill locations, although thiogdiglycol and chloroacetic acid were...Dibromochloropropane 3-62 3.3.8 Fluoroacetic Acid 3-62 3.3.9 Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 3-65 3.3.10 Semivolatile Halogenated Organics 3-65 3.3.11...Organophosphorous Compounds, GB-Agent Related ESA 3.4-7 Potentially Contaminated Soil Areas and Volumes for Fluoroacetic Acid ESA 3.4-8 Potentially

  17. Introduction to integral calculus at high school through calculating area and volume with spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benacka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an account of an experiment in which 33 high school students of age 16-19 acquired the principles of the integral calculus through applying the rectangle method in spreadsheet to calculate the area of a planar figure bounded by the graph of a function and the volume of a body created by the rotation of the graph. A questionnaire survey was carried out to find out whether the students found the lesson interesting, contributing to their mathematical and technological knowledge and motivating to continue with more complicated tasks.

  18. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes.

    PubMed

    Mouillot, D; Parravicini, V; Bellwood, D R; Leprieur, F; Huang, D; Cowman, P F; Albouy, C; Hughes, T P; Thuiller, W; Guilhaumon, F

    2016-01-12

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs.

  19. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, D.; Parravicini, V.; Bellwood, D. R.; Leprieur, F.; Huang, D.; Cowman, P. F.; Albouy, C.; Hughes, T. P.; Thuiller, W.; Guilhaumon, F.

    2016-01-01

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs. PMID:26756609

  20. Evaluation of approximations in modeling the thermal history of a volcanic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giberti, G.; Sartoris, G.

    1989-02-01

    The thermal history of a relatively young volcanic area, characterized by a shallow magmatic reservoir and the occurrence of a major eruption accompanied by caldera collapse, is simulated numerically. Geometry, geology and volcanic history of the system are chosen having in mind the Campi Flegrei volcanic area, Southern Italy. The 3D axially symmetric model adopted is nonhomogeneous, with variable geometry and thermal properties depending on temperature. Heat transfer is treated using the conduction equations. Convection in the magma - undoubtedly vigorous in the early stages of the cooling process - is taken into account by a temperature-averaging procedure. Moderate convection in the permeable rocks overlying the reservoir is simulated by using effective thermal parameters. The mathematical problem is solved by a finite-difference method. This model is then adopted as "reality" and its results are compared with those obtained with other models, referred to as "approximations" in which some features of the conventional reality have been neglected. It is found that the temperature field of a static model (in which the eruption of about 110 km 3 of magma, caldera collapse and the related physical changes are neglected) is in good agreement with "reality" 30,000 years after the eruption. The assumption of magma and surrounding rocks having the same constant thermal properties yields poor results (errors of 100-150°K at shallow depth on the axis of symmetry). If homogeneity is assumed only for the host rocks, while the magma is assigned "real" properties, the temperature field above the reservoir is affected by quite similar errors. The temperature field is quite well approximated by solving the "reality" in a vertical plane through the axis of symmetry (errors <20°K and 40°K in the central part of the caldera for t=120,000 years and t=250,000 years, respectively, after the emplacement of the magmatic body). The solution of "reality" in just one dimension yields

  1. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) hardware development. Volume 2: History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is described. The system consists of an array of fourteen pressure ports, installed in an Orbiter nose cap, which, when coupled with existing fuselage mounted static pressure ports permits computation of entry flight parameters. Elements of the system that are described include the following: (1) penetration assemblies to place pressure port openings at the surface of the nose cap; (2) pressure tubes to transmit the surface pressure to transducers; (3) support posts or manifolds to provide support for, and reduce the length of, the individual pressure tubes; (4) insulation for the manifolds; and (5) a SEADS nose cap. Design, analyses, and tests to develop and certify design for flight are described. Specific tests included plasma arc exposure, radiant thermal, vibration, and structural. Volume one summarizes highlights of the program, particularly as they relate to the final design of SEADS. Volume two summarizes all of the Vought responsible activities in essentially a chronological order.

  2. Very Large Area/Volume Microwave ECR Plasma and Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E. (Inventor); Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for producing very large area and large volume plasmas. The invention utilizes electron cyclotron resonances in conjunction with permanent magnets to produce dense, uniform plasmas for long life ion thruster applications or for plasma processing applications such as etching, deposition, ion milling and ion implantation. The large area source is at least five times larger than the 12-inch wafers being processed to date. Its rectangular shape makes it easier to accommodate to materials processing than sources that are circular in shape. The source itself represents the largest ECR ion source built to date. It is electrodeless and does not utilize electromagnets to generate the ECR magnetic circuit, nor does it make use of windows.

  3. Recent changes in glacial area and volume on Tuanjiefeng peak region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junli; Liu, Shiyin; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Wanqin; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers' runoff in the Qilian Mountains serves as a critical water resource in the northern sections of the Gansu province, the northeastern sections of the Qinghai province, and the northeastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau. Changes in the glacial area and volume around the highest peak of the Qilian Mountains, i.e., Tuanjiefeng Peak, were estimated using multi-temporal remote-sensing images and digital elevation models, and all possible sources of uncertainty were considered in detail. The total glacier area decreased by 16.1±6.34 km(2) (9.9±3.9%) during 1966 to 2010. The average annual glacier shrinkage was -0.15% a(-1) from 1966 to 1995, -0.61% a(-1) from 1995 to 2000, -0.20% a(-1) from 2000 to 2006, and -0.45% a(-1) from 2006 to 2010. A comparison of glacier surface elevations using digital elevation models derived from topographic maps in 1966 and from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 1999 suggests that 65% of the grid cells has decreased, thereby indicating that the glacier thickness has declined. The average change in glacier thickness was -7.3±1.5 m (-0.21±0.04 m·a(-1)) from 1966 to 1999. Glaciers with northeastern aspects thinned by 8.3±1.4 m from 1966 to 1999, i.e., almost twice as much as those with southwestern aspects (4.3±1.3 m). The ice volume decreased by 11.72±2.38×10(8) m(3) from 1966 to 1999, which was about 17.4% more than the value calculated from the statistical relationship between glacier area and volume. The relationship between glacier area change and elevation zone indicates that glacier change is not only dominated by climate change but also affected by glacier dynamics, which are related to local topography. The varied response of a single glacier to climate change indicates that the glacier area change scheme used in some models must be improved.

  4. Recent Changes in Glacial Area and Volume on Tuanjiefeng Peak Region of Qilian Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junli; Liu, Shiyin; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Wanqin; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers' runoff in the Qilian Mountains serves as a critical water resource in the northern sections of the Gansu province, the northeastern sections of the Qinghai province, and the northeastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau. Changes in the glacial area and volume around the highest peak of the Qilian Mountains, i.e., Tuanjiefeng Peak, were estimated using multi-temporal remote-sensing images and digital elevation models, and all possible sources of uncertainty were considered in detail. The total glacier area decreased by 16.1±6.34 km2 (9.9±3.9%) during 1966 to 2010. The average annual glacier shrinkage was −0.15% a−1 from 1966 to 1995, −0.61% a−1 from 1995 to 2000, −0.20% a−1 from 2000 to 2006, and −0.45% a−1 from 2006 to 2010. A comparison of glacier surface elevations using digital elevation models derived from topographic maps in 1966 and from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 1999 suggests that 65% of the grid cells has decreased, thereby indicating that the glacier thickness has declined. The average change in glacier thickness was −7.3±1.5 m (−0.21±0.04 m·a−1) from 1966 to 1999. Glaciers with northeastern aspects thinned by 8.3±1.4 m from 1966 to 1999, i.e., almost twice as much as those with southwestern aspects (4.3±1.3 m). The ice volume decreased by 11.72±2.38×108 m3 from 1966 to 1999, which was about 17.4% more than the value calculated from the statistical relationship between glacier area and volume. The relationship between glacier area change and elevation zone indicates that glacier change is not only dominated by climate change but also affected by glacier dynamics, which are related to local topography. The varied response of a single glacier to climate change indicates that the glacier area change scheme used in some models must be improved. PMID:24015174

  5. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  6. Area volume properties of fluid interfaces in turbulence: scale-local self-similarity and cumulative scale dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catrakis, Haris J.; Aguirre, Roberto C.; Ruiz-Plancarte, Jesus

    2002-07-01

    Area volume properties of fluid interfaces are investigated to quantify the scale-local and cumulative structure. An area volume density g3([lambda]) and ratio [Omega]3([lambda]) are introduced to examine the interfacial behaviour as a function of scale [lambda] or across a range of scales, respectively. These measures are demonstrated on mixed-fluid interfaces from whole-field [similar]10003 three-dimensional space time concentration measurements in turbulent jets above the mixing transition, at Re [similar] 20000 and Sc [similar] 2000, recorded by laser-induced-fluorescence and digital-imaging techniques, with Taylor's hypothesis applied. The cumulative structure is scale dependent in [Omega]3([lambda]), with a dimension D3([lambda]) that increases with increasing scale. In contrast, the scale-local structure exhibits self-similarity in g3([lambda]) with an exponent [alpha]g [approximate]1.3 for these interfaces. The scale dependence in the cumulative structure arises from the large scales, while the self-similarity corresponds to the small-scale area volume contributions. The small scales exhibit the largest area volume density and provide the dominant contributions to the total area volume ratio, which corresponds to [similar]10 times the area of a purely large-scale interface for the present flow conditions. The self-similarity in the scale-local structure at small scales provides the key ingredient to extrapolate the area volume behaviour to higher Reynolds numbers.

  7. The environmental history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area in Myanmar (Burma).

    PubMed

    Aung, Myint; Khaing Swe, Khaing; Oo, Thida; Kyaw Moe, Kyaw; Leimgruber, Peter; Allendorf, Teri; Duncan, Chris; Wemmer, Chris

    2004-09-01

    We reconstructed the history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) to understand how social and economic events, and policy changes affected the sanctuary's condition. We surveyed 25 villages surrounding CWS to evaluate past and present ecological conditions, compare the results with historical accounts and identify causal relationships. During the first half of the 20th century, the primary threat was the government's reduction of old growth forest to supply fuel wood for the British-built railway. The railroad opened the area to colonization, but the villagers' impact on timber and wildlife was low. From 1945 to 1988, villagers became the primary force of landscape degradation. The post-war windfall of firearms increased hunting pressure, and populations of large mammal started to decline. With the economic decline of the 1970s and 1980s, the community's demand for game and forest products intensified, and the large mammal fauna was reduced from eleven to four species. From 1988-2003, the forests surrounding the sanctuary were fragmented and degraded. The absence of large predators rendered the park safe for livestock, and the combined effects of grazing and removal of forest products seriously degraded habitat within CWS. Major threats to CWS during the past two decades have resulted from land use decisions in which government-planned economic enterprises caused encroachment by villagers. Stabilization and recovery of this sanctuary will require management compatible with human needs, including expanded buffer zones, better core area protection, community forestry projects, and probably relocation of villages within the park.

  8. Application of 3D Scanned Imaging Methodology for Volume, Surface Area, and Envelope Density Evaluation of Densified Biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measurement of surface area, volume, and density is an essential for quantifying, evaluating, and designing the biomass densification, storage, and transport operations. Acquiring accurate and repeated measurements of these parameters for hygroscopic densified biomass are not straightforward and on...

  9. Cenozoic Plate tectonic history of the northern Venezuela-Trinidad Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlich, Robert N.; Barrett, S. F.

    1990-02-01

    Geological and geophysical data, coupled with recent plate tectonic reconstructions, suggest that the Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Venezuela-Trinidad area has been dominated by strike-slip displacement of discrete crustal blocks. Allochthonous terranes within the area include metavolcanic rocks of the Cretaceous Villa de Cura Group and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian to Cretaceous Cordillera de la Costa. A relatively competent crustal block (Margarita Block) is defined by an outline around the metamorphic basement of Margarita Island, the Araya/Paria peninsula, the Northern Range of Trinidad, and Tobago Island. Reconstruction of the Margarita Block to its original position requires at least partial closure of the Falcon Basin, closure of the Bonaire and Cariaco basins, and restoration of about 50 km of motion on both the Oca and Bocono faults. Post middle Eocene eastward translation of the Caribbean plate caused eastward motion of the Margarita Block. A minor change in relative plate motion during the late Oligocene or early Miocene produced a right step in the Moron fault, forming the Cariaco pull-apart basin and El Pilar fault zone. Maximum offset on El Pilar fault is estimated to be no more than 125 km, though displacement along the entire fault zone may have been greater. Transpressional stresses between the Caribbean plate and northern South America caused folding of the Serrania del Interior of Venezuela and the Central Range of Trinidad. Eastward migration of transpressional stresses at the southeastern corner of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary is being accommodated by formation of oblique thrusts, transpressive anticlines, and downwarping of the crust. Bouguer gravity data suggest that Jurassic-aged Atlantic oceanic crust is being depressed as the Caribbean plate expands into the Demerara Plateau area. This study suggests that the faults and transtensional/transpressional/compressional structures identified in this study are

  10. The relationship between the area of peripherally-derived pressure volume loops and systemic vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Douglas; Dunn, Lauren K; McMurry, Timothy; Thiele, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    Arterial and photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms have been utilized to non-invasively estimate stroke volume from the pulse contour. The ability of these pulse contour devices to accurately predict stroke volume is degraded when afterload changes significantly. There is a need for a non-invasive device capable of identifying when vascular tone has changed. Shelley et al. previously described a qualitative relationship between peripheral pressure volume (PV) loops (in which pressure waveforms from an intra-arterial catheter are combined with volume waveforms from the PPG waveform) and changes in vascular tone. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare changes in the area of peripheral PV loops with changes in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in a patient population undergoing major surgery. Physiologic data from ten patients undergoing liver transplantation was extracted from a hemodynamic database. A peak detection algorithm was applied to both the arterial and PPG waveforms, which were manually aligned so that the troughs occurred at identical time points. PV loop area (PVA) for each heartbeat was calculated and median PVA was recorded for each minute. PVA for each patient was indexed to the average value for the first 5 min (because PPG amplitude has no standard and is not comparable between patients) and compared to indexed SVR at all points for which SVR was available. SVR and PVA were plotted as a function of time and outliers (3.1 %) removed. The Pearson correlation coefficient describing the relationship between PVAi and SVRi was 0.67 (1,728 min of data, p = 0.0020, sign test over 10 patients) and between MAP and SVR was 0.71. There was no meaningful correlation between ΔSVR and either ΔPVA or ΔMAP (based on minute-to-minute changes). Indexed values of PVA are correlated with indexed values of SVR and may serve as a useful monitor for changes in afterload but in their present form do not offer added value above the measurement of

  11. Surface area and volume measurements of volcanic ash particles by SEM stereoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersoy, Orkun

    2010-05-01

    Surface area of volcanic ash particles is of great importance to research including plume dynamics, particle chemical and water reactions in the plume, modelling (i.e. plume shape, particle interactions , dispersion etc.), remote sensing of transport and SO2, HCl, H2O, CO2 levels, forecasting plume location, and transportation and deposition of ash particles. The implemented method presented in this study offer new insights for surface characterization of volcanic ash particles on macro-pore regions. Surface area and volumes of volcanic ash particles were measured using digital elevation models (DEM) reconstructed from stereoscopic images acquired from different angles by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The method was tested using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) micro-spheres which exhibit low spherical imperfections. The differences between measured and geometrically calculated surface areas were introduced for both micro-spheres and volcanic ash particles in order to highlight the probable errors in modelling on volcanic ash behaviour. The specific surface areas of volcanic ash particles using this method are reduced by half (from mean values of 0.045 m2/g to 0.021 m2/g) for the size increment 63 μm to 125 μm. Ash particles mostly have higher specific surface area values than the geometric forms irrespective of particle size. The specific surface area trends of spheres and ash particles resemble for finer particles (63 μm). Approximation to sphere and ellipsoid have similar margin of error for coarser particles (125 μm) but both seem to be inadequate for representation of real ash surfaces.

  12. Surface area and volume measurements of volcanic ash particles by SEM stereoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersoy, Orkun

    2010-02-01

    Surface area of volcanic ash particles is of great importance to research including plume dynamics, particle chemical and water reactions in the plume, modelling (i.e. plume shape, particle interactions, dispersion etc.), remote sensing of transport and SO 2, HCl, H 2O, CO 2 levels, forecasting plume location, and transportation and deposition of ash particles. The implemented method presented in this study offers new insights for surface characterization of volcanic ash particles on macro-pore regions. Surface area and volumes of volcanic ash particles were measured using digital elevation models (DEM) reconstructed from stereoscopic images acquired from different angles by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The method was tested using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) micro-spheres which exhibit low spherical imperfections. The differences between measured and geometrically calculated surface areas were introduced for both micro-spheres and volcanic ash particles in order to highlight the probable errors in modelling on volcanic ash behaviour. The specific surface areas of volcanic ash particles using this method are reduced by half (from mean values of 0.045 m 2/g to 0.021 m 2/g) for the size increment 63 µm to 125 µm. Ash particles mostly have higher specific surface area values than the geometric forms irrespective of particle size. The specific surface area trends of spheres and ash particles resemble for finer particles (63 µm). Approximation to sphere and ellipsoid have similar margin of error for coarser particles (125 µm) but both seem to be inadequate for representation of real ash surfaces.

  13. [Response of cardiac patients to dynamic exercise: analysis with "systolic" pressure-volume area].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Y; Goto, K; Ooshima, S; Takatsu, H; Tsukamoto, T; Iida, M; Yamamoto, N; Deguchi, F; Terashima, Y; Hirakawa, S

    1989-09-01

    In the present study, we constructed a left ventricular pressure-volume loop from catheterization data and RN-angiocardiography. By connecting the point of origin of the plane, not the point of Vd, with the end-systolic point of the loop, we calculated a "systolic" pressure-volume area (PVA), elastic potential energy (EPE), and stroke work (SW). A cardiac output (CO)-pulmonary artery wedge (PAW) pressure plot was constructed at rest and during exercise, using a bicycle ergometer, to evaluate cardiac pump function. End-systolic volume (ESV) was obtained from the left ventricular P-V loop, and the response of ESV to exercise was investigated. Thirty-five patients with various cardiac diseases were categorized in two groups according to the delta CO/delta PAW obtained from the shift of the CO-PAW plot during exercise; group I (n = 28) with the properly functioning hearts having the ratio greater than 0.12 l/min/mmHg and group II (n = 7) with the poorly functioning hearts having the ratio less than or equal to 0.12 l/min/mmHg. Group I was subdivided further into two subsets according to the changing pattern of ESV during exercise; group I-A with decreased or unchanged ESV (n = 20) and group I-B with increased ESV in which end-diastolic volume (EDV) was increased during exercise (n = 8). During exercise, PVA and SW were unchanged but SW/PVA increased in group I-A, suggesting improvement of external mechanical efficiency. SW/PVA was unchanged in group I-B, despite the increase in PVA and SW. This suggested that external mechanical work increased as a result of increased cardiac oxygen consumption. In group II, PVA increased, SW was unchanged and SW/PVA decreased, which could be explained by the mechanism that external mechanical work during exercise decreased as compared with that at rest. It was suggested that a different mechanism may have been responsible for the production of external mechanical work among patients in group I-A and in group I-B with properly

  14. [Cotyla quid? On the early history of late medieval medical volume calculations].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Axel

    2005-01-01

    As can be made evident chiefly by their comparative numerical examination, the Egyptian pyramids (the step pyramids being excluded for the present purpose) have been, from the beginning up to the Egyptian fashion in early Imperial Rome, designed and built with the additional intention of physically manifesting a volume of pi x 10k x (average value) 0.96824 cm3, where k is either a positive integer or zero, and where pi is a short product, following very restrictive formation rules which to some extent are traceable in the papyrus Rhind, of prime numbers. Conceptually (but not really as to the Hin at least) this establishes the capacity units 1 [2]Heqat = 9682.4 cm3 and 1 Hin = 484.12 cm3 already for the Old Kingdom. It is shown further that the Attic Medimnos as introduced in the course of finishing Solon's reforms is identical with the Egyptian volume system's standard unification: pisigma = 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 11 x 23, and k = 0, so that 1 Medimnos = about 51443 cm3. Accordingly and by means of some adjacent considerations a Kotyle / Cotyla of 269 cm3 +/- 1 cm3 is established for the Hellenistic, early Arabic, and Medieval Latin medicine.

  15. Impacts of Water Deficiency on Life History of Sitobion avenae Clones From Semi-arid and Moist Areas.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Shi, Xiaoqin

    2015-10-01

    The climate warming trend appears to be evident with an increasing frequency of drought events in Shaanxi Province of China, which may have contributed to an increase in outbreaks of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius). To explore the potential effects of water-deficit stress on aphid outbreak risks, clones of S. avenae were collected from semi-arid and moist areas of Shaanxi. The life histories of collected clones were then compared on wheat under well-watered and moderately water-stressed conditions in the laboratory. Our results demonstrated that semi-arid area clones of S. avenae had longer developmental times, shorter reproductive times, lower fecundities, and lower net reproductive rates compared with moist area clones. Age-specific reproductive rates of moist area clones tended to be higher than those of semi-arid area clones. Significant differences between semi-arid and moist area clones were found for the survival functions when tested under water-stressed conditions, and semi-arid area clones tended to have a lower survival rate than moist area clones throughout their lives. "Population origin" (i.e., semi-arid and moist area clones) and "clone" together explained 62.74-96.56% of the total variance of tested life-history traits, suggesting the genetic basis for differentiation of clones from both areas. Significant differences in correlations, and selection differentials and gradients of life-history traits were also found between clones from both areas, providing further evidence of genetic basis for the life-history differentiation between them. Divergence between clones from both areas and its implications for S. avenae outbreaks are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Natural history of post-void residual urine volume over 5 years in community-dwelling older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Naomi; Chan, Lewis; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Waite, Louise M; Le Couteur, David G; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-09-20

    To describe the natural history of post-void residual urine volume (PVR) in community-dwelling older men. The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project involves a representative sample of community-dwelling men aged 70 and older in a defined geographic area of Sydney, Australia. PVR were measured at baseline and 2-year and 5-year follow-up. The measurements were considered valid when the voided volumes were 150 mL and over. Three-hundred twenty-nine men without conditions that are likely to alter PVR (neurological disorders, prostate cancer, and a history of urological treatment) were included in the analyses. Baseline PVR were 0-49 mL in 183 men, 50-99 mL in 59 men, 100-199 mL in 72 men, 200-399 mL in 11 men, and 400 mL and over in 4 men. Thirteen out of 314 (4%) men with a baseline PVR of 0-199 mL and 2 out of 11 (18%) men with a baseline PVR of 200-399 mL had surgery for benign prostate enlargement (BPE) or indwelling catheterization over 5 years compared to three out of four men (75%) with a PVR of 400 mL and over. In all 101 men with a baseline PVR of less than 400 mL who did not receive urological treatment during follow-up and had valid PVR data for both 2-year and 5-year follow-up, PVR did not exceed 400 mL at either follow-up time point. Conservative management may be appropriate for most older men with incidentally found elevated PVR of up to 400 mL. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Estimating intracranial volume using intracranial area in healthy children and those with childhood status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Rory J; Yoong, Michael M; Pujar, Suresh; Chin, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Background Correcting volumetric measurements of brain structures for intracranial volume (ICV) is important in comparing volumes across subjects with different ICV. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intracranial area (ICA) reliably predicts actual ICV in a healthy pediatric cohort and in children with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). Methods T1-weighted volumetric MRI was performed on 20 healthy children (control group), 10 with CSE with structurally normal MRI (CSE/MR-), and 12 with CSE with structurally abnormal MRI (CSE/MR+). ICA, using a mid-sagittal slice, and the actual ICV were measured. Results A high Spearman correlation was found between the ICA and ICV measurements in the control (r = 0.96; P < 0.0001), CSE/MR− (r = 0.93; P = 0.0003), and CSE/MR+ (r = 0.94; P < 0.0001) groups. On comparison of predicted and actual ICV, there was no significant difference in the CSE/MR− group (P = 0.77). However, the comparison between predicted and actual ICV was significantly different in the CSE/MR+ (P = 0.001) group. Our Bland–Altman plot showed that the ICA method consistently overestimated ICV in children in the CSE/MR+ group, especially in those with small ICV or widespread structural abnormalities. Conclusions After further validation, ICA measurement may be a reliable alternative to measuring actual ICV when correcting volume measurements for ICV, even in children with localized MRI abnormalities. Caution should be applied when the method is used in children with small ICV and those with multilobar brain pathology. PMID:25365798

