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Sample records for area homicide incidence

  1. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  2. Incidence and risk factors of homicide-suicide in Swiss households: National Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Zwahlen, Marcel; Spoerri, Adrian; Tal, Kali; Killias, Martin; Egger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are rare but catastrophic events. This study examined the epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Switzerland. The study identified homicide-suicide events 1991-2008 in persons from the same household in the Swiss National Cohort, which links census and mortality records. The analysis examined the association of the risk of dying in a homicide-suicide event with socio-demographic variables, measured at the individual-level, household composition variables and area-level variables. Proportional hazards regression models were calculated for male perpetrators and female victims. Results are presented as age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The study identified 158 deaths from homicide-suicide events, including 85 murder victims (62 women, 4 men, 19 children and adolescents) and 68 male and 5 female perpetrators. The incidence was 3 events per million households and year. Firearms were the most prominent method for both homicides and suicides. The risk of perpetrating homicide-suicide was higher in divorced than in married men (HR 3.64; 95%CI 1.56-8.49), in foreigners without permanent residency compared to Swiss citizens (HR 3.95; 1.52-10.2), higher in men without religious affiliations than in Catholics (HR 2.23; 1.14-4.36) and higher in crowded households (HR 4.85; 1.72-13.6 comparing ≥2 with <1 persons/room). There was no association with education, occupation or nationality, the number of children, the language region or degree of urbanicity. Associations were similar for female victims. This national longitudinal study shows that living conditions associated with psychological stress and lower levels of social support are associated with homicide-suicide events in Switzerland.

  3. Adolescent homicide victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa: incidence and epidemiological characteristics (2001-2009).

    PubMed

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of adolescent homicides (15-19 years) in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on cases drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. A total of 590 adolescent homicides were registered for 2001-2009 corresponding to an average annual homicide rate of 23.4/100,000. The average annual rate was 39.8/100,000 for males and 7.9/100,000 for females. Black and coloured adolescents had the highest homicide rates. There was a considerable decline in the firearm homicide rates over the study period. In contrast, sharp instrument and blunt force homicides increased. Public places were the predominant scenes for male deaths, while female homicides occurred primarily in residential locations. Most male homicides took place over weekend nights. Alcohol was a prominent feature of homicides. The high homicide rates reported in this study underscore the need to develop interventions directed specifically at adolescents. Prevention efforts are required to pay particular attention to black and coloured adolescent males, and to address the availability of weapons and alcohol use among adolescents.

  4. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  5. Change and Stability in the Characteristics of Homicide Victims, Offenders and Incidents During Rapid Social Change.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2007-03-01

    The Russian homicide rate doubled during the 1990s and is now among the highest in the world. During this same period, Russian citizens experienced swift, widespread, and meaningful political, economic, and social change. It is likely that this profound transition altered structural conditions, cultural norms, and interpersonal relations in a way that led to changes in the nature of interpersonal violence. Taking advantage of a unique set of homicide narratives drawn from court and police records in the Udmurt Republic, this study examined stability and change in the distribution of Russian homicide victim, offender, and incident characteristics before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. Odds ratios obtained from logistic regression showed no change in victim characteristics, but substantial changes in several offender and incident characteristics. We discuss the potential mechanisms through which the structural and cultural shifts are resulting in these changes and conclude that the ongoing transition is largely responsible for the changing nature of homicide in Russia. In doing so, we introduce the new term "criminological transition" and suggest that Russia (and perhaps other nations) may have experienced a change in its crime profile in much the same way as we discuss a "demographic transition" in terms of fertility and mortality profiles.

  6. Change and Stability in the Characteristics of Homicide Victims, Offenders and Incidents During Rapid Social Change

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2008-01-01

    The Russian homicide rate doubled during the 1990s and is now among the highest in the world. During this same period, Russian citizens experienced swift, widespread, and meaningful political, economic, and social change. It is likely that this profound transition altered structural conditions, cultural norms, and interpersonal relations in a way that led to changes in the nature of interpersonal violence. Taking advantage of a unique set of homicide narratives drawn from court and police records in the Udmurt Republic, this study examined stability and change in the distribution of Russian homicide victim, offender, and incident characteristics before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. Odds ratios obtained from logistic regression showed no change in victim characteristics, but substantial changes in several offender and incident characteristics. We discuss the potential mechanisms through which the structural and cultural shifts are resulting in these changes and conclude that the ongoing transition is largely responsible for the changing nature of homicide in Russia. In doing so, we introduce the new term “criminological transition” and suggest that Russia (and perhaps other nations) may have experienced a change in its crime profile in much the same way as we discuss a “demographic transition” in terms of fertility and mortality profiles. PMID:19122789

  7. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  8. [Children as victims of homicide 1972-2005].

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Sanne; Rollmann, Dorte; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2007-11-19

    Child homicides are rare but serious crimes. In this study the homicide rate and the development in the crime pattern will be investigated. The investigation is retrospective and comprises the 34 years during which the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Odense has existed. During this period 41 children under the age of 15 were killed in 30 episodes. The most frequent method of homicide was manual strangulation, and the second most frequent was blunt violence. It is demonstrated that the incidence of child homicide has decreased considerably compared to a previous investigation comprising all of Denmark. By far the largest decrease is in homicides committed by women against their own children, which have often been followed by suicide (family homicides). The decrease in family homicides committed by men is much less. Today men commit family homicides 8 times as frequently as women in the area under investigation. A possible explanation for the decreasing number of homicides committed by women against their own children is the decreased use of gas for cooking, whereby a frequent homicide method disappeared, and by improved socio-economic life conditions and gender balance. Men are now responsible for the majority of family homicides. Preventative measures for men in socially traumatic situations such as a divorce are recommended.

  9. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  10. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n = 100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services' funding) was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

  11. Sexual homicide in the USA committed by juveniles and adults, 1976-2007: Age of arrest and incidence trends over 32 years.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y

    2016-02-01

    Reliable epidemiological data on sexual homicide are sparse, especially on trends in its incidence over time and age at arrest. Our main aims were to study age at arrest and incidence trends for sexual homicide in the USA over about three decades (1976-2007). We conducted longitudinal analyses of data from the largest USA homicide database available for the years 1976-2007. The mean age at arrest for a sexual homicide was 26.3 years (range 7-76; modal 21 years). Three quarters of these offenders were young adults aged 18-35. Age at probable first arrest for a sexual homicide rose significantly from a mean of 25 to a mean of 29 years over the study period. The last decade of the three studied accounted for just one quarter of the homicides as charged in the whole period, but the proportion of sexual homicides specifically fell with each decade, so that the first period accounted for 56% of those in the whole period, the second for 33% and the final decade for just 11%. This was reflected in a reduction in the proportion of all homicides that were sexual, from 1.4% in the first decade to 0.8% in the second and 0.4% in the third, declining by a factor of five for adults and seven for juveniles. Use of official national criminal statistics has limitations in studying the epidemiology of any particular behaviour. Nonetheless, our findings of falling sexual homicide rates and of changes in at least one important demographic of these killers indicate a need for a considered reappraisal of such crimes. Establishment of accurate epidemiology and a study of associated factors may assist in the improvement of investigative and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-08-02

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence.

  13. Understanding the uneven distribution of the incidence of homicide in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto; Villaveces, Andrés; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    Throughout the final years of the twentieth century and into the beginning of the twenty-first, violence has been one of the main public health issues in Latin America, a region which has some of the highest mortality rates due to violence in the world. However, there seems to be an uneven geographical distribution of such instances. We reviewed epidemiological data on violence globally and in Latin America, and here, we discuss differences between the Latin American countries in the context of a sociological framework as well as from a public health perspective. Our results indicate marked differences by country in terms of rates of violence. Countries such as Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay, have low violence mortality rates; Peru, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Panama, and Paraguay have moderate rates, and Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras and Venezuela have high to extremely high mortality rates. Factors related to violence include social inequalities, lack of employment opportunities, urban segregation, a culture of masculinity, local drug markets, and the availability of firearms and widespread use of alcohol. The observed homicide variability between Latin American countries can be explained largely by differences in the countries' social contexts and political models. In those countries where homicide rates are extremely high, governments should review their current policies and take preventive actions. Fortunately increasingly nowadays there are promising advancements in that direction.

  14. Victim, perpetrator, family, and incident characteristics of infant and child homicide in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Don R; Wezner, Kelley C; Milner, Joel S; McCanne, Thomas R; Harris, I Nell; Monroe-Posey, Carla; Nelson, John P

    2002-02-01

    The present study describes factors related to fatal abuse in three age groups in the United States Air Force (USAF). Records from 32 substantiated cases of fatal child abuse in the USAF were independently reviewed for 60 predefined factors. Males were over-represented in young child victims (between 1 year and 4 years of age) and child victims (between 4 years and 15 years of age) but not in infant victims (between 24 hours and 1 year of age). African-American infant victims and perpetrators were over-represented. Younger victims were more likely to have been previously physically abused by the perpetrator. Perpetrators were predominantly male and the biological fathers of the victims. Infant and young child perpetrators reported childhood abuse histories, while child perpetrators reported the highest frequency of mental health contact. Victims' families reported significant life stressors. Families of young child victims were more likely divorced, separated, or single. Incidents with infants and young children tended to occur without witnesses; incidents with child victims tended to have the victim's sibling(s) and/or mother present. Fatal incidents were more frequent on the weekend, in the home, and initiated by some family disturbance. Differences among groups in factors related to infant and child homicide across age groups may assist in the development of more tailored abuse prevention efforts and may also guide future investigations.

  15. Homicide Rates in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Laima, Sigitas; Andriuskeviciute, Gerda; Jurolaic, Eleonora; Jasulaitis, Algimantas

    2017-08-15

    Homicide rate in Lithuania between 2004 and 2013 decreased and reached an average of 6.7 per 100,000 people in 2013. The data regarding forensic autopsies of intentional homicide victims were obtained from the State Forensic Medicine Service. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess trends in the homicide rates. A significant correlation was observed between homicide distribution and the following variables: Lithuania's gross domestic product (r = -0.85, p = 0.003), the number of alcohol intoxication cases of victims (r = 0.97, p < 0.05). After regression model adjustments, these variables remained significantly associated with the homicide distribution (p < 0.05). 73% of victims were men, with a mean age of 45.5 ± 15. Alcohol intoxication was present in 58% of victims. 66% of homicides were carried out indoors, 57% in urban area. The presented findings help decide which prevention programs may be the most effective in homicide rate reduction. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Psychopathic traits in Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laajasalo, Taina; Salenius, Stephan; Lindberg, Nina; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining psychopathy in comparable samples of violent individuals with and without psychotic illness. The main goal of the study was to assess the prevalence and nature of psychopathic traits as measured by PCL-R among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Further, the impact of co-morbid psychopathy on the homicidal incidents, as well as the associations of psychopathy and offender background factors, among offenders with schizophrenia was investigated. A retrospective study was performed using extensive forensic psychiatric evaluation reports and crime reports as sources of information. The sample consisted of 72 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 72 controls without psychotic illness. Psychopathic features were prevalent among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia, although for the most parts to a lesser extent compared to other homicide offenders. Like non-mentally ill psychopathic offenders, offenders with schizophrenia and many psychopathic traits are likely to present early starting problems in many areas of life and they also commit homicides that resemble other psychopathic offenders' in their choice of victims, intoxication and post-offense behavior. The observed prevalence of psychopathic traits highlights the importance of psychopathy assessment among violence-prone individuals with schizophrenia. In most respects, offenders with schizophrenia and high levels of psychopathic traits seem to be similar to psychopathic offenders without psychotic illness, which has implications for early intervention and management.

  17. Youth homicide racial disparities: gender, years, and cause.

    PubMed Central

    Najem, G. Reza; Aslam, Sharique; Davidow, Amy L.; Elliot, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study racial disparities and the weapons used to commit youth homicide in New Jersey. METHODS: The homicide data were obtained from New Jersey death certificate files, 1989-1997. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant racial disparity in homicide incidence rates in this study. The homicide incidence rates was 10 times and four times higher among African-American than white, adolescents (age 15-19 years) and young adults (age 20-24 years) (respectively). Youth (15-24 years) homicide incidence rate correlated with New Jersey's 21 counties' high urbanization index and with low level of education. The ratio of male/female homicide incidence rates was 6:4 for adolescents and young adults, respectively. African-American adolescent homicide rates increased consistently from 1989 to 1997. Sixty percent of all youth homicide was committed by firearms. CONCLUSION: Significant youth homicide racial and gender disparities exist in New Jersey's 21 counties. If the existing trend of homicide violent crime victimization continues in New Jersey, African-American teenagers will soon become the leading segment of the population to be murdered in the state. Sixty percent of the youth homicide victimization was committed by firearms; and correlation analyses of New Jersey's 21 counties suggested that low levels of education and high levels of urbanization provided an environment of key risk factors for homicide. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:15101680

  18. Differential correlation of suicide and homicide rates according to geographical areas: A study with population-level data.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Gonda, Xenia

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the relationship of suicide and homicide rates internationally. WHO database mortality data for 82 countries concerning suicide, homicides, and cancer and traffic accidents as controls were used. The analysis included Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. Worldwide homicidal rates explained 55.42%, 43.86% and 41.7% of male and 22.0%, 22.14% and 13.25% of female suicides for 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively. In Europe there was a positive correlation between male suicide rates and all homicide rates including homicide rates in both genders, in male victims, and in female victims. In America there is no significant correlation. In Asia there is a significant correlation of male suicidal rates only with homicide rates of female victims. We observed marked and interesting differences in the pattern of association between Europe and the Americas. Overall the current paper suggests that at least in some human populations, suicidality and homicidality share common etiopathogenetic substrates and could be triggered by the same internal or external events or might develop based on common genetic background. Empirically it has been suggested that suicide is related to higher living standards while murder is related to poor quality of life and lower living standards.

  19. Commentary: Homicide-suicide in older adults--cultural and contextual perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carl C; McBride, Dominica F

    2010-01-01

    The authors comment on "Domestic Homicide and Homicide-Suicide: The Older Offender" by Bourget et al., who learned that after a domestic homicide in Canada, the older offender frequently commits suicide. The authors comment on the ubiquity of single homicide-suicide across cultures, the incidence of single homicide-suicide in various cultures, the common patterns and differences in single homicide-suicides across cultures, ethnic and gender differences in single homicide-suicide within different cultures, characteristics of the phenomenon of mass murder followed by suicide and ethnic differences within this type of homicide-suicide, and differences in suicidal patterns in different cultures. Suicide and suicide preceded by homicide (single or multiple) are so rare, it is currently impossible to draw any substantive conclusions about the incidence of these phenomena in various contexts; however, ideas for consideration in addressing homicide-suicide are provided.

  20. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Homicide perpetrated by older people.

    PubMed

    Overshott, Ross; Rodway, Cathryn; Roscoe, Alison; Flynn, Sandra; Hunt, Isabelle M; Swinson, Nicola; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to describe the circumstances in which older people commit homicide, the form of assessment they undergo and to examine the proportion of those who suffer from mental illness. The study was carried out as part of the England and Wales National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness based on a five-year sample. The Inquiry was notified of the names of those over the age of 60 years convicted of homicide and also the details of the offence, sentencing and outcome in court by the Home Office. The Inquiry collected clinical data of those known to have had contact with mental health services from the responsible service and also retrieved psychiatric reports of those convicted. Homicide incidents perpetrated by older people typically involve a man killing his partner in an impulsive manner. The most common method was by using a sharp instrument (34%), followed by the use of a blunt instrument (26%). The use of firearms was rare (11%). Perpetrators aged 65 years and older were significantly more likely to kill a current or former spouse/partner and less likely to kill an acquaintance. Forty-four per cent of perpetrators over 65 years old suffered from depression at the time of the offence, whereas rates of schizophrenia and alcohol dependence were low. The information used in the study was extracted from a unique national database of homicide perpetrators. The characteristics and the circumstances of homicides perpetrated by older people are different to other age groups. An older-people homicide may be preventable if depression is identified early in older people. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Is serial homicide really increasing?

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    2001-01-01

    Close examination of the available crime data reveals little scientific support for the widely held belief that serial homicide is frequent and increasing. The author argues that the dramatic changes in homicide clearance rates, incidence of murders with unknown motives, and victim gender data point to a likely increase, not in serial murder, but in contract murder. This type of killing appears to be having a significant impact on society; yet there has been a complete absence of forensic psychiatric study of this crime, a circumstance that needs to change.

  3. Mass homicide: the civil massacre.

    PubMed

    Cantor, C H; Mullen, P E; Alpers, P A

    2000-01-01

    Seven cases of mass homicide in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain between 1987 and 1996 are presented. These cases add to the world literature on these rare crimes and balance previous, mostly North American reports. These acts were committed by socially unsuccessful, self-absorbed, and resentful individuals. Lengthy fantasy comprising identification, modeling, and rehearsal preceded the incidents, even where the final acts had impulsive elements. Most had a long-standing fascination with firearms fueling their fantasies and providing the means for mass killing. Their targets were mostly unprotected strangers. Overt suicidal intent or a preparedness to die while committing the homicides was invariable. Ethological theories of status acquisition may provide a useful understanding of mass homicide.

  4. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  5. Network Exposure and Homicide Victimization in an African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655

  6. Network exposure and homicide victimization in an African American community.

    PubMed

    Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.

  7. A 30-year study of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav

    2013-12-01

    A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation. Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide. Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism. In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia. Copyright

  8. Homicide-suicide and other violent deaths: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Liem, Marieke; Barber, Catherine; Markwalder, Nora; Killias, Martin; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2011-04-15

    Homicides followed by the suicide of the perpetrator constitute a serious form of interpersonal violence. Until now no study has directly compared homicide-suicides to other violent deaths from multiple countries, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of these violent acts. Using country-specific data, this study describes and compares the incidence and patterns of homicide-suicide as well as the relationship between homicide-suicide, homicide, suicide and domestic homicide in the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United States. The results indicate that cross-nationally, homicide-suicides are more likely than other types of lethal violence to involve a female victim, multiple victims, take place in a residential setting and to be committed by a firearm. Although homicide-suicides display many similarities across the different countries, differences exist regarding age and the use of firearms in the offence. This study indicates that homicides followed by suicides differ from both homicides and suicides in similar ways internationally. Cross-national differences in the availability of firearms may explain the international variation of homicide-suicide rates and patterns.

  9. [Analysis of 1989-1999 homicide crimes in the catchment area of the Bonn Institute of Forensic Medicine with reference to selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Padosch, Stephan A; Passinger, Claudia; Schmidt, Peter H; Madea, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    195 cases of homicide, grouped according to juridical assessment, were retrospectively analysed with regard to individual characteristics of perpetrators and victims, circumstances, and mode of commitment. The involvement of underage victims and perpetrators as well as differences between the urban and rural areas studied were taken into special consideration. To summarise, the majority of the offences studied was carried out by a male perpetrator with a mean age of 35 years driven by personal motives or greed in his immediate vicinity and affected family members or close acquaintances. The fatal injuries were mainly attributable to sharp or blunt force. With regard to killings of children, a higher prevalence of female victims and male assailants, emotional motives and an even higher importance of the social vicinity were found. Particularly in victims younger 12 years of age, manual modes of commitment without application of any tools were predominantly encountered. The comparison of urban and rural areas revealed a higher homicide rate in municipal areas especially of offences with a loose relationship between victims and assailants (greed, sexual assault). In contrast, rural areas exhibited higher rates of bodily harm with fatal consequences as well as offences by highly intoxicated assailants.

  10. Youth homicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kobie; Bell, Carl C

    2011-03-01

    Homicide continues to be a problematic public health concern, but homicide rates have dropped considerably since the mid-1980s. This article proposes that the decrease in violence was caused by a large number of national and local violence prevention initiatives. Homicide and violence data are reviewed and the developmental dynamics of violence and homicide are discussed, noting the different tracks youth take toward violence. The risk factors that lead youth toward a violent lifestyle are compared with the protective factors that shield them from it. The principles involved in the prevention of violent behavior such as homicide are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intimate partner homicide.

    PubMed

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner homicides represent the most severe outcome of intimate partner violence, and constitute more than a quarter (26%) of all homicides in adults over 15 years of age in Southern Denmark. In our experience the victims of partner homicides are primarily women, often from socially disadvantaged families, and that these homicides usually are the result of an impulsive act, with the perpetrator often committing suicide after the act. The aim of this study was to investigate these hypotheses further, and to provide an up-to-date overview of intimate partner homicides in Southern Denmark.

  12. Pattern of homicidal deaths autopsied at Penang Hospital, Malaysia, 2007-2009: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bhupinder, S; Kumara, T K; Syed, A M

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the homicide pattern in Penang Island, Malaysia over a three-year period (2007-2009). 65 homicide autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital over the study period. The homicide rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.09/1000 population, the highest being in the Indian ethnic group. The majority (37%) of victims were in the 20-39 years age group. The male: female ratio was 3:1. The majority of deaths were caused by blunt instruments (46%), followed by stab/slash wounds (25%) and asphyxiation (12%). 63% of homicides occurred in areas served by the police stations at Jalan Patani (23.1%), Sg. Nibong (16.9%), Central (12.3%) and Bayan Lepas (10.9%). 56 (86%) victims were brought in dead to the hospital, while 9 (14%) died after admission. Most (39%) incidences occurred in the morning. The methods of homicide were different from Kuala Lumpur, another highly urbanised area of Malaysia.

  13. Forensic case profiling aspects on multiple homicides from the Cologne-Bonn metropolitan area 1985-2000.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Peter H; Padosch, Stephan A; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard

    2005-10-29

    The medicolegal and subsequent criminologic interpretation of forensic and pathological findings in cases of homicide makes up an important tool of case profiling. In a retrospective study of 26 cases of "multiple homicides" involving 31 perpetrators (30 males, 1 female, mean age 33.5 years) and 73 victims (33 males, 40 females, mean age 36 years, 68 fatalities, 5 survivors), autopsy reports and prosecution authorities' files were investigated with regard to individual characteristics of victims and offenders, circumstances as well as mode of commitment. The major aim of this study was to comprehensively elucidate and characterise relevant forensic and criminologic features, which may gain importance for forensic case profiling. Forty-six victims were found in the close social environment of the perpetrator and 45 homicides were committed either in the victim's, the perpetrator's or the shared domicile. The main motives included concealment of a crime (n=13), personal conflicts/domestic arguments (n=7) and greed (n=12). The relevant injuries with regard to the cause of death were attributable to sharp force (n=13), blunt force (n=7), gunshot wounds (n=24), ligature strangulation (n=3), smothering (n=5), fire/carbon monoxide (n=4) and combined impacts (n=11). In 15 cases, so called defence injuries were found. In 5 victims a post-mortem blood alcohol concentration >1.5 g/l was determined. In six perpetrators, a severe psychiatric impairment of juridical responsibility was ascertained (Section 20 German criminal code, n=2, psychosis; Section 21 German criminal code, n=4, acute alcohol intoxication). As far as conviction data were available, 27 crimes were juridically assessed as murder, 12 as manslaughter and one as bodily harm with fatal consequences.

  14. News media coverage and the epidemiology of homicide.

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, S B; Manz, J G; Berk, R A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed how newspaper coverage of homicides corresponds to the epidemiology of homicide. METHODS: Stories in the Los Angeles Times about homicide (n = 2782) were compared with the homicides that occurred in Los Angeles County from 1990 through 1994 (n = 9442). The generalized linear model assessed how victim, incident, and suspect characteristics related to coverage. RESULTS: Even when multiple variables were taken into account, some homicides (those with female, child, or elderly victims; those in which the suspect was a stranger to the victim; those in wealthier neighborhoods) received more coverage and others (those with Black or Hispanic victims or victims with less than a high school education; those committed with nonfirearm weapons; those in which the suspect was an intimate of the victim) received less coverage than expected. CONCLUSIONS: Some homicides are more newsworthy than others. Potential implications of not providing the public with representative data are discussed. PMID:9772853

  15. Homicide in post-Soviet Belarus: urban-rural trends.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of homicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet period. All-age male and female homicide mortality and population data were obtained for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 for urban and rural regions of Belarus. These data were recalculated into three age categories and directly standardised. To assess relative changes in rural-urban homicide rates across time Poisson regression models were used to calculate rate ratios. Between 1990 and 1995 homicide rates rose sharply in urban and rural regions although the rise was greater in the former. Although there was little change in homicide rates in 2000, a notable divergence had occurred by 2005. While homicide rates rose slightly in rural areas, a large fall occurred in the rates of both men and women in urban areas. This resulted in significantly higher rural homicide rate ratios at the end of the study period. With some variations age-specific homicide rates followed this overall general pattern resulting in significantly higher homicide rate ratios in all rural groups aged 15 and above in 2005. It is probable that a combination of factors such as high levels of poverty, the effects of alcohol consumption, as well as the poor provision of emergency medical services underlie both the high levels of lethal violence and the growing rural-urban divergence in homicide rates in contemporary Belarus. Urgent action is now needed to address the deteriorating social and economic conditions underpinning violence, especially in rural regions.

  16. Understanding Homicide-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L

    2016-12-01

    Homicide-suicide is the phenomenon in which an individual kills 1 or more people and commits suicide. Research on homicide-suicide has been hampered by a lack of an accepted classification scheme and reliance on media reports. Mass murder-suicide is gaining increasing attention particularly in the United States. This article reviews the research and literature on homicide-suicide, proposing a standard classification scheme. Preventive methods are discussed and sociocultural factors explored. For a more accurate and complete understanding of homicide-suicide, it is argued that future research should use the full psychological autopsy approach, to include collateral interviews.

  17. Homicide in California, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This document provides an annual overview of the crime of homicide and its victims, information on persons arrested for murder, and the system's response by type of disposition and sentence given. These topics are discussed and illustrated with 5 data tables and 43 graphs: (1) willful homicide crimes; (2) arrests for murder; (3) dispositions of…

  18. Homicide Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy H.

    1981-01-01

    Defines homicide as a major public health problem as well as a criminal justice problem. Discusses the direct implications of suicidology theory for the understanding and prevention of homicide, specifically the concepts of: prevention-intervention-postvention; clues; lethality; the identification of high risk groups; and the psychological…

  19. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  20. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  1. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  2. Deaths from homicides: a historical series.

    PubMed

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil.

  3. Modifiable Neighborhood Features Associated With Adolescent Homicide.

    PubMed

    Culyba, Alison J; Jacoby, Sara F; Richmond, Therese S; Fein, Joel A; Hohl, Bernadette C; Branas, Charles C

    2016-05-01

    Homicide is a leading cause of adolescent mortality. To our knowledge, relatively little has been studied in terms of the association between environmental neighborhood features, such as streets, buildings, and natural surroundings, and severe violent injury among youth. To assess associations between environmental neighborhood features and adolescent homicide in order to identify targets for future place-based interventions. Population-based case-control study conducted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from April 15, 2008, to March 31, 2014. We identified adolescents who died by homicide at 13 to 20 years of age from 2010 to 2012 while residing in Philadelphia. We used incidence-density sampling and random-digit dialing to recruit control participants ages 13 to 20 years matched on sex and indoor-outdoor location at the time of each index case participant's homicide. To obtain environmental data about modifiable features that were present in the immediate surroundings of our case and control participants, blinded field researchers used standardized techniques to photograph case and control participant outdoor locations. Photographic data were stitched together to create 360° panoramic images that were coded for 60 elements of the visible environment. Adolescent homicide. We enrolled 143 homicide case participants (mean [SD] age, 18.4 [1.5] years) and 155 matched control participants (mean [SD] age, 17.2 [2.1] years) who were both outdoors at the time of the homicide. In adjusted analyses, multiple features of Philadelphia streets, buildings, and natural surroundings were associated with adolescent homicide. The presence of street lighting (odds ratio [OR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.70), illuminated walk/don't walk signs (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.92), painted marked crosswalks (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04-0.63), public transportation (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.49), parks (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88), and maintained vacant lots (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.81) were significantly

  4. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  5. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  6. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  7. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  8. Homicide-suicide (dyadic death): a case study of double hanging.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Marna; Hlaise, Keven Khazamula

    2012-09-01

    Murder-suicide, homicide-suicide, and dyadic death all refer to an incident where a homicide is committed followed by the perpetrator's suicide almost immediately or soon after the homicide. Homicide-suicides are relatively uncommon and vary from region to region. In the selected literature that we reviewed, shooting was the common method of killing and suicide, and only 3 cases of homicidal hanging involving child victims were identified. We present a case of dyadic death where the method of killing and suicide was hanging, and the victim was a young woman.

  9. HOMED-homicides eastern Denmark: an introduction to a forensic medical homicide database.

    PubMed

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels; Theilade, Peter

    2014-11-01

    An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage and an exhaustive list of registered variables it is useful for research purposes, although specific data limitations apply. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. Homicide-suicide in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Milroy, C M; Dratsas, M; Ranson, D L

    1997-12-01

    Thirty-nine incidents of homicide-suicide occurring in Victoria, Australia between 1985 and 1989 were examined. In 33 cases the assailants were men. The victims were spouses or women living in a de facto marriage. The majority of the victims were shot, and this was also the most frequent method of suicide. Breakdown in a relationship was the most frequent reason for killing. Mental illness of the assailant accounted for the killing in approximately 20% of cases. Physical ill health and financial stress were identified as important associative factors, particularly in the elderly. The pattern of homicide-suicide in Victoria is similar to that observed in other jurisdictions and represents an important and distinct subgroup of homicide.

  11. Incidence of Adult Illiteracy in Sydney Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyen, Judith D.

    1976-01-01

    A study to determine the incidence of functional illiteracy in English among adults in the metropolitan area of Sydney is reported, which showed the incidence of illiteracy among Australian/English born adults to be lower than previously reported while that among non-English born is very high. (WL)

  12. Hidden homicide increases in the USA, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Webster, Daniel; Baker, Susan P

    2008-07-01

    Prior to 1999, dramatic fluctuations in homicide rates were driven by changes in the rates of firearm homicide among men aged 15-24. Since 2000, the overall homicide rate has appeared stable, masking any changes in population subgroups. We analyzed recent trends in homicide rates by weapon, age, race, gender, state, and urbanization to determine whether the risk of victimization increased substantially during 1999-2005 for demographic subgroups. The analysis of WISQARS data and Wonder data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed no trend in the homicide rate nationally between 1999 and 2005; this obscured large increases in firearm homicide rates among black men aged 25-44 and among white men aged 25-34. Between 1999 and 2005, for ages 25-44 combined, the increase for black men was 31% compared with 12% for white men. Significant increases among men aged 25-44 occurred in Alabama, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. The firearm homicide rate increased the most in large central metropolitan areas (+32%) and large fringe metropolitan areas (+30%) for men aged 25-44. We conclude that the recent, unrecognized increases in firearm homicide among men aged 25-44, especially black men, in large metropolitan areas merit the attention of policymakers.

  13. The epidemiology of homicide perpetration by children.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J

    2017-12-01

    The United States has by far the highest rates of homicide perpetration among high-income countries. The perpetration of homicide by children is often newsworthy, but little is known about the incidence or the circumstances of child homicide perpetration. We use data from the sixteen states reporting to the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for all years 2005-2012. We read every violent death report that was classified a homicide with a child suspect (aged 0-14). To help ensure that we did not miss any homicide cases we also read those classified as an other-inflicted unintentional firearm injury death with a child shooter, to determine if they were actually homicides. There were 154 child suspects, which corresponds to an average annual rate of 1.2 child perpetrators per million child population. We estimate for the United States as a whole, 74 children per year were homicide perpetrators. Nearly 90% were boys, 79% were aged 13-14, and another 13% were aged 11-12. We created five categories, which accounted for over 70% of events with sufficient information to determine what happened: (1) The caretaker, a juvenile, typically an older brother, is given the responsibility to care for an infant. The homicide usually occurs in a residence, and blunt force is used (no guns); (2) Killing an adult family member, typically a parent or grandparent. These cases usually occur in a residence, and the child uses either a gun or a knife; (3) Impulsive shooting during play, the child typically shoots a sibling or friend. Except for some notion of momentary anger, these cases look much like unintentional firearm fatalities; (4) Robbery, a group of youth are trying to steal money, usually from an adult; and (5) Group Assault, a group of youth are fighting, usually other youth. Child homicide perpetrators are typically boys who use guns, and the events can be classified into a small number of relevant categories. Such a categorization of events is useful for

  14. [Homicide crimes in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dürwald, W

    1993-02-01

    Report of some cases of willful homicide in hospitals of the former GDR. In no case the patient has wished his death. Besides compassion the cause of the homicide was a large carefully expense and in two cases the attempt to prove the incapability of the competent doctor. The patients were only means to an end. All the cases are discovered by the great number of obscure death.

  15. Bayesian approach to predicting cancer incidence for an area without cancer registration by using cancer incidence data from nearby areas.

    PubMed

    Clèries, Ramon; Ribes, Josepa; Buxo, Maria; Ameijide, Alberto; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Galceran, Jaume; Miguel Martínez, José; Yasui, Yutaka

    2012-05-10

    This paper compares three different methods for performing cancer incidence prediction in an area without a cancer registry under a Bayesian framework, using linear and log-linear age-period models with either age-specific slopes or a common slope across age groups. The three methods assume that a nearby area with a cancer registration has similar incidence and mortality patterns as the area of interest without a cancer registry where the cancer incidence prediction is carried out. The three methods differ in modeling strategies: (i) modeling the incidence rate directly; (ii) modeling the ratio of the number of incident cases to that of mortality cases; and (iii) modeling the difference between the incidence rate and the mortality rate. Strategy (iii) is a new approach in this type of projection. Empirical assessment is made using real data from the cancer registry of Tarragona, Spain, to predict cancer incidence in Girona, Spain, and vice versa. Predictions of short-term (3-4 years) incidence were made for 2001 in Tarragona using observed cancer incidence and mortality data for 1994-1998 from Girona. Short-term predictions were made for 2002 in Girona using Tarragona's 1994-1998 data. Additionally, long-term (10 years) incidence rate predictions were made for 2002 in Girona using data from Tarragona for the period 1985-1992. Our results suggest that extrapolating time-trends of incidence rates minus mortality rates may have the best predictive performance overall. These methods of population-level disease-incidence prediction are highly relevant to health care planning and policy decisions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Homicide Among American Indians/Alaska Natives, 1999-2009: Implications for Public Health Interventions.

    PubMed

    Herne, Mose A; Maschino, Alexandra C; Graham-Phillips, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    We determined estimates of homicide among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) compared with non-Hispanic white people to characterize disparities and improve AI/AN classification in incidence and mortality reporting. We linked 1999-2009 death certificate data with Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration data to examine death rates from homicide among AI/AN and non-Hispanic white people. Our analysis focused primarily on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties and excluded Hispanic people to avoid underestimation of incidence and mortality in AI/ANs and for consistency in our comparisons. We used age-adjusted death rates per 100,000 population and stratified our analyses by sex, age, and IHS region. Death rates per 100,000 population from homicide were four times higher among AI/ANs (rate = 12.1) than among white people (rate = 2.8). Homicide rates for AI/ANs were highest in the Southwest (25.6 and 6.9 for males and females, respectively) and in Alaska (17.7 and 10.3 for males and females, respectively). Disparities between AI/ANs and non-Hispanic white people were highest in the Northern Plains region among men (rate ratio [RR] = 9.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.3) and among those aged 25-44 years (RR59.0, 95% CI 7.5, 10.7) and 0-24 years (RR57.4, 95% CI 6.1, 8.9). Death rates from homicide among AI/ANs were higher than previously reported and varied by sex, age, and region. Violence prevention efforts involving a range of stakeholders are needed at the community level to address this important public health issue.

  17. Poverty, suicide, and homicide among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Young, T J

    1990-12-01

    Analysis of data for 12 areas of the Indian Health Services available from the US Department of Health and Human Services yielded a correlation (rho) of .65 between poverty and suicide and a significant rho of. 52 with homicide rates. The Navajo area is an exception, raising for study questions about social disintegration.

  18. Low incidence of painless thyroiditis in the Philadelphia area

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, A.B.; Miller, J.L.; Shtasel, P.; Rose, L.I.

    1986-06-01

    Publications from the midwestern region of the United States have demonstrated an incidence of 14-23% of painless thyroiditis in hyperthyroid individuals. This possibly could represent a local phenomenon, and perhaps is not typical for other areas of the country. The 24 hour radioactive iodine uptakes in 152 consecutive hyperthyroid individuals in the Philadelphia area were evaluated. No patient in the series, with clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism, had painless thyroiditis. It is concluded that the incidence of painless thyroiditis is markedly lower in the Philadelphia area than in the Midwest regions of the United States.

  19. Homicide during postictal psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschenk, Stephan; Krop, Harry; Devinsky, Orrin

    2014-01-01

    Postictal psychosis is characterized by a fluctuating combination of thought disorder, auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, affective change, and aggression including violent behavior. We present a case of homicide following a cluster of seizures. The patient's history and postictal behavior were his consistent with postictal psychosis. Contributing factors resulting in homicide may have included increased seizure frequency associated with a change in his AED regimen seizure frequency. The AED change to levetiracetam may also have increased impulsiveness with diminished mood regulation following discontinuation of carbamazepine. There is evidence that he had a cluster of seizures immediately prior to the murder which may have resulted in the postictal disinhibition of frontal lobe inhibitory systems. This homicide and other violent behaviors associated with postictal psychosis may be avoided with earlier recognition and treatment. PMID:25667886

  20. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women.

  1. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  2. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered.

  3. We fall down: the African American experience of coping with the homicide of a loved one.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Boyas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Rates of homicide among African Americans are much higher than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Research has demonstrated that homicide can be psychologically debilitating for surviving family members. Yet, exploring the experiences of homicide victims’ surviving loved ones has received little attention. This study examined the coping strategies of African American survivors of homicide. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 African American family members (ages 18-82) of homicide victims. Survivors were recruited from the Massachusetts Office of Victim Services and from homicide survivor support, school, and community groups throughout the New England area. Interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from coping, support network, grief, and bereavement literatures. Results indicate that the primary coping strategies utilized by African American survivors of homicide victims are spiritual coping and meaning making, maintaining a connection to the deceased, collective coping and caring for others, and concealment. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Simultaneous homicide-suicide: a case report of double drowning.

    PubMed

    Melez, İpek Esen; Avşar, Abdullah; Başpınar, Bünyamin; Melez, Deniz Oğuzhan; Şahin, Fatih; Özdeş, Taşkın

    2014-09-01

    Homicide-suicide is a tragic phenomenon which typically does not result in a criminal charge or trial. However, correct diagnosis and classification of homicide-suicide cases are important to determine the perpetrators and dynamics of each category properly. The deaths in the homicide-suicide acts can be divided into two categories with respect to the number of involved individuals: dyadic deaths and triple or multiple deaths. These two categories can also be divided into two subgroups according to the chronology of the incidents: simultaneous deaths and consecutive deaths. Herein, a simultaneous homicide-suicide case of a father and daughter where both deaths occurred through drowning which was not found in the selected literature review and where the victim was a child is presented. The article aims to clarify the term discrepancies about multiple death cases in the literature and to discuss the pathological and psychosocial characteristics of the simultaneous dyadic death cases. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Homicide of Family Members, Acquaintances, and Strangers, and State-To-State Differences in Social Stress, Social Control and Social Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman-Prehn, Ronet; And Others

    This study examined three theories which might account for the large differences between states in the incidence of homicide, and particularly the theory that stress causes homicide. The other theories are those which hold that homicide is a function of cultural norms which support violence and of a weak system of social control. The regression…

  6. [Regional variations in homicide mortality in Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vega-López, María Guadalupe; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando; Valle Barbosa, Ana; Cabrera Pivaral, Carlos; Quintero-Vega, Pedro P

    2003-01-01

    The present study describes regional variations in homicide rates in Jalisco State, Mexico, in 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1999-2000, analyzing the trends by gender and socioeconomic stratum. Using mortality data generated by the National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Information Technology, homicide rates adjusted by age and gender were calculated, along with rate/female rate ratios; rate ratios by socioeconomic stratum and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. According to the results, the homicide rate showed: a downward trend in the 1990s; a regional homicide mortality pattern, with the highest rates in peripheral regions, considered among the poorest areas in the State; municipalities with the lowest socioeconomic conditions also presenting a statistically significant excess homicide mortality; and an evident over-mortality from homicide among males. The results point to tasks and challenges for public health and law enforcement institutions, including the need to implement different inter-institutional policies that take into consideration the characteristics of homicide and violent crime in Jalisco.

  7. [Forensic importance of homicide].

    PubMed

    Novaković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    This study encompassed the total number of homicides in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the period from 1st January 1997 to 31st December 2006 and then analysed homicidal behaviour. The aim is to assess the differences between the people who committed violent and those who committed accidental homicide in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In a multicentric, retrospective study of comparing the groups with equal number of respondents we analysed the individuals who had committed violent (n=135) and accidental homicides (n=135). The homicides were tested by using sociodemographic and psychosocial items. Measurement instruments were: General data list, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Emotions Profile Index (EPI). The descriptive and multivariable logistic analysis was done statistically. In the descriptive analysis the socio-demographically violent murderers were: male gender (chi 2=3.340, P=0.009), more workers than officials (chi 2=7.340, P=0.011), fathers were more often workers/farmers (chi 2=1.430, P=0.046), gambling (chi 2=13.100, P=0.001) and possible recidivism (chi 2=6.770, a P=0.001). The accidental murderers were family people (chi 2=4.100, P=0.041), with more frequent drug abuse (chi 2=3.190, P=0.012) and they would not repeat the delict. In the multivariate analysis the violent murderers were highly discriminated (P=0.001) from accidental ones by: war involvement r=0.1148, OR=2.971 (95%), CI=1.040-7.890; age, father's education, psychoticism (EPQ) r =-0.1085, OR=0.291 (95%), CI=0.110-0870, HDRS-total r=-0.1797, OR=0.830 (95%), CI=0.710-0.930, destructiveness r=0.1270, OR=1.560 (95%), (CI=1.197-2.032, and deprivation in the P. I. E. tests. By the violence of their acts murderers confirm micro-social model of transferring the violence, and transition and heredity confirm the ecological-developmental trans-generation model of violence. Accidental murderers commit homicide in anomy, with intoxications and prolonged

  8. The relationship between gun ownership and stranger and nonstranger firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Negussie, Yamrot; Vanture, Sarah; Pleskunas, Jane; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-10-01

    We examined the relationship between gun ownership and stranger versus nonstranger homicide rates. Using data from the Supplemental Homicide Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports for all 50 states for 1981 to 2010, we modeled stranger and nonstranger homicide rates as a function of state-level gun ownership, measured by a proxy, controlling for potential confounders. We used a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects for year, accounting for clustering of observations among states by using generalized estimating equations. We found no robust, statistically significant correlation between gun ownership and stranger firearm homicide rates. However, we found a positive and significant association between gun ownership and nonstranger firearm homicide rates. The incidence rate ratio for nonstranger firearm homicide rate associated with gun ownership was 1.014 (95% confidence interval=1.009, 1.019). Our findings challenge the argument that gun ownership deters violent crime, in particular, homicides.

