Science.gov

Sample records for area korea implications

  1. Repeating microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 3.0 occurred in the Seoul Metropolitan Capital Area (SNCA), Korea, on 9 February 2010. The earthquake attracted much attention and raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2011 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including 2 previously reported events and 9 newly identified ones. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative event (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using first motions. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. The orientation of P-axis is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of earthquakes in this study is far from any complete, although we have adopted a well-established method to detect earthquakes. Considering the low seismicity, extensive efforts to monitor the micro-seismicity are definitely required to obtain comprehensive picture of the seismicity pattern in

  2. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  3. Baseline geochemical characteristics of groundwater in the mountainous area of Jeju Island, South Korea: Implications for degree of mineralization and nitrate contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Chan; Chae, Gi-Tak; Yoon, Yoon-Yeol; Kang, Bong-Rae; Koh, Gi-Won; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2009-09-01

    SummaryHydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater were investigated to elucidate baseline quality for basaltic aquifers of a mountainous area dominated by natural land cover in the volcanic island of Jeju, South Korea. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in four principal components (PC) of which PC1, PC3 and PC4 represented natural mineralization by water-rock interaction, while PC2 corresponded to anthropogenic contamination from nitrate sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to assess the effect of the geochemical and hydrologic processes on each sample. Six sample groups, distinguished by total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate concentration, and water type, resulted from the HCA: high-altitude springs, low-mineral water, nitrate-contaminated water, intermediate-mineral water, and two groups of high-mineral water. Water types were transformed from Na(Mg, Ca)-HCO 3 for low-mineral water to Na-HCO 3 for high-mineral water. Nitrate-contaminated water occurred near the boundary of natural and agricultural land uses of the western area. High-mineral water had higher calcite saturation states than other groups. The high-mineral water also had tritium ( 3H) values lower than 1.5 TU, indicating a significant contribution of old groundwater. In contrast, low-mineral water had tritium values of about 3 TU, which is close to those of rainwater. Geographically, the high-mineral water was concentrated in the southwestern area, where intermediate-mineral water was also found. This distribution was likely related to the presence of extensive trachytic rocks, which could have formed locally isolated aquifers, enabling prolonged water-rock interactions; the higher location of low-permeability hydrovolcanic tuffs in the subsurface of the southern area would also increase chances of tapping aquifers below the hydrovolcanic tuffs. The cumulative probability of TDS showed two breakpoints of 50 and 150 mg/L that distinguished high-altitude springs, low

  4. Total atmospheric mercury deposition in forested areas in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Su; Seo, Yong-Seok; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-06-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) was sampled weekly in dry and wet deposition and throughfall and monthly in litterfall, and as it was volatilized from soil from August 2008 to February 2010 to identify the factors influencing the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in a temperate deciduous forest in South Korea. For this location there was no significant correlation between the estimated monthly dry deposition flux (litterfall + throughfall - wet deposition) (6.7 µg m-2 yr-1) and directly measured dry deposition (9.9 µg m-2 yr-1) likely due primarily to Hg losses from the litterfall collector. Dry deposition fluxes in cold seasons (fall and winter) were lower than in warmer seasons (spring and summer). The volume-weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in both precipitation and throughfall were highest in winter, likely due to increased scavenging by snow events. Since South Korea experiences abundant rainfall in summer, VWM Hg concentrations in summer were lower than in other seasons. Litterfall fluxes were highest in the late fall to early winter, when leaves were dropped from the trees (September to November). The cumulative annual Hg emission flux from soil was 6.8 µg m-2 yr-1. Based on these data, the yearly deposition fluxes of Hg calculated using two input approaches (wet deposition + dry deposition or throughfall + litterfall) were 6.8 and 3.6 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. This is the first reported study which measured the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in South Korea, and thus our results provide useful information to compare against data related to Hg fate and transport in this part of the world.

  5. Paleobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min

    2010-05-01

    Dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in Korea is described in taphonomic aspect, their paleoenvironments are interpreted, and geobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the world and Korea are analyzed in geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. Dinosaur eggs with spheroolithids, faveoloolithid, and elongatoolithid structural types occur in several stratigraphic formations of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in South Korea, and most of the egg-bearing formations are the Late Cretaceous. The dinosaur eggs usually occur as clutches in purple sandy mudstone of floodplain deposits preserved as calcic paleosol with association of vertic paleosol features in places. Most of the eggs are top-broken and filled with surrounding sediments. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup are interpreted as a dried floodplain where volcanic activity occurred intermittently in the vicinity of the nesting sites. Their depositional settings on which floodplains developed are diverse from fluvial plain with meandering rivers to alluvial plain with episodic sheet flooding. The nesting areas in the Gyeongsang Basin are deemed to have been under semi-arid climate, which resulted in formation of calcic soils facilitating preservation of the dinosaur eggs. The geochronologic occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits are mostly restricted to the Late Cretaceous in the world as well as in Korea. If it has not been resulted from biased discoveries and reports of dinosaur eggs, biological rather than physical and chemical conditions for preservation of dinosaur eggs might be related with the restricted occurrences in the Late Cretaceous. Two hypotheses are suggested for probable biological causes to the geochronologically restricted occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits. One is related with the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic and the spreading

  6. Missile defense and strategic stability: Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) in South Korea

    DOE PAGES

    Sankaran, Jaganath; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2017-02-06

    South Korea is threatened by its troubled relationship with North Korea. North Korea possesses a large cache of missiles as well as chemical and biological weapons, and the future potential to mount nuclear weapons on its missiles. The United States is also challenged because of its defense commitments to Seoul. As a countermeasure, the United States and South Korea decided to deploy Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile defenses in South Korea. However, China has objected. Chinese scholars believe the THAAD radar would be able to track Chinese inter-continental ballistic missiles, thereby weakening their deterrent. A technical analysis doesmore » not support this assertion. But, it is vital for South Korea, given its proximity and economic interdependence, to reassure China. The United States Forces Korea will deploy THAD and that is not a commitment by Seoul to become part of U.S.-led missile defenses in the Asia-Pacific.« less

  7. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  8. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  9. A Preliminary Study of Seismic Risk in the Pyongyang Area, North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Small and large earthquakes have occurred according to the historical and instrumental records in the Korean Peninsula. Results of the GIS spatial analyst using historical and instrumental records indicate high point (earthquake) density in Pyongyang metropolitan area in North Korea, and southern areas in South Korea. Apparently, Pyongyang metropolitan area, the capital of North Korea, is exposed to large risks due to natural hazards including earthquakes. Assuming a magnitude 6.7 scenario earthquake, which was experienced in A.D. 502 in the area, 51.1% of the Pyongyang area will experience 0.24g or higher shaking. Approximately 14.8 % of the population in North Korea has been evacuated due to disasters between 1999 and 2008. This is significantly higher than that of South Korea (62 times higher) in the same period. It demonstrates that North Korea is in poorer environment and may have lesser competencies to handle the crisis of hazard than that of South Korea. Results of the study provide a significant information in laying out the earthquake disaster assessment system.

  10. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  11. Investigation of Groundwater Flow at Highway Construction Areas in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, Y.; Ji, S.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.

    2006-05-01

    Contamination by acid rock drainage was found at highway construction areas in Korea, where pyrites were included in materials to raise the ground level. To remediate the acid rock drainage, groundwater flow direction and total flow rate were investigated in addition to the relationship between groundwater and surface water. Multiple boreholes were installed for geological structure surveys, pumping tests, slug test and tracer tests. Geological survey showed that a water-table aquifer system included a relatively homogeneous earthen layer and an underlying undisturbed alluvial layer. Transmissivity and storativity of the upper layer were investigated 0.1-2.6m2/day and 0.3 relatively by pumping tests. Hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer was investigated 0.1m/day by slug tests. Chloride ion was used in tracer tests, which included a natural gradient method and a push-pull method. In the natural gradient method, it was failed to detect chloride ion in groundwater. In the push-pull test, dispersivity ranges from 0.001m to 0.3m for several drift time. With the characteristic parameters from aquifer tests and tracer tests, numerical modeling techniques were used to evaluate groundwater flow directions and rates. Boundary conditions were decided to reflect geological and geographical boundaries, like concrete barriers, water divides and rivers. Numerical simulations showed the differences between groundwater flow before constructions and that after constructions. After the highway constructions are finished, groundwater direction changes seriously and total amount of the acid rock drainage is estimated 166.5m3/day. To find out the effect of precipitation changes, several numerical simulations were performed. It was shown that total amount of the acid rock drainage ranges from 73.8m3/day in the dry season to 323.6m3/day in the rainy season.

  12. Dinosaur egg deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup, Korea: Diversity and paleobiological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min

    2012-08-01

    The taphonomy and depositional environments of dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, Korea, are described and their paleobiological implications are discussed in the context of global geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup is interpreted as dry floodplains with a semi-arid climate and intermittent volcanic activity. The diverse floodplain paleoenvironments include fluvial plains with meandering rivers to alluvial plains with episodic sheet-flooding. Both global and Korean dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits are generally restricted to the Late Cretaceous, a phenomenon for which two possible explanations are proposed. The first possible explanation for the temporal limitation of dinosaur egg preservation involves the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic, the Late Cretaceous ecological dispersion of angiosperm trees into swamps and floodplains, and the attendant change in herbivorous dinosaurs' diets. The second possible reason is related to nesting behavior in the Cretaceous. By contrast to the temporally limited occurrence of dinosaur eggs, paleoenvironments of nesting areas are diverse, ranging from inland areas to coastal areas. These hypotheses may provide new directions for the study and understanding of dinosaur egg distribution in the context of geologic time.

  13. Magnetic Fabrics and Source Implications of Chisulryoung Ignimbrites, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hoabin; Yu, Yongjae; Doh, Seong-Jae; Suk, Dongwoo; Kim, Jeongmin

    2016-08-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of late Cretaceous ash-flow tuffs in Chisulryoung Volcanic Formation, southeastern Korea was studied to define the primary pyroclastic flow azimuth. AMS data revealed a dominant oblate fabric with a tight clustering of k3 (minimum axis of magnetic susceptibility) and shallow dispersal of k1 (maximum axis of magnetic susceptibility) and k2 (intermediate axis of magnetic susceptibility). Dominance of oblate fabrics indicates clast imbrications imposed by compaction and welding. Flow azimuth inferred from AMS data indicates the nearby intrusive welded tuff (IWT) as the source of calderas for ignimbrites. Such an inference is supported by geologic investigations, in which the IWT displays eutaxitic textures nearly parallel to its subvertical contacts. The results are compatible with a unique prolate fabric and an anomalously high inclination observed for the IWT, possibly produced by rheomorphic flows as the welded tuff is squeezed along the rough-surfaced dyke walls due to agglutination.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Roh, Hanseong; Kim, Juhyeok; Cho, Sukhyeong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Jinwon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Chong, Hyonyong; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2015-03-20

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klesiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea. The strain K. oxytoca M1 is able to produce either 2,3-butanediol or acetoin selectively by controlling the pH and temperature.

  15. Investigation of cancer mortality inequalities between rural and urban areas in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mee

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about rural-urban cancer disparities, particularly in South Korea, and this study is to identify cancer-specific mortality inequalities between the rural and urban areas of the country. For 11 specific cancer sites, age-standardised mortality rates were analysed for the rural and urban administrative districts of South Korea during 2006-2011. The Poisson log linear regression models were employed to estimate cancer-specific mortality rates, and Bonferroni comparison method was used to identify rural-urban disparities. There were significant rural-urban disparities observed for all cancer sites except prostate, pancreas and leukaemia. The mortality rates of lung, liver and stomach cancers, the three most common cancers in the country, were observed to be significantly higher in rural areas than in metropolitan areas. In contrast, the reverse relationship was observed for the reproductive system (breast and uterus) and colon cancers. Central nervous system cancer mortality was observed to be significantly higher in rural areas than in non-metro urban areas. For the first time ever, significant rural-urban disparity patterns in cancer mortality rates in South Korea have been identified in this paper. Future investigations on cancer risk factors for the country should address these disparity patterns. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. Results A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. Conclusions Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea. PMID:23766872

  17. Development of a guideline on vegetation area to reduce the risk of weed pollinosis in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rang Kim, Kyu; Lee, Hye-Rim; Kim, Mijin; Baek, Won-ki; Oh, Jae-Won; Choi, Young-Jean; Jung, Hyun-Sook

    2013-04-01

    Allergenic pollens are influenced by the environmental conditions so that the daily number of pollens varies by temperature, humidity, wind speed, etc. The relationship between the daily pollens and meteorological conditions were determined and utilized to forecast daily risk level of pollen allergy in Korea. Another important factor for the daily risk level of pollens is the vegetation area of the allergenic plants. In this study, the relationship between the area and pollen concentration was identified for two major weed species: Ragweed and Japanese Hop. It was then utilized to determine the upper limit of vegetation area to confine the risk level to a certain degree in the field. Three sites with different levels of pollen concentration were selected among twelve pollen observation sites in Korea based on the historical observation of the weed pollens. The vegetation area of the two weed species within four square kilometers at each site was surveyed. The maximum daily pollen concentration was highly correlated with the vegetation area and it was selected as a dependent variable for the regression equations, which were used as the guideline for vegetation area. According to the guideline, to limit the maximum daily pollen concentration under the moderate risk level or less than 50 pollen grains per cubic meter for Ragweed, the vegetation area should remain less than 0.6% of the ground area. For the moderate risk of Japanese Hop, pollen grains should be limited less than 100 and the area be less than 0.4%.

  18. The Characterization of Microearthquakes in Offshore Area of Northeastern South Korea from Multidisciplinary Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. M.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, G.

    2015-12-01

    A number of small earthquakes in offshore Gangneung-Sokcho-Goseong area of northeastern South Korea has been identified and the hypocenters of these events are relocated by double-difference algorithm using multidisciplinary data set. Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) lists 845 events for the period Jan. 2010 - Jun. 2015 with local magnitude up to 3.3. Peer review shows that the offshore events can be grouped into a number of small clusters, whereas onshore events are relatively few and unevenly distributed. It appears to have little relationship between the location of offshore event clusters and the direction of main onshore faults running NNE - SSW. In this study, we focus on the small events occurred in the area of N37°45´-38°35´ and E128°30´ - 129°20´. The Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) network operated by KIGAM and 5 temporary stations with Guralp CMG-40T short-period seismometers placed along the east coast of South Korea record the seismic energy generated from small events. The 137 events recorded from May to October 2014, ranging in local magnitude from 0.4 to 2.3, are already relocated using 1849 direct P-wave traveltimes identified from 29 stations. Relocation produced two major clusters in offshore Goseong (cluster 1) and Yangyang (cluster 2) province. The waveforms of relocated events in cluster 1 and 2 are similar to those from explosion in waters rather than earthquake, and spectrum analysis shows energy concentration on low frequencies below 10 Hz. We are combining the multidisciplinary data set from land based broadband and short-period seismometers, Guralp OBS system deployed in July this year, accelerometer and hydrophone array mounted on the offshore platforms of the underwater seismic observatory in the north of the study area. The integration of seismic and hydro-acoustic data in offshore supplements uneven azimuthal coverage and gives improved characterization of offshore seismic activity.

  19. Genetic structure of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) populations in Korea: implication for invasion processes in heterogeneous landscapes.

    PubMed

    Park, Marana; Kim, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2013-08-01

    Lycorma delicatula (White) was identified in 2004 as an invasive pest in South Korea, where it causes serious damage to vineyard crops. To investigate the population structure and dispersal pattern of L. delicatula in South Korea, we estimated the population genetic structure and gene flow among nine locations across the country using seven microsatellite markers. Although L. delicatula spread throughout most of its geographical range in South Korea within 5-7 years following invasion, its populations show evidence of genetic structuring across the range with a low but significant global F ST (genetic differentiation across all populations) of 0.0474. Bayesian-based clustering analysis indicates the presence of at least three genetically unique populations in South Korea, including populations in northeastern South Korea, which show a distinct genetic background. However, isolation by distance suggests that populations in South Korea have not yet reached genetic equilibrium. Estimates of the historical rate of gene flow (N e m) indicate that relatively high rates of flow have been maintained among populations within the western region, which may indicate recent range expansion. A population assignment test using the first-generation migrant detection method suggested that long-distance dispersal of L. delicatula may have occurred over large areas of South Korea. More complex dispersal patterns may have occurred during L. delicatula invasion of heterogeneous landscapes in South Korea.

  20. Historic and Instrumental Records of Repeating Seismicity in the Gyeongju Area, Southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HAN, M.; Kim, K. H.; Kang, S. Y.; Son, M.; Park, J. H.; LI, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Gyeongju area located in southeastern Korea has experienced repeated seismicity. Historic records during the last 2000 years in the area indicate the earthquake with magnitude 6.7 caused damages of human life and property in 779. During the period of modern instrumental seismic records, the area also experienced numerous small- and moderate-magnitude earthquakes. For example, an earthquake with magnitude 4.3 occurring in 1997 provided a chance for nationwide evaluations of earthquake safety and the renewal of earthquake monitoring system in Korea. The area is still experiencing small earthquakes including magnitude 3.5 in September 2014. We applied waveform correlation detector to continuously recorded seismic data from July 2014 to December 2014 to identify any repeating earthquakes. Detected waveforms are carefully inspected and more than 230 potential events are identified. Eighty three earthquakes among them have been selected for precise determination of earthquake hypocenters. Focal mechanism solutions for representative events were also determined. We further compared the results with those obtained using earthquakes prior to 2013. It has been confirmed the earthquakes in the area are clustered in space. Similar waveforms, earthquake locations, and focal mechanism solutions identified in the study indicates an active faults in the area. Since the area hosts many critical infra-structures, micro-seismicity in the area requires extensive study to address earthquake hazard issues.

  1. Estimation of source contribution of PM2.5 at a background area in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Kim, Y. P.; Lee, J.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, J.; Heo, J.; Kim, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Organic aerosols account for a large fraction (20-80 wt%) in the ambient particulate matter, especially, in PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter). PM2.5 has detrimental effects on human health as well as the environmental effects such as climate change. Thus, identification of major sources of organic aerosols in PM2.5 at a background area is necessary to understand the characteristics of the ambient air in Korea. The objectives of this study are (1) estimation and identification of sources of organic aerosols (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and sugars) using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model for the data measured from Jul. 2015 to Apr. 2016 at Anmyeon island, a back ground station in Korea, and (2) comparison with the PMF modeling result at Seoul to understand the characteristics of background areas of Korea. Five sources were identified at Anmyeon island. The profiles of some factors were similar to the profiles of Seoul and the factors at both sites showed similar seasonal variation in daily contribution.

  2. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  3. Debris Flow Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Area Associated with Landslide Hazard Map : Application to Busan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okjeong, Lee; Yoonkyung, Park; Mookwang, Sung; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, an urban debris flow disaster vulnerability assessment methodology is suggested with major focus on urban social and economic aspect. The proposed methodology is developed based on the landslide hazard maps that Korean Forest Service has utilized to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R model, and then urban vulnerability is evaluated by two categories; physical and socio-economic aspect. The physical vulnerability is associated to buildings that can be broken down by a landslide event directly. This study considers two popular building structure types, reinforced concrete frame and non-reinforced concretes frame, to evaluate the physically-based vulnerability. The socio-economic vulnerability is measured as a function of the resistant levels of the exposed people, the intensity and magnitude of indirect or intangible losses, and preparedness level of the local government. An indicator-based model is established to evaluate the life and indirect loss under urban debris flow disasters as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illuminate the validity of the suggested methodology, physical and socio-economic vulnerability levels are investigated for Daejeon, Korea using the proposed approach. The results reveal that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions. Key words: Debris flow disasters, Physical vulnerability, Socio-economic Vulnerability, Urban Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of Korea government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA).

  4. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  5. Patterns of drugs & poisons in southern area of South Korea in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Park, Yonghoon; Ha, Hongil; Chung, Heesun

    2016-12-01

    The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014. Among them, 15 cases were determined as drug intoxication or poisons as the cause of death, taking up 2.5% of total cases: 5 cases of intoxication by drugs, 5 by agricultural pesticides, 3 by illicit drugs, and 1 each by detergents and chemical substances. A total of 108 drugs in postmortem bloods were detected from the autopsy cases, and the top 5 drugs were chlorpheniramine, tramadol, diazepam, zolpidem and lidocaine. Meanwhile, a total of 1,728 cases were submitted for illicit drug testing in 2014. Among them, hair was the most common type of specimens, and the rate of positive detection of methamphetamine from the hair, urine, and seized materials in the southern area was over 50% in all cases, indicating that this is the most commonly abused drug in South Korea. A total of 12 types of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) were detected in the southern area in 2014; 10 were identified as synthetic cannabinoids and 2 as alkyl nitrites.

  6. Improvement of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System (ASAPS) on Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Gyun; Jee, Joon-Bum

    2017-04-01

    Dangerous weather such as severe rain, heavy snow, drought and heat wave caused by climate change make more damage in the urban area that dense populated and industry areas. Urban areas, unlike the rural area, have big population and transportation, dense the buildings and fuel consumption. Anthropogenic factors such as road energy balance, the flow of air in the urban is unique meteorological phenomena. However several researches are in process about prediction of urban meteorology. ASAPS (Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System) predicts a severe weather with very short range (prediction with 6 hour) and high resolution (every hour with time and 1 km with space) on Seoul metropolitan area based on KLAPS (Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System) from KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). This system configured three parts that make a background field (SUF5), analysis field (SU01) with observation and forecast field with high resolution (SUF1). In this study, we improve a high-resolution ASAPS model and perform a sensitivity test for the rainfall case. The improvement of ASAPS include model domain configuration, high resolution topographic data and data assimilation with WISE observation data.

  7. Geographical inequalities in suicide rates and area deprivation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed growing interest in determinants of suicide in South Korea. While much of the research has paid attention to the role of individual factors in explaining suicide mortality, another potentially important dimension of health inequality is geography. To describe the geographical distribution of suicide rates in South Korea, and to examine to what extent the distribution is shaped by area deprivation. Using 2004-2006 mortality data and 2005 population census data, the study first described the spatial mapping of age-standardised suicide rates and level of area deprivation across 250 districts in South Korea. A spatial lag model was also employed to examine the association between the two, taking into account the spatial dependence and interactions between neighbouring districts, as indicated by Moran's I and Geary' C statistics. In addition to level of area deprivation, population density, welfare spending, and rates of divorce, marriage and fertility at district-level were added to the model. The spatial mapping of suicide rates across 250 districts exhibited a different pattern between males and females. While the highest suicide rates tended to cluster in the north-east region of South Korea for males, no clear pattern was observed for females. On the other hand, the lowest suicide rates for both males and females were found in most districts of the capital city. The results of the spatial lag model revealed a significant association between suicide rates and area deprivation, particularly for male suicide. Compared to the least deprived area, there were about 12-13 more male suicide cases (per 100,000 males) in highly deprived areas. The association with area deprivation was less clear for females. Population density was negatively associated with suicide rates for both males and females. While suicide rates were in general positively associated with divorce rates and negatively associated with fertility rates, the coefficients of both

  8. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  9. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  10. Assessment of the Air Quality Improvement Potentials for Seoul Metropolitan Area using GAINS-Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Kim, J.; Bu, C.; Lee, Y.; Choi, K. C.; Amann, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas are very important places for climate change and air pollution because they have been emitting a significant amount of Green House Gases (GHGs) and air pollutants. Cause they have massive pollutant emissions and high population density with amount of vehicles. Korea's government has set the 2nd phase capital air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets are to achieve annual mean PM10 and pm2.5concentration for SMA Area 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3, respectively. To achieve this target, emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. In this study, we found the emission level of some pollutants for the year 2030 will be decreased compare with the baseline level but the concentration cannot meet their target even with more stringent control measures. The more in-depth analysis of future PM concentration, estimated from Source-Receptor(S-R) relationship, were conducted for more accurate air quality improvement assessment. As the result, we found that secondary and transboundary pollution have been plying significant role in Seoul Metro air quality. Not only direct/in-region measures, therefore, but indirect measures/international cooperation have to be conducted to achieve target air quality. ** This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea.

  11. Mapping Deforestation area in North Korea Using Phenology-based Multi-Index and Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Sung, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forest ecosystem provides ecological benefits to both humans and wildlife. Growing global demand for food and fiber is accelerating the pressure on the forest ecosystem in whole world from agriculture and logging. In recently, North Korea lost almost 40 % of its forests to crop fields for food production and cut-down of forest for fuel woods between 1990 and 2015. It led to the increased damage caused by natural disasters and is known to be one of the most forest degraded areas in the world. The characteristic of forest landscape in North Korea is complex and heterogeneous, the major landscape types in the forest are hillside farm, unstocked forest, natural forest and plateau vegetation. Remote sensing can be used for the forest degradation mapping of a dynamic landscape at a broad scale of detail and spatial distribution. Confusion mostly occurred between hillside farmland and unstocked forest, but also between unstocked forest and forest. Most previous forest degradation that used focused on the classification of broad types such as deforests area and sand from the perspective of land cover classification. The objective of this study is using random forest for mapping degraded forest in North Korea by phenological based vegetation index derived from MODIS products, which has various environmental factors such as vegetation, soil and water at a regional scale for improving accuracy. The model created by random forest resulted in an overall accuracy was 91.44%. Class user's accuracy of hillside farmland and unstocked forest were 97.2% and 84%%, which indicate the degraded forest. Unstocked forest had relative low user accuracy due to misclassified hillside farmland and forest samples. Producer's accuracy of hillside farmland and unstocked forest were 85.2% and 93.3%, repectly. In this case hillside farmland had lower produce accuracy mainly due to confusion with field, unstocked forest and forest. Such a classification of degraded forest could supply essential

  12. Micro-seismicity and their responsible faults in the Gyeongju area, southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Son, M.; HAN, M.; Kang, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Seismicity in Gyeongju, southeastern Korea, has been studied to yield a direct link between the earthquakes and fault structures for the first time in Korea. We identify 311 locatable events from 5 years of locally and continuously recorded seismic data. Earthquakes are relocated using the double-difference technique to reveal subsurface active structures. Then, we investigate the apparent relationship between the streaks of seismicity and detailed map of surface expression of faults including the Ulsan fault, the southern segment of the Yeonil Tectonic Line, the Seokup fault, and the Waup basin boundary faults. For areas of high micro-seismic activity during the study period, precisely determined earthquake locations are readily correlated with active faults. For less active areas, clustered seismicity are prone to occur at intersections of previously mapped faults. Micro-earthquakes in stable continent region have been largely ignored in the assessment of seismic hazard because their magnitudes are well below the interests of routine earthquake monitoring and they seem to occur in broad area. Increased number of earthquakes by lowering the detection threshold and their precise locations by advanced techniques open a new potential to reveal subsurface fault geometry which should be considered in the seismic hazard assessments where recent major earthquakes are rare.

  13. Delineating flood damage areas at Naseon City in North Korea using Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood is a devastating natural hazard in the world. It damages agriculture, industry, residence, economics, and human health. North Korea (NK) has suffered flood damage almost every year since 1995. Especially, there was serious flood at Naseon City in NK in 22nd August 2015 resulting in many people died and homeless. In order to restore the flood damage areas, delineating flood damage areas (FDAs) is necessary. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate FDAs in inaccessible regions NK. Moreover, radar RS data have been widely used for detecting FDAs. Radar RS data can offer the maximum damaged date data regardless of weather conditions. Therefore, if we use radar RS data, we can delineate FDAs more accurately. Therefore, the objective of this study is to delineate FDAs at Naseon City in NK using Sentinel 1 data. The ultimate goal is to provide basic information for restoring flood damaged areas in NK after reunification.

  14. Prevalence of Clonorchiasis in Southern Endemic Areas of Korea in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Byung-Chul; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Cheun, Hyeong-Il; Hong, Sung-Tae; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate prevalence of clonorchiasis among the inhabitants living in villages along the 4 major rivers, Nakdong-gang (= river), Seomjin-gang, Youngsan-gang, and Guem-gang in southern Korea. From January to December 2006, a total of 24,075 stool samples (1 sample per an inhabitant) were collected in 23 localities and examined by the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Of the inhabitants examined, 3,441 (14.3%) were found to harbor various types of intestinal parasite eggs, cysts or larvae. Numbers of infected people were 2,661 (11.1%) for Clonorchis sinensis, 431 (1.8%) for heterophyids, 226 (0.9%) for Entamoeba spp., 57 (0.2%) for Giardia lamblia, 30 (0.1%) for Trichuris trichiura, and 18 (0.07%) for echinostomes. Prevalence rates of clonorchiasis according to the river basin were 17.1% in Nakdong-gang, 11.2% in Seomjin-gang, 5.5% in Youngsan-gang and 4.6% in Guem-gang. Of the 2,661 C. sinensis egg-positive cases, 57.7% was male. The present findings suggest that clonorchiasis is still highly prevalent among inhabitants in the riverside areas of southern Korea, and it is necessary to implement a systematic control program in the endemic areas. PMID:18830051

  15. Korea's Attempts to Eliminate Chinese Characters and the Implications for Romanizing Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannas, William C.

    1995-01-01

    Examines Korea's experience with abandoning Chinese characters for an all-phonetic script. Despite efforts to replace characters with "all-hangul" in South Korea, reform opponents reinstated Chinese characters. In North Korea, a similar reform was also rescinded. Certain "linguistic" problems need to be solved for the reform to…

  16. Vulnerability analysis of Landslide hazard area: Case study of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chaeyeon; Jun, Kyewon; Kim, Younghwan

    2017-04-01

    Recently such as Landslide and debris flow are occurring over the due to climate changes, frequent sedimentation disaster in mountains area. A scientific analysis of landslide risk areas along with the collection and analysis of a variety of spatial information would be critical for minimizing damage in the event of mountainous disasters such as landslide and debris flow. We carried out a case study of the selected areas at Inje, Gangwon province which suffered from serious landslides due to flash floods by Typhoon Ewiniar in 2006. Landslide and debris flow locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of airborne image and field surveys. We used GIS to construct a spatial information database integrating the data required for a comprehensive analysis of landslide risk areas including geography, hydrology, pedology, and forestry. Furthermore, this study evaluates slope stability of the affected areas using SINMAP(Stability Index Mapping), analyzes spatial data that have high correlation with selected landslide areas using Likelihood ratio. And by applying the Weight of evidence techniques weight values (W+ and W-) which were calculated for each element. We then analyzed the spatial data which were significantly correlated with the landslide occurrence and predicted the mountainous areas with elevated risks of landslide which are vulnerable to disasters, and the hazard map was generated using GIS. Acknowledgments This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning(No.NRF-2014R1A1A3050495).

  17. Blood levels of cadmium and lead in residents near abandoned metal mine areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Soo-Geun; Yang, Won-Ho; Park, Doo-Yong; Hong, Yeong-Seoub; Park, Jung-Duck; Lee, Byung-Kook; Moon, Jai-Dong; Sakong, Joon; Ahn, Seung-Chul; Ryu, Jung-Min; Jung, Soon-Won

    2014-08-01

    We analyzed national data on blood lead levels (BLL) and blood cadmium levels (BCL) in residents living near 38 abandoned metal mining areas (n = 5,682, 18-96 years old) in Korea that were collected by the first Health Effect Surveillance for Residents in Abandoned Metal mines (HESRAM) from 2008 to 2011. The geometric mean BCL and BLL were 1.60 μg/L (95 % CI = 1.57-1.62 μg/L) and 2.87 μg/dL (95 % CI = 2.84-2.90 μg/dL), respectively, notably higher than levels in the general population in Korea and other countries. We found significantly higher BLL and BCL levels in people living within 2 km of an abandoned metal mine (n = 3,165, BCL = 1.87 μg/L, BLL = 2.91 μg/dL) compared to people living more than 2 km away (n = 2,517, BCL = 1.31 μg/L, BLL = 2.82 μg/dL; P < 0.0001) and to the general population values reported in the literature.

  18. Current microseismicity and generating faults in the Gyeongju area, southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minhui; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Son, Moon; Kang, Su Young

    2017-01-01

    A study of microseismicity in a 15 × 20 km2 subregion of Gyeongju, southeastern Korea, establishes a direct link between minor earthquakes and known fault structures. The study area has a complex history of tectonic deformation and has experienced large historic earthquakes, with small earthquakes recorded since the beginning of modern instrumental monitoring. From 5 years of continuously recorded local seismic data, 311 previously unidentified microearthquakes can be reliably located using the double-difference algorithm. These newly discovered events occur in linear streaks that can be spatially correlated with active faults, which could pose a serious hazard to nearby communities. At-risk infrastructure includes the largest industrial park in South Korea, nuclear power plants, and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The current work suggests that the southern segment of the Yeonil Tectonic Line and segments of the Seokup and Waup Basin boundary faults are active. For areas with high rates of microseismic activity, reliably located hypocenters are spatially correlated with mapped faults; in less active areas, earthquake clusters tend to occur at fault intersections. Microearthquakes in stable continental regions are known to exist, but have been largely ignored in assessments of seismic hazard because their magnitudes are well below the detection thresholds of seismic networks. The total number of locatable microearthquakes could be dramatically increased by lowering the triggering thresholds of network detection algorithms. The present work offers an example of how microearthquakes can be reliably detected and located with advanced techniques. This could make it possible to create a new database to identify subsurface fault geometries and modes of fault movement, which could then be considered in the assessments of seismic hazard in regions where major earthquakes are rare.