  18. Fungal colonization in soils with different management histories: modeling growth in three-dimensional pore volumes.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Alexandra; Falconer, Ruth E; Grinev, Dmitri; Otten, Wilfred

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of fungi in soil functioning they have received comparatively little attention, and our understanding of fungal interactions and communities is lacking. This study aims to combine a physiologically based model of fungal growth with digitized images of internal pore volume of samples of undisturbed soil from contrasting management practices to determine the effect of physical structure on fungal growth dynamics. We quantified pore geometries of the undisturbed-soil samples from two contrasting agricultural practices, conventionally plowed (chisel plow) (CT) and no till (NT), and from native-species vegetation land use on land that was taken out of production in 1989 (NS). Then we modeled invasion of a fungal species within the soil samples and evaluated the role of soil structure on the progress of fungal colonization of the soil pore space. The size of the studied pores was > or =110 microm. The dynamics of fungal invasion was quantified through parameters of a mathematical model fitted to the fungal invasion curves. Results indicated that NT had substantially lower porosity and connectivity than CT and NS soils. For example, the largest connected pore volume occupied 79% and 88% of pore space in CT and NS treatments, respectively, while it only occupied 45% in NT. Likewise, the proportion of pore space available to fungal colonization was much greater in NS and CT than in NT treatment, and the dynamics of the fungal invasion differed among the treatments. The relative rate of fungal invasion at the onset of simulation was higher in NT samples, while the invasion followed a more sigmoidal pattern with relatively slow invasion rates at the initial time steps in NS and CT samples. Simulations allowed us to elucidate the contribution of physical structure to the rates and magnitudes of fungal invasion processes. It appeared that fragmented pore space disadvantaged fungal invasion in soils under long-term no-till, while large connected pores in

  19. Seismic response in archaeological areas: the case-histories of Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Stefano; Funiciello, Renato; Rovelli, Antonio

    1999-03-01

    Rome is affected by earthquakes associated to three different seismogenic districts: the Central Apennines area, the Colli Albani volcanic area and the Roman area. The major effects were exclusively due to Apennine seismicity and reached in some cases felt intensities up to VII-VIII degree (MCS scale). The predominant role in the damage distribution seems to be played by the local geological conditions. The historical centre of the city is characterized by the presence of two geomorphologic domains: the alluvial plain of Tiber river and the topographic relieves of Roman Hills, where tradition indicates the first site of the city foundation. In particular, the right river side is characterized by the outcropping of the regional bedrock along the Monte Mario-Gianicolo ridge, while the eastern relieves are the remnants of the Sabatini and Albani volcanic plateau, deeply eroded by the Tiber river and its tributaries during the last glacial low-stand (Würm). These domains are characterized by a large difference in seismic response, due to the high impedance contrast between Holocene coarse deposits filling the Tiber Valley and sedimentary and volcanic Plio-Pleistocene units. Seismic damage observed in 150 monuments of downtown Rome was indicating a significant concentration on alluvial recent deposits. This result was confirmed by the geographical distribution of conservation and retrofitting activities subsequent to main earthquakes, mostly related to local geological conditions. The cases of Marcus Aurelius' Column and Colosseum confirmed the influence of the Holocene alluvial network in local seismic response. During 2500 years of history, the monuments of Rome have `memorized' the seismic effects of historical earthquakes. In some cases, the integration of historical and geological research and macroseismic observations may provide original and useful indications to seismologists to define the seismic response of the city. Local site effects represent a serious

  20. [Soft tissues volumes changing in malar and cheek area after fat grafting].

    PubMed

    Nadtochiy, A G; Grischenko, S V; Malitskaya, O A

    2016-01-01

    To improve the predictability of facial soft tissues fat grafting results tissue thickness dynamics before and 1 year postoperatively was assessed by means of ultrasonic method in 58 patients under standardized position of the ultrasonic transducer, physical and technical scanning conditions. The study revealed direct correlation of soft tissues thickness increase after fat grafting with the initial thickness of recipient area tissues. One year after fat grafting 60-65% of additional thickness remained in the lower regions of malar-cheek area (with the greatest soft tissues thickness), and only 25-27% preserved in the upper regions with the minimal initial thickness of soft tissues. I.e. to achieve necessary correction volume in a zone with small initial soft tissues thickness it is necessary to increase the amount of fat grafting stages. As the rates of soft tissues thickness in correction area change during 3-4 months after fat grafting remaining stable after this period it is expedient to assess postoperative results and to carry out repeated fat grafting not earlier than 4 months after operation.

  1. A scenario and forecast model for Gulf of Mexico hypoxic area and volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne; Obenour, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    For almost three decades, the relative size of the hypoxic region on the Louisiana-Texas continental shelf has drawn scientific and policy attention. During that time, both simple and complex models have been used to explore hypoxia dynamics and to provide management guidance relating the size of the hypoxic zone to key drivers. Throughout much of that development, analyses had to accommodate an apparent change in hypoxic sensitivity to loads and often cull observations due to anomalous meteorological conditions. Here, we describe an adaptation of our earlier, simple biophysical model, calibrated to revised hypoxic area estimates and new hypoxic volume estimates through Bayesian estimation. This application eliminates the need to cull observations and provides revised hypoxic extent estimates with uncertainties, corresponding to different nutrient loading reduction scenarios. We compare guidance from this model application, suggesting an approximately 62% nutrient loading reduction is required to reduce Gulf hypoxia to the Action Plan goal of 5,000 km2, to that of previous applications. In addition, we describe for the first time, the corresponding response of hypoxic volume. We also analyze model results to test for increasing system sensitivity to hypoxia formation, but find no strong evidence of such change.

  2. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2011 Monument burn area, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the Monument wildfire in southeastern Arizona, in 2011. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volumes of debris flows for selected drainage basins. Input for the models include measures of burn severity, topographic characteristics, soil properties, and rainfall total and intensity for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, (2) 5-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, and (3) 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow probabilities in the drainage basins of interest ranged from a low of 26 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall to 100 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall. The high probabilities in all modeled drainage basins are likely due to the abundance of steep hillslopes and the extensive areas burned at moderately to high severities. The estimated volumes ranged from a low of about 2,000 cubic meters to a high of greater than 200,000 cubic meters.

  3. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2011 Wallow burn area, eastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, Barbara C.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned in 2011 by the Wallow wildfire in eastern Arizona. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for selected drainage basins. Input for the models include measures of burn severity, topographic characteristics, soil properties, and rainfall total and intensity for a (1) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall and (2) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow probabilities in the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 percent in response to both the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall and the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall to a high of 41 percent in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The low probabilities in all modeled drainage basins are likely due to extensive low-gradient hillslopes, burned at low severities, and large drainage-basin areas (greater than 25 square kilometers). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from a low of 24 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters, indicating a considerable hazard should debris flows occur

  4. NRSN1 associated grey matter volume of the visual word form area reveals dyslexia before school.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Kraft, Indra; Müller, Bent; Schaadt, Gesa; Neef, Nicole E; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Kirsten, Holger; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-10-01

    Literacy learning depends on the flexibility of the human brain to reconfigure itself in response to environmental influences. At the same time, literacy and disorders of literacy acquisition are heritable and thus to some degree genetically predetermined. Here we used a multivariate non-parametric genetic model to relate literacy-associated genetic variants to grey and white matter volumes derived by voxel-based morphometry in a cohort of 141 children. Subsequently, a sample of 34 children attending grades 4 to 8, and another sample of 20 children, longitudinally followed from kindergarten to first grade, were classified as dyslexics and controls using linear binary support vector machines. The NRSN1-associated grey matter volume of the 'visual word form area' achieved a classification accuracy of ~ 73% in literacy-experienced students and distinguished between later dyslexic individuals and controls with an accuracy of 75% at kindergarten age. These findings suggest that the cortical plasticity of a region vital for literacy might be genetically modulated, thereby potentially preconstraining literacy outcome. Accordingly, these results could pave the way for identifying and treating the most common learning disorder before it manifests itself in school.

  5. Surface Area, Volume, Mass, and Density Distributions for Sized Biomass Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2007-06-30

    This final technical report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2004 to June 30, 2007 which covers the entire performance period of the project. 25 individual biomass particles (hardwood sawdust AI14546 in the size range of 100-200 microns) were levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and their external surface area, volume, and drag coefficient/mass (C{sub d}/m) ratios were characterized applying highly specialized video based and high-speed diode array imaging systems. Analysis methods were employed using shape and drag information to calculate mass and density distributions for these particles. Results of these measurements and analyses were validated by independent mass measurements using a particle weighing and counting technique. Similar information for 28 PSOC 1451D bituminous coal particles was retrieved from a previously published work. Using these two information, density correlations for coal/biomass blends were developed. These correlations can be used to estimate the density of the blend knowing either the volume fraction or the mass fraction of coal in the blend. The density correlations presented here will be useful in predicting the burning rate of coal/biomass blends in cofiring combustors. Finally, a discussion on technological impacts and economic projections of burning biomass with coal in US power plants is presented.

  6. Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local area burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Brewer, Simon C.; McConaghy, Scott; Mueller, Joshua; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2015-11-01

    Fire is one of the most prevalent disturbances in the Earth system, and its past characteristics can be reconstructed using charcoal particles preserved in depositional environments. Although researchers know that fires produce charcoal particles, interpretation of the quantity or composition of charcoal particles in terms of fire source remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a unique four-year dataset of charcoal deposited in traps from a native tallgrass prairie in mid-North America to test which environmental factors were linked to charcoal measurements on three spatial scales. We investigated small and large charcoal particles commonly used as a proxy of fire activity at different spatial scales, and charcoal morphotypes representing different types of fuel. We found that small (125-250 μm) and large (250 μm-1 mm) particles of charcoal are well-correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.88) and likely reflect the same spatial scale of fire activity in a system with both herbaceous and woody fuels. There was no significant relationship between charcoal pieces and fire parameters <500 m from the traps. Moreover, local area burned (<5 km distance radius from traps) explained the total charcoal amount, and regional burning (200 km radius distance from traps) explained the ratio of non arboreal to total charcoal (NA/T ratio). Charcoal variables, including total charcoal count and NA/T ratio, did not correlate with other fire parameters, vegetation cover, landscape, or climate variables. Thus, in long-term studies that involve fire history reconstructions, total charcoal particles, even of a small size (125-250 μm), could be an indicator of local area burned. Further studies may determine relationships among amount of charcoal recorded, fire intensity, vegetation cover, and climatic parameters.

  7. History of the U.S. Army Artillery and Missile School. Volume 4. 1958-1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    the School; directs the records adminis- tradion program in the School; coordinates, reviews, and n..kes appropriate recommendations on incoming and...was declared for the candidates and, as L result, the normal disciplinary "jark" (run) up Medicine Bluff Four, a hill two miles from the OCS area was

  8. An extra structure of spacetime: a space of points, areas and volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavšič, Matej

    2007-05-01

    A theory in which points, lines, areas and volumes are on on the same footing is investigated. All those geometric objects form a 16-dimensional manifold, called C-space, which generalizes spacetime. In such higher dimensional space fundamental interactions can be unified à la Kaluza-Klein. The ordinary, 4-dimensional, gravity and gauge fields are incorporated in the metric and spin connection, whilst the conserved gauge charges are related to the isometries of curved C-space. It is shown that a conserved generator of an isometry in C-space contains a part with derivatives, which generalizes orbital angular momentum, and a part with the generators of Clifford algebra, which generalizes spin.

  9. Proper Accounting for Surface Area to Solution Volume Ratios in Exaggerated Extractions.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis R; Rabinow, Barrett E

    2017-01-01

    When drug products contact plastic manufacturing components, packaging systems, and/or delivery devices, leachables from the plastics can accumulate in the drug product, potentially affecting its key quality attributes. Given practical issues associated with screening drug products for leachables, potential leachables are frequently surfaced as extractables revealed in extraction studies. To facilitate extractables discovery and identification and to shorten extraction times, extraction studies can be exaggerated and/or accelerated. One means of exaggerating an extraction is to increase the test article's extracted surface area to extraction solution volume ratio (SA/V), as it is generally accepted that an extractable's concentration in an extract is proportional to SA/V in a 1 to 1 manner. However, as the relationship between an extractable's concentration and SA/V depends on the extractable's plastic/solvent partition coefficient (kp/l), the effect of SA/V on the extractable's concentrations can be either under- or over-estimated if a 1 to 1 proportion is used. This article presents the theoretical relationship between SA/V, concentration, and kp/l; illustrates theory with a case study; and suggests proper exaggeration strategies.LAY ABSTRACT: When drug products are manufactured, stored, or delivered in systems that contain plastics, substances can be leached from the plastics and remain in the drug product, where they might affect the product's key quality attributes. To discover and identify these leached substances, the plastics are extracted under laboratory conditions and the extracts are appropriately tested. To facilitate this process, extracts may be generated under laboratory conditions that exaggerate or accelerate the drug product's clinical conditions of manufacturing or use. The proper use of the ratio of the extracted item's surface area to the volume of the extracting solution as an exaggeration parameter is discussed in this paper. © PDA, Inc

  10. Reliable nanomaterial classification of powders using the volume-specific surface area method.

    PubMed

    Wohlleben, Wendel; Mielke, Johannes; Bianchin, Alvise; Ghanem, Antoine; Freiberger, Harald; Rauscher, Hubert; Gemeinert, Marion; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2017-01-01

    The volume-specific surface area (VSSA) of a particulate material is one of two apparently very different metrics recommended by the European Commission for a definition of "nanomaterial" for regulatory purposes: specifically, the VSSA metric may classify nanomaterials and non-nanomaterials differently than the median size in number metrics, depending on the chemical composition, size, polydispersity, shape, porosity, and aggregation of the particles in the powder. Here we evaluate the extent of agreement between classification by electron microscopy (EM) and classification by VSSA on a large set of diverse particulate substances that represent all the anticipated challenges except mixtures of different substances. EM and VSSA are determined in multiple labs to assess also the level of reproducibility. Based on the results obtained on highly characterized benchmark materials from the NanoDefine EU FP7 project, we derive a tiered screening strategy for the purpose of implementing the definition of nanomaterials. We finally apply the screening strategy to further industrial materials, which were classified correctly and left only borderline cases for EM. On platelet-shaped nanomaterials, VSSA is essential to prevent false-negative classification by EM. On porous materials, approaches involving extended adsorption isotherms prevent false positive classification by VSSA. We find no false negatives by VSSA, neither in Tier 1 nor in Tier 2, despite real-world industrial polydispersity and diverse composition, shape, and coatings. The VSSA screening strategy is recommended for inclusion in a technical guidance for the implementation of the definition. Graphical abstractWe evaluate the extent of agreement between classification by electron microscopy (EM) and classification by Volume-Specific Surface Area (VSSA) on a large set of diverse particulate substances. These represent the challenges anticipated for identification of nanomaterials by the European Commission

  11. History of the Coastal Engineering Research Center 1963-1983, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    and developing sand trac- ing experiments . 56 Field Research Facility As stated earlier, theoretical modeling sought a practical way to integrate ...sufficient s ize and accuracy, CERC researchers cou ld rapidly deve lop general, predic6ve theories . Designers then would be able to extract the...million in coastal areas and S17.5 million overall. The theory was that more research would produce more data and lead to greater savings.7 Those

  12. History of the U.S. Army Artillery and Missile School. Volume 3. 1945-1957

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-01-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJEC" TASK AREA A WORK UNIT NUMNERS I’,. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADORESI 12. REPORT DATE 1911...1967 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME B AOORESS(Ifdifferenl rmm Controlling Olle,) IS. SECURITY CLASS. rat Is l ep ’epr) Unclassifieod If...alone, During tho S war the School was under the direct control of the Replacement and School Command which was activated on 27 March 1942. This came

  13. Eyewitness to War, Volume 1. The US Army in Operation AL FAJR: An Oral History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    rst in a long chain of events leading to the major battle in November 2004. Stretched thin over a wide area, the paratroopers were unable to make...counterproductive to the long -range goal of pacifying the city. The CPA under Ambassador Bremer and the Bush Administration, however, believed that strong...humanitarian relief efforts, civil and economic reconstruction, and a long -term security presence. Beginning in earnest on 30 October, air and

  14. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 15, The Real Number System, Chapter 16, Area, Volume, and Computation. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Topics covered in the first chapter of Unit 8 of this SMSG series include square roots, operations with radicals, operations with real numbers, and the structure of the real number system. The second chapter deals with measurement of area (for rectangular regions, other polygons, and circles), volume and surface area, computation involving…

  15. Groundwater contaminant plume maps and volumes, 100-K and 100-N Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth H.

    2016-09-27

    extents are shown graphically and in tabular form for comparison to previous estimates. Plume data also were interpolated to a finer grid (10 × 10 m) for some processing, particularly to estimate volumes of contaminated groundwater. However, hydrogeologic transport modeling was not considered for the interpolation. The compilation of plume extents for each contaminant also allowed estimates of overlap of the plumes or areas with more than one contaminant above regulatory standards.A mapping of saturated aquifer thickness also was derived across the 100-K and 100–N study area, based on the vertical difference between the groundwater level (water table) at the top and the altitude of the top of the Ringold Upper Mud geologic unit, considered the bottom of the uppermost unconfined aquifer. Saturated thickness was calculated for each cell in the finer (10 × 10 m) grid. The summation of the cells’ saturated thickness values within each polygon of plume regulatory exceedance provided an estimate of the total volume of contaminated aquifer, and the results also were checked using a SURFER® volumetric integration procedure. The total volume of contaminated groundwater in each plume was derived by multiplying the aquifer saturated thickness volume by a locally representative value of porosity (0.3).Estimates of the uncertainty of the plume delineation also are presented. “Upper limit” plume delineations were calculated for each contaminant using the same procedure as the “average” plume extent except with values at each well that are set at a 95-percent upper confidence limit around the log-normally transformed mean concentrations, based on the standard error for the distribution of the mean value in that well; “lower limit” plumes are calculated at a 5-percent confidence limit around the geometric mean. These upper- and lower-limit estimates are considered unrealistic because the statistics were increased or decreased at each well simultaneously and were not

  16. The Pedagogy of Subversion in History Education in Conflict-Ridden Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogev, Esther

    2013-01-01

    The article proposes an approach that is based on the assumption that the fostering of the political-critical dimension in the study of history can develop an effective historical consciousness among young students of history that will strengthen their independent informed thinking, reflective skills, and the ability to show empathy. First, I…

  17. The Pedagogy of Subversion in History Education in Conflict-Ridden Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogev, Esther

    2013-01-01

    The article proposes an approach that is based on the assumption that the fostering of the political-critical dimension in the study of history can develop an effective historical consciousness among young students of history that will strengthen their independent informed thinking, reflective skills, and the ability to show empathy. First, I…

  18. Sex differences in resilience to childhood maltreatment: effects of trauma history on hippocampal volume, general cognition and subclinical psychosis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Samplin, Erin; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R; Derosse, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Recent data suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume in healthy adults. Because this association is also evident in adults with psychiatric illness, it has been suggested that reductions in hippocampal volume associated with childhood maltreatment may be a risk factor for psychiatric illness. Such an interpretation suggests that healthy adults with a history of childhood maltreatment are more resilient to the effects of maltreatment. Current models of resilience suggest, however, that resiliency should be measured across multiple domains of functioning. The present study sought to investigate childhood maltreatment in relationship to hippocampal volumes in healthy adults and to address the question of whether the putative resiliency extends to other domains of functioning. Sixty-seven healthy Caucasian adults were assessed for a history of childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical abuse and received high resolution structural MR imaging scans. Participants with and without histories of abuse or neglect were compared on measures of total hippocampal volume, general cognitive ability and subclinical psychopathology. Our results suggest that childhood emotional abuse is associated with reduced hippocampus volume in males, but not in females. However, emotional abuse was associated with higher levels of subclinical psychopathology in both males and females. These data suggest that while females may be more resilient to the neurological effects of childhood maltreatment, they are not more resilient to the psychiatric symptoms associated with childhood maltreatment. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these different levels of resilience.

  19. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  20. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 11. North Central Study Area, Section 1.0 Text. Version 3.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    generally heterogeneous. In some areas, the water table extends into the upper fine grained clay and silty sand layers of the alluvium. In other areas...Organochlorine Pesticides ......... ................. NCSA 3.4-13 Potentially Contaminated Soil Areas and Volumes for Arsenic...NCSA Surface Water, Spring 1987 NCSA 2.2-11 Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in NCSA Surface Water, Spring 1987 NCSA 2.2-12 Distribution of

  1. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 1. Introduction and decision-making documentation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. Volume I of the five-volume series summarizes the main elements and the key decision points in the Habitability Study as an introduction to the series.

  2. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 5. Peer review summary: TRC (Technical Review Committee) responses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. These volumes (II through IV) were reviewed by a peer-review panel of expert scientists. The scientists concluded that each of the three environmental studies was well planned and well executed. Volume V summarizes the peer review and gives additional information or clarifications as requested during the peer review. Volume V also provides additional supplemental statistical analyses requested by the peer reviewer panel.

  3. The Genetic Association Between Neocortical Volume and General Cognitive Ability Is Driven by Global Surface Area Rather Than Thickness.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Eyler, Lisa T; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J; Neale, Michael C; Rinker, Daniel A; Thompson, Wesley K; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-08-01

    Total gray matter volume is associated with general cognitive ability (GCA), an association mediated by genetic factors. It is expectable that total neocortical volume should be similarly associated with GCA. Neocortical volume is the product of thickness and surface area, but global thickness and surface area are unrelated phenotypically and genetically in humans. The nature of the genetic association between GCA and either of these 2 cortical dimensions has not been examined. Humans possess greater cognitive capacity than other species, and surface area increases appear to be the primary driver of the increased size of the human cortex. Thus, we expected neocortical surface area to be more strongly associated with cognition than thickness. Using multivariate genetic analysis in 515 middle-aged twins, we demonstrated that both the phenotypic and genetic associations between neocortical volume and GCA are driven primarily by surface area rather than thickness. Results were generally similar for each of 4 specific cognitive abilities that comprised the GCA measure. Our results suggest that emphasis on neocortical surface area, rather than thickness, could be more fruitful for elucidating neocortical-GCA associations and identifying specific genes underlying those associations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China.