  9. Alleged dowry death: a study of homicidal burns.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Mohanthy, Sachindananda

    2006-04-01

    Homicidal burning of married women in India is a major concern for the Government, law-enforcing authorities, the judiciary, the police and medico-legal experts all over the country who are associated with dowry disputes. Dowry death, a heinous crime, is gradually engulfing and polluting the entire society. Sections 304(B) and 498(A) of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) have been introduced and Sections 174 Criminal Procedure Code (Cr PC) and 176 Cr PC have been modified but, instead of deterring dowry deaths, the occurrences are increasing day by day and the number of cases coming for post-mortem examination is rising. Both parties, that is, the parents and in-laws of the deceased, are becoming adept at manufacturing circumstantial evidence to serve their own interests. Therefore, to establish the truth and for the smooth administration of justice, reliable unbiased medical evidence has to be corroborated. This study presents retrospective research carried out in the tertiary care teaching hospital of MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Eastern India, for a five-year period between January 1998 to December 2002. From a total of 58 burned wives, 32 (55.1%) were homicidal burns. These cases were analyzed in view of epidemiological and medico-legal aspects. The majority of the affected women (90.63%) were in the 18 to 26 years of age group. Death occurred within the first few years of marriage and most of them had no children. All the victims belonged to the Hindu religion and 62.5% of incidents occurred during the daytime. In 71.87% cases the incident occurred in rural areas. Eighty-three per cent of cases occurred in a joint family within the house. In most cases, kerosene was the accelerant and flame was the causative agent. In more than 68.75% of cases the total body surface area involved was more than 80%. Most victims died at the time of the incident, or within the subsequent 24 hours, due to hypovolumeic shock. The education status in 70.21% cases was either illiterate

  10. Homicide-suicide in Konya, Turkey between 2000 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the murderer is a relatively rare lethal incident in which an individual kills another person and subsequently dies by suicide. Cases involving a homicide and a suicide in which death examinations and autopsies were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council between 2000 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. During the studied time period, there were 10 homicide-suicide cases identified with 10 perpetrators killing 12 victims. Nine of the perpetrators were men and eight of the victims were women. The precipitating motive was an impending divorce in four of the cases. Two perpetrators were described as severely depressed, one had a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and one was a pedophile who had reactive depression. Firearms were used in eight of the homicide cases and seven of the suicides. Constricting the use of firearms may reduce/prevent future homicide-suicide cases, as it is the most commonly used method to carry out homicide-suicides.

  11. Comparing single and serial homicide offenses.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Gretchen W; Lord, Wayne D; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Serial homicide has attracted much attention, but little empirical scientific investigation. This exploratory study reports demographic information on a large sample of serial homicide offenders (157 offenders, 608 victims), and compares a subsample of serial homicide offenses with a control group of single homicide offenses. Results show that serial homicide offenders target more women than men, and kill more strangers than family or friends. Single homicide offenders kill men and women in equal frequency, but kill family and friends more often than strangers. Serial homicide offenders kill for apparent sexual motivation more often than for any other reason, while single homicide offenders kill most often out of anger.

  12. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  13. An epidemiology of homicidal deaths due to rifled firearms in Peshawar Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Marri, Murad Zafar; Bashir, Muhammad Zahid

    2010-02-01

    To determine the pattern of homicidal deaths caused by rifled weapons in Peshawar as regards the parameters of age, gender, place of occurrence and the number and location of injuries on the body. Descriptive study. The study was conducted at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, from June 2005 to February 2006. The subjects were selected from victims presenting for autopsy at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar. One hundred cases were selected where the weapon of offence was a rifled weapon and the manner of death was homicide on the basis of the police inquest, the autopsy and an interview with the relatives of the victim. After the autopsy, the findings were tabulated and analyzed. Homicides predominantly occurred in young males residing in a rural locality. The peak incidence was between 20-29 years in males and in females the age group most prone was 30-39 years. Male to female ratio was 6:1. The chest (33.8%) followed by the head and abdomen were the areas primarily targeted. High velocity automatic weapons are primarily being used to kill young people in rural areas. Prevention can be through strict gun control laws coupled with education and awareness.

  14. [Homicides and social vulnerability].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ricardo; Catalan, Valeria Dutra Batista; Romano, Pedro Machado de Melo; Melo, Elza Machado

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of homicide rates (H) according to the social vulnerability index (SVI) and the quality of urban life index (QUL) in Betim, State of Minas Gerais, from 2006 to 2011. Descriptive analysis was performed using Moran's spatial correlation analysis, and the H, SVI and QUL spatial analyses. During this period there were 1,383 deaths, mostly of males (91.9%), aged 15-24 years (46.9%), brown/black (76.9%), with secondary education (51.1%), and single (83.9%). No spatial autocorrelation was revealed, indicating that the distribution of homicide rates is random; the same occurred with the SVI and the QUL index. Taken together, however, the H, SVI and QUL index overlapped, which was analyzed using different theories of crime, such as those addressing socioeconomic issues, arms of drugs dealing and Durkheim's and Habermas' theories, namely anomie and colonization of the lifeworld. social vulnerability and homicide are associated from both empirical and theoretical perspectives.

  15. The Use of Crime Scene and Demographic Information in the Identification of Non-Serial Sexual Homicide.

    PubMed

    Carter, Adam J; Hollin, Clive R; Stefanska, Ewa B; Higgs, Tamsin; Bloomfield, Sinead

    2017-10-01

    As with other sexual offenders, sexual homicide perpetrators can be reluctant to talk about their criminal behavior. Therefore, in homicide cases, forensic practitioners frequently rely on crime scene information to identify any sexual behavior associated with the offense. This study aims to identify objective and readily available crime scene information, alongside information about victims and perpetrators, based on 65 cases from England and Wales in the United Kingdom of men convicted of homicide who had committed a non-serial sexual homicide and 64 cases of men convicted of homicide where the available evidence indicated that it was a non-serial non-sexual homicide. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. There were few differences in terms of demographic information and criminal histories between the two perpetrator groups. There were crime scene indicators supporting the use of Ressler et al.'s definition of sexual homicide. The victims of sexual homicide were generally found in their home with the lower half of the body exposed and with evidence of vaginal sex. Furthermore, extreme injuries and strangulation were more frequent in sexual homicides. Use of weapon was associated with a non-sexual homicide. Victims of sexual homicide were as likely to know the perpetrator as not. Potential benefits of the characteristics reported to investigators and forensic practitioners tasked with identifying sexual homicides are discussed and areas for further research suggested.

  16. Variations in wounding by relationship intimacy in homicide cases.

    PubMed

    Trojan, Carrie; Krull, Amy C

    2012-09-01

    There are numerous examples in the homicide literature of a presumed connection between the victim-offender relationship and the manner, extent, and body location of wounds inflicted in homicides. The current study examined variations in wounding patterns according to the intimacy of the victim-offender relationship in a sample of urban homicides to explore the investigative utility of this information in an average homicide event. The findings demonstrated that victims who had a current or former intimate relationship with their offender were more likely to receive wounds to the face and be injured with a weapon from the scene compared with all other relationship groups, whereas injury to the head and use of manual violence were more likely among intimates and family/friends compared with acquaintances or strangers. However, the groups did not significantly differ in terms of the overall amount of wounds inflicted. Implications of the findings and suggested areas of future research are discussed.

  17. [Sociodemographic context of homicide in Mexico City: a spatial analysis].

    PubMed

    Fuentes Flores, César; Sánchez Salinas, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the homicide rate and its relation to sociodemographic features in the Benito Juárez, Coyoacán, and Cuauhtémoc districts of Mexico City in 2010. Inferential cross-sectional study that uses spatial analysis methods to study the spatial association of the homicide rate and demographic features. Spatial association was determined through the location quotient, multiple regression analysis, and the use of geographically weighted regression. Homicides show a heterogeneous location pattern with high rates in areas with non-residential land use, low population density, and low marginalization. Spatial analysis tools are powerful instruments for the design of prevention- and recreation-focused public safety policies that aim to reduce mortality from external causes such as homicides.

  18. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Suffla, Shahnaaz; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Arendse, Najuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic context, suggesting that

  19. Homicide death in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2005.

    PubMed

    Outwater, Anne H; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Mgaya, Edward; Abraham, Alison G; Kinabo, Linna; Kazaura, Method; Kub, Joan

    2008-12-01

    Violence disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. Deeper understanding is needed in areas where little research has occurred. The objectives of the study were to: (a) ascertain rate of homicide death; (b) describe the victims and circumstances surrounding their deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in 2005. This study was developed by adapting the WHO/CDC Injury Surveillance Guidelines (Holder et al., 2001). Data on 12 variables were collected on all homicide deaths. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis tests were done when appropriate. Age standardised, age-specific and cause-specific mortality rates are presented. The overall homicide rate was 12.57 (males and females respectively: 22.26 and 2.64). Homicide deaths were 93.4% male, mostly unemployed, with a mean age of 28.2 years. Most deaths occurred in urban areas. Mob violence was the cause of 57% of deaths. The risk of homicide death for males was greater than the world average, but for females it was less. Most homicides were committed by community members policing against thieves.

  20. Prostitute Homicides: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfati, C. Gabrielle; James, Alison R.; Ferguson, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    It has been estimated that women involved in street prostitution are 60 to 100 times more likely to be murdered than are nonprostitute females. In addition, homicides of prostitutes are notoriously difficult to investigate and, as such, many cases remain unsolved. Despite this large risk factor, little literature exists on homicides of…

  1. Prostitute Homicides: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfati, C. Gabrielle; James, Alison R.; Ferguson, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    It has been estimated that women involved in street prostitution are 60 to 100 times more likely to be murdered than are nonprostitute females. In addition, homicides of prostitutes are notoriously difficult to investigate and, as such, many cases remain unsolved. Despite this large risk factor, little literature exists on homicides of…

  2. Homicide by methane gas.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Rossi, Riccardo; Fucci, Nadia; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2012-09-10

    Methane is a suffocating gas, and "methane deaths" are largely the result of suffocation by gas-air displacement after accidental or deliberate exposure. Neither methane gas nor other suffocating gases are a common means of homicide, with the potential exception of the use of gas in chemical weapons or gas chambers. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old woman who was killed by her husband with methane gas. The man had given his wife a dose of Lorazepam before setting up a hose that conveyed methane from the kitchen into the apartment's bedroom. The man subsequently faked his own suicide, which was later discovered.

  3. Finnish sexual homicides: offence and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Lindberg, Nina; Salenius, Stephan; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-07-01

    Information on sexual homicide offenders is limited. The current study estimates the rate of sexual homicides in Finland and analyses sociodemographic characteristics, crime history, life course development, psychopathy, and psychopathology in sexual homicide and nonsexual homicide offenders. Crime reports and forensic examination reports of all offenders subjected to forensic examination and convicted for homicide in 1995-2004 (n=676) were retrospectively analyzed for offence and offender variables and scored with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Eighteen sexual homicides (2.8%) were identified. Co-offending, strangulation and disposal of the body were more frequent crime scene variables in sexual than nonsexual homicides. Mental health problems and sexual abuse in childhood and sexual crime history were significantly more frequent in sexual than nonsexual homicide offenders. Over half of the sexual homicide offenders were psychopathic: compared to nonsexual homicide offenders they scored significantly higher on interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy.

  4. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  5. [Paranoid delusions and homicides inside or outside the family].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Brulin-Solignac, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Paranoia is a mental pathology which severely complicates interpersonal relationships. Its mechanisms and its delusional themes often mean that paranoid subjects have strained, or even violent relations inside and/or outside their family. These difficuIt relationships can sometimes even lead to serious assaults without causing death or more rarely result in homicides with frequent pre-incident indicators.

  6. Preventing plane-assisted suicides through the lessons of research on homicide and suicide-homicide.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo

    2016-08-01

    The Germanwings 9525 incident drew significant attention to the 'plane-assisted suicide' construct, yet little scientific literature exists on this topic. This paper reviews the available literature and applies lessons from the suicide-homicide and men's mental health literature to better understand this construct from a scientific perspective. A systematic review of the relevant clinical literature was undertaken. Multiple lines of evidence suggests the applicability and relevance of suicide-homicide research and men's mental health to the plane-assisted suicide phenomenon. Plane-assisted suicides occur within an overwhelmingly male, middle aged population who, in addition to suicide, commit large scale acts of murder. Issues of divorce, separation, and threats to masculinity appear integral to an effective prevention program. Further research in the understanding of plane-assisted suicide as a product of neuropsychiatric disorder may advance such prevention efforts and have the opportunity to reduce the loss of life in future tragedies.

  7. [Bayesian rates for homicide mapping in Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alexandre Xavier Ywata de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da; Almeida Júnior, Gilberto Rezende de; Albuquerque, Pedro Henrique Melo de

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes homicide incidence per municipality (county) in Brazil in the year 2008. The authors estimate and compare homicide rates according to different methods, finding evidence that depending on the method employed, the results can differ significantly, especially for small municipalities. Bayesian spatial procedures were employed, allowing minimization of variation in the rate estimates. The methods consider a priori distributions and information on contiguity of municipalities. According to the findings, the impact of corrective procedures is not relevant for large municipalities, but such estimates present significant differences for small municipalities. Comparing the different estimates, the authors conclude that there may be distortions in the rates published in the literature. To overcome such potential distortions, it is necessary to take the main goal in each analysis into account. When the emphasis is on overall visualization of the homicide phenomenon, the best option is spatial corrections. However, to obtain more accurate local estimates, Bayesian methods are more appropriate.

  8. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  9. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  10. Drug and alcohol use by homicide victims in Trinidad and Tobago, 2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Joseph B; Maguire, Edward R

    2012-09-01

    This paper examines toxicology results from homicide victims in Trinidad and Tobago to explore patterns in pre-mortem drug and alcohol use. Toxicology test results were obtained for 1,780 homicide victims. Toxicology data from the coroner's office were linked with police data on homicide incidents to examine patterns in drug use and homicide. Trinidad and Tobago homicide victims tested positive for cannabis at a significantly higher rate (32%) than the average rate among other drug toxicology studies. Victims tested positive for alcohol (29%), cocaine (7%), and opioids (1.5%) at rates that were either comparable with or lower than those of homicide victims examined in other studies. The proportion of victims testing positive for cannabis grew significantly from 2001 to 2007; the proportions for alcohol and other drugs were fairly stable over time. Toxicology results also varied by homicide motive, weapon type, and the demographic characteristics of the victim. Toxicology data are a useful source for understanding patterns in drug use and homicide. Though such data have limitations, when combined with other types of data, they can often provide unique insights about a community's drug and violence problems.

  11. Pseudonecrophilia following spousal homicide.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J R

    1996-07-01

    A case of pseudonecrophilia by a 26-year-old male following the multiple stabbing death of his wife is reported. Intoxicated with alcohol at the time, the man positioned the corpse of his spouse to facilitate vaginal intercourse with her in the lithotomy position while he viewed soft core pornography on television. Clinical interview, a review of history, and psychological testing revealed diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and major depression (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association 1994). There was no evidence of psychosis, but some indices of mild neuropsychological impairment. The motivations for this rare case of pseudonecrophilia are discussed in relation to extant research, and a cautionary note is offered in assuming sexual causality in the investigation of homicides when there is evidence of sexual arousal or activity by the perpetrator.

  12. [Homicide by bow and arrow].

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Jänisch, Stefanie; Tröger, Hans Dieter; Günther, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Since the invention of firearms, arrow wounds represent a rarity in the daily routine of forensic pathologists. In the present paper, we describe a homicide by a broadhead arrow shot from a compound bow in a domestic environment. Based on this homicide, we discuss the characteristics of the lesion caused by broadhead arrows and field-tip arrows. We look critically at the free saleability of this equipment mostly used for sport shooting in Germany.

  13. Workplace homicides of Texas males.

    PubMed

    Davis, H

    1987-10-01

    A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 779 civilian males whose deaths were homicides that occurred in the workplace. Injuries from firearms caused 81 per cent of the deaths. The overall rate of workplace homicide was 2.1/100,000 male workers/year. Males employed in taxicab service had the highest rate of workplace homicide. 78.2/100,000 male workers/year. Males employed in certain retail trade industries, law enforcement, and the private-security industry also had high rates of workplace homicide. Male workers greater than or equal to 65 years old were at especially high risk, with a workplace-homicide rate 3.5 times that of younger workers. A review of medical examiners' records in five urban counties indicated that 32 per cent of victims who had worked in eating-and-drinking places and 5 per cent of other workers had blood or cerebrospinal-fluid alcohol levels greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. These results provide a base for designing effective strategies to prevent workplace homicides.

  14. Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-02-01

    Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research.

  15. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides."

  16. Homicide of children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne; Mgaya, Edward; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Becker, Stan; Kinabo, Linna; Menick, Daniel Mbassa

    2014-01-01

    Background Although data are sparse, it has been estimated that the highest rates of homicide death amongst children are in Africa. Little information is available on ages 0 -< 15 years. No reliable quantitative surveillance analysis of neonaticide (killed at less than one week) has been done. Methods A Violent Death Survey following WHO/CDC Guidelines was completed in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania (DSM) (population 2.845 million) in 2005. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered and analyzed using mixed methods techniques. Results The overall age adjusted rate of discarded and killed children in DSM was 2.05. The rate of neonaticide was 27.7 per 100,000) while the rate of homicide incidence for children > one day was Discussion The overall estimated homicide rate for Africa of children under age 15 was 4.53 per 100,000, whereas. The estimated global rate is 1.7 per 100,000 closer to DSM‘s rate. The results in DSM show that broad age groupings such as ” <1 year” or “0–4 years” or “0 – <15 years” may mask a high incidence of neonaticide and an otherwise low incidence of murdered children. The print media provided good in-depth coverage for a few cases but it is not known if the reported cases are representative. Conclusion Eighty percent of homicides of children in DSM are neonaticides. Since it is believed that the forces behind neonaticide are fundamentally different than homicides of older children, it is suggested that data of future surveys be parsed to include neonates, until the phenomenon is more clearly understood and addressed. Further understanding of the mother and father of the deceased is needed. Continued surveillance data collection is important to expand the sample size. PMID:22066333

  17. Acceptance of killing and homicide rates in nineteen nations.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Alfred L

    2006-06-01

    International variation in homicide rates may be attributable to cultural differences in acceptance of moral justifications for killing. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between measures of attitudes towards the justification of killing and homicide rates in diverse international populations. Four studies assessed variations in acceptance of killing among adults and young people in nineteen nations and four areas in the USA. Study 1 (1996-1997) assessed adult attitudes in Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Spain, and Venezuela with personal interviews in major cities. Study 2 (1999-2001) assessed attitudes among high school students in Denmark, Finland, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, Taiwan, and the UK with paper surveys administered in classrooms. Study 3 (2001) used telephone interviews to measure the equivalent attitudes among the US samples nationally and from regions in Texas. Study 4 (2002-2003) used paper surveys in classrooms to measure attitudes among high school students in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, and the Russian Federation. The acceptance of killing varied significantly among genders and national/regional groups. The mean attitude scores in the four studies combined were significantly correlated with national/regional homicide rates and the amount of variance explained was similar to that for social inequality (GINI). Together the attitude scores and GINI explained 65% of the variance in homicide rates. This study provides evidence that variations in attitudes toward the justification of killing may be related to international differences in homicide rates.

  18. Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Zegarra, Diego E; López-Charneco, Magdalena; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J; Concha-Eastman, Alberto; Rodriguez, José F; Conte-Miller, María

    2012-11-01

    To raise awareness of the impact of homicides in Puerto Rico based on the findings of the spatial and temporal distribution of homicides and the use of firearms, by age and gender, using reports of interpersonal violent deaths from the Institute of Forensic Science (IFS) headquartered in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This was a descriptive study of all homicide incidents in Puerto Rico reported by the IFS for the period 2001-2010. For each of the 8 542 cases, data analyzed included age, sex, municipality of incident, date of death, and mechanism. Crude sex- and age-specific mortality rates for Puerto Rico and for each municipality per year and for the 10-year period were calculated. Cumulative rate and cumulative risks were estimated and defined as lifetime risk. The relative distribution of cumulative rates for each municipality was categorized into quartiles of highest to lowest risk and displayed as a map. The risk of homicide death among males is 13 times greater than among females. The highest rates were observed among males 20-24 years of age (198.4 homicides per 100 000). In any given year, firearms were used in at least 80% of homicides. The average lifetime risk of homicide death for males is 1 in 34. Young adult males with access to firearms are at greatest risk of homicide in Puerto Rico. Also, highly urbanized municipalities are at highest risk; however, certain non-urban municipalities along the coast also have a very high homicide risk. Top priorities should be applying the WHO "ecological model" for violent injury prevention and establishing a surveillance system that will assist in identifying the role that socioeconomics, illegal firearms trade, and drug trafficking are playing.

  19. Assault Injury and Homicide Death Profile in Rhode Island, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongwen; Ranney, Megan L; Seaberry, Jordan; Shea, Lynne-Marie; Sullivan, Brian; Viner-Brown, Samara

    2017-04-03

    Community violence, including assault and homicide, is a public health problem. We provide a profile of assault-related injury and homicide death in Rhode Island to better understand assault/homicide. The 2014 emergency department (ED) visit data, hospital discharge (HD) data, and 2004-2014 Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System (RIVDRS) data were used for this study. Most assault injuries and homicide deaths were among persons who were 25-44 years old, male, black and Hispanic, living in urban regions, self-pay or public insurance user, and never married. Almost 63% of the homicide decedents tested positive for some illicit substance. Precipitating circumstances include a preceding argument or a conflict, another crime, intimate partner violence, and drug involvement. RIVDRS did not provide an estimate for mental illness related homicides (e.g. command hallucinations). ED, HD, and RIVDRS data can provide a profile of assault injury and homicide death for public health authorities in RI. Interventions need to focus on high-risk populations and areas to effectively prevent assault-related injury and homicide. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-04.asp].

  20. Victim’s profile analysis reveals homicide affinity for minorities and the youth

    PubMed Central

    Velis, Evelio; Shaw, Graham; Whiteman, Alan S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: In this study we have examined the risk of death by homicide in Miami-Dade County and Broward County (BC); and examined the association between socioeconomic status and homicide while describing victim's typical characteristics such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and type of injury. Methods: Data was collected from the County's Medical Examiner's Offices, Census Bureau, and Federal Bureau of Investigation between 2004 and 2007. Results: There has been an increase in the risk of dying by homicide in the studied area; the homicide rate for the selected period was two times higher than the national average. Although Black Non-Hispanics count for 19% of the population of Miami-Dade County and 23% in Broward County, 56% and 53% of homicide victims are among this ethnic group in Miami-Dade County and Broward County respectively. Hispanics were more at risk of being a victim of homicide in 2007 than they were in 2004. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of the homicide victims were 22 years of age or younger. In fact, the homicide victims' average age has been steadily decreasing in recent years. The drastic increase in the risk of death by gunshot among young Black non-Hispanic and Hispanic residents warrants cause for concern. PMID:21483201

  1. ["Extended suicide". Homicide-suicide under psychopathological and criminological aspects].

    PubMed

    Hellen, F; Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Huckenbeck, W; Hartung, B

    2014-09-01

    Homicide-suicide is a rare and serious phenomenon which mainly occurs in intimate relationships and families. In this study ten cases of murder-suicide during the period 2006-2011 in the greater area of Düsseldorf were investigated. Data were obtained from coroner and prosecution files. All perpetrators were male. In accordance with the literature the results of the analysis revealed male sex, higher age, intimate partnership, access to firearms and special personality traits, mainly emotionally unstable, narcissistic traits and aggressiveness as the main risk factors. In all cases, at least three risk factors were identified. Breakdown of the marital relationship and social descent emerged as probable leading motives. Shooting was the most frequent method of killing followed by sharp force. Compared with homicide and suicide, homicide-suicide appears to be a distinct phenomenon. The knowledge and understanding of relevant risk factors could help mental health professionals, police and public authorities to intervene in time.

  2. 5 CFR 1651.12 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Homicide. 1651.12 Section 1651.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.12 Homicide. If the participant's death is the result of a homicide, a beneficiary will not be paid as long as the beneficiary...

  3. 5 CFR 1651.12 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Homicide. 1651.12 Section 1651.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.12 Homicide. If the participant's death is the result of a homicide, a beneficiary will not be paid as long as the beneficiary...

  4. 5 CFR 1651.12 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Homicide. 1651.12 Section 1651.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.12 Homicide. If the participant's death is the result of a homicide, a beneficiary will not be paid as long as the beneficiary...

  5. 5 CFR 1651.12 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Homicide. 1651.12 Section 1651.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.12 Homicide. If the participant's death is the result of a homicide, a beneficiary will not be paid as long as the beneficiary...

  6. 5 CFR 1651.12 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Homicide. 1651.12 Section 1651.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.12 Homicide. If the participant's death is the result of a homicide, a beneficiary will not be paid as long as the beneficiary...

  7. Homicides in two Scandinavian capitals.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Rogde, S; Poulsen, K

    1999-09-01

    In this study we investigated homicides in the two Scandinavian capitals, Copenhagen, Denmark and Oslo, Norway, for the 10-year period from 1985 to 1994. The total number of homicides was 431; 63.8% occurred in Copenhagen and 36.2% in Oslo. The average homicide rate was 1.6/100,000 in Copenhagen and 1.8/100,000 in Oslo. Blunt force, sharp force, and strangulation were the most common methods. Firearms were also used but did not account for >20% in either of the two cities. This is probably due to strict gun laws in both countries. There was no clear difference between the homicide victim populations in the two cities with regard to age, gender, or social and marital status. The proportion of alcoholics and unemployed persons was much higher than in the background population and to a similar extent in both cities, indicating that the homicide victim populations differ from the background populations. The perpetrator knew the victim in the majority of the cases. The most frequent motives or circumstances in both cities were fights, family rows, financial controversies, or jealousy.

  8. Medical homicide and extreme negligence.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R

    2009-03-01

    Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to extreme medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to provide timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of extreme medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health.

  9. Epilepsy and homicide

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Neil S; Vrbancic, Mirna; Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy. Patients and methods We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides. Results We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility. Conclusion The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse. PMID:23700367

  10. A neuropsychiatric developmental model of serial homicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Leong, Gregory B; Ferrari, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Serial sexual homicide has been the object of intensive study from forensic psychiatric, criminological, developmental, and sociological perspectives. In contradistinction to these approaches, neuropsychiatric concepts and methods have received relatively little attention in this area. In this article we adopt a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective and undertake a review of the psychiatric literature on violence and autism spectrum disorders. Our analysis of this literature suggests the presence of an association between autism spectrum psychopathology and serial homicidal behavior. Recommendations for further research to help clarify the nature of this association are briefly discussed.

  11. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    PubMed

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency.

  12. Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Swedler, David I; Simmons, Molly M; Dominici, Francesca; Hemenway, David

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates. We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership. High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs.

  13. Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Molly M.; Dominici, Francesca; Hemenway, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates. Methods. We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results. Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership. Conclusions. High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs. PMID:26270316

  14. Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2005-01-01

    High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our…

  15. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  16. Psychiatric characteristics of homicide defendants.

    PubMed

    Martone, Christine A; Mulvey, Edward P; Yang, Suzanne; Nemoianu, Andrei; Shugarman, Ryan; Soliman, Layla

    2013-09-01

    The authors examined the rate of mental disorders in an unselected sample of homicide defendants in a U.S. jurisdiction, seeking to identify psychiatric factors associated with offense characteristics and court outcomes. Defendants charged with homicide in a U.S. urban county between 2001 and 2005 received a psychiatric evaluation after arrest. Demographic, historical, and psychiatric variables as well as offense characteristics and legal outcomes were described. Bivariate analyses examined differences by age group and by race, and logistic models examined predictors of multiple victims, firearm use, guilty plea, and guilty verdict. Fifty-eight percent of the sample had at least one axis I or II diagnosis, most often a substance use disorder (47%). Axis I or II diagnoses were more common (78%) among defendants over age 40. Although 37% of the sample had prior psychiatric treatment, only 8% of the defendants with diagnosed axis I disorders had outpatient treatment during the 3 months preceding the homicide; African Americans were less likely than non-African Americans to be in treatment. African American males were more likely to use a firearm and to have a male victim. In exploratory analyses, psychiatric factors did not predict multiple victims, firearm use in the crime, or a guilty verdict. Rates of axis I disorders were lower than reported in previous studies. Few homicide defendants were in psychiatric treatment at the time of the crime, suggesting limited opportunities for prevention by mental health providers.

  17. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  18. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  19. A Common Explanation for the Changing Age Distributions of Suicide and Homicide in the United States, 1930 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Robert M.; Stockard, Jean

    2006-01-01

    A longstanding debate focuses on whether suicide and homicide rates walk hand in hand or whether they are reciprocally related. Much of the research on this issue investigates whether suicide or homicide predominates in certain geographic areas or whether they trend together over time. We theorize that the degree of social integration and social…

  20. [Spatial regimes: dynamics of intentional homicides in the city of São Paulo between 2000 and 2008].

    PubMed

    Nery, Marcelo Batista; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Cardia, Nancy; Vicentin, Diego; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-12-01

    To identify the existence of spatial and temporal patterns in the occurrence of intentional homicides in the municipality of São Paulo (MSP), Brazil, and to discuss the analytical value of taking such patterns into account when designing studies that address the dynamics and factors associated with the incidence of homicides. A longitudinal ecological study was conducted, having as units of analysis 13 205 census tracts and the 96 census districts that congregate these sectors in São Paulo. All intentional homicides reported in the city between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed. The gross homicide rates per 100 000 population was calculated as well as the global and local Bayesian estimates for each census tract during the study period. To verify the possibility of identifying different patterns of the spatial distribution of homicides, we used BoxMap and Moran's I index. The homicide trends in the city of São Paulo in the last decade were not homogeneous and systematic. Instead, seven patterns of spatial distribution were identified; that is, seven spatial regimes for the occurrence of intentional homicides, considering the homicide rates within each census tract as well as the rates in adjacent tracts. These spatial distribution regimes were not contained within the limits of the census tracts and districts. The results show the importance of analyzing the spatial distribution of social phenomena without restriction of political and administrative boundaries.

  1. Previous emergency department use among homicide victims and offenders: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Cameron S; Jost, Peter F; Broidy, Lisa M; Daday, Gerhard; Sklar, David P

    2004-12-01

    We differentiate risk factors for future homicide victimization and offending, and we measure emergency department (ED) use among homicide victims, offenders, and controls. The design was a matched case-control study conducted in Bernalillo County, NM, and its university-affiliated health sciences center and hospital. All Bernalillo County homicide victims (N=124) and offenders (N=138) identified between January 1996 and December 2001 who were linked to university physician billing records and who had health care use during the 3 years before the homicide incident were included as cases. Randomly selected age-matched (+/-1 year) and sex-matched subjects with health care use within 3 years of their matched pair's homicide were included as controls. Main outcome measures were the number and type of ED visits by cases and controls. Among the 124 victims and 138 offenders who used health care, most were men (80%) and averaged 27.7 years of age. Victims and offenders had similar health care use and were grouped for final analyses. Cases (victims and offenders) were more likely to have had an ED visit within 3 years of the homicide (85%) compared with controls (59%) (odds ratio [OR] 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0 to 6.2). Within previous ED visits, assault (OR 4.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 7.0), firearm injury (OR 13.6; 95% CI 4.9 to 37.7), and substance abuse (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.2 to 6.0) were associated with future homicide. ED visits clustered closer to the homicide incident for cases (median days before the homicide -402 days; 95% CI -434 to -364) compared with controls (median -487 days; 95% CI -498 to -474). Patients with ED visits for assault, firearm injuries, and substance abuse are at increased risk for homicide and often have an escalating number of visits leading up to the homicide event. ED-based identification and referral programs similar to those used for intimate partner violence or other preventive strategies should be considered for this high-risk population.

  2. Forensic aspects of homicides by insulin overdose.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fang; Wu, Rongqi; Huang, Wen; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Biao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yiwu

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of homicidal insulin overdose is a challenging task in forensic practice because of the difficulties in toxicological analysis as well as the elusive pathologic changes. We performed a detailed histopathologic examination on four autopsy cases involving insulin homicide, using H&E, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence assays. Severe reactive astrocyte proliferation was obvious in the white matter of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brain stem, especially in subcortical regions. We found a statistically significant increase in the number and total area of reactive astrocytes compared with controls (p<0.001). Insulin was detected at the injection sites of subcutaneous soft tissues by using IHC, luminescence immunoassay and immunofluorescence. Most insulin deposits were located in the gaps between adipocytes, and a few deposits were located in peripheral nerves and inflammatory cells. We also detected protamine in the skin tissues in two of the four cases. Our study revealed that the presence of insulin and/or protamine at the injection sites, along with severe reactive astrocyte proliferation, could help diagnose insulin overdose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Death by homicide in National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes between 2003 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ashwin L; Poon, Steven; Drezner, Jonathan A; Zigman, Monica; Asif, Irfan M; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of homicide-related death among individuals of college age in the United States population is estimated at 15.5/100,000. The incidence of homicide among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes is unknown. To investigate the rate of homicide-related death in NCAA athletes and to identify associated risk factors. The NCAA Resolutions list, NCAA catastrophic insurance claims, media reports, and published NCAA demographic data were used to identify student athlete deaths and total participant seasons from 2003-04 through 2012-13. Homicide-related deaths were analysed by sex, race, division, sport, method, location, and circumstance. Internet searches were used to gather case details. Forty-two cases of homicide-related death were identified from 4,242,519 individual participant seasons during the ten-year study period. The incidence of homicide-related death in NCAA athletes was 1.0/100,000. The incidence in males was 1.45/100,000 and in females was 0.4/100,000 (relative risk (RR) 2.9, p=0.01). The incidence in black athletes was 4.2/100,000 and in white athletes was 0.4/100,000 (RR 7.0, p<0.001). The highest sport-specific homicide-related death rate was in American football (3.7/100,000), with a RR of 4.4 (p=0.002) compared to all other sports. 88% of cases occurred off-campus. 38% of cases occurred at a social gathering, and 38% of cases occurred in a place of residence. 74% involved a fatal shooting. Homicide-related deaths in NCAA athletes occur most commonly in males, black athletes, and American football players. Understanding the incidence, risk factors, and circumstances of homicide-related deaths in college athletes may assist NCAA institutions in developing preventative measures. University of Washington Human Subjects Application, HSD No. 42077. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Improving Systematic Response in the Face of Homicide: Family and Friends of Homicide Victims Service Needs.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Jed; Mastrocinque, Jeanna M; Navratil, Peter; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Homicide is a pressing issue in America. This study used qualitative data obtained from focus groups of family and friends of homicide victims (FFHV) to assess and better meet the needs of victims post homicide. The study results posit myriad changes to the systematic response to homicide. The article concludes with recommendations for training and resources, with specific attention to legal, law enforcement, medical, and behavioral health providers.

  5. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead.

  6. Elder homicide: a 20-year study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A; Presnell, S Erin

    2006-06-01

    A subcategory of elder maltreatment is the fatal outcome, or elder homicide. Some cases of elder homicide result from chronic abuse and/or neglect, while others appear to be sudden, with no pertinent history. The research and literature of elder homicide are lacking, making the investigation of each case difficult; the typical victim, perpetrator, scenario, and cause of death are not known. Components of homicide such as sexual assault and toxicology also lack study. We analyzed all elder deaths over a 20-year period. Cases included those with victims greater than or equal to 65 years of age. These deaths totaled 2137: natural = 1506, accident = 344, suicide = 139, homicide = 127, and undetermined = 21. Focusing on homicides, variables analyzed were age, race, gender, cause of death, location of death, time of year, motive, perpetrator, toxicology, and sexual assault component. By identifying the typical victim, perpetrator, scenario, and autopsy findings, these cases can be more completely investigated and possibly prevented.

  7. Pride and Purpose as Antidotes to Black Homicidal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charles W.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses. The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242

  8. Homicide in Greenland 1985-2010.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Martin R; Thomsen, Asser H; Høyer, Christian B; Gregersen, Markil; Banner, Jytte

    2016-03-01

    Homicide in Greenland has not often been investigated. The latest published study documented a dramatic rise in the homicide rate from around 1/100,000 inhabitants to more than 23/100,000 inhabitants from 1946 to 1984. The aim of our study was to characterize homicides in Greenland from 1985 to 2010 and to compare trends during this period with those in previous studies and with homicide characteristics in Denmark, northern Europe, and other Arctic regions. We identified a total of 281 homicides by legal definition and 194 by medical definition, the latter from the years 1990 to 2010. We procured case files for a total of 129 victims (71 male, 58 female) and 117 perpetrators (85 male, 32 female). We identified an overall decrease in the homicide rate during our study period. The decrease in the medical homicide rate was significant (p = 0.007). The homicide rate ranged from 25/100,000 inhabitants to 13/100,000 inhabitants when results were grouped within 5-year periods. There were significantly more male perpetrators (p < 0.001) and among female perpetrators there were significantly more male victims (p < 0.001). Sharp force and gunshot-related killings dominated homicide methods (41 and 29% respectively), with sharp force deaths increasing throughout the investigation period. Altercations were the main motive (49%). Alcohol-related homicides decreased in our study period. While the Greenlandic homicide rate has decreased, it is markedly higher compared to that seen in Denmark and northern Europe. However, it resembles the rate seen in the rest of the Arctic. Liberal gun laws do not affect the proportion of gun-related killings. Despite the high homicide rate, women account for almost half the victims.

  9. Prototypes of intrafamily homicide and serious assault among insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M E; Scott, D C; Baranoski, M V; Buchanan, J A; Griffith, E E

    1998-01-01

    Public concern with societal violence is intensified when persons who have been found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) of having committed a homicide or serious assault are returned to the community. Successful management of such acquittees in the community requires a sophisticated understanding of the person and the illness within the larger context of the violent incident, the family, the community, and the culture. In this article, we present an analysis of psychotic violence within a family context. A qualitative study of 64 subjects who were found NGRI of killing or seriously injuring a family member resulted in four prototypes of intrafamilial homicide/assault: Till Death Us Do Part; Overwhelming Burden, Elimination of the Limit Setter; and Family-Focused Delusional Killing. The prototypes are presented as a model for developing management strategies both for future risk assessment and for successful transition of the insanity acquittee into the community.

  10. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy—the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm—and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. Methods. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Results. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. Conclusions. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides. PMID:24028252

  11. The relationship between gun ownership and firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2013-11-01

    We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy-the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm-and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides.

  12. The epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Italy: a newspaper study from 1985 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Roma, Paolo; Spacca, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-01-10

    Homicide-suicide is an event in which the murderer commits suicide after the homicide. There are at least 14 epidemiological studies on the topic, and all have found that homicide-suicide is more common among family members. The murderers are most often males and the victims females. There is no recent research on this phenomenon in Italy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the incidence of homicide-suicide in Italy over a period of 24 yrs and to compare Italian data with published international data. We used information gathered by press agencies and from the four major Italian newspapers. Between 1985 and 2008, 662 cases of homicide-suicide were identified, with 1776 deaths. The murderer was male in 84.6% of the cases, typically using a firearm. The most common motivation was romantic jealousy, followed by socio-economic stress. The rate of homicide-suicide was 0.04%. Comparison with international studies is not always possible due to the lack of information for certain categories. The common factors identified may be helpful for prevention.

  13. The Situational Context of Adolescent Homicide Victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2015-11-05

    Although studies have described the incidence and epidemiology of adolescent homicide victimization in South Africa, little is known about the situational contexts in which they occur. This study aimed to describe the victim, offender, and event characteristics of adolescent homicide and to generate a typology based on the particular types of situational contexts associated with adolescent homicide in South Africa. Data on homicides among adolescents (15-19 years) that occurred in Johannesburg (South Africa) during the period 2001-2007 were obtained from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS) and police case records. Of the 195 cases available for analysis, 81% of the victims were male. Most of the offenders were male (90%), comprising of strangers (42%) and friends/acquaintances (37%). Arguments (33%) were the most common precipitating circumstances, followed by revenge (11%), robbery (11%), and acts of vigilantism/retribution for a crime (8%). Through the use of cluster analysis, the study identified three categories of adolescent homicide: (a) male victims killed by strangers during a crime-related event, (b) male victims killed by a friend/acquaintance during an argument, and (c) female victims killed by male offenders. The results can serve to inform the development of tailored and focused strategies for the prevention of adolescent homicide. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Homicide and suicide in Yorkshire and the Humber: 1975-1992 and 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Marilyn J; Milroy, Christopher M

    2010-03-01

    Homicide-suicide (HS) events in Yorkshire and the Humber have been documented previously by Milroy in a study of the period 1975 to 1992 (Milroy, Med Sci Law. 1993;33:167-171; Milroy 1994; Milroy, Forensic Sci Int. 1995;71:117-122; Milroy, Med Sci Law. 1995;35:213-217; and Milroy, J Clin Forensic Med. 1998;5:61-64). Reported here is an update of that study covering HS events in the same region from 1993 to 2007. Data from cohort 1 (1975-1992) and cohort 2 (1993-2007) are presented and compared, where data are available, with the findings of 2 previous studies in England and Wales (Barraclough and Harris, Psychol Med. 2002;32:577-584; and West 1965). Homicide followed by suicide is often defined in the literature as homicide(s) followed by the suicide of the perpetrator within 1 week of the homicide(s) (Barraclough and Harris, Psychol Med. 2002;32:577-584; Campanelli and Gilson, Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2002;23:248-251; and Hannah et al, 1998;19:275-283). All the cases reported here fall within this definition. Findings are consonant with international literature, and suggest that HS is most likely to be carried out by an older, white, married, or cohabiting working man, who kills his female partner and/or their children and then himself. There are indications that restricting access to significant methods of killing can reduce the incidence of HS.

  15. The narrative dynamics of grief after homicide.

    PubMed

    Rynearson, Edward K

    2012-01-01

    The homicidal death of a loved one is horrific. Dying from homicide can be more sudden, frightening, and stigmatizing than natural dying and may be followed by a sub-type of prolonged grief complicated by vivid narrative reenactment of the dying, intense feelings of remorse, and nihilistic despair. After a literature review of grief after homicide, the author clarifies the salient narrative themes of homicidal dying and their specific effects on trauma and separation distress. A preliminary model is then developed and illustrated in a therapy case outlining a technique (imaginative exposure) to diminish the disabling fixation of reenactment imagery, remorse, and despair.

  16. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Rates of household firearm ownership and homicide across US regions and states, 1988-1997.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2002-12-01

    In this study we explored the association between rates of household firearm ownership and homicide across the United States, by age groups. We used cross-sectional time-series data (1988-1997) to estimate the association between rates of household firearm ownership and homicide. In region- and state-level analyses, a robust association between rates of household firearm ownership and homicide was found. Regionally, the association exists for victims aged 5 to 14 years and those 35 years and older. At the state level, the association exists for every age group over age 5, even after controlling for poverty, urbanization, unemployment, alcohol consumption, and nonlethal violent crime. Although our study cannot determine causation, we found that in areas where household firearm ownership rates were higher, a disproportionately large number of people died from homicide.

  18. Rates of Household Firearm Ownership and Homicide Across US Regions and States, 1988–1997

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. In this study we explored the association between rates of household firearm ownership and homicide across the United States, by age groups. Methods. We used cross-sectional time-series data (1988–1997) to estimate the association between rates of household firearm ownership and homicide. Results. In region- and state-level analyses, a robust association between rates of household firearm ownership and homicide was found. Regionally, the association exists for victims aged 5 to 14 years and those 35 years and older. At the state level, the association exists for every age group over age 5, even after controlling for poverty, urbanization, unemployment, alcohol consumption, and nonlethal violent crime. Conclusions. Although our study cannot determine causation, we found that in areas where household firearm ownership rates were higher, a disproportionately large number of people died from homicide. PMID:12453821

  19. [Decline in homicide rates in São Paulo, Brasil: a descriptive analysis].

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    To describe homicide mortality in the municipality of São Paulo according to type of weapon, sex, race or skin color, age, and areas of socioeconomic inequalities, between 1996 and 2008. For this ecological time-series study, data about deaths in the municipality of São Paulo were collected from the municipal program for improvement of mortality information, using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes. Homicide mortality rates (HMR) were calculated for the overall population and specifically for each sex, race or skin color, age range, type of weapon, and occurrence in social deprivation/affluence areas. HMR were adjusted for age using the direct method. The percentage age of variation in HMR was calculated for the study period. For areas of socioeconomic inequalities, the relative risk of death from homicide was calculated. HMR fell 73.7% between 2001 and 2008. A reduction in HMR was observed in all groups, especially males (-74.5%), young men between 15 and 24 years of age (-78.0%), and residents in areas of extreme socioeconomic deprivation (-79.3%). The reduction occurred mostly in firearm homicide rates (-74.1%). The relative risk of death from homicide in areas of extreme socioeconomic deprivation, as compared to areas with some degree of socioeconomic deprivation, was 2.77 in 1996, 3.9 in 2001, and 2.13 in 2008. In areas of high socioeconomic deprivation, the relative risk was 2.07 in 1996 and 1.96 in 2008. To understand the reduction in homicide rates in the municipality of São Paulo, it is important to take into consideration macrodeterminants that affect the entire municipality and all population subgroups, as well as micro/local determinants that have special impact on homicides committed with firearms and on subgroups such as the young, males, and residents of areas of high socioeconomic deprivation.