  19. Dynamic Change of Water Quality in Hyporheic Zone at Water Curtain Cultivation Area, Cheongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, S. H.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There has been recently growing numbers of facilities for water curtain cultivation of strawberry and lettuce in Korea. These areas are nearly all located in the fluvial deposits near streams which can replenish water resources into exhausted groundwater aquifers during peak season. The purpose of this study is on groundwater chemistry and the change in physical and chemical properties due to stream-groundwater exchange or mixing in the representative agricultural area among the Jurassic granitic terrain of Korea. In the study area, groundwater level continuously decreased from November through March due to intensive use of groundwater, which forced stream water into aquifer. After March, groundwater level was gradually recovered to the original state. To evaluate the extent and its variations of stream water mixing into aquifer, field parameters including T, pH, EC and DO values, concentrations of major ions and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic ratios were used. Field measurements and water sample collections were performed several times from 2012 to 2015 mainly during peak time of groundwater use. To compare the temporal variations and areal differences, 21 wells from four cross sections perpendicular to stream line were used. While water temperature, EC values and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, HCO3 showed roughly gradual increase from stream line to 150 m distance, pH and DO values showed reverse phenomenon. This can be used to evaluate the extent and limit of stream water introduction into aquifer. However, individual wells showed yearly variations in those parameters and this dynamic and unstable feature indicates that mixing intensity of stream water over groundwater in this hyporheic zone varied year by year according to amounts of groundwater use and decrease of groundwater level.

  20. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  1. Human exposure and risk assessment of cadmium for residents of abandoned metal mine areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiyeon; Kim, Eung-Cheol; Shin, Dong-Chun; Jo, Seong-Joon; Lim, Young-Wook

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to find the Cd levels in agricultural crops compared to soil, to evaluate the relationship between daily intake dose through the multimedia/multi-pathway of human exposure and biomarker levels of the residents in mine vicinity area. We collected and cited the data of four out of ten health impact assessments for the residents of abandoned mine areas undertaken by the Korea Ministry of Environment in 2008. The Cd levels in soil were significantly decreased by the separation distance from the mines. The Cd levels in blood were significantly different between residents in mine areas and in comparative areas, but urinary Cd levels did not differ. The Cd levels in blood were related to the age; the separation distance from mine to residence; the daily intake dose via ingestion of drinking water, crops, and surface soil; and inhalation of ambient air of Cd, but urinary Cd levels were not relevant with various sociodemographic characteristics and exposure factors. The average hazard quotient (HQ) value of Cd in the mining site was below 1.0, but the maximum HQ was closed to 1.0. The results indicated that the ingestion of Cd-contaminated soil and agricultural crops by local inhabitants could pose potential adverse health effects to long-term residents consuming rice grown near to the mining areas.

  2. North Korea’s Second Nuclear Test: Implications of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1874

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    emphasized to Chinese and Malaysian officials the need to restrict activities of North Korean trading companies. They reportedly raised with Malaysian ...officials the use of a Malaysian bank by North Korea to facilitate the sale of North Korean arms to Burma.20 Ambassador Goldberg and his delegation...Talks. Pyongyang’s more recent behavior , however, has generally shifted the predominant view among Korea-watchers: it now seems that North Korea is

  3. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  4. Distribution of butyltins and alternative antifouling biocides in sediments from shipping and shipbuilding areas in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; An, Joon Geon; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence and distribution of tributyltin (TBT) and alternative biocides were investigated in sediment from semi-enclosed bays, fishing ports, and large commercial harbors in Korea. Extremely high concentration of TBT (55,264ngSn/g) was detected near a large shipyard, even after a total ban on its use in Korea. Diuron was the biocide with the highest detection frequency and concentration levels, followed by Irgarol 1051. Sea-Nine 211 was detected at 3 of 32 stations surveyed. Dichlofluanid, zinc and copper pyrithiones levels were below the detection limits at all the stations surveyed. The relatively high levels of Diuron (9-62.3ng/g) and Irgarol 1051 (1.5-11.5ng/g) were detected in harbor and shipyard areas. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 levels including TBT in sediments from hot spots in Korea exceeded global sediment quality guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  6. A Study on regeneration cases with industrial Heritage in mining areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungyeoun; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae

    2017-04-01

    The mining areas have to face urban decline problem in population and aging after its closing. Many mines were shut down due to changes in industrial structure through 20 century. Central and local governments has been trying to solve urban decline of abandoned mine areas by enacting special acts or introducing support programs for decades. In the year of 1995, South Korean government also enacted "Special act on the assistance to the development of abandoned mine areas" to promote the economy of abandoned mine areas that is depressed following the decline of the coal industry and to help balanced regional development and to improve the living standard of the residents in such abandoned mine areas. Local authorities has been trying to revitalize the regional economy by attracting tourism industry under the financial support and deregulation by this special law. With this background, this study analysis 13 regeneration cases which are utilizing the industrial heritage of the abandoned area in S. Korea. Despite the importance of mining, negative images of abandon mine have been engraved due to environmental destruction. Most of abandoned mines were left without any action since its closing. Early stage of abandoned mine area regeneration, such as Sabuk, Munkyong, are focusing on adjacent land not on abandoned mine. Abandoned mines were restored its original state and theme park including hotels, casinos and other tourist facilities were developed on adjacent land. Eco-trails on some granite caves such as Jungsun were opened to the public as natural resources not industrial heritage. The industrial heritage was very restricted to making museums about history of mining industry. However, there has been a significant change in perception toward reusing industrial heritage for urban regeneration in recent years. From the viewpoint of urban regeneration, abandon mine areas and its facilities are receiving attention as important regional assets as industrial heritage to

  7. The Track of Policies for Educational Equality and Its Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seog Hun

    2013-01-01

    Most countries have taken equality of education as a paramount issue, but policy initiatives have not taken the same patterns across the nations. This paper addressed the features of equality policies and their changes in South Korea through an array of target groups and types of policy measures. According to a contingency approach, Korea relied…

  8. The Track of Policies for Educational Equality and Its Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seog Hun

    2013-01-01

    Most countries have taken equality of education as a paramount issue, but policy initiatives have not taken the same patterns across the nations. This paper addressed the features of equality policies and their changes in South Korea through an array of target groups and types of policy measures. According to a contingency approach, Korea relied…

  9. Exposure factors of cadmium for residents in an abandoned metal mine area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung Chul; Chang, Jun Young; Lee, Jung Sub; Yu, Hwa Yon; Jung, A-Ra; Kim, Jee-Young; Choi, Jong-Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Do Yu, Seung; Choi, Kyounghee

    2016-09-26

    This study evaluated blood and urine cadmium (Cd) levels and human exposure factors for residents in an abandoned metal mine in Korea. We collected blood, urine, soil, water, and rice grain samples to analyze Cd concentrations and analyzed heavy metal concentration patterns in soil. We estimated the major exposure factor of Cd through non-carcinogenic risk assessment depending on exposure routes. The blood Cd concentration in the case group was 5.33 μg/L (geometric mean), significantly higher than that in the control group (1.63 μg/L, geometric mean). Urine Cd concentrations were also similar. The Cd concentrations in paddy soil (1.29 mg/kg) and rice grains (0.14 mg/kg) in the study area were higher than those in the control area (0.91 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively). The analysis of heavy metal concentration in soil showed that the Cd levels in agricultural soil in the case group were attributable to the mine. The hazard quotient (HQ) of Cd by rice ingestion in the case group (1.25) was 2 times higher than that in the control group (0.6). We found that the HQ of rice ingestion contributed to more than 97 % of the total HQ, indicating that rice grains were the major exposure source. However, it is likely that the continuous intake of Cd-exposed crops led to chronic exposure among the residents in mine area.

  10. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    exhibited - 7.35‰ and -49.40‰. The δ18O in function of δD was plotted parallel with and slightly lower than the meteoric water line (Dansgaard, 1964). In general, deep groundwater displays higher δ18O ratios than shallow groundwater does (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), since deep groundwater reacts with bedrock which commonly emits more 18O than 16O. However, δ18O ratios in the bedrock groundwater in this area opposed to general trend, indicating not enough time to react with bedrock and diffusion effect probably (Hoefs, 1997). Keywords: alluvial groundwater, bedrock groundwater, nitrogen isotope, hydrogen isotope, agricultural area Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3~4~3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center), and also supported by the agricultural groundwater management project, Korea Rural Community & Agriculture Corporation and Ministry of agriculture & Forestry, Republic of Korea.

  11. Hydrogeochemistry of geothermal waters in the Magumsan and Bugok area, southern part of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yun, S.; So, C.; Chae, G.; Koh, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotopic studies of geothermal waters in the Bugok and Magumsan area were conducted to understand the subsurface evolution of geothermal system in South Korea. Hydrochemically, the Bugok thermal waters (BTW; outflowing temperature = 45.8-78.0 degree in centigrade) belong to the Na-SO4 type, whereas the Magumsan thermal waters (MTW; 27.5-54.8 degree in centigrade) represent the Na-Cl type. Peripheral groundwaters (17.2-22.4 degree in centigrade) in both areas belong to the Ca-HCO3 type. Both BTW and MTW show a good correlation between TDS and SiO2 content. The thermodynamic calculation using SOLVEQ indicates that all the BTW and MTW are saturated or supersaturated with respect to albite, quartz, calcite, kaolinite, anorthite, muscovite and paragonite, and are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and chalcedony. A good correlation among in-situ temperature, oxygen (and hydrogen) isotope values, and tritium content is observed for BTW and MTW. The high chlorine concentration of MTW reflects the substantial mixing of paleoseawater in the geothermal system, as also suggested by Na, Br, SO4, and Cl concentrations. We propose a hydrogeochemical model for MTW, which includes the paleoseawater mixing and addition of sedimentary SO4 by water-rock interaction during the descent of meteoric recharged water and the calcite dissolution and successive CO2 degassing during the ascent of heated waters. In the case of BTW, we propose an alternative model which includes complex processes such as the recharge of meteoric waters at higher elevation, the prolonged water-rock interaction including the dissolution of sedimentary (evaporitic?) sulfates, the reduction of sulfate to form H2S, the CO2 degassing and associated calcite precipitation, and the re-oxidation of H2S to SO4. We consider that the geothermal system responsible for both MTW and BTW are located nearer to a deep heat source, compared to the other geothermal systems found in

  12. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors.

  13. Microevent Detection Based on Waveform Cross-correlation in the Dogye Mining Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, M.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied induced seismicity associated with Dogye coal mine located in the eastern part of Korea. From May 2009 to March 2014, 222 events that occurred at the mining area were reported in our catalog with local magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 2.4. For 67 events we can observe that the epicenters relocated by the double difference technique with Lg waveform cross-correlation image location of the six clusters classified according to waveform similarity. On May 2014 a broadband seismometer is installed in the mine office to understand seismicity of the mining area. We cross-correlate continuous data of the installed station recorded from May 2014 to April 2015 with a comb-like waveform observed regularly. The comb-like waveform with length of 30 to 60 minutes is a signal train composed of a blast every 30 seconds. We consider the comb-like signal related directly to mining activity from the fact that the signal train appears averagely four times a day on weekdays with its monotonic amplitude. Besides the comb-like signal, events with an irregular occurrence time and amplitude is detected from the one-year continuous record of the installed station. We suggests that most of the undefined events are formed from fracturing in response to stress-perturbation on an active mining face or represent slip in existing shear zones such as a fault or dike.

  14. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  15. Source apportionment of PM₂.₅ at the coastal area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Kyu; Heo, Jong-Bae; Ban, Soo-Jin; Yi, Seung-Muk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of fine particulate matter 2.5 μm or less (PM) collected at Incheon, the coastal area in Seoul, Korea every third day from June 2009 to May 2010. Based on the analyzed chemical species in the PM samples, the sources of PM were identified using a positive matrix factorization (PMF). Nine sources of PM were determined from PMF analysis. The major sources of PM were secondary nitrate (25.4%), secondary sulfate (19.0%), motor vehicle 1 (14.8%) with a lesser contribution from industry (8.5%), motor vehicle 2 (8.2%), biomass burning (6.1%), soil (6.1%), combustion and copper production emissions (6.1%), and sea salt (5.9%). From a paired t-test, it was found that yellow sand samples were characterized as having higher contribution from soil sources (p<0.05). Furthermore, the likely source areas of PM emissions were determined using the conditional probability function (CPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF). CPF analysis identified the likely local sources of PM as motor vehicles and sea salt. PSCF analysis indicated that the likely source areas for secondary particles (sulfate and nitrate) were the major industrial areas in China. Finally, using the source contribution of PM and associated organic composition data, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the PM source apportionments by PMF. The PCA analysis confirmed eight of the nine PM sources. Our result implies that the chemical composition analysis of PM data and various modeling techniques can effectively identify the potential contributing sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Source process and tectonic implication of the January 20, 2007 Odaesan earthquake, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ali K.; Kim, K. Y.; Fnais, M. S.; Al-Amri, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The source process for the 20th of January 2007, Mw 4.5 Odaesan earthquake in South Korea is investigated in the low- and high-frequency bands, using velocity and acceleration waveform data recorded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Seismographic Network at distances less than 70 km from the epicenter. Synthetic Green functions are adopted for the low-frequency band of 0.1-0.3 Hz by using the wave-number integration technique and the one dimensional velocity model beneath the epicentral area. An iterative technique was performed by a grid search across the strike, dip, rake, and focal depth of rupture nucleation parameters to find the best-fit double-couple mechanism. To resolve the nodal plane ambiguity, the spatiotemporal slip distribution on the fault surface was recovered using a non-negative least-square algorithm for each set of the grid-searched parameters. The focal depth of 10 km was determined through the grid search for depths in the range of 6-14 km. The best-fit double-couple mechanism obtained from the finite-source model indicates a vertical strike-slip faulting mechanism. The NW faulting plane gives comparatively smaller root-mean-squares (RMS) error than its auxiliary plane. Slip pattern event provides simple source process due to the effect of Low-frequency that acted as a point source model. Three empirical Green functions are adopted to investigate the source process in the high-frequency band. A set of slip models was recovered on both nodal planes of the focal mechanism with various rupture velocities in the range of 2.0-4.0 km/s. Although there is a small difference between the RMS errors produced by the two orthogonal nodal planes, the SW dipping plane gives a smaller RMS error than its auxiliary plane. The slip distribution is relatively assessable by the oblique pattern recovered around the hypocenter in the high-frequency analysis; indicating a complex rupture scenario for such moderate-sized earthquake, similar to those reported

  17. Radon concentration in groundwater of the Yongin area in Korea by using LSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sooyoung; Lee, Kilyong; Yoon, Yoonyeol; Yun, Uk; Cho, Byungwook; Ha, kyoochul; Koo, Minho

    2015-04-01

    The precise determination of 222Rn concentration in ground water is very important to understand the interactions between the groundwater and surface water interactions because it has been used frequently as a tracer for many geohydrological processes. In this study, the measurement was based on the liquid scintillation counting technique using LKB Wallac Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter(LSC) equipped with pulse shape analyzer(PSA). We have optimized the pulse-discrimination capabilities of the detector to achieve the best α/β separation, which made the lowest detection limit possible. LSC was calibrated to optimize the PSA with 241Am and 90Sr/90Y. The sample was collected from 100 groundwater sites in the Yoingin area, Korea. The relationship between chemical characteristics and depth was investigated in terms of EC, pH, and temperature. The concentration of 222Rn in ground water was measured to be about 0.6 to 678 Bq/l with an average of 217 Bq/L. However, there was no relationship between the Rn and other physicochemical components. The Rn concentration in ground water was 170 Bq/L, 210 Bq/L, 260 Bq/L for depth <50 m, 50-100 m, >100 m, respectively. When viewed from the average value, 222Rn in deep ground was relatively higher. It also was dependent on the geolocial legend: The high-Rn area corresponds to Jurassuc grabute and low-Rn to Sedunentary area. It was clearly demonstrated that the occurrence of radionuclides is closely related to radiogenic minerals. Key words: Grondwater, 222Rn, LSC, chemical characteristics, geolocial legend

  18. Analysis of black carbon, particulate matter, and gaseous pollutants in an industrial area in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jungkon; Yi, Seung-Muk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2011-12-01

    Continuous mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5), CO, NO 2, SO 2, benzene, toluene, and xylene were measured in an industrial area in Incheon City, Korea. Principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that PC1 had high contributions from PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene (31.225%), and was strongly associated with vehicular emissions and industrial sources, the major contributors to air pollution in Incheon. PC2 was heavily enriched with NO 2 and BC (24.555%), and was attributed to emissions from vehicles such as buses, vans, taxis, cars, motorcycles, and trucks. PC3 was highly enriched with toluene and xylene (20.884%), and thus represented solvent usage. PC4 was enriched with SO 2 (12.884%), which could be attributed to the high S content in diesel fuel used in trucks, which may contribute to the high ambient levels of SO 2 in the city. Cluster analysis (CA) revealed four subgroups: Cluster 1 (SO 2), Cluster 2 (toluene and xylene), Cluster 3 (NO 2 and BC), and Cluster 4 (PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, and benzene), which agree with the PCA results. This study showed that benzene had a higher correlation with PM 2.5, PM 10, and CO than toluene and xylene, providing insights into source contributions that, together with a source-species atmospheric dispersion model, can be used to devise new control strategies for industrial urban areas. Our results suggest that appropriate vehicle emission management coupled with industrial air pollution control should be applied to fine particulate (PM 2.5) and gaseous pollutants including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in the study area.

  19. Impact of emission control strategy on NO 2 in urban areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Long-term trend in nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) levels was analyzed from 16 urban roadside (U-RS) locations in 7 major cities along with 5 reference background areas in Korea over an 11-year period (1998-2008). These NO 2 data were examined after being grouped into periods I (1998-2000) and II (2001-2008) in light of the major emission control strategy such as the natural gas vehicle supply (NGVS) program initiated since June 2000. There were contrasting signals between Seoul (capital) and others. Although the long-term trends were dominantly toward decline from most stations (5 out of 7) in Seoul, an increasing trend was dominant in other cities (7 out of 9 stations). A line of evidence collected in this study indicated that NO 2 levels and the emission ratio of NO 2 to NO x (f(NO 2)) in U-RS sites have gradually decreased over the years due to the combined effects of various control efforts (e.g., the implementation of NGVS and the use of low emission diesel engines).

  20. Scrub typhus in Korea: importance of early clinical diagnosis in this newly recognized endemic area.

    PubMed

    Yi, K S; Chong, Y; Covington, S C; Donahue, B J; Rothen, R L; Rodriguez, J; Arthur, J D

    1993-04-01

    Scrub typhus became a well recognized infectious disease threat to military operations in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Early diagnosis and treatment with tetracycline or chloramphenicol dramatically reduces the mortality and morbidity of this disease. Korea is a newly recognized scrub typhus endemic country. We report our experience with 189 scrub typhus patients seen at a civilian outpatient clinic in Chinhae, Republic of Korea, from 1985 through 1990, and verify the accuracy of clinical diagnosis by serologic tests.

  1. Geothermal characteristics of deep wells using geophysical logs in Pohang area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIM, W.; Hamm, S. Y.; Lee, C.; Song, Y.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    Pohang area displays a larger potential of geothermal energy with the highest heat flow of 83 mWm-2 in South Korea. A geothermal binary power plant with a generation capacity of 1.5MW using enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is under construction in Pohang area and will be completed until 2017. This study aims to reveal geothermal characteristics of four wells (BH-1 to BH-4 wells) of 2,383 m in depth in Pohang area, using geophysical logs. The geology of the study area is composed of tertiary mudstone of 200 - 359.1 m, tuff of 73 - 240 m, sandstone/mudstone of 46 - 907 m, rhyolite of 259 - 375 m, and andesitic volcanic breccia of 834 m in thicknesses from the surface, with granodiorite at bottom. By the result of the study, temperature and maximum electrical conductivity (EC) are 69.5°C at 1,502.6 m and 1,162 μS/cm at BH-2 well, 44.4°C at 912.3 m and 1,105 μS/cm at BH-3 well, and 82.5°C at 1,981.3 m and 3,412 μS/cm at BH-4 well. Thermal conductivity values at saturated state are 2.14 - 3.95 W/m-K (average 3.47 W/m-K) at BH-1 well and 2.36 - 3.61 W/m-K (average 2.85 W/m-K) at BH-4 well. ß (determining heat flow rate and up/down direction) values were estimated by using 1-D steady-state heat transfer equation and were determined as -0.77 - 0.99 with the geothermal gradients (Ks) of 42.5 - 46.3°C/km at BH-1 well, -3.15 - 3.05 with the Ks of 25.0 - 29.1°C/km at BH-2, -1.80 - 2.09 with the Ks of 20.0 - 23.0°C/km at BH-3 well, and -4.10 - 5.18 with the Ks of 30.2 - 39.0°C/km at BH-4 well. Most depths of all the wells showed upward heat transfer. Based on the geophysical logs, the main aquifer is located between 200 and 300 meters. KEY WORDS: Geothermal gradient, thermal conductivity, geophysical logs, ß value, heat transfer equation, Pohang area Acknowledgement This work was supported by grants from the Principal Research Fund of Korea Institute of the Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM 16-3411).

  2. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical

  3. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  4. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  5. An overview of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Won; Kim, Sang-Woo; Shim, Jae-Kwan; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    The Weather Information Service Engine (WISE), launched project of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), aims to operate the urban meteorological observation network from 2012 to 2019 and to test and operate the application weather service (e.g., flash flood, road weather, city ecology, city microclimate, dispersion of hazardous substance etc.) in 2019 through the development of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis Prediction System(ASAPS) for the production of storm-scale hazard weather monitoring and prediction system. The WISE institute has completed construction of 31 urban meteorological observation cities in Seoul metropolitan area and has built a real-time test operation and verification system by improving the ASAPS that produces 1 km and 6 hour forecast information based on the 5 km forecast information of KMA. Field measurements of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) was conducted in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea from August 22 to October 14, 2016. Involving over 70 researchers from more than 12 environmental and atmospheric science research groups in South Korea, WUSOC2016 focused on special observations, severe rain storm observations using mobile observation car and radiosonde, wind profile observations using Wind Doppler Lidar and radiosonde, etc., around the Seoul metropolitan area. WUSOC2016 purpose at data quality control, accuracy verification, usability check, and quality improvement of ASAPS at observation stations constructed in WISE. In addition, we intend to contribute to the activation of urban fusion weather research and risk weather research through joint observation and data sharing.

  6. Epidemiologic Features of Animal Bite Cases Occurring in Rabies-Endemic Areas of Korea, 2005 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myung Guk; Jung Sang, Ryou; Jeong, Young Eui; Ju, Young Ran; Cho, Jung Eun; Park, Jun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Human rabies is a reemerging infectious disease in Korea. There was no human rabies case for 14 years until the disease had reoccurred in 1999. To prevent occurrence of human rabies, surveillance for animal bite patients in rabies endemic areas in Korea was conducted since 2005 as a part of a human rabies control program. The animal bite cases were analyzed to determine whether patients were treated according to the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guideline of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methods Information of animal bite cases that occurred from 2005 to 2009 in rabies high-risk regions were collected by cooperation with Regional Public Health Centers in 18 cities/districts of rabies endemic areas. Results A total of 2458 animal bite cases were reported. Dogs accounted for 86% of animal bites and 67% of the animals were not vaccinated against rabies virus. For PEP, among rabies-vaccinated animals, 92.7% were observed for clinical signs and 1.4% underwent necropsy. Among unvaccinated animals, 72.7% were observed for clinical signs and 4.1% underwent necropsy. The remaining animals were not available for examination. Of the animal bite patients, 32.5% received PEP and 51.6% were treated by first aid or by washing the wound. Conclusions Given that no human rabies cases were reported since 2005 and animal rabies was continuously reported in endemic areas of Korea, the human rabies control program implemented in 2005 appears to have a significant role in the prevention and control of human rabies. PMID:24159481

  7. Traces of evaporites in Upper Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of Korea: Origin and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, In Sung; Huh, Min; So, Yoon Hwan; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2007-04-01

    Diverse types of halite and sulfate evaporite traces occur in the Upper Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of the Jindong Formation and the Jangdong Tuff in Korea, in which dinosaur tracks are common. The halite traces usually occur as casts or moulds, and they include traces of primary halite hoppers, primary and intrasedimentary skeletal halite, and intrasedimentary tiny halite. The sulfate traces occur as intrasedimentary and displacive casts filled with sediments and sparry calcite, and the casts occur as diverse modes from single crystal casts through nodular aggregates to massive aggregates. Some aggregates of the sulfate casts are aligned in crack pattern, and selective occurrence of the laths in ripple troughs are observed. Soluble sulfate evaporite minerals such as gypsum, glauberite, or mirabilite are probable for the precursors of these traces. These halite and sulfate traces are interpreted to have been formed in a saline lake and mudflats. It is interpreted that meteoric water was responsible for the evaporite precipitation in the Jindong Lake and Jangdong Lake. Recycled brine produced by the repeated dissolution of evaporites might contribute to the evaporite precipitation in the paleo-Jindong Lake and the paleo-Jangdong Lake. The development of saline lake deposits in the Jindong Formation and the Jangdong Tuff suggests that the southern part of the Korean Peninsula remained an inland continental area during the Cretaceous resulting in semi-arid paleoclimatic condition due to an orographic effect by the location of the Korean Peninsula on continental margin in mid-latitude with topographic barriers during the Cretaceous. The occurrence of dinosaur tracks in the lake margin deposits of saline lake with frequent inflow of dilute meteoric water suggests that Upper Cretaceous dinosaurs inhabiting lakes on the Korean Peninsula might have drunken brackish water.

  8. Molecular analysis of Anisakis type I larvae in marine fish from three different sea areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2014-08-01

    Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea.

  9. Molecular Analysis of Anisakis Type I Larvae in Marine Fish from Three Different Sea Areas in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea. PMID:25246717

  10. Impacts of marine debris on wild animals in the coastal area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Jang, Yong Chang; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jong; Han, Donguk; Hong, Sang Hee; Kang, Daeseok; Shim, Won Joon

    2013-01-15

    Over the last decade, marine debris has become a major factor affecting the coastal ecosystem of Korea. This study compiled information regarding how marine debris impacts wildlife in Korea. Cases of marine debris impacting wildlife were collected from experts of various fields and from local participants through an open access website from February 2010 to March 2012. A total of 21 species were affected by marine debris: 18 species of birds, 2 species of mammals, and 1 species of crustacean. Five threatened or protected species were identified: black-faced spoonbill, finless porpoise, water deer, whooper swan, and greater painted snipe. Recreational fishing gears were the types of debris that most frequently impacted wildlife, especially birds. Black tailed gulls were the most vulnerable species to recreational fishing hooks and lines. Although it was preliminary, this study revealed that recreational fishing activities should be prioritized when managing marine debris in Korea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineralogical Characteristics of Serpentine jade and Thulite gemminerals from Booyo area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatar, A.; Kim, Won Sa

    2009-04-01

    The mineralogical and gemological characteristics of the two gem minerals: serpentine jade and thulite from Booyo Mine area of South Korea were determined. The study of those minerals were carried out using polarizing microscope for textural study; color set, hardness pencil set and refractometer for determining physical characteristics; X-ray powder diffraction for analyzing crystal structure; XRF, ICP-MS, IR-ray, UV-ray and DTA/TGA analyses for detailed chemistry. Serpentine jade consists of antigorite, one of the three polymorph of serpentine. It displayed dark green color with greasy luster and was transparent or semi-transparent. Magnetite was observed as inclusion in serpentine jade. XRD data confirmed that serpentine jade from Booyo consists of antigorite. Physical properties of serpentine jade were found as Ri=1.56, SG=2.57 and H=5-6. Major chemical composition was SiO2 42.49%, MgO 39.08%, Fe2O3 3.85% and H2O 11.87% and trace elements were Cr (2188 ppm), Ni (1110 ppm) and Ta (108 ppm). The DTA curve for serpentine jade showed endothermic peak at 755.0oC related with the decomposition of the mineral by expulsion of the structural water and exothermic peak at 830.1oC related with structural change of antigorite to olivine. Thulite displayed pink color, and was a variety of clinozoisite. It showed vitreous luster and was almost opaque. Physical properties of thulite were Ri=1.69, SG=3.15 and H= 6-6.5. Chlorite was contained in thulite as inclusion. XRD data of thulite compares well that of clinozoisite. Major composition of thulite was SiO2 44.35%, Al2O3 22.29%, Fe2O3 2.40%, CaO 21.46%, MgO 7.12%, MnO 0.22% and H2O 1.52%, and trace elements were Sr (1715 ppm), Ni (180 ppm) and Ta (2030 ppm). DTA curve for thulite showed endothermic peak at 969.1oC related with the decomposition of the mineral by expulsion of the structural water.

  12. Characteristics of pork belly consumption in South Korea and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Yang, Han-Sul; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Go, Gwang-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Fresh pork belly is a highly popular meat in South Korea, accounting for 59 % of the approximately 100 g of meat per capita that is consumed daily. Fresh pork belly offers not only high-quality protein from the lean cuts but also substantial micronutrients including fat-soluble vitamins and minerals. However, fresh pork belly generally consists of about 30 % fat, with saturated fatty acids representing half of this value. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids increases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides while decreasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, raising concerns about an increased risk of hyperlipidemia, followed by cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the consumption and production trends in South Korea, the general characteristics, and health issues related to fresh pork belly to delineate the features of pork production and consumer welfare.

  13. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-17

    its share of the U.S. market in the face of growing competition from emerging East Asian producers from Thailand, Malaysia , Vietnam, and possibly...imports from South Korea under seven phase-out periods ranging up to 15 years. One 10-year TRQ would apply to imports of fluid milk and cream, among...view passage of the KORUS FTA as important to secure new opportunities in the South Korean market , while opponents claim that the KORUS FTA does not go

  14. China and the Splitting of Alliances: Historic Cases and Implications for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    rejected Soviet offers for joint basing. In 1958, Moscow proposed to build a long-range radio installation in China for communication to Soviet... developed over these cases?  Finally, does the current relationship with North Korea share similarities with any of these cases and give insight...mainstream consensus in the U.S. intelligence community incorrectly prescribed to this assessment for over 10 years.4 Eventually fissures in these

  15. Additional Drug Resistance Patterns among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Korea: Implications for Regimen Design

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on additional drug resistance patterns of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential to build an effective treatment regimen; however, such data are scarce in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed the results of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) of culture confirmed-TB patients from January 2010 to December 2014 in 7 university hospitals in Korea. MDR-TB was identified among 6.8% (n = 378) of 5,599 isolates. A total of 57.1% (n = 216) of the MDR-TB patients had never been treated for TB. Strains from MDR-TB patients showed additional resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) (35.7%), any second-line injectable drug (19.3%), and any fluoroquinolone (26.2%). Extensively drug resistant TB comprised 12.4% (n = 47) of the MDR-TB patients. Of 378 MDR-TB patients, 50.3% (n = 190) were eligible for the shorter MDR-TB regimen, and 50.0% (n = 189) were fully susceptible to the 5 drugs comprising the standard conventional regimen (PZA, kanamycin, ofloxoacin, prothionamide, and cycloserine). In conclusion, the proportion of new patients and the levels of additional drug resistance were high in MDR-TB patients. Considering the high levels of drug resistance, the shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen may not be feasible; instead, an individually tailored regimen based on the results of molecular and phenotypic DST may be more appropriate in MDR-TB patients in Korea. PMID:28244290

  16. Assessment of TBT and organic booster biocide contamination in seawater from coastal areas of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Hong, Sang Hee; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-01-15

    Seawater samples from major enclosed bays, fishing ports, and harbors of Korea were analyzed to determine levels of tributyltin (TBT) and booster biocides, which are antifouling agents used as alternatives to TBT. TBT levels were in the range of not detected (nd) to 23.9 ng Sn/L. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, at concentration ranges of 35-1360 ng/L and nd to 14 ng/L, respectively, were the most common alternative biocides present in seawater, with the highest concentrations detected in fishing ports. Hot spots were identified where TBT levels exceeded environmental quality targets even 6 years after a total ban on its use in Korea. Diuron exceeded the UK environmental quality standard (EQS) value in 73% of the fishing port samples, 64% of the major bays, and 42% of the harbors. Irgarol 1051 levels were marginally below the Dutch and UK EQS values at all sites.

  17. Comparative study on change in groundwaters of rural and urban areas in Korea: effects of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sang Woong; Seul Kim, Ye; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Chul; Shin, Min Cheol; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Heejung; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater occupies a considerable proportion of the world's water resources and is affected by climate change. It is important to understand how water budget responds to future precipitation variability for sustainable management of groundwater resources. In order to evaluate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources in the future, it is necessary to not only collect field data but also predict groundwater change using some groundwater numerical modelling. In this study, a relevant climate change scenario (RCP 4.5) was adopted and Visual MODFLOW was used as a main tool for predicting water budget. The predicted precipitation and air temperature data were obtained from Climate Change Information Center (CCIC) of Korea. By using the data on the scenario from 2011 to 2100, the future water budget was calculated using groundwater numerical modelling for both Wonju (WJ: urban area) and Yanggu (YG: rural area) of Gangwon Province in Korea. The model calibration was done by the groundwater level measured at 10 monitoring wells. For the numerical prediction, the groundwater recharge (WJ: 10.1%, YG: 13.3%) was estimated using watertable fluctuation (WTF) method and a concept of threshold precipitation (WJ: 240.5 mm, YG: 363.8 mm) was applied. Consequently, the water levels in both Wonju and Yanggu showed gradually increasing trends and ranged from 3.0 to 10.8 m, from 0.5 to 1.8 m in 2100, respectively. Under annual precipitation fluctuation on the scenario (2011-2100), water budget IN-OUT value (-0.87~1.07 m3/day) in Wonju city gradually increases while that (-0.73~0.46 m3/day) of Yanggu county does not. However, its annual difference is enlarged with year for both areas. The results indicate that securing groundwater resource and its management will be difficult because of frequent annual change of the groundwater storage. This work was supported by Science High School R&E program (No. C1008804-01-01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant

  18. Additional Drug Resistance Patterns among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Korea: Implications for Regimen Design.