  5. Faults characteristics and evolution history based on seismic data in Hangjinqi area Ordos basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guiping

    2017-04-01

    Hangjinqi area structurally located in Yimeng uplift in the northern Ordos basin, is one of the major area of natural gas exploration. Nearly one hundred faults with different size, different properties and different strikes were developed in Hangjinqi area, of which Boerjianghaizi Fault, Wulanjilinmiao Fault and Sanyanjing Fault were in larger scale, regarded as the main faults. Boerjianghaizi Fault is a reverse fault dipping north, the displacement of fault in the plane gradually becoming smaller from bottom to top. Seismic section interpretation results show the following features: Boerjianghaizi Fault dipping north, cutting all the layers below T3 horizon; fault plane is steep in upper part and gentle in lower part. The line 639.5 statistical results display that the dip of the lower part is small, the dip angle of Shihezi Formation and below is about 35°, the fault plane above Shihezi Formation is steep, about 65°. Seismic sections display that Wulanjilinmiao Fault dislocated all horizons from T3 to T9, and this fault plane showed steep dip of more than 80 ° with little change in sedimentary succession. The displacement of fault is small, the largest displacement occurred in Zhidan Group with the displacement of 55m at bottom. Its salient features are that different layers show different fault properties, there are both normal fault and reverse fault, reflecting this region has experienced many times of stress field changes and multiple phase of fault activities. Seismic profile interpretation results reveal that the Sanyanjing Fault broke the T3 horizons and below, The dip of lower part of this fault is about 39°, up to the Sanxi Formation-lower Shihezi Formation, the dip becomes to 62°, and up again to upper Shihezi-Quaternary strata, the dip increases to 78°. In general, Sanyanjing Fault is characterized by smaller displacement in lower and larger displacement in upper. The statistical results of fault displacement in Line523 show that the lower part

  6. Scaling of Haversian canal surface area to secondary osteon bone volume in ribs and limb bones.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Clark, Gunnar C; Crowder, Christian M; Dominguez, Victoria M; Qiu, Shijing; Mulhern, Dawn M; Donahue, Seth W; Busse, Björn; Hulsey, Brannon I; Zedda, Marco; Sorenson, Scott M

    2013-06-01

    Studies of secondary osteons in ribs have provided a great deal of what is known about remodeling dynamics. Compared with limb bones, ribs are metabolically more active and sensitive to hormonal changes, and receive frequent low-strain loading. Optimization for calcium exchange in rib osteons might be achieved without incurring a significant reduction in safety factor by disproportionally increasing central canal size with increased osteon size (positive allometry). By contrast, greater mechanical loads on limb bones might favor reducing deleterious consequences of intracortical porosity by decreasing osteon canal size with increased osteon size (negative allometry). Evidence of this metabolic/mechanical dichotomy between ribs and limb bones was sought by examining relationships between Haversian canal surface area (BS, osteon Haversian canal perimeter, HC.Pm) and bone volume (BV, osteonal wall area, B.Ar) in a broad size range of mature (quiescent) osteons from adult human limb bones and ribs (modern and medieval) and various adult and subadult non-human limb bones and ribs. Reduced major axis (RMA) and least-squares (LS) regressions of HC.Pm/B.Ar data show that rib and limb osteons cannot be distinguished by dimensional allometry of these parameters. Although four of the five rib groups showed positive allometry in terms of the RMA slopes, nearly 50% of the adult limb bone groups also showed positive allometry when negative allometry was expected. Consequently, our results fail to provide clear evidence that BS/BV scaling reflects a rib versus limb bone dichotomy whereby calcium exchange might be preferentially enhanced in rib osteons. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ethnic difference of the anterior chamber area and volume and its association with angle width.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Qi, Meng; He, Mingguang; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Shan

    2012-05-31

    To compare the anterior chamber area/volume (ACA/ACV) and their relationship with the drainage angle between adult Caucasians and Chinese. Study groups were comprised of four age- and sex-matched cohorts: American Caucasians, American Chinese, southern mainland Chinese, and northern mainland Chinese. All subjects were consecutively recruited from general ophthalmology clinics except for southern mainland Chinese participants who were drawn from an ongoing population-based study. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) images were obtained under dark conditions. Customized software was used to analyze structural indices including ACA/ACV, angle opening distance (AOD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), lens vault (LV), corneal arc depth (CAD), iris thickness (IT), iris curvature (ICurv), and iris area (IArea). Data from 121, 124, 121, and 120 participants were obtained of American Caucasians, American Chinese, and southern and northern mainland Chinese, respectively. After multiple linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter (PD), and axial length (AL), ACA/ACV was positively associated with ACD, ACW, CAD, and corneal radius of curvature (CR) but negatively related with ICurv and IArea. Ethnic Chinese had significantly smaller ACA (β = -0.18, P = 0.022) and ACV (β = -3.9, P = 0.001) than Caucasians. ACV contributes the most to AOD variation for both Chinese (standardized regression coefficient [SRC] = 0.47, P < 0.001) and Caucasians (SRC = 0.59, P < 0.001). Compared with Caucasians, ethnic Chinese had smaller ACA/ACV independent of ACD, ACW, ICurv, IArea, PD, CR, and AL. ACA/ACV is the most prominent contributor to angle width variation for both Chinese and Caucasians in this study.

  8. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume III - Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Data Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Volume III of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the data covering groundwater recharge and discharge. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  9. Tobacco control policies in outdoor areas of high volume American transit systems.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Berman, Micah

    2014-08-01

    Very little is known about how smoking and other tobacco use is regulated in outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces across transit systems. The purpose of this study was to understand how American transit systems are regulating cigarettes and other tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes, in outdoor or quasi-outdoor spaces. Within four regions of the United States, a purposive convenience sample was taken of the top five volume American transit systems (n = 20) based on annual ridership. Each transit authority website was systematically reviewed to produce a cross-sectional study of the published policies regarding tobacco product use for indoor, outdoor, and quasi-outdoor spaces of transit property; rules regarding cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes were identified. Policies regulating tobacco use were enacted by transit systems and/or the cities and states in which transit systems are located. The majority (80%) of transit systems banned smoking in outdoor areas; few prohibited smokeless tobacco use (15%, n = 3) and some disallowed e-cigarettes (30%, n = 6). Violation consequences ranged widely from none to verbal warnings, ejection from transit property, fines, and imprisonment. Regulating smoking in outdoor or quasi-outdoor environments is common in American transit environments. These policies can help protect vulnerable populations from exposure to secondhand smoke and communicate a tobacco-free norm.

  10. Visualizing surface area and volume of lumens in three dimensions using images from histological sections

    PubMed Central

    LIVINGSTON, DAVID P.; TUONG, TAN D.; KISSLING, GRACE E.; CULLEN, JOHN M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Visualizing the interior (lumen) of a tubular structure within tissue can provide a unique perspective on anatomical organization of the tissue. Portal tracts of the liver contain several vessels and ducts in various patterns of intertwining branches and are an example of such spaces. An inexpensive method, using light microscopy and a sample of conventionally stained canine livers, was used to colorize and allow visualization of the lumens of vessels within the portal tract in three dimensions. When the colour of the background was digitally cleared and the lumen filled with a solid colour, it was possible to measure areas and volumes of the portal vein, arteries, bile ducts and lymphatics. Significant differences between vessels and ducts across lobes and gender in control samples are discussed. Differences were also found between control and mixed breed dogs and between controls and a dog that died of accidental traumatic haemorrhage. These differences are discussed in relation to visualizing lumens using images generated from a light microscope. Vessels in plants such as xylem and continuously formed spaces resulting from ice formation are other examples where this technique could be applied. PMID:25204459

  11. Surface area and volume fraction of random open-pore systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, H.; Elsner, A.; Stoyan, D.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time, explicit approximate formulas are presented for the volume fraction and specific surface area of random open-pore systems with poly-disperse pore size distributions. It is shown that the formulas are valid for broad classes of models for porous media characterized by tunable pore size distributions and a variable degree of inter-penetrability of pores. The formulas for the poly-disperse case are based on expressions derived previously for mono-disperse penetrable-sphere models. The results are obtained by analysis of a series of open-pore models, which are prepared by computer simulation of systems of randomly packed partially penetrable spheres with various poly-disperse size distributions such as gamma, lognormal, and Gaussian. The formulas are applied in a study of atomic layer deposition processes on open-pore systems, and the effective Young's modulus and the effective thermal conductivity of Al2O3 coated porous polypropylene electrodes for lithium ion batteries are predicted.

  12. Reliable nanomaterial classification of powders using the volume-specific surface area method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlleben, Wendel; Mielke, Johannes; Bianchin, Alvise; Ghanem, Antoine; Freiberger, Harald; Rauscher, Hubert; Gemeinert, Marion; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2017-02-01

    The volume-specific surface area (VSSA) of a particulate material is one of two apparently very different metrics recommended by the European Commission for a definition of "nanomaterial" for regulatory purposes: specifically, the VSSA metric may classify nanomaterials and non-nanomaterials differently than the median size in number metrics, depending on the chemical composition, size, polydispersity, shape, porosity, and aggregation of the particles in the powder. Here we evaluate the extent of agreement between classification by electron microscopy (EM) and classification by VSSA on a large set of diverse particulate substances that represent all the anticipated challenges except mixtures of different substances. EM and VSSA are determined in multiple labs to assess also the level of reproducibility. Based on the results obtained on highly characterized benchmark materials from the NanoDefine EU FP7 project, we derive a tiered screening strategy for the purpose of implementing the definition of nanomaterials. We finally apply the screening strategy to further industrial materials, which were classified correctly and left only borderline cases for EM. On platelet-shaped nanomaterials, VSSA is essential to prevent false-negative classification by EM. On porous materials, approaches involving extended adsorption isotherms prevent false positive classification by VSSA. We find no false negatives by VSSA, neither in Tier 1 nor in Tier 2, despite real-world industrial polydispersity and diverse composition, shape, and coatings. The VSSA screening strategy is recommended for inclusion in a technical guidance for the implementation of the definition.

  13. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Ramanathan

    2004-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2004 to December 31, 2004 which covers the first six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, supply requests were processed and supplies including biomass test particles (hardwood sawdust AI14546) in the size range of 100-200 microns were obtained from a cofiring pilot plant research facility owned by Southern Company, Birmingham, AL. Morehouse has completed setting up of the gravimetric technique measurement system in the heat transfer laboratory, department of physics and dual degree engineering, Morehouse College. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed setting up of the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system to characterize shape and mass for individual biomass particles. Testing of the gravimetric system, and calibration of the cameras and imaging systems using known sizes of polystyrene particles are in progress.

  14. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2004-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2004 to December 31, 2004 which covers the first six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, supply requests were processed and supplies including biomass test particles (hardwood sawdust AI14546) in the size range of 100-200 microns were obtained from a cofiring pilot plant research facility owned by Southern Company, Birmingham, AL. Morehouse has completed setting up of the gravimetric technique measurement system in the heat transfer laboratory, department of physics and dual degree engineering, Morehouse College. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed setting up of the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system to characterize shape and mass for individual biomass particles. Testing of the gravimetric system, and calibration of the cameras and imaging systems using known sizes of polystyrene particles are in progress.

  15. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  16. Crystal zoning in a large-volume ignimbrite: constraints on the thermal history of a supervolcano magma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Pyle, D. M.; Wilson, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical zoning of crystals provides an important archive of information that allows for the reconstruction of complex thermal histories and changes in melt composition of the magma reservoir during crystallization. Here we investigate cathodoluminescence (CL) and Ti zonation in quartz crystals extracted from pumices from the Whakamaru and Rangitaiki ignimbrite units (part of the large-volume Whakamaru Group Ignimbrites), New Zealand, to reconstruct the thermal history of the parent magma chamber(s). CL intensity images are taken as a proxy for Ti content and temperature variation during crystal growth, and direct estimates of temperature are made using the TitaniQ geothermometer (Wark & Watson 2006 Cont. Min. Pet.) based on Ti concentration in quartz. These results are reviewed in comparison with temperatures from Fe-Ti oxide geothermometry. Quartz zoning is also compared to zonation in feldspars (using BSE imaging) from the same pumice clasts in order to establish the degree to which different crystal species record similar or contrasting magmatic histories. Quartz crystals in Whakamaru pumice display a variety of CL zoning patterns and resorption boundaries. Overgrowths typically appear to truncate CL growth zoning within the crystal core, indicating periods of resorption and subsequent re-growth - consistent with magma recharge causing a marked change in conditions (temperature and/or volatile saturation) and multi-stage crystallisation. Crystals typically display a dark (lower Ti) resorbed core, with an abrupt change to a CL-bright rim, although irregular textures and complex variations between crystals are observed. Core-to-rim profiles of Ti concentration in analysed quartz crystals show Ti variations within the range 50-225 ppm, corresponding to crystallisation temperatures of 733-935°C (assuming TiO2 activity in the melt of 0.6), with the lowest values recorded in the crystal core, increasing in a step-wise pattern towards the rim. These values are

  17. The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field, western Mexico: ages, volumes, and relative proportions of lava types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis-Kenedi, Catherine B.; Lange, Rebecca A.; Hall, Chris M.; Delgado-Granados, Hugo

    2005-06-01

    The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field (1600 km2) in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is based on 40Ar/39Ar chronology and volume estimates for eruptive units younger than 1 Ma. Ages are reported for 49 volcanic units, including Volcán Tequila (an andesitic stratovolcano) and peripheral domes, flows, and scoria cones. Volumes of volcanic units ≤1 Ma were obtained with the aid of field mapping, ortho aerial photographs, digital elevation models (DEMs), and ArcGIS software. Between 1120 and 200 kyrs ago, a bimodal distribution of rhyolite (~35 km3) and high-Ti basalt (~39 km3) dominated the volcanic field. Between 685 and 225 kyrs ago, less than 3 km3 of andesite and dacite erupted from more than 15 isolated vents; these lavas are crystal-poor and show little evidence of storage in an upper crustal chamber. Approximately 200 kyr ago, ~31 km3 of andesite erupted to form the stratocone of Volcán Tequila. The phenocryst assemblage of these lavas suggests storage within a chamber at ~2 3 km depth. After a hiatus of ~110 kyrs, ~15 km3 of andesite erupted along the W and SE flanks of Volcán Tequila at ~90 ka, most likely from a second, discrete magma chamber located at ~5 6 km depth. The youngest volcanic feature (~60 ka) is the small andesitic volcano Cerro Tomasillo (~2 km3). Over the last 1 Myr, a total of 128±22 km3 of lava erupted in the Tequila volcanic field, leading to an average eruption rate of ~0.13 km3/kyr. This volume erupted over ~1600 km2, leading to an average lava accumulation rate of ~8 cm/kyr. The relative proportions of lava types are ~22 43% basalt, ~0.4 1% basaltic andesite, ~29 54% andesite, ~2 3% dacite, and ~18 40% rhyolite. On the basis of eruptive sequence, proportions of lava types, phenocryst assemblages, textures, and chemical composition, the lavas do not reflect the differentiation of a single (or only a few) parental liquids in a long-lived magma chamber. The rhyolites are geochemically diverse and were likely

  18. History and the Social Sciences in Colorado. Newsletter of the Colorado Council For The Social Studies. Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack E., Ed.

    World history is the topic of this issue of "History and the Social Sciences in Colorado." The major article, "Experiencing World History," concerns the content and processes of a world history curriculum developed and piloted by Utah State University. The object of the units is for the middle-class, teenage American to discover his identity in an…

  19. Viscoelastic properties of the human red blood cell membrane. II. Area and volume of individual red cells entering a micropipette.

    PubMed Central

    Jay, A W; Canham, P B

    1977-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that human red cells can be drawn into cylindrical glass micropipettes of internal diameter approximately 2.0 mum without lysing. For pipettes of less than approximately 2.9 mum inside diameter, the red cell must become less spherical, that is, reduce its volume-to-area ratio. In this work measurements were made from 16-mm film records that allowed the determination of the cellular area and volume of individual erythrocytes as they were drawn into a 2.0-mum pipette with negative pressures. The results showed that the total surface area of the membrane remains constant and that the cell endures the passage into the pipette by losing volume. The volume loss was interpreted to be due to cell water and solute loss when the membrane is under stress. The loss of cell volume, rather than the stretching of the membrane, adds confirmation that although it is very deformable, the membrane is very resistant to two-dimensional strain. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:836934

  20. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  1. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the Arkansas area. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 9 species and 9 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Arkansas Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 1,417 trees sampled in the Arkansas Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination woth total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.

  2. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the Appalachian area. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 20 species and 8 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Appalachian Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,670 trees sampled in the Appalachian Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.

  3. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the Delta area. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 13 species and 6 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Delta Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 990 trees sampled in the Delta Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on diameter outside of the bark (d.o.b.) in combination with height with to a 9-inch d.o.b. top.

  4. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed.

  5. Structural Area Inspection Frequency Evaluation (SAIFE). Volume 4. Software Documentation and User’s Manual. Book 2 Modified Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    REPORT NO. FAA-RD-78-29, IV Book 2, LEVW STRUCTURAL AREA INSPECTION FREQUENCY EVALUATION (SAIFE) Volume IV. Software Documentation and User’s Manual...OCOR, OSDM, OPD - These variables are the number of occurrences 6 -fTirst- craks , corrosion, service damage, and production defects, respectively, for a

  6. Comparison of a fully mapped plot design to three alternative designs for volume and area estimates using Maine inventory data

    Treesearch

    Stanford L. Arner

    1998-01-01

    A fully mapped plot design is compared to three alternative designs using data collected for the recent inventory of Maine's forest resources. Like the fully mapped design, one alternative eliminates the bias of previous procedures, and should be less costly and more consistent. There was little difference in volume and area estimates or in sampling errors among...

  7. Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quantitative Analysis of Structural MRI from the ABIDE Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharsky Hiess, R.; Alter, R.; Sojoudi, S.; Ardekani, B. A.; Kuzniecky, R.; Pardoe, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial…

  8. Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quantitative Analysis of Structural MRI from the ABIDE Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharsky Hiess, R.; Alter, R.; Sojoudi, S.; Ardekani, B. A.; Kuzniecky, R.; Pardoe, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial…

  9. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  10. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  11. Cardiac energetics: from E(max) to pressure-volume area.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroyuki

    2003-08-01

    1. To celebrate this Festschrift for Professor Colin Gibbs, as an invited speaker, I would like to review briefly my 35 year research career in cardiac physiology. 2. My career started in the late 1960s in Tokyo with my serendipitous discovery of Emax (ventricular end-systolic maximum elastance) as a load-independent contractility index based on the time-varying elastance (E(t)) model of the ventricle. Professor K Sagawa at the Johns Hopkins University, USA, whom I joined in 1971, encouraged me to go further. 3. The next serendipitous event in my career was the discovery of ventricular pressure-volume area (PVA) as a measure of total mechanical energy of ventricular contraction in the late 1970s. The PVA concept was theoretically deducible from the E(t) and Emax concept and correlated surprisingly well with ventricular O2 consumption (Vo2). 4. Professor Gibbs' intuitive recognition of the significance of PVA in myocardial energetics in the 1980-1990s greatly encouraged me thereafter. The third serendipitous event in my career occurred in the mid 1990s and was my discovery of a novel integrative analysis method to assess the total amount of Ca2+ recruited in each excitation-contraction coupling from the decay rate of postextrasystolic potentiation, taking advantage of the Emax-PVA-Vo2 framework. 5. I am now hoping to experience one more serendipitous experience by developing an integrative analysis method of cross-bridge cycling in a beating heart using the Emax and PVA concepts.

  12. Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness - A long history of management guided by science

    Treesearch

    David Cole

    2016-01-01

    The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in northern Minnesota is one of the most iconic and cherished wilderness areas in the United States. One of the original wilderness areas established in 1964, the BWCAW protects a glaciated landscape of about 1,175 lakes, connected by several hundred miles of streams. Located adjacent to Canada's Quetico Provincial...

  13. Association of physical activity and physical performance with tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Venn, Alison; Cicuttini, Flavia; March, Lyn; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Cross, Marita; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2015-10-26

    Physical activity has been recommended to patients with knee osteoarthritis for improving their symptoms. However, it is still controversial if physical activity has effects on joint structures including cartilage volume. The aim of this study was to describe the associations between physical activity and performance measured 5 years prior and tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults. Subjects broadly representative of the Australian population (n = 328, aged 31-41 years, female 47.3 %) were selected from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study. They underwent T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of their knees. Tibial bone area and cartilage volume were measured from MRI. Physical activity (measured using long international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)) and performance measures (long jump, leg muscle strength, physical work capacity (PWC170)) were measured 5 years prior. In multivariable analyses, total physical activity (min/week) (β: 0.30 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.47), vigorous (β: 0.54 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.94), moderate (β: 0.34 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.01,0.67), walking (β: 0.40 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.07,0.72) and IPAQ category (β: 182.9 mm(3), 95 % CI: 51.8,314.0) were positively associated with total tibial cartilage volume but not tibial bone area. PWC170, long jump and leg muscle strength were positively and significantly associated with both total tibial cartilage volume and total tibial bone area; and the associations with tibial cartilage volume decreased in magnitude but remained significant for PWC170 and long jump after further adjustment for tibial bone area. While tibial bone area is affected only by physical performance, total tibial cartilage volume can be influenced by both physical activity and performance in younger adults. The clinical significance suggests a beneficial effect for cartilage but the bone area association was restricted to performance suggesting other factors

  14. Community History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  15. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 3: Papers by Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.)

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process-and how-would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. This volume contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  16. A Fully Automated Supraglacial lake area and volume Tracking ("FAST") algorithm: development and application using MODIS imagery of West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Andrew; Arnold, Neil; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Supraglacial lakes (SGLs) on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) influence ice dynamics if draining rapidly by hydrofracture, which can occur in under 24 hours. MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are often used to investigate SGLs, including calculating SGL area changes through time, but no existing work presents a method that tracks changes in individual (and total) SGL volume in MODIS imagery over a melt season. Here, we present such a method. First, we tested three automated approaches to derive SGL areas from MODIS imagery by comparing calculated areas for the Paakitsoq and Store Glacier regions in West Greenland with areas derived from Landsat-8 (LS8) images. Second, we applied a physically-based depth-calculation algorithm to the pixels within the SGL boundaries from the best performing method, and validated the resultant depths with those calculated using the same method applied to LS8 imagery. Our results indicated that SGL areas are most accurately generated using dynamic thresholding of MODIS band 1 (red) with a 0.640 threshold value. Calculated SGL area, depth and volume values from MODIS were closely comparable to those derived from LS8. The best performing area- and depth-detection methods were then incorporated into a Fully Automated SGL Tracking ("FAST") algorithm that tracks individual SGLs between successive MODIS images. It identified 43 (Paakitsoq) and 19 (Store Glacier) rapidly draining SGLs during 2014, representing 21% and 15% of the respective total SGL populations, including some clusters of rapidly draining SGLs. We found no relationship between the water volumes contained within these rapidly draining SGLs and the ice thicknesses beneath them, indicating that a critical water volume linearly related to ice thickness cannot explain the incidence of rapid drainage. The FAST algorithm, which we believe to be the most comprehensive SGL tracking algorithm developed to date, has the potential to investigate statistical

  17. Comparison of area-length method by echocardiography versus full-volume quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of left atrial volumes in children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Madueme, Peace C; Mazur, Wojciech; Hor, Kan N; Germann, Joshua T; Jefferies, John L; Taylor, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Left atrial (LA) size is a known predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. Echocardiography is the modality of choice for the evaluation of atrial size; however, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) remains the "gold standard." We sought to calculate atrial volumes using the area-length method by both echocardiography and cMRI and compare them with area-volume quantification by cMRI. Thiry-eight patients (mean age 20 ± 12 years, 71% male) who underwent cMRI and echocardiography between September 2010 and June 2012 were retrospectively identified. The time interval between the two studies was ≤ 6 months. LA volumes by echocardiogram were estimated using the area-length method: LA volume = (0.85 × area(4ch) × area(2ch))/(shortest atrial length). The atrial length and area were measured in standard apical two-chamber and four-chamber planes. Measured values were indexed to body surface area (BSA). CMRI measurements were obtained from prospectively gated steady-state free precession cine stack images obtained in a standard four-chamber plane. LA volumes were calculated using Simpson's method: LA volume = LA area × (slice thickness + gap) per slice. Slice thickness ranged from 5 to 7 mm with contiguous slices of 5 to 7 mm. The values were indexed to BSA. Statistics were summarized using measures of central tendency. LA volumes by echocardiography were significantly less than those by full-volume cMRI quantification. The mean LA volume by echocardiography and full-volume cMRI were 35 ± 14.5 and 42.4 ± 17.2, respectively (p = 0.05). The mean difference between LA volumes obtained by the two methods was 7.4 ± 10.6. LA volume measured by cMRI using the area-length method closely approximated full-volume assessment by cMRI with mean values of 42.9 ± 17.4 versus 42.4 ± 17.2, respectively (p = 0.91). There were no significant differences in the patient characteristics between the two study modalities. LA volumes as measured by echocardiography using the area

  18. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  19. Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Although "intragranular" pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment procedure using tritiated water as a high-resolution diffusive tracer to characterize the intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site (Washington). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, followed by a replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and the monitoring of tracer release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ("wet" and "dry") techniques allowed for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of ~1% of the solid volume and intragranular surface areas of ~20%–35% of the total surface area. Analogous experiments using bromide ion as a tracer yielded very different results, suggesting very little penetration of bromide into the intragranular porosity.