  20. Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging and Spatial Bayesian Analysis in Mapping of Gastric Cancer Incidence in Iran

    PubMed

    Asmarian, Naeimehossadat; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Soleimani, Ali; Taghi Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Background: In many countries gastric cancer has the highest incidence among the gastrointestinal cancers and is the second most common cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify and map high risk gastric cancer regions at the county-level in Iran. Methods: In this study we analyzed gastric cancer data for Iran in the years 2003-2010. Areato- area Poisson kriging and Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) spatial models were applied to smoothing the standardized incidence ratios of gastric cancer for the 373 counties surveyed in this study. The two methods were compared in term of accuracy and precision in identifying high risk regions. Result: The highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to area-to-area Poisson kriging was in Meshkinshahr county in Ardabil province in north-western Iran (2.4,SD=0.05), while the highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to the BYM model was in Ardabil, the capital of that province (2.9,SD=0.09). Conclusion: Both methods of mapping, ATA Poisson kriging and BYM, showed the gastric cancer incidence rate to be highest in north and north-west Iran. However, area-to-area Poisson kriging was more precise than the BYM model and required less smoothing. According to the results obtained, preventive measures and treatment programs should be focused on particular counties of Iran.

  1. Non-firearm-related homicide, New Mexico, 2001-3.

    PubMed

    Kazerouni, N Neely; Shah, N; Lathrop, S; Landen, M G

    2009-10-01

    New Mexico (NM) has the highest rate of non-firearm-related homicide in the USA and ranks 20th in firearm-related homicides. Because non-firearm-related homicides are inadequately described in the literature, characterisation of non-firearm-related homicide victims will enhance efforts to reduce homicides. Homicide victims were identified through the Office of the Medical Investigator. Age-specific and age-adjusted homicide death rates were calculated for 2001-3 by sex and race/ethnicity, and associations between covariates and non-firearm-related homicide were measured. Non-firearm-related homicides comprised 33% of US homicide victims, 47% of NM homicide victims, and 74% of NM American Indian (AI) homicide victims. Of 212 NM non-firearm-related homicide victims, 37% had been beaten, 32% had been stabbed, and 12% had been strangled. Females comprised 30% of non-firearm-related homicide victims and 18% of firearm-related homicide victims. A blood alcohol concentration (BAC) >or=0.08 mg/dl was detected among 43% of non-firearm-related (61% of AI) and 33% of firearm-related (50% of AI) homicide victims. Non-firearm-related homicide rates were highest among AI men aged 25-34 years (31/100,000). Non-firearm-related homicide victims were more likely than firearm-related victims to be AI (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.20; 95% CI 2.16 to 8.16) and female (AOR 2.05; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.31), and to have had a BAC >or=0.08 mg/dl (AOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.52). Homicide-prevention efforts among AIs in NM should focus on non-firearm-related homicides. The association between excessive drinking and non-firearm-related homicide should be further characterised. Continued surveillance for non-firearm-related homicides will assist these efforts.

  2. Exploring Twitter to Analyze the Public’s Reaction Patterns to Recently Reported Homicides in London

    PubMed Central

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people’s perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public’s concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users’ estimated home locations to the homicides’ locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident’s occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  3. Intrafamilial Homicide of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard

    2005-01-01

    An increase in interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD) has been observed in the past decade. However, little attention has been given to intrafamilial homicides of PWDD. This paper provides a preliminary description of these types of homicides as they affect PWDD. Content analysis of media accounts of intrafamilial…

  4. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  5. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  6. 38 CFR 3.11 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homicide. 3.11 Section 3.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.11 Homicide. Any person who...

  7. 38 CFR 3.11 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Homicide. 3.11 Section 3.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.11 Homicide. Any person who...

  8. 38 CFR 3.11 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homicide. 3.11 Section 3.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.11 Homicide. Any person who...

  9. 38 CFR 3.11 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homicide. 3.11 Section 3.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.11 Homicide. Any person who...

  10. 38 CFR 3.11 - Homicide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Homicide. 3.11 Section 3.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.11 Homicide. Any person who...

  11. Homicide by intravenous injection of naphtha.

    PubMed

    Case, M E; Poklis, A; Mackell, M A

    1985-01-01

    A case of homicide by the intravenous injection of Energine, a petroleum distillate spot remover, is presented. This case is the only known homicide committed with naphtha. This elderly man had severe natural disease in addition to chest trauma sustained in the assault leading to death; however, the rapid injection of approximately 25 mL of Energine was the overwhelming cause of death.

  12. Analysis of homicidal deaths in district DI Khan: an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Muhammad; Khan, Dilawar; Fasee-uz-Zaman; Khan, Jahanzeb; Khan, Omair; Parveen, Zahida; Humayun, Wajid

    2009-01-01

    One of the oldest crimes in human civilization is homicide which started from murder of Abel by the hands of Cane. With the passage of time manner of homicide have been changing. Study of pattern of homicide in any civil society is the first step towards development of intervention to reduce the impact of homicidal crimes. This study was conducted at the department of forensic medicine and toxicology Gomal Medical College DI Khan to know the pattern of the homicides, taking it as the first step in the prevention of crime. The present study was conducted over two years 2007-08. The data collected includes all reported unnatural deaths from the urban and rural areas of district on which autopsies were conducted in the district headquarter teaching hospital DI Khan and department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Gomal Medical College DL Khan. Homicidal deaths constituted 259/341 (76%) of all autopsies. Out of these homicides 59.07% were caused by the firearm. The most common firearm weapons were high velocity rifled weapons (AK-47, rifles and pistols). A total of 304 injuries were found in various body regions giving an average of about two injuries per victim/person. The head, neck and face sustained the highest numbers of injuries 100, (32.90%) followed by chest 91 (29.93%) and abdomen 47 (15.4%); the extremities, buttock and genitalia together sustained 65 (21.38 %) injuries. A part from firearm injuries unfortunately in our this study the second highest cause of homicidal deaths was bomb blasts injuries either due to suicide bombers or remote control bombs. The numbers of deaths due to blast injuries were 82 for the year 2007/08 out of total homicidal deaths and percentage was 32.66%. The vast majority of homicidal deaths in this area are caused by firearms like other big cities of the province like Peshawar, which bring up issues related to possession of firearms and change in cultural attitude towards the use of firearm, if a decrease in firearm related

  13. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization.

  14. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Stranger and Nonstranger Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Negussie, Yamrot; Vanture, Sarah; Pleskunas, Jane; Ross, Craig S.; King, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between gun ownership and stranger versus nonstranger homicide rates. Methods. Using data from the Supplemental Homicide Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports for all 50 states for 1981 to 2010, we modeled stranger and nonstranger homicide rates as a function of state-level gun ownership, measured by a proxy, controlling for potential confounders. We used a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects for year, accounting for clustering of observations among states by using generalized estimating equations. Results. We found no robust, statistically significant correlation between gun ownership and stranger firearm homicide rates. However, we found a positive and significant association between gun ownership and nonstranger firearm homicide rates. The incidence rate ratio for nonstranger firearm homicide rate associated with gun ownership was 1.014 (95% confidence interval = 1.009, 1.019). Conclusions. Our findings challenge the argument that gun ownership deters violent crime, in particular, homicides. PMID:25121817

  15. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  17. Relationship-Precipitated Homicides as Mediated by Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Andrew Thomas

    Homicide is the 12th leading cause in absolute number of deaths in the United States. Research has suggested that: (1) minorities have a greater homicide risk than do Anglo-Americans; (2) males are much more likely than females to be homicide victims; (3) the highest overall homicide rate occurs between the ages of 25 and 39; (4) among minorities,…

  18. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  19. Mutilation in Korean Homicide: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Sea, Jonghan; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-15

    Mutilation is a rare and unusual act performed on a victim, especially in cases of homicide. Knowledge on mutilation homicide is scarce as the base rate of this type of homicide is very low. Moreover, previous studies examining this specific criminal behavior have been mainly descriptive, neglecting to look at other factors related to the act of mutilation. Furthermore, depending on the cultural context and country of origin, the infliction of mutilation pre-, per-, or post-homicide translates into different meanings. Therefore, it is important to examine mutilation homicide in the context of non-Western countries. Using crime and forensic examination reports subjected to forensic examination and convicted for a homicide between 1995 and 2011 (N = 1,200) in Korea, the rate of mutilation homicide was estimated. Based on the 65 cases (5.4%) identified, information on the offenses and offenders were described. Moreover, using a series of bivariate analyses, the current study compared cases of mutilation homicides in Korea with other countries. Findings revealed interesting differences and similarities between mutilation homicide cases from Korea and the other countries. For instance, offender-victim relationship, victim's gender, and criminal history were significantly different from the comparison groups. In addition, compared with Korea, mutilation homicide cases were significantly more likely to involve an accomplice in Finland, suggesting the need to carry the body over a long distance. Investigators and researchers need to understand the cultural context in which these acts are committed as the infliction of mutilation may serve different purposes across different countries.

  20. Age characteristics of incidences of prevalent cancers in the Aral Sea area of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy; Moore, Malcolm A; Igissinov, Saginbek; Shaidarov, Mazhit; Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinova, Gulnur; Nuralina, Indira; Kozhakhmetov, Saken; Mauyenova, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine age-specific features of incidence of cancer of the esophagus, lung, stomach, breast, cervix and thyroid gland in the Aral Sea area in Kazakhstan. A retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was conducted using descriptive and analytical methods with calculated age incidence rates. The average age of patients with esophageal cancer and lung cancer had a tendency for increase with "aging", while in other cases "juvenation" was noted. The peak incidence of malignant tumors in general, and in the studied forms of cancer was found at 70 years of age or older, except for breast cancer and cervical cancer, where the peak incidence was found at 60-69 years. Trends in age-varied incidence rates had different tendencies in particular organ sites.

  1. Alcohol consumption in homicide victims in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; de Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; de Carvalho Ponce, Júlio; de Carvalho, Débora Gonçalves; Kahn, Túlio; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2009-12-01

    To assess the association between alcohol use and victimization by homicide in individuals autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine in São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Excessive consumption of alcohol is a serious public health issue and a major factor in triggering violent situations, which suggests a strong association between alcohol ingestion and becoming a victim of homicide. Data from 2042 victims of homicides in 2005 were obtained from medical examiner reports. The victim's gender, age, ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were collected. The method of death and homicide circumstances, as well as the date, time and place of death were also studied. Alcohol was detected in blood samples of 43% of the victims, and mean BAC levels were 1.55 +/- 0.86 g/l. The prevalence of positive BAC levels was higher among men (44.1%) than women (26.6%), P < 0.01. Firearms caused most of the deaths (78.6%), and alcohol consumption was greater among victims of homicide by sharp weapons (P < 0.01). A greater proportion of victims with positive BAC were killed at weekends compared to weekdays (56.4 and 38.5%, respectively; P < 0.01), and the correlation between homicide rates and the average BAC for the central area of the city was positive (r(s) = 0.90; P < 0.01). These results highlight alcohol as a contributing factor for homicide victimization in the greatest urban center in South America, supporting public strategies and future research aiming to prevent homicides and violence related to alcohol consumption.

  2. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  3. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  4. Homicide-suicides compared to homicides and suicides: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Geissbühler, Michael; Zwahlen, Marcel; Killias, Martin; Tal, Kali; Egger, Matthias

    2013-12-10

    Homicide-suicides, the murder of one or several individuals followed by the suicide of the perpetrator, are rare but have devastating effects on families and communities. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perpetrators of homicide-suicides with perpetrators of simple homicides and suicides and examined the proportion of firearm use and its correlation with firearm availability. We searched Medline and Embase from inception to July 2012 and identified 27 eligible studies. Perpetrators of homicide-suicides were older and more likely to be male and married to or separated from their victims than perpetrator of simple homicides or suicides. Influence of alcohol and a history of domestic violence or unemployment were less prevalent in homicide-suicides than in homicides. The proportion of firearm use in homicide-suicides varied across countries and was highest in the USA, Switzerland and South Africa, followed by Australia, Canada, The Netherlands and England and Wales, with a strong correlation between the use of firearms and the level of civilian gun ownership in the country. Our results indicate that homicide-suicides represent a distinct entity, with characteristics distinguishing them both from homicides and suicides.

  5. Homicide and mental disorder in a region with a high homicide rate.

    PubMed

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of homicides in a region with a high rate of homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder.

  6. Domestic homicide followed by parasuicide: a comparison with homicide and parasuicide.

    PubMed

    Liem, Marieke; Hengeveld, Michiel; Koenraadt, Frans

    2009-10-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of interpersonal violence that occur mainly in partnerships and families. As both perpetrator and victim die in a homicide- suicide, data sources in previous studies typically lack detailed information. This study overcomes this limitation by making use of homicides followed by a suicide attempt of the perpetrator (homicide-parasuicides). The authors examine to what extent these homicide-parasuicides can be understood as being primarily an expression of homicidal or of suicidal behavior. In total, 77 homicide-parasuicides are compared to 430 homicides and 161 parasuicides. The results show that homicide-parasuicides constitute a different category of lethal violence with regard to demographic, individual, and event-related characteristics. Subanalyses of homicide-parasuicides involving women and children reveal similar differences. The finding that a large majority of the perpetrators were mentally ill, dependent on the victim, and killed when faced with separation from the victim may suggest that increased monitoring of this group might have preventive value.

  7. Years off your life? The effects of homicide on life expectancy by neighborhood and race/ethnicity in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Redelings, Matthew; Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001-2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates for Los Angeles County. Cause elimination techniques were used to estimate the impact of homicide on life expectancy. Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods. In some low-income urban neighborhoods, homicide was estimated to decrease life expectancy in black males by nearly 5 years. Homicide causes substantial reductions in life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Its impact is magnified among black males and in low-income urban areas, underscoring the need for homicide reduction in urban centers.

  8. Years off Your Life? The Effects of Homicide on Life Expectancy by Neighborhood and Race/Ethnicity in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001–2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates for Los Angeles County. Cause elimination techniques were used to estimate the impact of homicide on life expectancy. Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods. In some low-income urban neighborhoods, homicide was estimated to decrease life expectancy in black males by nearly 5 years. Homicide causes substantial reductions in life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Its impact is magnified among black males and in low-income urban areas, underscoring the need for homicide reduction in urban centers. PMID:20556528

  9. Domestic homicide cases related to schizophrenic offenders.

    PubMed

    Kovacević, Drazen; Zarković Palijan, Tija; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Ljubin Golub, Tajana

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was identification of highly specific patterns of schizophrenia related domestic homicides by comparing schizophrenic homicide offenders with related domestic homicide group of offenders diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders. This study was based on the comparison of schizophrenic homicide group and other homicide group of offenders on the basis of differences in psychosocial and sociodemographic patterns and the modality of crime. The survey was conducted on mentally insane domestic homicide offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=44) and second group of mentally insane offenders diagnosed with other psychiatric diagnosis (n=43). All offenders were admitted to Department of Forensic Psychiatry (Neuropsychiatric Hospital "Dr. Ivan Barbot", Popovaca, Croatia) for psychiatric evaluation. They have undergone psychological testing and psychiatric evaluation in order to make forensic expert analyses of each case particularly. This study showed some specific characteristics in the cases of schizophrenic offenders; they are more often commit parricides and siblicides, the victims are often males with their own physical strength. Furthermore, schizophrenic offenders were indifferent upon killing their victim; they were less often provoked by a victim itself and were sober tempore criminis. Moreover, in the same homicide group we found young, single offenders with high school education, average intelligence and with positive psychiatric heredity. Finally, in the same group of offenders we have found no history of military serving, less social developmental disruptions, less history of drug and alcohol abuse during adolescence and adult age.

  10. DNA testing in homicide investigations.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, Joseph A; Cameron, Thomas; Arendt, Alexander; Cornelis, Kenneth; Bontrager, Anthony; Suth, Michael S; Black, Lisa; Tobey, Rebbecca; Pollock, Sharon; Stur, Shawn; Cotter, Kenneth; Gabrielse, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives With the widespread use of DNA testing, police, death investigators, and attorneys need to be aware of the capabilities of this technology. This review provides an overview of scenarios where DNA evidence has played a major role in homicide investigations in order to highlight important educational issues for police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys. Methods This was a nonrandom, observational, retrospective study. Data were obtained from the collective files of the authors from casework during a 15-year period, from 2000 through 2014. Results A series of nine scenarios, encompassing 11 deaths, is presented from the standpoint of the police and death investigation, the forensic pathology autopsy performance, the subsequent DNA testing of evidence, and, ultimately, the final adjudication of cases. Details of each case are presented, along with a discussion that focuses on important aspects of sample collection for potential DNA testing, especially at the crime scene and the autopsy. The presentation highlights the diversity of case and evidence types in which DNA testing played a valuable role in the successful prosecution of the case. Conclusions By highlighting homicides where DNA testing contributed to the successful adjudication of cases, police, death investigators, forensic pathologists, and attorneys will be better informed regarding the types of evidence and situations where such testing is of potential value.

  11. The nature of newspaper coverage of homicide

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C; Sorenson, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has shown that some homicides are more likely than others to receive newspaper coverage (for example, homicides by strangers). The present investigation examined whether, once the decision has been made to report on a homicide, the nature of the coverage (that is, how much visibility is given to a story, what information is included, and how a story is written) differs according to two key variables, victim ethnicity, and victim-suspect relationship. Setting: Los Angeles, California (USA). Methods: Homicide articles from the 1990–94 issues of the Los Angeles Times were stratified according to the predictors of interest (victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship) and a sample was drawn. Data that characterized two primary aspects of newspaper coverage, prominence and story framing (including background information, story focus, use of opinions, story tone, and "hook" or leading introductory lines) were abstracted from the articles. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were generated. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the predictive value of victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship on the nature of the newspaper coverage. Results: Newspaper coverage of homicide was generally factual, episodic, and unemotional in tone. Victim-suspect relationship, but not victim ethnicity, was related to how a story was covered, particularly the story frame. Homicides by intimates were covered consistently differently from other types of homicides; these stories were less likely to be opinion dominated, be emotional, and begin with a "hook". Conclusion: Victim-suspect relationship was related to the nature of coverage of homicides in a large, metropolitan newspaper. Given the agenda setting and issue framing functions of the news media, these findings have implications for the manner in which the public and policy makers perceive homicides and, consequently, for the support afforded to various types of solutions for

  12. Pattern of Hepatitis A Incidence According to Area Characteristics Using National Health Insurance Data

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joo Youn; Seo, Jae Hee; Kim, Myoung Hee; Ki, Moran; Park, Hee Suk

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Over the past several years, the incidence of hepatitis A infection has been increasing rapidly in the young-adult population in Korea. We examined the effects of area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene on the incidence of hepatitis A. Methods This study is based on the registered national population of Korea and the national health insurance data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 73 459 individuals were confirmed to have had hepatitis A. The standardized incidences of hepatitis A in 232 districts adjusted for sex and age of people were calculated for each year, and the rate ratios of the incidence rates were estimated according to area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene using multiple Poisson regression models. Results The incidence rates of hepatitis A infection were 15.6 (per 100 000) in 2004, 19.0 (per 100 000) in 2005, 27.2 (per 100 000) in 2006, 25.1 (per 100 000) in 2007, and 61.7 (per 100 000) in 2008. The analysis of the area-level effects showed that residential areas of the less deprived than other regions, areas with higher levels of education, and heavily populated areas were significantly associated with increased risk. Conclusions There is a very strong possibility that both area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene play a role in increasing the risk of hepatitis A infection in Korea. Therefore, to reduce hepatitis A infection, we need a nationwide strategy that considers these area-level characteristics. PMID:22712043

  13. Ecological analysis of the distribution and socio-spatial context of homicides in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Simone M; Barcellos, Christovam; Sá Carvalho, Marilia

    2006-03-01

    Over the last decade, the number of homicides in Porto Alegre has increased to the point where external causes are now the main group of causes of death in the 5-34-year age group. Preventing these deaths depends fundamentally on identifying factors related to excess violence in population groups. The overall aim of this study is to analyse the spatial distribution of homicide victims by place of residence in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul, in 1996, in order to identify and understand the socio-spatial context. Demographic and socioeconomic indicators based on the 1991 census and 1996 population count were used to build a multivariate classification characterizing the 1851 census tracts. Homicides occurring in 1996 were located using the municipality's Geographic Information System. Four socioeconomic groups were identified, mainly differentiated by housing indicators. Small areas on the urban periphery in which slums (favelas) are concentrated presented higher homicide rates. Homicide rates were lower in the two groups with higher income and educational level. The second step was to classify the census tracts according to the homicide indicator. In this case, areas were differentiated by the number of household inhabitants per room, income, schooling, and median age. We conclude that the multivariate socioeconomic classification presents a limited capacity to identify populations exposed to homicides, suggesting that socioeconomic conditions themselves do not determine violent behaviour. On the other hand, the spatial methods allowed us to identify small areas where deaths are concentrated and whose populations should receive special attention in planning measures to prevent violent deaths.

  14. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  15. Circumstances Preceding Homicide-Suicides Involving Child Victims: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Kristin M.; Brown, Sabrina V.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Logan, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Homicide-suicide incidents involving child victims can have a detrimental impact on survivors of the violence, family members and friends of the decedents, and other community members, but the rare occurrence of these acts makes using quantitative data to examine their associated antecedents challenging. Therefore, using qualitative data from the 2003–2011 National Violent Death Reporting System, we examined 175 cases of homicide-suicide involving child victims in an effort to better understand the complex situational factors of these events. Our findings indicate that 98% of homicide-suicides with child victims are perpetrated by adults (mostly parents) and propelled by the perpetrators’ intimate partner problems, mental health problems, and criminal/legal problems. These events are often premeditated, and plans for the violence are sometimes disclosed prior to its occurrence. Findings provide support for several theoretical perspectives, and implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:26385898

  16. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2016-07-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  18. Parental intimate partner homicide and its consequences for children: protocol for a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2015-07-29

    The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these decisions. We introduce a study protocol to a) systematically describe the demographics, circumstances, mental health and wellbeing of children bereaved by intimate partner homicide and b) build a predictive model of factors associated with children's mental health and wellbeing after intimate partner homicide. This study focuses on children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands over a period of 20 years (1993 - 2012). It involves an incidence study to identify all Dutch intimate partner homicide cases between 1993 and 2012 by which children have been bereaved; systematic case reviews to describe the demographics, circumstances and care trajectories of these children; and a mixed-methods study to assess mental health, wellbeing, and experiences regarding decisions made and care provided. Clinical experience and initial research suggest that the children involved often need long-term intensive mental health and case management. The costs of these services are extensive and the stakes are high. This study lays the foundation for an international dataset and evidence-informed decision making.

  19. [Descriptive study of cancer incidence in the area around the Ispra Joint Research Centre (JCR)].

    PubMed

    Pisani, Salvatore; Bianchi, Nadia; Gambino, Maria; Prandini, Beatrice; Soma, Renato; Contiero, Paolo; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Marmondi, Elio Giorgio; Banfi, Fabio; Bonarrigo, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    to assess the effects of radioactive emissions from the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC) (nuclear) at Ispra, the Local Health Authority (ASL) of Varese carried out an ecological study to measure any excess incidence of cancer in the surrounding population. after estimation of historical exposure levels in the surrounding population, the incidence rates of leukaemia and other exposure-related tumours were calculated from data in the population based Lombardy Cancer Registry (Varese Province). By indirect standardization, the expected cases (based on incidence rate in the Province) were compared with observed cases in the close-by municipality of Ispra, in municipalities within a 5 km radius of the JRC (5kmArea) and in the area covered by the District of Sesto Calende (DistrictArea). in the period 1982-1998, mean populations were 4,687 (Ispra), 32,120 (5kmArea) and 43,707 (DistrictArea); the population of the Province was 793,752. The numbers of cancers registered were 374, 2,920, 4,099 and 72,246 respectively. Significant excesses of leukaemia were not found in Ispra (SIR 0.33, 95% CI 0.07-0.96) or the 5kmArea (SIR 0.83, 95% CI 0.63-1.08). For all cancers combined and for the commonest cancers (breast, colo-rectal) the numbers of incident cases were lower than expected. consistent with the low levels of exposure detected, and despite the fears of the local people, no incidence excesses of cancers was found in Ispra, the town closest to the JRC, or inforin the surrounding areas. It may be worth searching for excess cancer among exposed workers.

  20. Small-area distribution of multiple sclerosis incidence in western France: in search of environmental triggers.

    PubMed

    Hammas, Karima; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Lannes, Morgane; Edan, Gilles; Viel, Jean-François

    2017-09-21

    Despite intensive research over several decades, the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, although environmental factors are supposedly implicated. Our goal was to identify spatial clusters of MS incident cases at the small-area level to provide clues to local environmental risk factors that might cause or trigger the disease. A population-based and multi-stage study was performed in the French Brittany region to accurately ascertain the clinical onset of disease during the 2000-2004 period. The municipality of residence at the time of clinical onset was geocoded. To test for the presence of MS incidence clusters and to identify their approximate locations, we used a spatial scan statistic. We adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation, known to be strongly associated with increased MS incident rates, and scanned simultaneously for areas with either high or low rates. Sensitivity analyses (focusing on relapsing-remitting forms and/or places of residence available within the year following clinical onset) were performed. A total of 848 incident cases of MS were registered in Brittany, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The spatial scan statistic did not find a significant cluster of MS incidence in either the primary analysis (p value ≥ 0.56) or in the sensitivity analyses (p value ≥ 0.16). The findings of this study indicate that MS incidence is not markedly affected across space, suggesting that in the years preceding the first clinical expression of the disease, no environmental trigger is operative at the small-area population level in the French Brittany region.

  1. Homicide-suicide and the role of mental disorder: a national consecutive case series.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    There is a lack of robust empirical research examining mental disorder and homicide-suicide. Primary care medical records are seldom used in homicide-suicide research. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of offenders and victims; determine the prevalence of mental disorder and contact with mental health services and examine adverse events prior to the offence. This was a mixed-methods study based on a consecutive case series of offences in England and Wales occurring between 2006 and 2008. 60 homicide-suicides were recorded. Data sources included coroner's records, police files, General Practice (GP) and specialist mental health records, and newspaper articles. The results show that most victims were spouse/partners and/or children. Most perpetrators were male (88 %) and most victims were female (77 %). The incidents were commonly preceded by relationship breakdown and separation. 62 % had mental health problems. A quarter visited a GP for emotional distress within a month of the incident. Few had been in recent contact with mental health services before the incident (12 %). Self-harm (26 %) and domestic violence (39 %) were common. In conclusion, GPs cannot be expected to prevent homicide-suicide directly, but they can reduce risk generally, via the treatment of depression and recognising the risks associated with domestic violence.

  2. The toxicology of homicide offenders and victims: A review.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane

    2010-03-01

    The toxicology of homicide offenders and victims, and homicide as a cause of death among psychoactive substance users. Review of the toxicology of homicide, and homicide as a cause of death among psychoactive substance users. A half or more of offenders are intoxicated by a psychoactive substance at the time of the homicide, with alcohol the most commonly reported substance. Levels of substances among victims are comparable with those seen among perpetrators. Among both offenders and victims, levels of substances far exceed population use. Among substance users, homicide specific mortality rates of substance users far exceed population rates. Reducing rates of alcohol and other drug consumption, at national and individual levels, can be expected to substantially reduce rates of, and risk for, homicide. Psychoactive substances are strongly associated with homicide. One of the major societal benefits that can be derived from active attempts to reduce alcohol and other drug use are reductions in homicide rates.

  3. Combined homicide-suicide in Galveston County.

    PubMed

    Felthous, A R; Hempel, A G; Heredia, A; Freeman, E; Goodness, K; Holzer, C; Bennett, T J; Korndorffer, W E

    2001-05-01

    Combined homicide-suicides have been classified based on the psychopathology of the perpetrator and the nature of the relationship between perpetrator and victim(s). To further understand the nature of this tragic phenomenon and to test the validity and practicality of a previously suggested classification system, investigators systematically collected data on all combined homicide-suicide events that occurred in Galveston County, Texas over a continuous 18-year period (n = 20). The most common psychopathological finding for perpetrators was high serum alcohol levels that suggested intoxication. Most combined homicide-suicides fell into one of the relational categories and most of these, as predicted, were of the consortial type, possessive subtype. As expected, due to the small sample size, the less common types of combined homicide-suicide were not represented in this sample.

  4. [Multiple homicide. Forensic medicine and criminal aspects].

    PubMed

    Hein, P M; Schulz, E; Hümpfner, R

    1990-01-01

    36 human beings, of whom the youngest was one and a half years and the oldest 76 years old, fell victims to 16 multiple homicides each committed by one perpetrator. 7 of the homicides were committed outside the family and other lasting relationships. 9 homicides can be assigned to the group of "family tragedies". As far as the victims of the first group are concerned, the course of events in committing the crimes is of particular medical-criminalistic interest. There is a more detailed description of the constellation of two homicides in the course of which the victims were either removed by burying their corpses or a fire was set in order to keep the crime secret. The way the weapon was used, the dependence on the situation of the crime as well as the perpetrator's behavior after committing the crime are discussed and compared in both case groups.

  5. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  6. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  7. Recidivism of juvenile homicide offenders.

    PubMed

    Vries, Anne M; Liem, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    Serious offenses against persons perpetrated by juveniles raise fundamental questions about the background, causes, and prevention of future crime. The current study addresses the potential of future crime of all juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) in the Netherlands in the period 1992-2007. In contrast to former research on recidivism of JHOs, which has been merely descriptive, the present study integrates theoretical perspectives as to why some of these juveniles turn back to crime, while others do not. To this end, relationships are investigated between recidivism behavior and risk factors. Results indicate that male JHOs, and JHOs who maintain relationships with delinquents, run a greater risk of reoffending. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Cannibalistically intended homicide following a media report].

    PubMed

    Wirth, Ingo; Schmeling, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by media reports on the cannibalistically motivated homicide in Rotenburg (German state of Hesse), a man in Berlin with homosexual tendencies decided to realize his longstanding fantasies of slaughtering someone. He killed another homosexual man and dismembered his victim, while the motive changed from an offensive and necrophile to a defensive dismemberment of the body. The parallels between the two homicides are presented and discussed.

  9. Homicide in Chicago from 1890 to 1930: prohibition and its impact on alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides.

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Weerasinghe, Swarna

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the current paper is to examine the impact of the enactment of constitutional prohibition in the United States in 1920 on total homicides, alcohol-related homicides and non-alcohol-related homicides in Chicago. Data are drawn from the Chicago Historical Homicide Project, a data set chronicling 11 018 homicides in Chicago between 1870 and 1930. Interrupted time-series and autoregression integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are employed to examine the impact of prohibition on three separate population-adjusted homicide series. All models control for potential confounding from World War I demobilization and from trend data drawn from Wesley Skogan's Time-Series Data from Chicago. Total and non-alcohol-related homicide rates increased during prohibition by 21% and 11%, respectively, while alcohol-related homicides remained unchanged. For other covariates, alcohol-related homicides were related negatively to the size of the Chicago police force and positively to police expenditures and to the proportion of the Chicago population aged 21 years and younger. Non-alcohol-related homicides were related positively to police expenditures and negatively to the size of the Chicago police force. While total and non-alcohol-related homicides in the United States continued to rise during prohibition, a finding consistent with other studies, the rate of alcohol-related homicides remained unchanged. The divergent impact of prohibition on alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides is discussed in relation to previous studies of homicide in this era.

  10. The epidemiology of homicide in Chicago.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, S.; Benbow, N.; Good, G.

    1996-01-01

    Public health agencies across the country are beginning to view violence as a problem that demands a public health response. However, before such a response can be mounted effectively, there must be a sound data-based understanding of this epidemic. With this in mind, the Chicago Department of Public Health implemented an epidemiological analysis of homicide in the city. Using vital records, police data, and census data, we found that the city's homicide rate in 1993 was 31 per 100,000 population. This rate placed Chicago 14th among other large cities in the United States and 4th out of the eight cities with a population > 1 million. The homicide rate in the city has been increasing over the past 30 years, but not steadily. For some intervals, the homicide rate has remained almost constant. African Americans, Hispanics, the young, and males are overrepresented in the epidemic. While guns accounted for almost 75% of all homicides in Chicago in 1993, gangs accounted for only 15%. Homicide cannot be viewed in isolation from the context of society. The literature suggests that poverty and racism are important risk factors for this epidemic. Although we cannot wait until these risk factors are remedied to develop violence prevention interventions, we also cannot proceed effectively without understanding this context. PMID:8990803

  11. Incidence and prevalence of head lice in a district health authority area.

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Crawshaw, J G; Millership, S

    2003-09-01

    There are very few recent studies of the incidence and prevalence of head lice in the UK. A population-based questionnaire survey was carried out in a district health authority area. Two hundred and four of 235 primary schools (87%) agreed to participate. A total of 21,556 of 43,889 (49%) questionnaires were returned by parents. Overall 438 children had head lice at the time of the survey, giving a prevalence of 2.03%; 8,059 had had lice at some time in the last year giving an annual incidence of 37.4%.

  12. Impact of the Tunisian Revolution on homicide and suicide rates in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Gharbaoui, Meriem; Farhani, Fethia; Zaafrane, Malek; Harzallah, Hana; Allouche, Mohamed; Zhioua, Mongi; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the Tunisian Revolution on suicide and homicide patterns in Tunisia. It is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, including all the cases of homicides and suicides that occurred during an 8-year period (2007-2014) in Northern Tunisia. We compared data before and after the revolution. After the revolution, the number of suicides rose 1.7 times, with a prevalence rising from 1.8 to 3.12 suicides per 100,000 persons per year. Homicides rose 1.3 times after the revolution. For both manner of death, victims were mostly males, aged between 20 and 39 years, living in urban areas. Hanging and self-immolation rose, respectively, 1.8 and 3 times after 2011. We observed suicide cases most frequently occurred in public places and in front of public administration after 2011. Homicide victims' profile and circumstances showed a single variation which is an increase in number of cases happening in rural areas. Our results proved a short-term impact of the transition period on homicides and suicides. Urgent preventive measures are needed especially to decrease the suicide rates.

  13. Small area-level variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in an urban area in France: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Szoke, Andrei; Pignon, Baptiste; Baudin, Grégoire; Tortelli, Andrea; Richard, Jean-Romain; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether significant variation in the incidence of clinically relevant psychoses existed at an ecological level in an urban French setting, and to examine possible factors associated with this variation. We aimed to advance the literature by testing this hypothesis in a novel population setting and by comparing a variety of spatial models. We sought to identify all first episode cases of non-affective and affective psychotic disorders presenting in a defined urban catchment area over a 4 years period, over more than half a million person-years at-risk. Because data from geographic close neighbourhoods usually show spatial autocorrelation, we used for our analyses Bayesian modelling. We included small area neighbourhood measures of deprivation, migrants' density and social fragmentation as putative explanatory variables in the models. Incidence of broad psychotic disorders shows spatial patterning with the best fit for models that included both strong autocorrelation between neighbouring areas and weak autocorrelation between areas further apart. Affective psychotic disorders showed similar spatial patterning and were associated with the proportion of migrants/foreigners in the area (inverse correlation). In contrast, non-affective psychoses did not show spatial patterning. At ecological level, the variation in the number of cases and the factors that influence this variation are different for non-affective and affective psychotic disorders. Important differences in results-compared with previous studies in different settings-point to the importance of the context and the necessity of further studies to understand these differences.

  14. Intimate Partner Homicide and Corollary Victims in 16 States: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Niolon, Phyllis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. Methods. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Results. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence–related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Conclusions. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm. PMID:24432943

  15. Intimate partner homicide and corollary victims in 16 states: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sharon G; Fowler, Katherine A; Niolon, Phyllis H

    2014-03-01

    We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence-related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm.

  16. Trends of prevalent cancer incidences in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Igissinov, Saginbek; Moore, Malcolm A; Shaidarov, Mazhit; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy; Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinova, Gulnur; Nuralina, Indira; Kozhakhmetov, Saken

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the incidence of major forms of cancer in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan. The present retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was therefore conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. Incidence rates (crude and standardized) of 11 leading cancer sites were calculated and trends determined. The result of analysis demonstrated the most common neoplams in the study region to be esophageal cancer, carcinoma of lung, stomach cancer, and breast cancer. Trends in incidence of cancers under study were different, the most marked reduction in cancer of esophagus is established (T=-6.1%) and revealed the high increase in breast cancer (T=+6.7%). In the dynamics the trend of malignant disease in general tended to decrease (T=-0.5%).

  17. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  18. Incidence and molecular typing of Mycobacterium kansasii in a defined geographical area in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Santin, M.; Alcaide, F.; Benitez, M. A.; Salazar, A.; Ardanuy, C.; Podzamczer, D.; Rufi, G.; Dorca, J.; Martin, R.; Gudiol, F.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective population-based study was conducted between January 1990 and December 1998 to investigate the incidence of Mycobacterium kansasji disease and the heterogeneity of the isolates in a well-defined geographical area in Catalonia, Spain. A total of 136 patients were identified. Overall incidence and incidence in AIDS patients was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.8) and 1089.6 (95% CI 689-1330) cases/100,000 persons per year respectively, which is comparable to that reported from most of other geographical areas. Surprisingly, although 7 subtypes of M. kansasii have been consistently reported, in the present study 91 of the 93 isolates (97.8%) tested for genotype were subtype I, regardless of HIV status of the patients. In conclusion, the high rate of infection observed in the AIDS population contributes significantly to the burden of the M. kansasii disease in our area. M. kansasii disease in our geographical area was almost exclusively caused by subtype I regardless of HIV status. PMID:15188712

  19. Late-life homicide-suicide: a national case series in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gary; Hatters Friedman, Susan; Sundram, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Homicide-suicide is a rare event, but it has a significant impact on the family and community of the perpetrator and victim(s). The phenomenon of late-life homicide-suicide has not been previously studied in New Zealand, and there is only limited data in the international literature. The aim of this study is to systematically review coroners' records of late-life homicide-suicides in New Zealand. After ethics approval was granted, the Coronial Services of New Zealand was approached to provide records of all closed cases with a suicide verdict (age 65+) over a five-year period (July 2007-December 2012). Of the 225 suicides, 4 cases of homicide-suicide were identified (an estimated incidence of 0.12 per 100,000 per persons year). All four perpetrators were men; three had been farmers. Their ages ranged from 65 to 82. One case occurred in the context of an underlying psychiatric illness (psychotic depression in bipolar disorder). Firearms were used in three cases. Two cases were categorized as spousal/consortial subtype, one case as filicide-suicide, and one case as siblicide-suicide. The prospect of major social upheaval in the form of losing their homes was present in all four cases. The findings of this case series were consistent with the limited existing literature on homicide-suicide. Age-related biopsychosocial issues were highlighted in this case series of late-life homicide-suicide. Additionally, evaluating firearm licences in high-risk groups may represent a prevention strategy.

  20. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  1. Looking forward in records of youth abused as children: risks for homicidal, violent, and delinquent offenses.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John Russell; Zagar, Robert John; Busch, Kenneth G; Grove, William M; Arbit, Jack

    2009-02-01

    To study risks of abuse, violence, and homicide, 181 Abused Children (M age = 12.85 yr., SD = 2.74; 58 girls, 123 boys) were matched with 181 clinic-referred Controls. Data analysis was Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression with area under curve (AUC) and odds ratios (OR). Predictors of abused status were court contacts (OR = 2.04e+22) and poorer executive function (OR = .81; AUC = .99; 95% CI = .97-.99). Groups were tracked forward in records for 9 years (M = 8.78 yr., SD = 1.41). Looking forward, youth (M age = 21.63 yr., SD = 2.07) were classified into Abused Children Later Homicidal (5%, n = 10), Abused Children Later Violent (23%, n = 41), Abused Children Later Delinquent (28%, n = 50), Abused Children Later Nondelinquent (44%, n = 80), and Controls (n = 181). Data were analyzed with two more logistic regressions. Predictors of Abused Children Later Homicidal compared with Controls were number of court contacts (OR = 50,398.78) and poorer executive function (OR = 79.72; AUC = .91; 95% CI = .80-.95). The predictor of Abused Children Later Homicidal contrasted with Abused Children Later Nondelinquent was court contacts (OR = 2,077,089,352; AUC = .87; 95% CI = .65-.95). The common predictor for Abused Children and Abused Children Later Homicidal groups was court contacts.

  2. Violence, homicide and suicide: strong correlation and wide variation across districts.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H G; Iveson, R C; Hill, O

    1999-11-01

    The clinical assessment and management of the risk of violence and suicide by people with mental illness may have to focus on environmental as well as individual factors. To investigate possible associations between violence, homicide and suicide rates, population density and indices of deprivation, with particular reference to inner-city boroughs. Coroners' statistics in London for homicide and suicide were obtained, with police-reported homicide and violence rates as a validity check. Correlations were made between these data and population density, the Jarman under-privileged areas score, and the Mental Illness Needs Index for each of the 32 London boroughs. Homicide rates had a 14.3-fold range, suicide a 4.4-fold range and interpersonal violence a 6.6-fold range. The variables under study were strongly correlated with each other. Rates were highest in boroughs with high population density and deprivation scores. The associations persisted when covarying for deprivation, age structure or population density. Because violence, homicide and suicide are so closely correlated, they are likely to be valid indices of the differences between adjacent boroughs; this has implications for the delivery of preventive and mental health services and for clinical management of risk.

  3. Comparing death certificate data with FBI crime reporting statistics on U.S. homicides.

    PubMed

    Rokaw, W M; Mercy, J A; Smith, J C

    1990-01-01

    Both the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality System and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting System measure the numbers and characteristics of homicide in the United States. There are important differences, however, in both the substance and the quality of the information that the two systems collect. The NCHS mortality system reported an average of 9 percent more homicides nationally than did the FBI crime reporting system during the 1976-82 period. Variations did occur in the average ratios of the frequencies of homicides reported by the two systems across age, race, and sex subgroups and geographic areas. The major source of the ascertainment difference between the NCHS and the FBI systems is thought to be incomplete voluntary reporting to the FBI by participating law enforcement agencies and lack of reporting by nonparticipating agencies. The proportions of homicides among corresponding demographic categories in the two systems is remarkably similar despite the difference in ascertainment. This congruence of the distributions of reported homicides supports the idea that inferences drawn from analysis of variables in one of these systems will be valid for the population reported on by the other system.

  4. Sexual burglaries and sexual homicide: clinical, forensic, and investigative considerations.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B; Revitch, E

    1999-01-01

    Burglary, the third most common crime after larceny-theft and motor vehicle theft, is rarely the focus of forensic psychiatric study. While most burglaries are motivated simply by material gain, there is a subgroup of burglaries fueled by sexual dynamics. The authors differentiate two types of sexual burglaries: 1) fetish burglaries with overt sexual dynamics; and 2) voyeuristic burglaries, in which the sexual element is often covert and far more subtle. Many forensic practitioners have informally noted the relationship of burglaries to sexual homicide, but this relationship has not otherwise been studied in any detail. In this article, the incidence of (sexual) burglaries by 52 sexual murderers whom the authors evaluated, as well as the incidence in cases reported by others, is reported. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and profiling of unidentified offenders are discussed.