    PubMed

    Mok, Jeong Ha; Kang, Bo Hyoung; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Jang, Hang Jea; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeon, Doosoo

    2017-04-01

    Detailed information on additional drug resistance patterns of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential to build an effective treatment regimen; however, such data are scarce in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed the results of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) of culture confirmed-TB patients from January 2010 to December 2014 in 7 university hospitals in Korea. MDR-TB was identified among 6.8% (n = 378) of 5,599 isolates. A total of 57.1% (n = 216) of the MDR-TB patients had never been treated for TB. Strains from MDR-TB patients showed additional resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) (35.7%), any second-line injectable drug (19.3%), and any fluoroquinolone (26.2%). Extensively drug resistant TB comprised 12.4% (n = 47) of the MDR-TB patients. Of 378 MDR-TB patients, 50.3% (n = 190) were eligible for the shorter MDR-TB regimen, and 50.0% (n = 189) were fully susceptible to the 5 drugs comprising the standard conventional regimen (PZA, kanamycin, ofloxoacin, prothionamide, and cycloserine). In conclusion, the proportion of new patients and the levels of additional drug resistance were high in MDR-TB patients. Considering the high levels of drug resistance, the shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen may not be feasible; instead, an individually tailored regimen based on the results of molecular and phenotypic DST may be more appropriate in MDR-TB patients in Korea. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Current regional stress field and the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea and their tectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. C.; Cho, H.; Son, M.

    2014-12-01

    To determine current regional stress field and to characterize the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea, Quaternary fault, focal mechanism, and geotechnical in-situ stress data were synthetically analyzed. The Quaternary faults are extensively observed along major inherited fault zones and show compatible orientations with general trends of the inherited faults. Most of the Quaternary faults have a top-to-the-west thrust geometry and kinematics and show a tendency of upward-decreasing dip angle and upward-narrowing gouge zone. Slip-sense indicators and paleo-stress field reconstructions indicate that the faults resulted from reverse or transpressional faulting under an E-W compression. All the magnetic fabrics (AMS) of the fault gouges also indicate the prevailing reverse-slip faulting under an ENE-WNW compression. The dominant oblate magnetic fabrics parallel to fault plane and the degrees of anisotropy increasing in proportion to their oblatenesses indicate that the fabrics have formed by a progressive deformation due to continuous simple shear during the last reactivation stage as reverse faulting. The focal mechanism study in and around the Korean Peninsula show the horizontally clustered P-axes in ENE-WSW direction and the girdle-distributed T-axes in NNW trend. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in south Korea also show NE- or ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in Korea thus can be characterized by contractional structures produced under a regional E-W or ENE-WSW compression stress field, and most of the Quaternary faults resulted from the local re-activation of appropriately oriented inherited major faults. Considering the tectonic setting and structural features in Asia during the Neogene, the current stress regime is interpreted to have been caused by the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents since about 5-3.5 Ma.

  20. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 μS/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 μS/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly

  1. A wide variation of the quality of colonoscopy reporting system in the real clinical practice in southeastern area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Min; Kang, Yu Jin; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jeon, Seong Woo; Jung, Min Kyu; Lee, Hyun Seok; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Chung, Yun Jin; Yang, Chang Hun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Establishment of a colonoscopy reporting system is a prerequisite to determining and improving quality. This study aimed to investigate colonoscopists' opinions and the actual situation of a colonoscopy reporting system in a clinical practice in southeastern area of Korea and to assess the factors predictive of an inadequate reporting system. Methods Physicians who performed colonoscopies in the Daegu-Gyeongbuk province of Korea and were registered with the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) were interviewed via mail about colonoscopy reporting systems using a standardized questionnaire. Results Of 181 endoscopists invited to participate, 125 responded to the questionnaires (response rate, 69%). Most responders were internists (105/125, 84%) and worked in primary clinics (88/125, 70.4%). Seventy-one specialists (56.8%) held board certifications for endoscopy from the KSGE. A median of 20 colonoscopies (interquartile range, 10–47) was performed per month. Although 88.8% of responders agreed that a colonoscopy reporting system is necessary, only 18.4% (23/125) had achieved the optimal reporting system level recommended by the Quality Assurance Task Group of the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable. One-third of endoscopists replied that they did not use a reporting document for the main reasons of "too busy" and "inconvenience." Non-endoscopy specialists and primary care centers were independent predictive factors for failure to use a colonoscopy reporting system. Conclusions The quality of colonoscopy reporting systems varies widely and is considerably suboptimal in actual clinical practice settings in southeastern Korea, indicating considerable room for quality improvements in this field. PMID:27799886

  2. Occurrence of perchlorate in rice from different areas in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoon, Yeomin; Baek, Kitae; Han, Jonghun; Her, Namguk

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate concentrations in rice samples from many different provinces, and correlation with surface water contamination, were investigated in the Republic of Korea. Perchlorate levels in the 51 rice samples purchased from local markets ranged from below the detection limit to 1.79 ± 0.39 μg/kg with a mean level of 0.21 μg/kg and 7 samples collected from the Nakdong River watershed ranged from 0.38 ± 0.1 to 3.23 ± 0.47 μg/kg with a mean level of 0.9 μg/kg. The correlation coefficient between perchlorate levels in rice samples from the Nakdong river watershed and the levels in surface water was estimated to be approximately 0.904 in the 95% confidence interval. These results show that surface water contamination was highly related to the perchlorate pollution of rice in the Republic of Korea.

  3. Detection of infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses in tap water in urban areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the viral contamination of tap water at 11 urban sites in Korea between 1997 and 1998 over a period of 11 months. A total of 23 tap water samples were examined for infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses by a cell culture technique followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. To identify the recovered viruses, sequence analysis of PCR products was performed. Infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses were detected in 11 (47.8%) and 9 (39.1%) of the samples, respectively. Both enteroviruses and adenoviruses were detected in five samples (21.7%). The level of viral contamination was quite high, ranging from 2 x 10(-3) to 2.9 x 10(-2) Most Probable Number of Infectious Unit L(-1), far above the recommended virus level in drinking water set by the US EPA. Poliovirus type I derived from vaccine was frequently detected and the remainder comprised coxsackievirus B type or echovirus type 6, which were causative agents of aseptic meningitis in Korea in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Several types of adenovirus were detected in tap water samples and some water samples were found to contain adenoviruses which were closely related to enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41.

  4. Estimation of landslide-triggering factors using clay minerals, ASTER satellite image and GIS in the Busan area, southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G. C.; Kim, M. G.; Choi, J. J.; Ryu, J. O.; Nho, J. G.; Choo, C. O.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at estimating landslide-inducing factors such as extreme rainfall, slope, and geological factors in Busan city, southeastern Korea, using clay mineralogy, DM analysis and DB construction in order to develop the landslide evaluation standards suitable for the country. GIS-based data collected from the study area include geological maps, topological maps, soil maps, forest maps and others in the DB construction. Data extraction and processing for landslide-induced factors consist of expandable clay minerals identified using XRD, along with XRF and weathering sensitivity analysis and fundamental soil analysis on 38 bulk samples composed of weathered rocks and soils. Finally landslide sensibility maps were constructed using ArcGIS, together with ASTER satellite images for identifying clay minerals on regional areas helpful for saving time and money. In Mt. Cheonma, 16 samples are composed of quartz, albite, illite, vermiculite, and kaolinite, with little difference in mineralogy. In Mt. Hwangryeong and Mt. Geumryeun, 12 samples consist of quartz, albite, illite, vermiculite, kaolinite and hornblende, with little difference in mineralogy. In Mt. Songhak, 10 samples are composed of quartz, illite, vermiculite, and kaolinite. Quartz, albite and illite are abundant in most samples, regardless of sites studied. IDW interpolation method was applied to the Busan area. The resolution of space grids consists of 5 m x 5 m. Especially, illite was used as the most effective factor that induces landslide using IDW interpolation and ASTER satellite images. In conclusion, sensibility maps constructed using 16 layers including illite content, weathered sensibility are well in accordance with the real sites where landslides took place, showing that areas with high sensibility are closely related to the high frequencies of landslide. This research was supported by the Public Welfare & Safety Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of the inherent and apparent optical properties in the sea areas around Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jee-Eun; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Ahn, Yu-Hwan

    2010-10-01

    Studying the light field of sea water is important in Ocean Color Remote Sensing (OCRS) because it brings immense information concerning the ocean environmental properties. This magnitude of the Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) emerges from the sea-surface after incidence light energy has been absorbed and scattered by sea water constituents. In this process, the amount of scattering is a lot smaller than that of absorption relatively. So the understanding of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs), especially absorption, is very important in OCRS. Many studies have been accomplished in various seas around the world. In optically more complex waters around Korea, we have found only a few investigations on the IOP and AOP. Thus, in this study we analyze the absorption coefficient of sea water constituents, phytoplankton, Suspended Sediment (SS) and Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) for the IOPs and the remote sensing reflectance for the AOPs. About 1300 water samples have been collected in the Korean waters from 1998 to 2010. It should be noted that sea areas around the Korea have different characteristics separately. So we analyzed the optical properties of each separated sea waters and compared each other results. The absorption spectral shape of SS and DOM showed exponentially decreasing pattern. Each graph's slope includes information of absorption characteristics. Using this results, in the future, we will prompt to develop the ocean environmental algorithms for ocean color satellite images, especially GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which will be launched on June 2010, around the Korean ocean.

  6. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Pygidiopsis summa (Digenea: Heterophyidae): Status of Metacercarial Infection in Mullets from Coastal Areas in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Huh, Beom-Nyung; Seok, Won-Seok

    2016-01-01

    To know the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in brackish water fish, we surveyed mullets collected from 18 coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae of Pygidiopsis summa were detected in 236 (68.2%) out of 346 mullets examined. They were found in mullets from 15 areas except for those from Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Pohang-si, and Uljin-gun (Gyeongsangbuk-do). Especially in mullets from Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do) and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), their prevalences were 100% and 95.5%, and the average metacercarial density was more than 1,000 per fish. They were also detected in mullets from 3 coastal lakes, Gyeongpoho, Songjiho, and Hwajinpoho, in Gangwon-do, and their average densities were 419, 147, and 672 per infected fish, respectively. The metacercariae of 5 other heterophyid species, including Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Metagonimus sp., Stictodora fuscata, and Stictodora lari, were found in the mullets examined. The metacercariae of H. nocens were detected in 66.7, 100, 28.6, 81.6, 3.9, 61.5, and 27.3% of mullets from Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun, Gangjin-gun, and Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun, and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), and their metacercarial intensities were 64, 84, 119, 99, 1, 24, and 24 per fish infected, respectively. From the above results, it has been confirmed that P. summa metacercariae are heavily infected in mullets from coastal areas of Korea. It is suggested that residents who frequently consume raw mullet dish can be easily infected with heterophyid flukes. PMID:27658602

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex, South Korea, and genetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jieun; Choi, Seon-Gyu; Park, Jung-Woo; Whattam, Scott; Kim, Dong Woo; Ryu, In-Chang; Oh, Chang Whan

    2016-10-01

    The Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex occurs as an isolated individual body with an inclined pipe shape within the Precambrian Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea. The phoscorite consists mainly of olivine, apatite, magnetite, carbonates, amphibole, and phlogopite, and can be subdivided into two types, olivine-rich and apatite-rich. The carbonatite is composed of calcite, Mg-rich dolomite, Fe-rich dolomite, magnetite, apatite, and/or siderite. Intensive fenitization occurred along the boundary between the complex and the wall rocks of leucocratic banded gneiss and garnet-bearing metabasite. The paragenetic sequences of the phoscorite-carbonatite complex demonstrate that the early crystallization of silicate minerals was followed by the crystallization of carbonates as the carbonatitic melt cooled. Magnetite occurs within the complex, and the carbonatites have Fe contents that are higher than typical ferrocarbonatites, due to the high magnetite contents. The rare earth elements (REEs) in the phoscorites and carbonatites are weakly fractionated and show enrichments of LREEs and Nb relative to HREEs. Furthermore, the apatites reflect the fractionated trends of LREEs relative to HREEs. Phoscorite apatites are enriched in Sr and show substitutions between Ca and Sr. Mica chemistry reflects the evolutionary trend of Fe2 + and Mg2 + in the phoscorite-carbonatite melt without Al substitution. Micas exhibit high values of Mg# in the phoscorite-carbonatite complex, but lower values in fenites. Via thermodynamic analysis, the early stability fields of magnetite-pyrrhotite-graphite-carbonate assemblages indicate that the Yonghwa phoscorite and carbonatite crystallized under conditions of 600 °C, 2 kbar, and XCO2 = 0.2. Afterward, melts underwent an evolution to the late stability fields of magnetite-pyrite-pyrrhotite-ilmenite assemblages. The δ13C and δ18O isotopic compositions of carbonates in the Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex are - 8.2‰ to - 3.4‰ and 6.6 to 11

  9. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  10. Seroepidemiology of Toxocariasis and Its Clinical Implications in Gwangju and Jeonnam-province, Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jin; Shin, Myung-Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the seroepidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients suspected to have toxocariasis in Gwangju and Jeonnam-province, Korea. In total, 228 specimens were analyzed for anti-Toxocara canis IgG at two university hospitals from 2010 to 2012. The overall seropositive rate was 67.1%, and the seropositive rates among the eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic groups were 76.1% (105/138) and 53.3% (48/90), respectively. Risk factors for eosinophilia and toxocariasis were male sex (odds ratios [OR]=2.632 and 3.477, respectively) and a history of ingesting raw meat (OR=2.884 and 3.274, respectively), especially raw cow liver (OR=2.089 and 10.038, respectively). T. canis seropositivity (OR=5.807, P=0.004) and a history of consuming raw cow liver (OR=2.766, P=0.052) were risk factors for organ involvement. The anti-T. canis IgG level showed weakly positive correlations with eosinophil counts (r=0.234, P<0.001) and the duration of eosinophilia (r=0.155, P=0.019). Although limited to the regions of Gwangju and Jeonnam-province, this study supports the opinion that toxocariasis is a reasonable focus as a cause of eosinophilia and that it is also associated with organ involvement.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, H.B.; Kannan, K.; Lee, S.J.; Ok, G.

    2006-11-15

    Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 {mu} m in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

  12. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Moon, H-B; Kannan, K; Lee, S-J; Ok, G

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 microg/m2/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 microg/m2/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 microm in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo[g,h,i]perylene, pyrene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

  13. Estimation of Populations Exposed to Road Traffic Noise in Districts of Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaewon; Gu, Jinhoi; Park, Hyunggyu; Yun, Heekyung; Kim, Samsoo; Lee, Wooseok; Han, Jinseok; Cha, Jun-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to model road traffic noise levels and estimate the human exposure at the 25 districts in the metropolitan Seoul, Republic of Korea. The SoundPLAN® Version 7.1 software package was used to model noise levels and simulated road traffic noise maps were created. The people exposed to daytime/nighttime road traffic noise were also estimated. The proportions of the population exposed to road traffic noise in major cities in the EU were also estimated and compared. Eight (8) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of the exposed population exceeding the daytime standard) of 20% or more, and eleven (11) districts show 10%-20% and six (6) districts show less than 10%, which indicates considerable variation among districts. Two districts (Nowon-gu and Yangcheon-gu) show the highest exposure rate during the daytime (35.2%). For nighttime noise levels, fourteen (14) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of exposed population exceeding the nighttime standard) over 30%. The average percentages of the exposed population exceeding the daytime/nighttime standards in Seoul and the EU were 16.6%/34.8% and 13.0%/16.1%, respectively. The results show that road traffic noise reduction measures should urgently be taken for the nighttime traffic noise in Seoul. When the grid noise map and the 3-D façade noise map were compared, the 3-D façade noise map was more accurate in estimating exposed population in citywide noise mapping. PMID:24603496

  14. The pollution status of sulfur dioxide in major urban areas of Korea between 1989 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    The pollution status of sulfur dioxide was analyzed using the datasets collected from seven major cities in Korea for the period of 1989-2010. Although there were moderate differences in SO2 levels between the cities, the temporal trends were seen to be rather distinctive between seasons or across the years. The SO2 levels consistently exhibited relative dominance during winter due to the combined effects of domestic heating and meteorological conditions. In contrast, the annual datasets underwent an abrupt decrease until the late 90s. As such, if the data are divided into two periods I (1989-1999) and II (2000-2010), the mean values were reduced considerably from a few tens of ppb (period I) to a few ppb levels (period II). This notable change is suspected to reflect the effect of gradual shift in fuel consumption patterns (e.g., from conventional fuels to cleaner renewal sources of energy). The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that emissions of SO2 are affected by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. According to the health risk assessment, the SO2 exposure to infants and adults should have decreased significantly from period I to period II (e.g., by 5-7 times).

  15. Microphysical properties of low-level clouds and fogs in a mountain area of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jin-Yim; Lee, Chulkyu; Jung, Hyun-Sook; Nam, Jae-Chul

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of microphysical properties in low-level clouds and fogs were carried out at Daegwallyeong in the northeastern mountainous region of South Korea. The microphysical characteristics are presented through analyzing the number concentration, mean diameter, liquid water contents and size distribution of cloud particles sampled with the groundbased Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP). The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the proposed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) type on the size and the number of cloud droplets. Observational cases are classified 5 sectors according to backward air mass trajectories from the NOAA/ARL HYSPLIT model. Clean maritime cloud is characterized by sector 1 trajectories and clean continental cloud is by sector 2. Contaminated maritime cloud is by sector 3 and contaminated continental cloud is by sector 4. Sector 5 trajectories are undefined air masses. On average, the droplet number concentrations in marine clouds were lower than for continental clouds, while the mean diameters and liquid water contents for marine clouds were larger than for continental clouds. Our observed values of microphysical properties are similar to the reported values from previous studies.

  16. Health inequalities in hypertension and diabetes management among the poor in urban areas: a population survey analysis in south Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Jee; Kim, Chung Reen; Park, Joo-Sung; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Kang, Myoung Joo; Park, Seung Guk; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-06-10

    This study investigated whether the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes differed by residential areas. In addition, the rate of good hypertension or diabetes control was examined separately in men and women, and in urban and rural areas. This study used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination V (2010-2012) data, a nationwide cross-sectional survey of general South Korean population. Residential areas were categorized into urban and rural areas. To examine differences between the residential areas in terms of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes we performed a multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking, marital status, monthly income, and educational level. To investigate control of hypertension or diabetes within each residential area, we performed a subgroup analysis in both urban and rural areas. The prevalence of hypertension is higher among men in urban areas than among those in rural areas (OR = 0.80; 95 % CI = 0.67-0.96, reference group = urban areas). However, the subgroups did not differ in terms of diabetes prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Regardless of both sex and residential area, participants in good control of their hypertension and diabetes were younger. Inequality in good control of hypertension was observed in men who lived in urban (≤Elementary school, OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.60-0.92) and rural areas (≤Elementary school, OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.46-0.99). Inequality in health status was found in women who resided in urban areas (≤Elementary school, OR 0.53, 95 % CI 0.37-0.75). Good control of diabetes also showed inequalities in health status for both men (≤Elementary school, OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40-0.94; Middle/High school, OR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.49-0.96) and women in urban areas (≤1 million won, OR 0.56, 95 % CI 0.33-0.93) (Reference group = '≥College' for education

  17. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  18. Chemostratigraphy of the Gohan Formation in the eastern central Korea : implications for the Capitanian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyosang; Lee, Yong Il; Lim, Hyoun Soo

    2017-04-01

    The Gohan Formation in the Pyeongan Supergroup in central eastern Korea was deposited in a marginal marine to terrestrial setting in the Capitanian. It is 450 m thick and comprises alternation of gray-greenish medium-grained sandstone and mudrock. A detailed carbon isotope profile along with some paleoenvironmental proxies are presented for the Gohan Formation at Danyang site. CN ratios of organic matters reveal the presence of both vascular and non vascular plants. Excursion of carbon isotope ratios represents disturbance of carbon cycle. Carbon isotope values indicated a 3‰ negative excursion in the lower part of the studied section. This can be interpreted carbon cycle disturbance from the Capitanian extinction event. Mercury concentration is a proxy of volcanic activity. The horizon of a mercury peak near the bottom of the section is consistent with that of negative carbon isotope excursion and the coincidence between negative carbon isotope excursion and high mercury concentration may represent the influence from Emeishan volcanism, which has been regarded as a possible cause of the Capitanian extiction. Two more mercury peaks are noted in the upper part of the section but they are not related to carbon cycle disturbance which suggests effect of local volcanic eruptions as supported by the presence of volcanic rock fragments in coarse-grained sediment. Trace metal redox proxies indicate that the depositional basin was ventillated. TOC values tend to increase when the concentration of redox elements rise. However, the TOC and trace metal redox proxies trends are observed to behave independently of changes in carbon isotope and mercury concentrations suggesting transitions in local paleoenvironmental conditions.

  19. Middle Paleozoic metamorphism in the Hongseong area, South Korea, and tectonic significance for Paleozoic orogeny in northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang-Whan; Imayama, Takeshi; Yi, Sang-Bong; Kim, Taeseong; Ryu, In-Chang; Jeon, Jimin; Yi, Keewook

    2014-12-01

    The Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas are located within the Hongseong collision belt of South Korea, and the discovery of late Permian-Triassic eclogites has confirmed this belt as an extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt records a middle Paleozoic continental collision in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision of the North and South China cratons. In this paper, we present evidence for middle Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic events in the Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas. Metabasites and meta-basaltic andesites in the Baekdong area originated in an arc tectonic setting at ca. 470-437 Ma, and underwent an intermediate-P/T metamorphism (6.2-8.2 kbar, 620-700 °C) at ca. 418-405 Ma. The meta-basaltic andesite in the Gwangcheon area underwent a high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (close to the eclogite facies) at ca. 392-381 Ma. P-T values of 15.7-19.9 kbar and 860-890 °C were obtained for the peak metamorphism using conventional geothermobarometry, and conditions of 16-17 kbar and 870-920 °C were estimated by thermodynamic pseudosection analysis using the Perplex X program. Together with the late Permian-Triassic eclogites previously reported from the Hongseong area, these middle Paleozoic igneous activities that were related to subduction and metamorphism indicate that the Hongseong area underwent collision in the middle Paleozoic (418-381 Ma), in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision, as recorded in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt in China.

  20. Assessment of a Megacity Air Quality Management Policy using the GAINS-Korea : Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Amann, M.; Wagner, F.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution in and near megacities are very severe because of their massive pollutant emissions and high population density. Korea has ambitiously set its 2nd phase capitol air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets for the year 2024 are 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3 for PM10 and pm2.5, respectively and planned expenditure are almost 4 billion US dollar. Emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. Various special measures, such as cap-and-trade, LNB, EURO standards program, will be implemented to control emissions over Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do area. Smart approach of reducing air pollution and GHGs are, however, required to maximize improvement of metropolitan air quality and climate change. IIASA's Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies(GAINS) modeling framework is an widely used tool to design and manage smart emission control strategies that can achieve air quality/climate improvements with least costs. We have developed the national version of GAINS for Korea (GAINS-Korea) to set up those strategies for national and regional scale. In this study, we have implemented SAQMP in the GAINS-Korea Model and assess its effects of emissions reduction and air quality improvements. Various analysis results using the framework will be presented at site.

  1. Migration and enrichment of arsenic in the rock-soil-crop plant system in areas covered with black shale, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ji-Min; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Park, Min

    2003-04-07

    The Okchon black shale, which is part of the Guryongsan Formation or the Changri Formation of Cambro-Ordovician age in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched with potentially toxic elements such as U, V, Mo, As, Se, Cd, and Zn. In this study, the Dukpyung and the Chubu areas were selected to investigate the migration and enrichment of As and other toxic elements in soils and crop plants in areas covered with black shale. Rock and soil samples digested in 4-acid solution (HCl+HNO3+HF+HClO4) were analyzed for As and other heavy metals by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, and plant samples by INAA. Mean concentration of As in Okchon black shale is higher than those of both world average values of shale and black shale. Especially high concentration of 23.2 mg As kg(-1) is found in black shale from the Dukpyung area. Mean concentration of As is highly elevated in agricultural soils from the Dukpyung (28.2 mg kg(-1)) and the Chubu areas (32.6 mg kg(-1)). As is highly elevated in rice leaves from the Dukpyung (1.14 mg kg(-1)) and the Chubu areas (1.35 mg kg(-1)). The biological absorption coefficient (BAC) of As in plant species decreases in the order of rice leaves > corn leaves > red pepper = soybean leaves = sesame leaves > corn stalks > corn grains. This indicates that leafy plants tend to accumulate As from soil to a greater degree than cereal products such as grains.

  2. Single-particle characterization of indoor aerosol particles collected at an underground shopping area in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Shila; Kang, TaeHee; Jung, Hae-Jin; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-02-01

    In this study, single-particle characterization of aerosol particles collected at an underground shopping area was performed for the first time. A quantitative single-particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was used to characterize a total of 7900 individual particles for eight sets of aerosol samples collected at an underground shopping area in Seoul, Korea. Based on secondary electron images and X-ray spectral data of individual particles, fourteen particle types were identified, in which primary soil-derived particles were the most abundant, followed by carbonaceous, Fe-containing, secondary soil-derived, and secondary sea-salt particles. Carbonaceous particles exist in three types: organic carbon, carbon-rich, and CNO-rich. A significant number of textile particles with chemical composition C, N, and O were encountered in some of the aerosol samples, which were from the textile shops and/or from clothes of passersby. Primary soil-derived particles showed seasonal variation, with peak values in spring samples, reflecting higher air exchange between indoor and outdoor environments in the spring. Secondary soil-derived, secondary sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles were frequently encountered in winter samples. Fe-containing particles, contributed from a nearby subway station, were in the range of about 19% relative abundances for all samples. In underground shopping areas, particulate matters can be a considerable health hazard to the workers, shoppers, passersby, and shop-keepers as they spend their considerable time in this closed microenvironment. However, no study on the characteristics of indoor aerosols in an underground shopping area has been reported to our knowledge. This work provides detailed information on characteristics of underground shopping area aerosols on a single particle level. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Geographical distribution of indoor radon and related geological characteristics in Bonghwa County, a provisional radon-prone area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, E R; Chang, B U; Kim, H J; Song, M H; Kim, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The detailed indoor radon survey was conducted during a year (from September 2012 to August 2013) quarterly in Bonghwa county, one of the provisional radon-prone areas in Korea. The surveyed area was selected on the basis of previously conducted nationwide radon survey results. In order to minimise statistical and environmental uncertainties, ∼3 % of the entire dwellings were carefully selected based on the statistical annual report of Bonghwa county. The measurement is carried out by using solid-state nuclear track detector. The range of indoor radon concentration in each dwelling was 4.36-858 Bq m(-3) and that of annual effective dose due to inhaled radon of the resident in each dwelling was 0.19-23.5 mSv y(-1). Each dwelling was determined for geology criterion using one-way Analysis of Variance for the purpose of comparing indoor radon distribution with geology. Geographical distribution of indoor radon is closely related to the geological characteristics of basement rocks. In addition, the comparison between geographical distribution of indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation was done.

  4. A novel assessment of odor sources using instrumental analysis combined with resident monitoring records for an industrial area in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung-Don; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Choi, Won-Joon; Lee, Sang-Sup; Lee, Min-Ho; Oh, Kwang-Joong

    2013-08-01

    The residents living nearby the Sa-sang industrial area (SSIA) continuously were damaged by odorous pollution since 1990s. We determined the concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) [hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)], nitrogenous compounds (NCs) [ammonia (NH3) and trimethylamine (TMA)], and carbonyl compounds (CCs) [acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde] by instrumental analysis in the SSIA in Busan, Korea from Jun to Nov, 2011. We determined odor intensity (OI) based on the concentrations of the odorants and resident monitoring records (RMR). The mean concentration of H2S was 10-times higher than NCs, CCs and the other RSC. The contribution from RSCs to the OI was over 50% at all sites excluding the A-5 (chemical production) site. In particular, A-4 (food production) site showed more than 8-times higher the sum of odor activity value (SOAV) than the other sites. This suggested that the A-4 site was the most malodorous area in the SSIA. From the RMR analysis, the annoyance degree (OI ≥ 2) was 51.9% in the industrial area. The 'Rotten' smell arising from the RSCs showed the highest frequency (25.3%) while 'Burned' and 'Other' were more frequent than 'Rotten' in the residential area. The correlation between odor index calculated by instrumental analysis and OI from the RMR was analyzed. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of the SOAV was the highest at 0.720 (P < 0.05), and overall results of coefficient showed a moderately high correlation distribution range (from 0.465 to 0.720). Therefore, the overall results of this research confirm that H2S emitted from A-4 site including food production causes significant annoyance in the SSIA. We also confirm RMR data can be used effectively to evaluate the characteristic of odorants emitted from the SSIA.

  5. 3D crustal velocity structure beneath the broadband seismic array in the Gyeongju area of Korea by receiver function analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Jung Mo; Cho, Hyun-Moo; Kang, Tae-Seob

    2016-10-01

    A temporary seismic array was in operation between October 2010 and March 2013 in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Teleseismic records of the seismic array appropriate for receiver function analysis were collected, and selected seismograms were split into five groups based on epicenters-the Banda-Molucca, Sumatra, Iran, Aleutian, and Vanuatu groups. 1D velocity structures beneath each seismic station were estimated by inverting the stacked receiver functions for possible groups. The inversion was done by applying a genetic algorithm, whereas surface wave dispersion data were used as constraints to avoid non-uniqueness in the inversion. The composite velocity structure was constructed by averaging the velocity structures weighted by the number of receiver functions used in stacking. The uncertainty analysis for the velocity structures showed that the average of 95% confidence intervals was ± 0.1 km/s. The 3D velocity structure was modeled through interpolation of 1D composite velocity structures. Moho depths were determined in each composite velocity structure based on the AK135-F S-wave velocity model, and the depths were similar to the H-κ analysis results. The deepest Moho depth in the study area was found to be 31.9 km, and the shallowest, was 25.9 km. The Moho discontinuity dips in a southwestward direction beneath the area. A low velocity layer was also detected between 4 and 14 km depth. Adakitic intrusions and/or a high geothermal gradient appear to be the causes of this low velocity layer. The 3D velocity structure can be used to reliably assess seismic hazards in this area.

  6. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  7. Isotope geochemistry of Jeongok basalts, northernmost South Korea: Implications for the enriched mantle end-member component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-Ok; Choi, Sung Hi; Yu, Yongjae

    2014-09-01

    South Korea separates two mantle source domains for Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in East Asia: depleted mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) mantle-enriched mantle type 1 (DMM-EM1) in the north and DMM-EM2 in the south. We determined geochemical compositions, including Sr, Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopes for the Jeongok trachybasalts (∼0.51 to 0.15 Ma K-Ar ages) from northernmost South Korea, to better constrain the origin and distribution of the enriched mantle components. The Jeongok basalts exhibit light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched patterns ([La/Yb]N = 9.2-11.6). The (La/Yb)N ratios are lower than that of typical oceanic island basalt (OIB). On a primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element plot, the Jeongok samples show OIB-like enrichment in highly incompatible elements. However, they are depleted in moderately incompatible elements (e.g., La, Nd, Zr, Hf, etc.) compared with the OIB and exhibit positive anomalies in K and Pb. These anomalies are also prime characteristics of the Wudalianchi basalts, extreme EM1 end-member volcanics in northeast China. We have compared the geochemistry of the Jeongok basalts with those of available Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanic rocks from East Asia (from north to south, Wudalianchi, Mt. Baekdu and Baengnyeong for DMM-EM1, and Jeju for DMM-EM2). The mantle source for the Jeongok volcanics contains an EM1 component. The contribution of the EM1 component to East Asian volcanism increases toward the north, from Baengnyeong through Jeongok to Mt. Baekdu and finally to Wudalianchi. Modeling of trace element data suggests that the Jeongok basalts may have been generated by mixing of a Wudalianchi-like melt (EM1 end-member) and a melt that originated from a depleted mantle source, with some addition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Jeongok area. In Nd-Hf isotope space, the most enriched EM1-component-bearing Jeongok sample shows elevation of 176Hf/177Hf at a given 143Nd/144Nd compared with OIB. Recycled pelagic sediments

  8. Human risk assessment for heavy metals and as contamination in the abandoned metal mine areas, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2006-08-01

    Cleanup goals for the contaminated sites are established on the basis of risk assessments and rely on the estimated toxicity of the chemicals of concern (COC). Toxicity estimates are based on bioavailability causing risk of adverse health effects on humans. In this study, bioavailability of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil was determined by SBET (Simple Bioavailability Extraction Test), and chemical analysis for groundwater and stream water collected from the abandoned mine areas (Dukeum, Dongil, Dongjung, Myungbong and Songchun mine areas) was conducted. High values of cancer risk for As (1.16x10(-5)) were detected through soil ingestion pathways in the Songchun mine area and assessed through water exposure pathways in the all mines except Dukeum. The hazard index value for As in the Songchun mine area (3.625) exceeded 1.0. The results indicated that the ingestion of As-contaminated soil and water by local inhabitants can pose a potential health threat in these mine areas.

  9. Characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping at Imwon area in the east coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Dae; Ahn, Jung Kwan; Nam, Myung Mo; Lee, Chu; Yoo, Hyun Il; Yeon, Su Yeoung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jang Kyun; Choi, Jae Suk

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping using hoe or high-pressure water sprayer in the period from June 2010 to April 2011. We divided the research area off the eastern coast of Korean near Imwon into 3 categories depending upon the severity of the barren ground, i.e., the urchin barren-affected, urchin barren-ongoing and urchin barren-free areas. In April 2011, in the urchin barren-affected area with 25 seaweed species, the cover percentage and importance value (IV) of crustose coralline algae were higher than those of other species. In the urchin barren-ongoing area with 33 seaweed species, crustose coralline algae (mean IV = 62%) as well as Sargassum sp. (mean IV = 28%), and Gelidium amansii (mean IV = 19%) were observed following rock scraping. In the urchin barren-free area where seaweed communities were relatively abundant with 42 species, a variety of algal species including G. amansii (mean IV = 32%) underwent algal succession. Overall, it was observed that, as an aspect of algal succession, the weaker the barren ground severity was, the more frequent and diverse the seaweeds were, and the more complex the succession pattern was in the study. As an aspect of recovering algal community, rock scraping using hoe was shown to be superior to the method using high-pressure water spraying. Therefore, we conclude that rock scraping using hoe is a very effective strategy for recovering the algal community in urchin barren-ongoing area.