  20. Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: Pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, M.B.; Stoliker, D.L.; Davis, J.A.; Zachara, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although "intragranular" pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment procedure using tritiated water as a high-resolution diffusive tracer to characterize the intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site (Washington). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, followed by a replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and the monitoring of tracer release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ("wet" and "dry") techniques allowed for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of ???1% of the solid volume and intragranular surface areas of ???20%-35% of the total surface area. Analogous experiments using bromide ion as a tracer yielded very different results, suggesting very little penetration of bromide into the intragranular porosity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. [An automatic extraction algorithm for individual tree crown projection area and volume based on 3D point cloud data].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Heng; Feng, Zhong-Ke; Su, Zhi-Fang; Xu, Hui; Jiao, You-Quan; Deng, Ou

    2014-02-01

    Tree crown projection area and crown volume are the important parameters for the estimation of biomass, tridimensional green biomass and other forestry science applications. Using conventional measurements of tree crown projection area and crown volume will produce a large area of errors in the view of practical situations referring to complicated tree crown structures or different morphological characteristics. However, it is difficult to measure and validate their accuracy through conventional measurement methods. In view of practical problems which include complicated tree crown structure, different morphological characteristics, so as to implement the objective that tree crown projection and crown volume can be extracted by computer program automatically. This paper proposes an automatic untouched measurement based on terrestrial three-dimensional laser scanner named FARO Photon120 using plane scattered data point convex hull algorithm and slice segmentation and accumulation algorithm to calculate the tree crown projection area. It is exploited on VC+6.0 and Matlab7.0. The experiments are exploited on 22 common tree species of Beijing, China. The results show that the correlation coefficient of the crown projection between Av calculated by new method and conventional method A4 reaches 0.964 (p<0.01); and the correlation coefficient of tree crown volume between V(VC) derived from new method and V(C) by the formula of a regular body is 0.960 (p<0.001). The results also show that the average of V(C) is smaller than that of V(VC) at the rate of 8.03%, and the average of A4 is larger than that of A(V) at the rate of 25.5%. Assumed Av and V(VC) as ture values, the deviations of the new method could be attributed to irregularity of the crowns' silhouettes. Different morphological characteristics of tree crown led to measurement error in forest simple plot survey. Based on the results, the paper proposes that: (1) the use of eight-point or sixteen-point projection with

  2. Volume and surface area size distribution, water mass and model fitting of GCE/CASE/WATOX marine aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Sievering, H.; Boatman, J.

    1990-06-01

    As a part of the Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment (GCE/CASE/WATOX), size distributions of marine aerosols were measured at two altitudes of about 2750 and 150 m above sea level (asl) over the size range 0.1 ˜ 32 μm. Lognormal fitting was applied to the corrected aerosol size spectra to determine the volume and surface area size distributions of the CASE-WATOX marine aerosols. Each aerosol size distribution was fitted with three lognormal distributions representing fine-, large-, and giant-particle modes. Water volume fraction and dry particle size of each aerosol size distribution were also calculated using empirical formulas for particle size as a function of relative humidity and particle type. Because of the increased influence from anthropogenic sources in the continental United States, higher aerosol volume concentrations were observed in the fine-particle mode near-shore off the east coast; 2.11 and 3.63 μm3 cm-3 for free troposphere (FT) and marine boundary layer (MBL), compared with the open-sea Bermuda area values; 0.13 and 0.74 μm3 cm-3 for FT and MBL. The large-particle mode exhibits the least variations in volume distributions between the east coast and open-sea Bermuda area, having a volume geometric median diameter (VGMD) between 1.4 and 1.6 μm and a geometric standard deviation between 1.57 and 1.68. For the giant-particle mode, larger VGMD and volume concentrations were observed for marine aerosols nearshore off the east coast than in the open-sea Bermuda area because of higher relative humidity and higher surface wind speed conditions. Wet VGMD and aerosol water volume concentrations at 15 m asl ship level were determined by extrapolating from those obtained by analysis of the CASE-WATOX aircraft aerosol data. Abundance of aerosol water in the MBL serves as an important pathway for heterogeneous conversion of SO2 in sea salt aerosol particles.

  3. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Bícego, Márcia C; Mahiques, Michel M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Tessler, Moyses G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by (137)Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area.

  4. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had five tasks defined for the first year. The tasks were: F-1A Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Upper Stage Use, and CER's for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. The detailed study results, with the data to support the conclusions from various analyses, are being reported as a series of five separate Final Task Reports. Consequently, this volume only reports the required programmatic information concerning Computer Aided Design Documentation, and New Technology Reports. A detailed Executive Summary, covering all the tasks, is also available as Volume 1.

  5. Static allometry of unicellular green algae: scaling of cellular surface area and volume in the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales).

    PubMed

    Neustupa, J

    2016-02-01

    The surface area-to-volume ratio of cells is one of the key factors affecting fundamental biological processes and, thus, fitness of unicellular organisms. One of the general models for allometric increase in surface-to-volume scaling involves fractal-like elaboration of cellular surfaces. However, specific data illustrating this pattern in natural populations of the unicellular organisms have not previously been available. This study shows that unicellular green algae of the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales) have positive allometric surface-to-volume scaling caused by changes in morphology of individual species, especially in the degree of cell lobulation. This allometric pattern was also detected within most of the cultured and natural populations analysed. Values of the allometric S:V scaling within individual populations were closely correlated to the phylogenetic structure of the clade. In addition, they were related to species-specific cellular morphology. Individual populations differed in their allometric patterns, and their position in the allometric space was strongly correlated with the degree of allometric S:V scaling. This result illustrates that allometric shape patterns are an important correlate of the capacity of individual populations to compensate for increases in their cell volumes by increasing the surface area. However, variation in allometric patterns was not associated with phylogenetic structure. This indicates that the position of the populations in the allometric space was not evolutionarily conserved and might be influenced by environmental factors. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Corpus callosum area and brain volume in autism spectrum disorder: quantitative analysis of structural MRI from the ABIDE database.

    PubMed

    Kucharsky Hiess, R; Alter, R; Sojoudi, S; Ardekani, B A; Kuzniecky, R; Pardoe, H R

    2015-10-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial region. No difference in the corpus callosum area was found between ASD participants and healthy controls (ASD 598.53 ± 109 mm(2); control 596.82 ± 102 mm(2); p = 0.76). The ASD participants had increased intracranial volume (ASD 1,508,596 ± 170,505 mm(3); control 1,482,732 ± 150,873.5 mm(3); p = 0.042). No evidence was found for overall ASD differences in the corpus callosum subregions.

  7. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  8. The Wind and Beyond: A Documentary Journey into the History of Aerodynamics in America. Volume 1; The Ascent of the Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James R. (Editor); Taylor, D. Bryan; Kinney, Jeremy; Lee, J. Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    This first volume, plus the succeeding five now in preparation, covers the impact of aerodynamic development on the evolution of the airplane in America. As the six-volume series will ultimately demonstrate, just as the airplane is a defining technology of the twentieth century, aerodynamics has been the defining element of the airplane. Volumes two through six will proceed in roughly chronological order, covering such developments as the biplane, the advent of commercial airliners, flying boats, rotary aircraft, supersonic flight, and hypersonic flight. This series is designed as an aeronautics companion to the Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program (NASA SP-4407) series of books. As with Exploring the Unknown, the documents collected during this research project were assembled from a diverse number of public and private sources. A major repository of primary source materials relative to the history of the civil space program is the NASA Historical Reference Collection in the NASA Headquarters History Office. Historical materials housed at NASA field centers, academic institutions, and Presidential libraries were other sources of documents considered for inclusion, as were papers in the archives of private individuals and corporations.

  9. Dysfunctional, but not functional, impulsivity is associated with a history of seriously violent behaviour and reduced orbitofrontal and hippocampal volumes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Veena; Barkataki, Ian; Goswami, Sangeeta; Flora, Satinder; Das, Mrigendra; Taylor, Pamela

    2009-07-15

    Aggression and violent acts have been linked with impulsive responding. We investigated whether impulsive personality trait, especially suggestive of dysfunctional impulsivity (i.e. fast and inaccurate responding where this is non-optimal), is associated with a history of seriously violent behaviour and specific brain deficits in schizophrenia. Twenty-four male participants with schizophrenia, of whom 10 had a history of serious physical violence, and 14 healthy male participants were assessed on impulsiveness (dysfunctional impulsivity), venturesomeness (functional impulsivity), and empathy. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The results revealed that participants with schizophrenia and a history of violence showed elevated impulsiveness but had comparable scores on venturesomeness and empathy dimensions. Impulsiveness scores correlated negatively with reduced orbitofrontal grey matter volume in both the patient and healthy control groups, and with hippocampal volume in the patient group. Our findings suggest that dysfunctional, but not functional, impulsivity is elevated in patients with schizophrenia with a propensity for repetitive violence, and this in turn appears to be associated with reduce volumes of both the orbitofrontal cortex grey matter and the hippocampus. Violence risk prediction and management strategies in schizophrenia may benefit from including specific measures of dysfunctional impulsive traits.

  10. The OCEAN study area: Tectonic history from magnetic anomaly data and seismic reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henstock, Timothy J.; White, Robert S.; McBride, John H.

    1995-10-01

    The OCEAN experiment is a detailed geophysical study of a region of the Cape Verde basin. A dense network of new magnetic and gravity profiles has enabled us to constrain the spreading rate history of the region and the location of fracture zones. The main features on the gravity profiles are lineated perpendicular to the seafloor spreading magnetic anomaly lineations. Significant along-axis variability in spreading history suggests that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge behaved as a series of loosely coupled segments within which spreading was fundamentally asymmetric. Such variability is associated with a minor jump in the ridge axis which changes the offset and expression of one of the fracture zones. Deep seismic reflection and refraction lines were oriented parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic lineations; seismic reflections occur at all levels within the crust, decreasing in amplitude and coherence below the level of the Moho. Analysis of the subbasement reflectivity provides compelling evidence that at least two major sets of dipping structure are present and are imaged separately on the two perpendicular sets of seismic profiles. Dipping reflections on flow line ("dip") profiles, which are interpreted as faults due to their association with offsets in the basement surface, appear to strike parallel to the paleoridge axis. The majority of reflections that may be identified as faults dip toward the west, and although basement topography suggests that east dipping faults are also present, no reflections may be interpreted unambiguously as such. East dipping reflections observed only in the middle to lower crust have a more obscure origin. Dipping reflections seen on isochron ("strike") profiles show clear contrasts in strength, lateral coherence, depth, and dip population; a number of these strike parallel to flow lines. Comparing reflection and refraction data shows that both the layer 2/layer 3 boundary and the Moho are marked by a change in the character of

  11. History or current selection? A molecular analysis of 'area effects' in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, A; Clarke, B

    2000-01-01

    We have used molecular variation in microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA to throw light on the origins of enigmatic geographical patterns, known as 'area effects', in the shell polymorphisms of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis. Our aim was to assess the relative importance of recent selection and historical events in the formation of these patterns. On the Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire, England, the 'type locality' for area effects, the frequencies of microsatellites are significantly associated with the frequencies of alleles for shell banding. A less clear association is found between microsatellites and shell colour. Mitochondrial haplotypes show no significant relationships. Although the correlated geographical patterns could be the results of random genetic drift from an initially uniform array of populations, the magnitudes of the patterns, and of the correlations between them, seem too strong to have arisen by drift since the last glaciation. Our results suggest that invasions from refugia have been the most important factors in forming area effects. PMID:10983823

  12. Successes and failures of recording and interpreting seismic data in structurally complex area: seismic case history

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, V.C.; Johnson, J.H.; Crittenden, J.L.; Anderson, T.D.

    1986-05-01

    There are successes and failures in recording and interpreting a single seismic line across the South Owl Creek Mountain fault on the west flank of the Casper arch. Information obtained from this type of work should help explorationists who are exploring structurally complex areas. A depth cross section lacks a subthrust prospect, but is illustrated to show that the South Owl Creek Mountain fault is steeper with less apparent displacement than in areas to the north. This cross section is derived from two-dimensional seismic modeling, using data processing methods specifically for modeling. A flat horizon and balancing technique helps confirm model accuracy. High-quality data were acquired using specifically designed seismic field parameters. The authors concluded that the methodology used is valid, and an interactive modeling program in addition to cross-line control can improve seismic interpretations in structurally complex areas.

  13. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste area groups 1--7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Technology Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternatives for environmental restoration projects at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The diagram (three volumes) documents suggested solutions to the characterization, retrieval, and treatment phases of cleanup activities at contaminated sites within 8 of the laboratory`s 10 waste area groups. Contaminated sites at the laboratory`s Naval Reactor Facility and Argonne National Laboratory-West are not included in this diagram.

  14. Determination of the volume-specific surface area by using transmission electron tomography for characterization and definition of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Elke A F; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan R H; Francisco, Michel Abi Daoud; Mast, Jan

    2011-05-11

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) remains an important technique to investigate the size, shape and surface characteristics of particles at the nanometer scale. Resulting micrographs are two dimensional projections of objects and their interpretation can be difficult. Recently, electron tomography (ET) is increasingly used to reveal the morphology of nanomaterials (NM) in 3D. In this study, we examined the feasibility to visualize and measure silica and gold NM in suspension using conventional bright field electron tomography. The general morphology of gold and silica NM was visualized in 3D by conventional TEM in bright field mode. In orthoslices of the examined NM the surface features of a NM could be seen and measured without interference of higher or lower lying structures inherent to conventional TEM. Segmentation by isosurface rendering allowed visualizing the 3D information of an electron tomographic reconstruction in greater detail than digital slicing. From the 3D reconstructions, the surface area and the volume of the examined NM could be estimated directly and the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) was calculated. The mean VSSA of all examined NM was significantly larger than the threshold of 60 m(2)/cm(3). The high correlation between the measured values of area and volume gold nanoparticles with a known spherical morphology and the areas and volumes calculated from the equivalent circle diameter (ECD) of projected nanoparticles (NP) indicates that the values measured from electron tomographic reconstructions are valid for these gold particles. The characterization and definition of the examined gold and silica NM can benefit from application of conventional bright field electron tomography: the NM can be visualized in 3D, while surface features and the VSSA can be measured.

  15. Basic data on forest area and timber volumes from the southern forest survey, 1932-1936

    Treesearch

    William A. Duerr

    1932-01-01

    In Response to strong demand, estimates from the Forest Survey of 1932-1936 are presented in this report on forest acreage and timber volumes by county in the states of the lower South. Although these figures are old and are highly unreliable for individual counties, they are useful as source data in compiling information for groups of counties that differ from the...

  16. Sulcal Morphology and Volume of Broca's Area Linked to Handedness and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Joanne L.; Kemp, Graham J.; Roberts, Neil; Garcia-Finana, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of handedness and sex on: (i) sulcal contours defining PO and PTR and (ii) volume estimates of PO and PTR subfields in 40 left- and 42 right-handers. Results show an effect of handedness on discontinuity of the inferior frontal sulcus (IFS: P less than 0.01). Discontinuity of IFS was observed in: 43% left- and 62% right…

  17. Sulcal Morphology and Volume of Broca's Area Linked to Handedness and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Joanne L.; Kemp, Graham J.; Roberts, Neil; Garcia-Finana, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of handedness and sex on: (i) sulcal contours defining PO and PTR and (ii) volume estimates of PO and PTR subfields in 40 left- and 42 right-handers. Results show an effect of handedness on discontinuity of the inferior frontal sulcus (IFS: P less than 0.01). Discontinuity of IFS was observed in: 43% left- and 62% right…

  18. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  19. Learning to Share: A Report on the Disadvantaged Country Areas Program for 1978. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley K.

    The Disadvantaged Country Areas Program in Australia involves a limited number of areas in each State selected according to their relative poverty, special need for improved educational provisions, and lack of opportunities for employment and training for young people. All schools in the declared areas are expected to share the services and…

  20. Final Remedial Investigation Report Area of Contamination (AOC) 57. Volume II. Appendices A through D

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    occupied by Fort Devens were retained by the Army for reserve forces training and renamed the Devens Reserve Forces Training Area ( RFTA ). Areas not retained...as part of the Devens RFTA were, or are in the process of being, transferred to new owners for reuse and redevelopment. AOC 57 is located in an area

  1. History of the negotiations of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Alper, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    This work chronicles events leading to a recommendation that an agency be created by compact among Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia to provide a regional rail-transportation system. The body of text describes the process through which framers of the compact finally brought the recommendation to fruition. Many issues arose during the course of negotiations, but each was resolved satisfactorily, leading to a successful political instrument that has enabled the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority to design and construct a rapid-rail transit system for the metropolitan area.

  2. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. VIII. The Global Star Formation Histories of 60 Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Skillman, Evan D.; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Holtzman, Jon; Rosema, Keith; Cole, Andrew; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2011-09-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 60 nearby (D <~ 4 Mpc) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and analyzed as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury program (ANGST). This volume-limited sample contains 12 dwarf spheroidal (dSph)/dwarf elliptical (dE), 5 dwarf spiral, 28 dwarf irregular (dI), 12 dSph/dI (transition), and 3 tidal dwarf galaxies. The sample spans a range of ~10 mag in MB and covers a wide range of environments, from highly interacting to truly isolated. From the best-fit SFHs, we find three significant results for dwarf galaxies in the ANGST volume: (1) the majority of dwarf galaxies formed the bulk of their mass prior to z ~ 1, regardless of current morphological type; (2) the mean SFHs of dIs, transition dwarf galaxies (dTrans), and dSphs are similar over most of cosmic time, and only begin to diverge a few Gyr ago, with the clearest differences between the three appearing during the most recent 1 Gyr and (3) the SFHs are complex and the mean values are inconsistent with simple SFH models, e.g., single bursts, constant star formation rates (SFRs), or smooth, exponentially declining SFRs. The mean SFHs show clear divergence from the cosmic SFH at z <~ 0.7, which could be evidence that low-mass systems have experienced delayed star formation relative to more massive galaxies. The sample shows a strong density-morphology relationship, such that the dSphs in the sample are less isolated than the dIs. We find that the transition from a gas-rich to gas-poor galaxy cannot be solely due to internal mechanisms such as stellar feedback, and instead is likely the result of external mechanisms, e.g., ram pressure and tidal stripping and tidal forces. In terms of their environments, SFHs, and gas fractions, the majority of the dTrans appear to be low-mass dIs that simply lack Hα emission, similar to Local Group (LG) dTrans DDO 210

  3. Mississippi and Louisiana Estuarine Areas. Freshwater Diversion to Lake Pontchartrain Basin and Mississippi Sound. Feasibility Study. Volume 3. Technical Appendixes, E, F, G, H, I, J, K.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Section 4. PREHISTORIC AND HISTORIC OVERVIEW E-7 GEOMORPHOLOGY E- 7 IMPLICATIONS FOR PREHISTORIC HABITATION E-8 PREHISTORY OF THE STUDY AREA E-1O HISTORY ...our understanding of prehistory and history and are listed in the National Register of historic Places. n.1.2. The study area has a diverse and complex... history of geomorpho- logical development that has created a dynamic landscape. This ever- changing landscape has shaped huma. use and occupation of

  4. Comparison of two flow-based imaging methods to measure individual red blood cell area and volume.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Domenico; Caserta, Sergio; Cesarelli, Mario; Guido, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    The red blood cells (RBCs) population is characterized by a high heterogeneity in membrane area, cellular volume, and mechanical properties, mainly due to the variety of mechanical and chemical stresses that a red cell undergoes in its entire life span. Here, we provide the first simultaneous area and volume measurements of RBCs flowing in microcapillaries, by using high-speed video microscopy imaging and quantitative data processing based on image analysis techniques. Both confined and unbounded flow conditions (depending on the relative size of RBCs and microcapillary diameter) are investigated. The results are compared with micropipette experiments from the literature and data from Coulter counter routine clinical blood tests. Good agreement is found for RBC volume, especially in the case of confined flow conditions. Surface area measurements, which are lacking in the routine clinical test, are of special interest being a potential diagnostic parameter of altered cell deformability and aggregability. Overall, our results provide a novel flow methodology suitable for high-throughput measurements of RBC geometrical parameters, allowing one to overcome the limits of classical static methods, such as micropipette aspiration, which are not suitable for handling a large number of cells. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  5. A Brief Technical History of the Large-Area Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD) Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.W.; et al.

    2016-03-06

    The Large Area Picosecond PhotoDetector (LAPPD) Collaboration was formed in 2009 to develop large-area photodetectors capable of time resolutions measured in pico-seconds, with accompanying sub-millimeter spatial resolution. During the next three and one-half years the Collaboration developed the LAPPD design of 20 x 20 cm modules with gains greater than $10^7$ and non-uniformity less than $15\\%$, time resolution less than 50 psec for single photons and spatial resolution of 700~microns in both lateral dimensions. We describe the R\\&D performed to develop large-area micro-channel plate glass substrates, resistive and secondary-emitting coatings, large-area bialkali photocathodes, and RF-capable hermetic packaging. In addition, the Collaboration developed the necessary electronics for large systems capable of precise timing, built up from a custom low-power 15-GigaSample/sec waveform sampling 6-channel integrated circuit and supported by a two-level modular data acquisition system based on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays for local control, data-sparcification, and triggering. We discuss the formation, organization, and technical successes and short-comings of the Collaboration. The Collaboration ended in December 2012 with a transition from R\\&D to commercialization.

  6. Protected areas of the central Siberian Arctic: History, status, and prospects

    Treesearch

    Andrei P. Laletin; Dmitry V. Vladyshevskii; Alexei D. Vladyshevskii

    2002-01-01

    Before the Siberian Arctic was incorporated into the Russian Empire, it had been inhabited by small numbers of indigenous peoples. The first Russian settlers came to Siberia in the 16th century. The northern areas of Siberia had not been subjected to extreme anthropogenic influences before the Norilsk Industrial Complex started to be built in 1935. Negative...

  7. Research history and prospecting potential of gold deposits in Dongchuan Area, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chaowen; Zhang, Shugen

    2017-03-01

    The Dongchuan area in China is part of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou polymetallic metallogenic field and contains extensive ore-deposits. Although gold was first discovered in the area in the 1990s, gold exploration and research are currently limited; only five areas have currently been identified as containing gold deposits with reserves of more than 20 tons. However, the area is believed to have considerable prospecting potential. Gold deposits mainly occurring in the wall of the rock mass have been found in the upper-middle section of the Pingdingshan Group to the lower-bottom section of the Yinming Group in relation to the intrusive action and development of sodium diorite. It has been determined that the core of the anticline complex and its nearby fault zone are the major ore hosting structures and that gold-deposit prospecting should be conducted around the N-S compressive shear zone. In this study, sites are determined that have certain characteristics accompanied by a high degree of rock formation and complete assemblages of lithological composition; these are considered to be locations conducive to the prospecting of gold deposits.

  8. Depositional history of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River basin area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.K.; Paull, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Thirty-three measured sections of the Dinwoody Formation, including five from the literature, provide information on thickness, lithology, paleontology, and stratigraphic relations within the Wind River basin and immediately adjacent areas of Wyoming. Most of these sections are in Fremont County, and some lie within the Wind River Indian Reservation. The Dinwoody becomes progressively thinner eastward, from a maximum thickness of 54.6 m in the northwestern Wind River Mountains to zero near the Natrona County line. The formation is characterized by yellowish-weathering, gray siltstone and silty shale. Variable amounts of limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and claystone are also present. Marine bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods (Lingula), and conodonts are common in the western part of the study area, but are absent to the northeast in gypsiferous strata, and near the eastern limit of Dinwoody deposition. The Dinwoody in the Wind River Basin area was deposited unconformably on the Upper Permian Ervary Member of the Park City Formation during the initial Mesozoic flood onto the Wyoming shelf during the Griesbachian, and represents the first of three Lower Triassic transgressive sequences in the western miogeocline. Conodonts of the Isarcica Chronozone document the rapid nature of this eastward transgression. The Permian surface underlying the Dinwoody rarely shows evidence of the long hiatus separating rocks of this age and earliest Triassic deposits. The Dinwoody transgression was followed by westward progradation of the Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group across the study area.