  5. Increased incidence of cancer and asthma in houses built on a former dump area.

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E; Pönkä, A

    2001-01-01

    Twelve blockhouses were built in Helsinki in the 1970s on a former dump area containing industrial and household waste. We investigated whether the exposure to landfill caused cancer or other chronic diseases in the inhabitants of these houses. From the Population Register, we identified 2,000 persons who had ever lived in houses built on the dump area and a similar reference cohort from similar houses elsewhere in Helsinki. We identified their cancer cases from the Cancer Registry, and the other chronic diseases eligible for free medication from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. At the end of 1998, 88 cases of cancer had been diagnosed, whereas the expected number based on the incidence rates among all inhabitants of Helsinki was 76.1. The excess cases were entirely attributable to males and to follow-up >or= 5 years after moving into the dump area [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) in this category, 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.24], and they were distributed evenly over primary sites. The relative risk increased slightly with the number of years lived in the area. The relative risk of cancer between the dump area and reference houses was 1.50 (1.08-2.09), similar in both sexes. Of the other chronic diseases, the SIRs for asthma (1.63; CI, 1.27-2.07) and chronic pancreatitis (19.3; CI, 2.34-69.7) were significantly increased. The possibility of a causal association between dump exposure and incidence of cancer and asthma cannot be fully excluded. The Helsinki City Council decided to demolish the houses in the dump area, and most houses have already been destroyed. PMID:11712996

  6. Characteristics of homicide offenders with Schizophrenia from the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla

    2011-12-01

    It has been suggested that the characteristics of homicides committed by people with schizophrenia from regions with a high total homicide rate differ from the characteristics of homicides by people with schizophrenia from regions with low rates of homicide. Homicide offenders in the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation have been systematically examined for over 30 years. This study reports on a review of the documents from pre-trial psychiatric assessments and legal proceedings of all people charged with homicide offenses between 1981 and 2010 who were found to have schizophrenia. There were 133 people (120 men, 13 women) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia who committed a homicide offense in the 30 years of the study, including 15 repeat homicide offenders and 9 homicides with multiple victims. The odds ratio (OR) for homicide associated with schizophrenia was 13.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) (11.4-16.0). The mean age of the offenders was 34.8 (SD 9.6) and most had the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia (78%). The majority of victims were family members (51%) or acquaintances (43%). Delusions of persecution, auditory hallucinations and other positive symptoms were present in 58% of offenders at the time of the homicide. The remaining 42% exhibited negative symptoms such as emotional deficits, had antisocial attitudes or were regarded as having impaired self-control. Alcohol intoxication was reported at the time of 45% of homicides. Stabbing was the most common method and few of the homicides involved firearms. The characteristics of homicide offenders with schizophrenia from Chuvashia do not appear to differ greatly from those of homicide offenders with schizophrenia from regions with far lower rates of homicide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Homicide and geographic access to gun dealers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Krafty, Robert T; Koper, Christopher S; Nance, Michael L; Elliott, Michael R; Branas, Charles C

    2009-06-23

    Firearms are the most commonly used weapon to commit homicide in the U.S. Virtually all firearms enter the public marketplace through a federal firearms licensee (FFL): a store or individual licensed by the federal government to sell firearms. Whether FFLs contribute to gun-related homicide in areas where they are located, in which case FFLs may be a homicide risk factor that can be modified, is not known. Annual county-level data (1993-1999) on gun homicide rates and rates of FFLs per capita were analyzed using negative binomial regression controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Models were run to evaluate whether the relation between rates of FFLs and rates of gun homicide varied over the study period and across counties according to their level of urbanism (defined by four groupings, as below). Also, rates of FFLs were compared against FS/S - which is the proportion of suicides committed by firearm and is thought to be a good proxy for firearm availability in a region - to help evaluate how well the FFL variable is serving as a way to proxy firearm availability in each of the county types of interest. In major cities, gun homicide rates were higher where FFLs were more prevalent (rate ratio [RR] = 1.70, 95% CI 1.03-2.81). This association increased (p < 0.01) from 1993 (RR = 1.69) to 1999 (RR = 12.72), due likely to federal reforms that eliminated low-volume dealers, making FFL prevalence a more accurate exposure measure over time. No association was found in small towns. In other cities and in suburbs, gun homicide rates were significantly lower where FFLs were more prevalent, with associations that did not change over the years of the study period. FFL prevalence was correlated strongly (positively) with FS/S in major cities only, suggesting that the findings for how FFL prevalence relates to gun homicide may be valid for the findings pertaining to major cities but not to counties of other types. Modification of FFLs through federal, state, and

  8. Homicide and geographic access to gun dealers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Krafty, Robert T; Koper, Christopher S; Nance, Michael L; Elliott, Michael R; Branas, Charles C

    2009-01-01

    Background Firearms are the most commonly used weapon to commit homicide in the U.S. Virtually all firearms enter the public marketplace through a federal firearms licensee (FFL): a store or individual licensed by the federal government to sell firearms. Whether FFLs contribute to gun-related homicide in areas where they are located, in which case FFLs may be a homicide risk factor that can be modified, is not known. Methods Annual county-level data (1993–1999) on gun homicide rates and rates of FFLs per capita were analyzed using negative binomial regression controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Models were run to evaluate whether the relation between rates of FFLs and rates of gun homicide varied over the study period and across counties according to their level of urbanism (defined by four groupings, as below). Also, rates of FFLs were compared against FS/S – which is the proportion of suicides committed by firearm and is thought to be a good proxy for firearm availability in a region – to help evaluate how well the FFL variable is serving as a way to proxy firearm availability in each of the county types of interest. Results In major cities, gun homicide rates were higher where FFLs were more prevalent (rate ratio [RR] = 1.70, 95% CI 1.03–2.81). This association increased (p < 0.01) from 1993 (RR = 1.69) to 1999 (RR = 12.72), due likely to federal reforms that eliminated low-volume dealers, making FFL prevalence a more accurate exposure measure over time. No association was found in small towns. In other cities and in suburbs, gun homicide rates were significantly lower where FFLs were more prevalent, with associations that did not change over the years of the study period. FFL prevalence was correlated strongly (positively) with FS/S in major cities only, suggesting that the findings for how FFL prevalence relates to gun homicide may be valid for the findings pertaining to major cities but not to counties of other types. Conclusion

  9. Homicide in Chile: Trends 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara

    2015-12-15

    Homicide, an external cause of morbidity and mortality, caused 473,000 deaths worldwide in 2012, a rate of 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to describe homicide mortality trends in Chile between 2000 and 2012 by year, gender, age group, geographic distribution (by zone and by region) and type of homicide. This was a population-based study. Data for homicide mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used and they were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health's Department of Statistics and Health Information (DEIS) and PAHO/WHO. The homicide mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The study variables were year, geographic distribution, gender, age group and type of homicide. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates was analyzed, and a logarithm of the rates by year and region was fitted by applying linear regression models. In addition, relative risks (RR) were calculated. 95% confidence intervals were considered in all the analyses. The average yearly rate of homicide (HMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 4.9. The rates were higher in men (8.7) than in women (1.1), with a RR of 8.2. The rates were higher in the country's central zone (5.0), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC of 1.1%. The Aisén Region had the highest rate (7.6), although Antofagasta was the region with the most significant APC (3.1%). The highest rate (9.2) was verified in the 25 to 39 age group. The highest rate (5.5) was recorded in 2005. The most frequent type of homicide was assault with an object (44.8%). Although the homicide rates are higher in the southern zone of the country, the northern zone is showing a tendency to increase, becoming an even more serious problem, which not only affects those directly involved, but society as a whole.

  10. [Regionalization as a strategy for the definition of homicide-control public policies].

    PubMed

    Castro, Mônica S Monteiro de; Silva, Bráulio Figueiredo Alves da; Assunção, Renato M; Beato Filho, Cláudio Chaves

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the spatial distribution of homicide rates in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using data from the Ministry of Health Mortality Information System (SIM/MS) from 1996 to 2000. Population data used to calculate rates were also obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Minas Gerais has a large territory, so the study used a recently developed statistical methodology implemented in the SKATER software to generate homogeneous spatial clusters. The technique obtained 24 spatial clusters, in which municipalities with similar homicide rates were aggregated. Using these results, the authors discuss the possible creation of "public security administration areas" that would allow the implementation of public policies aimed at controlling and diminishing homicides in municipalities with similar characteristics for this type of crime.

  11. Characteristics of female homicide offenders found not guilty by reason of insanity.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, Jessica; McDermott, Barbara E; Scott, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, there has been little information regarding female offenders who commit homicides that are motivated by psychosis. We investigated gender differences in the characteristics of psychosis and crime variables in psychotically motivated homicide. In the study, conducted at a large U.S. forensic facility, we reviewed the records of women (n = 47) found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) who were hospitalized between January 1991 and August 2005 for a homicide offense. A random sample of 47 men who were committed during the same period for the same offenses was selected for comparison. Religious delusions were found more often in women who killed infants (0-1 year of age) and children between the ages of 2 and 18. Women were more likely to have a diagnosis of an affective problem and borderline personality disorder. The results indicate gender-specific areas to focus on during clinical and forensic assessments of the risk of violence in women with psychosis.

  12. Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

  13. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4... RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to an annuity or lump-sum payment based on the employee's...

  14. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4... RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to an annuity or lump-sum payment based on the employee's...

  15. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4... RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to an annuity or lump-sum payment based on the employee's...

  16. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4... RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to an annuity or lump-sum payment based on the employee's...

  17. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4... RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to an annuity or lump-sum payment based on the employee's...

  18. Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

  19. [Three phases of homicidal violence in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Venezuela was considered one of the least violent countries in Latin America, however by 2010 it was among the countries with the highest homicide rate. This article analyzes the evolution of homicides in Venezuela between 1985 and 2010 and proposes the existence of three stages which correspond to trends in social and political institutions of the country. The first from 1985 to 1993, characterized by the looting of 1989 and the coups d'état of 1992, when for the first time the homicide rate rose from 8 to 20. The second phase from 1994 to 1998 was a recovery period of the institutional and political stability when the homicide rate remained constant at around 20. The third phase began in 1999 with the H Chavez government and the institutional destruction that comes with the Bolivarian revolution and caused an increase in the rate of 20 to 57 homicides per 100 thousand inhabitants. This article argues that the explanation for the changes in the phases is to be found in the transformation of social and political institutions.

  20. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  1. Postmortem burning of the corpses following homicide.

    PubMed

    Tümer, Ali Rıza; Akçan, Ramazan; Karacaoğlu, Emre; Balseven-Odabaşı, Aysun; Keten, Alper; Kanburoğlu, Ciğdem; Unal, Melih; Dinç, Ahmet Hakan

    2012-05-01

    Although there have been a great number of studies focussing on antemortem burns or fire-related deaths, the present study is the first dealing exclusively with postmortem burnings aiming to cover up a homicidal action. This study aims to draw attention to postmortem burning following homicide by determining the general characteristics of a series of burned corpses. Thirteen cases of homicide involving postmortem burning were included in the scope of the study. The cases were examined with regard to age, gender, place of death or discovery, autopsy findings, accompanying injuries and manner of death. Eleven of the cases were male and two were female. Victims' ages ranged between 24 and 62 years with a mean age of 43.5 years. All of the victims were discovered in unfamiliar places. Autopsy findings indicated postmortem burning of corpses to cover homicide. Discovering a burned body in an unfamiliar, outdoor or abandoned place, scene or autopsy findings attributable to a violent death, presence of accelerant use and absence of vitality signs are factors indicative of postmortem burning following homicide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L

    2011-12-12

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment--lethal and non-lethal--across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date.

  3. Obesity, Body Mass Index, and Homicide.

    PubMed

    Omond, Kimberley J; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W

    2017-07-01

    The body mass indexes (BMIs) of 100 randomly selected homicide cases from the files of Forensic Science SA were compared to the Australian and South Australian populations. There were 70 males and 30 females (M:F = 2.3:1; age range 18-84 years; mean 42.3 years). There was a substantially lower proportion of obese individuals in the homicide population compared to the general Australian and South Australian populations (19% [vs.] 27.9% and 30%, respectively). A second group of 144 randomly selected autopsy cases where the BMI was ≥40 kg/m(2) was analyzed. There were 77 males and 67 females (M:F = 1.2:1; age range 23-78 years; mean 46.7 years). The majority of deaths were natural (N = 108), with no homicides. A negative association between obesity and homicide has, therefore, been demonstrated. Reasons for the lower numbers of obese/morbidly obese individuals among homicide victims are unclear, but may include physical protection afforded by fat padding from sharp force injuries, and relative sociodemographic isolation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. HIV Incidence and Spatial Clustering in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Augusto, Orvalho J.; Munguambe, Khátia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Pedro, Elpidia N.; Sacoor, Charfudin; De Lazzari, Elisa; Aponte, John J.; Macete, Eusébio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara; Naniche, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring the HIV epidemic in a defined population is critical for planning treatment and preventive strategies. This is especially important in sub-Saharan Africa, which harbours the highest burden of the disease. Objective To estimate HIV incidence in adults aged 18-47 years old and to investigate spatial variations of HIV prevalence in Manhiça, a semi-rural area of southern Mozambique. Methods Two cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2012 to determine HIV prevalence. Individual participants were randomly selected from the demographic surveillance system in place in the area and voluntary HIV counselling and testing was offered at the household level. HIV incidence was calculated using prevalence estimates from the two sero-surveys. Each participant’s household was geocoded using a global information system. The Spatial Scan Statistics programme was used to identify areas with disproportionate excess in HIV prevalence. Results A total of 1511 adults were tested. The estimated HIV prevalence in the community was 39.9% in 2010 and 39.7% in 2012. The overall HIV incidence was 3.6 new infections per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) [95CI 1.56; 7.88], assuming stable epidemic conditions, and tended to be higher in women (4.9/100 PYAR [95CI 1.74; 11.85]) than in men (3.2/PYAR [95CI 1.36; 9.92]). One cluster with significant excess HIV prevalence was identified at the same geographic location in both surveys. This cluster had an HIV prevalence of 79.0% in 2010 and 52.3% in 2012. Conclusions The findings of these first individually-randomised community-HIV sero-surveys conducted in Mozambique reinforce the need to combine HIV incidence estimates and research on micro geographical infection patterns to guide and consolidate effective prevention strategies. PMID:26147473

  5. Policies for alcohol restriction and their association with interpersonal violence: a time-series analysis of homicides in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Álvaro I; Villaveces, Andrés; Krafty, Robert T; Park, Taeyoung; Weiss, Harold B; Fabio, Anthony; Puyana, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez, María I

    2011-01-01

    Background Cali, Colombia, has a high incidence of interpersonal violence deaths. Various alcohol control policies have been implemented to reduce alcohol-related problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether different alcohol control policies were associated with changes in the incidence rate of homicides. Methods Ecologic study conducted during 2004–08 using a time-series design. Policies were implemented with variations in hours of restriction of sales and consumption of alcohol. Most restrictive policies prohibited alcohol between 2 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 446 non-consecutive days. Moderately restrictive policies prohibited alcohol between 3 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 1277 non-consecutive days. Lax policies prohibited alcohol between 4 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 104 non-consecutive days. In conditional autoregressive negative binomial regressions, rates of homicides and unintentional injury deaths (excluding traffic events) were compared between different periods of days when different policies were in effect. Results There was an increased risk of homicides in periods when the moderately restrictive policies were in effect compared with periods when the most restrictive policies were in effect [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.15, 90% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.26, P = 0.012], and there was an even higher risk of homicides in periods when the lax policies were in effect compared with periods when the most restrictive policies were in effect (IRR 1.42, 90% CI 1.26–1.61, P < 0.001). Less restrictive policies were not associated with increased risk of unintentional injury deaths. Conclusion Extended hours of sales and consumption of alcohol were associated with increased risk of homicides. Strong restrictions on alcohol availability could reduce the incidence of interpersonal violence events in communities where homicides are high. PMID:21450681

  6. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T

    2017-02-16

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%-8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  7. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340

  8. Firearms, youth homicide, and public health.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert S; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates.

  9. Homicide and Klinefelter syndrome: a complex interaction.

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Jollant, Fabrice; Bouyer-Richard, Anne-Isabelle; Lhuillier, Jean-Paul; Gorwood, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown an association between homicide and sexual chromosomal abnormalities, but data are still lacking regarding Klinefelter syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed two cases of homicide perpetrators who were both diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome on the basis of a karyotype analysis. A neurocognitive assessment was also performed (MMSE, Frontal Assessment Battery, brain CT, and electroencephalogram). Numerous intermediate risk factors of homicide were shared by our two cases, including dispositional (male gender, young age, low socioeconomic status), historical (prior arrest record and past conviction for any offense), contextual (unemployment), and clinical (alcohol abuse). It is important that clinicians go beyond obvious risk factors, such as chromosomal abnormalities, to pinpoint other meaningful risk factors and potentially facilitate preventive approaches.

  10. Commentary: homicide-suicide in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Maisha K; Campbell, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of Guyana and Trinidad, suicide rates in the Caribbean are relatively low compared with those in other countries. Homicide rates, however, have increased over the past 15 years, especially in Jamaica and Trinidad. The link between suicide, homicide, and homicide followed by suicide (H-S) is not well established. A newspaper review of H-S events in a selection of Caribbean territories revealed a surprising number of these events. Characteristics of perpetrators were similar to those documented in the literature. The authors agree with Roma et al. that national tracking systems for H-S are needed. Empirical research on this topic in the Caribbean is also desperately needed.

  11. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  12. A Rorschach investigation of sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J R; Gacono, G B; Kenney, L

    1994-02-01

    A sample of incarcerated sexual homicide perpetrators (n = 18) were compared to a sample of non-sexually offending but violent male psychopaths (n = 23) on select Rorschach variables using the Comprehensive System (Exner, 1991). Results suggest that sexual homicide perpetrators are similar to psychopaths in their attachment abnormality, characterological anger, pathological narcissism, moderate and pervasive formal thought disorder, and borderline reality testing. They are distinguished, however, by a more frequent affectional hunger, a tendency to engage in more dysphoric rumination, and abnormal elevations of nonvolitional ideation (obsessional thoughts) due to unmet instinctual need states. They also show a greater interest in others as whole, real, and meaningful objects. Five psychodynamic factors, supported by the empirical findings, are proposed to partially explain the intrapsychic mechanisms involved in an act of sexual homicide.

  13. [Cancer incidence and mortality in some health districts in Brescia area 1993--1995].

    PubMed

    Simonati, C; Limina, R M; Gelatti, U; Indelicato, A; Scarcella, C; Donato, F; Nardi, G

    2004-01-01

    Cancer Registries are an essential part of any rational programme of cancer control, for assessing the impact of cancer in the community, for health care planning and monitoring screening programmes, according to local enviromental problems. The Brescia Cancer Registry started in 1994 producing prevalence, incidence and mortality data using only manual procedures of colletting and processing data from clinical and pathological sources in Brescia in 1993--1995. Data quality indicators such as the percentages of istologically or cytologically verified cases and that of cases registered on the basis of Death Certificate Only (DCO) are similar to those from the other Northern Italian Registries. Incidence rates for all causes and for various common sites are higher in Brescia than in other areas covered by Cancer Registries in North of Italy.

  14. Incidence of soft tissue sarcomas in an Italian area affected by illegal waste dumping sites.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Marta; Fazzo, Lucia; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Comba, Pietro; Magnani, Corrado; Fusco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and residence in an Italian area affected by illegal practices of dumping and setting fire to both hazardous and solid urban wastes. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed separately for STS and some specific STS subtypes. The analysis was performed for the total population and for specific age groups, namely, children, adolescents, and adults. In adults, no significant increase in STS was found other than for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in males. A nonsignificant increase in incidence of STS was observed for male children and female adolescents. The results of the present study do not allow conclusions for a causal association. In the absence of previous epidemiological studies on this issue, further investigations are needed.

  15. Bayesian Small Area Estimates of Diabetes Incidence by United States County, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Lawrence E.; Thompson, Theodore J.; Kirtland, Karen A; Boyle, James P; Geiss, Linda S; McCauley, Mary M.; Albright, Ann L.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, diabetes is common and costly. Programs to prevent new cases of diabetes are often carried out at the level of the county, a unit of local government. Thus, efficient targeting of such programs requires county-level estimates of diabetes incidence–the fraction of the non-diabetic population who received their diagnosis of diabetes during the past 12 months. Previously, only estimates of prevalence–the overall fraction of population who have the disease–have been available at the county level. Counties with high prevalence might or might not be the same as counties with high incidence, due to spatial variation in mortality and relocation of persons with incident diabetes to another county. Existing methods cannot be used to estimate county-level diabetes incidence, because the fraction of the population who receive a diabetes diagnosis in any year is too small. Here, we extend previously developed methods of Bayesian small-area estimation of prevalence, using diffuse priors, to estimate diabetes incidence for all U.S. counties based on data from a survey designed to yield state-level estimates. We found high incidence in the southeastern United States, the Appalachian region, and in scattered counties throughout the western U.S. Our methods might be applicable in other circumstances in which all cases of a rare condition also must be cases of a more common condition (in this analysis, “newly diagnosed cases of diabetes” and “cases of diabetes”). If appropriate data are available, our methods can be used to estimate proportion of the population with the rare condition at greater geographic specificity than the data source was designed to provide. PMID:26279666

  16. Incidence of endocrine disease among residents of New York areas of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Shen, Y; Nguyen, T; Le, L; Lininger, L L

    2001-01-01

    There are six Areas of Concern, as identified by the International Joint Commission, located in New York State. Three are contiguous in western New York and have similar contaminants (Buffalo River, Niagara River, and 18 Mile Creek). We used the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database, which records diagnoses according to the (italic)International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision(/italic) codes for all patients admitted to state-regulated hospital facilities, to compare incidence of selected diseases reported in hospitalized patients who reside in ZIP codes that are within 15 miles of any of these sites to those of residents of three different control populations: all residents of the rest of New York State (including New York City), all residents of ZIP codes outside New York City that do not contain any site identified as a federal or state Superfund site, and all residents of ZIP codes outside New York City that contain a federal or state Superfund site that does not have one or more persistent organic pollutants listed as a major contaminant. We found a significant elevation of disorders of the thyroid gland in women, but not in men, of all ages greater than 25 years on all three comparisons, as well as an increased incidence of morbidity from diseases of the female genital tract in women between age 25 to greater than 75 years for all comparison groups. There was also a significant elevation in incidence of endometriosis in women 25-44 years of age. All these elevations were significant at the 99% confidence level. Incidence of diseases of ovaries and testes and female infertility were not different from those in the rest of New York State. Although many factors influence incidence of thyroid and genital diseases, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to environmental contaminants through residence near polluted sites may be a factor. PMID:11744502

  17. Trends in the incidences of acute myocardial infarction in coastal and inland areas in Japan: The Yamagata AMI Registry.

    PubMed

    Wanezaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Arimoto, Takanori; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kawasaki, Ryo; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that there are regional differences in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in regional differences in AMI incidence and dyslipidemia between coastal and inland areas. We investigated trends in AMI incidence and risk factors in 5325 first-ever AMI patients residing in a coastal area (n=1817), a rural inland area (n=1959), or an urban inland area (n=1549) for the periods 1994-2002, and 2003-2010, using data from the Yamagata AMI Registry. Patients in the coastal area were significantly older than those in rural and urban inland areas and had a lower prevalence of dyslipidemia. The age-adjusted incidence rate of AMI was significantly lower in coastal and rural inland areas patients than those from urban inland area (males: 43.3, 42.2, and 51.3/10(5) person-years; females: 17.4, 20.0, and 23.7/10(5) person-years, respectively) during 2 observation periods. Due to a large increase in AMI incidence in younger males of the coastal area and a decrease in AMI incidence in late elderly females of the urban inland area, no significant regional differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates of AMI were observed during the 2003-2010 period in both genders. The increase in AMI incidence in males in the coastal area was associated with an increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia. There were no longer any regional differences observed in AMI incidence, which was considered to be associated with increased dyslipidemia especially in the coastal area. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Homicide-suicide in the United States, 1968-1975.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Lester, David

    2011-03-20

    This paper describes for the first time the epidemiology of homicide-suicide events in the whole of the United States using archival data. From 1968 to 1975, there were 2215 homicide-suicide events out of 123,467 homicides. The mean rate of homicide-suicide events was 0.134 per 100,000 per year. The murderers in these events differ from the typical murderer and the typical suicide in socio-demographic characteristics. Details of the characteristics of this population may be valuable for understanding the circumstances of homicide-suicide events and planning preventive measures.

  19. "Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, James

    This brief discusses the use of traffic barriers to block automobile access to streets as a way to reduce gang violence. The tactic was used in a crime-plagued area of Los Angeles, California, that had experienced a high level of drive-by shootings, gang homicides, and street assaults. The program, Operation Cul de Sac (OCDS), was evaluated as a…

  20. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  1. [Case analysis of double or multiple homicides].

    PubMed

    Hein, P M; Schulz, E; Hümpfner, R

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-six patients (the youngest was about one and a half years old, and the oldest 76 years old) were the victims of double or multiple homicides. These comprised a total of 16 homicides, exclusively involving one perpetrator. Seven of these could not be categorized in the group of "family tragedies". These crimes are of particular medical-criminalistic interest in view of their constellation. The way in which the murder weapon was used, the situation-dependence as well as the behavior of the perpetrator after committing the crime are discussed in detail.

  2. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the selected areas of iodine deficiency in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Z; Huszno, B; Zemla, B; Bandurska-Stankiewicz, E; Przybylik-Mazurek, E; Nowak, W; Cichon, S; Buziak-Bereza, M; Trofimiuk, M; Szybiński, P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence rate (IR), trend and histotype of the differentiated thyroid cancer in the selected areas with varying iodine deficiency. The study was carried out in three areas: Krakow, (Carpathian endemic goiter area with 1.99 million mixed rural and urban population), Gliwice (Upper Silesia--moderate iodine deficiency area mostly industrial with 4.89 million inhabitants) and Olsztyn (slight iodine deficiency area, mainly rural with 0.77 million inhabitants). Between 1990 and 2001, in the study area 2691 newly diagnosed cases of malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland were registered. In over 80% of patients it was differentiated thyroid cancer: mainly in women over 40 years, with F/M ratio 5.8. The highest percentage of papillary cancer 72.9% was observed in Olsztyn and lowest--50.0%--in Krakow and Nowy Sacz districts. In this period of time incidence rate of differentiated thyroid cancer in women increased in Kraków, Gliwice, and Olsztyn from 1.51 to 9.34 in 1998 1.27 to 5.74 in 1999 and from 2.52 to 11.35 in 2001 respectively. In the youngest (0-20 years) age group no significant increase of IR was observed. Between 1998 and 2001 the dynamics of increase of the thyroid cancer incidence markedly diminished. In conclusion it was hypothesised that an increase in IR of differentiated thyroid cancer in the study area was caused mainly by the suspension of iodine prophylaxis in 1980 and was diminished by the introduction of an obligatory model of iodine prophylaxis in 1996/1997. It was modified in terms of histotype and dynamics of increase by exposure to ionizing radiation. A very specific group at risk on the population level were women aged 20-40 years in the reproductive age exposed to iodine deficiency after suspension of iodine prophylaxis in 1980 and to radiation after the Chernobyl accident in 1986.

  3. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors in Rural Areas of China: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies. PMID:23554875

  4. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in rural areas of China: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Wen; Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies.

  5. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  6. Gang homicides - five U.S. cities, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    2012-01-27

    Gang homicides account for a substantial proportion of homicides among youths in some U.S. cities; however, few surveillance systems collect data with the level of detail necessary to gang homicide prevention strategies. To compare characteristics of gang homicides with nongang homicides, CDC analyzed 2003-2008 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for five cities with high levels of gang homicide. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, consistent with similar previous research, a higher proportion of gang homicides than other homicides involved young adults and adolescents, racial and ethnic minorities, and males. Additionally, the proportion of gang homicides resulting from drug trade/use or with other crimes in progress was consistently low in the five cities, ranging from zero to 25%. Furthermore, this report found that gang homicides were more likely to occur with firearms and in public places, which suggests that gang homicides are quick, retaliatory reactions to ongoing gang-related conflict. These findings provide evidence for the need to prevent gang involvement early in adolescence and to increase youths' capacity to resolve conflict nonviolently.

  7. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide.

    PubMed

    Cope, L M; Ermer, E; Gaudet, L M; Steele, V R; Eckhardt, A L; Arbabshirani, M R; Caldwell, M F; Calhoun, V D; Kiehl, K A

    2014-01-01

    Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses.

  8. Measuring homicide in Russia: a comparison of estimates from the crime and vital statistics reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2003-10-01

    The Russian homicide rate more than tripled between 1988 and 1994 and is now among the highest in the world. This dramatic increase, together with newly available data from a post-Soviet Russian government that is becoming more transparent, has led to a growing number of studies of homicide in Russia. As of yet, however, there has been no systematic evaluation of the homicide reporting systems in the country. This article examines the comparability of the two main sources of homicide estimates in Russia, crime data from the Ministry of the Interior and mortality data from the vital statistics registration system. These estimates are compared annually and by administrative region. Annual estimates from the vital statistics reporting system have reported an average of nearly 40% more homicides than the crime reporting system over the last decade and a half. Regionally, mortality estimates are higher than crime estimates in 66 of 78 regions, and eight of the 12 regions where crime estimates are higher are in areas where previous validation procedures suggest mortality data are suspect. As the regional homicide rate increases, so does the gap between the two estimates. Case definitions of these sources lead us to expect small discrepancies between them, but this does not account for the large differences revealed here. Both systems under-report, for different reasons, and some of the under-enumeration in both systems is purposeful and/or results from a lack of human and monetary resources. Mortality data are probably better for most purposes, especially when comparing Russia to other nations and when estimating causal models. Both systems should be used with caution, however, and the choice between them should depend on the nature of each study.

  9. The associations between infant homicide, homicide, and suicide rates: an analysis of world health organization and centers for disease control statistics.

    PubMed

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates were significantly and independently associated in all analyses with both total homicide and total suicide rates. The epidemiological evidence supports the clinical observation that infant homicides are due to a range of causes, including maternal mental illness, but are also related to the level of serious violence within a community.

  10. Falls in Scottish homicide: lessons for homicide reduction in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Crichton, John H M

    2017-08-01

    The sustained fall in Scottish homicide rates follows crime reduction measures informed by the epidemiology of suicide. The violence reduction unit targeted young men carrying knives in public. The restriction of weapons immediately to hand appears to have caused an absolute fall in homicide just as suicide reduction was observed following changes to domestic gas supply. Further homicide reduction may be accomplished in the domestic setting with targeted changes in kitchen knife design in home safety planning for high-risk households. Most commonly homicides involving those in recent contact with mental health services in the UK have domestic characteristics and similar safety planning may be targeted at those with mental disorder and a history of violence.

  11. Falls in Scottish homicide: lessons for homicide reduction in mental health patients

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, John H. M.

    2017-01-01

    The sustained fall in Scottish homicide rates follows crime reduction measures informed by the epidemiology of suicide. The violence reduction unit targeted young men carrying knives in public. The restriction of weapons immediately to hand appears to have caused an absolute fall in homicide just as suicide reduction was observed following changes to domestic gas supply. Further homicide reduction may be accomplished in the domestic setting with targeted changes in kitchen knife design in home safety planning for high-risk households. Most commonly homicides involving those in recent contact with mental health services in the UK have domestic characteristics and similar safety planning may be targeted at those with mental disorder and a history of violence. PMID:28811910

  12. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation in time series of homicide and attempted homicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado Filho, A.; da Silva, M. F.; Zebende, G. F.

    2014-04-01

    We propose in this paper to establish the relationship between homicides and attempted homicides by a non-stationary time-series analysis. This analysis will be carried out by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and DCCA cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(n). Through this analysis we can identify a positive cross-correlation between homicides and attempted homicides. At the same time, looked at from the point of view of autocorrelation (DFA), this analysis can be more informative depending on time scale. For short scale (days), we cannot identify auto-correlations, on the scale of weeks DFA presents anti-persistent behavior, and for long time scales (n>90 days) DFA presents a persistent behavior. Finally, the application of this new type of statistical analysis proved to be efficient and, in this sense, this paper can contribute to a more accurate descriptive statistics of crime.

  13. A comparison of memory for homicide, non-homicidal violence, and positive life experiences.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael; Porter, Stephen; Ten Brinke, Leanne; Doucette, Naomi L; Peace, Kristine; Campbell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Defendants commonly claim amnesia for their criminal actions especially in cases involving extreme violence. While some claims are malingered or result from physiological factors, other cases may represent genuine partial or complete amnesia resulting from the psychological distress and/or extreme emotion associated with the perpetration of the crime. Fifty Canadian homicide offenders described their memories of their homicide, a non-homicide violent offense, and their most positive adulthood life experience. Self-reported and objective measures of memories for these events revealed that homicides were recalled with the greatest level of detail and sensory information. Although dissociative tendencies were associated with a self-reported memory loss, objective measures of memory quality did not reflect this perceived impairment, suggesting a failure of meta-memory. Recollections of positive life events were superior to those of non-homicidal violence, possibly due to greater impact and meaning attached to such experiences. Findings suggest that memory for homicide typically is enhanced by the powerful emotion associated with its perpetration.

  14. Analytical computation of the off-axis effective area of grazing incidence X-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Cotroneo, V.; Basso, S.; Conconi, P.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: Focusing mirrors for X-ray telescopes in grazing incidence, introduced in the 70s, are characterized in terms of their performance by their imaging quality and effective area, which in turn determines their sensitivity. Even though the on-axis effective area is assumed in general to characterize the collecting power of an X-ray optic, the telescope capability of imaging extended X-ray sources is also determined by the variation in its effective area with the off-axis angle. The effective area, in general, decreases as the X-ray source moves off-axis, causing a loss of sensitivity in the peripheral regions of the telescope's field of view. Methods: The complex task of designing optics for future X-ray telescopes entails detailed computations of both imaging quality and effective area on- and off-axis. Because of their apparent complexity, both aspects have been, so far, treated by using ray-tracing routines aimed at simulating the interaction of X-ray photons with the reflecting surfaces of a given focusing system. Although this approach has been widely exploited and proven to be effective, it would also be attractive to regard the same problem from an analytical viewpoint, to assess an optical design of an X-ray optical module with a simpler calculation than a ray-tracing routine. This would also improve the efficiency of optimization tasks when designing the X-ray optical modules. In this paper, we thereby focused on developing analytical solutions to compute the off-axis effective area of double-reflection X-ray mirrors. Results: We have developed useful analytical formulae for the off-axis effective area of a double-reflection mirror in the double cone approximation, requiring only an integration and the standard routines to calculate the X-ray coating reflectivity for a given incidence angle. The computation is easily applicable also to Wolter-I mirrors (such as those of NeXT, NuSTAR, HEXIT-SAT, IXO) and the approximation improves as the f-number of the

  15. Lung cancer in a health area of Spain: incidence, characteristics and survival.

    PubMed

    Prim, J M García; Barcala, F J González; Esquete, J Paz; Reino, A Pose; López, A Fondevila; Cuadrado, L Valdés

    2010-03-01

    To examine the incidence, characteristics, therapeutic approach and survival of diagnosed lung cancer (LC) in the Santiago de Compostela Health Area. A retrospective study was carried out on LC for a period of 3 years. Of the 481 cases collected, 92.7% were male. The median age was 66.93 years. The crude incidence for men and women was 80.71 and 5.84 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively. Among the non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), 68.1% were diagnosed in stage IIIB or IV. The cancer had already spread in 62.2% of the small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Chemotherapy was used in 51.6% of patients. The survival probability from the first to the fifth year was 47.7%, 24.3%, 12.9%, 10% and 8.9% respectively. The median survival at 5 years was 12.12 months for NSCLC, rising to 29.8 months in stage I, and 8.85 months in SCLC. In our Health Area LC occurs more often in men, in whom the prevalence of smoking is very high. The most common histology type was squamous cell carcinoma. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis is made in the advanced stages, which accounts for the low percentage of surgical treatments and the short survival.

  16. Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Erzelia V.E.; Bragança, Mauro; Cuamba, Nelson; Alifrangis, Michael; Stanton, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Isolated areas, such as the 2 × 7 km peninsula of Linga Linga in Mozambique, are the places where malaria might be most easily eliminated. Currently available control strategies include long-lasting insecticidal bednets impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides (LLINs), rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosis and artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment and these were applied on the peninsula. In 2007, following a census of the population and mapping of 500 households, five annual all-age prevalence surveys were conducted. Information on LLIN use, house construction, and animal ownership was obtained. A spatially structured generalized additive model indicated that malaria risk was greatest towards the northern end of the peninsula and that people living in houses with grass or thatch roofs had a greater risk of malaria than those living in houses with corrugated iron roofs. Incidence peaked nine weeks after rainfall (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.0002). From 2009 incidence was measured at a centrally based project clinic. The proportion of under nine-year-old resident attendees diagnosed with malaria decreased significantly from 48% in 2009, to 35% in 2010 and 25% in 2011. At the same time, there was a shift in the peak age of cases from 1–4 year olds to 5–9 year olds. Nevertheless, in order to further reduce malaria transmission in an area such as Linga Linga, additional vector control measures need to be considered. PMID:26587341

  17. [Relationship between homicide and mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; de Moraes, Talvane Marins

    2006-10-01

    Several studies have found a relationship between severe mental disorders and violence. One of the approaches to study this theme are investigations with homicide offenders. The aim of the present article was to investigate the association between homicide and mental disorders. A review of the literature was made through the following databases: Medline, Scientific Eletronic Library Online and Lilacs. In the Medline system, it was also searched the related articles section. Although there is an association between mental disorders and homicide, it is not clear why some patients behave violently and others do not. Comorbid alcohol/drugs disorders and personality disorders and lack of adherence to treatment may increase this risk. Identifying people with risk of violence and offering them mental health treatment services is warranted. These services should prevent the loss of contact and non-compliance with treatment that frequently precede homicide committed by people with severe mental disorders. It is of utmost importance that society and governmental authorities decrease the barriers that limit access to psychiatric and psychosocial treatment.

  18. Drinking, Homicide, and the Black Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.

    1986-01-01

    Critically examines the causal relationship of alcohol abuse to homicidal violence in the black communities. Identifies specific implications for further research and for developing abuse prevention strategies. Though the article focuses on black men, much of the discussion has wider applications. (LHW)

  19. The Child as Witness to Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pynoos, Robert S.; Eth, Spencer

    1984-01-01

    Describes the experiences of children who have witnessed the homicide of a parent and are then legally compelled to tell what they have seen. Reviews issues arising from police questioning, qualification procedures, testimony in open court, and defendant sentencing. Recommends providing young witnesses with counseling to help them cope with…

  20. Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Kathleen M.

    This book assembles and synthesizes some of the latest available information, research findings, and informed opinions regarding the parameters of homicide by youths and concerning the nature of young killers themselves. It provides a framework for understanding youths who kill, for moving forward with treatment, and for reducing violence in…

  1. Homicide in the western family and background factors of a perpetrator.

    PubMed

    Aho, Anna Liisa; Remahl, Anni; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-07-01

    Familicide is a multiple-victim homicide incident in which the killer's spouse and one or more children are slain. A systematic review was conducted to reveal the background factors of western homicide perpetrators. The systematic search was performed in the Arto, Medic, Cinahl, Medline, EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier and Social Services abstracts databases. The keywords were familicide, family homicide, familicide-suicide, filicide-suicide, extended suicide, child, murder, family, filicide and infanticide. The searches revealed 4139 references from the databases. The references were filtered and 32 peer-reviewed research articles revealed in years 2004-2014 were selected as data. The articles were analysed using inductive content analysis, by finding all possible background factors related to homicide. The factors were described as percentages of the range. The background factors of familicide perpetrators were categorised as follows: perpetrators who had committed homicide of a child and intimate partner and possibly committed suicide; a father had who killed a child; a mother who had killed a child; a father who had committed a filicide-suicide; and a mother who had committed a filicide-suicide. Psychological instability, violence and crime were found in all these categories of familicides. Perpetrators who had committed a suicide in addition to the familicide had more often been diagnosed with depression, but they sought treatment for mental health problems less often and had violence and self-destructiveness less often in their background than in other familicide categories. Social and healthcare professionals should be more sensitive to emerging family problems and be prepared for intervention.

  2. Canadian firearms legislation and effects on homicide 1974 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-08-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using data obtained from Statistics Canada from 1974 to 2008. Three statistical methods were applied to search for any associated effects of firearms legislation. Interrupted time series regression, ARIMA, and Joinpoint analysis were performed. Neither were any significant beneficial associations between firearms legislation and homicide or spousal homicide rates found after the passage of three Acts by the Canadian Parliament--Bill C-51 (1977), C-17 (1991), and C-68 (1995)--nor were effects found after the implementation of licensing in 2001 and the registration of rifles and shotguns in 2003. After the passage of C-68, a decrease in the rate of the decline of homicide by firearm was found by interrupted regression. Joinpoint analysis also found an increasing trend in homicide by firearm rate post the enactment of the licensing portion of C-68. Other factors found to be associated with homicide rates were median age, unemployment, immigration rates, percentage of population in low-income bracket, Gini index of income equality, population per police officer, and incarceration rate. This study failed to demonstrate a beneficial association between legislation and firearm homicide rates between 1974 and 2008.

  3. The Family Value Fugue Incident: Initial Exploration of A Neglected Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Herbert A.

    1977-01-01

    The family value fugue incident appears to afflict a substantial proportion of families in this country and in Europe. A series of five incidents are presented and characteristics of these incidents as well as their effects are discussed. Suggestions for further investigation of the family value fugue incident are made. (Author)

  4. Neighbourhoods and homicide mortality: an analysis of race/ethnic differences

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, P; Bond, H; Rogers, R; Hummer, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether measures of neighbourhood economic deprivation, social disorganisation, and acculturation explain homicide mortality differentials between Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic black Americans, and non-Hispanic white Americans, net of individual factors. Design: Prospective study, National Health Interview Survey (1986–1994) linked to subsequent mortality in the National Death Index (1986–1997). Setting: United States of America. Participants: A nationally representative sample of non-institutionalised Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic black Amricans, and non-Hispanic white Americans, aged 18–50 at the point of interview. Analysis: Cox proportional hazard models estimate the risk of death associated with various neighbourhood and individual factors. Main results: Both individual and neighbourhood risk factors partially account for race/ethnic disparities in homicide. Homicide mortality risks are between 20% and 50% higher for residents of areas that have economic inequality of 0.50 or greater based on the coefficient of variation, or where 4% or more of the residents are Mexican American, 10% or more of the residents are non-Hispanic black, or 20% or more of the households are headed by single parents (p⩽.05). But residents of areas where 10% or more of their neighbours are foreign born have 35% lower mortality risks than people living in areas with fewer foreign born people (p⩽0.05). These differences persist even after controlling for individual level risk factors. Conclusions: The findings support economic deprivation, social disorganisation, and acculturation theories, and suggest that both neighbourhood and individual risk factors affect race/ethnic differences in homicide mortality. Public health policies must focus on both individual and neighbourhood factors to reduce homicide risks in vulnerable populations. PMID:14966236

  5. Unintended shootings in a large metropolitan area: an incident-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ismach, Richard B; Reza, Avid; Ary, Roy; Sampson, Tomoko Rie; Bartolomeos, Kidist; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2003-01-01

    We determine the proportion of unintended shootings that might be prevented by promoting safe storage, safe handling, and/or safer firearm designs. A regional firearm injury surveillance system was used to identify fatal and nonfatal unintentional shootings in a 5-county metropolitan area. Case reports were reviewed, and the causes of each shooting were independently classified by 4 members of the research team. A consensus conference was held to resolve disagreements. Between May 1, 1996, and June 30, 2000, 216 cases of unintentional firearm injury were identified, 3.8% of the shootings documented during the study period. Six (2.8%) were fatal. The majority of victims were between 15 and 34 years of age. One fourth (54) of the shootings involved victims younger than 18 years. Handguns were involved in 87% of the incidents. Enough information was available to characterize the incident in 122 (57%) cases. All but 6 fell into 1 or more of 3 broad categories of causation: Child access (14%), mishandling (74%), and/or deficiencies in firearm design (32%). Many unintentional shootings could be prevented by promoting safe storage of guns in the home, promoting safe handling of firearms, and requiring that all new handguns incorporate basic safety features.