  10. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  11. Income Differences in Smoking Prevalences in 245 Districts of South Korea: Patterns by Area Deprivation and Urbanity, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity. Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence. Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6%) and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points) in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points) in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men. This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.

  12. Instrumental and bioanalytical measures of dioxin-like compounds and activities in sediments of the Pohang Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Park, Jinsoon; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Chul-Su; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Ryu, Jongseong; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

    2014-02-01

    Pohang is a mid-sized city in which Korea's largest manufacturer of steel is located. The Hyeongsan River, which runs through Pohang and empties into Yeongil Bay, is therefore expected to be affected by various municipal and industrial inputs. In order to characterize aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities in sediments from the Pohang area, a total of eight locations along the Hyeongsan River were chosen and 16 sediment samples were collected during two sampling campaigns in 2010. Organic extracts of sediments were characterized by both quantitative chemical analyses of dioxin-like chemicals and the in vitro H4IIE-luc bioassay. Significant dioxin-like activities were observed in sediments from industrial and municipal areas, which indicates that most of the dioxin-like chemicals were associated with surrounding anthropogenic sources. In general, responses of the H4IIE-luc assay were significantly correlated with concentrations of target compounds including dioxins, furans, co-planar PCBs, and dioxin-like PAHs. A potency balance analysis indicated that instrumentally derived TCDD equivalents (TEQs) explained about 77% of the bioassay-derived TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs). Among the target chemicals measured, certain penta-chlorinated dioxin and furan compounds accounted for the majority of dioxin-like activities associated with sediments. Compositional analysis of target chemicals the sources of such dioxin-like activities were mainly derived from the local activities such as the iron and steel industries. Concentrations and activities of AhR agonists were similar to what was measured approximately 10 years ago. Thus, while AhR agonists seem to be persistent in sediments there seem to have been no large increases in these chemicals in the Pohang area. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  14. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  15. The concentrations and fluxes of total gaseous mercury in a western coastal area of Korea during late March 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Joon; Lee, Gangwoong

    Factors affecting the distribution and exchange of total gaseous mercury (Hg) were investigated over a bare paddy field at Hari, a relatively clean district at Kang Hwa Island, Korea in late March 2001. The Hg concentrations were quantified at two heights (1 and 5 m above the ground), and then combined with micrometeorological measurements of turbulent exchange coefficients for flux computation. During the 8-day period of measurements, mean concentrations of Hg (3.72 ng m -3, N=164) were lower than those reported from urbanized/industrialized areas but higher than the background concentration (i.e., 1-2 ng m -3). The Hg fluxes, however, were comparable to those reported in the literature for polluted environments and showed clear diurnal pattern with maximum (˜600 ng m -2 h -1) during midday and the minimum (˜100 ng m -2 h -1) at nighttime. Occasionally, at nighttime when the turbulent mixing was weak under stable conditions, a deposition of Hg was observed at much lower rates (about -32.3 ng m -2 h -1). The rate of Hg emission tended to increase with increasing air/soil temperatures and pollutant levels under enhanced turbulent mixing. By contrast, dry deposition of Hg seemed to be related to the increase of certain pollutants such as fine particles (PM 2.5) and CO. Overall, the bare paddy field was a strong source of Hg with the daily net Hg emission of 4.4 μg m -2 during the measurement period.

  16. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.

  17. Identification of nitrogen dioxide and ozone source regions for an urban area in Korea using back trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Lee, Jin-Hong; Ma, Chang-Jin; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul; Kumar, Pawan; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The NO2 and O3 in an urban background site of Seoul, Korea (Yongsan), were analyzed using hourly data collected from 2005 to 2013. The potential role of meteorological parameters in controlling air quality at the receptor site was analyzed using a conditional probability function. In addition, the relative contributions of such variables were examined for special cases (i.e., more than 60 ppb of NO2 and O3) with the help of trajectory. A potential source contribution function with a grid size resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° was used to determine the potential exogenous sources of NO2 and O3 for the study area. The results of both the trajectory and potential source contribution function analyses suggest that both the northern China region and local emission sources are the most influential source pathways contributing to the recent increase in NO2 concentration at the study site. In the case of O3, this role was shared by both oceanic and mountainous regions of China and Japan.

  18. Optimizing low impact development (LID) for stormwater runoff treatment in urban area, Korea: Experimental and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sang-Soo; Choi, Dong-Ho; Jung, Jae-Woon; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Hyuk; Yoon, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Currently, continued urbanization and development result in an increase of impervious areas and surface runoff including pollutants. Also one of the greatest issues in pollutant emissions is the first flush effect (FFE), which implies a greater discharge rate of pollutant mass in the early part in the storm. Low impact development (LID) practices have been mentioned as a promising strategy to control urban stormwater runoff and pollution in the urban ecosystem. However, this requires many experimental and modeling efforts to test LID characteristics and propose an adequate guideline for optimizing LID management. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to optimize the sizes of different types of LID by conducting intensive stormwater monitoring and numerical modeling in a commercial site in Korea. The methodology proposed optimizes LID size in an attempt to moderate FFE on a receiving waterbody. Thereby, the main objective of the optimization is to minimize mass first flush (MFF), which is an indicator for quantifying FFE. The optimal sizes of 6 different LIDs ranged from 1.2 mm to 3.0 mm in terms of runoff depths, which significantly moderate the FFE. We hope that the new proposed methodology can be instructive for establishing LID strategies to mitigate FFE.

  19. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  20. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  2. Determination of upwind and downwind areas of Seoul, Korea using trajectory analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, H. S.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Chang, Y. S.

    2010-09-01

    To identify the domains that have the greatest impacts on air quality at the surface, both the upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by season using refined wind fields. Four consecutive days were selected as the study period typical of each season. The mesoscale meteorology of the study period was reproduced by using the MM5 prognostic meteorological model (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model) with horizontally nested grids. The gridded meteorological field, which was used on the study area of 242 km x 226 km with grid spacing of 2 km, was generated by using the CALMET diagnostic meteorological model. Upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by calculating 24-hour backward and forward air parcel trajectories, respectively, with u, v, and w velocity vectors. The results showed that the upwind and downwind areas were extended far to the northwest and the southeast as a result of high wind speeds in the spring and winter, while they were restricted on the fringe of Seoul in the summer and fall.

  3. Hydrochemistry and noble gas origin of geothermal waters of Icheon and Pocheon area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan Ho; Shin, Seon Ho; Nagao, Keisuke; Kim, Kyu Han; Koh, Yung Kwon; Kim, Gun Young

    2010-05-01

    Hydrochemical, stable isotopic (δ18O and δD) and noble gas isotopic analyses of seven geothermal water samples, eleven groundwater samples and six surface water samples collected from the Icheon and Pocheon area were carried out to find out hydrochemical characteristics, and to interpret the source of noble gases and the geochemical evolution of the geothermal waters. The geothermal waters show low temperature type ranging from 21.5 to 31.4 ℃ and the pH value between 6.69 and 9.21. Electrical conductivity of geothermal waters has the range from 310 to 735 μS/cm. Whereas the geothermal in the Icheon area shows the geochemical characteristics of neutral pH, the Ca-HCO3(or Ca(Na)-HCO3) chemical type and a high uranium content, the geothermal water in the Pocheon area shows the characteristics of alkaline pH, the Na-HCO3 chemical type and a high fluorine content. These characteristics indicate that the geothermal water in the Icheon area is under the early stage in the geochemical evolution, and that geothermal water in the Pocheon area has been geochemically evolved. The δ18O and δD values of geothermal waters show the range of -10.1˜-8.69‰ and from -72.2˜-60.8‰, respectively, and these values supply the information of the recharge area of geothermal waters. The 3He/4He ratios of the geothermal waters range from 0.09×10-6 to 0.65×10-6 which are plotted above the mixing line between air and crustal components. Whereas the helium gas in the Icheon geothermal water was mainly provided from the atmospheric source mixing with the mantle(or magma) origin, the origin of helium gas in the Pocheon geothermal water shows a dominant crustal source. 40Ar/36Ar ratios of geothermal water are in the range of an atmosphere source. Key words: hot spring water, hydrochemical composition, low temperature type, 3He/4He ratios, crustal source

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of tributyltin (TBT) in seawater, sediments and bivalves from coastal areas of Korea during 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkyu; Choi, Hee-Gu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Gui-Young

    2009-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) concentrations were determined in seawater, sediments and bivalve samples collected from Korean coastal areas during 2001-2005, to investigate the levels and temporal variation in TBT contamination in relation to the timing of the imposition of regulations on TBT use in Korea. TBT concentrations ranged from <5.0 to 164 ng/L in seawater, from <7.0 to 9,576 ng/g dry weight in sediments, and from <7.0 to 6,296 ng/g dry weight in bivalves. The highest concentrations of TBT were found at locations close to intensive shipping traffic and industrial complexes, and the contamination at some hot spot areas was high enough to cause harmful effects on marine organisms. TBT concentrations and their occurrence in Korean coastal waters have been decreasing annually. In particular, TBT concentrations in seawater have dramatically decreased. This result is consistent with regulations and bans on the use of TBT in Korea.

  5. Conservation implications of the genetic diversity of Gymnospermium microrrhynchum in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Yeon, M H; Shim, J K

    2016-10-24

    Gymnospermium microrrhynchum (Berberidaceae) is an ephemeral perennial herb with a limited distributional range in the Baekdudaegan mountain areas of the Korean Peninsula, and is designated a rare plant by the Korean Forest Service. Information about its genetic variation and structure is important for developing successful conservation strategies. To investigate the genetic variation within and among seven G. microrrhynchum populations, random amplified polymorphic DNA data were obtained for 207 individuals. The populations exhibited relatively low genetic diversity: the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranged from 32.1 to 66.7% (mean = 51.4%) and Nei's gene diversity (HE) ranged from 0.116 to 0.248 (mean = 0.188). However, genetic diversity at the species level was relatively high (PPB = 98.7%, HE = 0.349). An analysis of molecular variance revealed high differentiation among populations (ΦST = 0.6818), but the low gene flow value (Nm = 0.117) suggests a low level of gene exchange occurs among populations. Principal coordinates analysis revealed that individuals were separated according to population. The high level of genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among G. microrrhynchum populations, which resulted from their isolation in alpine areas after the Ice Age, indicates that it is essential to protect and manage all populations, rather than focus on specific populations, in order to maintain the genetic diversity of this species.

  6. South Korea and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Se Ho

    1988-01-01

    Examines projections about the future of Korea, predicting a highly diversified society built upon industrialization and moving toward an information society. Discusses the growing middle class and its societal implications and considers the effects of the country's increasing democratization. (GEA)

  7. Artificial Injection of Fresh Water into a Confined Saline Aquifer: A Case Study at the Nakdong River Delta Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Senapathi, V.; Rajendran, R.; Khakimov, E.

    2015-12-01

    Injection test in a confined saline aquifer was performed to assess the potential of artificial recharge as a means of replacing saline water with fresh water, thereby securing fresh groundwater resources for the Nakdong Delta area of Busan City, Korea. The study area comprises a confined aquifer, in which a 10~21m thick clay layer overlies 31.5~36.5 m thick of sand and a 2.8~11m thick layer of gravel. EC logging of five monitoring wells yielded a value of 7~44 mS/cm, with the transition between saline and fresh water occurring at a depth of 15-38 m. Above 5 m depth, water temperature was 10~15.5°C, whereas between 5 and 50 m depth, the temperature was 15.5~17℃ and pH was 7.15~7.49. The quality of injected fresh water was 388 μS/cm with the temperature of 6.2℃, and pH was 7.70. Approximately 950 m3 of fresh water was injected into the OW-5 injection well at a rate of 370 m3/day for 62 hours, after which the fresh water zone was detected by a CTD Diver installed at a depth of 40 m. The persistence of the fresh water zone was determined via EC and temperature logging at 1 day, 21 days, 62days and 95 days after injection. The contact between fresh and saline water in the injection well was represented by a sharp boundary rather than a transitional boundary. It was concluded that the injected fresh water occupied a specific space and served to maintain the original water quality throughout the observation period. Moreover, we suggest that artificial recharge via long-term injection could help secure a new alternative water resource in this saline coastal aquifer.

  8. Characteristics of organic compounds in PM2.5 at urban and remote areas in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A.; Lee, J.; Shin, H. J.; Lee, M.; Jin seok, H.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Organic aerosols contain thousands of organic compounds and contribute to 20%-90% of the total fine aerosol mass (Kanakidou et al., 2005). These organic aerosols originate from anthropogenic and natural (biogenic and geologic) sources and alter physical and chemical properties in the atmosphere depending on the atmospheric and meteorological conditions. About one hundred individual organic compounds in PM2.5 at Seoul (urban area) and Baengnyeong Island (remote area) were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in order to understand the characteristics of organic compounds in PM2.5 at these areas. Further, major factors to determine their concentrations in the atmosphere were investigated. Organic compounds analyzed in this study were classified into six groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, fatty acids (FA), dicarboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars. Daily variation of organic compounds concentrations at Seoul were not high, while, the concentrations of organic compounds at Baengnyeong Island showed high daily variation. This is might due to frequent change of source strength and/or SOA formation in this region. Through correlations of organic compounds with other air pollutants and factor analysis at both sites, it found that major factors (or source) for the determination of organic compounds concentrations at Seoul and Baengnyeong Island were different. The major sources at Seoul were anthropogenic sources such as vehicular emission and coal combustions, while, SOA formation and biomass burning were more attributed more to the organic compounds concentrations at Baengnyeong Island.References Kanakidou, M., Seinfeld, J.H., Pandis, S.N., Barnes, I., Dentener, F.J., Facchini, M.C., Van Dingenen, R., Ervens, B., Nenes, A., Nielsen, C.J., Swietlicki, E., Putaud, J.P., Balkanski, Y., Fuzzi, S., Horth, J., Moortgat, G.K., Winterhalter, R., Myhre, C.E.L., Tsigaridis, K., Vignati, E., Stephanou, E

  9. Stabilization of the As-contaminated soil from the metal mining areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Yong; Bang, Sunbeak; Lee, Jin-Soo; Ko, Ju-In; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2012-01-01

    The stabilization efficiencies of arsenic (As) in contaminated soil were evaluated using various additives such as limestone, steel mill slag, granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), and mine sludge collected from an acid mine drainage treatment system. The soil samples were collected from the Chungyang area, where abandoned Au-Ag mines are located. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, sequential extraction analysis, aqua regia digestion, cation exchange capacity, loss on ignition, and particle size distribution were conducted to assess the physical and chemical characteristics of highly arsenic-contaminated soils. The total concentrations of arsenic in the Chungyang area soil ranged up to 145 mg/kg. After the stabilization tests, the removal percentages of dissolved As(III) and As(V) were found to differ from the additives employed. Approximately 80 and 40% of the As(V) and As(III), respectively, were removed with the use of steel mill slag. The addition of limestone had a lesser effect on the removal of arsenic from solution. However, more than 99% of arsenic was removed from solution within 24 h when using GFH and mine sludge, with similar results observed when the contaminated soils were stabilized using GFH and mine sludge. These results suggested that GFH and mine sludge may play a significant role on the arsenic stabilization. Moreover, this result showed that mine sludge can be used as a suitable additive for the stabilization of arsenic.

  10. Analysis of climate variability under various scenarios for future urban growth in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to adjust urban growth data closer to reality in the regional climate model because urban changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere. Future urban growth, however, has not been considered widely in the prediction model for future climate change. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on cellular automata (CA) technique to predict the future urban growth. The target area is Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA) where the urban area explosively has expanded the most in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. The SLEUTH model was calibrated to know the pattern of the urban growth in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then the future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) current trends scenario (Scenario 1; SC1), (2) regional policy and urban planning scenario (Scenario 2; SC2), (3) ecologically protection scenario (Scenario 3; SC3). As a result, the urban ratios by scenarios were increased 12.87, 11.17 and 6.26 percentages of the total area for 50 years respectively. These predictions of SLEUTH model used as the boundary condition data and the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany used as the initial condition data in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We designed four different numerical experiments in accordance with the four scenarios for the urban growth (SC1, SC2, SC3 and Current condition) and carried out for 5 years (2046-2050). Overall, the increment of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase and the average wind speed to decrease in the

  11. Risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in the abandoned metal mine areas, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Chon, H. T.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to toxic heavy metals influenced by past mining activities. Environmental geochemical survey was undertaken in the abandoned metal mine areas (Dongil Au-Ag-Cu-Zn mine, Okdong Cu-Pb-Zn mine, Myungbong Au-Ag mine). After appropriate sample preparation, tailings, soils, crop plants and groundwaters were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Health risk assessment of toxic heavy metals has been performed with chemical analytical data for environmental media. Arsenic and other heavy metals are highly elevated in the tailings from the Dongil mine (8,720 As mg/kg, 5.9 Cd mg/kg, 3,610 Cu mg/kg, 5,850 Pb mg/kg, 630 Zn mg/kg), but heavy metals except As from the Okdong mine (72 As mg/kg, 53.6 Cd mg/kg, 910 Cu mg/kg, 1,590 Pb mg/kg, 5,720 Zn mg/kg) and only As from the Myungbong mine (5,810 As mg/kg). These significant concentrations can impact on soils and waters around the tailing files. Also, elevated levels of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are found in agricultural soils from these mine areas. Risk assessment modeling is subdivided into main four stages, i.e. hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity (dose-response) assessment and risk characterization. In order to assess exposure it is necessary to calculate the average daily dose (ADD) of contaminant via the three identified pathways (soil, groundwater and food (rice grain) pathways). In dose-response assessment for non-carcinogens, reference doses (RfD) are calculated and that for carcinogens, slope factors (SF) are obtained by US-EPA IRIS database. In risk characterization, the results of toxicity assessment and exposure assessment are integrated to arrive at quantitative estimates of cancer risks and hazard quotients. Toxic (non-cancer) risks are indicated in terms of a hazard quotient (H.Q.) and this risk exists for H.Q.>1. The H.Q. values for only As from the Dongil and Myungbong mine areas are 2.1 and

  12. Occurrence and Mineralogical Characteristics of Tremolite Asbestos Occurred in Boryeong area, Chungnam, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, H.

    2009-12-01

    Abandoned tremolite mines, which had been exploited for several decades since 1930, are distributed in Boryeong, Chungnam. It is known that tremolite asbestos is approximately 100 times more harmful than chrysotile asbestos. Recently, it become a regional social problem because lung disease (mesothelioma and lung cancer) suspect patients are largely found among the residents of the mining area. Therefore, Korean government making every endeavor to remove asbestos risk in the area. However, there is insufficiency geological and mineralogical studies for tremolite asbestos. In the present study, the occurrence and mineralogical characteristics of tremolite asbestos were studied using polarization microscope, XRD, XRF, EPMA, SEM and TEM. Mica-schist of precambrian metasedimentary rock, which is widely distributed in the area, is the host rock of tremolite deposits. The rocks are largely disturbed by faults and folds, and shows sudden changes in strike and slope of strata. Tremolite ore bodies, which show relatively light colored, mainly occur as stratiform or veinlet and some occurs in brecciated rock fragments. Tremolite is a major asbestos mineral, and chrysotile, talc, mica, chlorite and quartz occurs as associated minerals. Considerable amount of ore containing pure tremolite is found, and ores having mineral assemblages of tremolite+talc, tremolite+quartz and chrysotile+talc also occurs. From optical microscope observations, most tremolites are asbestos from that meets to the criterion (length > 5 μm, diameter < 3 μm, aspect ratio > 3:1) defined by the international organization (WHO, ILO), but non-asbestos form tremolites are also included. Most asbestos form tremolites have the size range of 1.0-2.0 μm width and 5-10 μm length. The length can be shorten with crushing experiments, but the width remains unchanged. Non-asbestos form hardly change to asbestos form by mechanical crushing. From comprehensive studies for geological occurrence and mineral

  13. Heavy metals in the bed and suspended sediments of Anyang River, Korea: implications for water quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Moon, Ji-Won; Moon, Hi-Soo

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare Anyang River bed sediments with water chemical composition and to assess the anthropogenic chemical inputs into the river system. Eight sampling locations were chosen along the river channel. Bed and suspended river sediments and water samples were collected, and analyzed for their chemical and physical composition. Data revealed that trace element concentrations in the river water were generally below world average, except for As, Mn, Ni and Cr. Among the three phases: water, bed and suspended sediment, more than 99% of the trace elements was associated with the bed sediment. Concentrations of trace elements in the sediment were a function a particle size distribution and organic content. The calculated degrees of enrichment based on the least influenced sample (ASD 1) indicated the river sediments were enriched with respect to background. The enrichment factors for Pb, Zn and As were relatively lower than for Cr, Co, Ni and Zn. The difference in the enrichment seems to reflect the human activities influence in the basin, and specially for Cd. Speciation of the elements in the five different chemical forms in the sediment by sequential extraction indicated that the reducible fraction was predominant for Fe, Zinc and Cu showed an irregular variation among the different fractions; whereas, Cd and Pb were more regular. Zinc and Cu highly existed mostly in exchangeable forms. Acid soluble and reducible forms were also important for most metals. The speciation implies that the metals associated with the sediment are subject to release into water bodies as goechemical variables (pH and Eh) change. Currently, the introduced metals are deposited near the source area and are mostly associated with the sediment, implying that the river bed sediment acts mainly as a sink, rather than a pool. The accumulated and enriched toxic trace elements can pose a potential pollution of river water.

  14. Late-Holocene vegetation and climate change in Jeju Island, Korea and its implications for ENSO influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungjae; Shin, Young Ho; Byrne, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Several recent studies suggest the hypothesis that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important factor controlling the Holocene East Asian Monsoon (EAM). However, the mechanism underlying this influence remains unclear due to the lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records from the coast of East Asia. Here, we provide a new record of late Holocene climate change in coastal East Asia based on multi-proxy evidence (pollen, organic content, magnetic susceptibility, grain size) obtained from a sediment core from Jeju Island, South Korea. As Jeju Island is strongly influenced by the Kuroshio flow, our sediment proxy records contain ENSO signals from the tropical Pacific. The study area was affected by dry/cool conditions in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) between 4350 and 1920 cal yr BP when El Niños were frequent, and by rapid warming/wetting and forestation since 1920 cal yr BP when La Niñas were more common. Jeju Island was relatively dry/cool between 2100 and 1600, 1300-1200, 1100-1000, 800-650, and 300-50 cal yr BP, as opposed to the Galápagos Islands, which were relatively wet/warm, reflecting the ENSO-related negative correlation between eastern and western margins of Pacific. Wet conditions may have prevailed during the early Little Ice Age (LIA) (620-280 cal yr BP) despite consistent cooling. This period of high precipitation may have been associated with the increased landfall of typhoons and with warmer Kuroshio currents under La Niña-like conditions. According to our results, EAM on the East Asian coastal margin was predominantly driven by ENSO activity, rather than by the precession effect. Paleoclimatic data from Jeju Island, with its insular position and closeness to warm Kuroshio currents, provide clear evidence of these ENSO influences.

  15. Malaria Vector Surveillance in Ganghwa-do, a Malaria-Endemic Area in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Suck; Hur, Myung Je; Joo, Gwang Sig; Kim, Sung Tae; Go, Jong Myoung; Kim, Yong Hee; Lee, Wook Gyo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the seasonality of Anopheles mosquitoes, including its species composition, density, parity, and population densities of mosquitoes infected with the parasite in Ganghwa-do (Island), a vivax malaria endemic area in the Republic of Korea. Mosquitoes were collected periodically with a dry-ice-tent trap and a blacklight trap during the mosquito season (April-October) in 2008. Anopheles sinensis (94.9%) was the most abundant species collected, followed by Anopheles belenrae (3.8%), Anopheles pullus (1.2%), and Anopheles lesteri (0.1%). Hibernating Anopheles mosquitoes were also collected from December 2007 to March 2008. An. pullus (72.1%) was the most frequently collected, followed by An. sinensis (18.4%) and An. belenrae (9.5%). The composition of Anopheles species differed between the mosquito season and hibernation seasons. The parous rate fluctuated from 0% to 92.9%, and the highest rate was recorded on 10 September 2008. Sporozoite infections were detected by PCR in the head and thorax of female Anopheles mosquitoes. The annual sporozoite rate of mosquitoes was 0.11% (2 of 1,845 mosquitoes). The 2 mosquitoes that tested positive for sporozoites were An. sinensis. Malarial infections in anopheline mosquitoes from a population pool were also tried irrespective of the mosquito species. Nine of 2,331 pools of Anopheles mosquitoes were positive. From our study, it can be concluded that An. sinensis, which was the predominant vector species and confirmed as sporozoite-infected, plays an important role in malaria transmission in Ganghwa-do. PMID:20333283

  16. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  17. An Integrated Study of Geoelectric Vertical Sounding and Hydrogeochemistry in the Riverside Alluvium around Buyeo Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, S.; Park, Y.; Yun, S.

    2005-12-01

    The water quality of alluvial aquifers in agricultural areas is sensitive to the behaviour of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and lime) and, also, to the geologic conditions. It is important to know the characteristics of the aquifers (e.g., depth, spatial distribution, and soil types) and the relationship between subsurface geology and the groundwater contamination for its effective use and management in the future. In order to provide the subsurface information of the lithology and the groundwater zone for hydrogeologic interpretations, an integrated study using twenty vertical electric soundings (VES), direct observation of lithology from two boreholes and hydrochemical data from irrigation well has been conducted in the riverside alluvium near Buyeo area, Korea. Main results of this study are as follows. The depth of main groundwater table is getting slightly deeper toward the river. The boundary between surface sandy and silty soils extends to the subsurface at depth of groundwater table. The vestige of an ancient river channel, such as an oxbow lake, can be identified by a lateral continuation of perched aquifer parallel to the river on the resistivity profiles. This perched aquifer materials are composed of clay-rich silt soils, which prohibit the infiltration of oxygen and nitrate from the land surface. Therefore, the groundwater of the main aquifer below the oxbow lake shows the very low NO3 level and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. Surface resistivity contour map indicates that the resistivity varies with a NW-SE trending zonal distribution and increases toward the river. This result shows an agreement with the spatial distribution of surface soils, implying that the variation of surface resistivity is mainly controlled by surface lithology or soil type. On the other hand, the distribution of water resistivities is correlated with that of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, while the earth resistivity of aquifer

  18. White pine blister rust in Korea, Japan and other Asian regions: comparisons and implications for North America

    Treesearch

    M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. Ota; S. K. Lee; K.-S. Woo; S. Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of white pine blister rust, attributed to Cronartium ribicola, and addresses current research and management issues in South Korea, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia (China, Russia and Himalaya). For each region, the distribution, damage, aecial hosts, telial hosts and management of C. ribicola and other blister rust fungi...

  19. The History of Policy Responses to Shadow Education in South Korea: Implications for the next Cycle of Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Jae; Lee, Heesook; Jang, Hyo-Min

    2010-01-01

    Shadow education has been a challenge to public education in South Korea since the 1960s. Government has responded to shadow education with various types of policy responses. The assumption on the possibility of reducing the demand mechanism led the policy to eliminate competitive high stakes examinations and even prohibit participating in shadow…

  20. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  1. Forty-year (1971-2010) semiquantitative observations of visibility-cloud-precipitation in Korea and its implication for aerosol effects on regional climate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kang, Jeong-Eon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Forty-year (1971-2010) observations of cloud cover and types have been analyzed, and implications on the effects of aerosol-cloud feedback were explored. Cloud cover and types have been observed over Korea on the basis of visible (human-eye) attributes without any change in official observing instructions. Visibility has been used as an ongoing proxy measure of aerosol concentrations, and observed meteorological variables such as sunshine duration and precipitation have been employed to analyze aerosol causes and implications for urban and regional climate. The analysis revealed persistent decade-long patterns in Korea: steadily reduced visibility (-0.37 km/yr), consistently decreasing sunshine duration (-0.06 %/hr), and declining occurrence of light precipitation. Spatial distributions of sunshine duration and visibility exhibited more localized variations in the early period (1971-1990), and tended to be more uniform throughout Korea over more recent years (1991-2010), implying the recent regional-scale impact of cloud change over northeast Asia. Cloud analysis results showed that the five most common types were stratocumulus (Sc), cirrus (Ci), altostratus (As), stratus (St), and nimbostratus (Ns), with occurrences of 33%, 17%, 17%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. Occurrence of rarely precipitating or nonprecipitating low-level Sc clouds showed an increasing (+0.34%/yr), but no (or only minor) effects of aerosols on heavy precipitation such as cumulus cloud types were found. Cloud cover in the range of 6/10 to 8/10 units has increased by 31.5±6.5%, and occurrences of both cloud-free (~2/10 units) and overcast (~8/10 units) conditions have decreased. Aerosol-cloud-precipitations interaction is highly nonlinear due to feedback mechanisms. One reason for our poor understanding of the aerosol-cloud feedback study is the variety of cloud types with their complicated responses to variations of the aerosol. Our study on the response of precipitation-cloud to long

  2. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    the Waziyu mcc indicate the non-rotation of North China and the basin [Zhu, R.X., Shao, J.A., Pan, Y.X., Shi, R.P., Shi, G.H., Li, D.M., 2002. Paleomagnetic data from Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks of West Liaoning: evidence for intracontinental rotation. Chinese Science Bulletin 47, 1832-1837]. Such upper-plate non-rotation supports our conclusion that the lower plates of the Waziyu and Liaonan metamorphic core complexes were displaced ESE-ward in an absolute sense away from the stable North China block, thus contributing to the rotation of Korea and contiguous areas. Rotation is inferred to have affected only the upper crust above mid-crustal levels into which we believe the Jinzhou and Waziyu detachment fault zones flattened. If this is the case, the regional Tan Lu fault that lies between the two core complexes was truncated at mid-crustal depth, since in areas to the south it forms the boundary between the North and South China lithospheric blocks. It is noteworthy that the two extensional complexes lie not far north of the Bohai Bay, the area proposed by Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] as the site of the pole of rotation for Korea's clockwise displacement. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] were unaware of the Liaonan and Waziyu mcc's and argued that most of the regional block rotation was post-Early Cretaceous and, in part, early Cenozoic. However, the ca. 130-120 Ma ages of the two Liaoning mcc's and a Songliao basin mcc (Xujiaweizi), the latter discovered only by recent drilling through its younger stratigraphic cover, support our and some Korean coworkers' conclusions

  3. Long-term prediction of groundwater recharge by climate changes in the Gosan agricultural area, Jeju Island of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E. H.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of long-term changes in groundwater recharge due to the climate changes is needed to secure the sustainable use of grounwater. In Jeju Island, which is composed of various formations of porous volcanic rocks, groundwater is a sole resource for water supply because of its hydrogeological characteristics. Therefore, preservation of the groundwater resource is an essential issue in the island. Prior to establishing a management plan for maintaining the groundwater resources in Jeju Island, long-term estimation of influencing factors are necessary. The Gosan study area is located in the western part of the island, where extensive agricultural activity has been performed and groundwater is a main source of supply for watering crops. In this study, we estimated the recharge changes for 100 years (2000~2099) in the Gosan agricultural area based on two climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) by using the HELP3 (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) program. The estimated component of water budget in this study are as follows (averaged in 2000~2014), precipitation: 1.28x108 m3/yr; ET: 6.49x107 m3/yr; runoff: 5.84x106 m3/yr; and recharge: 5.27x107 m3/yr. Over the 100 years of the estimated period, precipitation will have a highest increase among other meteorological parameters to be 6.16x109 m3 (RCP4.5) and 6.34 x109 m3 (RCP8.5). Increase in recharge by RCP8.5 scenario (2.75 x109 m3) will be less than that by RCP4.5 (2.77x109 m3) because ET by RCP 8.5 (ET: 3.34x109 m3; runoff: 2.27x108 m3) is estimated to be higher than ET by RCP4.5 (ET: 3.15x109 m3; runoff: 2.35x108 m3). Jeju volcanic island is known to have higher recharge proportions to the precipitation due to the distributed highly porous volcanic rocks. Therefore, variations in precipitation by climate changes would greatly affect the groundwater resource of the island. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for

  4. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a major environmental problem in South Korea with the marked expansion of the industrial base and the explosive growth of the population. Even in rural areas, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, the presence of acid-mine drainage, and increase of volumes of domestic wastewaters are adding to groundwater pollution. The DRASTIC/EGIS model was used to evaluate the potential for groundwater contamination in the Cheongju city area, the first of several pilot studies. The model allows the designation of hydrogeologic settings within the study area, based on a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors for each setting. Then, a scheme for relative ranking of the hydrogeologic factors is applied to evaluate the relative vulnerability to groundwater contamination of each hydrogeologic setting. DRASTIC/EGIS can serve as a tool to evaluate pollution potential and so facilitate programs to protect groundwater resources. Résumé La contamination de l'eau souterraine devient un problème environnemental majeur en Corée du Sud, en relation avec le développement industriel bien marqué et l'explosion démographique. Meme dans les zones rurales, l'utilisation accrue d'engrais et de pesticides, le drainage acide de mines et les rejets croissants d'eaux usées contribuent à la pollution des nappes. Le modèle DRASTIC/EGIS a été utilisé pour évaluer le potentiel de contamination des eaux souterraines dans la région de la ville de Cheongju, la première de plusieurs régions pilotes. Le modèle permet de définir des ensembles hydrogéologiques dans la région étudiée, à partir de la description composite de tous les facteurs géologiques et hydrogéologiques essentiels pour chaque ensemble. Ensuite, un schéma pour le classement des facteurs hydrogéologiques est mis en oeuvre pour évaluer la vulnérabilité relative à la contamination des eaux souterraines pour chaque ensemble. DRASTIC