  9. A history of forest entomology in the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain areas, 1901 to 1982

    Treesearch

    Malcolm M. Furniss

    2007-01-01

    This account spans the time from A.D. Hopkins' trip to the Black Hills, SD, in 1901 to my retirement in 1982. The focus is on personnel and the work of the Division of Forest Insect Investigations, USDA, and the Forest Service experiment stations in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain areas. Information for the Intermountain and Northern Rocky Mountain station...

  10. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 6: Navajo (Window Rock) Area, 1966-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The sixth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Navajo (Window Rock) Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context (geography and description of the Dine, a tribe and…

  11. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 7: Oklahoma City Area, 1969-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The seventh volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Oklahoma City Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) General Description: Geography and Demography (population;…

  12. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca's area volume

    PubMed Central

    Fillman, S G; Weickert, T W; Lenroot, R K; Catts, S V; Bruggemann, J M; Catts, V S; Weickert, C S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca's and Wernicke's areas). IL-1β mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca's area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1β mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia. PMID:26194183

  13. Retrieval of phase history parameters from distributed scatterers in urban areas using very high resolution SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xiao Xiang; Bamler, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In a recent contribution Ferretti and co-workers (Ferretti, A., Fumagalli, A., Novali, F., Prati, C., Rocca, F., Rucci, A., 2011. A new algorithm for processing interferometric data-stacks: SqueeSAR IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49(9), pp. 3460-3470) have proposed the SqueeSAR method, a way to exploit temporally coherent distributed scatterers in coherent SAR data stacks. Elevation and deformation or subsidence estimates are obtained with accuracy similar as in the well known persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI). In this paper we propose an alternative approach and provide a first demonstration of the optimal estimation of distributed scatterers' phase histories in urban areas. Different to SqueeSAR, we derive phase histories for each distributed scatterer pixel rather than for groups of pixels. We use the Anderson-Darling statistical test to identify neighboring samples of the same distribution. Prior to covariance matrix estimation required for maximum likelihood estimation we apply a multi-resolution defringe technique. By using TerraSAR-X high resolution spotlight data, it is demonstrated that we are able to retrieve reliable phase histories and motion parameter estimates from distributed scatterers with signal-to-noise-ratio far below the common range.

  14. Social Science on the Frontier: New Horizons in History and Geography. The Social Science Education Consortium Conference Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham, Ed.; Bednarz, Robert S., Ed.

    This collection of essays examines recent scholarship in history and geography. The readings are for teachers, teacher educators, curriculum coordinators, and developers of curriculum materials. Following a foreword by the series editors, Matthew T. Downey and Joseph P. Stoltman, the essays are: (1) "At Play with Education and History"…

  15. Breaking Away from the Textbook, Volume I: Creative Ways to Teach World History Prehistory to 1600. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ron H.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching history should not be reciting an endless list of dead men, entombed between the covers of a textbook. Instead, "Breaking Away from the Textbook" offers a fascinating journey through world history. Not a comprehensive, theory-heavy guide, this book focuses on active classroom activities, methods for students to grapple with humanity's…

  16. History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

  17. History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

  18. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon Burn Area near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and potential volume of debris flows along the drainage network of the burned area and to estimate the same for 22 selected drainage basins along U.S. Highway 24 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (29 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (42 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (48 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 54 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from less than 1 to 74 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from less than 1 to 82 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the southern and southeastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Nine of the 22 drainage basins of interest have greater than a 40-percent probability of producing a debris flow in response to the 10-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 1,500 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce

  19. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  20. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  1. Using the genetics of Echinococcus multilocularis to trace the history of expansion from an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Umhang, G; Knapp, J; Hormaz, V; Raoul, F; Boué, F

    2014-03-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, is the most serious parasitic disease for humans in Europe, with a sylvatic life cycle generally between small rodents and red foxes. General expansion of the range of E. multilocularis has been observed across Europe over the last 15years. In France, a westward spread of the known endemic areas of the parasite was described recently. For genotyping, the microsatellite EmsB was used to trace expansion in five French areas. A total of 22 EmsB profiles were identified, with five similar to those previously described in other parts of Europe. An imbalance of genetic diversity was observed between the five areas which also revealed their interconnection with the presence of common profiles, notably the two main profiles both present in all regions except one in the North. These two findings are similar to those described at the European level, highlighting transmission of the parasite by a mainland-island system. A spatio-temporal scenario of the expansion of E. multilocularis can be proposed with spread from the French historical focus in eastern France to the Lorraine, the Champagne-Ardenne and finally the North, while simultaneously another expansion has occurred from the historical focus into the West. The colonization by the parasite into the West and North areas from the historical focus was probably due to the migration of foxes several decades ago. Recent detection of the parasite in new endemic "départements" may be due to more active research rather than a recent spread of the parasite. Regarding the numerous data obtained by the different EmsB analyses, principally across Europe, centralization of all the profiles described in a public databank appears necessary in order to obtain a precise understanding of transmission of the parasite from one country to another.

  2. United States Coast Guard Local Area Network (LAN). Feasibility Analysis Report. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    entitled RUSCG Headquarters Local Area Network (LAN) Feasibility Analysis", was begun September 30, 1985. It is based upon the updated Requirements...Alternative LAN Architectures Four alternative local area network conceptual designs were selected through an iterative process, described below and...These criteria represent the set of most significant factors that Coast Guard management might use to select a local area network for Headquarters

  3. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 3, Subject Area reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-14

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User`s Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help.

  4. Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about

  5. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of cholecystectomies were emergency operations. In 38 symptomatic Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  6. Late Holocene history of savanna gallery forest from Carimagua area, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Berrio; Hooghiemstra; Behling; van der Borg K

    2000-09-01

    The pollen record of a 65cm long core Laguna Carimagua-Bosque (4 degrees 04'N, 70 degrees 13'W) shows the late Holocene environmental history from a lake located within the gallery forest of the savannas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia. Nine AMS radiocarbon dates of the organic deposits show that the core represents the period from ca. 1300(14)CyrBP to the present. The lake evolved from an active drainage system.During the period from ca. 1300 to 875(14)CyrBP (zone CMB-Ia), Mauritia-dominated swamp and gallery forest was present, dominated by Cecropia, and later also Acalypha and Alchornea. From 875 to 700(14)CyrBP (zone CMB-Ib), the lake was completely surrounded by gallery forest. Mauritiella and Cecropia occurred around the lake. Cecropia pioneer forest reached its greatest abundance and became gradually replaced by a more species-rich gallery forest, including Acalypha, Alchornea, Euterpe/Geonoma, Moraceae/Urticaceae, Piperaceae, and Virola. From 700 to 125(14)CyrBP (zone CMB-II), Cecropia lost its dominant role, and Mauritiella palms became more frequent. The main vegetation categories were swamp forest, gallery forest, understory elements, savanna shrubs and trees, and grass savanna. From 125(14)CyrBP to recent (zone CMB-III), the plant diversity in the gallery forest became highest, Mauritiella became very abundant, and among the savanna elements, woody Didymopanax increased.Comparison of four pollen records from savanna sites shows that pollen of savanna vegetation is markedly underrepresented in lake sediments when the lake lies within the gallery forest. As most of the drainage system of a savanna is hidden by gallery forest, we also expect a significant underrepresentation of the savanna ecosystem in river-transported pollen assemblages.

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    market for certain clays and result in commercial exploitation. P 5.3.4.5 Pegmatite Minerals Feldspar, beryl, and mica are the economically important...pegma- P tite minerals in Nevada; however, no production from pegmatites is known in the study area. Since pegmatites are not common in the study area

  8. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Ehrich, Dorothee; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn), sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings). Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover), South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent) and North-East/South-West (NESW) as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA) composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals). Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding patterns

  9. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn), sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings). Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover), South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent) and North-East/South-West (NESW) as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA) composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals). Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding patterns

  10. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 4, Well-based subject areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    The Well subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) manages data relevant to wells, boreholes and test pits constructed at the Hanford Site for soil sampling, geologic analysis and/or ground-water monitoring, and sampling for hydrochemical and radiological analysis. Data stored in the Well subject area include information relevant to the construction of the wells and boreholes, structural modifications to existing wells and boreholes, the location of wells, boreholes and test pits, and the association of wells, boreholes and test pits with organization entities such as waste sites. Data resulting from ground-water sampling performed at wells are stored in tables in the Ground-Water subject area. Geologic data collected during drilling, including particle sizing and interpretative geologic summaries, are stored in tables in the Geologic subject area. Data from soil samples taken during the drilling or excavation and sent for chemical and/or radiological analysis are stored in the Soil subject area.

  11. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley A and B, Utah, detail area. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer with a large crystal volume, and with a high sensitivity proton precession magnetometer. The radiometric system was calibrated at the Walker Field Calibration pads and the Lake Mead Dynamic Test Range. Data quality was ensured during the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, gridded, and contoured to produce maps of the radiometric variables, uranium, potassium, and thorium; their ratios; and the residual magnetic field. These maps have been analyzed in order to produce a multivariant analysis contour map based on the radiometric response of the individual geological units. A geochemical analysis has been performed, using the radiometric and magnetic contour maps, the multi-variant analysis map, and factor analysis techniques, to produce a geochemical analysis map for the area. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data collection procedures, the data processing procedures, the data presentation, the interpretation rationale, and the interpretation methodology. Separate Volumes II-A and II-B for each detail area contain the data displays and the interpretation results.

  12. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 High Park Burn Area near Fort Collins, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins in Larimer County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and to estimate the same for 44 selected drainage basins along State Highway 14 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (25 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (43 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (51 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities along the drainage network and throughout the drainage basins of interest ranged from 1 to 84 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; from 2 to 95 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; and from 3 to 97 in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the eastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Estimated debris-flow volumes range from a low of 1,600 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and

  13. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2010 Fourmile burn area, Boulder County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, Barbara C.; Stevens, Michael R.; Verdin, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the Fourmile Creek fire in Boulder County, Colorado, in 2010. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volumes of debris flows for selected drainage basins. Data for the models include burn severity, rainfall total and intensity for a 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainstorm, and topographic and soil property characteristics. Several of the selected drainage basins in Fourmile Creek and Gold Run were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 60 percent, and many more with probabilities greater than 45 percent, in response to the 25-year recurrence, 1-hour rainfall. None of the Fourmile Canyon Creek drainage basins selected had probabilities greater than 45 percent. Throughout the Gold Run area and the Fourmile Creek area upstream from Gold Run, the higher probabilities tend to be in the basins with southerly aspects (southeast, south, and southwest slopes). Many basins along the perimeter of the fire area were identified as having low probability of occurrence of debris flow. Volume of debris flows predicted from drainage basins with probabilities of occurrence greater than 60 percent ranged from 1,200 to 9,400 m3. The predicted moderately high probabilities and some of the larger volumes responses predicted for the modeled storm indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow effects to buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and immediately downstream from the burned area. However, even small debris flows that affect structures at the basin outlets could cause considerable damage.

  14. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.H. Jr.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    These Appendices describe various technologies that may be applicable to the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (MWTP) Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). These technologies were identified by the CPTS Technical Support Group (TSG) as potentially applicable to a variety of separation, volume reduction, and decontamination requirements. The purpose was to identify all available and developing technologies, and their characteristics, for subsequent evaluation for specific requirements identified for the CPTS. However, the technologies described herein are not necessarily all inclusive, nor are they necessarily all applicable.

  15. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids.

  16. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 2: Research and technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Terminal Area Compatibility (TAC) study is briefly summarized for background information. The most important research items for the areas of noise congestion, and emissions are identified. Other key research areas are also discussed. The 50 recommended research items are categorized by flight phase, technology, and compatibility benefits. The relationship of the TAC recommendations to the previous ATT recommendations is discussed. The bulk of the document contains the 50 recommended research items. For each item, the potential payoff, state of readiness, recommended action and estimated cost and schedule are given.

  17. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 6. Southern Study Area, Final, Version 3.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    r oror Structure - - -6 Section Number q k Stream... .of Dich 17,- Study Area Boundary 174.000 S’ate PNor. Grid Anolyte Sample Location "nd...Se6tionle Numnber ~i I I - Streami or Ditch - ,I - -- ~ -Study Area Boundary 17 4.000 State Plant Grid -- v1. Anolyte Sample Location and...Existing Structure :j6 Section Number __z! Study Area Boundary I 7i4.000 State Plane Grid Anolyte Sample Location ____ _ Iand Concentration (ug/1) 0

  18. Cenozoic structural history of selected areas in the eastern Great Basin, Nevada-Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R. Ernest

    1983-01-01

    axis of the CRST. The most intensely faulted and tilted rocks along the axis of the CRST are located in the Tunnel Spring Mountains where Miocene(?) extension on closely spaced listric faults produced as much as 70 percent extension locally. Three episodes of Oligocene-Miocene deformation, all interpreted to have formed in an extensional environment, are recognized in the Tunnel Spring Mountains. The nearby Burbank Hills area may have been involved in the same deformational episodes, though there the relationships are not as clear-cut nor does evidence occur of extreme extension. Tight asymmetric folds in the Burbank Hills are interpreted as drape structures formed over buried normal faults. Other structures along the southern CRST have fold-like forms, but they result from cross-strike alternations in fault-related tilt directions, and they formed in an extensional stress regime. Least-principal stress directions inferred from orientations of extensional structures vary from ENE-WSW in the southern Tunnel Spring Mountains to approximately E-W in the Disappointment Hills and NW-SE in selected areas east of the axis of the CRST. The size, geographic distribution, and new data on the age of areas of major extensional faulting preclude previously published interpretations that the extension is related to major east-directed overthrusting of the Sevier orogeny in areas east of the hinterland of west-central Utah.

  19. M-area hazardous waste management facility groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report, First quarter 1995, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report, in three volumes, describes the ground water monitoring and c corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the fourth quarter 1994 and first quarter 1995. Concise description of the program and considerable data documenting the monitoring and remedial activities are included in the document. This is Volume 1 covering the following topics: sampling and results; hydrogeologic assessment; water quality assessment; effectiveness of the corrective-action program; corrective-action system operation and performance; monitoring and corrective-action program assessment; proposed monitoring and corrective-action program modifications. Also included are the following appendicies: A-standards; B-flagging criteria; C-figures; D-monitoring results tables; E-data quality/usability assessment.

  20. The Astroni volcano: the only example of closely spaced eruptions in the same vent area during the recent history of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaia, Roberto; D'Antonio, Massimo; Dell'Erba, Francesco; Di Vito, Mauro; Orsi, Giovanni

    2004-05-01

    The Astroni volcano formed during the third and most recent epoch of activity (4.8-3.8 ka) of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc). The activity of the volcano was dominated by explosive, mostly phreatomagmatic eruptions, with only subordinate lava effusions. We have grouped the sequence of deposits into seven distinct units, separated by erosional unconformities or very thin paleosols. The units include mostly surge beds, with subordinate strombolian deposits and lavas, and one plinian fallout layer. The total volume of erupted magma is 0.45 km 3 (DRE), while the total mass is 1.12×10 12 kg. The magma feeding the first five eruptions was alkali-trachytic and slightly zoned, while the last two eruptions tapped a magma batch resulting from mixing of the previously extruded alkali-trachytic and a less evolved trachytic magma. The volcano grew at the northwestern edge of the polygonal volcano-tectonic collapse, northwest-southeast elongated, which accompanied the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.1 ka), the largest of the third epoch. Available radiometric dates and stratigraphical data constrain the age of the volcano in the final part of the 4.1-3.8 ka time span. This implies that the seven eruptions followed each other at very short time intervals. This conclusion is also supported by constancy in archaeological facies of findings within the paleosols between variable Astroni units, in the plain north of the caldera. The sequence of close eruptions in the same area, although with a slight migration of the vent from northwest to southeast, makes the Astroni volcano peculiar in the recent history of the CFc. Therefore, the definition of its history is very important in order to understand one of the past phenomenologies of the caldera, relevant elements to forecast its behavior.

  1. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This report contains Appendix B which provides all of the laboratory summary data sheets for the Area 6 SCEPs closure activities.

  2. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 5, Surface-based subject areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    The purpose of the Biota subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data collected from samples of plants and animals. This includes both samples taken from the plant or animal or samples related to the plant or animal. Related samples include animal feces and animal habitat. Data stored in the Biota subject area include data about the biota samples taken, analysis results counts from population studies, and species distribution maps.

  3. Art History, Art Criticism, and Art Production. An Examination of Art Education in Selected School Districts. Volume II: Case Studies of Seven Selected Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Michael; And Others

    This report covers the findings from a cross-site analysis of seven sites that were implementing a discipline-based approach to visual arts education. A discipline-based approach incorporates four art disciplines in the classroom: art history, art criticism, aesthetics, and art making. The study focused on two major areas: (1) factors generating…

  4. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume III. Critical design areas. [Identification of critical design areas; design or materials problems, trade-off areas, items affecting operability and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Several meetings have been held with representatives from Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.; Airco Energy Company, Inc.; Bechtel Group, Inc.; and HRI Engineering, Inc. to identify critical design areas in the Phase Zero work. (Critical design areas are defined as those requiring additional data or further work to finalize design or material selection, to optimize the trade-off between capital investment and operating cost, or to enhance system operability and reliability.) The critical design areas so identified are summarized by plant in this volume of Report XI. Items of a proprietary nature have been omitted from this report, but are included in the limited access version.

  5. Maximizing survey volume for large-area multi-epoch surveys with Voronoi tessellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Marco C.

    2017-07-01

    The survey volume of a proper motion-limited sample is typically much smaller than a magnitude-limited sample. This is because of the noisy astrometric measurements from detectors that are not dedicated for astrometric missions. In order to apply an empirical completeness correction, existing works limit the survey depth to the shallower parts of the sky that hamper the maximum potential of a survey. The number of epoch of measurement is a discrete quantity that cannot be interpolated across the projected plane of observation, so that the survey properties change in discrete steps across the sky. This work proposes a method to dissect the survey into small parts with Voronoi tessellation using candidate objects as generating points such that each part defines a 'mini-survey' that has its own properties. Coupling with a maximum volume density estimator, the new method is demonstrated to be unbiased and recovered ˜20 per cent more objects than the existing method in a mock catalogue of a white dwarf-only solar neighbourhood with Pan-STARRS 1-like characteristics. Towards the end of this work, we demonstrate one way to increase the tessellation resolution with artificial generating points, which would be useful for analysis of rare objects with small number counts.

  6. [Assessing the effectiveness of removing iodized salt on iodine excessive goiter using thyroid volume reference for body surface area].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shengmin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Yuchun; Du, Yonggui; Jia, Lihui; Ma, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Using the thyroid volume criteria for body surface area (BSA) to assess more precisely the effectiveness of removing iodized salt on the goiter status of children living in areas with excessive iodine in drinking water. Three towns with median water iodine (MWI) of 150-300 µg/L were selected by simple random method in Hengshui city of Hebei province of China in May of 2010. A total of 452 and 459 children in the 3 towns were randomly selected to measure thyroid volume by ultrasound. Iodized salt was removed in July of 2010. In October of 2013, 459 children in these 3 towns were selected by simple random method to measure their thyroid volume by ultrasound again. Their goiter status was judged using the criteria of thyroid volume for BSA recommended by the WHO. After removing iodized salt, the overall BSA specific goiter prevalence in the three towns significantly decreased from 33% (149/452) to 6% (30/459) (χ² = 100.64, P < 0.001). The BSA specific goiter prevalence in 8, 9 and 10 year-old children decreased respectively from 38% (35/92), 31% (59/193) and 33% (55/167) to 6% (10/164), 7% (11/163) and 7% (9/132) (χ² values were 41.35, 31.66, 29.79, P < 0.001). The BSA specific goiter prevalence in boys and girls decreased from 34% (83/244) and 32% (66/208) to 6% (14/225) and 7% (16/234) (χ² values were 55.01, 45.06, P < 0.001) respectively. The BSA specific children's goiter prevalence decreased significantly after removing iodized salt from their diet in the HIA in Hebei province.

  7. Glacial history of a mid-altitude mountain massif: cartography and dating in the Chablais area (France, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, A.; Reynard, E.; Delannoy, J.-J.

    2012-04-01

    The Chablais area, considered as one of the cradles of glaciology (de Charpentier, 1841; Morlot, 1859), has been studied for a long time but several questions still remain unresolved. This study aims to reconstruct the glacial history of the massif, in order to explain the glacial landforms, which constitute an important part of the local geomorphology. The study focuses on the last glacial cycle (OIS 5 - OIS 2). The area is primarily associated with the the Valais glacier, by several local glacial flows and, to a lesser extent, by the Giffre glacier. Its position at the interface of the important Valais glacial flow and less powerful local flows is a specificity of the study area, which implies several bifurcations, penetration of the main glacier into laterals valleys, damming situations, and different responses of the various ice bodies to climatic changes. The study is divided in four steps. (1) The first step was to carry out a wide bibliographic survey to identify the state of knowledge, especially in relation to areas previously poorly studied and areas that needed to be reconsidered given developments in dating methods. (2) Field surveys allowed us to complete observations and prepare local geomorphological maps (of glacial landforms and associated phenomena). (3) The third step was to assemble heterogeneous data (old and new maps, Digital Terrain Models, aerial photographies) in a GIS to establish maps of glacial stages. (4) Finally, the absolute and relative chronology of deglaciation (Guitter, 2003) was completed by cosmogenic nuclide dating. Results have allowed us to address the conditions of glacial landform deposition and evolution in a mid-altitude mountain range, and show the need to be prudent in comparing results of different dating methods. Our results suggest that the ages obtained are overall too young in regard to 10Be ages on the northern alpine foreland (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004) and are in conflict with 14C dates obtained in the area

  8. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  9. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  10. Results of temperature gradient and heat flow in Santiam Pass Area, Oregon, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.L.; Gardner, M.C.; Koenig, J.B.

    1981-08-01

    The conclusions of this report are: (1) There is a weakly defined thermal anomaly within the area examined by temperature-gradient holes in the Santiam Pass area. This is a relict anomaly showing differences in permeability between the High Cascades and Western Cascades areas, more than a fundamental difference in shallow crustal temperatures. (2) The anomaly as defined by the 60 F isotherms at 400 feet follows a north-south trend immediately westward of the Cascade axis in the boundary region. It is clear that all holes spudded into High Cascades rocks result in isothermal and reversal gradients. Holes spudded in Western Cascades rocks result in positive gradients. (3) Cold groundwater flow influences and masks temperature gradients in the High Cascades to a depth of at least 700 feet, especially eastward from the major north-south trending faults. Pleistocene and Holocene rocks are very permeable aquifers. (4) Shallow gradient drilling in the lowlands westward of the faults provides more interpretable information than shallow drilling in the cold-water recharge zones. Topographic and climatological effects can be filtered out of the temperature gradient results. (5) The thermal anomaly seems to have 2 centers: one in the Belknap-Foley area, and one northward in the Sand Mountain area. The anomalies may or may not be connected along a north-south trend. (6) A geothermal effect is seen in holes downslope of the Western-High Cascade boundary. Mixing with cold waters is a powerful influence on temperature gradient data. (7) The temperature-gradient program has not yet examined and defined the geothermal resources potential of the area eastward of the Western Cascades-High Cascades boundary. Holes to 1500-2000 feet in depth are required to penetrate the high permeability-cold groundwater regime. (8) Drilling conditions are unfavorable. There are very few accessible level drill sites. Seasonal access problems and environmental restrictions together with frequent lost

  11. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  12. Closure plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6: Volume 1, Closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This Closure Plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) a disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous materials, of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) describes how portions of SWSA 6 will be closed under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status per 40 CFR 265 Subpart G (TN Rule 1200-1-11-.05(7)). An overview is provided of activities necessary for final closure and corrective measures for all of SWSA 6. Results of surface waters and groundwater sampling are provided.