  6. Incident hypertension associated with depression in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment area follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christina M; Armenian, Haroutune K; Eaton, William W; Ford, Daniel E

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluates the role of depression as a specific risk factor for hypertension. This study analyzed the prospective data in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Follow-up Study (n=1920), a longitudinal population-based study of mental illness in East Baltimore. Incident cases of hypertension as assessed by self-report (n=148) in 1993 were compared to the remaining cohort without hypertension (n=901) across three waves of ECA interviews (1981, 1982, 1993). Depression and related symptoms were measured at baseline (1981) by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and categorized as dysphoria, dysthymia, or major depressive episode (MDE) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) III criteria. Individuals with a major depressive episode compared to those who reported never having dysphoria had a marginally significant increased risk for hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.94,4.98)) after adjustment for age, gender, race, body mass index, Nam-Powers socioeconomic score, alcohol usage, smoking, exercise, diabetes status, and number of general medical visits. MDE reported to have begun more than a year before the baseline measurement was associated with an increased risk for incident hypertension (Adjusted OR=3.67, 95% CI (1.25,10.79). Potential misclassification of self-reported hypertension outcome. Even though the data are based on self-report of hypertension, these findings suggest that depression may be an independent risk factor for hypertension particularly for those with recurrent episodes or a long term history of the disease.

  7. Homicides by Police: Comparing Counts From the National Violent Death Reporting System, Vital Statistics, and Supplementary Homicide Reports.

    PubMed

    Barber, Catherine; Azrael, Deborah; Cohen, Amy; Miller, Matthew; Thymes, Deonza; Wang, David Enze; Hemenway, David

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) as a surveillance system for homicides by law enforcement officers. We assessed sensitivity and positive predictive value of the NVDRS "type of death" variable against our study count of homicides by police, which we derived from NVDRS coded and narrative data for states participating in NVDRS 2005 to 2012. We compared state counts of police homicides from NVDRS, Vital Statistics, and Federal Bureau of Investigation Supplementary Homicide Reports. We identified 1552 police homicides in the 16 states. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of the NVDRS "type of death" variable for police homicides were high (98% and 90%, respectively). Counts from Vital Statistics and Supplementary Homicide Reports were 58% and 48%, respectively, of our study total; gaps varied widely by state. The annual rate of police homicide (0.24/100,000) varied 5-fold by state and 8-fold by race/ethnicity. NVDRS provides more complete data on police homicides than do existing systems. Expanding NVDRS to all 50 states and making 2 improvements we identify will be an efficient way to provide the nation with more accurate, detailed data on homicides by law enforcement.

  8. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali.

    PubMed

    Gaudart, Jean; Touré, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A Lassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-04-10

    The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models.Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data.The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia.Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]).The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error parameters have shown the smallest

  9. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Gaudart, Jean; Touré, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A lassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-01-01

    Background The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models. Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. Methods A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data. The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia. Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. Results The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]). The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error

  10. Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area. Methods: The whole of Genoa and one of its 25 districts (Rivarolo) were selected as controls. The trend of risk around the coke oven was evaluated via Stone's method, while the geographic pattern of such risks across the Cornigliano district was evaluated by computing full Bayes estimates of standardised incidence ratio (FBE-SIR). Results: In males, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for all lymphohaematopoietic cancers (RR 1.7 v Rivarolo and 1.6 v Genoa), for NHL (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.7 v Genoa), and for leukaemia (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.9 v Genoa). In females, statistically non-significant RR were observed. In males no excess of risk was found close to the coke oven. In females, a rising risk for NHL was observed approaching the plant, although statistical significance was not reached, while the risk for leukaemia was not evaluable due to the small number of cases. Analysis of the geographic pattern of risk suggested the presence of a cluster of NHL in both sexes in the eastern part of the district, where a foundry had been operational until the early 1980s. A cluster of leukaemia cases was observed in males in a northern part of the area, where no major sources of benzene seemed to be present. Conclusions: The estimated risks seem to be slightly or not at all related to the distance from the coke oven. The statistically significant higher risks observed in males for NHL and leukaemia, and the clusters of leukaemia in males and of NHL in both sexes deserve further investigations in order to trace the exposures associated with such risks. PMID:12598665

  11. Treated incidence and baseline characteristics of substance induced psychosis in a Norwegian catchment area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance misuse is a well-recognized co-morbidity to psychosis and has been linked to poor prognostic outcomes in patients. Researchers have yet to investigate the difference in rates and characteristics between first-episode Substance Induced Psychosis (SIP) and primary psychosis. We aimed at comparing patients with SIP to primary psychosis patients with or without substance misuse at baseline. Methods Thirty SIP patients, 45 primary psychosis patients with substance misuse (PS) and 66 primary psychosis patients without substance misuse (PNS) in a well-defined Norwegian catchment area were included from 2007–2011. Assessments included symptom levels (PANSS), diagnostic interviews (SCID), premorbid function scale (PAS) and global functioning (GAF f/s). Results Treated incidence for SIP was found to be 6.5/100 000 persons per year, 9.7/100 000 persons per year for PS and 24.1/100 000 persons per year for PNS (15-65 yrs). Patients who had substance misuse (PS and SIP) were more likely to be male. Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) was significantly shorter in the SIP group (5.0 wks., p = 0.003) and these had more positive symptoms on the PANSS (p = 0.049). SIP patients also did poorer on early youth academic levels on the PAS. Conclusions Yearly treated incidence of SIP is 6.5/100 000 persons per year in a Norwegian catchment area. SIP patients have short DUPs, are more likely to be male, have more positive symptoms at baseline and poorer premorbid academic scores in early adolescence. Follow-up will evaluate stability of diagnosis and characteristics. PMID:24279887

  12. [The incidence differences among sex, geographical areas and mean age of diagnosis for liver cancer in China, 1989-2008].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwei; Zheng, Rongshou; Zeng, Hongmei; Chen, Wanqing

    2014-05-01

    Using the incidence data from 1989 to 2008 of liver cancer from population in cancer registration areas in China, the differences and changes of gender, urban and rural areas for liver cancer incidence in different years were studied, and the mean age of incidence was analyzed. The incidence data of liver cancer from National Cancer Registration database were sorted and checked. A total of 181 097 new liver cancer cases were collected, covering 711 843 051 person years from 1989 to 2008.Using Poisson regression model, Stratified by gender and areas, changes of incidence gender ratio, ratio of urban and rural, and mean age were analyzed. After adjusting the age, the liver cancer incidence in male was about 3 times higher than that in females (ranging from 2.64-3.54), and the ratio change between male and female for the 20 years did not have statistically significant (P = 0.150). The incidence ratio between urban and rural areas has increased from 0.51 in 1989 to 0.61 in 2008 (P < 0.01). The mean ages of diagnosis for male and female increased from 57.14 years to 60.34 years, 61.69 years to 66.47 years, respectively from 1989 to 2008. The mean age of liver cancer diagnosis has increased in the 20 years (P < 0.01). The liver cancer incidence between male and female did not change significantly among 20 years. The difference of liver cancer incidence between urban and rural areas has reduced, and the mean age of diagnosis was deferred.

  13. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality.

  14. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide.

  15. Vodka and Violence: Alcohol Consumption and Homicide Rates in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-01-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia’s 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide. PMID:12453810

  16. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  17. [Fever monitoring program in areas with high incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Yao, Guang-hai; Tang, Guang-peng; Tian, Ke-cheng; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Jun-ling; Wang, Zi-jun; Jiang, You-qin; Zhao, Qi-liang; Chen, Xue; Chen, Shao-fen; Liu, Ming-qiang; Lu, Rong; Li, Ming; Wang, Ding-ming

    2013-03-01

    To understand the incidence rates of both typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in the high prevalent areas of Guizhou province so as to provide evidence for the development of programs on comprehensive intervention and effectiveness evaluation. Six townships in Pingba county were selected as intervention areas while six townships in Kaiyang county were taken as control. All hospitals and clinics were classified into A, B and C types according to its level and the capacity of the blood culture. Surveillance on typhoid and paratyphoid fever was conducted based on all population and all hospitals, clinics and county CDCs among the patients with unknown fever. In the surveillance area in those two counties, there were 12 944 blood samples from patients with unknown fever which have been tested and cultured. Among them, 200 strains of Salmonella including 16 typhoid strains, 184 paratyphoid A strains were identified, with the total positive rate as 1.55%. The positive rate before the intervention program was higher than the after. The detection rate was 1.91% in the type A hospitals. 39 strains of Salmonella have been cultured from 2039 samples which accounting for 19.50% (39/200) of the total strains. 4315 blood samples were cultured at the 'Class B' sites which isolated 82 strains of Salmonella, accounting for 41.00% (82/200), with a detection rate as 1.90%. 6590 samples were cultured at the 'Class C' sites, which identified 79 strains of Salmonella, accounting for 39.50% (79/200), with a detection rate as 1.20%. The detection rate was much higher before the use of antibiotics than after using them (P < 0.05). The annual peak time of positive detection was in spring and fall. The outbreaks or epidemics often appeared in the same places, with farmers, students as the high-risk populations. Symptoms of both typhoid and paratyphoid fever were not typical. Typhoid and paratyphoid monitoring programs which covered primary health care institutions in the high incidence area

  18. Alcoholism and homicide with respect to the classification systems of Lesch and Cloninger.

    PubMed

    Reulbach, Udo; Biermann, Teresa; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas; Kornhuber, Johannes; Sperling, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide criminal statistics show a disproportionately high incidence of violent offences committed under the influence of alcohol. A psychopathological subtyping of alcohol dependence in offenders who committed homicide has mainly been related to impulsive and dissocial personalities up to now. In an investigation on 48 alcohol-dependent offenders who committed homicide, a subtyping according to the multidimensional classification systems of Lesch and Cloninger has now been conducted for the first time. In Lesch's classification, there was a high incidence of homicides committed by type II and type III subjects with the comorbidity anxiety and cyclothymia. While type III offenders were more often repeat offenders, there was a remarkably high rate of first offenders among type II subjects (Chi-squared test; chi(2) = 30.0, df = 3, P < 0.001). With respect to Lesch's typology, the blood alcohol concentrations did differ significantly in the group of offenders (Kruskal-Wallis, chi(2) = 18.3, df = 3, P < 0.001), whereas the blood alcohol concentration of type II offenders at the time of offence was significantly lower than in type III offenders (Mann-Whitney-U, Z = -3.47; P = 0.001). Regarding to the Cloninger's typology, no significant differences in the aforementioned parameters could be found. An excessive noradrenergic reaction of anxiety offenders with initial withdrawal is discussed as a possible explanatory model.

  19. Characteristics of elderly and other vulnerable adult victims of homicide by a caregiver: national violent death reporting system--17 U.S. states, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Karch, Debra; Nunn, Kelly Cole

    2011-01-01

    Homicides of dependent elderly and nonelderly adults by their caregivers violate trust and have long-term consequences for families. A better understanding of the characteristics of homicide by caregivers may provide insights that can inform prevention efforts. Data collected in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) between 2003 and 2007 are used to characterize victims, perpetrators, and caregiver roles, and circumstances that precipitated homicides by a caregiver. A total 68 incidents are categorized into either homicide by neglect ( n = 17), intentional injury of the victim only (n = 21), or homicide followed by suicide of the perpetrator (n = 30). Demographics, mechanism of injury, location of injury, and victim-suspect relationship variables are supplemented by narrative accounts of incidents. In general, findings show that adult homicide victims of a caregiver were widowed (42.6%), non-Hispanic (97.1%), White (88.2%), women (63.2%) killed in their homes (92.6%) with a firearm (35.3%) or by intentional neglect (25.0%) by a husband (30.9%) or a son (22.1%). Nearly half were aged 80 years and older (48.5%), 42.6% were aged 50 to 79 years, and 0.9% were aged 20 to 49 years. Many homicide by caregiver incidents are precipitated by physical illness of the victim or caregiver, opportunity for perpetrator financial gain, mental illness of the caregiver, substance use by the caregiver, or an impending crisis in the life of the caregiver not related to illness. Understanding the vulnerabilities of victims, the characteristics of suspects, and the multiple types of motivations is key to developing effective prevention efforts.

  20. The Milwaukee Homicide Review Commission: an interagency collaborative process to reduce homicide.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Mallory; Woods, Laurie; Cisler, Ron A

    2007-10-01

    The Milwaukee Hoimicide Review Commission (MHRC) is a multi-level, multi-disciplinary, and multiagency homicide review process aimed at reducing the occurrence of homicides in Milwaukee. Based on the public health approach to violence reduction, the MHRC has 3 goals: (1) to gain a better understanding of homicide through strategic problem analysis, (2) to develop innovative, effective responses, and (3) to focus limited enforcement and intervention activities on identifiable risks. The MHIRC creates an environment for many disciplines and agencies to share information and work collectively on violence prevention strategies. Since its inception, the MHRC has reviewed over 150 homicides and developed over 100 recommendations aimed at reducing homicide. These recommendations are based on themes that emerge from case reviews and focus on initiating change at system, agency/organization, and individual levels. The MHRC has many accomplishments to date, including improved communication between local, state, and federal criminal justice agencies; assistance in immediate investigations new strategic criminal justice activities; changes in ineffective agency practices; and new cooperative efforts between community service providers. Future plans include the continuation and expansion of initiatives including greater community impact and developinga Center of Excellence in community and public safety serving Milwaukee and the state of Wisconsin.

  1. The association between protective actions and homicide risk: findings from the Oklahoma Lethality Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Brown, Sheryll; Patchell, Beverly; Androff, David K; Wilson, Janet Sullivan

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between women's risk of homicide as measured by the Danger Assessment and 13 protective actions. Participants (N = 432) experienced an incident of police involved intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequently completed a structured telephone interview. Most women in this sample experienced severe violence and were classified as being at high risk for homicide. Participants engaged in an average of 3.81 (SD = 2.73) protective actions. With the exception of the use of formal domestic violence services, women in the high-risk category were significantly more likely than women in the lower risk category to have used each of the protective actions examined. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest.

  3. Homicide-suicide and duty to warn.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Sekula, L Kathleen; Carretta, Carrie M

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study of medical examiner records from three counties reported on 252 persons who killed 302 victims before killing themselves and reviews the Tarasoff ruling that set the standard for duty to warn and/or protect third parties whose lives are threatened by a patient. The three sites varied significantly for the perpetrator in terms of race, employment, cause of death, and motive. Female offenders killed more children under the age of 10 and adolescents than did male offenders. Evidence of premeditation included suicide notes and weapon brought to the crime scene, while strangulation indicated a spontaneous domestic homicide. Implications for practice are discussed including the importance of evaluating violent thoughts, fantasies, and behaviors in acute emergency settings and recommendations include second opinion consultation for Tarasoff-type cases and psychological autopsy review for completed homicide-suicide cases.

  4. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  5. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  6. XYY chromosome abnormality in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2006-03-05

    In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.

  7. Distinguishing juvenile homicide from violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    DiCataldo, Frank; Everett, Meghan

    2008-04-01

    Juvenile homicide is a social problem that has remained a central focus within juvenile justice research in recent years. The term juvenile murderer describes a legal category, but it is purported to have significant scientific meaning. Research has attempted to conceptualize adolescent murderers as a clinical category that can be reliably distinguished from their nonhomicidal counterparts. This study examined 33 adolescents adjudicated delinquent or awaiting trial for murder and 38 adolescents who committed violent, nonhomicidal offenses to determine whether the two groups differed significantly on family history, early development, delinquency history, mental health, and weapon possession variables. The nonhomicide group proved more problematic on many of these measures. Two key factors did distinguish the homicide group: These adolescents endorsed the greater availability of guns and substance abuse at the time of their commitment offenses. The significance of this finding is discussed, and the implications for risk management and policy are reviewed.

  8. Aconitine involvement in an unusual homicide case.

    PubMed

    Van Landeghem, An A; De Letter, Els A; Lambert, Willy E; Van Peteghem, Carlos H; Piette, Michel H A

    2007-05-01

    We describe a homicide complicated by an aconitine poisoning, which was initially thought to be a strangulation case. Routine toxicological analyses demonstrated only a small amount of alcohol in the blood and the urine. The case could not be clarified until 5 years after the event. A new element in the investigation made the wife the prime suspect, and finally, after thorough interrogation, she confessed her crime. She had mixed a decoction of three plants of Aconitum with red wine. Additional toxicological analyses, using the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) technique demonstrated 810 ng/ml of aconitine in urine, 6.5 ng/g in liver and 1.3 ng/g in the kidneys. Even though aconitine poisoning is still rare in Europe, it should be taken into account in suicides and homicides, particularly in unclarified cases.

  9. Incidence of severe diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholevae in the catchment area of six surveillance hospitals in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Paul, R. C.; Faruque, A. S. G.; Alam, M.; Iqbal, A.; Zaman, K.; Islam, N.; Sobhan, A.; Das, S. K.; Malek, M. A.; Qadri, F.; Cravioto, A.; Luby, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cholera is an important public health problem in Bangladesh. Interventions to prevent cholera depend on their cost-effectiveness which in turn depends on cholera incidence. Hospital-based diarrhoeal disease surveillance has been ongoing in six Bangladeshi hospitals where a systematic proportion of patients admitted with diarrhoea were enrolled and tested for Vibrio cholerae. However, incidence calculation using only hospital data underestimates the real disease burden because many ill persons seek treatment elsewhere. We conducted a healthcare utilization survey in the catchment areas of surveillance hospitals to estimate the proportion of severe diarrhoeal cases that were admitted to surveillance hospitals and estimated the population-based incidence of severe diarrhoea due to V. cholerae by combining both hospital surveillance and catchment area survey data. The estimated incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera ranged from 0·3 to 4·9/1000 population in the catchment area of surveillance hospitals. In children aged <5 years, incidence ranged from 1·0 to 11·-0/1000 children. Diarrhoeal deaths were most common in the Chhatak Hospital’s catchment area (18·5/100 000 population). This study provides a credible estimate of the incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera in Bangladesh, which can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of cholera prevention activities. PMID:26391481

  10. Incidence of severe diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae in the catchment area of six surveillance hospitals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, R C; Faruque, A S G; Alam, M; Iqbal, A; Zaman, K; Islam, N; Sobhan, A; DAS, S K; Malek, M A; Qadri, F; Cravioto, A; Luby, S P

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is an important public health problem in Bangladesh. Interventions to prevent cholera depend on their cost-effectiveness which in turn depends on cholera incidence. Hospital-based diarrhoeal disease surveillance has been ongoing in six Bangladeshi hospitals where a systematic proportion of patients admitted with diarrhoea were enrolled and tested for Vibrio cholerae. However, incidence calculation using only hospital data underestimates the real disease burden because many ill persons seek treatment elsewhere. We conducted a healthcare utilization survey in the catchment areas of surveillance hospitals to estimate the proportion of severe diarrhoeal cases that were admitted to surveillance hospitals and estimated the population-based incidence of severe diarrhoea due to V. cholerae by combining both hospital surveillance and catchment area survey data. The estimated incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera ranged from 0.3 to 4.9/1000 population in the catchment area of surveillance hospitals. In children aged <5 years, incidence ranged from 1.0 to 11.0/1000 children. Diarrhoeal deaths were most common in the Chhatak Hospital's catchment area (18.5/100 000 population). This study provides a credible estimate of the incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera in Bangladesh, which can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of cholera prevention activities.

  11. Thyroid cancer incidence among people living in areas contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ron, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, massive amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment and large numbers of individuals living in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to radioactive iodines, primarily 131I. Iodine-131 concentrated in the thyroid gland of residents of the contaminated areas, with children and adolescents being particularly affected. In the decade after the accident, a substantial increase in thyroid cancer incidence was observed among exposed children in the three affected countries, and compelling evidence of an association between pediatric thyroid cancer incidence and radiation exposure to the thyroid gland accumulated. The data currently available suggest that both the magnitude and patterns of thyroid cancer risk are generally consistent with those reported following external exposure. Based on data from case-control studies, iodine deficiency appeared to enhance the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure from Chernobyl. Results from a recent large cohort study, however, did not support these findings. Data on adult exposure are limited and not entirely consistent. Similarly, information on thyroid cancer risks associated with in utero exposure is insufficient to draw conclusions. The lack of information on these two population groups indicates an important gap that needs to be filled. Twenty years after the accident, excess thyroid cancers are still occurring among persons exposed as children or adolescents, and, if external radiation can be used as a guide, we can expect an excess of radiation-associated thyroid cancers for several more decades. Since considerable uncertainties about the long-term health effects from Chernobyl remain, continued follow-up of the exposed populations should provide valuable information.

  12. Estimation of diarrhoea incidence through flooding simulation in low-income community areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kondo, N.; Nishida, K.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in waterborne illnesses related to floodings has been reported all over the world, especially in developing countries. In Dhaka City, floodings occur almost every year due to severe rainfall compounded by inadequate sewerage systems. Waterborne illnesses spread easily in an unhygienic environment. This study develops a method to estimate the incidences of diarrhoea associated with floodings using a flooding analysis. We performed a flooding analysis using a numerical flooding simulation model and investigated the relationship between floodwater depth and diarrhoea incidence. The incidence of diarrhoea was assessed through a mortality and morbidity survey conducted in 10 low-income communities in flood-prone areas of Dhaka City. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between floodwater depth and indices of diarrhoea incidence. This indicates that a flooding analysis method can be used to estimate diarrhoea incidence.

  13. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  14. Identification of the prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, a Mekong Delta area in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Manh, Cuong Do

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is highly vulnerable to climate change and a dengue endemic area in Vietnam. This study aims to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence and to identify the best climate prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. We used three different regression models comprising: standard multiple regression model (SMR), seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA), and Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence over the period 2003-2010. We validated the models by forecasting dengue cases for the period of January-December, 2011 using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of a dengue outbreak. The results indicate that temperature and relative humidity are significantly associated with changes in dengue incidence consistently across the model methods used, but not cumulative rainfall. The Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) performs the best prediction of dengue incidence for a 6, 9, and 12-month period and diagnosis of an outbreak however the SARIMA model performs a better prediction of dengue incidence for a 3-month period. The simple or standard multiple regression performed highly imprecise prediction of dengue incidence. We recommend a follow-up study to validate the model on a larger scale in the Mekong Delta region and to analyze the possibility of incorporating a climate-based dengue early warning method into the national dengue surveillance system.

  15. Trends in rates of mental illness in homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Swinson, Nicola; Flynn, Sandra M; While, David; Roscoe, Alison; Kapur, Navneet; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-06-01

    The rise in homicides by those with serious mental illness is of concern, although this increase may not be continuing. To examine rates of mental illness among homicide perpetrators. A national consecutive case series of homicide perpetrators in England and Wales from 1997 to 2006. Rates of mental disorder were based on data from psychiatric reports, contact with psychiatric services, diminished responsibility verdict and hospital disposal. Of the 5884 homicides notified to the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness between 1997 and 2006, the number of homicide perpetrators with schizophrenia increased at a rate of 4% per year, those with psychotic symptoms at the time of the offence increased by 6% per year. The number of verdicts of diminished responsibility decreased but no change was found in the number of perpetrators receiving a hospital order disposal. The likeliest explanation for the rise in homicide by people with psychosis is the misuse of drugs and/or alcohol, which our data show increased at a similar magnitude to homicides by those with psychotic symptoms. However, we are unable to demonstrate a causal association. Although the Poisson regression provides evidence of an upward trend in homicide by people with serious mental illness between 1997 and 2006, the number of homicides fell in the final 2 years of data collection, so these findings should be treated with caution. There appears to be a concomitant increase in drug misuse over the period, which may account for this rise in homicide. However, an increase in the number of people in contact with mental health services may suggest that access to mental health services is improving. Previous studies have used court verdicts such as diminished responsibility as a proxy measure of mental disorder. Our data indicate that this does not reflect accurately the prevalence of mental disorder in this population.

  16. Alcohol Involvement in Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E; Coleman, Sharon M; Hadland, Scott E; Swahn, Monica H; Heeren, Timothy C

    2016-12-01

    Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this article was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and to identify socio demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010 to 2012 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01% and 0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥ 0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p < 0.001). Characteristics that were independent predictors of homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and nonfirearm homicides. Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the United States, with substantial variation by state, demographic, and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Effectiveness of Taxicab Security Equipment in Reducing Driver Homicide Rates

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, Cammie K.C.; Amandus, Harlan E.; Damadi, Parisa; Wu, Nan; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Taxicab drivers historically have had one of the highest work-related homicide rates of any occupation. In 2010 the taxicab driver homicide rate was 7.4 per 100,000 drivers, compared to the overall rate of 0.37 per 100,000 workers. Purpose Evaluate the effectiveness of taxicab security cameras and partitions on citywide taxicab driver homicide rates. Methods Taxicab driver homicide rates were compared in 26 major cities in the U.S. licensing taxicabs with security cameras (n=8); bullet-resistant partitions (n=7); and cities where taxicabs were not equipped with either security cameras or partitions (n=11). News clippings of taxicab driver homicides and the number of licensed taxicabs by city were used to construct taxicab driver homicide rates spanning 15 years (1996–2010). Generalized estimating equations were constructed to model the Poisson-distributed homicide rates on city-specific safety equipment installation status, controlling for city homicide rate and the concurrent decline of homicide rates over time. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results Cities with cameras experienced a threefold reduction in taxicab driver homicides compared with control cities (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0.12, 0.61; p=0.002). There was no difference in homicide rates for cities with partitions compared with control cities (RR=1.15; 95% CI=0.80, 1.64; p=0.575). Conclusions Municipal ordinances and company policies mandating security cameras appear to be highly effective in reducing taxicab driver deaths due to workplace violence. PMID:23790983

  18. Effectiveness of taxicab security equipment in reducing driver homicide rates.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Cammie K C; Amandus, Harlan E; Damadi, Parisa; Wu, Nan; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott A

    2013-07-01

    Taxicab drivers historically have had one of the highest work-related homicide rates of any occupation. In 2010 the taxicab driver homicide rate was 7.4 per 100,000 drivers, compared to the overall rate of 0.37 per 100,000 workers. Evaluate the effectiveness of taxicab security cameras and partitions on citywide taxicab driver homicide rates. Taxicab driver homicide rates were compared in 26 major cities in the U.S. licensing taxicabs with security cameras (n=8); bullet-resistant partitions (n=7); and cities where taxicabs were not equipped with either security cameras or partitions (n=11). News clippings of taxicab driver homicides and the number of licensed taxicabs by city were used to construct taxicab driver homicide rates spanning 15 years (1996-2010). Generalized estimating equations were constructed to model the Poisson-distributed homicide rates on city-specific safety equipment installation status, controlling for city homicide rate and the concurrent decline of homicide rates over time. Data were analyzed in 2012. Cities with cameras experienced a threefold reduction in taxicab driver homicides compared with control cities (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0.12, 0.61; p=0.002). There was no difference in homicide rates for cities with partitions compared with control cities (RR=1.15; 95% CI=0.80, 1.64; p=0.575). Municipal ordinances and company policies mandating security cameras appear to be highly effective in reducing taxicab driver deaths due to workplace violence. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine

  19. Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988-2003: a population-based ecological study.

    PubMed

    Visser, Otto; van Wijnen, Joop H; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2005-12-06

    Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988-2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02). We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19), mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83). The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89). In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10). This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area. This observation warrants further research, for example in a

  20. Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Otto; van Wijnen, Joop H; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2005-01-01

    Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988–2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02). We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19), mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83). The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89). In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10). This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area. This observation warrants

  1. Decreasing cost effectiveness of testing for latent TB in HIV in a low TB incidence area.

    PubMed

    Capocci, Santino; Smith, Colette; Morris, Stephen; Bhagani, Sanjay; Cropley, Ian; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Johnson, Margaret; Lipman, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in HIV-infected persons in low tuberculosis (TB) incidence areas is often recommended. Using contemporary, clinical data, we report the yield and cost-effectiveness of testing all HIV attendees, two current UK strategies and no LTBI testing. Economic modelling was performed utilising 10-year follow up data from a large HIV clinical cohort. Outcomes were numbers of cases of active TB and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Between 2000 and 2010, 256 people were treated for TB/HIV co-infection. 72 (28%) occurred ≥3 months after HIV diagnosis and may have been prevented by LTBI testing. Between 2000 and 2005, the incremental cost per QALY gained for the British HIV Association (BHIVA) and UK National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) strategies, and testing all clinic attendees was €6270, €6998 and €33,473, respectively. These rose to €9332, €32,564 and €74,067, respectively, between 2005 and 2010. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that at a threshold of €24,000 per additional QALY, the most cost-effective strategies would be NICE or testing all in 2000-2005 and BHIVA during 2005-2010. Both UK testing regimens missed cases but are cost-effective compared with no testing. Using recent data, they all became more expensive, suggesting that alternative or more targeted TB testing strategies must be considered.

  2. [Selenium content in cattle hair in areas with incidence of nutrition-induced muscular dystrophy].

    PubMed

    Kursa, J; Kroupová, V

    1975-02-01

    In the South Bohemian Region which is an area of enzootic incidence of nutritional muscle dystrophy selenium content in the fur of dairy cows and young cattle was determined. In the breeds in which the "white muscle disease" appeared in the past years in young cattle, lambs and calves the lowest mean selenium values in the fur dry matter found were: 0.18 +/- 0.07, 0.19 +/- 0.06, and 0.21 +/- 0.08 ppm, with repeated findings of mere 0.09 ppm Se. 60 to 100 per cent samples from these farms showed selenium values below the 0.25 ppm level. The fur of heifers which recovered from nutritional muscle dystrophy and were treated 10 days prior to sampling with a selenium preparation in injection form (Selevit inf. SPOFA) contained 0.29 ppm selenium (+/- 0.11). In other breeds 0.30 +/- 0.07 to 3.33 +/- 0.16 ppm selenium was found in the fur of cows and young cattle. The initial field essay of selenium content in cattle fur indicated a relation of low selenium values to the frequency of clinical forms of nutritional muscle dystrophy in domestic ruminants.

  3. Hydrology and human behavior: two key factors of diarrhea incidence in montane tropical humid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boithias, Laurie; Choisy, Marc; Souliyaseng, Noy; Jourdren, Marine; Quet, Fabrice; Buisson, Yves; Thammahacksa, Chanthamousone; Silvera, Norbert; Latsachack, Keooudone; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Pierret, Alain; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Becerra, Sylvia; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. In this study we hypothesized that climate factors combined with human behavior control diarrhea incidence, either because higher rainfall, leading to higher stream discharges, suspended sediment loads and Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) counts, are associated with higher numbers of reported diarrhea cases during the rainy season, or because water shortage leads to the use of less safe water sources during the dry season. For this mixed methods approach, we conducted a retrospective time series analysis of meteorological variables (rainfall, air temperature), hydrological variables (discharge, suspended sediments, FIB counts, water temperature) at the outlet of 2 catchments in Northern Lao PDR, and the number of diarrheal disease cases reported in 6 health centers located in the Luang Prabang Province. We also examined the socio-behavioral factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors, such as drinking water sources and hygiene habits. We found the FIB Escherichia coli to be present all year long (100-1,000 MPN 100 mL-1) indicating that fecal contamination is ubiquitous and constant. We found that populations switch their water supply from wells to surface water during drought periods, the latter of which appear to be at higher risk of bacterial contamination than municipal water fountains. We thus found that water shortage in the Luang Prabang area triggers diarrhea peaks during the dry and hot season and that rainfall and aquifer refill ends the epidemic during the wet season. We thus found that anthropogenic drivers, such as hygiene practices, were at least as important as environmental drivers in determining the seasonal pattern of a

  4. A case of serial homicide by injection of succinylcholine.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Fujita, M Q; Zhu, B L; Ishidam, K; Oritani, S; Tsuchihashi, H; Nishikawa, M; Izumi, M; Matsumoto, F

    2000-04-01

    The abstract of this paper was presented at the 14th Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences, Tokyo in 1996. We report a bizarre criminal case of suspected serial homicide by injection of a muscle relaxant (succinylcholine). Five victims were found buried in a rural area. In two victims showing moderate decomposition (about three months after death), intense pulmonary oedema with pleural effusion was observed. Evidence of a puncture site was found in one of the victims. Succinylcholine could not be detected in the victims, but was identified in a syringe found near the corpses. The 40-mg ampule dose of succinylcholine administered intramuscularly to the victims, possibly causing prolonged apnea, was considered to be at least around the minimum lethal dose, although the combined effect of the sedation with hypnotics also used was not negligible.

  5. Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan: a cross-sectional ecological study.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kimiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Oshima, Akira

    2005-10-01

    Cancer mortality is generally high in people of low socioeconomic status compared with people of high socioeconomic status (SES). Although these differences in mortality may be caused by differences in cancer incidence and survival, analysis of these factors has rarely been conducted. The objective of our cross-sectional ecological study was to analyze socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence, mortality and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, age-adjusted mortality rates, relative 5-year survival, and proportions of early stage cancer were calculated for 67 municipalities in Osaka, Japan. For area-based socioeconomic variables, we used the percentages of male unemployment, college or graduate school graduates, home ownership, households receiving government assistance, and households below the subsistence habitation level in each municipality. We performed linear regression taking each municipality's population as weight to examine the relationships between measurements relating cancer and socioeconomic variables. Factor analysis of socioeconomic variables was carried out to determine whether a particular socioeconomic variable tended to be associated with another. Cancer incidence, cancer mortality, 5-year cancer survival, and proportion of early stage cancer were highly correlated with each socioeconomic variable at the municipality level. Five area-based socioeconomic variables could be explained by three factors: economic status, housing characteristics and educational attainment. Despite the major limitation of a lack of individual information about socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes related to cancer, we hypothesize that a municipal area's socioeconomic status might be a predictor of individual incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer.

  6. Getting by after a loved one's death by homicide: the relationship between case status, trauma symptoms, life satisfaction, and coping.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Catherine A; Duckworth, Malissa; Tyler, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Covictims of homicide are the loved ones of people killed by homicide. As secondary victims, they experience trauma from the crime yet are not the focus of criminal justice system (CJS) processes. The current descriptive-exploratory study seeks to better understand this often hidden population by exploring the relationship between CJS case status, trauma symptoms, life satisfaction, and coping with a group of 137 covictims from the Mid-South region of the United States. Findings indicate that case closure does not resolve trauma symptoms, although symptoms do lessen. In addition, a broad range of helping services and coping strategies are used after the homicide. Some are associated with CJS case status, trauma symptoms, and life satisfaction whereas others are not. These findings highlight important areas for future research.

  7. Student Homicidal Violence in Schools: An International Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…

  8. Exposure to Local Homicides and Early Educational Achievement in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudillo, Mónica L.; Torche, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of children's exposure to local violence on grade failure in Mexico. We construct an annual panel of all elementary schools from 1990 to 2010 and merge municipality-level homicide rates to analyze the effect of exposure to local homicide. Using a variety of causal inference techniques, we consistently find that exposure…

  9. A suicide disguised as a homicide: return to Thor Bridge.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, J A; Long, S; Barnard, J J

    1998-06-01

    Suicides staged as homicides are uncommon. We present a case of a self-inflicted gunshot wound of the chest disguised by the victim as a homicide, using a method described by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes story, "The Problem of Thor Bridge."

  10. [Mortality by homicides in Colombia, 1998-2012].

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; León-Quevedo, Willian; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Homicide is a universal indicator of social violence with large public health consequences. To describe mortality by homicides and to analyze its trends and geographic distribution in Colombia between 1998 and 2012. We conducted a descriptive study of deaths by homicide in Colombia between 1998 and 2012 using official mortality databases and the population projections of the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, DANE. We calculated age- and sex-specific mortality rates, and we analyzed the geographical distribution of mean-adjusted homicide mortality rates at municipal level. Between 1998 and 2012, 331,470 homicides were reported in Colombia. The mean crude rate was 51.5 per 100,000 inhabitants: 95.9 in men and 8.2 in women. Since 2003, a decrease in the number of deaths and rates was observed; 91.9% of the victims were men and the highest mortality rates were reported in the 20-29 years old group. The most frequently involved mechanism was the firearm: Eight of 10 homicides in men, and seven of 10 homicides in women. Out of 1,122 municipalities, 186 were in the highest quintile, accumulating 50.1% of all deaths. In Colombia, homicides have been one of the leading causes of death with a trend towards reduction since 2002. Its geographical distribution has been heterogeneous. To continue addressing this public health issue we must recur to multidisciplinary analytical methodologies for a better understanding of the phenomenon.

  11. Variations in Wounding by Relationship Intimacy in Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trojan, Carrie; Krull, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous examples in the homicide literature of a presumed connection between the victim-offender relationship and the manner, extent, and body location of wounds inflicted in homicides. The current study examined variations in wounding patterns according to the intimacy of the victim-offender relationship in a sample of urban homicides…

  12. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  13. Variations in Wounding by Relationship Intimacy in Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trojan, Carrie; Krull, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous examples in the homicide literature of a presumed connection between the victim-offender relationship and the manner, extent, and body location of wounds inflicted in homicides. The current study examined variations in wounding patterns according to the intimacy of the victim-offender relationship in a sample of urban homicides…

  14. Alcohol use and interpersonal violence: alcohol detected in homicide victims.

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, R A; Mercy, J A; Loya, F; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J C; Allen, N H; Vargas, L; Kolts, R

    1986-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between alcohol use and homicide victimization, we used data from the Los Angeles City Police Department and the Los Angeles Medical Examiner's Office to study 4,950 victims of criminal homicides in Los Angeles in the period 1970-79. Alcohol was detected in the blood of 1,883 (46 per cent) of the 4,092 victims who were tested. In 30 per cent of those tested, the blood alcohol level was greater than or equal to 100 mg/100 ml, the level of legal intoxication in most states. Blood alcohol was present most commonly in victims who were male, young, and Latino, categories where rates have been increasing at an alarming pace. Alcohol was also detected most commonly in victims killed during weekends, when homicides occurred in bars or restaurants, when homicides resulted from physical fights or verbal arguments, when victims were friends or acquaintances of offenders, and when homicides resulted from stabbings. The evidence for alcohol use by homicide victims focuses attention on the need for controlled epidemiologic studies of the role played by alcohol as a risk factor in homicide and on the importance of considering situational variables in developing approaches to homicide prevention. PMID:3946695

  15. Bringing "Booze" Back In: The Relationship between Alcohol and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert Nash

    1995-01-01

    Tested hypotheses concerning the relationship between alcohol and homicide from four major theoretical perspectives; specific predictions on the causes of types of homicide were also derived. Findings revealed that alcohol consumption rates change the way important predictors, such as poverty and deterrence, are related to specific types of…

  16. Homicide and alcoholic psychoses in Belarus, 1970-2005.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2008-03-01

    The association between alcohol and homicide is well documented. Research evidence suggests an important role for cultural and social context in the alcohol-homicide association. To estimate the aggregate level effect of alcohol consumption on homicide rate in the former Soviet Slavic republic of Belarus. Trends in homicide and alcoholic psychoses morbidity rate from 1970 to 2005 in Belarus were analyzed employing ARIMA analysis in order to assess the bivariate relationship between the two time series. The results of time series analysis suggest a close relationship between homicide and alcoholic psychoses rate at zero lag. This study replicates the previous findings that suggested a close link between alcohol and homicide at the aggregate level. The outcome of the present findings suggests that alcohol is responsible for the fluctuation in homicide rate over time in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. This study also supports the hypothesis that homicide and alcohol are closely connected in the prevailing culture with its intoxication-oriented drinking pattern.

  17. The Prediction of Violence and Homicide in Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin; Homish, D. Lynn; Wei, Evelyn H.; Crawford, Anne M.; Farrington, David P.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Creemers, Judith; Koehler, Steven A.; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this prospective study, the authors predicted violence and homicide in 3 representative school samples (N = 1,517). Participants were part of a longitudinal, multiple cohort study on the development of delinquency in boys from late childhood to early adulthood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Thirty-three participants were convicted of homicide,…

  18. The Prediction of Violence and Homicide in Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin; Homish, D. Lynn; Wei, Evelyn H.; Crawford, Anne M.; Farrington, David P.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Creemers, Judith; Koehler, Steven A.; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this prospective study, the authors predicted violence and homicide in 3 representative school samples (N = 1,517). Participants were part of a longitudinal, multiple cohort study on the development of delinquency in boys from late childhood to early adulthood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Thirty-three participants were convicted of homicide,…

  19. Exposure to Local Homicides and Early Educational Achievement in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudillo, Mónica L.; Torche, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of children's exposure to local violence on grade failure in Mexico. We construct an annual panel of all elementary schools from 1990 to 2010 and merge municipality-level homicide rates to analyze the effect of exposure to local homicide. Using a variety of causal inference techniques, we consistently find that exposure…

  20. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiologic aspects of the malaria transmission cycle in an area of very low incidence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Crispim; Boulos, Marcos; Coutinho, Arnídio F; Hatab, Maria do Carmo LD; Falqueto, Aloísio; Rezende, Helder R; Duarte, Ana Maria RC; Collins, William; Malafronte, Rosely S

    2007-01-01

    "classical" P. vivax (VK210), VK247, P. vivax-like and P. malariae, respectively. Anopheline captures in the transmission area revealed only zoophilic and exophilic species. Conclusion The low incidence of malaria cases, the finding of asymptomatic inhabitants and the geographic separation of patients allied to serological and molecular results raise the possibility of the existence of a simian reservoir in these areas. PMID:17371598

  2. The High Burden of Cholera in Children: Comparison of Incidence from Endemic Areas in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Jacqueline L.; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Sur, Dipika; Agtini, Magdarina; Lucas, Marcelino E. S.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Clemens, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cholera remains an important public health problem. Yet there are few reliable population-based estimates of laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence in endemic areas around the world. Methods We established treatment facility–based cholera surveillance in three sites in Jakarta (Indonesia), Kolkata (India), and Beira (Mozambique). The annual incidence of cholera was estimated using the population census as the denominator and the age-specific number of cholera cases among the study cohort as the numerator. Findings The lowest overall rate was found in Jakarta, where the estimated incidence was 0.5/1000 population/year. The incidence was three times higher in Kolkata (1.6/1000/year) and eight times higher in Beira (4.0/1000/year). In all study sites, the greatest burden was in children under 5 years of age. Conclusion There are considerable differences in cholera incidence across these endemic areas but in all sites, children are the most affected. The study site in Africa had the highest cholera incidence consistent with a growing impression of the large cholera burden in Africa. Burden estimates are useful when considering where and among whom interventions such as vaccination would be most needed. PMID:18299707

  3. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated.

  5. [Unemployment, suicide- and homicide-rates in the EU countries].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Kristina; Stompe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While the link between the unemployment and the national suicide rates is confirmed by various studies, there are few investigations on the impact of unemployment on homicide rates. In particular, it is not known whether suicide and homicide are associated with the same socio-economic factors. Using linear regression method, the influence of unemployment rates, per capita incomes and annual alcohol consumption on suicide and homicide rates was examined in the 27 EU states. We found a positive correlation between suicide and homicide rates. Unemployment among men is a strong predictor not only for suicide- but also for homicide rates. Suicide rates in men are also affected by the annual alcohol consumption. The suicide rates in women, however, correlate neither with socio-economic variables nor with alcohol consumption. Unemployment seems to have a stronger impact on the male than on the female identity. Since the former is still highly dependent on predetermined social roles.

  6. Are anti-LGBT homicides in the United States unique?

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, Jeff

    2012-12-01

    An integral issue to the study of bias crimes is how violence targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims is different from other more common forms of violent crimes. Limitations in official bias crimes data have inhibited our understanding of the relative nature of anti-LGBT crimes. The purpose of this study is to examine the similarities and differences in anti-LGBT homicides and average homicides in the United States between 1990 and 2008. The current study addresses methodological issues by relying on an open-source database of anti-LGBT homicides. This study found that the nature of these homicides is both similar and significantly different from the average homicide. Implications for the ongoing bias crimes discourse are discussed.