  5. Characterization of Odorous Compounds (VOC and Carbonyl Compounds) in the Ambient Air of Yeosu and Gwangyang, Large Industrial Areas of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Kyo; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Baek, Sung-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Odorous compounds play an important role in air pollution in industrial areas and the residential areas surrounding them. This study measured the odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbonyl compounds at Yeosu and Gwangyang, two large industrial areas of South Korea, during four seasons of 2008-2009. Along with these two cities, the same odorous compounds were measured at Suncheon, which was selected as a control site. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyl compounds that were listed as odorous air pollutants by the Ministry of Environment of South Korea are discussed. Benzene and formaldehyde were included in the target analytes because of their carcinogenic nature. Most researchers only examined the concentration of odorous compounds in ambient air but the present study evaluated the odor intensity, which is a new parameter that will help better understand the precise odor perceived by people. This paper describes the seasonal variations and spatial distribution of the above-mentioned odorous compounds at the specified sites. Pearson correlation coefficients between the odorous compounds and other air pollutants, such as ozone, CO, SO2, NO2, and PM10, and meteorological conditions, such as temperature and wind speed, provide the source information of odorous VOC and carbonyl compounds. PMID:25309959

  6. Assessment of air quality in the coastal area of South Korea using principal component analysis combined with cluster analysis and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.; Kwack, W.; Ha, H.; Choe, C.; Kim, Y.; Zoh, K.; Yi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of ambiet air pollution in relation with meteorological parameters is a topic of great interest to maintain and manage ambient air quality in the coastal region of South Korea. The objectives of this study were: (i) to locate emission sources qualitatitively and quantitatively, (ii) to identify air quality by day with similar air pollution behaviors; and (iii) to evaluate the effect of sea salt on the aerosols. Two statistical techniques, principal components analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) were applied to the concentrations of five pollutants(PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3). The enrichment factor(EF) representing the ratio of Cl/Na in aerosol to Cl/Na in sea water was calculated with 2 soluble ions(Na+ and Cl-) in PM10 analyzed by ion chromatograph in coastal urban area of Incheon city, South Korea from January to December 2008. PCA results show three emission sources; (i) high PM10, NO2 and CO with low temperature, radiation and wind speed(35.9%), (ii) high O3 with high radiation and wind speed, and low humidity(18.2%), (iii) high NO2 and O3 with high temperature and radiation, and low wind speed(11.2%), respectively. CA results show three groups; (i) Friday (high PM10 and NO2, low O3), (ii) Sunday (low PM10 and NO2, high O3), (iii) Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Saturday (medium PM10, NO2 and O3). EF was 1.02 implying contribution of sea salt on the aerosol level with various anthropogenic sources. In conclusion, PCA and CA are suitable for idenfying and estimating the sources of air pollution. EF allows for investigating the effect of sea salt on the PM10 in the region where sea-land breezes. It was conclueded that the sea wind had an important contribution towards the variation of air pollutants. Key words : air pollutants, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, enrichment factor Fig. 1. Dendrogram using average linkage of cluster analysis for PM10 at coastal urban area of Incheon, South Korea. Table 1 Main results of PCA

  7. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea, 2015: epidemiology, characteristics and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Tandi, T E; Choi, J W; Moon, J M; Kim, M S

    2017-02-01

    Since the first case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in South Korea was reported on 20(th) May 2015, there have been 186 confirmed cases, 38 deaths and 16,752 suspected cases. Previously published research on South Korea's MERS outbreak was limited to the early stages, when few data were available. Now that the outbreak has ended, albeit unofficially, a more comprehensive review is appropriate. Data were obtained through the MERS portal by the Ministry for Health and Welfare (MOHW) and Korea Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, press releases by MOHW, and reports by the MERS Policy Committee of the Korean Medical Association. Cases were analysed for general characteristics, exposure source, timeline and infection generation. Sex, age and underlying diseases were analysed for the 38 deaths. Beginning with the index case that infected 28 others, an in-depth analysis was conducted. The average age was 55 years, which was a little higher than the global average of 50 years. As in most other countries, more men than women were affected. The case fatality rate was 19.9%, which was lower than the global rate of 38.7% and the rate in Saudi Arabia (36.5%). In total, 184 patients were infected nosocomially and there were no community-acquired infections. The main underlying diseases were respiratory diseases, cancer and hypertension. The main contributors to the outbreak were late diagnosis, quarantine failure of 'super spreaders', familial care-giving and visiting, non-disclosure by patients, poor communication by the South Korean Government, inadequate hospital infection management, and 'doctor shopping'. The outbreak was entirely nosocomial, and was largely attributable to infection management and policy failures, rather than biomedical factors. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A questionnaire survey exploring healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards teamwork and safety in acute care areas in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sang Jin; Oh, Je Hyeok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Ryu, Ji Yeong; Jang, Hye Young; Choi, Yoon Hee; Kim, Su Jin; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although human factors are important in terms of patient safety, there have been very few reports on the attitudes of healthcare professionals working in acute care settings in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the attitudes of such professionals, their cultures and their management systems. Design A questionnaire survey with 65 items covering nine themes affecting patient safety. Nine themes were compared via a three-or-more-way analysis of variance, with interaction, followed by multiple comparisons among several groups. Setting Intensive care units, emergency departments and surgical units of nine urban hospitals. Participants 592 nurses and 160 physicians. Intervention None. Outcome measures Mean scores using a five-point scale and combined response scores for each of the nine themes. Results The mean score for information-sharing was the highest (3.78±0.49) and that for confidence/assertion was the lowest (2.97±0.34). The mean scores for teamwork, error management, work value, organisational climate, leadership, stress and fatigue level, and error/procedural compliance were intermediate. Physicians showed lower scores in leadership and higher scores in information-sharing than nurses. Respondents with 24 months or less of a clinical career showed higher scores in leadership, stress and fatigue, and error scores and lower scores in work value than more experienced respondents. Conclusions Our results suggest that medical personnel in Korea are relatively reluctant to disclose error or assert their different opinions with others. Many did not adequately recognise the negative effects of fatigue and stress, attributed errors to personal incompetence, and error-management systems were inadequate. Discrepancies in leadership and information-sharing were evident between professional groups, and leadership, stress, fatigue level, work value and error scores varied with the length of work experience. These can be used as baseline data

  9. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater using multivariate statistical analysis and tritium in the mountainous area of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, D.; Chae, G.; Kang, B.; Koh, G.; Yoon, Y.; Ko, K.; Park, K.

    2008-12-01

    sources in the mountainous area. These threshold values were consistent with the result of PCA and HCA. PCA and HCA are more effective than other threshold calculating statistics because PCA and HCA have implication of geochemical processes and anthropogenic contamination. It is suggested that PCA and HCA could be used as complementary method for determining threshold values.

  10. Development of EMC-based empirical model for estimating spatial distribution of pollutant loads and its application in rural areas of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qitao; Li, Hui; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-09-01

    An integrated approach to easily calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds is suggested and verified in this research. The basic concepts of this empirical tool were based on the assumption that variations in event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants from a given agricultural watershed during rainstorms were only attributable to the rainfall pattern. Fifty one sets of EMC values were obtained from nine different watersheds located in the rural areas of Korea, and these data were used to develop predictive tools for the EMCs in rainfall runoff. The results of statistical tests of these formulas show that they are fairly good in predicting actual EMC values of some parameters, and useful in terms of calculating pollutant loads for any rainfall event time span such as daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. This model was further checked in for its field applicability in a reservoir receiving stormwater after a cleanup of the sediments, covering 17 consecutive rainfall events from 1 July to 15 August in 2007. Overall the predicted values matched the observed values, indicating the feasibility of this empirical tool as a simple and useful solution in evaluating timely distribution of nonpoint source pollution loads from small rural watersheds of Korea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effectiveness of Direct Safety Regulations on Manufacturers and Users of Industrial Machines: Its Implications on Industrial Safety Policies in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi Heung

    2017-03-01

    Despite considerable efforts made in recent years, the industrial accident rate and the fatality rate in the Republic of Korea are much higher than those in most developed countries in Europe and North America. Industrial safety policies and safety regulations are also known to be ineffective and inefficient in some cases. This study focuses on the quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of direct safety regulations such as safety certification, self-declaration of conformity, and safety inspection of industrial machines in the Republic of Korea. Implications on safety policies to restructure the industrial safety system associated with industrial machines are also explored. Analysis of causes in industrial accidents associated with industrial machines confirms that technical causes need to be resolved to reduce both the frequency and the severity of such industrial accidents. Statistical analysis also confirms that the indirect effects of safety device regulation on users are limited for a variety of reasons. Safety device regulation needs to be shifted to complement safety certification and self-declaration of conformity for more balanced direct regulations on manufacturers and users. An example of cost-benefit analysis on conveyor justifies such a transition. Industrial safety policies and regulations associated with industrial machines must be directed towards eliminating the sources of danger at the stage of danger creation, thereby securing the safe industrial machines. Safety inspection further secures the safety of workers at the stage of danger use. The overall balance between such safety regulations is achieved by proper distribution of industrial machines subject to such regulations and the intensity of each regulation. Rearrangement of industrial machines subject to safety certification and self-declaration of conformity to include more movable industrial machines and other industrial machines with a high level of danger is also suggested.

  12. A questionnaire survey exploring healthcare professionals' attitudes towards teamwork and safety in acute care areas in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sang Jin; Oh, Je Hyeok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Ryu, Ji Yeong; Jang, Hye Young; Choi, Yoon Hee; Kim, Su Jin; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-07-24

    Although human factors are important in terms of patient safety, there have been very few reports on the attitudes of healthcare professionals working in acute care settings in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the attitudes of such professionals, their cultures and their management systems. A questionnaire survey with 65 items covering nine themes affecting patient safety. Nine themes were compared via a three-or-more-way analysis of variance, with interaction, followed by multiple comparisons among several groups. Intensive care units, emergency departments and surgical units of nine urban hospitals. 592 nurses and 160 physicians. None. Mean scores using a five-point scale and combined response scores for each of the nine themes. The mean score for information-sharing was the highest (3.78±0.49) and that for confidence/assertion was the lowest (2.97±0.34). The mean scores for teamwork, error management, work value, organisational climate, leadership, stress and fatigue level, and error/procedural compliance were intermediate. Physicians showed lower scores in leadership and higher scores in information-sharing than nurses. Respondents with 24 months or less of a clinical career showed higher scores in leadership, stress and fatigue, and error scores and lower scores in work value than more experienced respondents. Our results suggest that medical personnel in Korea are relatively reluctant to disclose error or assert their different opinions with others. Many did not adequately recognise the negative effects of fatigue and stress, attributed errors to personal incompetence, and error-management systems were inadequate. Discrepancies in leadership and information-sharing were evident between professional groups, and leadership, stress, fatigue level, work value and error scores varied with the length of work experience. These can be used as baseline data to establish training programmes for patient safety in Korea. Published by the BMJ

  13. Phylogenetic lineage of Tobacco leaf curl virus in Korea and estimation of recombination events implicated in their sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Kim, Sunghan; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2011-08-01

    New strains of Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV) were isolated from tomato plants in four different local communities of Korea, and hence were designated TbLCV-Kr. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the whole genome and of individual ORFs of these viruses indicated that they are closely related to the Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV) cluster, which includes Honeysuckle yellow vein virus (HYVV), Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), and TbLCJV isolates. Four putative recombination events were recognized within these virus sequences, suggesting that the sequence variations observed in these viruses may be attributable to intraspecific and interspecific recombination events involving some TbLCV-Kr isolates, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV), and a local isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ten-year analysis of adenovirus type 7 molecular epidemiology in Korea, 1995-2004: implication of fiber diversity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong; Kim, Sun Jung; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Jin A; Lee, Jun Ho; Song, Eun Kyung; Kim, So Hee

    2006-04-01

    Adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) is frequently responsible for severe respiratory infections, especially in young infants. Since the Ad7 epidemics have been associated with severe childhood pneumonia and significant mortality in Korea, 1995-1999, continuous surveillance was necessary for Ad7 related diseases. To characterize epidemiologic features of Ad7 in 1995-2004, genetic diversity of Ad7 were studied by determining genome types (GTs) and the fiber diversity. A total of 139 Ad7 strains were obtained from Korean children with pneumonia. Serotype specificity was confirmed by microneutralization assay. GTs were determined by restriction analysis with 12 enzymes. The variable region of the fiber was sequenced. Two GTs, Ad7d (N=98, 71%) and Ad7l (N=41, 29%) have been identified. In 1995-1996 and 2001-2002, Ad7d was dominant accounting for 98-100% of all Ad7; in 1999-2000, Ad7l was the prevalent GT accounting for 100% of all Ad7; in 1997-1998 and 2003-2004, both GTs circulated concurrently. The change in the relative predominance of GT occurred in 2 or 3 years. The Lys substitution for Arg at codon 280 of the fiber was identified in 31 Ad7d strains (32%) while no variations were observed among Ad7l. It was noteworthy that two fiber variants of Ad7d were not concurrently prevalent on any time after 1996. The shift in predominant fiber variants of Ad7d was also observed in 2-3 years. Our data demonstrated that the two GTs, Ad7d and Ad7l circulated in an alternating manner between outbreaks of Ad7 associated childhood pneumonia over 10 consecutive years in Korea. Fiber diversity at position 280 within Ad7d appeared to contribute to the annual distribution of Ad7d. This observation necessitates further studies to demonstrate an association between fiber variation and host cell specificity or neutralization antibody recognition.

  15. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  17. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  18. Evidence for terrigenic SF6 in groundwater from basaltic aquifers, Jeju Island, Korea: Implications for groundwater dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, D.-C.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Kim, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), tritium (3H), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in groundwater from basaltic aquifers in Jeju Island, Korea, demonstrate a terrigenic source of SF6. Using a lumped-parameter dispersion model, groundwater was identified as young water (<15 years), old water with negligible CFC-12 and 3H, and binary mixtures of the two. Model calculations using dispersion models and binary mixing based on 3H and CFC-12 concentrations demonstrate a non-atmospheric excess of SF6 relative to CFC-12 and 3H concentrations for more than half of the samples. The non-atmospheric excess SF6 may have originated from terrigenic sources in relict volcanic fluids, which could have acquired SF6 from granites and basement rocks of the island during volcanic activity. Local excess anthropogenic sources of SF6 are unlikely. The SF6 age is biased young relative to the CFC-12 age, typically up to 20 years and as high as 30 years. This age bias is more pronounced in samples of groundwater older than 15 years. The presence of terrigenic SF6 can affect the entire dating range for groundwater in mixtures that contain a fraction of old water. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surveys of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana (Digenea: Microphallidae) metacercariae in two species of estuarine crabs in western coastal areas, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jung; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Jin-Woo; Jin, Ho; Min, Kwan-Hong; Cho, Yong-Jun; Seo, Min

    2010-03-01

    To figure out the geographical distribution of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana metacercariae in Korea, shore crabs of southwestern coastal areas were examined. Eight coastal areas in Inchon-si (A), Gyeonggi-do (B), Chungcheongnam-do (C, D, and E), Jeollabuk-do (F), and Jeollanam-do (G and H) were selected, and 2 kinds of crabs, Macrophthalmus dilatatus and/or Macrophthalmus japonicus, were caught. After transportation to the laboratory, 15 crabs per each group were grouped and ground in a mortar and pestle, and examined for microphallid metacercariae. In M. dilatatus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 3 (C, E, and H) out of 6 regions, but M. koreana metacercariae were not recovered. In the case of M. japonicus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 6 (B, D, E, F, G, and H) of 7 areas surveyed, and M. koreana matacercariae were detected from 5 regions (A, B, D, F, and H). These results indicate that the life cycle of G. squatarolae is maintained in the western coastal areas using M. dilatatus and M. japonicus as intermediate hosts, while that of M. koreana is maintained only using M. japonicus.

  20. Surveys of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana (Digenea: Microphallidae) Metacercariae in Two Species of Estuarine Crabs in Western Coastal Areas, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Jung; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Jin-Woo; Jin, Ho; Min, Kwan-Hong; Cho, Yong-Jun

    2010-01-01

    To figure out the geographical distribution of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana metacercariae in Korea, shore crabs of southwestern coastal areas were examined. Eight coastal areas in Inchon-si (A), Gyeonggi-do (B), Chungcheongnam-do (C, D, and E), Jeollabuk-do (F), and Jeollanam-do (G and H) were selected, and 2 kinds of crabs, Macrophthalmus dilatatus and/or Macrophthalmus japonicus, were caught. After transportation to the laboratory, 15 crabs per each group were grouped and ground in a mortar and pestle, and examined for microphallid metacercariae. In M. dilatatus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 3 (C, E, and H) out of 6 regions, but M. koreana metacercariae were not recovered. In the case of M. japonicus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 6 (B, D, E, F, G, and H) of 7 areas surveyed, and M. koreana matacercariae were detected from 5 regions (A, B, D, F, and H). These results indicate that the life cycle of G. squatarolae is maintained in the western coastal areas using M. dilatatus and M. japonicus as intermediate hosts, while that of M. koreana is maintained only using M. japonicus. PMID:20333292

  1. Effects of an urban park and residential area on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Joo, Seung Jin; Lee, Chang Seok

    2013-03-01

    The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2-4 March 2011), the growing season (10-12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22-24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600-1000 LST and 1800-2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.

  2. Long-term trend of NO2 in major urban areas of Korea and possible consequences for health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hang Thi; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Park, Chuljin

    2015-04-01

    Long-term trend of the atmospheric NO2 was analyzed using ambient monitoring data collected from seven major cities in Korea over two decades (1989-2010). In light of the notable environmental policies initiated since June 2000, these NO2 data were also evaluated after dividing the entire study period into period I (1989-1999) and period II (2000-2010). Accordingly, the mean concentrations of NO2 in five out of seven cities in period II were higher by 1-26% than period I. This recognizable increase in period II is likely to reflect the effect of increasing consumption rates in primary energy (e.g., petroleum and LNG). An examination of the seasonal trend of NO2 consistently indicates the highest concentrations occurred during winter because of the combined effects of the anthropogenic emission and meteorological conditions. A health risk assessment of our data indicated that the NO2 exposure (to adults, children, and infants) increased from period I to period II. Also, the long-term trends of NO2 were analyzed based on the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slopes. It revealed that NO2 levels of most cities had the linearly increasing trends during period I. However, decreasing trends appeared during period II to reflect the direct effect of implementation of administrative efforts including the fuel switching control policy.

  3. Morphology of pedestrian roads and thermal responses during summer, in the urban area of Bucheon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gook-Sup; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of urban morphology representing sky view factor (SVF) on urban microclimate and on human thermal responses. The physical environments and the changes in body temperatures as well as psychological responses were investigated in summer in Bucheon, Korea. The dry bulb temperature ranged from 31.5 °C at SVF 0.082 site to 35.7 °C at SVF 0.922 site. Most of the environmental elements were statistically correlated to the SVF: the dry bulb temperature R 2 = 0.602, UVB R 2 = 0.556 and the illumination level R 2 = 0.609. The mean skin temperature increased up to 36.0 °C at the SVF 0.940 site and decreased to 33.9 °C at the SVF 0.082 site. The mean skin temperature was statistically correlated to the SVF ( p = 0.005). However, the core body temperature was not correlated to SVF because of time delay effect to the previously exposed thermal environment. In the investigation of thermal acceptability, only 5 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road that was covered with plentiful trees; in contrast, approximately 50 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road with poor solar obstacles in the summer. The thermal stress was affected by the urban morphology, and the plentiful urban greening improved thermal comfort.

  4. The Jeju dataset: Three-dimensional interpretation of MT data from mid-mountain area of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae Jong; Nam, Myung Jin; Lee, Seong Kon; Song, Yoonho; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2009-06-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) surveys have been performed along five lines in the Jeju volcanic island located at South Sea of Korea. The purposes of the MT surveys are to see if there still remains thermal regime and if there exist deeply extended fractures or an aquifer system beneath the mid-mountain region of Mt. Halla in Jeju. By performing Audio-frequency MT (AMT) surveys together with MT surveys at each site and by operating far-remote reference site of approximately 480 km apart, we could get a broadband (10 - 4 -10 4 Hz) MT dataset of totally 108 sites with very good quality. 3D inversion of MT data from 88 measurement sites gives a reasonable estimation of the subsurface structures beneath the island. An induction vector analysis and 3D inversion results commonly indicate the existence of a conductive anomaly extended down to a few-kilometer depth beneath the central part of the island, which can be related to ancient volcanic activities. Because the island is surrounded by electrically conductive sea and has steep topographic variation, measured MT data in terms of impedance is seriously biased by distortion of electric fields and is suffered from the static shifts. The Jeju MT dataset is valuable for the research purpose in the sense that the dataset contains so many problems, some of which can frequently be observed in every field data, and that the geology of Jeju Island is relatively simple.

  5. Changes in NOx and O3 concentrations over a decade at a central urban area of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Jin Yong; Brown, Richard J. C.; Jung, Myung-Chae

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore trends of NOx (NO + NO2) pollution over ten years (2004-2013) at an urban monitoring station at Yongsan in Seoul, Korea. The mean concentrations (in nmol/mol) of NO, NO2, and O3 measured over the entire study period were 25.3 ± 7.30, 36.9 ± 1.76, and 17.5 ± 1.31, respectively. The decadal trend of these pollutants exhibited statistically significant, but contrasting, results with downward NO and NOx trends and upward O3 trends throughout the study period. Correlation studies and principal component analysis (PCA) explained association of NO and NO2 with traffic related pollutants (CO, PM, and SO) at a statistically significant level while O3 exhibited patterns correlated with meteorological parameters. The overall results of this study indicate that the decadal trend of NO and NO2 was highly dependent on automotive related pollution, while O3 concentration was influenced by both the availability of NO and meteorological conditions.

  6. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  7. Growth and reproduction of the Japanese mantis shrimp, Oratosquilla oratoria (De Haan 1844) in the coastal area of Tongyeong, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, SeongEun; Kim, HanJu; Bae, HoJin; Kim, Hyeong-Gi; Oh, Chul-Woong

    2017-06-01

    Growth and reproduction of the Japanese mantis shrimp, Oratosquilla oratoria, were investigated in the Tongyeong, Korea from July 2014 to August 2015. A total of 2,621 samples (1,380 females and 1,241 males) were collected during the study period. Females were observed more frequently than males. The mean body length (BL) was 128.5 ± 0.38 mm in females and 126.9 ± 0.42 mm in males. The mean body weight (BW) was 31.2 ± 0.28 g in females and 31.1 ± 0.32 g in males. There was a significant difference in the length-frequency distribution between females and males. The relationship between BL and BW was lnBW = 2.85 × lnBL - 10.43 for females and lnBW = 2.87 × lnBL -10.52 for males. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) varied on a monthly basis. The GSI reached a maximum in May and a minimum in November. The highest values of the GSI coincided with the spawning period of O. oratoria. Larger individuals of O. oratoria have their spawning season earlier than smaller ones. The size at sexual maturity of females was estimated as 96.5 mm. The Von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were BL∞ = 184.5 mm, K = 0.72 year-1, C = 0.36 and WP = 0.45 for females and BL∞ = 183.75 mm, K = 0.82 year-1, C = 0.38 and WP = 0.22 for males. The growth of males was slightly faster than females. The present study will help with the fisheries management of O. oratoria based on ecological parameters.

  8. Oceanisphaera aquimarina sp. nov., Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Sediment of Ocean Coastal Area from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seonghyeon; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-11-01

    Strain S33(T) was isolated from oil-contaminated sediment of Tae-an coastal region of South Korea. Cells are aerobic, motile, Gram staining-negative, and coccoid shaped. Strain S33(T) grew optimally at the temperature of 25 °C (range of 4-40 °C), pH 6.0 (range of pH 6.0-10.0), and in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl (range of 0-10 %). Ubiquinone-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. C16:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c) and C18:1ω7c were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol. Strain S33(T) showed the ability to degrade benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene after 3 days incubation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain S33(T) was most closely related to Oceanisphaera sediminis TW92(T) (97.3 %), Oceanisphaera profunda SM1222(T) (97.2 %), and Oceanisphaera ostreae T-w6(T) (97.1 %) and <97 % with other members of the genus Oceanisphaera. The genomic DNA G+C mol% content of strain S33(T) was 51.0 mol%. Based on distinct phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic analysis, strain S33(T) was proposed to represent a novel species in the genus Oceanisphaera as Oceanisphaera aquimarina sp. nov. (= KEMB 1002-058(T) = JCM 30 794(T)).

  9. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  10. Geoelectric resistivity sounding of riverside alluvial aquifer in an agricultural area at Buyeo, Geum River watershed, Korea: an application to groundwater contamination study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Hee; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2007-12-01

    Twenty profiles of vertical electric soundings (VES) were obtained in a riverside alluvium at the Buyeo area, South Korea, to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The combination of the VES data with the borehole data provided useful information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions. The vestige of an ancient river channel (e.g. oxbow lake) was identified on the resistivity profiles by the lateral continuation of a near-surface perched aquifer parallel to the river. Such a perched aquifer is typically developed in the area with a clay-rich silty surface alluvium which prohibits the infiltration of oxygen. Therefore, groundwater below the oxbow lake shows a very low nitrate concentration and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. The distribution of water resistivity is correlated with that of measured total dissolved solids concentration in groundwater, while the earth resistivity of the aquifer shows a significant spatial variation. It is interpreted that the earth resistivity of the aquifer is mainly controlled by the soil type rather than by the water chemistry in the study area.

  11. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  12. Identification and interpretation of representative ozone distributions in association with the sea breeze from different synoptic winds over the coastal urban area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Oh, In-Bo; Lee, Hwa Woon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2007-12-01

    To aid the studies of long-term impact assessment of cumulative ozone (O3) exposures, the representative 8-hr O3 pollution patterns have been identified over the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) in Korea. Principal component analysis and two-stage clustering techniques were used to identify the representative O3 patterns, and numerical and observational analyses were also used to interpret the identified horizontal distribution patterns. The results yielded three major O3 distribution patterns, and each of the three patterns was found to have strong correlations with local and synoptic meteorological conditions over the GSA. For example, pattern 1, accounting for 46% of O3 concentration distributions, mostly occurred under relatively weak westerly synoptic winds. The predominant features of this pattern were infrequent high O3 levels but a distinct gradient of O3 concentration from the western coastal area to the eastern inland area that was mainly induced by the local sea breeze. Pattern 2, accounting for 31% of O3 concentration distributions, was found with higher O3 levels in the western coastal area but lower in the eastern inland area. This is due to the modified sea breeze under the relatively stronger easterly opposing synoptic wind, affecting the high O3 occurrence in the western coastal area only. However, pattern 3, accounting for 21% of O3 concentration distributions, showed significantly higher O3 concentrations over the whole GSA mainly due to the retarded and slow-moving sea-breeze front under the weak opposing synoptic flow. Modeling study also indicated that local and synoptic meteorological processes play a major role in determining the high O3 concentration distribution patterns over the GSA.

  13. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  14. A discontinuity in the late Pleistocene alluvial deposits, Hwacheon-ri, Gyeongju, Korea: Occurrences and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, In Sung; Kyeong Seol, Weon; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Ho Il; Kang, Hee Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary discontinuity surface occurs in the late Pleistocene alluvial deposits exposed along the cliff (about 10 m thick and over 140 m in length) in stream side, Gyeongju, Korea. The discontinuity surface is laterally extensive and marked by distinct carbonaceous dark horizon in the middle part of the deposits. The deposits are divided into lower and upper units by the discontinuity surface. The lower unit overlies unconformably the Cretaceous andesitic rock (basement), and consists of braided-river deposits. Lower part of the lower unit is mainly composed of lenticular-bedded and clast-supported conglomeratic deposits, whereas gray to dark gray sandy to muddy channel-plug deposits occur in the uppermost part of the lower unit. It is characteristic that iron-oxide crusts occur in the lower unit. They are cutting across the lower unit and truncated by the overlying upper unit. Rootlets mineralized by vivianite are present in the channel-plug deposits below the discontinuity surface. The upper unit overlying the lower unit with erosive contact (discontinuity surface) is mostly composed of matrix-supported conglomeratic alluvial fan deposits. Hornfelsic gravels are common in the lower unit, whereas andesitic gravels are predominant in the upper unit, suggesting the provenance change from the lower unit to the upper unit. OSL ages for the lower and the upper units are 125±9 ka and 94±9 ka, respectively, suggesting that the lower unit was deposited in MIS5e and the upper unit was formed in MIS5c to 5b. It is thus interpreted that the shift of depositional environment from a fluvial plain (lower unit) to an alluvial fan (upper unit) was an alluvial response to sea level change inducing fall of base level in an alluvial basin from the interglacial to the glacial stages. The development of iron-oxide crusts and diagenetic vivianite in the discontinuity surface suggest that humid condition persisted during the paleoclimatic shift from the last interglacial to the

  15. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and <1% (PFOS in adults, and PFOA in both toddlers and adults) of the overall-EDIs. In conclusion, house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the

  16. Relations of As concentrations among groundwater, soil, and bedrock in Chungnam, Korea: implications for As mobilization in groundwater according to the As-hosting mineral change.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Jeong, Gi Young; Kim, Rak-Hyeon

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic (As) concentrations and As-bearing minerals in bedrock and soil, and their relations with groundwater concentrations were investigated in a small agricultural area of Korea. The As concentration of the bedrock shows a wide variation (<0.5-3990 mg/kg) and is well correlated with that in the contacting groundwaters (23-178 μg/L). Soils, the weathering product of bedrock, show the lower and more dispersed As concentrations (8.8-387 mg/kg) than the bedrock. But the soil As concentrations are very high relative to those reported from other areas. The As concentrations in the shallow groundwaters are comparatively low (<20 μg/L) and are independent of the soil concentration. Arsenopyrite is the major As-bearing mineral in the bedrock and its oxidation controls the As levels in deep groundwater. In contrast, As mostly resides in soil as Fe-(hydr)oxide-bound forms. Due to low pH and oxidizing redox condition, the release of As from Fe-(hydr)oxides is largely suppressed, and the shallow groundwater shows low As concentrations generally satisfying the drinking water limit. However, it is suggested that the disturbance of soil geochemical conditions by land use changes would cause a serious As contamination of the shallow groundwaters.

  17. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, d'E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  18. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%). Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038) and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271), as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26). Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61). Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas. PMID:20167103

  19. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  20. Metallic elements in PM2.5 in different functional areas of Korea: Concentrations and source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Ji; Kim, Hyun-Woong; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Pyung-Rae; Kim, Woo-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Both PM2.5 mass concentration and its chemical composition are a great concern to human health. In this study, the concentrations of PM2.5 and their metallic elements were measured to identify the characteristics and to trace sources at two different functional areas, a residential and a cement industrial area. The average PM2.5 concentrations were not significantly different between the two sites, but their chemical compositions were clearly different. Crustal elements in PM2.5 were significantly higher in the residential area, while the concentrations of metals typically emitted from anthropogenic sources were generally higher in the cement industrial area. Crustal elements often increased during spring in the residential area due to the blustery weather with high wind speeds; however, most metallic elements were enhanced during winter in the cement industrial area. Principal component analysis was used to trace the sources. Soil re-suspension, traffic-related sources, and asphalt concrete production were identified as the main sources of PM2.5 in the residential area, while the cement industry, Ni-Cr plating industry, and other industrial activities were identified in the cement industrial area.

  1. Tight coupling 2D integrated urban inundation model on GIS to a high-density area, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, S H

    2009-01-01

    In urban areas with a high building density, features such as roads, buildings, and river dykes significantly effect flow dynamics and flood propagation. This should therefore be accounted for in the model set-up. While 2D hydraulic models of densely urban areas are at the forefront of current research into flood inundation mechanisms, these models are constrained by inadequate parameters of topography and insufficient data. In order to solve these problems, topographic information obtained from DEM is directly programmed into the urban inundation model for a densely urban area, without exchanging the input data. In this paper, the extraction of building area is described using a tight coupling approach within a GIS environment, and its influence on the extent of flood inundation with a high building density is estimated.

  2. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  3. Fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation (Miocene) in the Bukpyeong Basin at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea: occurrences, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik; Paik, In Sung

    2016-04-01

    Abundant and diverse plant fossils such as land plants and subaqueous plants, freshwater mollusc fossils and invertebrate trace fossils are found in the Miocene Bukpyeong Formation at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation are described and their taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications are interpreted. Based on fossil occurrences, lithofacies and sedimentary features of the fossil-bearing deposits, eight taphofacies are classified as the following: (1) Taphofacies 1: Gastropod fossils in massive silty mudstone; (2) Taphofacies 2: Bivalve fossils in massive silty mudstone; (3) Taphofacies 3: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in massive silty mudstone; (4) Taphofacies 4: Gastropod and plant fossils in massive silty mudstone; (5) Taphofacies 5: Plant fossils in weakly fissile silty mudstone; (6) Taphofacies 6: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (7) Taphofacies 7: Plant fragment fossils in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (8) Taphofacies 8: Plant debris in planar- to cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone. Taphonomy of taphofacies 1, 2, and 4 including freshwater mollusc fossils is interpreted to have been reworked or transported by turbidity currents after death and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Taphonomy of taphofacies 3, 5, 6, and 7 including plant fossils is interpreted to have been transported by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited by settling down in open lake. Taphofacies 8 including plant debris has been deposited in shallow lake by input of intensive episodic flooding from the land. The occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits indicate that most of the fossils were transported by turbidity current induced by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Moreover, plant fossils from the Bukpyeong

  4. Detrital modes of the Pyeongan Supergroup (Late Carboniferous Early Triassic) sandstones in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Il; Sheen, Dong-Hee

    1998-08-01

    Medium to coarse sandstones of the Carboniferous to Early Triassic Pyeongan Supergroup in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea, were studied to infer the provenance and tectonic settings of the source areas. Sandstone detrital modes change upwards stratigraphically. Sandstone types from the Manhang to Dosagog formations low to middle in the sequence are quartzarenite, and sublitharenite to litharenite, whereas sandstones of the Gohan and Donggo formations high in the sequence are feldspathic litharenite and arkose, respectively. Using various ternary diagrams, the provenance of the Manhang to Gohan formations is suggested to be a recycled orogen setting. Some Gohan Formation sandstones plot within the arc-related setting field, and the Donggo Formation sandstones plot within both continental block and recycled orogen fields. Results of quartz grain petrography are consistent with those of detrital modes. Quartz in sandstones of all units except the Donggo Formation indicates derivation from low-rank metamorphic sources. Quartz in Donggo sandstones was derived from medium- to high-rank metamorphic and plutonic source rocks. Considering the sandstone composition and palaeocurrent data, the Pyeongan Supergroup probably was deposited in a molasse foreland basin and was derived from a synbasinal orogenic belt, probably the Akiyoshi orogen located in southwest Japan.