  13. Mechanical Properties and Elution Characteristics of Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cement Impregnated with Antibiotics for Various Surface Area and Volume Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Duey, Richard E.; Chong, Alexander CM.; McQueen, David A.; Womack, James L.; Song, Zheng; Steinberger, Tristan A.; Wooley, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined the elution characteristics and the effects of antibiotics from bone cement. this study seeks to determine the effect that surface area and volume have on the elution characteristics and bioavailability of tobramycin and vancomycin when mixed in polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) bone cement in various combinations. It also investigates the mechanical properties of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement and its relationship to surface area and volume. Methods Three antibiotic-bone cement combinations were used, and these consisted of PMMA mixed with tobramycin and vancomycin or tobramycin alone. Four groups of specimens (different surface area and volume) were made. the elution characteristics of the different specimens were examined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIc) method at different time intervals. the bacteria used during testing were methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MssA). the ultimate compressive strength (Ucs) of the specimens was also determined at various time intervals. Results the bactericidal activity of a tobramycin/vancomycin combination against MssA was not significantly greater than tobramycin alone. tobramycin was more effective than vancomycin against MssA (average: 168%, p<0.05). the inhibitory capabilities of tobramycin and vancomycin individually were not found to be additive. combination 2 (1.0g tobramycin/1.0g vancomycin) had a higher antibiotic elution mass and rate for all sample sizes compared to the other two combinations (average: 170%, p<0.05). surface area and volume did not have a significant effect on the elution rate of the antibiotics. the Ucs of all samples tested was greater than 70MPa at all three testing intervals. Discussion Mixing tobramycin and vancomycin did not have a synergistic effect against the bacteria as expected. Increasing the concentration of antibiotics in bone cement increases both elution mass and elution rate over time. Although the Ucs of the

  14. Students’ perception and experience of intimate area examination and sexual history taking during undergraduate clinical skills training:

    PubMed Central

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Haque, Shafiul; Irshad, Mohammad; Al-Zahrani, Noor; Al-Bedaie, Eman; Al-Fahad, Latifah; Al-Eid, Manar; Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study explores the experiences of Saudi undergraduate medical students about intimate-area examination (IAE) and sexual history taking (SHT) skills and assesses the barriers and their impacts on students’ learning. This survey-based study was performed at 2 Saudi university medical colleges and revealed that most of the students never performed IAE, that is, female breast, male genital, female genital, female pelvic, male rectal, and female rectal. We found that 42.3% students had never taken any sexual history during their course. Both, male and female students reported barriers of patient refusal, mismatched sex, cultural background, ethical factors, lack of supervision, lack of training, and lack of skills. Among the currently used pedagogical techniques, majority of the students were satisfied with real patient-based learning, followed by video and manikin-based learning. The study indicates that Saudi students do not have sufficient experience of IAE and SHT because of above-mentioned barriers along with religious issues. This study suggests that teachers provide positive support to students and that they develop novel, competent teaching-and-learning techniques to meet the skills training of students without compromising on religious, sociocultural, and ethical values of the kingdom. PMID:27472734

  15. VAMP: A computer program for calculating volume, area, and mass properties of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, P. J.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized procedure developed for analyzing aerospace vehicles evaluates the properties of elemental surface areas with specified thickness by accumulating and combining them with arbitrarily specified mass elements to form a complete evaluation. Picture-like images of the geometric description are capable of being generated.

  16. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  17. Pittsburgh Area Preschool Association Publication: Selected Articles (Volume 8, No. 1-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    This compilation of short reports distributed to preschool teachers in the Pittsburgh area covers four main topics: (1) Adoption (2) Expressive Art Therapy, (3) The Infant, and (4) Learning Disorders in Young Children. The adoption section includes reports pertaining to the adoption process in Pennsylvania, adoptive parents' legal rights, medical…

  18. Water Resources Investigation. Cape Girardeau - Jackson Metropolitan Area, Missouri. Volume 1. Main Report with Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Geological Survey (USGS). Public involvement, especially informal discussions and coordination, was emphasized throughout this investigation. The...Missouri Geological Survey and the USGS selected the Cape Girardeau area as a test region for the development and evaluation of various resources...engineering and geologic properties, these characteristics have been useful in this investigation. Department of Agriculture aerial photographs of the study

  19. Averages, Areas and Volumes; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    Presented is an elementary approach to areas, columns and other mathematical concepts usually treated in calculus. The approach is based on the idea of average and this concept is utilized throughout the report. In the beginning the average (arithmetic mean) of a set of numbers is considered and two properties of the average which often simplify…

  20. Visualizing surface area and volumes of lumens in 3 dimensions using images from histological sections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Visualizing areas of tissue that are occupied by air or liquid can provide a unique perspective on the relationships between various spaces within the tissue. The portal tracts of liver tissue are an example of such a space since the liver contains several vessels and ducts in various patterns of i...

  1. Administration and Supervision of Area Vocational-Technical Schools in Tennessee. Topics of Interest: Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Samuel Clifton, Ed.

    This document includes seven papers aimed at administrators of postsecondary schools, especially in Tennessee. Topics which are addressed are the problems and concerns of supervision; informal power structure in vocational education; program articulation; effective use of advisory councils in area vocational-technical schools; occupational…

  2. Area Alcohol Education and Training Program Evaluation. Volume I. Summary Findings and Recommendations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CONSAD Research Corp., Pittsburgh, PA.

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) suppports four non-profit units, Area Alcohol Education and Training Programs (AAETP), organized in 1974 to facilitate the delivery of alcohol education and training at the state and local level. In 1976, the NIAAA initiated an evaluation of the AAETP. Goals were to determine…

  3. Angiosperms evolved a higher mesophyll surface area per volume to maximize exchange surface under a low CO2 world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Mason Earles, J.; Gilbert, Matthew E.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Boyce, C. Kevin; McElrone, Andrew; Brodersen, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Variation in leaf mesophyll structure strongly affects CO2 diffusion and photosynthetic rates. One key trait is the surface of mesophyll cells exposed to intercellular airspace (Sm) which increases mesophyll conductance. Consequently, Sm is a key control of CO2 diffusion among species and genotypes. Using Sm values from the literature (> 200 species with 500 data points) and from our high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (μCT) dataset (currently 117 species), Sm shows little variation from pteridophytes to early angiosperms, while eudicots show the greatest structural diversity. However, Sm increases with total thickness of the mesophyll. By considering the exposed surface of the mesophyll to the intercellular air space (IAS) on a leaf or mesophyll volume (Ames/V mes) rather than leaf area basis (Sm), we demonstrate that angiosperms, and most specifically commelinids and non-basal eudicots, have constructed leaves with more surface per volume, while gymnosperms keep a constant Ames/V mes ratio. Thus, this strong phylogenetic signal suggests that angiosperms have developed IAS properties favoring leaves with higher surface to volume ratio, trait that allowed for the potential of high productivity even as atmospheric CO2 declined over the Cenozoic.

  4. Effects of incrementally increasing tidal volume on the cross-sectional area of the right internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Dong Young; Kil, Hae Keum

    2013-10-01

    Different tidal volume (TV) settings during mechanical ventilation alter intrathoracic blood volume, and these changes could alter central venous pressure and the cross sectional area (CSA) of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal TV for maximizing the CSA of the RIJV in the supine and Trendelenburg positions in anesthetized patients. Forty patients were randomly allocated to a supine group (Group S, n = 20) or a Trendelenburg group (Group T, n = 20) by computer generated randomization. RIJV CSAs were measured repeatedly after increasing the inspiratory volume in 1 ml/kg increments from a TV of 8 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg using ultrasound images. Peak inspiratory pressure increased significantly on increasing TV from 11 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg and between baseline (TV 8 ml/kg) and 11 ml/kg in both groups (P < 0.05). RIJV CSA was not increased versus baseline even after TV changes in either group and no intergroup difference was found. TV increases do not increase the CSA of the RIJV within the TV range 8 to 14 ml/kg in the supine or 10° Trendelenburg position.

  5. Effects of incrementally increasing tidal volume on the cross-sectional area of the right internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Dong Young

    2013-01-01

    Background Different tidal volume (TV) settings during mechanical ventilation alter intrathoracic blood volume, and these changes could alter central venous pressure and the cross sectional area (CSA) of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal TV for maximizing the CSA of the RIJV in the supine and Trendelenburg positions in anesthetized patients. Methods Forty patients were randomly allocated to a supine group (Group S, n = 20) or a Trendelenburg group (Group T, n = 20) by computer generated randomization. RIJV CSAs were measured repeatedly after increasing the inspiratory volume in 1 ml/kg increments from a TV of 8 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg using ultrasound images. Results Peak inspiratory pressure increased significantly on increasing TV from 11 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg and between baseline (TV 8 ml/kg) and 11 ml/kg in both groups (P < 0.05). RIJV CSA was not increased versus baseline even after TV changes in either group and no intergroup difference was found. Conclusions TV increases do not increase the CSA of the RIJV within the TV range 8 to 14 ml/kg in the supine or 10° Trendelenburg position. PMID:24228143

  6. Institutional origins of the Department of Energy: the Office of Military Application. Energy History Series Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R. M.

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 brought together for the first time in one department most of the government's energy programs. With these programs came a score of organizational entities, each with its own history and traditions, from a dozen departments and independent agencies. This report traces the history of the Office of Military Application, from its inception as the Division of Military Application in the Atomic Energy Commission, through the Energy Research and Development Administration to its present status as an office in the Department of Energy. (RWR)

  7. Once nocturia, always nocturia? Natural history of nocturia in older men based on frequency-volume charts: the Krimpen study.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Boris; Blanker, Marco H; Kok, Esther T; Westers, Paul; Bosch, J L H Ruud

    2011-11-01

    Nocturia is a highly prevalent and bothersome symptom that might (spontaneously) resolve. However, longitudinal data are not available on the incidence and resolution of nocturia assessed with frequency-volume charts. In this study we determined the prevalence, incidence and resolution rates of nocturia assessed by frequency-volume charts, and compared nocturnal voiding frequency over time as assessed by frequency-volume charts and questionnaires. A longitudinal, population based study was conducted among 1,688 men 50 to 78 years old with followup rounds at 2.1, 4.2 and 6.5 years. Nocturnal voiding frequency was determined with frequency-volume charts and, for comparison purposes, with a question from the International Prostate Symptom Score. Nocturia was defined as nocturnal voiding frequency 2 or greater. Prevalence, incidence and resolution rates were also determined. At the 2.1-year followup the incidence rate was 23.9% and the resolution rate was 36.7%. The incidence rate was highest in the oldest group (70 to 78 years) and lowest in the youngest (50 to 54 years), whereas the resolution rate was highest in the group 55 to 59 years old and lowest in the oldest group. Because of the high resolution rate, no reliable incidence rates can be calculated. Despite fluctuation, the prevalence of nocturia increased with age and over time (from 34.4% to 44.7% for the total group, p <0.05). Men who had a frequency-volume chart-nocturnal voiding frequency less than International Prostate Symptom Score-nocturnal voiding frequency (6% of the population) more often had this later on. In this population frequency-volume chart assessed nocturia shows considerable fluctuation. Nevertheless, prevalence increases over time and with increasing age. Men who once had frequency-volume chart-nocturnal voiding frequency less than International Prostate Symptom Score-nocturnal voiding frequency are more likely to have this again. Therefore, frequency-volume charts as well as the

  8. Structure, Quaternary history, and general geology of the Corral Canyon area, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    1965-01-01

    The Corral Canyon nuclear power plant site consists of about 305 acres near the mouth of Corral Canyon in the central Santa Monica Mountains; it is located on an east-trending segment of the Pacific Coast between Point Dume and Malibu Canyon, about 28 miles due west of Los Angeles. The Santa Monica Mountains are the southwesternmost mainland part of the Transverse Ranges province, the east-trending features of which transect the otherwise relatively uniform northwesterly trend of the geomorphic and geologic features of coastal California. The south margin of the Transverse Ranges is marked by the Santa Monica fault system, which extends eastward near the 34th parallel for at least 145 miles from near Santa Cruz Island to the San Andreas fault zone. In the central Santa Monica Mountains area the Santa Monica fault system includes the Malibu Coast fault and Malibu Coast zone of deformation on the north; from the south it includes an inferred fault--the Anacapa fault--considered to follow an east-trending topographic escarpmemt on the sea floor about 5 miles south of the Malibu Coast fault. The low-lying terrain south of the fault system, including the Los Angeles basin and the largely submerged Continental Borderland offshore, are dominated by northwest-trending structural features. The Malibu Coat zone is a wide, east-trending band of asymmetrically folded, sheared, and faulted bedrock that extends for more than 20 miles along the north margin of the Santa Monica fault system west of Santa Monica. Near the north margin of the Malibu Coast zone the north-dipping, east-trending Malibu Coast fault juxtaposes unlike, in part contemporaneous sedimentary rock sections; it is inferred to be the near-surface expression of a major crustal boundary between completely unrelated basement rocks. Comparison of contemporaneous structural features and stratigraphic sections (Late Cretaceous to middle Miocene sedimentary, rocks and middle Miocene volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks

  9. A numerical study on the elastic modulus of volume and area dilation for a deformable cell in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Tanner, Roger I; Lee, Joon Sang

    2016-07-01

    A red blood cell (RBC) in a microfluidic channel is highly interesting for scientists in various fields of research on biological systems. This system has been studied extensively by empirical, analytical, and numerical methods. Nonetheless, research of predicting the behavior of an RBC in a microchannel is still an interesting area. The complications arise from deformation of an RBC and interactions among the surrounding fluid, wall, and RBCs. In this study, a pressure-driven RBC in a microchannel was simulated with a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method of an immersed boundary. First, the effect of boundary thickness on the interaction between the wall and cell was analyzed by measuring the time of passage through the narrow channel. Second, the effect of volume conservation stiffness was studied. Finally, the effect of global area stiffness was analyzed.

  10. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 3. Soil assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. The soil assessment compared concentrations of the Love Canal Indicator Chemicals found in the EDA to concentrations found in similar western New York communities. An analytical technique was developed to detect the indicator chemicals at very low levels, i.e. 1.0 ppb. The analytical technique utilized a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. The analytical results were statistically compared between the EDA and the comparison areas using a modified Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  11. Large-area chromogenics: Materials and devices for transmittance control. Volume IS 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.; Granqvist, C.G.

    1990-12-31

    Chromogenic materials can alter their optical properties in a persistent yet reversible manner when subjected to a change in external conditions such as irradiation intensity, temperature, or electric-field strength. In the future chromogenic materials may be used on large scale to regulate the throughput of radiant energy for windows in buildings and cars, so that comfortable lighting and temperature are maintained without excessive air conditioning. The purpose of this book is to give a broad coverage of large-area chromogenics and to discuss their applications. The book is divided into the following areas: applications; photochromic materials; thermochromic materials; inorganic electrochromic materials; inorganic electrochromic materials; organic electrochromic materials; conductors for ions and electrons in electrochromic devices; electrochromic devices; and liquid crystals materials and devices. Separate abstracts were prepared for 33 papers in this book.

  12. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

  13. F-area seepage basins groundwater monitoring report. Volume 1. First and second quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) is monitored in compliance with Module 111, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SCl-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 86 FSB wells and well HSB 85A. These wells are screened in the three hydrostratigraphic Units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1900. Data from 9 FSL wells are included in this report only to provide additional information for this area; the FSL wells are not part of Permit SCl-890-008-989. Monitoring results are compared to the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), which is specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit (November 1992). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the first half of 1995, notably aluminum, iodine-129, pH, strontium-90, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the first half of 1995.

  14. Tooele Army Depot-North Area Suspected Releases SWMUs. Phase 1 RFI report. Volume 1. Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    location of the continental storm track , most of the precipitation in the Tooele Valley occurs as snow between the months of October and May. Summers are...of railroad tracks . Stormwater from the Administration Area drains via an underground concrete piping system to a depression in a dry wash, where it...Shank (JMM) with Ammunition survelliance Chief, Milo Serreyn, Tooele Army Depot, Utah, October 1992. Siniscalchi, 1991. Telephone interview conducted

  15. The Archaeology of Coralville Lake, Iowa. Volume 4. Recreation Area Survey. (Interim Report 2).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    at least one buried soil evidenced by a buried - argillic (clay enriched) horizon. This landform has been for the most part destroyed by previous...subsurface investigations showed an eluvial horizon with an underlying argillic Bt horizon. At this time, no evidence supports the existence of a buried...subsurface argillic horizon. The potential for recovering buried stable surfaces at this recreation area appears remote. LAKE MacBRIDE STATE PARK

  16. Archaeological Investigations at the Grant River Public Use Area. Volume 1. Narrative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    This ;.- ~ ~ ~ *.’ - "/.-:’.-. *- " *- - ..*i- .’.’i;’ .KC.Z. " .’.. --:...< .:. .--3..;.; ; ’-. ., .q -? .. ’ ’’" ; - - 68 - banded textural B horizon...Notched, Matanzas , Raddatz, and Godar styles have been recovered from .- surface and sub-surface contexts at the Grant River Recrea- tion Area. In...Missouri: The Turner Site, 23 Bu 21a. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan Anthropological Papers No. 68 . Ann Arbor. BOCKHEIM, J.G. 1980

  17. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  18. Water Resources Data: Hawaii and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 1999. Volume 1. Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; Fontaine, R.A.; Taogoshi, R.I.; Teeters, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 74 stream-gaging stations, 71 miscellaneous streamflow stations, and 88 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) water-quality records for 6 streamflow-gaging stations, and 28 partial-record streamflow stations; (3) water-level records for 84 observation wells; (4) water-quality records for 122 observation wells; and (5) accumulated rainfall records for 40 rainfall stations. This series of annual reports for Hawaii began with the 1961 fiscal year (State of Hawaii) with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 fiscal year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report format was changed to include, in one volume, data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. Beginning with the 1993 water year, accumulated rainfall data were included in the report.

  19. Regular Topologies for Gigabit Wide-Area Networks: Congestion Avoidance Testbed Experiments. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denny, Barbara A.; McKenney, Paul E., Sr.; Lee, Danny

    1994-01-01

    This document is Volume 3 of the final technical report on the work performed by SRI International (SRI) on SRI Project 8600. The document includes source listings for all software developed by SRI under this effort. Since some of our work involved the use of ST-II and the Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun) High-Speed Serial Interface (HSI/S) driver, we have included some of the source developed by LBL and BBN as well. In most cases, our decision to include source developed by other contractors depended on whether it was necessary to modify the original code. If we have modified the software in any way, it is included in this document. In the case of the Traffic Generator (TG), however, we have included all the ST-II software, even though BBN performed the integration, because the ST-II software is part of the standard TG release. It is important to note that all the code developed by other contractors is in the public domain, so that all software developed under this effort can be re-created from the source included here.

  20. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6: Salt Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker trail formation.

  1. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report: First and second quarters 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    During the first half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, R61-79.265, Subpart F. Eighty-seven wells provided samples from the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison is the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B Permit (November 1992). Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the first half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, technetium-99, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contain elevated levels of constituents.

  3. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  4. Economics in History: What Every High School Student and Teacher Needs to Know. Footnotes. Volume 15, Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2011-01-01

    Historians work in a discipline with few inherent concepts and are obliged to draw upon many fields in recreating the past. Yet authors of most school history texts, state and national standards and curriculum materials seldom incorporate economic analysis in their work. Just look at state standards that include Adam Smith and John Locke but draw…

  5. History, Reflection, and Narrative: The Professionalization of Composition, 1963-1983. Perspectives on Writing: Theory, Research, Practice. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Mary, Ed.; Boehm, Beth, Ed.; Journet, Debra, Ed.

    This collection of essays, culled from presentations at the first Thomas R. Watson Conference in Rhetoric and Composition, examines the development of composition as a profession, focusing on the period between 1963 and 1983 when composition changed in a number of crucial ways. Essays in the collection are: (1) "Composition History and…

  6. A New Middle East? A Report of FPRI's History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 10, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the current conflicts and political changes in the Middle East us important for American educators if American students are to understand the dynamics of the region. To discuss these issues, FPRI held its 12th History Institute for Teachers on October 16-17, 2004. Forty teachers from 15 states attended the weekend program at the…

  7. History, Reflection, and Narrative: The Professionalization of Composition, 1963-1983. Perspectives on Writing: Theory, Research, Practice. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Mary, Ed.; Boehm, Beth, Ed.; Journet, Debra, Ed.

    This collection of essays, culled from presentations at the first Thomas R. Watson Conference in Rhetoric and Composition, examines the development of composition as a profession, focusing on the period between 1963 and 1983 when composition changed in a number of crucial ways. Essays in the collection are: (1) "Composition History and…

  8. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Volume 1. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publications Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Designed as an introductory history, this book covers developments in the Balkan Peninsula from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the process by which separate nationalities broke away from imperial rule, established independent states, and embarked on economic and social modernization. To establish perspective on the role…

  9. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Volume 1. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publications Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Designed as an introductory history, this book covers developments in the Balkan Peninsula from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the process by which separate nationalities broke away from imperial rule, established independent states, and embarked on economic and social modernization. To establish perspective on the role…

  10. Application of 3D scanned imaging methodology for volume, surface area, and envelope density evaluation of densified biomass.

    PubMed

    Igathinathane, C; Davis, J D; Purswell, J L; Columbus, E P

    2010-06-01

    Measurement of volume, surface area, and density is an essential for quantifying, evaluating, and designing the biomass densification, storage, and transport operations. Acquiring accurate and repeated measurements of these parameters for hygroscopic densified biomass are not straightforward and only a few methods are available. A 3D laser scanner was used as a measurement device and the 3D images were analyzed using image processing software. The validity of the method was verified using reference objects of known geometry and the accuracy obtained was in excess of 98%. Cotton gin trash briquettes, switchgrass pellets, switchgrass cubes, hardwood pellets, and softwood chips were tested. Most accurate results of the volume and surface area required the highest possible resolution of the scanner, which increased the total scan-process times, and image file size. Physical property determination using the 3D scanning and image analysis is highly repeatable (coefficient of variation <0.3%), non-invasive, accurate, and alternative methodology. The various limitations and merits of the developed method were also enumerated.

  11. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  12. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S.; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that – at least with respect to language acquisition – early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood. PMID:26106338

  13. Retrospective Analysis of Midsummer Hypoxic Area and Volume in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1985–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Robust estimates of hypoxic extent (both area and volume) are important for assessing the impacts of low dissolved oxygen on aquatic ecosystems at large spatial scales. Such estimates are also important for calibrating models linking hypoxia to causal factors, such as nutrient loading and stratification, and for informing management decisions. In this study, we develop a rigorous geostatistical modeling framework to estimate the hypoxic extent in the northern Gulf of Mexico from data collected during midsummer, quasi-synoptic monitoring cruises (1985–2011). Instead of a traditional interpolation-based approach, we use a simulation-based approach that yields more robust extent estimates and quantified uncertainty. The modeling framework also makes use of covariate information (i.e., trend variables such as depth and spatial position), to reduce estimation uncertainty. Furthermore, adjustments are made to account for observational bias resulting from the use of different sampling instruments in different years. Our results suggest an increasing trend in hypoxic layer thickness (p = 0.05) from 1985 to 2011, but less than significant increases in volume (p = 0.12) and area (p = 0.42). The uncertainties in the extent estimates vary with sampling network coverage and instrument type, and generally decrease over the study period. PMID:23895102

  14. Complementary Characteristics of Correlation Patterns in Morphometric Correlation Networks of Cortical Thickness, Surface Area, and Gray Matter Volume.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ju; Kwon, Hunki; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-05-26

    Morphometric correlation networks of cortical thickness, surface area, and gray matter volume have statistically different structural topology. However, there is no report directly describing their correlation patterns in view of interregional covariance. Here, we examined the characteristics of the correlation patterns in three morphometric networks of cortical thickness, surface area, and gray matter volume using a Venn diagram concept across 314 normal subjects. We found that over 60% of all nonoverlapping correlation patterns emerged with divergent unique patterns, while there were 10% of all common edges in ipsilateral and homotopic regions among the three morphometric correlation networks. It was also found that the network parameters of the three networks were different. Our findings showed that correlation patterns of the network itself can provide complementary information when compared with network properties. We demonstrate that morphometric correlation networks of distinct structural phenotypes have different correlation patterns and different network properties. This finding implies that the topology of each morphometric correlation network may reflect different aspects of each morphometric descriptor.