  7. Black Female Homicide Offenders and Victims: Are They from the Same Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Paula D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the social and environmental characteristics of Black female homicide victims and offenders. Assembled data on 661 Black female homicide victims and 119 Black female homicide offenders. Analyses indicated that Black female homicide victims and offenders exhibit low socioeconomic status and essentially similar behavior patterns. (Author)

  8. Municipal distribution and trends in bladder cancer incidence in health area of León, Spain (1996-2010).

    PubMed

    del Canto, M; García-Martínez, L; Fernández-Villa, T; Molina, A J; Campanario, F; García-Sanz, M; López-Abente, G; Honrado, E; Martín-Sánchez, V

    2015-01-01

    Spain is a country where bladder cancer incidence and mortality rates are some of the highest in the world. The aim of this study is to know the incidence, trends and geographical distribution of bladder cancer in the health area of León. the new cases of bladder cancer (CIE-188) in patients residing in the health area of León and registered in the Hospital Tumor Registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario in León (Spain) between 1996-2010 were included in this study. Triennial crude incidence and adjusted incidence rates to the worldwide and European population were calculated. Population data of the municipalities of Leon (Spain) were obtained from National Institute of Statistic of Spain (INE, Instituto Nacional de Estadística). Data were disaggregated by sex-groups and five-year age groups. Spatial distribution of smoothed municipal relative risks (RR) of bladder cancer was carried out using a Besag, York and Mollié model. Bayesian model were used to calculate the posterior probability (PP) of RR greater than one. 1.573 cases were included. Incidence rates standardized to European population increased among men from 20,8/100.000 (1996-98) to 33,1/100.000 (2006-2008) and among women these rates increased from 1,9/100.000 to 5,9/100.000 for the same period of time. No relevant differences were found in the municipal distribution of the incidences. bladder cancer incidence rates are high in the European context. Rising trends in incidence in both sexs, particularly in women are observed. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Civil commitment law, mental health services, and US homicide rates.

    PubMed

    Segal, Steven P

    2012-09-01

    The study considers whether involuntary civil comment (ICC) statute provisions are associated with homicide rates. Do statutes based solely upon dangerousness criteria versus broader ICC-criteria-i.e. "need for treatment," "protection of health and safety," and family protection-have differential associations related to their goal of reducing the frequency of homicide? State-level data were obtained from online data bases and key-informant surveys. Ordinary-least-squares and Poisson regression were used to evaluate the association between statute characteristics, mental health system characteristics, and 2004 Homicide Rates after controlling for firearm-control-law restrictiveness and social-economic-demographic-geographic-and-political indicators historically related to homicide rate variation. Poisson and OLS models, respectively, were significant: likelihood ratio χ(2) = 108.47, df = 10; p < 0.000 and Adj. R (2) = 0.72; df = 10, 25; F = 10.21; p < 0.000. Poisson results indicate that social-economic-demographic-geographic-and-political-indicators had the strongest association with state homicide rates (p < 0.000). Lower rates were associated with: broader ICC-criteria (p ≤ 0.01), fewer inpatient-bed access problems (p ≤ 0.03), and better mental health system ratings (p ≤ 0.04). OLS results indicate that social-economic-demographic-geographic-and-political indicators accounted for 25% of homicide rate variation. Broader ICC-criteria were associated with 1.42 less homicides per 100,000. Less access to psychiatric inpatient-beds and more poorly rated mental health systems were associated with increases in the homicide rates of 1.08 and 0.26 per 100,000, respectively. While social-economic-demographic-geographic-and-political indicators show the strongest association with homicide rate variation, the results show the importance and potentially preventive utility of broader ICC criteria, increased psychiatric inpatient-bed access, and better performing mental

  10. Intimate-partner homicide among pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Diana; Horon, Isabelle L

    2010-06-01

    To identify pregnancy-associated homicide cases and to estimate the proportion that were perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner. This was an analysis of pregnancy-associated homicides occurring from 1993 to 2008 among Maryland residents using linked birth and death certificates, medical examiner charts, police records, and news publications. Homicides (n=110) were the leading cause of death during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. Women who were African American, younger than 25 years, and unmarried were at the highest risk for homicide. Firearms were the most common (61.8%) method of death. A current or former intimate partner was the perpetrator in 54.5% (n=60) of homicide deaths and a nonpartner in 31.8% (n=35). If the cases (n=15) in which the victim-offender relationship could not be identified are excluded, 63.2% of homicides were committed by an intimate partner. Compared with homicides in which the perpetrator was not an intimate partner, a significantly higher percentage (P<.05) of intimate-partner homicides occurred at home (66.7% compared with 28.6%), among women who had completed more than 12 years of education (23.3% compared with 5.7%), and who were married (28.3% compared with 8.6%). Intimate-partner homicides were most prevalent (25.0%) during the first 3 months of pregnancy and least prevalent during the first 3 months postpartum (5.0%). The majority of pregnancy-associated homicides were committed by current or former intimate partners, most commonly during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Efforts to protect women from partners optimally should begin before conception or very early in pregnancy. III.

  11. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  12. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.

  13. The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia

    2013-09-07

    Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide. A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately. Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative. At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse

  14. Incidence and Risk Factors of Homicide–Suicide in Swiss Households: National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Zwahlen, Marcel; Spoerri, Adrian; Tal, Kali; Killias, Martin; Egger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Homicide–suicides are rare but catastrophic events. This study examined the epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Switzerland. Methods The study identified homicide–suicide events 1991–2008 in persons from the same household in the Swiss National Cohort, which links census and mortality records. The analysis examined the association of the risk of dying in a homicide–suicide event with socio-demographic variables, measured at the individual-level, household composition variables and area-level variables. Proportional hazards regression models were calculated for male perpetrators and female victims. Results are presented as age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results The study identified 158 deaths from homicide–suicide events, including 85 murder victims (62 women, 4 men, 19 children and adolescents) and 68 male and 5 female perpetrators. The incidence was 3 events per million households and year. Firearms were the most prominent method for both homicides and suicides. The risk of perpetrating homicide-suicide was higher in divorced than in married men (HR 3.64; 95%CI 1.56–8.49), in foreigners without permanent residency compared to Swiss citizens (HR 3.95; 1.52–10.2), higher in men without religious affiliations than in Catholics (HR 2.23; 1.14–4.36) and higher in crowded households (HR 4.85; 1.72–13.6 comparing ≥2 with <1 persons/room). There was no association with education, occupation or nationality, the number of children, the language region or degree of urbanicity. Associations were similar for female victims. Conclusions This national longitudinal study shows that living conditions associated with psychological stress and lower levels of social support are associated with homicide-suicide events in Switzerland. PMID:23326491

  15. On the averaging area for incident power density for human exposure limits at frequencies over 6 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yota; Hirata, Akimasa; Morimoto, Ryota; Aonuma, Shinta; Laakso, Ilkka; Jokela, Kari; Foster, Kenneth R.

    2017-04-01

    Incident power density is used as the dosimetric quantity to specify the restrictions on human exposure to electromagnetic fields at frequencies above 3 or 10 GHz in order to prevent excessive temperature elevation at the body surface. However, international standards and guidelines have different definitions for the size of the area over which the power density should be averaged. This study reports computational evaluation of the relationship between the size of the area over which incident power density is averaged and the local peak temperature elevation in a multi-layer model simulating a human body. Three wave sources are considered in the frequency range from 3 to 300 GHz: an ideal beam, a half-wave dipole antenna, and an antenna array. 1D analysis shows that averaging area of 20 mm  ×  20 mm is a good measure to correlate with the local peak temperature elevation when the field distribution is nearly uniform in that area. The averaging area is different from recommendations in the current international standards/guidelines, and not dependent on the frequency. For a non-uniform field distribution, such as a beam with small diameter, the incident power density should be compensated by multiplying a factor that can be derived from the ratio of the effective beam area to the averaging area. The findings in the present study suggest that the relationship obtained using the 1D approximation is applicable for deriving the relationship between the incident power density and the local temperature elevation.

  16. On the averaging area for incident power density for human exposure limits at frequencies over 6 GHz.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yota; Hirata, Akimasa; Morimoto, Ryota; Aonuma, Shinta; Laakso, Ilkka; Jokela, Kari; Foster, Kenneth R

    2017-02-08

    Incident power density is used as the dosimetric quantity to specify the restrictions on human exposure to electromagnetic fields at frequencies above 3 or 10 GHz in order to prevent excessive temperature elevation at the body surface. However, international standards and guidelines have different definitions for the size of the area over which the power density should be averaged. This study reports computational evaluation of the relationship between the size of the area over which incident power density is averaged and the local peak temperature elevation in a multi-layer model simulating a human body. Three wave sources are considered in the frequency range from 3 to 300 GHz: an ideal beam, a half-wave dipole antenna, and an antenna array. 1D analysis shows that averaging area of 20 mm  ×  20 mm is a good measure to correlate with the local peak temperature elevation when the field distribution is nearly uniform in that area. The averaging area is different from recommendations in the current international standards/guidelines, and not dependent on the frequency. For a non-uniform field distribution, such as a beam with small diameter, the incident power density should be compensated by multiplying a factor that can be derived from the ratio of the effective beam area to the averaging area. The findings in the present study suggest that the relationship obtained using the 1D approximation is applicable for deriving the relationship between the incident power density and the local temperature elevation.

  17. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  18. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices.

  19. "Surgically created" excision of the back mimicking homicide: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Janík, M; Novomeský, F; Straka, L; Krajčovič, J; Hejna, P

    2015-01-01

    Fatalities due to sharp force trauma, with respect to manner of death, may be homicidal, self-inflicted, or accidental in nature. This article presents a case of an unusual sharp force injury inflicted under very specific and seemingly obscured circumstances, initially suggestive of homicidal origin. A 69-year-old, socially isolated male was found dead with a strange, heavily blood-stained excision-like lesion on the right subscapular area. The autopsy confirmed that the wound led to fatal external blood loss. Toxicological analysis of the blood and urine revealed severe alcohol intoxication. The police investigation turned up that the man had suffered from a painful skin furuncle of the right upper back. As he was worried about receiving medical treatment, he voluntarily asked his two acquaintances for "surgical" assistance to remove the skin affection. Based on the circumstances surrounding death and findings at autopsy, it was concluded that the injury was inflicted without the intent to harm or cause death, as a result of simple negligence. Consequently, the manner of death was ultimately certified as an involuntary manslaughter. Our case has clearly illustrated that even highly suspicious and atypically shaped wounds created by sharp-edged instruments with localization in non-accessible body areas does not exclusively indicate homicidal activity, hence, the accidental, suicidal or even iatrogenic origin of the wounding mechanism must be taken into consideration.

  20. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants.

  1. Income inequality, trust and homicide in 33 countries.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Aitken, Nicole

    2011-04-01

    Theories of why income inequality correlates with violence suggest that inequality erodes social capital and trust, or inhibits investment into public services and infrastructure. Past research sensed the importance of these causal paths but few have examined them using tests of statistical mediation. We explored links between income inequality and rates of homicide in 33 countries and then tested whether this association is mediated by an indicator of social capital (interpersonal trust) or by public spending on health and education. Survey data on trust were collected from 48 641 adults and matched to country data on per capita income, income inequality, public expenditures on health and education and rate of homicides. Between countries, income inequality correlated with trust (r = -0.64) and homicide (r = 0.80) but not with public expenditures. Trust also correlated with homicides (r = -0.58) and partly mediated the association between income inequality and homicide, whilst public expenditures did not. Multilevel analysis showed that income inequality related to less trust after differences in per capita income and sample characteristics were taken into account. Results were consistent with psychosocial explanations of links between income inequality and homicide; however, the causal relationship between inequality, trust and homicide remains unclear given the cross-sectional design of this study. Societies with large income differences and low levels of trust may lack the social capacity to create safe communities.

  2. Neurocognitive Vulnerability: Suicidal and Homicidal Behaviours in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Orsat, Manuel; Dumais, Alexandre; Turecki, Gustavo; Jollant, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with an increase in the risk of both homicide and suicide. The objectives of this study were to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between neurocognitive deficits and suicidal or homicidal behaviours in schizophrenia, and to identify vulnerabilities in suicidal and homicidal behaviour that may share a common pathway in schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE to include all studies published up to August 31, 2012. Results: Among the 1760 studies, 7 neuropsychological and 12 brain imaging studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies were inconclusive. The structural imaging studies reported various alterations in patients with schizophrenia and a history of homicidal behaviour, including: reduced inferior frontal and temporal cortices, increased mediodorsal white matter, and increased amygdala volumes. Patients with a history of suicidal acts showed volumetric reductions in left orbitofrontal and superior temporal cortices, while right amygdala volume was increased, though, these findings have rarely been replicated. Finally, no study has directly compared neurocognitive markers of suicidal and homicidal risk. Conclusion: These results suggest that brain alterations, in addition to those associated with schizophrenia, may predispose some patients to a higher risk of homicide or suicide in particular circumstances. Moreover, some of these alterations may be shared between homicidal and suicidal patients. However, owing to several limitations, including the small number of available studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further investigations are necessary. PMID:24444320

  3. Open-Source Data and the Study of Homicide.

    PubMed

    Parkin, William S; Gruenewald, Jeff

    2015-07-20

    To date, no discussion has taken place in the social sciences as to the appropriateness of using open-source data to augment, or replace, official data sources in homicide research. The purpose of this article is to examine whether open-source data have the potential to be used as a valid and reliable data source in testing theory and studying homicide. Official and open-source homicide data were collected as a case study in a single jurisdiction over a 1-year period. The data sets were compared to determine whether open-sources could recreate the population of homicides and variable responses collected in official data. Open-source data were able to replicate the population of homicides identified in the official data. Also, for every variable measured, the open-sources captured as much, or more, of the information presented in the official data. Also, variables not available in official data, but potentially useful for testing theory, were identified in open-sources. The results of the case study show that open-source data are potentially as effective as official data in identifying individual- and situational-level characteristics, provide access to variables not found in official homicide data, and offer geographic data that can be used to link macro-level characteristics to homicide events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. An ecological study on suicide and homicide in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bando, Daniel Hideki; Lester, David

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate correlations between suicide, homicide and socio-demographic variables by an ecological study. Mortality and socio-demographic data were collected from official records of the Ministry of Health and IBGE (2010), aggregated by state (27). The data were analyzed using correlation techniques, factor analysis, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation and multiple linear regression. Suicide age-adjusted rates for the total population, men and women were 5.0, 8.0, and 2.2 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively. The suicide rates ranged from 2.7 in Pará to 9.1 in Rio Grande do Sul. Homicide for the total population, men and women were 27.2, 50.8, and 4.5 per 100,000, respectively. The homicide rates ranged from 13.0 in Santa Catarina to 68.9 in Alagoas. Suicide and homicide were negatively associated, the significance persisted among men. Unemployment was negatively correlated with suicide and positively with homicide. Different socio-demographic variables were found to correlate with suicide and homicide in the regressions. Suicide showed a pattern suggesting that, in Brazil, it is related to high socioeconomic status. Homicide seemed to follow the pattern found in other countries, associated with lower social and economic status.

  5. A case of suicidal suffocation simulating homicide.

    PubMed

    d'Aloja, Ernesto; De Giorgio, Fabio; Ausania, Francesco; Cascini, Fidelia

    2011-05-01

    This case concerns an unusual suicidal plastic bag suffocation. An elderly white man was found dead and partially disrobed in his apartment lying supine on a sofa with a plastic bag closed by a rope over the head and the upper and lower extremities tightly tied with two other ropes, the end of both arranged into slipknots (self-rescue mechanism). Police investigations found no pornography in the apartment, and circumstantial data alleged no psychiatric disorders or suicidal intentions. The autopsy excluded signs of struggle and sexual intercourse as well as any type of injury or physical illness. Chemical analyses on the peripheral blood excluded acute drugs and/or alcohol intoxication. A differential diagnosis of the manner of death was performed, including scenarios of accidental autoerotic asphyxiation, homicide during either sexual activity or ritualistic, elderly suicide. The collected data most strongly supported the hypothesis of a suicidal asphyxiation simulating homicide to devolve a life insurance to the victim's sons because of economic difficulties. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  7. [Multiple homicides--forensic and criminologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Padosch, Stephan A; Schmidt, Peter H; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    The interpretation of medicolegal findings in homicide is an important tool of case profiling (so-called "operative case analysis"). In 17 cases of "multiple homicides" involving 22 offenders (21 males, 1 female; mean age 33 years) and 45 victims (21 males, 24 females; mean age 35 years; 41 fatalities, 4 survivors), the autopsy reports and the prosecution authorities' files were retrospectively analysed with regard to individual characteristics of perpetrators and victims, circumstances, and mode of commitment in order to comprehensively characterise relevant forensic and criminologic aspects. 31 victims were found to belong to the close social environment of the perpetrator, and 32 killings were committed in the victim's, perpetrator's or the joint flat. The main motives included greed (n = 7), personal conflicts (n = 5) and concealing of a crime (n = 9). The relevant injuries were attributable to gunshot wounds (n = 13), sharp force (n = 11), blunt force (n = 3), ligature strangulation (n = 3), smothering (n = 6), fire/carbon monoxide (n = 2) and combined impacts (n = 7). In 12 victims, defense injuries were found. The blood alcohol concentration exceeded 1.5 g/l in 5 victims. In 5 offenders, a psychiatric impairment of juridical responsibility was assessed (and 20 German criminal code, n = 1, psychosis; and 21 German criminal code, n = 4; acute alcohol intoxication). As far as data were available, 16 crimes were judged as murder, 12 as manslaughter and one as physical injury with fatal outcome.

  8. Suspected paradoxical undressing in a homicide case.

    PubMed

    Kettner, Mattias; Schnabel, Axel; Ramsthaler, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Paradoxical undressing is a phenomenon associated with fatalities due to severe hypothermia, which is characterized by the act of active undressing, despite low ambient temperatures, as a consequence of peripheral vasodilation. A 51-year-old man was found lying naked and inanimate on a road. Articles of his clothing were scattered in surrounding bushes. A nearby handrail showed a partially washed away bloodstain pattern. A forensic autopsy was used to distinguish whether death was due to a hypothermic fatality or whether the deceased was a victim of an accident or homicide. Medicolegal autopsy revealed craniofacial dissociation with injuries to the thorax and extremities and established choking/asphyxia due to deep aspiration of blood in combination with external blood loss as the cause of death. In the absence of hypothermia-related signs and toxicological findings the case was considered to be a homicide. Police investigation led to the conviction of a man who confessed to having kicked and hit the victim and forced him to take off his clothes in a humiliation-related scenario.

  9. Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Silva-Antunes, Ilce; Morgado, Adilson de Aguiar; Menz, Ingrid; Palatnik, Marcos; Lavor, Carlile

    2009-06-02

    Leishmune, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune uninfected vaccinees. We also analyzed the possible additive effect of Leishmune vaccination over dog culling, on the decrease of the incidence of CVL and VL in two Brazilian endemic areas, from 2004 to 2006. In Araçatuba, a 25% of decline was seen in CVL with a 61% decline in human cases, indicating the additive effect of Leishmune vaccination of 5.7% of the healthy dogs (1419 dogs), on regular dog culling. In Belo Horizonte (BH), rising curves of canine and human incidence were observed in the districts of Barreiro, Venda Nova and Noroeste, while the canine and human incidence of Centro Sul, Leste, Nordeste, Norte, Pampulha and Oeste, started to decrease or maintained a stabilized plateau after Leishmune vaccination. Among the districts showing a percent decrease of human incidence (-36.5%), Centro Sul and Pampulha showed the highest dog vaccination percents (63.27% and 27.27%, respectively) and the lowest dog incidence (-3.36% and 1.89%, respectively). They were followed by Oeste, that vaccinated 25.30% of the animals and experienced an increase of only 12.86% of dog incidence and by Leste and Nordeste, with lower proportions of vaccinees (11.72% and 10.76%, respectively) and probably because of that, slightly higher canine incidences (42.77% and 35.73%). The only exception was found in Norte district where the reduced human and canine incidence were not correlated to Leishmune vaccination. Much lower proportions of dogs were vaccinated in Venda Nova (4.35%), Noroeste (10.27%) and Barreiro (0.09%) districts, which according to that exhibited very

  10. Firearm homicide and firearm suicide: opposite but equal.

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Schwab, C. William

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Homicide and suicide are intentional acts of violence that disproportionately involve firearms. Much more effort has been devoted to the ecological study of homicide; methods that have been developed to better understand and subsequently prevent homicide may be applicable to suicide. The purpose of the present study was to compare the occurrence of firearm homicide and firearm suicide using routine activity theory as a framework for analysis. METHODS: Detailed mortality data pertaining to decedents, their neighborhoods, and use of firearms were collected from 1994 to 1998 for the counties containing and surrounding three small to medium-sized U.S. cities. Data from a total of 468 neighborhoods that collectively experienced 1,025 intentional deaths from firearms (396 firearm homicides and 629 firearm suicides) were analyzed. RESULTS: Firearm homicide was consistently associated with out-of-home, nighttime activity in neighborhoods where many people were likely to be coming and going. In an opposite-but-equal fashion, firearm suicide was consistently associated with in-home, daytime activity in out-of-the-way neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Firearm homicide and firearm suicide were found to be consistently associated with markers of routine activity in all three cities, albeit in an opposite-but-equal manner. Because firearm suicides very often occur as lonely events in lonely neighborhoods, they may go under-noticed relative to firearm homicides. More awareness and additional public health studies of firearm suicide, in tandem with firearm homicide, should be pursued to better identify individuals and neighborhoods that are at greatest risk of experiencing each event. PMID:15192897

  11. The epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe age- and sex-specific rates of child homicide in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional mortuary-based study was conducted in a national sample of 38 medicolegal laboratories operating in 2009. These were sampled in inverse proportion to the number that were operational in each of three strata defined by autopsy volume: < 500, 500–1499 or > 1499 annual autopsies. Child homicide data were collected from mortuary files, autopsy reports and police interviews. Cause of death, evidence of abuse and neglect or of sexual assault, perpetrator characteristics and circumstances surrounding the death were investigated. Findings An estimated 1018 (95% confidence interval, CI: 843–1187) child homicides occurred in 2009, for a rate of 5.5 (95% CI: 4.6–6.4) homicides per 100 000 children younger than 18 years. The homicide rate was much higher in boys (6.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 5.6–8.3) than in girls (3.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 3.2–4.7). Child abuse and neglect had preceded nearly half (44.5%) of all homicides, but three times more often among girls than among boys. In children aged 15 to 17 years, the homicide rate among boys (21.7 per 100 000; 95% CI: 14.2–29.2) was nearly five times higher than the homicide rate among girls (4.6 per 100 000; 95% CI: 2.4–6.8). Conclusion South Africa’s child homicide rate is more than twice the global estimate. Since a background of child abuse and neglect is common, improvement of parenting skills should be part of primary prevention efforts. PMID:23940403

  12. Estimating the incidence of coeliac disease with capture-recapture methods within four geographic areas in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Corrao, G; Usai, P; Galatola, G; Ansaldi, N; Meini, A; Pelli, M A; Castellucci, G; Corazza, G R

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate of newly diagnosed cases of coeliac disease in Italy. DESIGN: This was a descriptive study of coeliac disease incidence in the period 1990-91. SETTING: During 1990-91 newly diagnosed cases of coeliac disease were signalled by several sources including diagnostic records of departments of paediatrics, general medicine and gastroenterology, national health service records for the supply of gluten free diets and the archives of the Italian Coeliac Society. PATIENTS: Altogether 1475 cases were flagged throughout Italy, 478 of whom were selected, corresponding to 270 individual patients from a target population resident in four areas: Provices of Turin and Cuneo (Piedmont Region, northern Italy); Province of Brescia (Lombardia Region, northern Italy); Umbria Region (central Italy) and Sardinia Region (insular Italy). Only for these areas were patients flagged from several sources and the reference population was identifiable. MAIN RESULTS: The overall crude incidence rates for all ages per 100,000 residents per year were 2.4, 2.7, 1.5, and 1.7 in the four areas, respectively. The childhood cumulative incidence rates (aged < or = 15 years) per 100,000 live births were 143, 141, 72, and 80 respectively. The mean ages at diagnosis were similar for both childhood and adult cases throughout the areas--these were around 4 and 34 years respectively. For each area, the incidence rate was constantly higher in the main city than elsewhere. Using the capture-recapture method, an estimated completeness of case archives of 0.84 was obtained, whereas this figure was only 0.47 for hospital sources. CONCLUSIONS: This population based study on the incidence of coeliac disease shows that several information sources should be used to avoid underestimation. The incidence rate of coeliac disease in Italy was among the highest in Europe, and was widely variable showing highest figures in Piedmont and Lombardia and the lowest in Umbria and

  13. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Goovaerts, Pierre; Nazia, Nushrat; Haq, M Zahirul; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab) of Bangladesh. Results The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences in spatial patterns, in

  14. Application of Poisson kriging to the mapping of cholera and dysentery incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Goovaerts, Pierre; Nazia, Nushrat; Haq, M Zahirul; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2006-10-13

    Disease maps can serve to display incidence rates geographically, to inform on public health provision about the success or failure of interventions, and to make hypothesis or to provide evidences concerning disease etiology. Poisson kriging was recently introduced to filter the noise attached to rates recorded over sparsely populated administrative units. Its benefit over simple population-weighted averages and empirical Bayesian smoothers was demonstrated by simulation studies using county-level cancer mortality rates. This paper presents the first application of Poisson kriging to the spatial interpolation of local disease rates, resulting in continuous maps of disease rate estimates and the associated prediction variance. The methodology is illustrated using cholera and dysentery data collected in a cholera endemic area (Matlab) of Bangladesh. The spatial analysis was confined to patrilineally-related clusters of households, known as baris, located within 9 kilometers from the Matlab hospital to avoid underestimating the risk of disease incidence, since patients far away from the medical facilities are less likely to travel. Semivariogram models reveal a range of autocorrelation of 1.1 km for dysentery and 0.37 km for cholera. This result translates into a cholera risk map that is patchier than the dysentery map that shows a large zone of high incidence in the south-central part of the study area, which is quasi-urban. On both maps, lower risk values are found in the Northern part of the study area, which is also the most distant from the Matlab hospital. The weaker spatial continuity of cholera versus dysentery incidence rates resulted in larger kriging variance across the study area. The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of incidence rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the associated uncertainty. Differences in spatial patterns, in particular the range of spatial

  15. Repercussions of homicide on victims' families: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniella Harth da; Njaine, Kathie; Schenker, Miriam

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to perform a integrative literature review on the repercussion of homicide on victims' families from 1990 to June 2015. It was noted that the majority of studies on the subject has been conducted in the United States. Fewer studies carried out in Brazil and in other countries have been located. Four main themes have been identified: impact on health, the family system in the post-homicide period, re-victimization factors and post-homicide facilitating aspects. Findings of this study point to the importance of interdisciplinary care focused on this public, considering their health, social, financial and legal needs.

  16. Church, place, and crime: Latinos and homicide in new destinations.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Edward S; Winters, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are moving beyond traditional areas and settling in new, potentially disorganized destinations. Without an established immigrant community, new destinations appear to rely more on the local religious ecology to regulate community life and to keep crime low. We examine the link between religious ecology and Latino homicide victimization for traditional and new destination counties. We observe four findings. (1) A Catholic presence has no effect on Latino violence in the old and well-organized traditional settlement areas. But in new Latino settlement areas, a Catholic presence substantially lowers violence against Latinos. In contrast, mainline Protestantism is linked to high levels of violence against Latinos in new destinations. (2) Previous claims that Latino communities are safe do not apply to new destinations, where Latinos are murdered at a high rate. (3) Previous claims that areas with high Latino immigration are safe for Latinos are not true for new destinations. (4) New Latino destinations offer little insulation from the effects of economic deprivation on violence. We discuss the implications of the findings.

  17. Intra- and extra-familial child homicide in Sweden 1992-2012: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Jonatan; Masterman, Thomas; Sturup, Joakim

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown decreasing child homicide rates in many countries - in Sweden mainly due to a drop in filicide-suicides. This study examines the rate of child homicides during 21 years, with the hypothesis that a decline might be attributable to a decrease in the number of depressive filicide offenders (as defined by a proxy measure). In addition, numerous characteristics of child homicide are presented. All homicide incidents involving 0-14-year-old victims in Sweden during 1992-2012 (n = 90) were identified in an autopsy database. Data from multiple registries, forensic psychiatric evaluations, police reports, verdicts and other sources were collected. Utilizing Poisson regression, we found a 4% annual decrease in child homicides, in accordance with prior studies, but no marked decrease regarding the depressive-offender proxy. Diagnoses from forensic psychiatric evaluations (n = 50) included substance misuse (8%), affective disorders (10%), autism-spectrum disorders (18%), psychotic disorders (28%) and personality disorders (30%). Prior violent offences were more common among offenders in filicides than filicide-suicides (17.8% vs. 6.9%); and about 20% of offenders in each group had previously received psychiatric inpatient care. Aggressive methods of filicide predominated among fathers. Highly lethal methods of filicide (firearms, fire) were more commonly followed by same-method suicide than less lethal methods. Interestingly, a third of the extra-familial offenders had an autism-spectrum disorder. Based on several findings, e.g., the low rate of substance misuse, the study concludes that non-traditional risk factors for violence must be highlighted by healthcare providers. Also, the occurrence of autism-spectrum disorders in the present study is a novel finding that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Spousal homicide and the subsequent staging of a sexual homicide at a distant location.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid

    2002-03-01

    The case of a 63-year-old man who killed his 52-year-old wife and then staged a sexual homicide at a distant location is reported. A review of all evidence, a forensic psychological interview, and psychological testing indicated that the murder was the result of a narcissistic rage reaction during which the subject beat his wife to death with a paint can, a clothing iron, and a rock. He then drove her body to a field 87.3 miles away, and positioned it in a manner that exposed her breasts and her underwear. He turned himself into the police two days later. There is no controlled empirical research on staging, although this single case supports the criminal investigative theory that staging exists, and is done to deliberately mislead homicide investigations (Douglas et al., 1992).

  19. High Rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Socially Marginalized Immigrants in Low-Incidence Area, 1991–2010, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mercadante, Silvio; Pareek, Manish; Lalvani, Ajit; Bugiani, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Migration from low- and middle-income countries to high-income countries increasingly determines the severity of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the adopted country. Socially marginalized groups, about whom little is known, may account for a reservoir of TB among the immigrant populations. We investigated the rates of and risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, infection, and disease in a cohort of 27,358 socially marginalized immigrants who were systematically screened (1991–2010) in an area of Italy with low TB incidence. Overall TB and latent TB infection prevalence and annual tuberculin skin testing conversion rates (i.e., incidence of new infection) were 2.7%, 34.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. Prevalence of both TB and latent TB infection and incidence of infection increased as a function of the estimated TB incidence in the immigrants’ countries of origin. Annual infection incidence decreased with time elapsed since immigration. These findings have implications for control policy and immigrant screening in countries with a low prevalence of TB. PMID:23965807

  20. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim.

  1. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Aspelund, Thor; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Background Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. Methods The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. Results The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12–1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22–3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23–1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22–1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03–2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21–1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38–3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35–1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. Conclusions The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate

  2. [Map of homicides by firearms: profile of the victims and the assaults].

    PubMed

    Trindade, Ruth França Cizino da; Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; Silva, Patrícia de Paula Alves Costa da; Caminiti, Gustavo Bussi; Santos, Claudia Benedita dos

    2015-10-01

    Describing the profile of victims and assaults by gunshot, where the outcome was death. An ecological study conducted in the city of Maceió/AL, in 2012. Data were collected from the death statements. The variables studied were: the death circumstances, gender, age, marital status, place, date, time, month and proportion according to the occurring neighborhood. The homicide mortality rate was 65.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, with 130.6 per 100,000 men and 7.8 per 100,000 women. Of the total number of homicides, 93.6% of the victims were men. The age group between 15 and 29 years of age was the most affected, with 68.8%. In 97.6% of cases the death occurred at the site of aggression, 74.1% in the streets. In relation to the date, 54.2% of cases occurred between Friday and Sunday. 59.7% of the homicides were concentrated in seven neighborhoods. The map of violence presented shows heterogeneous areas for the occurrence of assaults with firearms, characterizing the existing urban inequality in violence distribution.

  3. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M.; Melde, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. Methods. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit’s investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Results. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. Conclusions. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26270315

  4. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    PubMed

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  5. Characteristics of sex-related homicides in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Henry, Tara

    2010-01-01

    The identification and interpretation of anogenital findings postmortem is a critical component of a sex-related homicide investigation. The use of a colposcope to assist in identifying anogenital injuries in living sexual assault victims is well established. The use of a colposcope for postmortem anogenital examination has been briefly mentioned in a few publications, however, no studies were found regarding the types and sites of postmortem anogenital injuries identified with a colposcope in sex-related homicide cases. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic, physical examination, and victim-suspect relationship characteristics of sex-related homicides in Alaska. Genital findings in living and deceased sexual assault victims in Alaska were compared. Given the results of this study, postmortem sexual assault examinations should be conducted in all suspected intimate partner homicides. Further implications for forensic nursing practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  6. Homicide law reform: Coke v Bumble - revisited and reassessed.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Sarah; Prins, Herschel

    2011-10-01

    This contribution is a sequel to an earlier paper in the journal by the second author. It examines the Government's remit to the Law Commission to suggest revision to the law relating to homicide, and the eventual somewhat muted implementation in the Coroners and Justice Act of 2009. These changes to the law of homicide, and more specifically the revisions to the partial defences of diminished responsibility and provocation, are critically reviewed, and are discussed in light of the future of homicide law reform. It is argued that more radical reform to the substantive law of homicide is needed, but this article also discusses the problems of implementing this more radical reform given the Government's reluctance to remove the mandatory life sentence for murder.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence: A Rare Case of Reciprocal Homicide.

    PubMed

    Cauchois, Aurélie; Paraire, François; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2017-03-23

    We present the case of a reciprocal homicide by stabbing that occurred within an unmarried couple without known history of spousal violence. Each partner killed the other one at the same time and at the same place using kitchen knives. They were both found dead at home lying on the floor after the neighbors heard an argument and screams coming from the couple's apartment, so they called the police and the fire department. The door was locked from the inside, and the fire department was forced to break the door. Two kitchen knives supporting blood traces were found at the scene. At autopsy, both bodies showed multiple stab wounds, and the lethal ones were due to heart injuries. Defense injuries were also found in both bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first case of reciprocal homicide described in the literature. Other manners of death are discussed, including homicide by a third party, homicide-suicide, and suicide pact.

  8. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2006-12-01

    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders.

  9. Inquests into London and Middlesex Homicides, 1675-1782

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    Depositions for coroners' inquests on 377 deaths, nearly all of them homicides, were reviewed and analyzed for reported causes and circumstances of death. The role of coroner and surgeon and the emergence of the medicolegal autopsy are considered. PMID:331696

  10. An analysis of Korean homicide crime-scene actions.

    PubMed

    Salfati, C Gabrielle; Park, Jisun

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have focused on how different styles of homicides will be reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at a crime scene. It is suggested that these different types of behaviors best be understood using two frameworks, expressive/instrumental aggression and planned/unplanned violence, to analyze the way the offender acts at the crime scene. Multidimensional analysis is carried out on the crime-scene actions of 70 Korean homicides. The proposed frameworks are found to be a useful way of classifying homicide offenses, assigning 80% of homicides to a dominant theme. Results also indicate that behavioral differences can be related to the differences in the offender-victim relationship. Finally, implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.

  12. A test of two typologies of sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Lindsay A; Krupp, Daniel Brian; Lalumière, Martin L

    2013-02-01

    Published typologies of sexual homicide lack theoretical grounding and empirical support. They also conceptualize the phenomenon of sexual homicide as somewhat discrete, though offenders are not typically specialists. Here, we propose a model that situates the phenomenon of sexual killing into broader categories of antisocial behavior, positing three types of perpetrators of serial sexual homicides: competitively disadvantaged, psychopathic, and sadistic offenders. Using biographical data of 82 serial sexual homicide offenders, we tested our model as well as the influential organized/disorganized model. Principal components analysis produced five components consisting of offender and offense characteristics, and cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of perpetrators (sadistic offenders, competitively disadvantaged offenders, and slashers), as well as a fourth, heterogeneous group; this cluster solution, however, may be unstable. In summary, there is only mixed support for either model.

  13. Rorschach object relations of adolescents who committed homicide.

    PubMed

    Greco, C M; Cornell, D G

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the object relations of adolescents who committed homicide. A clinical sample of 55 adolescents who committed homicide did not differ from a comparison group of nonviolent delinquents on Rorschach measures of object differentiation, mutuality of autonomy, and aggressive content. However, the subgroup of adolescents who committed homicides in the context of another crime (e.g., robbery or burglary) did manifest significantly lower object relations (poorer object differentiation and more victim responses) than the subgroup of adolescents whose homicides were committed in the context of an interpersonal conflict or dispute with the victim. These findings support the need for differentiated classification of violent individuals as urged by Megargee (1970) over 20 years ago.

  14. [Homicide-suicide: Clinical review and psychological assumptions].

    PubMed

    Vandevoorde, J; Estano, N; Painset, G

    2017-08-01

    Suicide-homicide could be defined as a "suicidal" behaviour, which also includes the death of at least one other individual and sometimes up to hundreds. This literature review intends to highlight some characteristic features that might be found amongst the various types of suicide-homicide. It is a complex phenomenon which can occur in different situations, from a familial and somehow intimate setting (filicide, uxoricide, marital homicide…) to a public one (workplace shooting, school shooting), including a wide range of victims, from a single victim in marital cases of suicide-homicide to hundreds of victims in certain types, such as suicide by aircraft or warrior-like multi-homicids in terrorist acts. This literature review offers a combination of data emanating from scientific publications and case studies from our practices in an attempt to insulate some common factors. A thorough examination of the offenses unravels complex processes, ideations, M.O and peculiar cognitive impairments in which the familial suicide-homicide could be rooted. Mass murders might be caused also by a psychopathological alloy, made of Grandiose Self and sub-depressive and even paranoid ideations. Concerning the terrorism and multi-homicide-suicide, this is far more complex phenomenon and is defined by a group-process enrolment and ideological conviction. Beyond epidemiological studies, both descriptive and statistical, this paper's objective is to isolate a hypothesis about a psychopathological ground from which a criminological mechanism could emerge. Despite the lack of blatant psychosis, some traits might be identified in suicide-homicide cases - such as paranoid, psychopathic, narcissistic, melancholic - which can intertwine, potentiate one with another forming a distorted view of the world. The offense dynamic is possibly composed of preparatory behaviours, triggers, the use of death as a narcissistic support, identity choices… METHODS: The data were collected from

  15. [Female intimate partner homicide: clinical and criminological issues].

    PubMed

    Cechova-Vayleux, E; Leveillee, S; Lhuillier, J-P; Garre, J-B; Senon, J-L; Richard-Devantoy, S

    2013-12-01

    Female intimate partner homicide (FIPH) is a fatal complication of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of male perpetrators of FIPH and to compare them to the perpetrators of extrafamilial homicide and the perpetrators of intrafamilial homicide other than FIPH. Between 1975 and 2005, 32 FIPH were perpetrated in the region of Angers (France), and these were compared to 26 intrafamilial homicides other than FIPH and to 97 extrafamilial homicides perpetrated in the same period, in the same region. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological data were collected from psychiatric expert reports and medical files. The mean age of the FIPH perpetrators was 37.8years. They were professionally active, in majority as manual workers. They had a psychiatric record (69%), a previous criminal record (31%), and a history of violence against others (47%). Half of these perpetrators also had experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18. Compared to extrafamilial homicide perpetrators, FIPH perpetrators occupied more frequently a manual job and had prior criminal records less frequently. In the majority of cases of FIPH and intrafamilial homicide, the murder occurred in the evening, at the victim's home, and while the perpetrator was intoxicated. FIPH was mostly premeditated and was accompanied four times less frequently by another criminal behaviour compared to extrafamilial homicide. The FIPH perpetrators had more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations when committing the crime and remained on the crime scene more often than extrafamilial homicide perpetrators who mostly attempted to flee the crime scene. FIPH perpetrators and extra- and intrafamilial homicide perpetrators were found criminally responsible in half of the cases. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of FIPH perpetrators were not statistically different from those of perpetrators of

  16. Ritual and signature in serial sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Kassen, Martin; Mesa, V Blair; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ritual and signature are fantasy-driven, repetitive crime scene behaviors that have been found to occur in serial sexual homicide. Notwithstanding numerous anecdotal case reports, ritual and signature have rarely been studied empirically. In a national sample of 38 offenders and their 162 victims, we examined behavioral and thematic consistency, as well as the evolution and uniqueness of these crime scene actions. The notion that serial sexual murderers engage in the same rituals and leave unique signatures at every scene was not supported by our data. In fact, the results suggest that the crime scene conduct of this group of offenders is fairly complex and varied. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and criminal investigations are discussed.

  17. Student homicidal violence in schools: an international problem.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized.

  18. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem.

  19. Child and adolescent homicide survivors. Complicated grief and altered worldviews.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Gloria J; Clements, Paul T

    2003-01-01

    The act of homicide may influence the worldviews of children and adolescents. Problematic beliefs of uncertainty, inadequacy, perceiving the world as dangerous, self-denial, and lack of control can contribute to complicated grief in children and adolescents, and can potentially disrupt their normal psychosocial growth and development. Mental health professionals' understanding of grief after the homicide of a family member enhances their ability to intervene with and support young people struggling to cope with and adapt to a sudden loss.

  20. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in corn from the high-incidence area for human hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, F Q; Yoshizawa, T; Kawamura, O; Luo, X Y; Li, Y W

    2001-08-01

    A comparative study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins was conducted with corn samples from high- and low-incidence areas for human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) in Guangxi, China. In samples from the high-risk area, aflatoxin B(1) was the predominant toxin detected in terms of quantity and frequency, with its concentration ranging between 9 and 2496 microg/kg and an 85% incidence of contamination. Among the samples, 13 (76%) exceeded the Chinese regulation of 20 microg/kg for aflatoxin B(1) in corn and corn-based products intended for human consumption. Significant differences in aflatoxin B(1), B(2), and G(1) and total aflatoxin concentrations in corn between the areas were found (P < 0.05). The average daily intake of aflatoxin B(1) from corn in the high-risk area was 184.1 microg, and the probable daily intake is estimated to be 3.68 microg/kg of body weight/day, 3.20 times the TD(50) in rats. Corn samples from both areas were simultaneously contaminated with fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3). Aflatoxin B(1) may play an important role in the development of PHC in Guangxi.

  1. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  2. Homicide-suicide events in Southwestern Croatia, 1986-2009.

    PubMed

    Cengija, Morana; Cuculic, Drazen; Petaros, Anja; Sosa, Ivan; Bosnar, Alan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of homicide-suicide events in Southwestern Croatia from 1986-2009 relying on autopsy reports of the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, Rijeka and police records. A total of 17 cases involving 19 victims were identified. The perpetrators were most often men (82%), living in a spousal relationship with the victim. In 76.5% cases, suicide was committed immediately after homicide, and the same mean (most often an illegal firearm) was used for both. After examining the belongings of those involved in homicide-suicides, two factors differentiated our study from others, i.e. more victims and perpetrators were from the lower socioeconomic class and explosives were used in two homicide-suicide (12%) cases. The greater frequency of explosive used in homicide-suicide events may be a result of factors associated with the recent war fought in Croatia. These data prove the influence of sociological, historical and also political factors on the characteristics of a rare event such as homicide-suicide.

  3. Homicide in Adana, Turkey: a 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Ahmet; Cekin, Nemci; Gülmen, Mete K; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Karanfil, Ramazan

    2005-06-01

    Violence is a significant public health problem. Thus, so as to prevent this problem, homicide, the severest form of violence depriving a human being of his right to live, deserves a detailed examination. This study is a retrospective research examining the 2951 cases of medicolegal autopsies in Adana during a period of 5 years (1997-2001). Among these cases, 620, which were determined to be homicidal, were taken into the scope of this study. The cases were examined with respect to sex, age groups, the method used during the act of homicide, the number and the localization of the wounds on the body. A total of 620 (21%) of the medicolegal autopsies conducted within this period were homicides. Of these cases, 515 (83.06%) were male and 105 (16.94%) female, and the rate of the males to females was 4.9; 72.74% of the victims were between the ages of 21 and 50. It was seen that 54.83% of the homicides involved firearms, while 35.16% of the victims were stabbed to death with a cutting object. It was also determined that the victims suffered a single wound in 47.35% of firearm-related murders and 29.35% of stabbings resulted in death. Alcohol was found in the blood of 7.58% of the homicide victims, while none had any illicit drugs.