  5. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea, and China as observed during the 2001 ACE-Asia field campaign: Measurements, distributions, sources, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedli, Hans R.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Prescott, Ryan; Li, Pan; Woo, Jung-Hun; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2004-10-01

    We report on mercury in the atmosphere of east Asia (Japan, Korea, and China) as measured from sea level to ˜7000 m during 16 research flights in the National Science Foundation (NSF)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 aircraft during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) campaign (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/). The air at all altitudes contained concentrations of atmospheric mercury above the global background. The atmosphere was highly stratified with plumes originating from massive dust storms carried out of China, from local industrial pollution, from volcanoes, and, less well defined, from biomass burning. Most often the air masses were mixtures, e.g., dust layers contained anthropogenic emissions or volcanic plumes were embedded in anthropogenic pollution; thus the total data set showed no significant correlations of gaseous mercury with the most common anthropogenic pollutants in the area (CO and SO2), but good correlations were observed for identifiable plumes. Highest mixing ratios for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were found in industrial plumes exiting China (˜6.3 ng/m3), Korea (˜3 ng/m3), and Japan (˜3 ng/m3). The core of the plume from Miyake Jima volcano contained ˜3.7 ng/m3 of GEM. Crustal mercury was also present, emitted and subsequently deposited during the outbreak of the spring dust storms. Some of the nondust aerosols contained soluble mercury in highly variable ratios with the gas-phase mercury contained in the same plume. Preliminary estimates for the export from China are 5-15 t of crustal mercury during the dust storms, ˜150 t/yr of gas-phase mercury from biomass/biofuel combustion, and ˜600 t/yr from industrial sources, mostly from coal combustion. Gaseous mercury is a useful tracer for industrial, volcanic, and biomass-burning sources, but in most cases, robust plume identification required one or more cotracers. Because of the inertness of GEM and the ease of its

  6. Assessment for Single layer urban canopy model in WRF by the WISE observation data in Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hankyung; Min, Jae-sik; Jee, Joon-Bum; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Gyun

    2017-04-01

    The atmospheric flow and other meteorological elements within urban is quite influenced artificial factors such as buildings or asphalt pavement, and so on. In order to understand these urban effects, the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) in Weather Research Forecast (WRF) is employed to investigate complex physical characteristics in the urban area. The performance of single layer UCM in WRF is assessed by observation data of flux towers operated by the WISE during the year of 2016 in Seoul metropolitan area. WISE has installed flux towers in Seoul metropolitan area and generate observation data. In addition, the radiosonde data was generated to vertical observation by floating during 2016 WISE urban summer observation campaign. The comparison between numerical model results and observation of flux tower show that applying UCM is possible to simulate the change for latent heat flux similarly with observations on urban area. Also, the simulated temperature near the surface by UCM is good agreement with radiosonde observations. UCM employed in WRF shows realistic results in terms of temperature and surface heat flux, indicating thermodynamic treatment of UCM can enhance the skills of high resolution forecast model in urban area.

  7. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-21

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean=35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  8. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-01

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean = 35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  9. Enrichment of hexabromocyclododecanes in coastal sediments near aquaculture areas and a wastewater treatment plant in a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-02-01

    The contamination status and potential sources of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the coastal environment were investigated using sediment samples from a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea. HBCDs displayed a very different distribution profile compared to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and nonylphenol, indicating different emission sources inside the bay. A strong enrichment of HBCDs was found near aquaculture areas that used expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys, which were confirmed to be the main source of HBCDs following an analysis of buoys collected from a market and the coast. EPS buoys contained large amounts of HBCDs, with lower levels in the outside layer than inside, implying the leaching of HBCDs from the surface throughout their lifetime. This was reflected in the high levels of HBCDs measured in coastal sediments near aquaculture farms. A wastewater treatment plant was found to be an additional source of HBCDs. A dated core sample revealed an increase in HBCD concentrations over time. The isomeric profiles for most of the surface and core sediment samples were dominated by the γ-diastereoisomer.

  10. Late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Burkett, Douglas A.; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Hee-Il; Lee, Jong-Soo; Shin, E-Hyun; Wirtz, Robert A.; Cho, Hae-Wol; Claborn, David M.; Coleman, Russel E.; Kim, Wan Y; Klein, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    Field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 September 2000 in a malarious area near Paekyeon-ri (Tongil-Chon ) and Camp Greaves in Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap during hours when temperatures exceeded 15℃. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test was compared using a block design. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected, such that, the Mosquito MagnetTM with octenol > Shannon trap > ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Miniature Black Light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) ≥ New Jersey Trap > ABC light trap with light only. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles lesteri Baisas and Hu, An. sinensis Weidemann, An. sineroides Yamada, An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett L., Cx. orientalis Edwards and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Host-seeking activity for most common species showed a similar bimodal pattern. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance current vector and disease surveillance efforts especially for the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:11949213

  11. Late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Douglas A; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Hee-Il; Lee, Jong-Soo; Shin, E-Hyun; Wirtz, Robert A; Cho, Hae-Wol; Claborn, David M; Coleman, Russel E; Kim, Wan Y; Klein, Terry A

    2002-03-01

    Field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 September 2000 in a malarious area near Paekyeon-ri (Tongil-Chon) and Camp Greaves in Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap during hours when temperatures exceeded 15 degrees C. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test was compared using a block design. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected, such that, the Mosquito MagnetTM with octenol > Shannon trap > ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Miniature Black Light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) > or = New Jersey Trap > ABC light trap with light only. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles lesteri Baisas and Hu. An. sinensis Weidemann. An. sineroides Yamada, An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett L., Cx. orientalis Edwards and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Host-seeking activity for most common species showed a similar bimodal pattern. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance current vector and disease surveillance efforts especially for the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.

  12. Effect of model error on precipitation forecasts in the high-resolution limited area ensemble prediction system of the Korea Meteorological Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, SeHyun; Kim, Hyun Mee

    2015-04-01

    In numerical weather prediction using convective-scale model resolution, forecast uncertainties are caused by initial condition error, boundary condition error, and model error. Because convective-scale forecasts are influenced by subgrid scale processes which cannot be resolved easily, the model error becomes more important than the initial and boundary condition errors. To consider the model error, multi-model and multi-physics methods use several models and physics schemes and the stochastic physics method uses random numbers to create a noise term in the model equations (e.g. Stochastic Perturbed Parameterization Tendency (SPPT), Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter (SKEB), Stochastic Convective Vorticity (SCV), and Random Parameters (RP)). In this study, the RP method was used to consider the model error in the high-resolution limited area ensemble prediction system (EPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The EPS has 12 ensemble members with 3 km horizontal resolution which generate 48 h forecasts. The initial and boundary conditions were provided by the global EPS of the KMA. The RP method was applied to microphysics and boundary layer schemes, and the ensemble forecasts using RP were compared with those without RP during July 2013. Both Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and spread of wind at 10 m verified by surface Automatic Weather System (AWS) observations decreased when using RP. However, for 1 hour accumulated precipitation, the spread increased with RP and Equitable Threat Score (ETS) showed different results for each rainfall event.

  13. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Areas with a High Prevalence of HCV in the Republic of Korea in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hae-Sook; Kim, Jang Rak; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Youn-Jae; Lee, Myeong Jin; Min, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jun; Choi, Hwa Young; Song, Yeong Jun; Ki, Moran

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Busan, Gyeongnam, and Jeonnam Provinces in Korea is more than twice the national average. This study aimed to examine whether demographic and lifestyle characteristics are associated with HCV infection in these areas. A case control study was performed at three study hospitals. HCV cases were matched with two controls for sex and age. Patient controls were selected from non-HCV patients at the same hospital. Healthy controls were subjects participating in medical checkups. Conditional logistic regression models were used. A total of 234 matched-case and patient- and healthy-control pairs were analyzed. The significant risk factors for both controls were sharing razors (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.39 and 3.29, respectively) and having more than four lifetime sexual partners (aOR, 2.15 and 6.89, respectively). Contact dockworkers (aOR, 1.91) and tattoos (aOR, 2.20) were significant risk factors for the patient controls. Transfusion (aOR, 5.38), a bloody operation (aOR, 5.02), acupuncture (aOR, 2.08), and piercing (aOR, 5.95) were significant risk factors for the healthy controls. Needle stick injuries and intravenous drug abuse were significant in the univariate analysis. More education concerning the dangers of sharing razors, tattoos and piercings is required to prevent HCV infection. More attention should be paid to needle stick injuries in hospitals and the community.

  14. Characteristics of particulate matter and metals in the ambient air from a residential area in the largest industrial city in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of mass size distributions and metallic elements in the airborne particulate matter from an urban, residential area in Ulsan, Korea. Daily PM samples were trapped on glass fiber filters from April to August 2008 using an eight-stage cascade impactor. The identified concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 18.5, 27.6 and 50.5 μg/m3, respectively. Light metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al) and two heavy metals (Fe and Zn) were detected in high concentrations in the coarse particles, while the remaining heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn and Pb) were found mainly in the fine particles. The crustal elements were found in higher concentrations in the spring and the anthropogenic elements were found in high concentrations in the summer. Chromium was found to have the highest excess cancer risk in a risk evaluation using an Integrated Risk Information System. In the results of an analysis of the enrichment factors, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were found to be very highly enriched, and Cr and Ni were found to be highly enriched. Factor analysis permitted the identification of three source groups (dust and vehicle exhaust, Cu smelting and oil combustion) for the fine particles and two source groups (industrial emissions and crustal traffic sources) for coarse particles.

  15. The cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium intake and metabolic syndrome among men and women aged 40 or older in rural areas of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Song Kyoung; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-06-01

    Studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that dietary calcium may protect against metabolic abnormalities, but there is little evidence of this effect in Asians, who have relatively low calcium intake. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic syndrome among Korean men and women aged 40 years and over. A total of 6,375 subjects aged 40 years and over and were recruited between January 2005 and February 2010 from the baseline study of the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study in Rural Communities (MRCohort). A food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. Calcium intake was related inversely to metabolic syndrome in women (P-value = 0.0091), but not in men (P = 0.1842). Among metabolic components, high waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.0426) and high blood glucose (P = 0.0027) in women and hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.0017) in men were inversely correlated with calcium intake. Excluding those who used calcium or multinutrient supplements did not attenuate the relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic abnormalities. Dietary calcium intake from foods may be inversely related to metabolic syndrome, WC, and blood glucose among women in rural areas of Korea.

  16. Geochemistry of shales of the Upper Cretaceous Hayang Group, SE Korea: implications for provenance and source weathering at an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. I.

    2009-04-01

    Shales of the Upper Cretaceous Hayang Group in the Yeongyang Subbasin, southeastern Korea were deposited in fluvio-lacustrine environments as the Paleo-Pacific (Izanagi) Plate obliquely subducted beneath the Asian continent. Major and trace element compositions derived from shales analyzed from the Hayang Group reveal geochemical signatures that are different from Post-Archean average Australian Shale (PAAS), but are typical of igneous rocks found in the continental-margin island arc settings. For example, most major element concentrations are depleted relative to PAAS; among them MgO and MnO depletions are most pronounced in all shales. CaO enrichment is notable in some formations due to the presence of secondary calcite as dispersed micro-calcite nodules. Sc, Y, and Th concentrations are also slightly depleted relative to PAAS while chondrite-normalized REE data for shales from the Hayang Group show moderate to large uniform LREE enrichment but variable HREE depletions. In addition, they are more fractionated than PAAS, and have significant negative Eu anomalies. Moreover, the chemical index of alteration and A-CN-K relations comply that the source area was dominated by non-steady state weathering regimes indicative of active uplift along an active continental margin. These regions were punctuated by two periods of steady-state weathering or alternatively by enhanced recycling of sediments. The latter interpretation is in accord with the timing of exposure of a cherty sequence in the source area. Mixing calculations based on REE data suggest that the average shale in the Hayang Group was derived from sources composed of Precambrian granitic gneiss, arc basaltic rocks, Triassic Yeongdeok Granite in the subbasin, and the Mino accretionary complex of SW Japan with ratios around 43.7 (31.8-73.2):26.4 (15.8-36.7) :15.4 (2.8-33.9):14.5 (0.0-33.8). However, these proportions change up sequence.

  17. Geochemistry of shales of the Upper Cretaceous Hayang Group, SE Korea: Implications for provenance and source weathering at an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Il

    2009-03-01

    Shales of the Upper Cretaceous Hayang Group in the Yeongyang Subbasin, southeastern Korea were deposited in fluvio-lacustrine environments as the Paleo-Pacific (Izanagi) Plate obliquely subducted beneath the Asian continent. Major and trace element compositions derived from shales analyzed from the Hayang Group reveal geochemical signatures that are different from Post-Archean average Australian Shale (PAAS), but are typical of igneous rocks found in the continental-margin island arc settings. For example, most major element concentrations are depleted relative to PAAS; among them MgO and MnO depletions are most pronounced in all shales. CaO enrichment is notable in some formations due to the presence of secondary calcite as dispersed micro-calcite nodules. Sc, Y, and Th concentrations are also slightly depleted relative to PAAS while chondrite-normalized REE data for shales from the Hayang Group show moderate to large uniform LREE enrichment but variable HREE depletions. In addition, they are more fractionated than PAAS, and have significant negative Eu anomalies. Moreover, the chemical index of alteration and A-CN-K relations comply that the source area was dominated by non-steady state weathering regimes indicative of active uplift along an active continental margin. These regions were punctuated by two periods of steady-state weathering or alternatively by enhanced recycling of sediments. The latter interpretation is in accord with the timing of exposure of a cherty sequence in the source area. Mixing calculations based on REE data suggest that the average shale in the Hayang Group was derived from sources composed of Precambrian granitic gneiss, arc basaltic rocks, Triassic Yeongdeok Granite in the subbasin, and the Mino accretionary complex of SW Japan with ratios around 43.7 (31.8-73.2):26.4 (15.8-36.7):15.4 (2.8-33.9):14.5 (0.0-33.8). However, these proportions change up sequence.

  18. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    PubMed Central

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  19. Inter-species comparisons in Water use with Different water Irrigation Regimes in a Semi-arid area of Korea-Mongolia Greenbelt Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Ser-Oddamba, B.; Batkhuu, N. O.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    As an effort to mitigate desertification and to restore desert areas in Mongolia, Korea-Mongolia Green Belt was established to develop a 3000 ha plantation in 2006. Two native tree species, Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila L., have been planted under different irrigation regimes (control, control+2L, control +4L and control +8L) since 2008. To investigate the responses of different tree species to different treatment and the effect of plantation on water balance, intensive field experiments have been carried out in 2013-2014 in Mongolia. The objectives of our study are 1) to investigate whether different irrigation regimes changed the physiological characteristics of tree species, 2) to quantify transpirations and water balance under different irrigation regimes, and 3) to compare the water-use-efficiencies among species and irrigation regimes. We used Granier type thermal dissipation sensor, portable photosynthesis analyzer (Li-Cor 6400) and species and site specific allometric equations for transpiration, photosynthetic characteristics and net primary production, respectively. Our preliminary results show that the transpiration rates of P. sibirica increased with the increase of irrigation amount. For examples, the average water consumption of P. sibirica was 1.87kg/tree under control+2L irrigation and 2.97kg/tree at controal+4L irrigation. However, the transpiration rates of U. pumila were not different among different irrigation regimes; the average transpiration of U. pumila at control+2L was 1.1kg/tree compared to 0.89kg/tree at control+4L. But, photosynthetic characteristic showed similar results, which no apparent response under high irrigation regimes. The water use and carbon assimilation of P. sibirica responded to the water irrigation, however, U. pumila did not show any significant response to added water. Our results show different species respond differently to irrigation regimes, and this would lead to different effects on water balance. Therefore

  20. [The trend and prospect of studies in the modern history of medicine in Korea].

    PubMed

    Park, Yunjae

    2010-06-30

    The Korean Journal of Medical History published in 1992 provides spaces for publication to medical historians who have been growing increasingly since the 1990s, thereby stimulating studies in the modern history of medicine in Korea. Through research published in the Korean Journal of Medical History and other journals, the course through which medicine in Korea in the modern times has been formed and the content of medicine that composed that course are elucidated. This article concludes that the various research tend to posit the view that the modern history of medicine in Korea evolves through a process of accommodation with Western medicine rather than being a complete transplantation of Western medicine, and describes medicine as it is viewed by consumers rather than the operators of medicine. How government power or colonial power utilized medicine in order to stabilize their rule is also a common theme. Now, it is come time to interrogate the viewpoints and analytical methods of medical history studies. Given that medicine is one area that drives changes in Korea in contemporary times, the outcomes obtained through this field can be sufficiently utilized when studying other areas. For instance, agony over the modernity of missionary medicine being studied recently provides meaningful implications in understanding the modernity of Korea. However, the importance of substantiation should not be overlooked as theories not supported by thorough documentary evidence are weak.

  1. Temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in recently reclaimed intertidal flats of the Saemangeum area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Yeonjung; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Son, SeungHyun; Lee, Shing Yip; Nam, Jungho; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-10-01

    Trophodynamics of intertidal mudflats are significantly driven by microphytobenthos (MPB) production but spatial and temporal dynamics of this production source is poorly known. To understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of intertidal MPB, benthic chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, and sediment properties were determined in Gyehwa (sandy) and Gwanghwal (muddy) tidal flats of Saemangeum area over a year at 97 stations. This study set out to: (i) characterize the spatial-temporal patterns in MPB biomass on a year-round basis, (ii) identify the abiotic and biotic factors associated with MPB distributions, (iii) investigate the use of satellite-derived chlorophyll a data and verify with in field measurements, and (iv) determine minimum required sample size for in situ biomass measurement. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were greater in winter and spring with a high magnitude of variance than in summer and fall at both areas. Benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments tended to decrease approaching lower tidal zone, being associated with the corresponding decrease in shore level and/or exposure duration. Compared to available data on macrozoobenthos distribution, the spatial variation of microalgal biomass seems to be attributed to distribution of deposit-feeders. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) between in situ MPB biomass and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values was observed, but was much weaker in the lower tidal zone. Mirroring algal heterogeneity, the minimum required sample size for in situ biomass measurement were greater in blooming season and sandy bottom, suggesting that sampling design for spatio-temporal mapping of MPB should consider the sampling season and/or abiotic and biotic features of study area. Overall, spatio-temporal dynamics of intertidal MPB seem to be influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors.

  2. Spatial and seasonal variation of pollution sources in proximity of the Jaranman-Saryangdo area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yeoun Joong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Ka Jeong; Kim, Min Seon; Go, Kyeong Ri; Park, Sang Gi; Kwon, Soon Jae; Yang, Ji Hye; Mok, Jong Soo

    2017-02-15

    We aimed to compare the spatial and seasonal distributions of fecal coliforms (FCs) and other physiochemical factors in the drainage basin of the Jaranman-Saryangdo area. Among the pollution sources, the mean daily loads and half-circle radii of FCs were the highest in June. However, the pollutants did not reach the boundary line of the designated area due to an existing buffer zone. The value of the FC geometric mean at station 1 was highest in August during periods of heavy rainfall; however, this value was lower than the regulation limit. The highest daily loads of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in seawater were in the surface layer in August; however, dissolved oxygen (DO) in the bottom water layer was at its lowest in August. This study demonstrated that season and rainfall have significant effects on the FC, COD, DO, and Chl-a concentrations in seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  4. Terrestrial biomarker records in Seomjin Estuary in the South Sea of Korea: Implication for terrestrial flux and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kim, Songyi; hyun, Sangmin; Kim, Wonnyon; Hyeong, Kiseong

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution records of terrestrial biomarkers, n-alkane compounds, were investigated in two gravity cores (SJP-2 and SJP-4) to evaluate variations in terrestrial organic matter influx. Based on 14C dating, sediments in both cores were deposited during the mid-Holocene; the ages of the bottom sediments of SJP-2 and SJP-4 reached 5,500 Cal yr BP and 5,000 Cal yr BP, respectively. High concentrations of total n-alkanes (nC25-35) in the two cores showed an increasing tendency from 4,500 yr to ca. 2,000 yr. The composition changed at the boundary of 2,500 yr in both cores, suggesting a variation in terrestrial biomarker influx at this time. Several indices including average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (ICP), and paleo-vegetation index (Paq) showed coincident variations in both cores; ACL exhibited a narrow range of variations with a slight shift at 2,500 yr, CPI showed a decreasing tendency from 4,000 yr to 2,500 yr, and Paq increased during these intervals. Furthermore, the ratios of C23/C31 and C25/C31, indicate a relative abundance of epicuticular wax from vascular plants with coincident variations in both cores, and this also marched well with Paq. CPI excursions suggested that the total n-alkane proxy of the two cores might not only be linked to local climatic variability but also to local oceanographic conditions due to the different sedimentation rates. Variations in paleovegetation and paleoclimate around the study area might be strongly associated with the influx of terrestrial organic compounds derived from vascular plants. Additional 14C dating and isotope study of individual n-alkane biomarkers will provide detailed information on paleoclimatic and paleovegetation changes.

  5. The ecological importance of the dwarf seagrass Zostera japonica in intertidal areas on the southern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Kun-Seop; Li, Wen-Tao; Park, Sang Rul

    2016-03-01

    The intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica, which is distributed in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, is exposed to nutrients from over-enriched land-based discharge and storm water runoff before they can be washed out to sea. Despite its ecological importance, only a few studies have examined the ecology and physiology of Z. japonica in northeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the productivity and tissue nutrient contents of above- and below-ground tissues to evaluate the potential role of Z. japonica in carbon capture and as a nutrient sink. The average total, above-, and below-ground productivity per shoot was 0.56, 0.34, and 0.21 mg DW shoot-1 day-1, respectively. Annual leaf production was 1.5 times higher than annual below-ground production. Estimated annual whole-plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus incorporation based on shoot production and tissue nutrient contents was 312.8 g C m-2 y-1, 25.7 g N m-2 y-1, and 1.6 g P m-2 y-1, respectively. These values were equivalent to 7.8 × 103 kg C y-1, 6.4 × 102 kg N y-1, and 40 kg P y-1 for all Z. japonica beds in Geoje Bay. This suggests that Z. japonica meadows can incorporate a considerable amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the intertidal zone. High N:P ratios of above- and below-ground tissues suggest that Z. japonica growth is probably limited by phosphorus availability in the study area.

  6. Hydrogeochemistry and Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Compositions of Sea Water Intrusion in Masan-Jinhae Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, H.; Song, Y.; Jeong, C.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the geochemical characteristics of the sea water intrusion in Masan - Jinhae area that is bounded by the South Sea of the Korean Peninsula. Sampling of precipitation, stream water, groundwater and sea water in the hydrologic cycle, measurement in field, and the analysis of dissolved ions and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes were carried out in order to understand hydrogeochemical property, and to analyze the mixing status of sea water with fresh water. The most appropriate parameters for understanding the status of sea water intrusion were also discussed in this study. Electric conductivity value shows outlier over 1000 §Á/§¯ in some groundwater, which suggests the evidence of sea water intrusion around the well. Groundwater is divided into three types; (Ca,Mg)-(HCO3) type, (Ca,Mg)-(Cl,SO4) type, and (Na+K)-(Cl,SO4) type. In particular, the second type could be due to geochemical evolution through reverse ion exchange reaction with sea water, and third type is chemically similar to sea water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of precipitation, stream water, groundwater and sea water show that precipitation reflects seasonal variation, and that stream water is more affected by groundwater rather than surface water. The origin of groundwater is also related to the meteoric water. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the collected sea water are lower than normal sea water. In order to understand the source of salinity in saline groundwater, hydrogeochemical parameters, and oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions were introduced in this stduy. All the parameters and isotope composition data indicate that the salinity was originated from sea water intrusion. The mixing ratios of sea water was determined by using Br, Cl concentration and ¥ä18O. Mixing ratio of sea water in saline groundwater shows scarce changes in most of the wells.

  7. High-resolution urban observation network for user-specific meteorological information service in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Park, Sung-Hwa; Chae, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Min-Hyeok; Song, Yunyoung; Kang, Minsoo; Roh, Joon-Woo

    2017-04-01

    To improve our knowledge of urban meteorology, including those processes applicable to high-resolution meteorological models in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) Urban Meteorological Observation System (UMS-Seoul) has been designed and installed. The UMS-Seoul incorporates 14 surface energy balance (EB) systems, 7 surface-based three-dimensional (3-D) meteorological observation systems and applied meteorological (AP) observation systems, and the existing surface-based meteorological observation network. The EB system consists of a radiation balance system, sonic anemometers, infrared CO2/H2O gas analyzers, and many sensors measuring the wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity, precipitation, and air pressure. The EB-produced radiation, meteorological, and turbulence data will be used to quantify the surface EB according to land use and to improve the boundary-layer and surface processes in meteorological models. The 3-D system, composed of a wind lidar, microwave radiometer, aerosol lidar, or ceilometer, produces the cloud height, vertical profiles of backscatter by aerosols, wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, and liquid water content. It will be used for high-resolution reanalysis data based on observations and for the improvement of the boundary-layer, radiation, and microphysics processes in meteorological models. The AP system includes road weather information, mosquito activity, water quality, and agrometeorological observation instruments. The standardized metadata for networks and stations are documented and renewed periodically to provide a detailed observation environment. The UMS-Seoul data are designed to support real-time acquisition and display and automatically quality check within 10 min from observation. After the quality check, data can be distributed to relevant potential users such as researchers and policy makers. Finally, two case studies demonstrate that the observed data

  8. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  9. Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals in acid mine drainage: an example from the abandoned Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hun-Bok; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Soon-Oh; Park, Seong-Sook; Lee, Pyeong-Koo

    2005-08-01

    Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals (Cr, Co, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd) in acid mine drainage were studied in two creeks in the Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, southern part of Korea. Chemical analysis of stream waters and the weak acid (0.1 N HCl) extraction, strong acid (HF-HNO3-HClO4) extraction, and sequential extraction of stream sediments were performed. Heavy metal pollution of sediments was higher in Chonam-ri creek than in Sagok-ri creek, because there is a larger source of base metal sulfides in the ores and waste dump upstream of Chonam-ri creek. The sediment-water distribution coefficients ( K d) for metals in both creeks were dependent on the water pH and decreased in the order Pb ≈ Al > Cu > Mn > Zn > Co > Ni ≈ Cd. K d values for Al, Cu and Zn were very sensitive to changes in pH. The results of sequential extraction indicated that among non-residual fractions, Fe-Mn oxides are most important for retaining trace metals in the sediments. Therefore, the precipitation of Fe(-Mn) oxides due to pH increase in downstream sites plays an important role in regulating the concentrations of dissolved trace metals in both creeks. For Al, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn, the metal concentrations determined by 0.1 N HCl extraction (Korean Standard Method for Soil Pollution) were almost identical to the cumulative concentrations determined for the first three weakly-bound fractions (exchangeable + bound to carbonates + bound to Fe-Mn oxides) in the sequential extraction procedure. This suggests that 0.1 N HCl extraction can be effectively used to assess the environmentally available and/or bioavailable forms of trace metals in natural stream sediments.

  10. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Areas with a High Prevalence of HCV in the Republic of Korea in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Hae-Sook; Kim, Jang Rak; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Youn-Jae; Lee, Myeong Jin; Min, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jun; Choi, Hwa Young; Song, Yeong Jun; Ki, Moran

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Busan, Gyeongnam, and Jeonnam Provinces in Korea is more than twice the national average. This study aimed to examine whether demographic and lifestyle characteristics are associated with HCV infection in these areas. Methods A case control study was performed at three study hospitals. HCV cases were matched with two controls for sex and age. Patient controls were selected from non-HCV patients at the same hospital. Healthy controls were subjects participating in medical checkups. Conditional logistic regression models were used. Results A total of 234 matched-case and patient- and healthy-control pairs were analyzed. The significant risk factors for both controls were sharing razors (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.39 and 3.29, respectively) and having more than four lifetime sexual partners (aOR, 2.15 and 6.89, respectively). Contact dockworkers (aOR, 1.91) and tattoos (aOR, 2.20) were significant risk factors for the patient controls. Transfusion (aOR, 5.38), a bloody operation (aOR, 5.02), acupuncture (aOR, 2.08), and piercing (aOR, 5.95) were significant risk factors for the healthy controls. Needle stick injuries and intravenous drug abuse were significant in the univariate analysis. Conclusions More education concerning the dangers of sharing razors, tattoos and piercings is required to prevent HCV infection. More attention should be paid to needle stick injuries in hospitals and the community. PMID:26260752

  11. Vitamin A status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungah; Kim, Young-Nam

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were estimated in assessing the vitamin A status of Korean adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 106 healthy subjects (33 males and 73 females) aged 20-59 years. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were obtained and plasma retinol and carotenoids were analyzed. The daily vitamin A intakes (mean ± SD) were 887.77 ± 401.35 µg retinol equivalents or 531.84 ± 226.42 µg retinol activity equivalents. There were no significant differences in vitamin A intakes among age groups. The retinol intake of subjects was 175.92 ± 129.87 µg/day. The retinol intake of the subjects in their 50's was significantly lower than those in their 20's and 30's (P < 0.05). Provitamin A carotenoid intakes were 3,828.37 ± 2,196.29 µg/day β-carotene, 472.57 ± 316.68 µg/day α-carotene, and 412.83 ± 306.46 µg/day β-cryptoxanthin. Approximately 17% of the subjects consumed vitamin A less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A. The plasma retinol concentration was 1.22 ± 0.34 µmol/L. There was no significant difference in plasma retinol concentrations among age groups. However, the concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein of subjects in their 50's were significantly higher than those of in their 20's. Only one subject had a plasma retinol concentration < 0.70 µmol/L indicating marginal vitamin A status. Plasma retinol concentration in 30% of the subjects was 0.70- < 1.05 µmol/L, which is interpreted as the concentration possibly responsive to greater intake of vitamin A. In conclusion, dietary intakes and status of vitamin A were generally adequate in Korean adults examined in this study. PMID:22413040

  12. North Korea Drought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-29

    North Korea's state news agency reported the country is facing its worst drought in a century. Rice-growing provinces have been badly affected and more than 30% of rice paddies were parching up. A Landsat 7 image from June 29, 2002, compared with an ASTER image from June 26, 2015, shows the disparity in the rice crop. The images display vegetation in red, and bare fields in dark blue. The images cover an area of 27 x 34.5 km, and are located at 38.5 degrees north, 125.6 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19501

  13. Structural analysis and evolution of the Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Yeongnam massif, Korea: a NS-trend tectonic frame in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deok-Seon, Lee; Ji-Hoon, Kang

    2016-04-01

    The Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, is mainly composed of Precambrian Hadong anorthosite complex (HAC), Precambrian Jirisan metamorphic rock complex (JMRC), Jurassic˜Triassic granitoids which intrude them, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which unconformably cover them. Lithofacies distribution and tectonic frame of the Precambrian constituent rocks mainly show a NS trend, unlike a general NE trend of those in the Korean Peninsula. To unravel the geological structures associated with the NS-trend tectonic frame which was built in the HAC and JMRC, we researched the structural characteristics of each deformation phase based on the geometric and kinematic features and the forming sequence of rock structures of the multi-deformed HAC and JMRC. The results indicate that the pre-Late Paleozoic geological structures of this area were formed at least through the following three times of ductile deformation phases. The D1 deformation happened due to the large-scale top-to-the SE shearing, and formed sheath or A-type folds and a regional NE trend of tectonic frame in the HAC and JMRC. The D2 deformation occurred under the EW-directed tectonic compression, and formed a regional NS trend of active and passive folds and Hadong ductile shear zone over 2.3˜1.4 km width, and transposed most of D1 tectonic frame into D1-2 composite tectonic frame. The extensive Hadong shear zone, which was formed in the mylonitization process accompanying the passive folding, was persistently developed along the eastern boundary of HAC and JMRC which corresponds to a limb of passive fold on a geological map scale. It produced a very strong mylonitic structure and stretching lineation. The NE-trend D1 structural elements were mainly reoriented into NS trend by the powerful active and passive folding. The D3 deformation occurred under the NS-trend tectonic compression environment, and formed EW-trend kink or open folds, and partially rearranged

  14. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  15. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung; Kaown, Dugin; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Jin-Yong; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-11-15

    An integrated study based on hydrogeochemical, microbiological and dual isotopic approaches for nitrate and sulfate was conducted to elucidate sources and biogeochemical reactions governing groundwater contaminants in different seasons and under different land use in a basin of Korea. The land use in the study area is comprised of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and others (3.0%). The concentrations of NO3-N and SO4(2-) in groundwater in vegetable fields were highest with 4.2-15.2 mg L(-1) and 1.6-19.7 mg L(-1) respectively, whereas under paddy fields NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0 to 10.7 mg L(-1) and sulfate concentrations were ~15 mg L(-1). Groundwater with high NO3-N concentrations of >10mgL(-1) had δ(15)N-NO3(-) values ranging from 5.2 to 5.9‰ and δ(18)O values of nitrate between 2.7 and 4.6‰ suggesting that the nitrate was mineralized from soil organic matter that was amended by fertilizer additions. Elevated concentrations of SO4(2-) with δ(34)S-SO4(2-) values between 1 and 6‰ in aquifers in vegetable fields indicated that a mixture of sulfate from atmospheric deposition, mineralization of soil organic matter and from synthetic fertilizers is the source of groundwater sulfate. Elevated δ(18)O-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-SO4(2-) values in samples collected from the paddy fields indicated that denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction are actively occurring removing sulfate and nitrate from the groundwater. This was supported by high occurrences of denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria in groundwater of the paddy fields as evidenced by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis. This study shows that dual isotope techniques combined with microbial data can be a powerful tool for identification of sources and microbial processes affecting NO3(-) and SO4(2-) in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Light, carbon dioxide, and octenol-baited mosquito trap and host-seeking activity evaluations for mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Burkett, D A; Lee, W J; Lee, K W; Kim, H C; Lee, H I; Lee, J S; Shin, E H; Wirtz, R A; Cho, H W; Claborn, D M; Coleman, R E; Klein, T A

    2001-09-01

    Two field trials for commercially available and experimental mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, octenol, or combinations of these were evaluated in a malarious area at Paekyeon-Ri near Tongil-Chon (village) and Camp Greaves, Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human- and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test were compared using 8 x 8 and 5 x 5 Latin square designs based on trap location. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected in the 8 x 8 test, such that counterflow geometry (CFG) with CO2 > or = CFG with CO2 and octenol > or = Shannon trap > or = Mosquito Magnet with octenol > American Biophysics Corporation (ABC) light trap with light, CO2 (500 ml/min), and octenol > or = ABC light trap with light and dry ice > or = ABC light trap with light and CO2 > ABC light trap with light only. A concurrent 5 x 5 test found significant differences in trap catch, where Mosquito Magnet with octenol > New Jersey light trap > or = EPAR Mosquito Killer with CO2 > or = ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) with light and octenol. Significant differences in trap catch were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans, Anopheles sinensis, An. yatsushiroensis, An. lesteri, Culex pipiens, and Cx. orientalis. Traps baited with octenol captured significantly fewer Cx. pipiens than those not baited with octenol. Likewise, no Cx. orientalis were captured in octenol-baited traps. Host-seeking activity showed a similar bimodal pattern for all species captured. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance surveillance efforts. Significantly greater numbers of mosquitoes were captured with mosquito traps using

  17. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  18. Ground Fire Effects on Hydrology and Habitat: Implications for Fire Management in Areas with Organic Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. A.; Watts, A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in wetlands can move into organic soils, where the resulting ground fires can smolder and consume large amounts of soil. These long-duration fires have a number of negative effects including air quality and motorist safety, as well as large-scale implications resulting from their release of large quantities of stored carbon. However, the ecological implications of the frequency and intensity of organic soil combustion occurrence are relatively unexplored. Smoldering fires in organic soils may increase local hydroperiod and wetland storage by lowering elevation, conferring benefits to wildlife (e.g., dry season refugia and feeding grounds). Short-term increases in productivity due to nutrient availability from ash may occur in or adjacent to areas affected by ground fires. Short-term negative feedbacks to fire return period are also likely to occur locally, due to increased hydroperiods; however, adjacent uplands may experience hydrologic changes as well, including factors which may affect fire risk far from areas of organic soil consumption. To explore hydrologic implications of soil-consuming ground fires, we developed a model based on a low-relief region in southern Florida (U.S.A.) that is characterized by seasonal hydrologic fluctuations and areas of organic soil distributed across a landscape that experiences frequent fire (i.e., 2-4 year return interval in uplands adjacent to wetlands). Parameterizing the model with local soil and hydrologic properties, as well as observed effects of fire in the region's organic soils, the model predicts changes to wetland depths, bathymetry, and storage competence as a function of fire severity (i.e., area and depth of burn) that may be ecologically significant. Our findings imply that soil-consuming ground fires—and their prevention—have ecohydrological implications that must be considered when developing ecosystem and fire management protocols.