  15. Chryse Planitia region, Mars: Channeling history, flood-volume estimates, and scenarios for bodies of water in the northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotto, Susan L.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    The Chryse Planitia region of Mars includes several outflow channels that debouched into a single basin. Here we evaluate possible volumes and areal extents of standing bodies of water that collected in the northern lowland plains, based on evidence provided by topography, fluvial relations, and channel chronology and geomorphology.

  16. Chryse Planitia region, Mars: Channeling history, flood-volume estimates, and scenarios for bodies of water in the northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotto, Susan L.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    The Chryse Planitia region of Mars includes several outflow channels that debouched into a single basin. Here we evaluate possible volumes and areal extents of standing bodies of water that collected in the northern lowland plains, based on evidence provided by topography, fluvial relations, and channel chronology and geomorphology.

  17. Compulsory Education: Schools, Pupils, Teachers, Programs and Methods. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    This second of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere covers schools, pupils, teachers, programs, and methods. Of the volume's 16 selections, 13 are written in English and 3 are written in Italian. Most selections contain summaries; summaries of the Italian articles are written in…

  18. Compulsory Education: Schools, Pupils, Teachers, Programs and Methods. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    This second of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere covers schools, pupils, teachers, programs, and methods. Of the volume's 16 selections, 13 are written in English and 3 are written in Italian. Most selections contain summaries; summaries of the Italian articles are written in…

  19. Legislative history of Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), Public Law 99-499, 99th Congress, 2d Session, 100 Stat. 1613. Volume 2. H. R. 2817 (reports)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The report is complete in four volumes, which is the Legislative History of SARA is a comprehensive collection of materials of the 99th Congress that follows the progress of each of the predecessor bills of SARA from their introduction, committee actions, and mark-ups, proposed amendments, debates, and votes. Contents: Volume II: H.R. 2817.

  20. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    SSTO mission This volume overviews each of the tasks giving its objectives, main results. and conclusions. More detailed Final Task Reports are available on each individual task.

  1. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with Module 3, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 87 FSB wells screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison became the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit. Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the second half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} wells. However, several Aquifer Unit 2A wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  2. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  3. H-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and Fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Isoconcentration/isocactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  4. F-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  5. Small ICBM area narrowing report. Volume 1. Hard mobile launcher in random movement basing mode

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify those areas that could potentially support deployment of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) utilizing basing modes presently considered viable: the Hard Mobile Launcher in Random Movement, the Hard Mobile Launcher at Minuteman Facilities, and the Hard Silo in Patterned Array. Specifically, this report describes the process and the rationale supporting the application of Exclusionary and Evaluative Criteria and lists those locations that were eliminated through the application of these criteria. The remaining locations will be the subject of further investigations.

  6. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 1: Compatibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made to identify airplane research and technology necessary to ensure advanced transport aircraft the capability of accommodating forecast traffic without adverse impact on airport communities. Projections were made of the delay, noise, and emissions impact of future aircraft fleets on typical large urban airport. Design requirements, based on these projections, were developed for an advanced technology, long-haul, subsonic transport. A baseline aircraft was modified to fulfill the design requirements for terminal area compatibility. Technical and economic comparisons were made between these and other aircraft configured to support the study.

  7. Small ICBM area narrowing report. Volume 2. Hard mobile launcher at minuteman facilities basing mode

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify those areas that could potentially support deployment of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) utilizing basing modes presently considered viable: the Hard Mobile Launcher in Random Movement, the Hard Mobile Launcher at Minuteman Facilities, and the Hard Silo in Patterned Array. Specifically, this report describes the process and the rationale supporting the application of Exclusionary and Evaluative Criteria and lists those locations that were eliminated through the application of these criteria. The remaining locations will be the subject of further investigations.

  8. Small ICBM area narrowing report. Volume 3: Hard silo in patterned array basing mode

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify those areas that could potentially support deployment of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) utilizing basing modes presently considered viable: the Hard Mobile Launcher in Random Movement, the Hard Mobile Launcher at Minuteman Facilities, or the Hard Silo in Patterned Array. Specifically, this report describes the process and the rationale supporting the application of Exclusionary and Evaluative Criteria and lists those locations that were eliminated through the application of these criteria. The remaining locations will be the subject of further investigations.

  9. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report. Volume 1, First and second quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    During the first half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit. Samples were collected from 130 wells that monitor the three separate hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the HASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard is the standard for comparison. Historically, as well as currently, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB, notably aluminum, iodine-129, mercury, nickel-63, strontium-89, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc during the first half of 1993. Elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occur in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit IIA.

  10. H-Area seepage basins groundwater monitoring report. Volume 1, First and second quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) is monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SCl-890-008-989. The monitoring wells network is composed of 130 HSB wells that monitor the three separate hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the HASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Data from 16 HSL wells are included in this report only to provide additional information for the HASB. Monitoring results are compared to the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix IIID-A of the permit. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, and zinc) during the first half of 1995. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone IIB. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone IIB, and Aquifer Unit IIA.

  11. Variations in eye volume, surface area, and shape with refractive error in young children by magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Laurence S; Yang, Xianfeng; Gazzard, Gus; Lin, Xiaoyu; Sng, Chelvin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-11-17

    To determine variations in eye volume, surface area, and shape with refractive error in young children using a three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) model. A subset of Singaporean Chinese boys enrolled in the population-based Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error in Singapore (STARS) study underwent MRI using a 3-Tesla whole body scanner with a 32-channel head coil. Eye volume and surface area were measured. Eye shape was assessed qualitatively from the three-dimensional models and quantitatively by measurement of the longitudinal axial length (LAL), horizontal width, and vertical height along the cardinal axes. One hundred thirty-four eyes of 67 subjects (mean age, 77.9 ± 3.9 months) were analyzed. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) refraction was 0.65 ± 0.92 D (range, -2.31 to 4.13 D). More myopic SE was associated with larger surface area (-20.59 [-37.09 to -4.10] mm²/D; P = 0.01) but not volume. In age-height adjusted models, more myopic SE was associated with longer LAL (-1.94 [-2.47 to -1.41] mm/D; P < 0.001) and greater width (-1.12 [-1.26 to -0.99] mm/D; P < 0.001) but not height (0.64 [-2.55 to 3.82] mm/D; P = 0.70). In nonmyopic subjects, less hyperopic SE was associated with longer AL (-0.40 [-0.71 to -0.10] mm/D; P = 0.01), width (-0.59 [-0.84 to -0.34] mm/D; P < 0.001), and height (-0.40 [-0.64 to -0.17] mm/D; P = 0.001). In three-dimensional models, myopic eyes conformed to an axial elongation model with a prolate profile in the axial plane, whereas nonmyopic eyes showed global expansion. Eye surface area increases with myopia in young children. Eye shape is different in myopia, even in its early stages. Axial globe enlargement occurs in myopic eyes leading to a prolate shape, whereas nonmyopic eyes enlarge globally in length, width, and height.

  12. The Role of ΔFosB in the Medial Preoptic Area: Differential Effects of Mating and Cocaine History

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Jenna A.; Robison, Christopher L.; Bell, Genevieve A.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.; Vialou, Vincent V.; Nestler, Eric J.; Hull, Elaine M.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor deltaFosB (ΔFosB) is induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by repeated exposure to drugs of abuse and natural rewards. Less is known about its role in other brain areas. Here, we compared the effects of mating versus cocaine history on induction of ΔFosB in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), an integral site for reproductive behavior, and in the NAc. ΔFosB immunoreactivity (ir) was increased in the MPOA of previously naïve and experienced male rats that mated the day before euthanasia, compared to unmated controls and experienced males with recent mating abstinence. Western immunoblots confirmed that the 35–37-kDa isoform of ΔFosB was increased more in recently mated males. Conversely, previous plus recent cocaine did not increase ΔFosB-ir in the MPOA, despite an increase in the NAc. Next, a viral vector expressing ΔFosB, its dominant negative antagonist ΔJunD, or green fluorescent protein (GFP) control, were microinjected bilaterally into the MPOA. ΔFosB overexpression impaired copulation and promoted female-directed aggression, compared to ΔJunD and control males. These data suggest that ΔFosB in the mPOA is expressed in an experience-dependent manner and affects systems that coordinate mating and aggression. PMID:27657309

  13. The History of Star Formation in Galaxy Disks in the Local Volume as Measured by the Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Johnson, L. C.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Skillman, Evan; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Holtzman, Jon; de Jong, Roelof S.

    2011-06-01

    We present a measurement of the age distribution of stars residing in spiral disks and dwarf galaxies. We derive a complete star formation history of the ~140 Mpc3 covered by the volume-limited sample of galaxies in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). The total star formation rate density history (ρSFR(t)) is dominated by the large spirals in the volume, although the sample consists mainly of dwarf galaxies. Our ρSFR(t) shows a factor of ~3 drop at z ~ 2, in approximate agreement with results from other measurement techniques. While our results show that the overall ρSFR(t) has decreased since z ~ 1, the measured rates during this epoch are higher than those obtained from other measurement techniques. This enhanced recent star formation rate appears to be largely due to an increase in the fraction of star formation contained in low-mass disks at recent times. Finally, our results indicate that despite the differences at recent times, the epoch of formation of ~50% of the stellar mass in dwarf galaxies was similar to that of ~50% of the stellar mass in large spiral galaxies (z >~ 2), despite the observed galaxy-to-galaxy diversity among the dwarfs.

  14. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  15. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  16. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the US Civil Space Program. Volume 5; Exploring the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Snyder, Amy Paige (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Newport, Regan Anne (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in three major sections, each covering a particular aspect of the origins, evolution, and execution of the US space science program. Chapter 1 deals with the origins, evolution, and organization of the space science program. Chapter 2 deals with the solar system exploration. Chapter 3 deals with NASA's astronomy and astrophysics efforts. Each chapter in the present volume is introduced by an overview essay. In the main, these essays are intended to introduce and complement the documents in the chapter and to place them in a chronological and substantive context. Each essay contains references to the documents in the chapter it introduces, and may also contain references to documents in other chapters of the collection

  17. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civilian Space Program. Volume 2; External Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Day, Dwayne A. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in three chapters, each covering a particular aspect of the evolution of U.S. space exploration. These chapters address (1) the relations between the civilian space program of the United States and the space activities of other countries, (2) the relations between the U.S. civilian space program and the space efforts of national security organizations and the military, and (3) NASA's relations with industry and academic institutions.

  18. The geophysical contribution to the safeguard of historical sites in active volcanic areas.. The Vesuvius case-history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patella, Domenico; Mauriello, Paolo

    1999-03-01

    The Earth's surface is characterized by the presence of many active volcanoes, most of which are surrounded by ancient villages. High-valued historical sites are often so exposed that it becomes imperative to perform volcanic risk assessment including cultural heritage. For the safeguard of the historical property in volcanic areas, two major problems are definition of (a) criteria for diagnosis and evaluation of hazard and vulnerability, and (b) methods for risk prevention and mitigation. In this paper, we first review the state-of-the-art and most outstanding geophysical prospecting and modeling methods currently on the use, which contribute to the solution of the problems mentioned above. We then show the results of an application on the most alarming volcano in Italy, Mount Vesuvius in the Neapolitan area. The imaged configuration of the feeding and plumbing systems induces to consider Vesuvius a high-risk volcano with a high probability of pyroclastic flow in case of reactivation. Finally, we show the results from a modeling approach of a pyroclastic flow simulating the eruptive scenario of Vesuvius compatible with its internal structure and dynamics. The simulation shows that the emplacement of artificial barriers close to the eruptive vent is a practical solution to reduce the local radial momentum of the pyroclastic flow and to transfer the related energy to the vertical buoyant cloud. The Vesuvius case history allows us to conclude that the integrated geophysical surveying and modeling approach can notably contribute to make decisions and also for the protection of the historical heritage in active volcanic areas.

  19. Natural history of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-IV major depression. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up.

    PubMed

    Eaton, W W; Anthony, J C; Gallo, J; Cai, G; Tien, A; Romanoski, A; Lyketsos, C; Chen, L S

    1997-11-01

    Natural history can be characterized by incidence, recurrence, and duration of episodes. Research on the incidence of major depression is rare; studies of recurrence and duration are limited to clinical samples. The Baltimore, Md, site of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program followed up its 1981 baseline cohort of 3481 respondents with an additional assessment in 1993 to 1996. Interviews were obtained from 1920 respondents (73% of the survivors). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the same survey procedures as in 1981 were used, augmented with a Life Chart Interview for dating the onset and duration of syndromes. There were 71 new cases of Diagnostic interview Schedule/DSM-IV major depression and 23,698 person-years of exposure, generating an estimated incidence of 3.0 per 1000 per year. Incidence peaked while subjects were in their 30s, with a smaller peak when they were in their 50s. Prodromal symptoms often occurred many years before the full criteria for diagnosis were met. Women were at higher risk for becoming new cases but had neither higher risk for recurrence nor longer episodes than men. Episodes of depression lasted for 12 weeks. The duration of an episode, and time to an episode-free year, was longer in the first episode than in recurrent episodes. The incidence estimated in this study is consistent with that found in the few other similar studies performed. The bimodality of onset suggests the value of further exploring the heterogeneity of depression via its natural history. Reported differences in prevalence between men and women seem to be due to differences in incidence, not chronicity.

  20. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Båth, Magnus Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  1. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD.

    PubMed

    Båth, Magnus; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  2. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.H. Jr.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs and activities throughout the DOE Complex. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to develop, deploy, and complete appropriate technologies for the treatment of an DOE low-level mixed waste (LLMW). The MWIP mission includes development of strategies related to enhanced waste form production, improvements to and testing of the EM-30 baseline flowsheet for mixed waste treatment, programmatic oversight for ongoing technical projects, and specific technical tasks related to the site specific Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) based on primary functional areas of the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant) identified by EM-30. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Chemical/Physical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. The focus of this document is the Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). The CPTS performs the required pretreatment and/or separations on the waste streams passing through the system for discharge to the environment or efficient downstream processing. Downstream processing can include all system components except Front-End Waste Handling. The primary separations to be considered by the CPTS are: (1) removal of suspended and dissolved solids from aqueous and liquid organic streams, (2) separation of water from organic liquids, (3) treatment of wet and dry solids, including separation into constituents as required, for subsequent thermal treatment and final form processing, (4) mercury removal and control, and (5) decontamination of equipment and waste classified as debris.

  3. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  4. Neck muscle cross-sectional area, brain volume and cognition in healthy older men: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Alixe H M; Ferguson, Karen J; Gray, Calum D; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Starr, John M

    2013-02-28

    Two important consequences of the normal ageing process are sarcopenia (the age-related loss of muscle mass and function) and age-related cognitive decline. Existing data support positive relationships between muscle function, cognition and brain structure. However, studies investigating these relationships at older ages are lacking and rarely include a measure of muscle size. Here we test whether neck muscle size is positively associated with cognition and brain structure in older men. We studied 51 healthy older men with mean age 73.8 (sd 1.5) years. Neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured from T1-weighted MR-brain scans using a validated technique. We measured multiple cognitive domains including verbal and visuospatial memory, executive functioning and estimated prior cognitive ability. Whole brain, ventricular, hippocampal and cerebellar volumes were measured with MRI. General linear models (ANCOVA) were performed. Larger neck muscle CSA was associated with less whole brain atrophy (t = 2.86, p = 0.01, partial eta squared 17%). Neck muscle CSA was not associated with other neuroimaging variables or current cognitive ability. Smaller neck muscle CSA was unexpectedly associated with higher prior cognition (t = -2.12, p < 0.05, partial eta squared 10%). In healthy older men, preservation of whole brain volume (i.e. less atrophy) is associated with larger muscle size. Longitudinal ageing studies are now required to investigate these relationships further.

  5. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2011 Horseshoe II burn area, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, Barbara C.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned in 2011 by the Horseshoe II wildfire in southeastern Arizona. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and debris-flows volumes for selected drainage basins. Input for the models include measures of burn severity, topographic characteristics, soil properties, and rainfall total and intensity for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, (2) 5-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, and (3) 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow probabilities in the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall to a high of 100 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall. The high probabilities in all modeled drainage basins are likely due to the abundance of steep hillslopes and the extensive areas burned at moderate to high severities. The estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from a low of 20 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters.

  6. Case histories of recently implemented technologies for citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    For each of six citrus industry sites where energy efficiency improvement technologies have been implemented, a case history is presented which describes the implemented technology, its investment cost, and the energy and cost savings. The technologies are: double pressing in feed mill operation; evaporator microprocessor controller; feed mill vent stack controller; addition of a waste heat evaporator to a feed mill; enhanced lime reaction for improved pressing and dewatering in a feed mill, and added effect to a temperature-accelerated short-time evaporator. (LEW)

  7. Lack of self-control as assessed by a personality inventory is related to reduced volume of supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mié; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Nohara, Shigeru; Suzuki, Michio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2002-11-30

    The present study was performed to examine the relationship between schizophrenia-related personality and brain morphometry. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and schizophrenia-related personality scales extracted from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were administered to 42 university students. Analysis of the relationships between the gray matter segmented from the MR images on a voxel-by-voxel basis through the use of the statistical parametric mapping technique and the schizophrenia-related personality subscale scores from the MMPI revealed that lack of self-control subscale scores were negatively related to the gray matter volume of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Furthermore, it was suggested that self-control including self-inhibition is associated with the density of the SMA, the precuneous and the cerebellar vermis, which govern voluntary movements and motor imagery. These results provide important clues to the neural basis for the disturbance of self commonly observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  8. Characteristics of surface-wave and volume-wave plasmas produced with internally mounted large-area planar microwave launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatsu, Masaaki; Naito, Katsutoshi; Ogino, Akihisa; Ninomiya, Keigo; Nanko, Shohei

    2005-10-17

    We studied discharge characteristics of microwave plasmas excited with a large-area planar microwave launcher installed internally in a 600-mm-diam cylindrical vacuum chamber. With the microwave power less than roughly 400 W, we demonstrated the large volumetric volume-wave plasma (VWP) spread in the entire chamber at a pressure of 14-27 Pa in He. Above 400 W, the plasma discharge made a sudden transition to higher-density, uniform surface-wave plasma (SWP) having a spatial uniformity of {+-}3.5% over 300 mm in diameter. Electron energy probability functions in the downstream region were studied using Langmuir probe measurements with Druyvesteyn method in both the SWP and VWP discharges.

  9. Determination of prestenotic flow volume using an automated method based on colour Doppler imaging for evaluating orifice area by the continuity equation: validation in a pulsatile flow model

    PubMed Central

    Dennig, K; Nesser, H; Hall, D; Haase, H; Schomig, A

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To evaluate, in a pulsatile flow model simulating flow conditions in valvar stenoses, whether accurate determination of orifice area can be achieved by the continuity equation using automated determination of flow volumes based on spatiotemporal integration of digital colour Doppler flow velocities.
Methods—A method for automated determination of flow volumes which takes into account the velocity distribution across a region of interest was examined using flow through a tube and various restrictive outlet orifices with areas ranging between 0.2 and 3.1 cm2. The sampling rectangle of the Doppler method was positioned proximal to the obstructions within the flow convergence zone for evaluating prestenotic flow volume. Stenotic jet velocities were recorded by continuous wave Doppler to obtain the integral under the velocity curve. Prestenotic flow volume was then divided by the velocity integral to calculate functional orifice area according to the continuity equation.
Results—The presence of parabolically shaped velocity profiles across the prestenotic region was demonstrated by the Doppler method. Excellent agreement was found between prestenotic flow volumes measured by the Doppler technique and actual values (r = 0.99, SEE = 1.35 ml, y = 0.99x−0.24). Use of the continuity equation led to a close correlation, with a systematic underestimation of geometric orifice sizes. Correction of Doppler data for flow contraction yielded an excellent agreement with actual orifice areas.
Conclusions—The study validated the accuracy of a Doppler method for automated determination of flow volumes for quantifying orifice area by the continuity equation. Prestenotic flow volume and functional orifice area could be evaluated reliably in the presence of non-flat velocity profiles. Thus the method contributes to the non-invasive assessment of valvar stenoses.

 Keywords: Doppler echocardiography;  automated flow volume determination;  valvar

  10. Unrivaled combination of surface area and pore volume in micelle-templated carbon for supercapacitor energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Pokrzywinski, Jesse; Keum, Jong K.; Ruther, Rose E.; ...

    2017-05-23

    Here, we created Immense Surface Area Carbons (ISACs) by a novel heat treatment that stabilized the micelle structure in a biological based precursor prior to high temperature combined activation – pyrolysis. While displaying a morphology akin to that of commercial activated carbon, ISACs contain an unparalleled combination of electrochemically active surface area and pore volume (up to 4051 m2 g–1, total pore volume 2.60 cm3 g–1, 76% small mesopores). The carbons also possess the benefit of being quite pure (combined O and N: 2.6–4.1 at%), thus allowing for a capacitive response that is primarily EDLC. Tested at commercial mass loadingsmore » (~10 mg cm–2) ISACs demonstrate exceptional specific capacitance values throughout the entire relevant current density regime, with superior rate capability primarily due to the large fraction of mesopores. In the optimized ISAC, the specific capacitance (Cg) is 540 F g–1 at 0.2 A g–1, 409 F g–1 at 1 A g–1 and 226 F g–1 at a very high current density of 300 A g–1 (~0.15 second charge time). At intermediate and high currents, such capacitance values have not been previously reported for any carbon. Tested with a stable 1.8 V window in a 1 M Li2SO4 electrolyte, a symmetric supercapacitor cell yields a flat energy–power profile that is fully competitive with those of organic electrolyte systems: 29 W h kg–1 at 442 W kg–1 and 17 W h kg–1 at 3940 W kg–1. The cyclability of symmetric ISAC cells is also exceptional due to the minimization of faradaic reactions on the carbon surface, with 80% capacitance retention over 100 000 cycles in 1 M Li2SO4 and 75 000 cycles in 6 M KOH.« less

  11. Stable isotope physiology of stem succulents across a broad range of volume-to-surface area ratio.

    PubMed

    Hultine, Kevin R; Williams, David G; Dettman, David L; Butterfield, Bradley J; Puente-Martinez, Raul

    2016-11-01

    Volume-to-surface area ratio (V:S) across stem succulent taxa varies by almost two orders of magnitude. The broad range in V:S of cacti and other succulent species likely has considerable importance for adaptation since stem volume determines the storage capacity of water, carbon and nutrients and stem surface area is directly related to whole-stem photosynthetic capacity. We examined the intrinsic physiological tradeoffs across diverse stem morphologies in three divergent evolutionary groups where stem succulence is common: Cactoideae, Opuntioideae (Cactaceae) and Euphorbiaceae. We predicted that variation in physiological response to environmental conditions would be (1) constrained by stem V:S, and (2) detectable in the stable isotope ratios of plant tissues. Stable isotope ratios were measured in the spines/prickles of 62 stem-succulent species occurring in a common garden setting in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Biomass δ(13)C, δ(2)H and δ(18)O increased with V:S in Cactoideae only, possibly reflecting various levels of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) strength in the other lineages. Within Cactoideae-group with the highest CAM strength and largest range in V:S-δ(13)C and δ(18)O increased 2.2 and 11.5 ‰, respectively, with a 22-fold increase in V:S. Both δ(13)C and V:S decreased with species climate-niche estimates of precipitation, indicating that stem morphology and physiology in Cactoideae may be constrained by available moisture. Taken together, these data suggest that physiological tradeoffs associated with stem V:S are detectable across broad evolutionary groups despite differences in CAM strength.