  4. Major mental disorders, gender, and criminological circumstances of homicide.

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Bouyer-Richard, Anne-Isabelle; Annweiler, Cédric; Gourevitch, Raphaël; Jollant, Fabrice; Olie, Jean-Pierre; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Lhuillier, Jean-Paul; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    To examine the criminological circumstances of homicide in a group of French murderers with and without major mental disorders (MMD) stratified by the perpetrator's gender. Sociodemographic, clinical, and criminological variables were collected from the psychiatric expert reports of 210 cases of homicide heard at the High Court of Angers, France. Murderers were categorized according to MMD diagnosis and gender. Among 210 murderers, 17.6% (n = 37) had a MMD (20% of the female perpetrators). Logistic regression models showed that being a murderer with a MMD was associated with younger age (adjusted Odds Ratio OR = 1.03, P = 0.034), high school education (OR = 2.48, P = 0.036), previous use of psychiatric services (OR = 4.75, P = 0.003), alcohol intoxication (OR = 2.71, P = 0.027), and delusional state (OR = 3.96, P = 0.002) at the time of the homicide. Multiple correspondence analyses showed that female murderers with a MMD were more prone to have depression and to use drowning as a method than those without a MMD, and that male murderers with a MMD more often had a high school education and delusional beliefs at the time of the homicide than those without a MMD. Specific profiles of criminological circumstances of homicide could help to explore the risk of homicide in female and male patients with a MMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimate partner homicide methods in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian relationships.

    PubMed

    Mize, Krystal D; Shackelford, Todd K

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the killing method used in homicides may reflect the motivation of the offender and qualities of the victim-offender relationship. The effect of gender and sexual orientation of intimate partner homicide offenders (N = 51,007) was examined with respect to the brutality of killing methods. Guided by previous research and theory, it was hypothesized that homicide brutality will vary with the offender's sexual orientation and gender, such that the percentage of killings coded as brutal will be higher for (a) gay and lesbian relative to heterosexual relations, (b) men relative to women, (c) gay relative to heterosexual men, and (d) lesbian relative to heterosexual women. The rates of intimate partner homicide were also hypothesized to vary with the gender of the partners, such that (a) homicide rates will be higher in gay relative to heterosexual and lesbian couples and (b) homicide rates will be lowest in lesbian couples. The results support all but one prediction derived from the two hypotheses. We predicted that men would kill their partners more brutally than would women, but the results indicate that the opposite is true.

  6. Psychopathology among homicidally bereaved individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research.

  7. Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Enriqueta; Heise, Katy; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-11-15

    We assessed population incidence rates 1998-2002 and 5-year survival rates of 317 primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) entered in the population-based cancer registry in Valdivia. We analyzed GBC incidence (Poisson regression) and GBC survival (Cox regression). Cases were identified by histology (69.4%), clinical work-up (21.8%), or death certificate only (8.8%). Main symptoms were abdominal pain (82.8%), jaundice (53.6%) nausea (42.6%), and weight loss (38.2%); at diagnosis, 64% had Stage TNM IV. In the period, 4% of histopathological studies from presumptively benign cholecystectomies presented GBC. GBC cases were mainly females (76.0%), urban residents (70.3%), Hispanic (83.7%) of low schooling <4 years (64.0%). GBC standardized incidence rate per 100,000 (SIR) were all 17.5 (95%CI: 15.5-19.4), women 24.3, and men 8.6 (p < 0.00001); Mapuche 25.0, Hispanic 16.2 (p = 0.09). The highest SIRs were in Mapuche (269.2) and Hispanic women (199.6) with <4 years of schooling. Lowest SIRs were among Hispanic men (19.8) and women (21.9) with >8 years of schooling. Low schooling, female and urban residence were independent risk factors. By December 31, 2007, 6 (1.9%) cases were living, 280 (88.3%) died from GBC, 32 (10.1%) were lost of follow-up. Kaplan Meier Global 5-year survival was: 10.3%, 85% at stage I and 1.9% at stage IV; median survival: 3.4 months. Independent poor prognostic factors were TNM IV, jaundice and nonincidental diagnoses. Our results suggest that women of Mapuche ancestry with low schooling (>50 years) are at the highest risk of presenting and dying from GBC and should be the target for early detection programs.

  8. Young guns: an empirical study of persons who use a firearm in a suicide or a homicide

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, S.; Berk, R.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—The purpose of this investigation was to identify population groups at highest risk of using a firearm in a fatal incident. Setting—Los Angeles County (California, USA). Methods—Data were gathered from vital statistics reports and law enforcement records on the characteristics of suicide victims (n = 4799) and homicide suspects (n = 5369) from 1990 through 1994. Logistic regression was used to identify characteristics of the actor/perpetrator that were associated with firearm use. Results—Persons less than 21 years old and males were more likely to use a firearm to kill themselves or someone else. Even when their other demographic attributes and characteristics of the incident itself were taken into consideration, persons under the age of 18 were substantially more likely than those 21 or more years old to use a firearm in the commission of a homicide (adjusted odds ratio = 2.59). Asians were less likely than white people to use a firearm in the commission of a suicide, whereas black people, Hispanics, and Asians were more likely than whites to use a firearm in the commission of a homicide. Conclusions—The US enacts and enforces some policies differentially by age. These data support the idea that such an approach may be warranted when addressing fatalities associated with the use of a firearm. Of particular interest, given minimum age requirements for firearm purchases, is the source of the weapons themselves. PMID:10628917

  9. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    PubMed

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  10. Toxicology and circumstances of death of homicide victims in New South Wales, Australia 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan

    2008-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and circumstances of psychoactive substances amongst homicide victims, 485 consecutive cases autopsied at the NSW Department of Forensic Medicine (1/1/1996-12/31/2005) were analyzed. Substances were detected in 62.6% of cases, and illicit drugs in 32.8%. Alcohol, cannabis, opioids, and psychostimulants were most commonly detected. Alcohol and cannabis were both more prevalent amongst males. Mean ages were significantly younger for decedents who tested positive for a substance and for an illicit drug. Cases where death resulted from a physical altercation were more likely to have had alcohol and cannabis present. Illicit drugs were prominent amongst firearms deaths. The proportion of alcohol positive cases increased from 25.0% on Monday to 49.4% for Saturdays/Sundays. Alcohol was more common in incidents in the 0001-0600 h and 1800-2400 h periods. Psychoactive substances appear to substantially increase the risk of homicide, although there are important differences between drug classes in the circumstances of such incidents.

  11. A report from Fukushima: an assessment of bone health in an area affected by the Fukushima nuclear plant incident.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takeaki; Ito, Kazuo; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ochi, Sae; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2013-11-01

    Bone health was assessed for inhabitants of an area affected by the Fukushima nuclear plant incident. Osteoporotic patients, who had been treated with active vitamin D3 and/or bisphosphonate at Soma Central Hospital before the Fukushima incident, were enrolled. Changes in bone turnover markers and bone mineral density were retrospectively analyzed. Serum levels of a bone resorption marker, serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide were decreased in all the treated groups, whereas those of a bone formation marker, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, were increased. Accordingly, bone mineral density, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, was increased in the lumbar spine of all groups, but bone mass increase in the proximal femur was detected only in the group treated with the two agents in combination. From the degree of these parameter changes, the antiosteoporotic treatments looked effective and were equivalent to the expected potency of past observations. At this stage, the present study implies that the Fukushima nuclear incident did not bring an acute risk to bone health in the affected areas.

  12. U.S. spousal homicide rates by racial composition of marriage.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John M

    2015-09-01

    American spousal homicide rates persistently and substantially vary by racial composition of the married couple. Analyses examined different racial couple types' spousal homicide rates in light of nonspousal homicide victimization and offending rates and couple types' average social, demographic, and economic characteristics. Analyses used 2003 to 2007 spousal homicide data from Supplementary Homicide Reports for which missing data have been multiply imputed. Current Population Survey data provided estimates of the number and average characteristics of different couple types. Log-linear models related couple types' differing spousal homicide rates to different race-sex groups' general rates of homicide victimization and offending and couple types' average characteristics. Among couple types with at least 50,000 couples, annual rates of male-on-female spousal homicide ranged from 0.95 to 8.76 per 100,000 couples; for female-on-male spousal homicide, this range was 0.13 to 2.29. Rates somewhat reflect different race-sex groups' nonspousal homicide activity, but with greater gender disparity and an excess of spousal homicide in some couple types. The association between victim's and offender's race is parsimoniously described by models using couple types' average characteristics (proportion with female's education exceeding the male's, proportion in central cities, and relative frequency). General homicidal-violence reduction strategies may partly apply to spousal homicide, but specifically targeted efforts are required too. Interventions must address different couple types' particular social, economic, and cultural experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Firearm Laws and Firearm Homicides: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lois K; Fleegler, Eric W; Farrell, Caitlin; Avakame, Elorm; Srinivasan, Saranya; Hemenway, David; Monuteaux, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    Firearm homicide is a leading cause of injury death in the United States, and there is considerable debate over the effectiveness of firearm policies. An analysis of the effectiveness of firearm laws on firearm homicide is important to understand optimal policies to decrease firearm homicide in the United States. To evaluate the association between firearm laws and preventing firearm homicides in the United States. We evaluated peer-reviewed articles from 1970 to 2016 focusing on the association between US firearm laws and firearm homicide. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Lexis/Nexis, Sociological Abstracts, Academic Search Premier, the Index to Legal Periodicals and Books, and the references from the assembled articles. We divided laws into 5 categories: those that (1) curb gun trafficking, (2) strengthen background checks, (3) improve child safety, (4) ban military-style assault weapons, and (5) restrict firearms in public places and leniency in firearm carrying. The articles were assessed using the standardized Guide to Community Preventive Services data collection instrument and 5 additional quality metrics: (1) appropriate data source(s) and outcome measure(s) were used for the study, (2) the time frame studied was adequate, (3) appropriate statistical tests were used, (4) the analytic results were robust, and (5) the disaggregated results of control variables were consistent with the literature. In the aggregate, stronger gun policies were associated with decreased rates of firearm homicide, even after adjusting for demographic and sociologic factors. Laws that strengthen background checks and permit-to-purchase seemed to decrease firearm homicide rates. Specific laws directed at firearm trafficking, improving child safety, or the banning of military-style assault weapons were not associated with changes in firearm homicide rates. The evidence for laws restricting guns in public places and leniency in gun carrying was mixed. The strength of firearm legislation in

  14. Estimating the incidence of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides in a defined population in Northern Savo area in 2010.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Marjoniemi, O; Niinisalo, H; Kononoff, A; Arstila, L; Savolainen, E; Rutanen, J; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-07-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the annual incidence and distribution of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides during 2010. All units practicing rheumatology in the Northern Savo area, Finland, participated in the study by collecting data on newly diagnosed adult patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease or vasculitis over 1-year period. Seventy-two cases with autoimmune connective tissue disease were identified. The annual incidence rates were as follows: systemic lupus erythematosus 3.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1.4-7.0), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 1.9 (0.5-5.0), systemic sclerosis 4.4 (2.0-8.3), mixed connective tissue disease 1.0 (0.1-3.5), Sjögren's syndrome 10.7 (6.7-16.1) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease 13.6 (9.0-19.6). The annual incidence rates among vasculitis category were as follows: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 1.5/100,000 (95 % CI 0.3-4.3), central nervous system vasculitis 0.5 (0-2.7) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura 1.5 (0.3-4.3). The annual incidence of giant cell arteritis in the age group of 50 years or older was 7.5/100,000 (95 % CI 3.2-14.8). The longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis occurred in systemic sclerosis. The incidences of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides were comparable with those in published literature. The present study showed female predominance in all connective tissue diseases, excluding idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases and mean age at onset of disease around 50 years of age. Despite improved diagnostic tools, diagnostic delay is long especially among patients with systemic sclerosis.

  15. [Municipal distribution of the incidence of the most common tumours in an area with high cancer mortality].

    PubMed

    Viñas Casasola, Manuel Jesús; Fernández Navarro, Pablo; Fajardo Rivas, María Luisa; Gurucelain Raposo, José Luis; Alguacil Ojeda, Juan

    To describe the geographic distribution patterns of the municipal incidence of the most common tumours in the Huelva province (Spain) as compared to the estimated incidence for all of Spain. Relative risk (RR) was computed based on the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié by applying the INLA tool to the cancer data for 2007-2011 for the following tumour locations: colon, rectum and anus (men and women); trachea, bronchia, and lungs, prostate and bladder in men; and breasts in women. The RR was presented in in choropleth and isopleth (with kriging interpolation) risk maps. RR for bladder cancer in men was greater than 1.0 in all municipalities, with confidence intervals over 1.0 in four municipalities; Madrid having a 1.56 RR (95%CI 1.30-1.67). For prostate cancer, a posteriori probabilities were below 0.1 in 68 of the 79 municipalities. For lung cancer, nine municipalities had confidence limits below 1.0, almost all of them in western Spain. For women, the RR for breast cancer was significantly higher in the capital of province area. The cancer incidence rates for the Huelva province were, in general, similar to those estimated for Spain, standing out bladder cancer in men (35% higher) and prostate cancer (30% lower). In the Huelva province, there is a geographical municipal distribution of cancer incidence with well-defined patterns for some specific tumour locations, with overall incidence rates very similar to those in the rest of Spain. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  17. [The incidence of Culicidae in an urban area of Ciudad de La Habana during 1995].

    PubMed

    Marquetti, M C; Núñez, N; Aguilera, L; Fuentes, O; Navarro, A

    1998-01-01

    In the present paper it is made an analysis of the incidence of culicides in the municipality of Marianao, Havana City, during 1995, after following the requirements of the National Program for the Eradication of Aedes aegypti. 6 species of mosquitoes were found in the municipality, with a predominance of the Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes mediovittatus species. 4 focuses of Aedes aegypti were detected during this period. It was found that the groups of deposits preferred by the culicides for their breeding in this municipality were other deposits, low tanks, artificial deposits and larva traps. The People's Councils 4 and 5 (Libertad and Pogolotti) had the highest number of focuses (967 and 1,240, respectively, and therefore, they need more attention. It is analyzed the influence of the deficiencies of the public services, such as the collection of solid, wastes (garbage) and the existence of leakages and sewing overflows, on the proliferation of mosquitoes in the municipality.

  18. Increased incidence of childhood leukemia in urban areas: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Costanzini, Sofia; Fabbri, Sara; Tezzi, Sergio; Palazzi, Giovanni; Arcolin, Elisa; Vinceti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a population-based case-control study to assess the possibility of an excess risk of childhood leukemia in urban areas, independently from road traffic pollution. Study subjects were the 111 cases of childhood leukemia diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 among residents of two provinces of the northern Italian Emilia-Romagna region, and 444 controls matched by age and sex. Through mapping of the region carried out by remote sensing, we examined the percentage of urban or rural area in the 100-meter circular buffer around each child's house. We also modeled annual average exposure to benzene and PM10 from vehicular traffic at each residence. In a multivariate model adjusting for benzene and PM10, the odds ratio of leukemia associated with residence in a highly urbanized area and residential area (≥95% land use of this type near the child's home) was 1.4 (95% confidence intervals 0.8-2.4) and 1.3 (0.8-2.2), respectively. An increased risk was also found in association with the proximity to «dumps, scrap yards, and building sites». No association emerged with residence in rural areas or near industrial plants. These results indicate that children living in urban areas experience an excess leukemia risk, independently from exposure to pollutants from vehicles.

  19. Drug and alcohol use as determinants of New York City homicide trends from 1990 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, A Kenneth J; Wallace, Zachary; Tracy, Melissa; Piper, Tinka Markham; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2005-03-01

    In this population-level study, we analyzed how well changes in drug and alcohol use among homicide victims explained declining homicide rates in New York City between 1990 and 1998. Victim demographics, cause of death, and toxicology were obtained for all homicide (N = 12573) and accidental death victims (N = 6351) between 1990 and 1998 from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York (OCME). The proportion of homicide and accident decedents positive for cocaine fell between 1990 and 1998 (13% and 9% respectively); the proportion of homicide and accident decedents positive for opiates and/or alcohol did not change significantly. Changing patterns of drug and alcohol use by homicide victims were comparable to changing patterns of drug and alcohol use in accident victims, suggesting that changes in drug and alcohol use among homicide victims between 1990 and 1998 cannot solely explain the decline in NYC homicide rates.

  20. Influence of iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis on thyroid cancer histotypes and incidence in endemic goiter area.

    PubMed

    Huszno, B; Szybiński, Z; Przybylik-Mazurek, E; Stachura, J; Trofimiuk, M; Buziak-Bereza, M; Gołkowski, F; Pantoflinski, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between thyroid cancer histotype and incidence rate (IR) and iodine nutrition level in two endemic goiter areas: the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz. The suspension of iodine prophylaxis in Poland in 1980 resulted in increased goiter prevalence in schoolchildren and adults and elevated TSH levels in newborns in the early 1990s. Since 1992 a rise in thyroid cancer IR was observed. Thyroid cancer IR in the Krakow population was 2.22 in 1986; 3.62 in 1995 and 6.02 in 2001; in Nowy Sacz: 1.52; 2.59 and 3.88 respectively. In 1986 papillary/follicular cancer ratio in both areas was about 1.0--the value typical of iodine deficient areas. After restoring the obligatory iodine prophylaxis in 1997, a significant decrease in elevated TSH concentration in newborns and urinary iodine concentration increase in schoolchildren were observed. A relative rise in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer and decrease in follicular cancer, resulting in rise in papillary/follicular thyroid cancer ratio up to 5.9 in 2001 was also observed. Since 1999 no further thyroid cancer IR increase was noted. In conclusion, a significant increase in differentiated thyroid cancer IR was observed in association with the iodine prophylaxis suspension. Changes in thyroid cancer histotypes in 1986-2001 and a significant decrease in incremental rate of differentiated thyroid cancer probably reflect the influence of effective iodine prophylaxis. The significant difference between IR of thyroid cancer incidence in the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz may be related to differences in the exposure to radiation after the Chernobyl accident.

  1. Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-12-01

    Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations.

  2. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  3. Incidence of Mink, Mustela vison, and River Otter, Lutra canadensis, in a Highly Urbanized Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  4. Persistent Elongated Particle Total Surface Area Dose to Rat Pleura is Optimum Predictor of Mesothelioma Incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on preliminary statistical analyses of 29 reanalyzed (quantitative TEM) diverse elongated particle (EP) test samples from the well known and often cited study of Stanton et al. 1981, total surface area (TSA) of biodurable EPs was reported at the 2008 Johnson Conference to b...

  5. Persistent Elongated Particle Total Surface Area Dose to Rat Pleura is Optimum Predictor of Mesothelioma Incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on preliminary statistical analyses of 29 reanalyzed (quantitative TEM) diverse elongated particle (EP) test samples from the well known and often cited study of Stanton et al. 1981, total surface area (TSA) of biodurable EPs was reported at the 2008 Johnson Conference to b...

  6. Temporal trends in area socioeconomic disparities in breast-cancer incidence and mortality, 1988-2005.

    PubMed

    Schootman, Mario; Lian, Min; Deshpande, Anjali D; Baker, Elizabeth A; Pruitt, Sandi L; Aft, Rebecca; Jeffe, Donna B

    2010-07-01

    Since an overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 was to eliminate health disparities, we determined temporal trends in socioeconomic disparities in five breast-cancer indicators (in situ, stage I, lymph-node positive, and locally advanced breast-cancer incidence, and breast-cancer mortality) by county socioeconomic deprivation using 1988-2005 population-based breast-cancer data. Using 1988-2005 data from women aged 40 and older from 200 counties in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, we examined trends in temporal disparities in the five breast-cancer indicators across quartiles of county socioeconomic deprivation. County-level trends were summarized using the estimated annual percentage change. Observed county rates were smoothed using Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal methods to calculate measures of absolute and relative disparity (using absolute and relative concentration indices) and their changes over time. Large increases in in situ breast cancer rates since 1988 were observed for each of the deprivation quartiles. Absolute and relative disparity both increased over time, suggesting increasing disparities across levels of county deprivation. Absolute and relative concentration indices were near zero for the other four breast-cancer indicators, suggesting no disparities among the four quartiles of county deprivation during 1988-2005. Efforts to target counties aimed at increasing breast-cancer screening based on their level of deprivation will not likely be beneficial.

  7. A study to measure the incidence of driving under suspension in the Greater Moncton area.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, J E Louis; Van Houten, Ron; Jonah, Brian

    2002-07-01

    Roadside checkpoints were used to determine the percentage of motorists driving while suspended (DWS) during various times of the day. These data showed that the percentage of motorists DWS was 57% of the expected value relative to their representation among all drivers. Data also showed that suspended drivers make up a higher percentage of drivers on the road after midnight. Results also indicated that 90% of suspended drivers stopped in this study produced a driving permit even though they are required to surrender it when suspended. In order to compare data collected at roadside checkpoints with self-report data. a questionnaire was administered to 456 persons taking a re-education course for first offenders and 68 participants taking a re-education course for second offenders. The results indicated that participants under-represented their own incidence of DWS. However, when asked about the driving behavior of other suspended drivers, their estimates were much closer to the data obtained with the roadside survey.

  8. [Incidence of lower extremity amputations in Area 3 of Madrid. Retrospective study during the period 2001-2006].

    PubMed

    Rubio, J A; Salido, C; Albarracín, A; Jiménez, S; Alvarez, J

    2010-02-01

    To quantify the Lower Extremity Amputations (LEA) incidence in population with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Retrospective cohort study of all the LEA carried out during 2001-2006 in area 3 of Madrid, from the codification of the reports of discharge reports. 310 LEA were carried out. The age-ajusted LEA incidence for any reason was 19,2/10(5) inhabitants per year (27,2 y 11,2 for men and women respectively). 261 were not-traumatic and non-tumoural (NTT) LEA, 76% were associated with DM and the incidence was 191/10(5) people with DM per year (95% confidence interval [CI(95)] 122-299) and 4,4/10(5) for people without DM per year (CI(95) 7-23), with a risk ratio of 44 (CI(95) 23-73). The LEA rates in population with o without diabetes are higher than the previously communicated in Madrid. It would appear convenient to design strategies to reduce the LEA rates. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of radon and heavy metals in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, high lung cancer incidence areas in China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Renji

    2013-11-01

    Xuanwei and Fuyuan, two counties located in southwest China, are areas with known high lung cancer incidence. Pollution relative to coal combustion, especially serious air pollution generated by burning smoky coals in unvented households, has been thought to be the most predominant cause. Possible inorganic carcinogenic matter including radon in air and arsenic, lead, chromium, cadmium, nickel, and beryllium in water, soil, and coal were sampled and examined to find the current pollution status, distributions, characteristics, and relationships to the lung cancer incidence. The concentrations of mercury in air of Xuanwei and Fuyuan ranged from 1.7 to 205.3 ng/m3 (indoor), 1.3 to 7.5 ng/m3 (ambient). No radon concentration exceeded the World Health Organization standard. Results indicated that household stove improvement by changing stoves from unvented to vented obviously alleviated the indoor air pollution of carcinogenic metals. Most of the carcinogenic metals were also found at very low levels in water and soil, which therefore had little influence on human health. Concentrations of these elements at different sites did not vary in any relation to lung cancer incidence. The study described in this article added basic data; the results of the authors' study will be helpful in determining pollution status and to future studies on the etiology of lung cancer.

  10. Analysis of a vector-bias effect in the spread of malaria between two different incidence areas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungchan; Masud, M A; Cho, Giphil; Jung, Il Hyo

    2017-04-21

    In 2005, Lacroix et al. demonstrated that infected humans are more attractive to mosquitoes, a phenomenon known as the vector-bias effect. The aim of this study was to determine how a vector-bias effect affects the changes in the dynamics of malaria transmission, and the changes in control strategies and cost-effectiveness for optimal control considering the regional characteristics or force of infections for different transmission rates. We used a vector-bias mathematical model and considered two different incidence areas: a high transmission area and a low transmission area. Our results showed that the dynamics in the two areas differed; as bias exists and the strategy for optimal control could be changed in the different areas. Thus, this work may give that considering the vector-bias effect in different areas facilitates prediction of the future dynamics and make decisions for establishing controls. We also mention the evolution of malaria parasites in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrasting robbery- and non-robbery-related workplace homicide: North Carolina, 1994-2003.

    PubMed

    Gurka, Kelly K; Marshall, Stephen W; Runyan, Carol W; Loomis, Dana P; Casteel, Carri; Richardson, David B

    2009-07-01

    Most research regarding the perpetration of occupational homicide has focused on robbery-related violence; relatively little is known about the circumstances surrounding non-robbery-related occupational homicides and interventions that may prevent these events. A case series was assembled and utilized to examine occupational homicides that were and were not motivated by robbery to determine if select characteristics of the events differed according to the perpetrator's motivation for the crime and relationship to the workplace. Information on occupational homicides that occurred in North Carolina from 1994 to 2003 was abstracted from medical examiners' records and death certificates and was obtained by interviews with law-enforcement officers and from newspaper accounts (data collection occurred in 1996-2001 and 2003-2007). Each homicide was classified by motive and the perpetrator's relationship to the workplace and its employees. Characteristics of robbery-motivated and non-robbery-motivated homicides were compared. Analysis was conducted in 2006 and 2007. Most occupational homicides occurred during robbery of the workplace (64%). However, 36% of occupational homicides during the study period were not robbery-related. Strangers perpetrated 73% of robbery-related killings but only 11% of non-robbery-related homicides. Homicides unrelated to robbery occurred in several industrial sectors, including retail (28%); service (26%); and manufacturing (22%), whereas robbery-related homicides occurred overwhelmingly in retail (67%). The type of firearm used to perpetrate these killings differed by the perpetrator's relationship to the workplace. Non-robbery-related homicides constitute a meaningful proportion of occupational homicides, and the characteristics of these cases can differ from those that are robbery-related. The current system by which workplace homicides are classified could be expanded to include robbery motivation. Efforts to examine occupational-homicide

  12. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of cholecystectomies were emergency operations. In 38 symptomatic Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  13. Reduced incidence of bone metastases in irradiated areas after external radiation therapy of prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsson, H.; Naeslund, I. )

    1991-06-01

    Fourteen males, out of 380 patients, treated with radiation to the central pelvis and lumbar spine for poorly differentiated prostatic carcinoma were analyzed in retrospect. The dose of radiation to the bones of the target area was 5,000 cGy. The patients showed no signs of metastases at bone scintigraphy performed in connection with the treatment. In an average of 34 months after finishing radiotherapy, the patients developed metastases at bone scintigraphy. The pattern was similar in all patients. The treated target area appeared as a cold zone surrounded by more or less homogenously and strongly increased activity of the axial skeleton, characteristic of bone metastases. Radiography, which was performed in 11 patients, confirmed widespread metastatic disease sparing the target area. This was interpretated as bone metastasis being precluded by the irradiation. The most probable explanation of this finding is eradication in situ of distant micrometastases already present in the bone marrow at the time of treatment. An alternate explanation is a reduced implantation of later seeded blood-born metastases as an effect of the irradiation. The characteristic pattern of this phenomenon must be recognized at bone scintigraphy.

  14. The Participation of Females in the Labor Force and Rates of Personal Violence (Suicide and Homicide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between participation of married women in labor force and suicide and homicide rates in United States. Found women's labor force participation related to homicide rates, with homicide rates higher in states where greater percentage of married women worked full-time. Suicide rates were more strongly related to indices of…

  15. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  16. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  17. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  18. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  19. Homicides of People with Developmental Disabilities: An Analysis of News Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard; Sobsey, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD). While national and international information has been available on homicides of people in general, little attention has been given to homicides of PWDD specifically. This paper provides a preliminary description of homicides as…

  20. Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

  1. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  2. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  3. The Etiology of Suicide and Homicide in Urban and Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1991-01-01

    Study indicates states with high urban homicide rates also had high rural homicide rates, but no such relationship was found with suicide rates. Social disintegration was strongly associated with urban and rural suicide rates; however, rural suicide rates were higher in states that were relatively more urbanized, and rural homicide rates were…

  4. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  5. Intimate Homicide between Asians and Non-Asians: The Impact of Community Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bohsiu

    2009-01-01

    This study tests two competing hypotheses regarding the social structural dynamics of intimate homicide: backlash versus collective efficacy. This study also examines the role of race in how social factors specified in each hypothesis affect intimate homicide. Data are from the California Vital Statistics and Homicide Data, 1990-1999. Results from…

  6. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  7. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  8. Patterns and Trends in Elder Homicide Across Race and Ethnicity, 1985-2009

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653

  9. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  10. [Modus operandi of insane offenders in multiple homicides].

    PubMed

    Bolechała, Filip; Strona, Marcin; Konopka, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Homicides committed by insane offenders have been rarely investigated from the forensic point of view in a comprehensive and detailed manner. The objective of the study was to describe and characterize the modus operandi and personal characteristics in cases when more than one victim was killed and the perpetrator was deemed insane in judicial proceedings. Differences between single and multiple-vitim homicides in the population of insane murderers were also examined. Complete dossiers and forensic examination reports of 21 homicide victims killed by 9 individuals were retrospectively analyzed. The comparative control group consisted of 41 cases with only one victim killed by a single insane perpetrator. The offence and offender variables were subjected to a comparative statistical analysis. The results indicated some specific factors that can be regarded as distinctive features more commonly observed in multiple vs. single victim killings perpetrated by insane individuals. There was a significant correlation between, psychosis with depressive delusions, emotional/affective motivation, common domicile and a positive relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, infanticide committed in the perpetrator's offspring, actions with elements of planning, attacking victims while asleep, attacking from the back rather than from the front, concentration and clustering of injuries in one region of the body and multiple psychotic homicides. The results and conclusions of this study can provide practical, useful implications for homicide investigations, offender profiling or forensic psychiatric and psychological evidence.

  11. Rethinking homicide: violence, race, and the politics of gender.

    PubMed

    Stark, E

    1990-01-01

    Although homicide is the fourth leading cause of premature mortality in the United States and the leading cause of death for young blacks, the health professions have been largely oblivious to violence. Prevailing explanations contribute to this neglect by emphasizing biological or psychiatric factors that make homicide unpredictable and cultural and environmental factors such as the emergence of a new "underclass" that link violence to race. Focusing on instances where no other crime is involved, this article proposes that "primary" homicide be reconceptualized as a by-product of interpersonal violence, a broad category of social entrapment rooted in the politics of gender inequality and including wife abuse, child abuse, and assaults by friends and acquaintances. The data show that blacks are no more violent than whites, though they are arrested and die more often as the consequence of violence. In addition, a majority of homicides are between social partners or involve gender stereotypes, are preceded by a series of assaults that are known to service providers, and grow out of "intense social engagement" about issues of male control and independence. Professional failure to respond appropriately is a major reason why assaults become fatal, particularly among blacks. An international strategy that combines sanctions against interpersonal assault, gun control, and the empowerment of survivors might prevent half of all homicides.

  12. Gaps in Crisis Mental Health: Suicide and Homicide-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Ann W; Welner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Gaps in crises of mental health emerge from poor distinction between the qualities of people who suicide and those who murder and then kill themselves. The role, if any, that substance use has in such lethal violence is an example of such a lack of distinction. In this study, a sample of medical examiner investigative and toxicology reports from Los Angeles and Orange counties in California were available for analysis for 432 suicide cases and 193 homicide-suicide cases. This informed clearer toxicological and pharmacological distinction of suicide from homicide-suicide. Blood alcohol levels were higher in persons committing suicide than in homicide-suicide perpetrators (p=.004). Homicide-suicide perpetrators had almost twice the level of stimulants in their system than people who suicide (p=.022) but did not have comparatively elevated levels of drugs or alcohol. Predictors of suicide included the following: substance abuse history, high number of drugs in system, death inside a house, and legal impairment by alcohol. Predictors of homicide-suicide included gunshot as the cause of death, female gender, domestic conflict, children living in the home, and prior arrest for substance abuse.

  13. Substance use disorders and homicide death in veterans.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Bohnert, Amy S B; Price, Amanda M; Austin, Karen; Ilgen, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between a diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder or a drug use disorder and death by homicide over the course of 6 years. This was a cohort study that included all patients seen for medical treatment by the Veterans Health Administration during fiscal year (FY) 2001. Treatment records were used to identify all patients with a diagnosis of a substance use disorder in FY01 (n = 3,942,932). The National Death Index data provided information on the timing and cause of death between FY02 and the end of 2007. Analyses examined the association between substance use disorders and the time to homicide, after controlling for age and gender. Veterans Health Administration patients who were diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder were more likely to die by homicide than those without a substance use disorder (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.3, 95% CI [2.6,4.1]). This finding also was true for those with drug use disorders (HR = 4.3, 95% CI [3.4, 5.4]) and for those with both an alcohol use disorder and a drug use disorder (HR = 4.6, 95% CI [3.9, 5.4]), compared with those without a substance use disorder. In this observational study of veterans, a diagnosis of a substance use disorder was significantly associated with death by homicide. Alcohol and drug treatment programs may have an important role to play in reducing the burden of homicide as a public health problem.

  14. [A Retrospective Analysis of 88 Solved Intentional Homicide Cases].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jia-quan; Liu, Jian-feng

    2016-04-01

    To summarize the key points, difficulties and relevant practical experiences for analyzing the scene of solved intentional homicide cases. The data of 88 solved intentional homicide cases in a county from 2004 to 2013 were collected and the retrospective analysis was performed. The number of local female victims obviously higher than non-local female victims and the number of non-local suspects is obviously higher than local suspects. The number of Male suspects showed higher compared with the female. Most of them were temporary workers, unemployment or farmers with less education backgrounds. The main causes of victims' death were mechanical injury or asphyxia. The murders were acquaintances in most intentional homicide cases. The motive of the stranger murders was commonly money. The murder behavior types of homicide cases were related with people, money and sexual assault. Camouflage and guilty behavior showed the most significance. The accurate identification of suspects is one of the most important task in forensic investigation and reflects the importance of the criminal scene analysis for intentional homicide cases. It also provides the direction of future research.

  15. SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGE AND HOMICIDE IN A TRANSITIONAL SOCIETY

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2008-01-01

    Durkheim argued that rapid social change would produce anomic conditions which, in turn, would lead to increases in criminal and deviant behavior. Russia provides a unique opportunity to test this theory given the large-scale fundamental socioeconomic changes occurring in the nation. Russian homicide rates more than doubled in the years following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are now among the highest in the world. The pace and effects of the socioeconomic transition vary widely throughout Russia, however, as do rates of and changes in violent crime. In this study, we took advantage of the unique natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine the association between socioeconomic change and homicide. We measured the negative effects of socioeconomic change by creating an index of changes in population size, unemployment, privatization, and foreign investment. Using data from Russian regions (n = 78) and controlling for other structural covariates, regression results indicated that regions that more strongly experienced the negative effects of socioeconomic change were regions where homicide rates increased the most between 1991 and 2000. Further analysis of the individual components of this index revealed that regions with greater increases in (1) unemployment experienced greater increases in homicide rates and (2) privatization experienced smaller increases in homicide rates. PMID:19043617

  16. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Associations with violent and homicidal behaviour among men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Böke, Ömer; Korkmaz, Işil Zabun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the risk factors associated with homicidal behaviour in male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods In a period of 1 year, male schizophrenia cases between 18-65 years of age (n = 210) were included. The clinical evaluation included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The patients were divided into three groups in terms of violent behaviour history: (1) homicide group (n = 30), (2) a violent act resulting in serious injury (n = 71), (3) control group (patients without a history of a violent act) (n = 109). Results Lower level of education, rural residence, being unemployed and living alone were found to be significantly more common in patients who had committed a violent act compared to the schizophrenia patients in the control group. In order to explore the predictive value of several factors associated with violent behaviour, a logistic regression model was used, and variables (shorter duration of education, living alone, and lack of insight) significantly predicted the presence of violent behaviour (murder and/or injury) (χ(2)=31.78, df = 12, p = 0.001). Conclusions In order to be able to determine causality of homicidal acts in schizophrenia patients, our significant findings between homicidal violence, non-homicidal violence and the control group would merit further attention and exploration in further studies.

  18. Atropine eye drops: an unusual homicidal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Escard, Emmanuel; Péoc'h, Michel; Boyer, Baptiste; Romeuf, Ludovic; Faict, Thierry; Guitton, Jérôme; Gaillard, Yvan

    2014-05-01

    In March 2009, the body of a 51-year-old man was found in the boot of his car. The body had been frozen before being dismembered at the abdomen. The autopsy failed to determine the cause of death. Systematic toxicological analyses of the victim's peripheral blood and urine showed the presence of atropine, a powerful anticholinergic. Atropine was therefore specifically detected and quantified throughout the victim's biologic samples by HPLC-MS² in the biologic fluids and UHPLC-MS² in the hair. The atropine concentrations were 887 ng/mL in the cardiac blood, 489 ng/mL in the peripheral blood, 6693 ng/mL in the gastric contents (1.1 μg), 6753 ng/mL in the urine, and 2290 pg/mg in the hair. The blood concentrations measured in the decedent were consistent with an overdose of atropine, which was determined as the cause of death. The manner of death was a homicide with criminal intent. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Youk, Ada O.; Sasser, Howell; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2011-11-15

    Background: The Pennsylvania Department of Health established a registry of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Over 93% of the population present on the day of the accident within a 5-mile radius was enrolled and interviewed. We used the registry to investigate the potential cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure among the TMI population. Methods: Cancer incidence data among the TMI cohort were available from 1982 to 1995. Because more than 97% of the population were white and few cancer cases were reported for those younger than 18 years of age, we included whites of age 18 years and older (10,446 men and 11,048 women) for further analyses. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) per 0.1 m Sv and 95% confident interval (CI) of cancer by radiation-related exposures. The cancers of interest were all malignant neoplasms, cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung, cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, leukemia, and female breast. Results: Among men and women, there was no evidence of an increased risk for all malignant neoplasms among the TMI cohort exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.97, 1.01 and RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.94, 1.03, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, and background radiation. Elevation in risk was noted for cancer of the bronchus, trachea, and lung in relation to higher background radiation exposure (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.05 at 8.0-8.8 {mu}R/h compared to 5.2-7.2 {mu}R/h). An increased risk of leukemia was found among men exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation related to TMI exposure during the ten days following the accident (RR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04, 1.29 and RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.08, 1.71, respectively). This relationship was not found in women. Conclusion: Increased cancer risks from low-level radiation exposure within the TMI cohort were small and mostly statistically non-significant. However, additional

  20. Non-Homicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offenders: Prevalence of Maladaptive Personality Traits and Paraphilic Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II.

    PubMed

    Robsahm, Trude Eid; Tretli, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that World War II influenced breast cancer risk among Norwegian women by affecting adolescent growth. Diet changed substantially during the war, and the reduction in energy intake was assumed to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing municipalities. In the present study, we have looked at the influence of residential history in areas with and without food production on the incidence of breast cancer in a population-based cohort study consisting of 597,906 women aged between 30 and 64 years. The study included 7311 cases of breast cancer, diagnosed between 1964 and 1992. The risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The results suggest that residential history may influence the risk of breast cancer, where the suggested advantageous effect of World War II seems to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing areas. Breast cancer incidence was observed to decline for the post-war cohorts, which is discussed in relation to diet. Copyright 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign

  2. Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II

    PubMed Central

    Robsahm, T E; Tretli, S

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that World War II influenced breast cancer risk among Norwegian women by affecting adolescent growth. Diet changed substantially during the war, and the reduction in energy intake was assumed to be larger in non-food- producing than in food-producing municipalities. In the present study, we have looked at the influence of residential history in areas with and without food production on the incidence of breast cancer in a population-based cohort study consisting of 597 906 women aged between 30 and 64 years. The study included 7311 cases of breast cancer, diagnosed between 1964 and 1992. The risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The results suggest that residential history may influence the risk of breast cancer, where the suggested advantageous effect of World War II seems to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing areas. Breast cancer incidence was observed to decline for the post-war cohorts, which is discussed in relation to diet. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 362–366. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600084 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11875700

  3. A demographic study of homicide-suicide in the Pretoria region over a 5 year period.

    PubMed

    Jena, Shirley; Mountany, Leverne; Muller, Anton

    2009-07-01

    A study was undertaken to research the occurrence of homicide-suicide events in the Pretoria region from January 1997 until October 2001. It is important to attempt understanding this tragic phenomenon from psychiatric and forensic perspectives. This uncommon phenomenon has attracted widespread and sensational media coverage, but little is known about the causal factors and demographic profile of perpetrators and victims, and possible sites of intervention. Case files of the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (where all cases of unnatural death in Pretoria are investigated) were reviewed and information collected from relevant investigating officers of the South African Police Services. The average annual incidence of homicide-suicide in Pretoria over the period studied was found to be 1 per 100,000 of the population. Two profiles of typical perpetrators seem to emerge: a younger, single, black male shooting his girlfriend and himself at home; and an older, married, Caucasian male shooting his wife and himself at home. Employment in peace forces and unemployment are shown to play significant roles, suggesting need for the availability of psychological support systems to members of peace forces and for intervention regarding unemployment.

  4. Effect of Control Strategies on Prevalence, Incidence and Re-infection of Clonorchiasis in Endemic Areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Ho; Park, Sue K.; Li, Zhimin; Ji, Zhuo; Yu, Gui; Feng, Zheng; Xu, Longqi; Cho, Seung-Yull; Rim, Han-Jong; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Background A pilot clonorchiasis control project was implemented to evaluate the efficacies of various chemotherapy strategies on prevalence, incidence and re-infection in Heilongjiang Province, China. Methods and Findings Seven intervention groups (14,139 residents, about 2000 in each group) in heavily or moderately endemic areas were subjected to repeated praziquantel administration from 2001 to 2004. In the selective chemotherapy groups, residents were examined for fecal eggs, and those who tested positive were treated with three doses of 25 mg/kg praziquantel at 5-hour-intervals in one day. However, all residents were treated in the mass chemotherapy groups. In heavily endemic areas, two mass treatments of all residents in 2001 and 2003 reduced the prevalence from 69.5% to 18.8%, while four annual mass treatments reduced the prevalence from 48.0% in 2001 to 8.4% in 2004. Selective annual treatments for egg-positive subjects reduced the egg-positive rates from 54.9% in 2001 to 15.0% in 2004 or from 73.2% in 2001 to 12.3% in 2004. Selective treatments every 6 months significantly reduced the prevalence from 59.5% in 2001 to 7.5% in 2004. All of the repeated treatments reduced EPG (eggs per gram of feces) significantly. The annual mass treatment and selective treatment every 6 months produced lower prevalence and re-infection rates and higher egg reduction rate than annual selective treatments did. In the moderate endemic areas, egg positive rates were 24.8% and 29.7% in 2001 but were 1.9% and 1.3% after 2 or 3 selective treatments. The prevalence, incidence, re-infection rates in a moderately endemic area were significantly lower than those of heavy endemic areas. Conclusions Repeated mass treatment or selective treatment with praziquantel every 6 to 12 months is highly effective for clonorchiasis control in heavily endemic areas. In contrast, one or two selective treatments with health education is effective in moderately endemic areas. PMID:20169061

  5. Optical analyses of eyeglass lens fragments and the unexpected detection of oral sperm in a homicide case.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, E A; Vallaro, K E; Pool, T M; Adamo, R A; Taff, M L; Boglioli, L R

    1995-03-01

    A homicide case in which intact spermatozoa were found in the oral cavity of the deceased forty days after his disappearance is reported. The victim's partially frozen body was found outdoors in a wooded area of upstate New York during the month of January. During a subsequent investigation, pieces of eyeglass lens fragments and bloodstains were found in the suspect's house and vehicle. Chemical and optical analyses of the lens fragments are presented as well as results of the serological tests.