  19. Occupational Neurologic Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Yun, Yong-Hun; Oh, Myoung-Soon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a schematic review of the clinical manifestations of occupational neurologic disorders in Korea and discusses the toxicologic implications of these conditions. Vascular encephalopathy, parkinsonism, chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, and neurodegenerative diseases are common presentations of occupational neurotoxic syndromes in Korea. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomic neurologic syndrome. Detailed neurologic examinations and categorization of the clinical manifestations of neurologic disorders will improve the clinical management of occupational neurologic diseases. Physicians must be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of possible exposure to neurotoxins, and they should also pay attention to less-typical, rather-vague symptoms and signs in workers because the toxicologic characteristics of occupational neurologic diseases in Korea have changed from typical patterns to less-typical or equivocal patterns. This shift is likely to be due to several years of low-dose exposure, perhaps combined with the effects of aging, and new types of possibly toxicant-related neurodegenerative diseases. Close collaboration between neurologists and occupational physicians is needed to determine whether neurologic disorders are work-related. PMID:20607045

  20. Implications of Spatial Data Variations for Protected Areas Management: An Example from East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km2), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  1. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  2. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  3. Korea and the Yellow Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired September 24, 2012 City lights at night are a fairly reliable indicator of where people live. But this isn’t always the case, and the Korean Peninsula shows why. As of July 2012, South Korea’s population was estimated at roughly 49 million people, and North Korea’s population was estimated at about half that number. But where South Korea is gleaming with city lights, North Korea has hardly any lights at all—just a faint glimmer around Pyongyang. On September 24, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured this nighttime view of the Korean Peninsula. This imagery is from the VIIRS “day-night band,” which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe signals such as gas flares, auroras, wildfires, city lights, and reflected moonlight. The wide-area image shows the Korean Peninsula, parts of China and Japan, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The white inset box encloses an area showing ship lights in the Yellow Sea. Many of the ships form a line, as if assembling along a watery border. Following the 1953 armistice ending the Korean War, per-capita income in South Korea rose to about 17 times the per-capital income level of North Korea, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Worldwide, South Korea ranks 12th in electricity production, and 10th in electricity consumption, per 2011 estimates. North Korea ranks 71st in electricity production, and 73rd in electricity consumption, per 2009 estimates. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day-Night Band data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Defense. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Suomi NPP - VIIRS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Click here to view all of the Earth at Night 2012

  4. Influence of uraniferous black shales on cadmium, molybdenum and selenium in soils and crop plants in the Deog-Pyoun-g area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, K W; Thornton, I

    1993-09-01

    The influence of naturally occurring uraniferous black shales on cadmium, molybdenum and selenium concentrations in soils and plants is examined. The possible implications of element concentrations to animal and human health are considered for the Deog-Pyoung area.Geochemical surveys have been undertaken within 13 river tributary valleys in the area underlain by uraniferous black shales and black slates or grey chlorite schists. Sampling of rocks, soils and plants has been carried out along transect lines within each valley. Samples were analysed for trace elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and for uranium by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Soil pH, cation exchange capacity, loss on ignition and particle size distribution have been measured for selected samples.Average trace element concentrations of the Okchon uraniferous black shales were 6.3 μg g(-1) Cd, 136 μg g(-1) Mo and 8.6 μg g(-1) Se. Soils derived from these rocks tend to reflect their extreme geochemical composition. Trace element concentrations in alluvial soils derived in part from these black shales averaged 1.2 μg g(-1) Cd, 20 μg g(-1) Mo and 1.5 μg g(-1) Se. Trace element concentrations in plants were found to be influenced by those of soils. Cadmium accumulated in tobacco leaves up to 46 μg g(-1) (D.M.) and leafy plants such as lettuce contain up to 0.5 μg g(-1) Se (D.M.).In addition to total concentrations in soils, soil pH is a major factor influencing uptake of Mo into crop plants and soil texture for Se. Concentrations of trace elements in plants also varied between plant species. The relative concentrations of Cd were found to vary in the order tobacco > lettuce > red pepper > rice grain.Elevated concentrations of Cd in crop plants and in tobacco may possibly have deleterious effects on human health in this area. The low Cu:Mo ratio in rice stalk of 2.65:1 may be associated with disturbed Cu metabolism in ruminant animals which regularly

  5. Molecular and morphological data reveal hybrid origin of wild Prunus yedoensis (Rosaceae) from Jeju Island, Korea: implications for the origin of the flowering cherry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Kim, Chan-Soo; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Ted Oh; Heo, Kyoung-In; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2014-11-01

    The subgenus Cerasus of the genus Prunus includes several popular ornamental flowering cherries. Of the hundreds of cultivars, P. ×yedoensis ('Somei-yoshino') is the most popular and familiar cultivar in Korea and Japan and is considered to be of hybrid origin. However, the hybrid origin of P. ×yedoensis and its relationship to wild P. yedoensis, naturally occurring on Jeju Island, Korea, are highly controversial. We extensively sampled wild P. yedoensis, cultivated P. ×yedoensis, and numerous individuals from other species belonging to subgenus Cerasus on Jeju Island. Samples from 71 accessions, representing 13 species and one cultivar (P. ×yedoensis), were sequenced for nrDNA ITS/ETS (952 characters) and seven noncoding cpDNA regions (5421 characters) and subjected to maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Additive polymorphisms in the ITS/ETS regions were confirmed by cloning amplicons from representative species. The nuclear (ITS/ETS and G3pdh) and cpDNA data, along with several morphological characteristics, provide the first convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of wild P. yedoensis. The maternal parent was determined to be P. spachiana f. ascendens, while the paternal parent was unresolved from the taxonomically complex P. serrulata/P. sargentii clade. The presence of two kinds of ribotypes was confirmed by cloning, and the possible origin of cultivated P. ×yedoensis from wild populations on Jeju Island was also suggested. Bidirectional and multiple hybridization events were responsible for the origin of wild P. yedoensis. Extensive gene flow was documented in this study, suggesting an important role of reticulate evolution in subgenus Cerasus. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. Seismic anisotropy of oceanic islands in East Sea of Korea from P-receiver functions: Implication for tectonic origin of the backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyeJeong; Kim, YoungHee

    2017-04-01

    The volcanic islands (Dok, Ulleung, and Jeju islands) in East Sea of Korea sit on a backarc basin behind the Japan island arc. East Sea of Korea consists of three ocean basins (Ulleung, Japan, and Sato basins) formed since pre-Oligocene. Of the three basins, Ulleung Basin is least studied and only previously considered to include remnant continental block in the northern end of the basin, where Dok Island and Ulleung Island are located. We investigate seismic evidence of an ancient rifting in a lithospheric structure beneath the islands and eastern margin of Korean Peninsula using teleseismic P-to-S converted phases. Seismic anisotropy in particular can be a signature of the mantle flow during the subduction and extension process. By computing and modeling receiver functions, we retrieve detailed crustal and uppermost mantle structure and anisotropy, and use these geophysical results to understand the origin of the islands and the tectonic evolution of the back-arc basin. Our analysis shows three main results: (1) thicker than normal oceanic crust (˜20 km) beneath the islands; (2) a dipping Moho under Jeju and Ulleung islands; (3) a presence of lithospheric seismic anisotropy under Jeju Island. In particular, a strike of dipping Moho varies within Ulleung Island (extending 50 km laterally), which can be explained by isostacy. This evidence supports the existence of ancient continental block within northern part of Ulleung Basin. Strength of anisotropy under Jeju Island is approximately 10 % in both P- and S-wave velocities with fast symmetric axis in about N20˚ E within the crust. Three islands all show dissimilar seismological properties despite of their temporal proximity to the formation and opening of the backarc. This heterogeneous character of the region can be explained by the injection of mantle volatiles in response to the dynamics of the subduction system.

  7. Family factors for child meal skipping in low-income families in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwa-ok; Kim, Meesook; Hong, Soon-Myung

    2010-04-01

    The present study proposed to examine whether family factors are associated with child meal skipping in Korea. Family factors were divided into risk factors and protective factors on conceptual and theoretical bases. The sample was obtained from the Survey of Meal Service for Poor Children conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs in 2007. A final sample was composed of 944 children in low-income families who are served by the public meal program. Child meal skipping was positively associated with risk factors and negatively associated with protective factors, as hypothesized. Single-father family, middle or small urban area, presence of caretaker after school, health level of caretaker, caretaker's concern about child's diet, and degree of family cohesion significantly predicted child meal skipping. The authors suggest a few implications for practice based on the study findings.

  8. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  9. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  10. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (FAR EAST, SOUTHEAST ASIA, PACIFIC) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE... whales ” China and Japan. South Korea may be the fuse for an unprecedented shift in balance of power in the region. The implications for regional...South Korea. Therefore, historical study of the anti-Americanism is crucial to understand the sources of the increase in anti-Americanism. Chapter II

  11. Seasonal variations of diacids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in aerosols at Gosan, Jeju Island, South Korea: Implications for sources, formation, and degradation during long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Shuvashish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol samples (n = 84) were collected continuously from April 2003 to April 2004 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. The samples were analyzed for diacids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls, as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and water-soluble inorganic ions. Oxalic acid (C2) was the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) in all the seasons. The mean concentration (784 ng m-3) of total diacids (C2-C12) and their relative abundances in total organic species detected, OC and WSOC were found to be the highest in summer, whereas those of ketoacids and dicarbonyls were the highest in winter. The annual mean contributions of diacids, ketoacids, and dicarbonyls to WSOC are 12, 1, and 0.4%, respectively. They are several times higher than those reported in East Asia from which air masses are transported to Gosan, indicating an importance of photochemical processing of aerosols during a long-range transport. Diacids and related compounds show different seasonal variations, suggesting their season-specific sources and photochemical processing. This study demonstrates an enhanced photochemical production and degradation of water-soluble organics in summer. In contrast, higher positive correlations between combustion tracers (non-sea-salt K+ and EC) and diacids and related compounds were observed in the winter, pointing out higher emission of diacids and related compounds or their precursors from fossil fuel/biomass burning.

  12. Paleointensity determination of Late Cretaceous basalts in northwest South Korea: implications for low and stable paleofield strength in the Late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Bongsu; Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yu, Yongjae

    2013-12-01

    To clarify geomagnetic field behavior in the Late Cretaceous, paleointensity and rock-magnetic studies were carried out on basalts with K-Ar ages of 78.6 ± 2.5 and 73.1 ± 1.6 Ma in northwest South Korea. A total of 314 samples (262 from six lava flows and 52 from massive basalts) were subjected to Thellier-type IZZI paleointensity experiments. Through the application of seven paleointensity selection criteria that mainly verify the thermal alteration of magnetic minerals and the stability of remanence direction, fifteen paleointensity data were obtained from five of the lava flows. Based on rock-magnetic experiments and microscopic observations, it is revealed that the measured paleointensity is carried by single-domain (titano)magnetite. The site-mean paleointensities ranged 13.1-21.3 μT, which corresponds to a virtual axial dipole moment of 2.3-3.8 × 1022 Am2. The combination of this result with selected data from the IAGA paleointensity database establishes the existence of different dipole moments according to rock type. In particular, the geomagnetic field strength recorded in Late Cretaceous crystalline volcanic rock was relatively low and stable, with a mean dipole moment of 4.0 ± 1.9 × 1022 Am2 regardless of geomagnetic field reversals.

  13. Comparison of fast food consumption and dietary guideline practices for children and adolescents by clustering of fast food outlets around schools in the Gyeonggi area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Joo, Soonnam; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution density of fast food outlets around schools, and the relationship between dietary health of children and adolescents and the density of fast food outlets in Korea. A distribution map of fast food outlets was drawn by collecting information on 401 locations of 16 brands within a 15-minute walk (800 meter) of 342 elementary and secondary schools in Suwon, Hwaseong and Osan. A questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary life of 243 sixth and eighth grade students at eight schools. Schools in the upper 20% and lower 20% of the fast food outlet distribution were classified as high-density and low-density groups, respectively. The practice rate of dietary guidelines published by the Health and Welfare Ministry and the fast food consumption pattern of children and adolescents from low and high density groups were determined. The number of schools with a fast food outlet within 200 meters or in the Green Food Zone around its location was 48 of 189 (25.4%) in Suwon and 14 of 153 (9.2%) in Hwaseong and Osan. Students in the low-density group visited fast food outlets less often than those in the high-density group (p<0.01). Dietary guideline practice scores for children did not show a significant difference between the two groups. The distribution map of fast food outlets within 200 meters of schools was useful for identifying the effectiveness of the Green Food Zone Act and nutrition education programs.

  14. A short note on a euphausiid, Euphausia pacifica, an important food source to demersal fishes in Uljin area, the eastern coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jinho; Han, Changhoon; Lee, Jae Hac; Hong, Jae Sang

    2008-07-01

    Gut contents of two species of demersal fishes, Pleurogrammus azonus and Dasycottus steiger were examined to understand the importance of a euphausiid, Euphausia pacifica as prey of demersal fishes at coastal waters off Uljin, the eastem Korea where aggregations of large amounts of the euphausiids were found. Euphausiids were significantly important food source to the species of fishes examined. All of the stomachs of P. azonus examined contained euphausiids (% of a food item frequency occurred, F = 100%) in March and June 2003. Individual numbers of euphusiids in the guts ranged from 10 to 540 individuals per gut. Percents of individual number of food item were 99.60 and 99.96 for euphausiids in March and June 2003, respectively The guts of D. steiger also frequently contained euphausiids (F = 86.67 and 79.20% in October 2002 and June 2003, respectively), while amphipods (F = 36.67% and 16.17%,) and other fishes (F = 33.33% and 45.80%) were also often observed. Pleurogrammus azonus preferred larger euphausiids with size range 16.9-28.4 mm, while the range of euphausiids distributed in the ambient water column was much broader (from eggs to adults).

  15. Comparison of Adult Mosquito Black-Light and Light-Emitting Diode Traps at Three Cowsheds Located in Malaria-Endemic Areas of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Choi, Kwang-Shik; Hwang, Do-Un; Johnson, Jaree L; Klein, Terry A

    2016-09-16

    Adult mosquito surveillance and field trials evaluated selected commercially available ultraviolet black-light (BL) and light-emitting diode (LED) traps at three sites where vivax malaria is endemic from May to October 2015 in northwestern Republic of Korea. Collections totaled 283,929 adult mosquitoes (280,355 [98.74%] females and 3,574 [1.26%] males) comprising 17 species (including six members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) belonging to six genera. The four most predominant female species collected were Aedes vexans nipponii (Theobald) (83.84%), followed by Anopheles Hyrcanus Group (13.66%), Culex pipiens Group (1.67%), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (0.54%). Overall, LED traps (188,125) collected significantly more female mosquitoes compared with BL traps (92,230; P = 0.0001, P < 0.05). Results from these field evaluations significantly enhance vector and disease surveillance efforts, especially for the primary vectors of malaria (Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) and Japanese encephalitis (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus).

  16. Comparison of Adult Mosquito Black-Light and Light-Emitting Diode Traps at Three Cowsheds Located in Malaria-Endemic Areas of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Choi, Kwang-Shik; Hwang, Do-Un; Johnson, Jaree L; Klein, Terry A

    2017-01-01

    Adult mosquito surveillance and field trials evaluated selected commercially available ultraviolet black-light (BL) and light-emitting diode (LED) traps at three sites where vivax malaria is endemic from May to October 2015 in northwestern Republic of Korea. Collections totaled 283,929 adult mosquitoes (280,355 [98.74%] females and 3,574 [1.26%] males) comprising 17 species (including six members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) belonging to six genera. The four most predominant female species collected were Aedes vexans nipponii (Theobald) (83.84%), followed by Anopheles Hyrcanus Group (13.66%), Culex pipiens Group (1.67%), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (0.54%). Overall, LED traps (188,125) collected significantly more female mosquitoes compared with BL traps (92,230; P = 0.0001, P < 0.05). Results from these field evaluations significantly enhance vector and disease surveillance efforts, especially for the primary vectors of malaria (Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) and Japanese encephalitis (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus).

  17. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  18. The analysis of interseismic GPS observation and its implication to seismic activity in Taiwan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. C.; Yu, S. B.; Shin, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is an active tectonic area with about 80 mm/yr plate convergence rate. To understand the crustal deformation and seismic potential in Taiwan area. We derived 2009-2014 interseismic GPS velocity field and strain rate, implicate to seismic activity of 2005-2014. Data collected by 281 sites of Taiwan Continuous GPS (cGPS) Array and processed with GAMIT/GLOBK software. Stacking of power spectral densities from cGPS data in Taiwan, we found the errors type can be described as a combination of white noise and flicker noise. The common errors are removed by stacking 50 cGPS sites with data period larger than 5 years. By removing the common errors, the precision of GPS data has been further improved to 2.3 mm, 1.9 mm, and 6.9 mm in the E, N, U components, respectively. After strictly data quality control, time series analysis and noise analysis, we derive an interseismic ITRF2008 velocity field from 2009 to 2014 in the Taiwan area. The general pattern is quite similar with previous studies, but the station density is much larger and spatial coverage better. Based on this interseismic velocity field, we estimate the crustal strain rate in Taiwan area. Approximately half of plate convergence strain rate is accommodated on the fold and thrust belt of western Taiwan and another half is taken up in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. The maximum dilatation rates is about -0.75~-0.9 μstrain/yr in WNW-ESE direction. The velocities in western Taiwan generally show a fan-shaped pattern, consistent with the direction of maximum compression tectonic stress. Extension in the E-W direction is observed at the Central Range area, the focal mechanism results also indicate the earthquake type here most are normal faults. In northern Taiwan, the velocity vectors reveal clockwise rotation, indicating the on-going extensional deformation related to the back-arc extension of the Okinawa Trough. In southern Taiwan, the horizontal velocity increases from

  19. Photochemical degradation of hydroxy PAHs in ice: Implications for the polar areas.

    PubMed

    Ge, Linke; Li, Jun; Na, Guangshui; Chen, Chang-Er; Huo, Cheng; Zhang, Peng; Yao, Ziwei

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are derived from hydroxylated PAHs as contaminants of emerging concern. They are ubiquitous in the aqueous and atmospheric environments and may exist in the polar snow and ice, which urges new insights into their environmental transformation, especially in ice. In present study the simulated-solar (λ > 290 nm) photodegradation kinetics, products and pathways of four OH-PAHs (9-Hydroxyfluorene, 2-Hydroxyfluorene, 1-Hydroxypyrene and 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene) in ice were investigated, and the corresponding implications for the polar areas were explored. It was found that the kinetics followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics with the photolysis quantum yields (Φs) ranging from 7.48 × 10(-3) (1-Hydroxypyrene) to 4.16 × 10(-2) (2-Hydroxyfluorene). These 4 OH-PAHs were proposed to undergo photoinduced hydroxylation, resulting in multiple hydroxylated intermediates, particularly for 9-Hydroxyfluorene. Extrapolation of the lab data to the real environment is expected to provide a reasonable estimate of OH-PAH photolytic half-lives (t1/2,E) in mid-summer of the polar areas. The estimated t1/2,E values ranged from 0.08 h for 1-OHPyr in the Arctic to 54.27 h for 9-OHFl in the Antarctic. In consideration of the lower temperature and less microorganisms in polar areas, the photodegradation can be a key factor in determining the fate of OH-PAHs in sunlit surface snow/ice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the photodegradation of OH-PAHs in polar areas.

  20. Genetic status of Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) reintroduced into South Korea based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yung-Kun; Hong, Yoon-Jee; Min, Mi-Sook; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Smith, Gavin J D; Cuong, Nguyen Dinh; Tho, Huynh Huu; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Doo-Ha; Kim, Chang-Bae; Lee, Hang

    2011-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear is one of the most endangered mammals in South Korea owing to population declines resulting from human exploitation and habitat fragmentation. To restore the black bear population in South Korea, 27 bear cubs from North Korea and Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai) were imported and released into Jirisan National Park, a reservoir of the largest wild population in South Korea, in 2004. To monitor the success of this reintroduction, the genetic diversity and population structure of the reintroduced black bears were measured using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Mitochondrial D-loop region DNA sequences (615 bp) of 43 Japanese black bears from previous study and 14 Southeast Asian black bears in this study were employed to obtain phylogenetic inference of the reintroduced black bears. The mitochondrial phylogeny indicated Asiatic black bear populations from Russian Far East and North Korea form a single evolutionary unit distinct from populations from Japan and Southeast Asia. Mean expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across 16 microsatellite loci was 0.648 for Russian and 0.676 for North Korean populations. There was a moderate but significant level of microsatellite differentiation (F(ST) = 0.063) between black bears from the 2 source areas. In addition, genetic evidences revealed that 2 populations are represented as diverging groups, with lingering genetic admixture among individuals of 2 source populations. Relatedness analysis based on genetic markers indicated several discrepancies with the pedigree records. Implication of the phylogenetic and genetic evidences on long-term management of Asiatic black bears in South Korea is discussed.

  1. Small-Area Estimation of Spatial Access to Care and Its Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Monica; Isett, Kim; Serban, Nicoleta; Swann, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Local or small-area estimates to capture emerging trends across large geographic regions are critical in identifying and addressing community-level health interventions. However, they are often unavailable due to lack of analytic capabilities in compiling and integrating extensive datasets and complementing them with the knowledge about variations in state-level health policies. This study introduces a modeling approach for small-area estimation of spatial access to pediatric primary care that is data "rich" and mathematically rigorous, integrating data and health policy in a systematic way. We illustrate the sensitivity of the model to policy decision making across large geographic regions by performing a systematic comparison of the estimates at the census tract and county levels for Georgia and California. Our results show the proposed approach is able to overcome limitations of other existing models by capturing patient and provider preferences and by incorporating possible changes in health policies. The primary finding is systematic underestimation of spatial access, and inaccurate estimates of disparities across population and across geography at the county level with respect to those at the census tract level with implications on where to focus and which type of interventions to consider.

  2. Study on Asia's growing cities: Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of migration and urbanization in Korea is on the following: historical perspective, implications of urban growth, urbanization trends and population distribution, patterns of migration, socioeconomic differences, and population redistribution policies. Korea is one of the most densely populated countries in Asia. Attempts to deal successfully with this phenomenon have met with varying degrees of success. Population concentration in the capital region continues to be a problem and has resulted in acute housing shortages, rapidly rising land prices, and on encroachment of urban land use into prime agricultural land surrounding the Seoul metropolitan region. Between 1955-1975 the population of Seoul increased from 1.6 million to 6.9 million for the capital city proper and to 9.4 million for its metropolitan region, including 5 satellite cities. This fringe spillover began in the late 1960s. The metropolitan area, comprising 4 cities around the fast growing city of Busan in the south, was formed in the mid-1970s with 3.2 million people. At this time major policy concerns center on the demographic phenomenon of continued concentrations in the Seoul and Busan regions. Problem issues which persist include nonfarm polarization, regional imbalance, diverging intra-sectoral incomes, and the aging rural labor force. Despite its nearness to the demilitarized zone, Seoul was and continues to be the focal point of economic and educational opportunity. The early 1960s brought little variation in migration and urbanization trends. In 1961 family planning and planned economic development were initiated but their impact came several years later. The overall urban growth rate dropped from 5.4 to 4.6% in the 1960-1966 period, and Seoul's pace of expansion slowed down to an annual average of 6.5%. Yet, the capital continued its urbanizing dominance. By 1975 Korea had 3 cities with a population of over 3 million: Seoul, Busan, and Daegu. In 1975 48.4% of the

  3. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  4. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  5. Spatial variability of chloride deposition in a vegetated coastal area: Implications for groundwater recharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, E.; Ordens, C. M.; Werner, A. D.; Batelaan, O.; Guan, H.; Post, V. E. A.

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of atmospheric chloride deposition is a prerequisite for applying the chloride mass balance (CMB) method for groundwater recharge estimation. Compared to bare areas, vegetated areas can significantly enhance chloride deposition rates as the vegetation canopy provides a large surface onto which water droplets and aerosols settle. Although generally acknowledged, this effect has often been ignored in practical applications of the CMB method. This paper studies the variability of chloride deposition in a coastal basin characterised by a heterogeneous vegetation cover, and the implications of this variability for groundwater recharge estimation using observation wells in the saturated zone. The study area is located on the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia. The theory of the CMB method for groundwater recharge estimation is revised in the context of highly spatially variable chloride deposition. A GIS-based approach is developed for mapping the chloride deposition accounting for distance from the coast, distribution of vegetation and edge effects; the latter implying a lower chloride deposition inside a vegetation stand than at the edge. In order to quantify the significance of one or several of these effects for recharge estimation, different chloride deposition maps and corresponding recharge estimates are derived. Compared with the reference scenario that accounts for all effects, neglecting the coastal effect results in a 33-36% higher average recharge estimate, whereas neglecting the vegetation effect results in a 17-22% lower average recharge estimate. The latter numbers are likely to represent a lower bound of the impact of neglecting the vegetation effect. A critical factor for accurate determination of the influence of vegetation appears to be the edge effect, albeit its importance is subject to significant uncertainty that warrants further monitoring.

  6. Effects of groundwater residence time and recharge rate on nitrate contamination deduced from δ18O, δD, 3H/ 3He and CFCs in a small agricultural area in Chuncheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, Dugin; Koh, Dong-Chan; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2009-03-01

    SummaryStable isotopes of water, chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), and 3H/ 3He were applied in combination with hydrogeochemical data to analyze recharge patterns and nitrate contamination of shallow groundwater systems in a small agricultural area, Yupori, Chuncheon (Korea), where the eastern part is on hill slopes and the western part is low lands. The values of δ18O and δD indicated that groundwater is derived mainly from summer precipitation, which is more pronounced in the western part than in the eastern part. The apparent groundwater ages using CFC-113 and 3H/ 3He ranged from 13 to 31 yr, and are younger in the western part than in the eastern part. Dispersion models fit concentrations of 3H and CFC-113 for most wells of the eastern part with intermediate dispersion parameters. Nitrate concentrations were higher in the western part than the eastern part due to the land use pattern and topography. Stable isotopes of water and groundwater ages indicated that higher recharge rate affected by multiple sources of contamination is dominant in the western part whereas limited recharge with weak nitrate sources is considerable in the eastern part. This groundwater flow pattern corresponds to the different nitrate concentrations in the western and the eastern part. Groundwater residence time and recharge rate play an important role in the spatial distribution of NO 3 concentration in the study area as well as land use pattern.

  7. The Developmental History of Labor Education in South Korea from a Sociopolitical and Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yangyi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a considerable body of research regarding the relationships between the sociopolitical and economic transition and its implications for the education system in South Korea, there is little known about how sociopolitical and economic factors affect labor education practice in South Korea. The premise of the study is that the…

  8. The Developmental History of Labor Education in South Korea from a Sociopolitical and Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yangyi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a considerable body of research regarding the relationships between the sociopolitical and economic transition and its implications for the education system in South Korea, there is little known about how sociopolitical and economic factors affect labor education practice in South Korea. The premise of the study is that the…

  9. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2

  10. Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, South Korea: Implications for basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Kwon, S.; Lee, D.