  12. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program. Volume 4; Accessing Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Williamson, Ray A. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Acker, Russell J. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Friedman, Jonathan L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in four major chapters, each covering a particular aspect of access to space and the manner in which it has developed over time. These chapters focus on the evolution toward the giant Saturn V rocket, the development of the Space Shuttle, space transportation commercialization, and future space transportation possibilities. Each chapter in this volume is introduced by an overview essay, prepared by individuals who are particularly well qualified to write on the topic. In the main, these essays are intended to introduce and complement the documents in the chapter and to place them, for the most part, in a chronological and substantive context. Each essay contains references to the documents in the chapter it introduces, and many also contain references to documents in other chapters of the collection. These introductory essays are the responsibility of their individual authors, and the views and conclusions contained therein do not necessarily represent the opinions of either George Washington University or NASA.

  13. Antidepressant Use and Lifetime History of Mental Disorders in a Community Sample: Results from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Spira, Adam P.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Hock, Rebecca S.; Carras, Michelle C.; Eaton, William W.; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Past studies have shown that many individuals who use antidepressants do not have a current or lifetime history of mental disorders. However, recent studies suggest that the one-time retrospective evaluation of mental disorders commonly used in such studies may substantially underestimate the true lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. We examined the prevalence of mental disorders, assessed prospectively over multiple interviews, among individuals currently using antidepressants in a community sample. Methods Using data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Survey Wave 1 (1981) through Wave 4 (2004) (N = 1071), we assessed lifetime prevalence of common mood and anxiety disorders according to the DSM-III and DSM-III-R criteria, based on 4 interviews, among participants who reported current antidepressant use. Furthermore, we examined factors associated with current antidepressant use. Results Thirteen percent of participants at Wave 4 reported currently using antidepressant medications. Among antidepressant users, 69% never met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), and 38% never met criteria for MDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder in their lifetime. Female gender, Caucasian ethnicity, recent or current physical problems (e.g., loss of bladder control, hypertension and back pain) and recent mental health facility visits were associated with antidepressant use in addition to mental disorders. Conclusions Many individuals who are prescribed and use antidepressant medications may not have met criteria for mental disorders. Our data indicate that antidepressants are commonly used in the absence of clear evidence-based indications. PMID:25188822

  14. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  15. Antidepressant use and lifetime history of mental disorders in a community sample: results from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Spira, Adam P; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Hock, Rebecca S; Carras, Michelle C; Eaton, William W; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have shown that many individuals who use antidepressants have no current or lifetime history of mental disorders. However, recent studies suggest that the one-time retrospective evaluation of mental disorders commonly used in such studies may substantially underestimate the true lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. We examined the prevalence of mental disorders, assessed prospectively over multiple interviews, among individuals currently using antidepressants in a community sample. Using data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study Wave 1 (1981) through Wave 4 (2004-2005) (N = 1,071), we assessed lifetime prevalence of common mood and anxiety disorders according to DSM-III and DSM-III-R criteria, based on 4 interviews, among participants who reported current antidepressant use. Furthermore, we examined factors associated with current antidepressant use. Thirteen percent of participants at Wave 4 reported currently using antidepressant medications. Among antidepressant users, 69% never met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD); and 38% never met criteria for MDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder in their lifetime. Female gender, Caucasian ethnicity, recent or current physical problems (eg, loss of bladder control, hypertension, and back pain), and recent mental health facility visits were associated with antidepressant use in addition to mental disorders. Many individuals who are prescribed and use antidepressant medications may not have met criteria for mental disorders. Our data indicate that antidepressants are commonly used in the absence of clear evidence-based indications. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Evidence for Regional Basin Formation in Early Post-Tessera Venus History: Geology of the Lavinia Planitia Area (V55)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Ivanov, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    On Venus, global topography shows the presence of highs and lows including regional highly deformed plateaus (tesserae), broad rifted volcanic rises, linear lows flanking uplands, and more equidimensional lowlands (e.g. Lavinia and Atalanta planitiae) Each of these terrain types on Venus has relatively distinctive characteristics, but origins are uncertain in terms of mode of formation, time of formation, and potential evolutionary links. There is a high level of uncertainty about the formation and evolution of lowlands on Venus. We have undertaken the mapping of a specific lowlands region of Venus to address several of these major questions. Using geologic mapping we have tried to establish: What is the sequence of events in the formation and evolution of large-scale equidimensional basins on Venus? When do the compressional features typical of basin interiors occur? What is the total volume of lava that occurs in the basins and is this similar to other non-basin areas? How much subsidence and downwarping has occurred after the last major plains units? WE have undertaken an analysis of the geology of the V55 Lavinia Planitia quadrangle in order to address many of these issues and we report on the results here.

  17. Bathymetric map, area/capacity table, and sediment volume estimate for Millwood Lake near Ashdown, Arkansas, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Green, W. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Millwood Lake, in southwestern Arkansas, was constructed and is operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for flood-risk reduction, water supply, and recreation. The lake was completed in 1966 and it is likely that with time sedimentation has resulted in the reduction of storage capacity of the lake. The loss of storage capacity can cause less water to be available for water supply, and lessens the ability of the lake to mitigate flooding. Excessive sediment accumulation also can cause a reduction in aquatic habitat in some areas of the lake. Although many lakes operated by the USACE have periodic bathymetric and sediment surveys, none have been completed for Millwood Lake. In March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, surveyed the bathymetry of Millwood Lake to prepare an updated bathymetric map and area/capacity table. The USGS also collected sediment thickness data in June 2013 to estimate the volume of sediment accumulated in the lake.

  18. Sex determination using discriminant analysis of upper and lower extremity bones: New approach using the volume and surface area of digital model.

    PubMed

    Lee, U-Young; Kim, In-Beom; Kwak, Dai-Soon

    2015-08-01

    This study used 110 CT images taken from donated Korean cadavers to create 3-D models of the following upper and lower limb bones: the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, hip bone (os coxa), femur, patella (knee cap), tibia, talus, and calcaneus. In addition, the bone volume and surface area were calculated to determine sex differences using discriminant analysis. Significant sex differences were found in all bones with respect to volume and surface area (p<0.01). The order of volume was the same in females and males (femur>hip bone>tibia>humerus>scapula), although the order of surface area was different. The largest surface area in men was the femur and in women was the hip bone (p<0.01). An interesting finding of this study was that the ulna is the bone with the highest accuracy for sex determination (94%). When using the surface area of multiple bones, the maximum accuracy (99.4%) was achieved. The equation was as follows: (discriminant equation of surface area; female<0volume and surface area of extremity bones can be used for sex determination.

  19. Isotopic Systematics (U, nitrate and Sr) of the F-Area Acidic Contamination Plume at the Savannah River Site: Clues to Contaminant History and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. N.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Denham, M.; Wan, J.; Rakshit, S.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Spycher, N.

    2010-12-01

    Seepage basins in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site were used from 1955 to 1989 for the disposal of low-level radioactive acidic (ave. pH ˜2.9) waste solutions from site operations involving irradiated uranium billets and other materials used in the production of radionuclides. These disposal activities resulted in a persistent acidic groundwater plume (pH as low as 3.2) beneath the F-Area including contaminants such as tritium, nitrate, 90Sr, 129I and uranium and that has impinged on surface water (Four Mile Branch) about 600 m from the basins. After cessation of disposal in 1989, the basins were capped in 1991. Since that time, remediation has consisted of a pump-and-treat system that has recently been replaced with in situ treatment using a funnel-and-gate system with injection of alkaline solutions in the gates to neutralize pH. In order to delineate the history of contamination and the current mobility and fate of contaminants in F-Area groundwater, we have undertaken a study of variations in the isotopic compositions of U (234U/238U, 235U/238U, 236U/238U), Sr (87Sr/86Sr) and nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) within the contaminant plume. This data can be used to trace U transport within the plume, evaluate chemical changes of nitrate, and potentially track plume/sediment chemical interaction and trace the migration of 90Sr. We have analyzed a suite of groundwater samples from monitoring wells, as well as pore-water samples extracted from aquifer sediment cores to map out the isotopic variation within the plume. The isotopic compositions of U from well samples and porewater samples are all consistent with the variable burn-up of depleted U. The variation in U isotopic composition requires at least three different endmembers, without any significant influence of background natural U. The δ15N and δ18O of nitrate from F-Area plume groundwater are distinct both from natural and unaltered synthetic nitrate, and likely represents fractionation due to waste volume

  20. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Introduction, history, and current candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Roy, A.K.; Jones, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is to evaluate Yucca Mountain for its suitability as a potential site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been occupied for a number of years with developing and evaluating the performance of waste packages for the potential repository. In recent years this work has been carried out under the guidance of and in collaboration with the Management and Operating contractor for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., which in turn reports to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes the history of the selection and characterization of materials to be used in the engineered barrier system for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, describes the current candidate materials, presents a compilation of their properties, and summarizes available corrosion data and modeling. The term ``engineered materials`` is intended to distinguish those materials that are used as part of the engineered barrier system from the natural, geologic materials of the site.

  1. Somatosensory Brain Function and Gray Matter Regional Volumes Differ According to Exercise History: Evidence from Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Hautasaari, Pekka; Savić, Andrej M; Loberg, Otto; Niskanen, Eini; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Tarkka, Ina M

    2017-01-01

    Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images. We obtained exercise history and measured physical fitness and body composition. Equivalent electrical dipole sources of SMMR as well as gray matter (GM) voxel counts in regions of interest indicated by source analysis were evaluated. SMMR dipolar source strengths differed between active and inactive twins within twin pairs in postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus and in anterior cingulate (AC) GM voxel counts differed similarly. Compared to active twins, their inactive twin brothers showed greater dipole strengths in short periods of the deviant-elicited SMMR and larger AC GM voxel counts. Stronger activation in early unattended cortical processing of the deviant sensory signals in inactive co-twins may imply less effective gating of somatosensory information in inactive twins compared to their active brothers. Present findings indicate that already in 30's long-term physical activity pattern is linked with specific brain indices, both in functional and structural domains.

  2. Direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area by real-time three-dimensional color Doppler for quantitation of aortic regurgitant volume: an in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; McCulloch, Marti; Nosé, Yukihiko; Hartley, Craig J; Zoghbi, William A

    2009-03-01

    The proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method is useful in the quantitation of aortic regurgitation (AR). We hypothesized that actual measurement of PISA provided with real-time 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler yields more accurate regurgitant volumes than those estimated by 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler PISA. We developed a pulsatile flow model for AR with an imaging chamber in which interchangeable regurgitant orifices with defined shapes and areas were incorporated. An ultrasonic flow meter was used to calculate the reference regurgitant volumes. A total of 29 different flow conditions for 5 orifices with different shapes were tested at a rate of 72 beats/min. 2D PISA was calculated as 2pi r(2), and 3D PISA was measured from 8 equidistant radial planes of the 3D PISA. Regurgitant volume was derived as PISA x aliasing velocity x time velocity integral of AR/peak AR velocity. Regurgitant volumes by flow meter ranged between 12.6 and 30.6 mL/beat (mean 21.4 +/- 5.5 mL/beat). Regurgitant volumes estimated by 2D PISA correlated well with volumes measured by flow meter (r = 0.69); however, a significant underestimation was observed (y = 0.5x + 0.6). Correlation with flow meter volumes was stronger for 3D PISA-derived regurgitant volumes (r = 0.83); significantly less underestimation of regurgitant volumes was seen, with a regression line close to identity (y = 0.9x + 3.9). Direct measurement of PISA is feasible, without geometric assumptions, using real-time 3D color Doppler. Calculation of aortic regurgitant volumes with 3D color Doppler using this methodology is more accurate than conventional 2D method with hemispheric PISA assumption.

  3. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  4. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  5. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    PubMed

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature.

  6. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). South America and Selected Island Coastal Marine Areas, East Coast. Volume 2. Area 9-Rio de Janeiro, Area 10-Florianopolis, Area 11-Porto Alegre, Area 12-Buenos Aires, Area 13-Bahia Blanca, Area 14-Rawson, Area 15-Puerto Deseado, Area 16-Magellan Strain East.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    JANUARY piugrof (PRN2PY) 1904-1973 AREA 0009 KID of JANEIRO (oVII-ALLI 1054-0973 TASLE 8 22.73 41,.10 PERCENT PRIC OF WIND ^ ICTION VS OCCURRENCE OR NON...OCCIIARINCE IV WIND DZICTION PRECIPITATION TYPE OTNIP .IATHER OHINOMINA ONO 01A PAIN MAIN 0V2I. 9330 SNOW OTHIR MAIL. PORN AT PCPN PAST THOR FOG 006 WO...HONUA pRICtPITA ION TYPO OTNIN %IATMIR PINOMINA "DUN RAIN RAIN BAIL RAZIl SNOW OtHER NAIL PCPN AT PORN PAST 00 FHO G OO w0 O SMOKl SPRAY NO famtI

  7. Constant volume of the human lens and decrease in surface area of the capsular bag during accommodation: an MRI and Scheimpflug study.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Erik A; Pouwels, Petra J W; Dubbelman, Michiel; Kuijer, Joost P A; van der Heijde, Rob G L; Heethaar, Rob M

    2009-01-01

    A change in surface area of the capsular bag and a change in volume of the lens can indicate whether a change in the shape of the lens during accommodation is due to the compressibility or the elasticity of the lens material. 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to image the complete shape of the lens in a group of five healthy subjects between 18 and 35 years of age. A parametric representation of the cross-sectional shape was fitted to the edges of the lens, which were determined with a Canny edge filter. Based on a partition of the lens into eight parts, the parametric shape makes it possible to calculate the mean cross-sectional area, the volume, and the surface area as a function of accommodation. Corrected Scheimpflug imaging was used to validate the results obtained with MRI. No significant difference in central anterior and posterior radius of curvature and thickness was found between the MRI and Scheimpflug measurements. In accordance with the Helmholtz accommodation theory, a decrease in the anterior and posterior radius of curvature and equatorial diameter and an increase in lens thickness occurred with accommodation. During accommodation, the mean cross-sectional area increased and the surface area decreased. However, no significant change in lens volume was found. The preservation of lens volume implies that the internal human lens material can be assumed to be incompressible and is undergoing elastic deformation. Furthermore, the change in surface area indicates that the capsular bag also undergoes elastic deformation.

  8. Vastus medialis cross-sectional area is positively associated with patella cartilage and bone volumes in a pain-free community-based population

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Patricia A; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Galevska-Dimitrovska, Ana; Hanna, Fahad S; Wluka, Anita E; Wang, Yuanyuan; Urquhart, Donna M; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although vastus medialis and lateralis are important determinants of patellofemoral joint function, their relationship with patellofemoral joint structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas and the relationship between the cross-sectional area and patella cartilage and bone volumes. Methods Two hundred ninety-seven healthy adult subjects had magnetic resonance imaging of their dominant knee. Vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas were measured 37.5 mm superior to the quadriceps tendon insertion at the proximal pole of the patella. Patella cartilage and bone volumes were measured from these images. Demographic data and participation in vigorous physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Results The determinants of increased vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas were older age (P ≤ 0.002), male gender (P < 0.001), and greater body mass index (P ≤ 0.07). Participation in vigorous physical activity was positively associated with vastus medialis cross-sectional area (regression coefficient [beta] 90.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 38.2, 141.7) (P < 0.001) but not with vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (beta 10.1; 95% CI -18.1, 38.3) (P = 0.48). The cross-sectional area of vastus medialis only was positively associated with patella cartilage volume (beta 0.6; 95% CI 0.23, 0.94) (P = 0.001) and bone volume (beta 3.0; 95% CI 1.40, 4.68) (P < 0.001) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions Our results in a pain-free community-based population suggest that increased cross-sectional area of vastus medialis, which is associated with vigorous physical activity, and increased patella cartilage and bone volumes may benefit patellofemoral joint health and reduce the long-term risk of patellofemoral pathology. PMID:19077298

  9. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  10. Depositional history of Jurassic rocks in the area of the Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of clastic sedimentation in the eastern part of the middle Western Interior during the Middle and Late Jurassic. Fourteen lithostratigraphic units are discussed in relation to five separate marine inundations and six intervening erosional events.

  11. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  12. Polymorphism of Lipid-Water Systems: Epitaxial Relationships, Area-per-Volume Ratios, Polar-Apolar Partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzati, Vittorio

    1995-11-01

    The original purpose of this work was to seek an explanation of the empirical observation that pairs of phases in thermodynamic equilibrium often display an epitaxial relationship. Considering that the polar/apolar interfacial interactions appear to play a predominant role among all the forces that stabilize the phases, there is ground for the proposition that the two phases involved in any particular phase transition consist of structure elements whose area/volume ratio is invariant. Volume and area of the structure elements can be expressed as functions of the water content and the cell parameters of the two coexisting phases: their values can thus be determined experimentally. The volume ratio (structure elements)/(lipid molecules) is equivalent to a partition coefficient. These ideas were applied to a large variety of data available in the literature. The partition coefficient was found to display wide variations, remarkably correlated with the chemical and the physical parameters of the system, suggesting that the segregation of the hydrocarbon chains away from the polar headgroups is not as sharp as it is commonly assumed. The notion of a variable polar/apolar partition is a novelty in the field; moreover, this partition coefficient may well turn into an interesting thermodynamic parameter. As to the significance of the epitaxial relationships, a search through the literature shows that its very existence has many exceptions. In order to explain these observations the conjecture is put forward that the epitaxial coincidences have a kinetic effect on the phase transitions. In particular, it is suggested that any transition involving epitaxially related phases is unlikely to display metastable states. The possibility is also evoked that a selective advantage (be it technological, biological or experimental) may be associated with the existence of epitaxial relationships. This conjecture is illustrated by several examples drawn from the literature. De nombreuses

  13. Volume and contact surface area analysis of bony tunnels in single and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autograft tendons: in vivo three-dimensional imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Chang, Minho; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Wang, Joon Ho

    2014-09-01

    Regarding reconstruction surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), there is still a debate whether to perform a single bundle (SB) or double bundle (DB) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the volume and surface area of femoral and tibial tunnels during transtibial SB versus transportal DB ACL reconstruction. A consecutive series of 26 patients who underwent trantibial SB ACL reconstruction and 27 patients with transportal DB ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft from January 2010 to October 2010 were included in this study. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) was taken within one week after operation. The CT bone images were segmented with use of Mimics software v14.0. The obtained digital images were then imported in the commercial package Geomagic Studio v10.0 and SketchUp Pro v8.0 for processing. The femoral and tibial tunnel lengths, diameters, volumes and surface areas were evaluated. A comparison between the two groups was performed using the independent-samples t-test. A p-value less than the significance value of 5% (p < 0.05) was considered statistically significant. Regarding femur tunnels, a significant difference was not found between the tunnel volume for SB technique (1,496.51 ± 396.72 mm(3)) and the total tunnel volume for DB technique (1,593.81 ± 469.42 mm(3); p = 0.366). However, the total surface area for femoral tunnels was larger in DB technique (919.65 ± 201.79 mm(2)) compared to SB technique (810.02 ± 117.98 mm(2); p = 0.004). For tibia tunnels, there was a significant difference between tunnel volume for the SB technique (2,070.43 ± 565.07 mm(3)) and the total tunnel volume for the DB technique (2,681.93 ± 668.09 mm(3); p ≤ 0.001). The tibial tunnel surface area for the SB technique (958.84 ± 147.50 mm(2)) was smaller than the total tunnel surface area for the DB technique (1,493.31 ± 220.79 mm(2); p ≤ 0.001). Although the total femoral tunnel volume was similar between two

  14. Assessing high altitude glacier thickness, volume and area changes using field, GIS and remote sensing techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, P.; Herold, C.; Silverio, W.

    2010-08-01

    Higher temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier area and volume losses and on current ice thickness. Remote sensing analyses of Coropuna glacier (Peru) delineate an acute glaciated area decline between 1955 and 2008. We tested how volume changes can be estimated with remote sensing and GIS techniques using digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a Ground Penetrating Radar coupled with a Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regression techniques. The results revealed a significant glacier volume loss; however the uncertainty is higher than the measured volume loss. We also provided an estimate of the remaining volume. The field study provided the scientific evidence needed by COPASA, a local Peruvian NGO, and GTZ, the German international cooperation agency, in order to alert local governments and communities and guide them in adopting new climate change adaptation policies.

  15. Alterations of thyroid volume and nodular size during and after pregnancy in a severe iodine-deficient area.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Serap B; Ogullar, Sabri; Ural, Ulku Mete; Ilkkilic, Kadir; Metin, Yavuz; Ayaz, Teslime

    2014-11-01

    The effects of pregnancy on thyroid nodules were investigated in a few number of studies. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules, the changes in size, volume and number of nodules during pregnancy and after delivery in pregnant women. This prospective study was performed in a severe iodine-deficient area and included 83 pregnant women (mean age 30·4 ± 5·5 years). We evaluated thyroid hormone levels, ultrasound examination of thyroid and urine iodine concentration (UIE) at each trimester and at 3-month post-partum period (PP). All patients with thyroid nodules >1 cm underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) after the last visit at the PP. Twenty-six women had thyroid nodules on thyroid ultrasonography at the first trimester. The volume of single/dominant nodule showed enlargement during pregnancy and remained at the PP; however, it was not significant (first trimester: 0·83 ± 0·8 ml; second trimester: 0·92 ± 1 ml; third trimester: 0·99 ± 1·2 ml; PP: 0·92 ± 1·2 ml). The maximum diameter of single/dominant nodule in the third trimester of pregnancy (12·6 ± 5·4 mm) was greater than the first trimester (11·9 ± 4·8 mm) (P = 0·002). The number of nodules did not change during pregnancy. The mean TV increased during pregnancy and remained 3 months after delivery (P < 0·001), and the maximum value of TV was reached in the third trimester (14·2 ± 7·9 ml). FNAB results revealed a 6·6% prevalence of malignancy among the nodules. Thyroid nodules were present in 30·1% of pregnant women. While size of the single/dominant thyroid nodule increased significantly during pregnancy, the number of nodules did not change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures.

  17. The Efficacy of a Mathematics Readiness Program for Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Area, Mass, and Volume in Disadvantaged Preschool Children in the Southern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The present study was designed to determine whether conservation of number, weight, volume, area, and mass could be learned and retained by disadvantaged preschool children when taught by an inexperienced classroom teacher. An instructional sequence of 10-minute lessons was presented on alternate days over a 3 1/2 week period by preservice…

  18. Introduction, Development and Extension of Compulsory Education. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    This first of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the Western hemisphere deals with historical antecedents and early development. Of the 29 total articles, 18 are in English and 2 have English summaries. Many selections include bibliographies. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Political…

  19. Social-Economic Life and Compulsory Education. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    Socioeconomic life is the theme of this third of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere. Of the document's 18 articles, 15 are written in English and 3 are written in French. Most selections offer summaries; one of the three articles written in French provides a resume in English.…

  20. Compulsory Education: Statistics, Methodology, Reforms and New Tendencies. Conference Papers for the 8th Session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education (Parma, Italy, September 3-6, 1986). Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovesi, Giovanni, Ed.

    This collection, the last of four volumes on the history of compulsory education among the nations of Europe and the western hemisphere, analyzes statistics, methodology, reforms, and new tendencies. Twelve of the document's 18 articles are written in English, 3 are written in French and 3 are in Italian. Summaries accompany most articles; three…