  6. Using a Facebook profile in determining the motive of homicide.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana; Soc, Miodrag

    2013-08-01

    Ritual homicides may be affective (emotional), but usually they are premediated, instrumental, or predatory. In the case under review, the Facebook profile of the assailant helped to determine the motive of the homicide, which seemed to be ritualistic in nature. Therein, a 56-year-old male sustained 48 stab wounds and other knife injuries. On the wall in a room above the body, a pentagram was drawn with the victim's blood, followed by a few words which can be associated with a "Satanic" ritual. Searching through the Facebook profile of the culprit, Satanism as a leading motive of the homicide was eventually excluded. The most interesting point of this case was the evaluation of a sentence used as a Facebook status, which greatly contributed to confirm the paedophilic nature of the murder.

  7. Patterns of homicide--Cali, Colombia, 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-10-06

    In Colombia, as in the United States, homicide occurs disproportionately among urban residents (1,2). Homicide rates in the city of Cali, Colombia (1994 population: 1,776,436), increased fivefold from 1985 through 1992, reaching levels of 100 per 100,000 persons. Because of this increase, in 1992 the city of Cali established the Development, Security, and Peace Program (DESEPAZ) to implement a series of strategies to prevent violence and improve security among the residents of Cali. An important element of this program was the establishment of a surveillance system to enable characterization of patterns and determinants of homicide to provide information to decision makers for formulating policies and programs. This report summarizes findings from this system for January 1993-May 1994.

  8. The Homicide-Suicide Phenomenon: Findings of Psychological Autopsies.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L; Hatters-Friedman, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Homicide-suicide represents a single episode of violence which may decimate an entire family. This study aimed to further describe motives and context of these tragedies. Psychological autopsies were completed for 18 homicide-suicide cases in Dallas, Texas. This included postevent interviews with surviving family members and review of police and coroner records. Two-thirds of perpetrators had made either verbal or written threats prior to the homicide-suicide. A simplified typology describing victim-perpetrator relationship and motive type is suggested for future studies and clinical ease. Two-thirds of perpetrators fell into the category of Intimate-Possessive, most of whom were depressed men who were abusing substances and undergoing separation. Additional categories included Intimate-Ailing, Filial-Revenge, Familial-Psychotic, and Friend-Psychotic. Further, implications from this psychological autopsy study regarding risk assessment include use of collateral interviews regarding threats and past violence.

  9. Strychnine in amoxicillin capsules: a means of homicide.

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-01-01

    Fatal strychnine poisoning is uncommon. It is no longer used as a therapeutic drug and its availability to the public is controlled by legislations in various jurisdictions, but it is still in use as a rodenticide and an adulterant in street drugs. Homicide by strychnine is extremely rare. As the autopsy findings are subtle, strychnine poisoning could easily be overlooked and a homicide may go undetected. This communication highlights an unusual case of homicide by strychnine. It is important that in deaths where there are no gross autopsy findings, sudden death in particular, that routine toxicology be performed, in which strychnine is likely to be detected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of alcohol and drugs in homicides in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jenny; Hunt, Isabelle M; Flynn, Sandra; Amos, Tim; Meehan, Janet; Robinson, Jo; Bickley, Harriet; Parsons, Rebecca; McCann, Kerry; Burns, James; Kapur, Nav; Appleby, Louis

    2006-08-01

    The annual number of homicide convictions in England and Wales is increasing. Previous studies have highlighted the aetiological role of alcohol and drugs in homicide. To examine rates of alcohol and drug misuse and dependence in people convicted of homicide; the role of alcohol and drugs in the offence; the social and clinical characteristics of alcohol- and drug-related homicides; and the social and clinical characteristics of patients with dual diagnosis who commit homicide. A national clinical survey based on a 3-year (1996-9) consecutive sample of people convicted of homicide in England and Wales. Information on rates of alcohol and drug misuse/dependence, the role of alcohol and drugs in the offence and social and clinical characteristics of perpetrators were collected from psychiatric reports prepared for the court in homicide convictions. Detailed clinical information was gathered from questionnaires completed by mental health teams for those in contact with mental health services. Of the 1594 homicide perpetrators, more than one-third (42%) occurred in people with a history of alcohol misuse or dependence and 40% in people with a history of drug misuse or dependence. Alcohol or drug misuse played a contributory role in two-fifths of homicides. Alcohol played a major role in 52 (6%) and a minor role in 364 (39%) homicides. Drugs played a major role in six (1%) and a minor role in 138 (14%) homicides. Forty-two homicides (17%) were committed by patients with severe mental illness and substance misuse. Alcohol- and drug-related homicides were generally associated with male perpetrators who had a history of violence, personality disorders, mental health service contact and with stranger victims. Substance misuse contributes to the majority of homicides in England and Wales. A public health approach to homicide would highlight alcohol and drugs before severe mental illness.

  11. [The incidence of postoperative hypoxaemia during transportation to the recovery area].

    PubMed

    Dylczyk-Sommer, Anna; Sawicka, Wioletta; Wujtewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Transportation to the recovery room after surgery can be associated with significant hypoxaemia, if a portable oxygen source and a pulse oximeter are not used. We analysed the condition of patients on admission to recovery after being transported from the operating room without additional oxygen and monitoring. One hundred and thirty-one ASA II and III patients, aged 58.2 ± 15.96 years, were enrolled to the study. SaO2 readings immediately before transportation, and on arrival in recovery, were compared. Additionally, blood-gas analysis was performed 10 min after admission to the recovery room. The duration times of transport (T1), lack of monitoring (T2) and breathing with room air (T3) were measured. The mean SaO2 before transportation was 96.9 ± 10.55%, and on arrival in the recovery room was 93.0% ± 6.35. The mean T values were: T1 - 90.0 ± 94.2 s, T2 - 152.6 ± 86.6 s, and T3 - 122.9 ± 86.8 s. Although the length of transport time was relatively short, mild hypoxaemia was observed in all patients, with the SaO2 returning to normal after 10 min on 40% oxygen. Blood gas analysis revealed mild respiratory acidosis in 73% of cases. Additional oxygen via face mask and appropriate monitoring should be provided to all patients during transportation from the operating room to the recovery area.

  12. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  13. Quartz in ash, and air in a high lung cancer incidence area in China.

    PubMed

    Downward, George S; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Tromp, Peter; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Xu, Jun; Seow, Wei Jie; Chapman, Robert S; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced "smoky" coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, irrespective of gender or smoking status. Previous studies have shown that smoky coal contains approximately twice as much quartz when compared to alternative fuels in the area, although it is unclear how the quartz in coal relates to household air pollution. Samples of ash and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from 163 households and analysed for quartz content by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Additionally, air samples from 12 further households, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate particle structure and silica content. The majority (89%) of household air samples had undetectable quartz levels (<0.2 μg/m(3)) with no clear differences by fuel-type. SEM analyses indicated that there were higher amounts of silica in the smoke of smoky coal than smokeless coal (0.27 μg/m(3) vs. 0.03 μg/m(3)). We also identified fibre-like particles in a higher concentration within the smoke of smoky coal than smokeless coal (5800 fibres/m(3) vs. 550 fibres/m(3)). Ash analysis suggested that the bulk of the quartz in smoky coal went on to form part of the ash. These findings indicate that the quartz within smoky coal does not become adequately airborne during the combustion process to cause significant lung cancer risk, instead going on to form part of the ash. The identification of fibre-like particles in air samples is an interesting finding, although the clinical relevance of this finding remains unclear.

  14. Social Isolation and Lethal Violence across the Metro/Nonmetro Divide: The Effects of Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Poverty Concentration on Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Matthew R.; Maume, Michael O.; Ousey, Graham C.

    2003-01-01

    This study extends the macro-level criminological research tradition by examining the links between socioeconomic disadvantage, poverty concentration, and homicide in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan U.S. counties. Most research in this tradition has tested structural theories using urban areas as the unit of analysis. This "urban bias"…

  15. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    PubMed

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs.

  16. [Homicide, schizophrenia and substance abuse: a complex interaction].

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Bouyer-Richard, A I; Jollant, F; Mondoloni, A; Voyer, M; Senon, J-L

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of homicide perpetrators with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is 6% in Western countries populations. The relationship between schizophrenia and homicide is complex and cannot be reduced to a simple causal link. The aim of this systematic review was to clarify the role of substance abuse in the commission of murder in people suffering from schizophrenia. A systematic English-French Medline and EMBASE literature search of cohort studies, case-control studies and transversal studies published between January 2001 and December 2011 was performed, combining the MeSH terms "schizophrenia", "psychotic disorders", "homicide", "violence", "substance use disorder", and the TIAB term "alcohol". Abstract selection was based on the STROBE and PRISMA checklist for observational studies and systematic and meta-analysis studies, respectively. Of the 471 selected studies, eight prospective studies and six systematic reviews and meta-analysis studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. Homicide committed by a schizophrenic person is associated with socio-demographic (young age, male gender, low socioeconomic status), historical (history of violence against others), contextual (a stressful event in the year prior to the homicide), and clinical risk factors (severe psychotic symptoms, long duration of untreated psychosis, poor adherence to medication). In comparison to the general population, the risk of homicide is increased 8-fold in schizophrenics with a substance abuse disorder (mainly alcohol abuse) and 2-fold in schizophrenics without any comorbidities. A co-diagnosis of substance abuse allows us to divide the violent schizophrenics into "early-starters" and "late-starters" according to the age of onset of their antisocial and violent behavior. The violence of the "early-starters" is unplanned, usually affects an acquaintance and is not necessarily associated with the schizophrenic symptoms. Substance abuse is frequent and plays an

  17. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Homicide Survivors' Definitions of Forgiveness: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Extrapersonal Orientations.

    PubMed

    Hourigan, Kristen L

    This article explores the definition of forgiveness from the perspective of individuals who have lost loved ones to homicide. This article draws on 33 in-depth, semistructured interviews that asked participants to define and discuss forgiveness and non-forgiveness both in general and as it relates to homicide. Analysis shows three distinct definitions of, or orientations toward, forgiveness, each learned through interaction with family and/or religion: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal. Analyses suggest that future investigations must include multiple definitions of forgiveness, and victim services must be cognizant of these various pathways toward forgiveness.

  19. Terrorist homicide bombings: a primer for preparation.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, James

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary planning for disaster response to terrorist events usually assumes the use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Historically, most victims of terrorist attacks are injured by the use of conventional explosives rather than weapons of mass destruction. Such attacks will likely produce victims who have suffered burn injuries along with conventional trauma. Alternately, the large number of patients sustaining conventional soft-tissue or crush injuries will benefit from burn center expertise. This study summarizes the current state of knowledge related to the management of terrorism mass casualty incidents caused by the use of conventional explosives. A review of pertinent medical, technical, and popular literature relating to terrorism and explosives, along with instruction received at Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel on the management of mass casualty terrorism events was undertaken, and the pertinent medical and scientific literature relating to bomb delivery methods, blast mechanics, blast pathophysiology, and medical response to a terrorist bombing is presented here. Although terrorist use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons is possible, historical analysis consistently demonstrates that the most likely terrorist weapon causing a mass casualty event is a standard explosive device detonated in a crowded area. The medical basis for management of such casualties is herein described.

  20. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence--A case study in Northamptonshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin G M; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic factors, socio-economic conditions, and concentrations in farm soils of the eight kinds of heavy metal. Spatial regression and GIS (Geographic Information System) were used. The registration contained 22,083 patients, who were diagnosed with oral cancer between 1982 and 2002. The concentrations of metal in the soils were retrieved from a nation-wide survey in the 1980s. Results The incidence rate of oral cancer is geographically related to the concentrations of arsenic and nickel in the patients' residential areas, with the prevalence of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing as controlled variables. Conclusions Beside the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, arsenic and nickel in farm soils may be new risk factors for oral cancer. These two kinds of metal may involve in the development of oral cancer. Further studies are required to understand the pathways via which metal in the farm soils exerts its effects on human health. PMID:20152030

  2. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  3. Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Brook, Michael; Demery, Jason A; Cunningham, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Domestic homicide is the most extreme form of domestic violence and one of the most common types of homicide. The objective was to examine differences between spontaneous domestic homicide and nondomestic homicide offenders regarding demographics, psychiatric history, crime characteristics, and neuropsychological status, utilizing neuropsychological test data from forensic examinations of 153 murderers. Using standard crime classification criteria, 33% committed spontaneous domestic homicides (SDH) and 61% committed nondomestic homicides (NDH). SDH offenders were more likely to manifest psychotic disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder or to have prior felony convictions. SDH offenders manifested significantly worse neuropsychological impairments than NDH offenders. The mean number of victims was lower for the SDH than the NDH group and only 14% of SDH offenders used a firearm, whereas 59% of NDH offenders used a firearm. These findings corroborate the notion that spontaneous domestic homicide may represent a discernible criminological phenotype.

  4. Comparing male and female juveniles charged with homicide: child maltreatment, substance abuse, and crime details.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-04-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders, female juvenile homicide offenders have higher rates of reported childhood abuse, more serious substance abuse, and mental health problems including suicidal ideations, depression, anxiety, anger, and irritability. Male juvenile homicide offenders reported higher rates of substance use than their female counterparts but the females had more serious substance abuse problems. Female juveniles were found to more often kill a person known to them and male homicide offenders were found to more often kill a stranger. These findings suggest strongly that male and female juvenile homicide offenders are dissimilar and require unique assessment and treatment.

  5. [Risk of homicide and major mental disorders: a critical review].

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Olie, J-P; Gourevitch, R

    2009-12-01

    Tragic and high profile killings by people with mental illness have been used to suggest that the community care model for mental health services has failed. It is also generally thought that schizophrenia predisposes subjects to homicidal behaviour. The aim of the present paper was to estimate the rate of mental disorder in people convicted of homicide and to examine the relationship between definitions. We investigated the links between homicide and major mental disorders. This paper reviews studies on the epidemiology of homicide committed by mentally disordered people, taken from recent international academic literature. The studies included were identified as part of a wider systematic review of the epidemiology of offending combined with mental disorder. The main databases searched were Medline. A comprehensive search was made for studies published since 1990. There is an association of homicide with mental disorder, most particularly with certain manifestations of schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder and drug or alcohol abuse. However, it is not clear why some patients behave violently and others do not. Studies of people convicted of homicide have used different definitions of mental disorder. According to the definition of Hodgins, only 15% of murderers have a major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoia, melancholia). Mental disorder increases the risk of homicidal violence by two-fold in men and six-fold in women. Schizophrenia increases the risk of violence by six to 10-fold in men and eight to 10-fold in women. Schizophrenia without alcoholism increased the odds ratio more than seven-fold; schizophrenia with coexisting alcoholism more than 17-fold in men. We wish to emphasize that all patients with schizophrenia should not be considered to be violent, although there are minor subgroups of schizophrenic patients in whom the risk of violence may be remarkably high. According to studies, we estimated that this increase in risk could be

  6. Persistence of high risk sexual activity among homosexual men in an area of low incidence for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, L H; Harris, B; Easley, K A; Proffitt, M R

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 305 homosexual men was performed in an area of relatively low incidence for AIDS and low seroprevalence for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of the study was to investigate current knowledge and practice of sexual behavior designed to limit transmission of HIV. The results showed that while the majority of the study group believed that they had made changes in their life styles that would reduce the likelihood of transmitting or acquiring the virus, nearly half admitted to persistently engaging in active and passive anal intercourse without condoms. These data suggest the need for more widespread and effective forms of education to help prevent the continuing spread of the AIDS epidemic.

  7. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A

    1988-12-01

    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within "flap" areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders.

  8. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports

    SciTech Connect

    Persinger, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within flap areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders. 22 references.

  9. Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in settlement areas in the district of Juruena, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Irani Machado; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, Juruena, Mato Grosso in 2005 were analyzed. Two hundred settlers of both genders and aged 18 years and above were interviewed. The prevalence of malaria reported in 2005 was 33%. The prevalence ratio showed that the highest prevalence of malaria was found in individuals involved in gold mining activities (67%); who came from non-endemic areas (43%); had inadequate knowledge about the time of greatest activity of the vector (71%); and who reported being outside after 5 p.m. (59%). It was concluded that in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, factors such as occupation, origin, inadequate knowledge about where malaria is transmitted, inadequate knowledge about the time the mosquito usually bites and individual practices in relation to the peak period of mosquito activity were associated with malaria in 2005.

  10. Residential proximity to industrial sites in the area of Taranto (Southern Italy). A case-control cancer incidence study.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Belli, Stefano; Binazzi, Alessandra; Scarselli, Alberto; Massari, Stefania; Bruni, Antonella; Conversano, Michele; Crosignani, Paolo; Minerba, Aldo; Zona, Amerigo; Comba, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    The association between cancer incidence and the residence near polluting facilities in an industrial area nearby Taranto has been investigated. Age, sex and occupational exposure were controlled as confounding variables in a case-control study (658 cases, 2092 controls). High risks were evidenced close to the steel mill (OR: 3.54), coke plant (OR: 4.80), mineral deposit (OR: 3.33) and shipbuilding (OR: 4.29) for pleural neoplasm, and to the steel mill (OR: 1.65) and shipbuilding (OR: 1.79) for lung cancer. After adjustment for occupational exposure, increasing trends of risk were observed both for lung and bladder cancers. Cancer risks were evidenced near industrial sites and the introduction of "occupational exposure" as a confounder modified significantly the risks with respect to distance from the source of pollution, particularly for pleural, lung and bladder cancers.

  11. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  12. Impact of Autocidal Gravid Ovitraps on Chikungunya Virus Incidence in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Areas With and Without Traps.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Roberto; Acevedo, Veronica; Felix, Gilberto E; Hemme, Ryan R; Vazquez, Jesus; Munoz, Jorge L; Amador, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Puerto Rico detected the first confirmed case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in May 2014 and the virus rapidly spread throughout the island. The invasion of CHIKV allowed us to observe Aedes aegypti (L.) densities, infection rates, and impact of vector control in urban areas using CDC autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO traps) for mosquito control over several years. Because local mosquitoes can only get the virus from infectious residents, detecting the presence of virus in mosquitoes functions as a proxy for the presence of virus in people. We monitored the incidence of CHIKV in gravid females of Ae. aegypti in four neighborhoods-two with three AGO traps per home in most homes and two nearby neighborhoods without AGO mosquito control traps. Monitoring of mosquito density took place weekly using sentinel AGO traps from June to December 2014. In all, 1,334 pools of female Ae. aegypti (23,329 individuals) were processed by real-time reverse transcription PCR to identify CHIKV and DENV RNA. Density of Ae. aegypti females was 10.5 times lower (91%) in the two areas with AGO control traps during the study. Ten times (90.9%) more CHIKV-positive pools were identified in the nonintervention areas (50/55 pools) than in intervention areas (5/55). We found a significant linear relationship between the number of positive pools and both density of Ae. aegypti and vector index (average number of expected infected mosquitoes per trap per week). Temporal and spatial patterns of positive CHIKV pools suggested limited virus circulation in areas with AGO traps. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016 This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Worrisome trends in incidence and mortality of candidemia in intensive care units (Paris area, 2002-2010).

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Renaudat, Charlotte; Sitbon, Karine; Madec, Yoann; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Wolff, Michel; Fontanet, Arnaud; Bretagne, Stéphane; Dromer, Françoise

    2014-09-01

    To analyze trends in incidence and mortality of candidemia in intensive care units (ICUs) vs. non-ICU hospitalized patients and to determine risk factors for infection by specific species and for death. Active hospital-based surveillance program of incident episodes of candidemia due to common species in 24 tertiary care hospitals in the Paris area, France between October 2002 and September 2010. Among 2,507 adult cases included, 2,571 Candida isolates were collected and species were C. albicans (56 %), C. glabrata (18.6 %), C. parapsilosis (11.5 %), C. tropicalis (9.3 %), C. krusei (2.9 %), and C. kefyr (1.8 %). Candidemia occurred in ICU in 1,206 patients (48.1 %). When comparing ICU vs. non-ICU patients, the former had significantly more frequent surgery during the past 30 days, were more often preexposed to fluconazole and treated with echinocandin, and were less frequently infected with C. parapsilosis. Risk factors and age remained unchanged during the study period. A significant increased incidence in the overall population and ICU was found. The odds of being infected with a given species in ICU was influenced by risk factors and preexposure to fluconazole and caspofungin. Echinocandins initial therapy increased over time in ICU (4.6 % first year of study, to 48.5 % last year of study, p < 0.0001). ICU patients had a higher day-30 death rate than non-ICU patients (odds ratio [OR] 2.12; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.66-2.72; p < 0.0001). The day-30 and early (

  15. An archival exploration of homicide--suicide and mass murder in the context of 19th-century American parricides.

    PubMed

    Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Roberts, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    There has been little attempt to integrate contemporary studies of suicide and mass murder to homicide-suicides. The current research attempts to do so in the context of 19th-century parricides in America. This project uses archival records from The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, 1851-1899, resulting in a total of 231 incidents. Our results indicate that parricides, mass murders, and suicides tended to originate as spontaneous acts, usually during the course of an argument, gathering momentum as the interaction unfolded. We contend that suicide is one way of alleviating threats to offender's loss of self-identity.

  16. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered.

  17. Constellation-X to Generation-X: evolution of large collecting area moderate resolution grazing incidence x-ray telescopes to larger area high-resolution adjustable optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Cameron, Robert A.; Cohen, Lester; Elvis, Martin; Gorenstein, Paul; Jerius, Diab; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William A.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Zhang, William W.

    2004-10-01

    Large collecting area x-ray telescopes are designed to study the early Universe, trace the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, study the chemical evolution of the Universe, and study matter in extreme environments. The Constellation-X mission (Con-X), planned for launch in 2016, will provide ~ 10^4 cm^2 collecting area with 15 arc-sec resolution, with a goal of 5 arc-sec. Future missions require larger collecting area and finer resolution. Generation-X (Gen-X), a NASA Visions Mission, will achieve 100 m^2 effective area at 1 keV and angular resolution of 0.1 arc-sec, half power diameter. We briefly describe the Con-X flowdown of imaging requirements to reflector figure error. To meet requirements beyond Con-X, Gen-X optics will be thinner and more accurately shaped than has ever been accomplished. To meet these challenging goals, we incorporate for the first time active figure control with grazing incidence optics. Piezoelectric material will be deposited in discrete cells directly on the back surface of the optical segments, with the strain directions oriented parallel to the surface. Differential strain between the two layers of the mirror causes localized bending in two directions, enabling local figure control. Adjusting figure on-orbit eases fabrication and metrology. The ability to make changes to mirror figure adds margin by mitigating risk due to launch-induced deformations and/or on-orbit degradation. We flowdown the Gen-X requirements to mirror figure and four telescope designs, and discuss various trades between the designs.

  18. The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the acute effect of exposure to a local homicide on the cognitive performance of children across a community. Data are from a sample of children age 5–17 y in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. The effect of local homicides on vocabulary and reading assessments is identified by exploiting exogenous variation in the relative timing of homicides and interview assessments among children in the same neighborhood but assessed at different times. Among African-Americans, the strongest results show that exposure to a homicide in the block group that occurs less than a week before the assessment reduces performance on vocabulary and reading assessments by between ∼0.5 and ∼0.66 SD, respectively. Main results are replicated using a second independent dataset from Chicago. Findings suggest the need for broader recognition of the impact that extreme acts of violence have on children across a neighborhood, regardless of whether the violence is witnessed directly. PMID:20547862

  19. Homicide Crisis Intervention in a Multicultural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This paper summarizes information concerning homicide crisis intervention in a multicultural school that would be useful for school psychologists. School psychologists are encouraged to be introspective about their own beliefs about death, grief, and multiculturalism. This paper discusses the eight factors to consider when providing services to…

  20. Non-vehicular homicides masquerading as road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Zine, K U; Mugadlimath, Anand B; Sane, Mandar Ramchandra; Bhuyyar, Chandrashekhar; Rathod, S N

    2016-03-01

    Interfering with or planting evidence to disguise the cause of a death is not uncommon in forensic practice. Homicides staged as road accidents are, however, rarely encountered by crime scene investigators. We report two homicides which were presented as road traffic accidents. Case 1: Dead body of a 35-year-old male was brought for autopsy with history of road traffic accident. Primary police inquiry suggested that the victim was knocked down by a speeding four-wheeler, while walking by the side of a high way with his friends. On postmortem examination the deceased's death was found due to homicidal smothering staged as a road traffic accident. Case 2: Dead body of 40-year-old male was brought for autopsy with history of road traffic accident. It was an unwitnessed crush by a speeding four-wheeler. However, on postmortem examination, the deceased was found to have died from homicidal multiple stab wounds with his death staged as a road traffic accident. Importance of meticulous autopsy to determine accurately the cause of death is emphasized. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Homicide Bereavement: Reflections on the Therapeutic Relationship in Trauma Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campesino, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This critical narrative ethnography focused on the aftermath of gang-related homicide of two Latino teenage boys, as articulated from the perspectives of their mothers. Grounded in critical race theory, this study situates the phenomenon of Latino youth violence within contexts of local oppressive political and historical conditions. This article…

  2. Suicide, Homicide, and Alcoholism Among American Indians: Guidelines for Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Calvin J., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to help alleviate some of the health problems among American Indians and Eskimos, this booklet covers suicide, homicide, and alcoholism. It can be used to provide: (1) "how-to" guidelines which describe ways for recognizing, handling, and preventing possible suicides among American Indians; and (2) survey data and literature for use as a…

  3. Murder and psychosis: Neuropsychological profiles of homicide offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stratton, John; Brook, Michael; Hanlon, Robert E

    2017-04-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction, a core feature of schizophrenia, is thought to contribute to the impulsive violent aggression manifested by some individuals with schizophrenia, but not enough is known about how homicidal individuals with schizophrenia perform on neuropsychological measures. The primary aim of our study was to describe the neuropsychological profiles of homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Supplementary analyses compared the criminal, psychiatric and neuropsychological features of schizophrenic homicide offenders with and without God/Satan/demon-themed psychotic symptoms. Twenty-five men and women diagnosed with schizophrenia who had killed another person - 21 convicted of first-degree murder and 4 found not guilty by reason of insanity - completed neuropsychological testing during forensic evaluations. The sample was characterised by extensive neurocognitive impairments, involving executive dysfunction (60%), memory dysfunction (68%) and attentional dysfunction (50%), although those with God/Satan/demon-themed psychotic symptoms performed better than those with nonreligious psychotic content. Our findings indicate that impaired cognition may play an important role in the commission of homicide by individuals with schizophrenia. A subgroup with God/Satan/demon delusions seem sufficiently less impaired that they might be able to engage in metacognitive treatment approaches, aimed at changing their relationship to their psychotic symptoms, thus reducing the perception of power and omnipotence of hallucinated voices and increasing their safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Homicide of a supervisor simulating an occupational accident].

    PubMed

    Betz, P; Eisenmenger, W

    1992-01-01

    An unusual case of homicide is reported. A driver of an excavator killed his foreman by using the scoops of his machine and tried to feign an industrial accident. The man was convicted by the autopsy findings because his testimony could not explain the severe injuries.

  5. Homicide Followed by Suicide: Los Angeles, 1970-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy H.

    1983-01-01

    Compared 104 homicides followed by suicide in Los Angeles during 1970-1979 to West's findings for England and Wales, 1954-1961. Variables discussed are age, ethnicity, sex distribution of offenders and victims, relationship between them, methods, alcohol content, suicide notes, depression, and physical illness. (JAC)

  6. A Comparison of Three Sources of Data on Child Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Jacquelyn M.; McGwin Jr., Gerald; Davis, Gregory; Kovandzic, Tomislav K.; King, William; Vermund, Sten H.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared data from death certificates (DC), medical examiner (ME) reports, and Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program for homicides among children age 5 years or younger in Jefferson County, Alabama between 1988 and 1998. Records from each source were matched independently to records from the other two sources. Kappa coefficients…

  7. Homicide Bereavement: Reflections on the Therapeutic Relationship in Trauma Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campesino, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This critical narrative ethnography focused on the aftermath of gang-related homicide of two Latino teenage boys, as articulated from the perspectives of their mothers. Grounded in critical race theory, this study situates the phenomenon of Latino youth violence within contexts of local oppressive political and historical conditions. This article…

  8. An Analysis of Korean Homicide Crime-Scene Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfati, C. Gabrielle; Park, Jisun

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on how different styles of homicides will be reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at a crime scene. It is suggested that these different types of behaviors best be understood using two frameworks, expressive/instrumental aggression and planned/unplanned violence, to analyze the way the…

  9. A developing world perspective on homicide and personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Audu, Moses; Tesfaye, Markos; Gurmu, Samson

    2014-07-01

    High rates of psychotic disorder among special populations of homicide offenders, females, youth and the mentally disordered, have received much investigation. Personality disorder, especially antisocial personality disorder, augments the relative risk ratio of violence, especially in combination with substance use disorder. Few studies of these correlates of violence and especially homicide have been reported in low- and medium-income countries (LMIC). Using the structured clinical interview for DSM diagnosis (SCID), personality disorders were identified in a cross sectional study involving 546 homicide offenders in Jimma prison, Ethiopia. Predictors of personality disorder were determined using multivariate analysis of various demographic and clinical variables, for example, age, psychiatric history and substance use. Out of the 316 offenders who completed the SCID, only 16% fulfilled DSM IV criteria for personality disorder. The rationale for killing, self-defence, anger and revenge (52% of offenders), planning involved in offending (50%) and reasonably high level of relationship functioning (57% married) were different from most data from the high-income countries. Diagnostically relevant cultural factors in LMIC, not in play in high-income countries, may explain the differences in personality disorders similar to other mental disorders and the underlying mediators of homicide.

  10. Metoclopramide and homicidal ideation: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Robert J; Quinn, Davin K

    2011-01-01

    Metoclopramide is an anti-emetic and gastrointestinal pro-motility agent associated with well-known neuropsychiatric adverse effects, such as dyskinesia, akathisia, and depression. It has never been reported to be associated with homicidal ideation. The authors review the literature on metoclopramide-induced adverse neuropsychiatric reactions and the mechanisms by which these may occur. The authors present a case report of a patient who developed anxiety, agitation, suicidal and homicidal ideation following brief exposure to metoclopramide. The adverse effects of agitation and homicidal ideation were temporally related to the starting and stopping of metoclopramide. The patient subsequently developed agitation without homicidal ideation when given a serotonergic antidepressant a week later, suggesting that serotonin handling may have played a significant role in causing the patient's symptoms. Although metoclopramide is well-known for its side effects related to dopamine blockade, its action at 5-HT₃ and 5-HT₄ receptors may also be clinically significant in the genesis of neuropsychiatric side effects, especially related to mood and behavior. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Israeli mothers' meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide.

    PubMed

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Leichtentritt, Ronit D

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers: the existential paradox; a bifurcated worldview; and oppression, mortification, and humiliation. Most informants used all 3 prototypes in the process of reconstructing meaning, describing changes in the perception of themselves, the world, and society. However, change was also accompanied by continuity, because participants did not abandon their former worldview while adopting a new one. The findings suggest that meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide is a unique, multifaceted, and contradictory process. Implications for practice are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Reducing homicide risk in Indianapolis between 1997 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Nicholas; McGarrell, Edmund F

    2010-09-01

    Rates of homicide risk are not evenly distributed across the US population. Prior research indicates that young males in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to lethal violence. The traditional criminal justice response to violent crime in the urban context has the potential to exacerbate problems, particularly when broad-based arrest sweeps and general deterrence initiatives are the standard models used by law enforcement. Recent studies suggest that alternative intervention approaches that use both specific deterrence combined with improving pro-social opportunities has shown promise in reducing violent crime in these high-risk contexts. This paper examines the changes in homicide patterns for the highest-risk populations in Indianapolis after a "pulling levers" intervention was implemented in the late 1990s to address youth, gang, and gun violence. Multilevel growth curve regression models controlling for a linear trend over time, important structural correlates of homicide across urban neighborhoods, and between-neighborhood variance estimates showed that homicide rates involving the highest-risk populations (i.e., actors 15 to 24 years old) were most likely to experience a statistically significant and substantive reduction after the intervention was implemented (IRR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.78). Among male actors in this age range, Black male homicide rates (IRR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25 - 0.70) and White male rates (IRR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15 - 0.79) declined substantially more than homicide rates involving actors outside the 15 to 24 years age range (IRR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.54 - 1.69). In addition, neighborhoods where specific, community-level strategies were implemented had statistically significant and substantive high-risk homicide rate declines. We conclude that further extension of the pulling levers framework appears warranted in light of the recent findings. Alternative justice

  13. Reducing Homicide Risk in Indianapolis between 1997 and 2000

    PubMed Central

    McGarrell, Edmund F.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of homicide risk are not evenly distributed across the US population. Prior research indicates that young males in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to lethal violence. The traditional criminal justice response to violent crime in the urban context has the potential to exacerbate problems, particularly when broad-based arrest sweeps and general deterrence initiatives are the standard models used by law enforcement. Recent studies suggest that alternative intervention approaches that use both specific deterrence combined with improving pro-social opportunities has shown promise in reducing violent crime in these high-risk contexts. This paper examines the changes in homicide patterns for the highest-risk populations in Indianapolis after a “pulling levers” intervention was implemented in the late 1990s to address youth, gang, and gun violence. Multilevel growth curve regression models controlling for a linear trend over time, important structural correlates of homicide across urban neighborhoods, and between-neighborhood variance estimates showed that homicide rates involving the highest-risk populations (i.e., actors 15 to 24 years old) were most likely to experience a statistically significant and substantive reduction after the intervention was implemented (IRR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29 – 0.78). Among male actors in this age range, Black male homicide rates (IRR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25 – 0.70) and White male rates (IRR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15 – 0.79) declined substantially more than homicide rates involving actors outside the 15 to 24 years age range (IRR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.54 – 1.69). In addition, neighborhoods where specific, community-level strategies were implemented had statistically significant and substantive high-risk homicide rate declines. We conclude that further extension of the pulling levers framework appears warranted in light of the recent findings. Alternative

  14. Neck injuries in young pediatric homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Laura K; Rubin, David; Christian, Cindy W; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Mirchandani, Haresh G; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the authors estimate the prevalence of injuries to the soft tissue of the neck, cervical vertebrae, and cervical spinal cord among victims of abusive head trauma to better understand these injuries and their relationship to other pathophysiological findings commonly found in children with fatal abusive head trauma. The population included all homicide victims 2 years of age and younger from the city of Philadelphia, Pennyslvania, who underwent a comprehensive postmortem examination at the Office of the Medical Examiner between 1995 and 2003. A retrospective review of all available postmortem records was performed, and data regarding numerous pathological findings, as well as the patient's clinical history and demographic information, were abstracted. Data were described using means and standard deviations for continuous variables, and frequency and ranges for categorical variables. Chi-square analyses were used to test for the association of neck injuries with different types of brain injury. The sample included 52 children, 41 (79%) of whom died of abusive head trauma. Of these, 29 (71%) had primary cervical cord injuries: in 21 there were parenchymal injuries, in 24 meningeal hemorrhages, and in 16, nerve root avulsion/dorsal root ganglion hemorrhage were evident. Six children with abusive head trauma had no evidence of an impact to the head, and all 6 had primary cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). No child had a spinal fracture. Six of 29 children (21%) with primary cervical SCIs had soft-tissue (ligamentous or muscular) injuries to the neck, and 14 (48%) had brainstem injuries. There was a significant association of primary cervical SCI with cerebral edema (p = 0.036) but not with hypoxia-ischemia, infarction, or herniation. Cervical SCI is a frequent but not universal finding in young children with fatal abusive head trauma. In the present study, parenchymal and/or root injury usually occurred without evidence of muscular or ligamentous damage

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of homicide recidivism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of homicide recidivists among population studies of homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of homicide associated with schizophrenia conducted in defined populations and indexed in Medline, PsychINFO, or Embase between January 1960 and November 2013. Published data was supplemented with unpublished data about recidivism obtained by personal communication from the authors of published studies of homicide and schizophrenia. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide recidivists. Results Three studies reported that 4.3%, 4.5%, and 10.7% of homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed an earlier homicide. Unpublished data were obtained from the authors of 11 studies of homicide in schizophrenia published in English between 1980 and 2013. The authors of 2 studies reported a single case of homicide recidivism and the authors of 9 studies reported no cases. The rates of homicide recidivism between studies were highly heterogeneous (I-square = 79). The pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide offenders with schizophrenia who had committed an earlier homicide was 2.3% (95% CI (Confidence Interval) 0.07% to 7.2%), a figure that was not reported in any individual study. The pooled proportion of homicide recidivists from published reports was more than ten times greater (8.6%, 95% CI 5.7%-12.9%) than the pooled proportion of homicide recidivists estimated from data provided by personal communication (0.06%, 95% CI 0.02% to 1.8%). Conclusions In most jurisdictions, homicide recidivism by people with schizophrenia is less common than published reports have suggested. The reasons for the variation in the rates of homicide recidivism between studies are unclear, although in most jurisdictions long-term secure treatment and supervision after release appears to be effective in

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Golenkov, Andrei; Nielssen, Olav; Large, Matthew

    2014-02-18

    The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of homicide recidivists among population studies of homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of homicide associated with schizophrenia conducted in defined populations and indexed in Medline, PsychINFO, or Embase between January 1960 and November 2013. Published data was supplemented with unpublished data about recidivism obtained by personal communication from the authors of published studies of homicide and schizophrenia. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide recidivists. Three studies reported that 4.3%, 4.5%, and 10.7% of homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed an earlier homicide. Unpublished data were obtained from the authors of 11 studies of homicide in schizophrenia published in English between 1980 and 2013. The authors of 2 studies reported a single case of homicide recidivism and the authors of 9 studies reported no cases. The rates of homicide recidivism between studies were highly heterogeneous (I-square = 79). The pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide offenders with schizophrenia who had committed an earlier homicide was 2.3% (95% CI (Confidence Interval) 0.07% to 7.2%), a figure that was not reported in any individual study. The pooled proportion of homicide recidivists from published reports was more than ten times greater (8.6%, 95% CI 5.7%-12.9%) than the pooled proportion of homicide recidivists estimated from data provided by personal communication (0.06%, 95% CI 0.02% to 1.8%). In most jurisdictions, homicide recidivism by people with schizophrenia is less common than published reports have suggested. The reasons for the variation in the rates of homicide recidivism between studies are unclear, although in most jurisdictions long-term secure treatment and supervision after release appears to be effective in preventing homicide recidivism. A prospective study

  17. The influence of several changes in atmospheric states over semi-arid areas on the incidence of mental health disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts [Deliberate Self Harm (DSH); ICD-10: X60-X84] and psychotic attacks (PsA; ICD-10, F20-F29) in association with atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, was analyzed. A retrospective study is based on the 4,325 cases of DSH and PsA registered in the Mental Health Center (MHC) of Ben-Gurion University (Be'er-Sheva, Israel) during 2001-2003. Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p < 0.1. The influence of temperature and humidity on suicide attempts ( N SU ) and psychotic attacks ( N PS ) was weakly pronounced ( p > 0.1). Correlation coefficients between N SU and N PS and speed WS of westerly wind reaches 0.3 ( p < 0.05), while their dependence on easterly WS was weaker ( p > 0.09). Variations in easterly wind direction WD influence N SU and N PS values ( p < 0.04), but no corresponding correlation with westerly winds was found ( p > 0.3). Obviously ,in transition areas located between different regions ,the main role of air streams in meteorological-biological impact can scarcely be exaggerated. An unstable balance in the internal state of a weather-sensitive person is disturbed when the atmospheric state is changed by specific desert winds, which can provoke significant perturbations in meteorological parameters. Results indicate the importance of wind direction, defining mainly the atmospheric situation in semi-arid areas: changes in direction of the easterly wind influence N SU and N PS , while changes in WS are important for mental health under westerly air streams. Obviously, N SU and N PS are more affected by the disturbance of weather from its normal state, for a given season, to which the local population is accustomed, than by absolute values of meteorological parameters.

  18. Alcohol and homicide: a cross-cultural comparison of the relationship in 14 European countries.

    PubMed

    Rossow, I

    2001-02-01

    To assess an empirical basis for cross-national and cross-cultural comparisons of four aspects of the association between alcohol consumption and homicide: the relative strength of the association, the fraction of homicide rates attributable to alcohol consumption, possible gender differences in the association between consumption and victim rates and possible variations in beverage-specific effects on homicide rates. Time series analyses on different series of annual aggregate-level data on alcohol sales and homicide rates for the period 1950-95 were performed for each individual country. Estimates were pooled across countries within three regions of alleged differences in drinking pattern: southern Europe, central Europe and northern Europe. Total alcohol sales were positively and statistically significantly associated with homicide rates in five countries. Beer sales were positively and statistically significantly associated with homicide rates in four countries, wine sales in another two countries, and spirits sales in two countries. The effect of alcohol sales was stronger for male homicide rates than for female homicide rates, and the estimated fraction of homicides that could be attributed to alcohol consumption appeared to be of the same magnitude in the three regions. When estimates were pooled across countries, the strongest association between total sales and homicides was found in the northern European countries and the weakest, but still statistically significant, in the southern European countries. Pooled estimates showed that beer sales were positively and significantly associated with homicide rates in all three European regions, whereas wine sales were positively and moderately associated with homicide rates only in the traditional wine drinking cultures in southern Europe. The findings support the hypothesis that homicide rates are influenced by alcohol sales and more so in the northern European countries where the drinking culture is, to a larger

  19. The political economy of urban homicide: assessing the relative impact of gender inequality on sex-specific victimization.

    PubMed

    DeWees, Mari A; Parker, Karen F

    2003-02-01

    This research examines the ways in which the changing political economy of urban areas has contributed differently to the homicide victimization rates of females and males across US cities. Recent research, while relatively limited, has presented disparate results regarding the effect of gender inequality on urban sex-specific victimization. Our work further explores this relationship by taking into account relative gender disparities in income, education, labor market opportunities, and politics in an examination of sex-specific homicide victimization in 1990. Key to this current investigation is the evaluation of feminist and lifestyle arguments that suggest that structural gender inequality has a unique effect on female victimization. Overall, our findings reveal gender inequality to be a significant predictor of both male and female urban homicide. While these findings suggest mixed support for theoretical arguments regarding gender inequality, further analyses reveal significant differences in specific types of gender inequality on victimization patterns across genders. These additional results highlight the need for greater attention toward both methodological and theoretical issues when examining the interconnections between gender, political economy, and violence in research.

  20. Homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation and violent behavior in adolescents with social phobia in Metropolitan Lima, Perú.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Roxana; Morón, Giannina; Padilla, Martín; Alarcón, Renato D

    2014-09-01

    Social phobia and violent behavior are both important mental health problems among adolescent populations in different parts of the world. This study attempts to evaluate possible connections between social phobia, homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation, and subsequent violent behavior among adolescents living in the metropolitan area of Lima, Perú. A sample of 991 adolescents, part of the 2002 Epidemiological Study in Metropolitan Lima, conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health "Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi" (INSM "HD-HN") was studied. Social phobia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical assessment and the use of MINI, and suicidal ideation, homicidal/violent thoughts, and violent behavior were identified through the Mental Health Questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR) statistical analyses adjusted by logistic regression controlling for age and gender were performed. Variables associated with social phobia were homicidal thoughts in the last month (OR: 5.19, confidence interval [CI] at 95% 4.95-5.40), an impulse to hit known (OR: 1.56; 95% CI, 1.53-1.59) and unknown (OR: 3.98, 95% CI,3.89-4.07) persons, the wish to take revenge for a past offense (OR: 2.60, 95% CI 2.54-2.64), getting involved in fights with different kinds of weapons (OR: 1,78, 95% CI 1.70-1.87), suicidal ideation throughout lifetime (OR: 4.74, 95% CI 4.65-4.83), and life prevalence of suicidal attempt (OR: 5.39, 95% CI 5.23-5.55). Social phobia in adolescents of this Peruvian sample seems to be closely associated with both homicidal/violent thoughts, violent behavior, and suicidal ideation. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.