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the formative mechanism of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in South Korea, we determined the geochemical compositions of Early Cretaceous syntectonic basaltic rocks intercalated with basin sedimentary assemblages. Two distinct compositional groups appeared: tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts from the Yeongyang sub-basin and high-K to shoshonitic basaltic trachyandesites from the Jinju and Uiseong sub-basins. All collected samples exhibit patterns of light rare earth element enrichment and chondrite-normalized (La/Yb)N ratios ranging from 2.4 to 23.6. In a primitive-mantle-normalized spidergram, the samples show distinctive negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, and Ti and a positive anomaly in Pb. The basalts exhibit no or a weak positive U anomaly in a spidergram, but the basaltic trachyandesites show a negative U anomaly. The basalts have highly radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70722-0.71145], slightly negative ɛNd, positive ɛHf [(ɛNd)i = -2.7 to 0.0; (ɛHf)i = +2.9 to +6.4], and radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.20-19.19; (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.60-15.77; (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.38-39.11]. The basaltic trachyandesites are characterized by radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70576-0.71119] and unradiogenic Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions [(ɛNd)i = -14.0 to -1.4; (ɛHf)i = -17.9 to +3.7; (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.83-18.25; (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.57-15.63; (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.70]. The 'crust-like' signatures, such as negative Nb-Ta anomalies, elevated Sr isotopic compositions, and negative ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, of the basaltic trachyandesites resemble the geochemistry of Early Cretaceous mafic volcanic rocks from the southern portion of the eastern North China Craton. Considering the lower-crust-like low U/Pb and high Th/U ratios and the unradiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, the basaltic trachyandesites are considered to be derived from lithospheric mantle modified by interaction with melts that originated from foundered eclogite

  11. Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, South Korea: Implications for basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sun-Ki; Choi, Sung Hi; Lee, Der-Chuen

    2013-09-01

    To better understand the formative mechanism of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in South Korea, we determined the geochemical compositions of Early Cretaceous syntectonic basaltic rocks intercalated with basin sedimentary assemblages. Two distinct compositional groups appeared: tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts from the Yeongyang sub-basin and high-K to shoshonitic basaltic trachyandesites from the Jinju and Uiseong sub-basins. All collected samples exhibit patterns of light rare earth element enrichment and chondrite-normalized (La/Yb)N ratios ranging from 2.4 to 23.6. In a primitive-mantle-normalized spidergram, the samples show distinctive negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, and Ti and a positive anomaly in Pb. The basalts exhibit no or a weak positive U anomaly in a spidergram, but the basaltic trachyandesites show a negative U anomaly. The basalts have highly radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70722-0.71145], slightly negative εNd, positive εHf [(εNd)i = -2.7 to 0.0; (εHf)i = +2.9 to +6.4], and radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.20-19.19; (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.60-15.77; (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.38-39.11]. The basaltic trachyandesites are characterized by radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70576-0.71119] and unradiogenic Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions [(εNd)i = -14.0 to -1.4; (εHf)i = -17.9 to +3.7; (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.83-18.25; (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.57-15.63; (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.70]. The “crust-like” signatures, such as negative Nb-Ta anomalies, elevated Sr isotopic compositions, and negative εNd(t) and εHf(t) values, of the basaltic trachyandesites resemble the geochemistry of Early Cretaceous mafic volcanic rocks from the southern portion of the eastern North China Craton. Considering the lower-crust-like low U/Pb and high Th/U ratios and the unradiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, the basaltic trachyandesites are considered to be derived from lithospheric mantle modified by interaction with melts that originated from foundered

  12. Planimetric frontal area in the four swimming strokes: implications for drag, energetics and speed.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Giorgio; Cortesi, Matteo; Fantozzi, Silvia; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the planimetric method to determine frontal area (Ap) throughout the stroke cycle in the four swimming strokes as well as during "streamlined leg kicking". The minimum Ap values in all strokes are similar to those assessed during "streamlined leg kicking" (about 0.13m(2)). Active drag (Da=1/2ρ Cd Ap v(2)) was then calculated/estimated based on the average Ap values, as calculated for a full cycle in each condition. Da is the lowest in the "streamlined leg kicking" condition (Da=19.5v(2), e.g., similar to the values of passive drag reported in the literature), is similar in front crawl (Da=30.0v(2)), backstroke (Da=26.9v(2)) and butterfly (Da=28.5v(2)) and is the largest in the breaststroke (Da=37.5v(2)). Based on the C vs. v relationships reported in the literature for the four strokes it is then possible to estimate drag efficiency: for a speed of 1.5ms(-1), it ranges from 0.035-0.038 (breaststroke and backstroke, respectively) to 0.052-0.058 (butterfly and front crawl, respectively). This study is the first to establish Ap values throughout the swimming cycle for all swimming strokes and these findings have implications for active drag estimates, for the energetics of swimming and for swimming speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties and functional implications of I (h) in hippocampal area CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warren D; Galván, Emilio J; Mauna, Jocelyn C; Thiels, Edda; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2011-12-01

    The present study examines the biophysical properties and functional implications of I (h) in hippocampal area CA3 interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare. Characterization studies showed a small maximum h-conductance (2.6 ± 0.3 nS, n = 11), shallow voltage dependence with a hyperpolarized half-maximal activation (V (1/2) = -91 mV), and kinetics characterized by double-exponential functions. The functional consequences of I (h) were examined with regard to temporal summation and impedance measurements. For temporal summation experiments, 5-pulse mossy fiber input trains were activated. Blocking I (h) with 50 μM ZD7288 resulted in an increase in temporal summation, suggesting that I (h) supports sensitivity of response amplitude to relative input timing. Impedance was assessed by applying sinusoidal current commands. From impedance measurements, we found that I (h) did not confer theta-band resonance, but flattened the impedance-frequency relations instead. Double immunolabeling for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated proteins and glutamate decarboxylase 67 suggests that all four subunits are present in GABAergic interneurons from the strata considered for electrophysiological studies. Finally, a model of I (h) was employed in computational analyses to confirm and elaborate upon the contributions of I (h) to impedance and temporal summation.

  14. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  15. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  16. Countering Macro-structure in the Location of Area Vocational Training Centers: Implications for Emerging Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Gerald C.; And Others

    Vocational education programs/facilities in Alabama's 67 counties were examined to determine the degree of Vocational Education Act (VEA) success in achieving equitable distribution of vocational education facilities and programs and to explore the implications of ignoring the usual community structural prerequisites to locating an Area Vocational…

  17. The Genus Chlorociboria, Blue-Green Micromycetes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Huan; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-06-01

    The species of the genus Chlorociboria Seaver are very common on the forest floor, and can be easily distinguished by small and numerous blue-green fruitbody, especially the blue substrate dyed with xylindein produced by this group. This genus has rather high species diversity in the Southern Hemisphere, while a little attention was paid to this group in East Asia area. During a field survey in South Korea, several Chlorociboria specimens were collected. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, three species of Chlorociboria were reported, including one new record in South Korea and one new record in Jeju Island. The key to the species of Chlorociboria from South Korea is provided.

  18. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  19. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  20. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  1. Implications of biocrust removal on soil organic carbon losses by water erosion in a badlands area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Raúl Román, José; Miralles, Isabel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cantón, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    immediately after biocrust removal. In the following rains, OC losses decreased in biocrust-removed soils due to the formation of a physical soil crust and the subsequent early colonization by cyanobacteria and less remaining available OC in these soils. Sediment OC losses represented between 61 and 91% of total OC lost. Annual OC losses were up to 9 times higher in biocrust-removed soils than in biocrust-covered soils. While C uptake by biocrusts is able to compensate OC losses by water erosion, OC losses in soils devoid of biocrusts largely exceed C inputs, thus resulting in a net annual balance of C loss. Our findings highlight the key role of biocrusts in increasing spatial heterogeneity of soil OC in arid and semiarid areas and the consequences of biocrust removal on OC depletion in interplant soils and their possible implications on nutrient redistribution from interplant to vegetated patches, which may have profound consequences on vegetation functioning in these vulnerable and nutrient-limited ecosystems.

  2. An interpretation of induced-polarization data collected in the Haenam area, southern part of Korea Peninsula, based on effective nonlinear inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bitnarae; Jang, Hannuree; Nam, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Joon; Son, Jeong-Sul

    2015-04-01

    The Haenam area in the southern tip of Korean Peninsula, which experienced broad hydrothermal transition during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary times and whose geology is composed of granitic rocks, quartz porphyry, andesite, rhyolite, tuff and sedimentary rocks, is known to have many clay-alunite and gold-silver deposits. For the investigation of new gold deposits near an existing gold mine, both electrical-resistivity and induced polarization (IP) surveys have been conducted based on dipole-dipole array with 10 m-electrode spacing. The survey line is set to be 200 m and nearly normal to the geological strike. Together with the surveys, an investigation borehole was drilled about 130 m away from the survey line, and coring has been conducted during the drilling. For the interpretation of IP data, linear inversion of IP data based on approximate linearization has been conducted after making 3D inversion of electrical-resistivity data. The inversion result shows that area of high intrinsic chargeability complies with area of high-salinity, which is interpreted from the borehole data. However, the linear inversion has high chance to contain unwanted error during the inversion process since the inversion is based on the linearization approximation of a non-linear problem by assuming the value of intrinsic chargeability is very small. In this study, we first develop an efficient non-linear inversion algorithm to invert the IP data based on finite element method using tetrahedral elements. Then, we apply the developed algorithm to synthetic IP data and compare its results with those from existing IP inversion algorithms. Finally, we make non-linear inversion of the Haenam field data not only to interpret the data more precisely but also to compare its results with existing-interpretation results from linear-IP inversion. The analysis confirms that the non-linear time domain IP inversion reflects the geological characteristics in the survey area, complying with

  3. Verification of NOx emission inventories over North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Morino, Yu; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system--a case study on the precursors of photochemical smog in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, J W

    2000-03-01

    A speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system (SHEMS) was developed and applied in predicting hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The primary goal of the SHEMS was to produce a systemized emission inventory for air pollutants including ozone precursors for modeling air quality in urban areas. The SHEMS is principally composed of three parts: (1) a pre-processor to process emission factors, activity levels, and spatial and temporal information using a geographical information system; (2) an emission model for each source type; and (3) a post-processor to produce report and input data for air quality models through database modeling. The source categories in SHEMS are point, area, mobile, natural, and other sources such as fugitive emissions. The emission database produced by SHEMS contains 22 inventoried compounds: sulfur dioxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, and 19 speciated volatile organic compounds. To validate SHEMS, the emission data were tested with the Urban Airshed Model to predict NO2 and O3 concentrations in the SMA during selected episode days in 1994. The results turned out to be reliable in describing temporal variation and spatial distribution of those pollutants.

  5. Development of Airborne LiDAR based Sky View Factors to Estimate Micro-scale Energy Budget of Forest Areas: a Case Study of Taehwa Forest, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, S.; Woo, J.; Kim, B.; Hong, J.; Kim, S.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.; Quan, S.

    2012-12-01

    About 6% of earth incoming solar radiation energy (nearly 173 petawatts) is absorbed by the ground surface, which fuels earth surface energy budget and physical/biological/ecological cycles including biogenic emission processes. Many key factors and indices have been proposed to understand the phenomenon initiated from solar energy. In this study, we proposed a new solar energy estimation parameter, the Sky View Factor (SVF), to understand energy budget of vegetated surface. The SVF is a ratio between an open sky area and covered surroundings, such as building and colonnade, which represents an estimation of the visible area of the sky from an earth view point. The high resolution airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) dataset instead of low resolution satellite information was used to develop SVFs, because the more reliable ground surface information are very important to correctly estimate the factors. The airborne LiDAR-based SVF calculator tool was also developed to estimate SVFs efficiently then applied to estimate SVFs at Taehwa forest area in support of surface landcover composition analysis. The validation results using shortwave and longwave radiation flux data monitored from Taehwa flux tower and the satellite remote sensing data (LANDSAT ETM+) will be discussed.

  6. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  7. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  8. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  9. Educational Facilities in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Korean program to modernize school buildings and equipment to better meet current teaching needs.Examines Korea's education and administrative systems, and the Ministry of Education's involvement in schooling trends, facilities for higher education, and developments in information and technology. (GR)

  10. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  11. Divided Korea: United Future? Headline Series No. 306.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    This booklet examines the emergence of the two Korea's and implications for their unification. By tracing the philosophical development of the nations and shared ideas and values, the booklet attempts to explain policy issues faced by the nations and other world powers in dealing with them. Chapters include: (1) "Legacies from the Past";…

  12. Language Policies in North and South Korea: Divergence and Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the language policies in North and South Korea are in some respects divergent and in others convergent. The North uses more nativized words, while the South retains Sino-Korean words. Awareness of each other's policies and their implications in the event of reunification is evident in the regressive measures taken. (23 references) (CK)

  13. Pollution of Osheepcheon Creek by abandoned coal mine drainage in Dogyae area, eastern part of Samcheok coal field, Kagwon-Do, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.-Y.

    1996-06-01

    . Osheepcheon Creek running through the Dogyae area is being polluted by the influx of the abandoned coal mine drainage. Generally, the more polluted water has lower pH and Eh and higher conductivity values. The concentrations of Mg, Ca, Fe, SO4, and some trace elements , such as Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, U and Zn, are tens to hundreds of times more concentrated in the abandoned coal mine drainage than in the unpolluted streamwater. However, most immobile toxic pollutants from the mine drainage are quickly removed from the streamwater by the precipitation of amorphous Fe hydroxide and sorption on the precipitated Fe hydroxide. The fast removal of the pollutants from the streamwater maintains the water quality of the creek as acceptable at most places along the stream path, except where the abandoned coal mine drainage flows in. However, the creek has the potential of deteriorating quickly if the mine drainage is allowed to be continously combined with the streams. A function of pH, Eh, and conductivity has been developed with discriminant function analysis for the purpose of easy, fast, and expensive measurements of the degrees of pollution of the streams. The estimated pollution of the streams with the discriminant function are consistent with what the chemical compositions of the water samples indicate. The pollution map of the study area was constructed from the calculated scores with the discriminant function. The pollution map suggests that the pollutants mainly come from the west side of Osheepcheon Creek. Thus, the abandoned coal mine drainage from the west side has to be appropriately treated as soon as possible to prevent Osheepcheon Creek from being further polluted. Considering the topography, climate, and the amount of the mine drainage, an active treatment method is recommended.

  14. 75 FR 32310 - Importation of Fresh Unshu Oranges from the Republic of Korea into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... certain areas in Japan and from Cheju Island, Republic of Korea (South Korea), into the United States... Japan and imported under permit into any area of the United States except for those areas specified in... officers of both Japan and the United States. The export areas must be surrounded by 400-meter-wide...

  15. A hail climatology in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Han-Gyul; Lee, Hyunho; Lkhamjav, Jambajamts; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2017-05-01

    A hail observation dataset for 1972-2013 is analyzed to examine the temporal and spatial distributions of hail occurrence in South Korea. Furthermore, using radiosonde data, three thermodynamic factors which are 700-500 hPa temperature lapse rate, water vapor mixing ratio in the lowest 100 hPa, and convective available potential energy (CAPE) and one dynamic factor which is 0-6 km bulk wind shear are calculated and their correlations with hail occurrence in South Korea are examined. Hail days per year in South Korea show a decreasing trend. The monthly variation of hail days exhibits double peaks in April and November. The minimum value of hail days appears in August, which is related to the high freezing-level height, the small midlevel temperature lapse rate, and the weak bulk wind shear. During a day, 44% of the whole hail events occur between 1200 and 1800 local standard time. Spatially, hail primarily occurs in the west coastal area and the east mountainous area of South Korea. Both the regions exhibit double peaks in the monthly variation of hail days, but the east mountainous area exhibits the later spring peak (May) and the lower hail frequency in late autumn compared to the west coastal area. The midlevel temperature lapse rate is strongly correlated with the monthly variation of hail occurrence. Hail is likely to occur when the low-level water vapor mixing ratio is in the range of 3-6 g kg- 1. CAPE is not strongly correlated with hail occurrence. The strong bulk wind shear is correlated with hail occurrence. The bulk wind shear is decreasing and the freezing-level height is increasing annually, which contributes to the annual decrease of hail occurrence.

  16. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook, Camp Casey, Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Detachment 20 30th Weather Squadron ram~ p VAA Kflrma II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...A-2 Cam~ p Stanley *.....................................e... A-S Map 1, Northwest Republic of Korea (1: 250,000 scale compositite of NJ 52-5 and NJ...F-S Section G - Synoptic Case Studies (filed in Case Study File) Section H - Terminal Forecast Work and Preparation Sheets . H-1 p

  17. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    CHOSON Reviews Korean Army 13 ECONOMIC Samsung Group Moves Toward Merger, Expansion 34 Production of Export Goods Diversified 35 Rapid Information...events and the income from the sale of TV broadcasting privileges." However, the IOC and the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) of Seoul have taken the...explanation into rumors that 6.5 million U.S. dollars was received as a commis- sion for Korea’s purchase of u.s. weapons during the Chon government, as

  18. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  19. Secondary Preservice Teachers Remember Their Favorite Writing Experience: Insights and Implications for Content Area Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy L.

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe secondary preservice teachers' (N = 113) past favorite writing experiences and its implications for including writing in their future instruction. (Methodology) Data was collected through a survey and drawings. (Results) Preservice teachers' written answers were helpful to inform specifically…

  20. English Educational Policies of the U.S. Army Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948 and Their Effects on the Development of English Language Teaching in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Gyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the English language teaching (ELT) policies and measures taken under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) from 1945 to 1948, in an attempt to illuminate their implications on the current ELT in Korea. The study analyzes data derived from documents of the Korean and the U.S. governments, literature on…

  1. English Educational Policies of the U.S. Army Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948 and Their Effects on the Development of English Language Teaching in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Gyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the English language teaching (ELT) policies and measures taken under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) from 1945 to 1948, in an attempt to illuminate their implications on the current ELT in Korea. The study analyzes data derived from documents of the Korean and the U.S. governments, literature on…

  2. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Areas influenced by multiple edges and their implications in fragmented landscapes

    Treesearch

    Qinglin Li; Jiquan Chen; Bo Song; Jacob L. LaCroix; Mary K. Breese; John A. Radmacher

    2007-01-01

    We introduced a new approach for delineating areas of multiple edge influence (AMEI) within a fragmented landscape using a geographic information system (GIS). AMEI was defined as the interface that is affected by more than two neighboring patch types. We decomposed AMEI into three components: AMEI1, the area where one patch type meets a different patch type; AMEI2,...

  4. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  5. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  6. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  7. Successful Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2009-01-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  8. Successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-12-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea.

  9. Past, present, and future of pharmacovigilance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Yoon; Ahn, Kyung-Min; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-01-01

    As an essential part of patient safety, pharmacovigilance is of worldwide interest and should expand its scope and focus on new emerging issues. South Korea has been making continuous efforts in the field of pharmacovigilance for the last 3 decades since voluntary adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system was first launched in 1988. Korea joined the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring in 1992, and the activities of Pharmacovigilance Research Network, Korean Society for Pharmacoepidemiology and Risk Management, and Regional Pharmacovigilance Center (RPVC) have contributed to the remarkable progress in the pharmacovigilance area and global status. RPVCs have played pivotal roles in establishment of pharmacovigilance system in Korea by monitoring voluntary ADR reports. RPVCs started with 3 hospitals in 2006 and have now expanded to 27 hospitals nationwide. The Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management was established in 2012 and in charge of operating the decentralized national pharmacovigilance system. The voluntary report of ADR, which is the basis of current pharmacovigilance system, has various limitations and an active surveillance system can be the overarching alternative. This change in pharmacovigilance paradigm is a global trend and Korea has excellent infrastructure such as broad distribution of electronic medical recording systems and a nationwide single healthcare insurance. As a result, the pharmacovigilance in Korea is now expected to progress to a new active surveillance system from traditional spontaneous reporting system. PMID:28765823

  10. Fermi large area telescope search for photon lines from 30 to 200 GeV and dark matter implications.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Carrigan, S; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Essig, R; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Llena Garde, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ripken, J; Ritz, S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sander, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2010-03-05

    Dark matter (DM) particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma rays readily distinguishable from astrophysical sources. gamma-ray line limits from 30 to 200 GeV obtained from 11 months of Fermi Large Area Space Telescope data from 20-300 GeV are presented using a selection based on requirements for a gamma-ray line analysis, and integrated over most of the sky. We obtain gamma-ray line flux upper limits in the range 0.6-4.5x10{-9} cm{-2} s{-1}, and give corresponding DM annihilation cross-section and decay lifetime limits. Theoretical implications are briefly discussed.

  11. Implications of heterogeneous impacts of protected areas on deforestation and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, Merlin M.; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a popular policy instrument in the global fight against loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the effectiveness of protected areas in preventing deforestation, and their impacts on poverty, are not well understood. Recent studies have found that Bolivia's protected-area system, on average, reduced deforestation and poverty. We implement several non-parametric and semi-parametric econometric estimators to characterize the heterogeneity in Bolivia's protected-area impacts on joint deforestation and poverty outcomes across a number of socioeconomic and biophysical moderators. Like previous studies from Costa Rica and Thailand, we find that Bolivia's protected areas are not associated with poverty traps. Our results also indicate that protection did not have a differential impact on indigenous populations. However, results from new multidimensional non-parametric estimators provide evidence that the biophysical characteristics associated with the greatest avoided deforestation are the characteristics associated with the potential for poverty exacerbation from protection. We demonstrate that these results would not be identified using the methods implemented in previous studies. Thus, this study provides valuable practical information on the impacts of Bolivia's protected areas for conservation practitioners and demonstrates methods that are likely to be valuable to researchers interested in better understanding the heterogeneity in conservation impacts. PMID:26460125

  12. Implications of heterogeneous impacts of protected areas on deforestation and poverty.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas are a popular policy instrument in the global fight against loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the effectiveness of protected areas in preventing deforestation, and their impacts on poverty, are not well understood. Recent studies have found that Bolivia's protected-area system, on average, reduced deforestation and poverty. We implement several non-parametric and semi-parametric econometric estimators to characterize the heterogeneity in Bolivia's protected-area impacts on joint deforestation and poverty outcomes across a number of socioeconomic and biophysical moderators. Like previous studies from Costa Rica and Thailand, we find that Bolivia's protected areas are not associated with poverty traps. Our results also indicate that protection did not have a differential impact on indigenous populations. However, results from new multidimensional non-parametric estimators provide evidence that the biophysical characteristics associated with the greatest avoided deforestation are the characteristics associated with the potential for poverty exacerbation from protection. We demonstrate that these results would not be identified using the methods implemented in previous studies. Thus, this study provides valuable practical information on the impacts of Bolivia's protected areas for conservation practitioners and demonstrates methods that are likely to be valuable to researchers interested in better understanding the heterogeneity in conservation impacts. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  14. Veterans' Location in Health Professional Shortage Areas: Implications for Access to Care and Workforce Supply.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jamie Mihoko; Streeter, Robin A

    2017-02-01

    To describe the distribution of Veterans in areas of the United States where there are potentially inadequate supplies of health professionals, and to explore opportunities suggested by this distribution for fostering health workforce flexibility. County-level data from the 2015-2016 Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Area Health Resources Files (AHRF) were used to estimate Veteran populations in HRSA-designated health professional shortage areas (HPSAs). This information was then linked to 2015 VA health facility information from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Potential Veteran populations living in Shortage Area Counties with no VHA facilities were estimated, and the composition of these populations was explored by Census division and state. Nationwide, approximately 24 percent of all Veterans and 23 percent of Veterans enrolled in VHA health care live in Shortage Area Counties. These estimates mask considerable variation across states. An examination of Veterans residing in Shortage Area Counties suggests extensive maldistribution of health services across the United States and the continued need to find ways to improve health care access for all Veterans. Effective avenues for doing so may include increasing health workforce flexibility through expansion of nurse practitioner scopes of practice. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  16. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  17. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  18. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  19. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  20. Size-dependent leaf area ratio in plant twigs: implication for leaf size optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J.; Xiang, Shuang; Sun, Shucun

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Although many hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in leaf size, the mechanism underlying the variation remains not fully understood. To help understand leaf size variation, the cost/benefit of twig size was analysed, since, according to Corner's rule, twig size is positively correlated with the size of appendages the twig bears. Methods An extensive survey of twig functional traits, including twig (current-year shoots including one stem and few leaves) and leaf size (individual leaf area and mass), was conducted for 234 species from four broadleaved forests. The scaling relationship between twig mass and leaf area was determined using standardized major axis regression and phylogenetic independent comparative analyses. Key Results Leaf area was found to scale positively and allometrically with both stem and twig mass (stem mass plus leaf mass) with slopes significantly smaller than 1·0, independent of life form and habitat type. Thus, the leaf area ratio (the ratio of total leaf area to stem or twig mass) decreases with increasing twig size. Moreover, the leaf area ratio correlated negatively with individual leaf mass. The results of phylogenetic independent comparativeanalyses were consistent with the correlations. Based on the above results, a simple model for twig size optimization was constructed, from which it is postulated that large leaf size–twig size may be favoured when leaf photosynthetic capacity is high and/or when leaf life span and/or stem longevity are long. The model's predictions are consistent with leaf size variation among habitats, in which leaf size tends to be small in poor habitats with a low primary productivity. The model also explains large variations in leaf size within habitats for which leaf longevity and stem longevity serve as important determinants. Conclusions The diminishing returns in the scaling of total leaf area with twig size can be explained in terms of a very simple model on twig size

  1. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  2. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  3. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  4. Assessment of Cropland Water and Nitrogen Balance from Climate Change in Korea Peninsular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. H.; Song, C.; Kim, T.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    If crop growth is based on cropland productivity, the changes are due to changes in water and nitrogen balance from climate. In this study, order to estimation the change in cropland water and nitrogen balance in Korea peninsular using meteorological data observed last 30 years(1984-2013y). And we used soil, topography and management data about cropland. So as to estimating water and nitrogen variables, we used to the GIS based EPIC model that is major crop model in agro-ecosystem modelling field. Among the much of water and nitrogen variables, we selected to evapotranspiration, runoff, precipitation, nitrification, N lost, N contents and denitrification for this analysis. This selected variables associate with cropland water and nitrogen balance.First result, we can found the water balance changes in Korea peninsular, especially South Korea better condition than North Korea. In North Korea, evapotranspiration and precipitation result were lower than South Korea, but runoff result was bigger than South Korea. And we got a result about nitrogen balance changes in Korea peninsular from climate. In spatially, South and North Korea showed to similar condition on nitrogen balance in whole period. But in temporally, showed negative trends as time goes on, it caused by climate change. Overall condition of water and nitrogen balance on last 30 years in Korea peninsular, South Korea showed better condition than North Korea. Water and nitrogen balance change means have to be changed on agriculture management action, such as irrigation and fertilizer. In future period, climate change will cause a large effect to cropland water and nitrogen balance in mid-latitude area, so we have to prepare the change of this field for wise adaptation by climate change.

  5. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA--AREA III--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF NONFARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, A TOTAL OF 443 FIRMS AND AGENCIES IN 12 PARISHES (EXCLUDING TWO METROPOLITAN AREAS) WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE (1) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ACCORDING TO JOB TITLES, (2) AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED, (3) CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF JOBS, AND (4) TRENDS IN…

  6. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTHEAST LOUISIANA--AREA IV--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, AN INTERVIEW SURVEY OF 207 FARM-BASED FIRMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN AREA, EXCLUDING BATON ROUGE AND NEW ORLEANS, WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE (1) THE IDENTITY OF BUSINESSES AND ORGANIZATIONS HAVING EMPLOYEES WHO NEEDED AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, (2) INFORMATION ABOUT JOBS, AND (3)…

  7. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  8. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN NORTHWEST LOUISIANA--AREA I--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, AN INTERVIEW SURVEY OF 233 AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES AND AGENCIES IN THE 10-PARISH AREA IN THE NORTHWESTERN SECTION WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY FIRMS WITH EMPLOYEES NEEDING AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, (2) IDENTIFY AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR ENTRY AND…

  9. Research on Vocabulary Instruction in the Content Areas: Implications for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Hedrick, Wanda B.; Wood, Karen D.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current knowledge about vocabulary teaching and learning--understandings that influence learning across different disciplines. Research on the teaching and learning of vocabulary in particular subject matter areas, including mathematics, social studies, and science, is discussed. Based upon the instructional…

  10. Research Implications for Writing in the Content Areas. What Research Says to the Teacher. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Joanne M.

    The ideas of John Dewey and his fellow progressives have resurfaced in a movement called "writing across the curriculum." Interdisciplinary studies are now being seen as a way to break down the artificial boundaries between subject areas. Research has confirmed that language learning and experience are at the heart of education. The implications…

  11. A Case Study on Accessibility of School in Tribal Areas and Its Implications on Educational Inclusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajankar, Vishal D.

    2016-01-01

    Schools accessibility has been areas of concern for the development and proliferation of the education system in any developing nation. India is no exception to the same. Since the time India gained independence efforts have been made to provide inclusiveness in the dissemination of educational facilities across the nation. However, geographical…

  12. Forest area and distribution in the Mississippi alluvial valley: Implications for breeding bird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Knowing the current forest distribution and patch size characteristics is integral to the development of geographically defined, habitat-based conservation objectives for breeding birds. Towards this end, we classified 2.6 million ha of forest cover within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley using 1992 thematic mapper satellite imagery. Although historically this area, from southern Illinois to southern Louisiana, was dominated by forested wetlands, forest cover remains on less than 25% of the floodplain. Remaining forest cover is comprised of > 38,000 discrete forest patches > 2 ha. Mean patch area (64.1?5.2 ha; 0 ?SE) was highly skewed towards small fragment size. Larger patches had a higher proportion of more hydric forest cover classes than did smaller patches which had a higher proportion of less hydric forest cover classes. Public lands accounted for 16% of remaining forested wetlands. Fewer than 100 forest patches exceeded our hypothesized habitat objective (4000 ha minimum contiguous forest area) intended to support self-sustaining populations of forest breeding birds. To increase the number of forest patches exceeding 4000 ha contiguous area, and thereby increase the likelihood of successful forest bird conservation, we recommend afforestation adjoining existing forest fragments ?1012 ha and focused within designated Forest Bird Conservation Regions.

  13. [Groundwater quality in two arid areas of Morocco: impact of pollution on biodiversity and paleogeographic implications].

    PubMed

    Boughrous, A A; Yacoubi Khebiza, M; Boulanouar, M; Boutin, C; Messana, G

    2007-11-01

    The biodiversity and the quality of subterranean waters have been comparatively studied in the Haouz plain near Marrakesh and in the Tafilalet, in south-eastern Morocco. For this purpose, physicochemical and faunistic analyses were carried out on the water of ten wells and springs located in the area of Marrakesh, and in Errachidia area respectively. In the wells of Marrakesh, the average stygobiologic diversity is relatively high in the wells located upstream the dumping from the city where the ground water presents low contents of nitrates and orthophosphates. In contrast, the wells located in the spreading zone of Marrakesh wastewaters are characterized by the scarcity or the absence of stygobitic species; in these latter wells, the water is highly polluted. It is rich in nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and the conductivity is rather high. In the area of Errachidia the faunistic inventory gathers some ten species, some of which are living in hot springs. The subterranean water is highly mineralised. In the two studied areas, the biodiversity decreases when well water is locally polluted, and the subterranean fauna completely disappears if the degree of contamination is important. This relation between the biodiversity and water quality which had already appeared in surface water, is confirmed within the wells of Marrakech. The groundwater fauna of both two areas presents similarities in relation to their geological history, mainly the various marine cycles of marine transgressions-regressions, which were at the origin of the settlement of the ancestors of the extant species, and the Atlasic orogenesis which separated the common ancestral populations into two separated stocks, involving a different evolution of the ancestors and a resulting speciation by vicariance.

  14. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Bridget L.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Bromen, Nicholas A.; Cassidy, Kira A.; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W.; Prugh, Laura R.

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997–2013 and YNP from 2008–2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies. PMID:27124729

  15. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borg, Bridget L; Arthur, Stephen M; Bromen, Nicholas A; Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W; Prugh, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  16. Marine protected area design patterns in the Mediterranean Sea: Implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Blanco, J M; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-09-15

    Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA) design patterns regarding geographic distribution, size, spacing and shape were analysed as a proxy of the region's MPA's ecological effectiveness and a first step towards an ecologically coherent MPA network. Results for legally designated MPAs and ecologically functional MPAs accounting for overlaps are presented. Geographically, Mediterranean MPA area is very unevenly distributed, with four-fifths concentrated in just three countries of the north-western part of the basin. Average distance between functional MPAs lies within recommended ecological thresholds, which suggests adequate potential connectivity of the Mediterranean MPA system. Mediterranean designated MPAs are larger than MPAs worldwide on average, although they are generally smaller than international guidance suggests at different levels: ecoregion, country and designation category. On average, Mediterranean designated and functional MPAs have relatively high compactness, which makes them prone to spillover and adequate viability, and less vulnerable to edge effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Trend Toward Free Trade Areas: Economic Consequences and Policy Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    and controllable adjustment Costs."’: Jagdish Bhagwati , who is often described as the leading academic opponent of regional agreements, has argued that...reduced in April 1991 to seven, complexity and functional linkages between issue areas has made consensus across the negotiating groups difficult...position on agricultural export subsidy reform." American negotiators walked out. 27 Talks were resumed in March 1991 as a result of an understanding

  18. The Concept of Directly Connected Impervious Areas and Its Implication on Sustainable Development in Urban Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yongwon; Hwang, Junsik; Choi, Hyun Il

    2017-04-01

    The concept of directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or efficient impervious areas (EIA) refers to a subset of impervious cover, which is directly connected to a drainage system or a water body via continuous impervious surfaces. The concept of DCIA is important in that it is regarded as a better predictor of stream ecosystem health than the total impervious area (TIA). DCIA is a key concept for a better assessment of green infrastructures introduced in urban catchments. Green infrastructure can help restore water cycle; it improves water quality, manages stormwater, provides recreational environment even at lower cost compared to conventional alternatives. In this study, we evaluated several methods to obtain the DCIA based on a GIS database and showed the importance of the accurate measurement of DCIA in terms of resulting hydrographs. We also evaluated several potential green infrastructure scenarios and showed how the spatial planning of green infrastruesture affects the shape of hydrographs and reduction of peak flows. These results imply that well-planned green infrastructure can be introduced to urban catchments for flood risk managements and quantitative assessment of spatial distribution of DCIA is crucial for sustainable development in urban environment.

  19. Implications of macroalgal isolation by distance for networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Halley M S; Burridge, Christopher P; Kelaher, Brendan P; Barrett, Neville S; Edgar, Graham J; Coleman, Melinda A

    2014-04-01

    The global extent of macroalgal forests is declining, greatly affecting marine biodiversity at broad scales through the effects macroalgae have on ecosystem processes, habitat provision, and food web support. Networks of marine protected areas comprise one potential tool that may safeguard gene flow among macroalgal populations in the face of increasing population fragmentation caused by pollution, habitat modification, climate change, algal harvesting, trophic cascades, and other anthropogenic stressors. Optimal design of protected area networks requires knowledge of effective dispersal distances for a range of macroalgae. We conducted a global meta-analysis based on data in the published literature to determine the generality of relation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance among macroalgal populations. We also examined whether spatial genetic variation differed significantly with respect to higher taxon, life history, and habitat characteristics. We found clear evidence of population isolation by distance across a multitude of macroalgal species. Genetic and geographic distance were positively correlated across 49 studies; a modal distance of 50-100 km maintained F(ST) < 0.2. This relation was consistent for all algal divisions, life cycles, habitats, and molecular marker classes investigated. Incorporating knowledge of the spatial scales of gene flow into the design of marine protected area networks will help moderate anthropogenic increases in population isolation and inbreeding and contribute to the resilience of macroalgal forests. ©2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Atmospheric Mercury in the Barnett Shale Area, Texas: Implications for Emissions from Oil and Gas Processing.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Laine, Patrick; Torres, Azucena; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions in the Barnett Shale area were studied by employing both stationary measurements and mobile laboratory surveys. Stationary measurements near the Engle Mountain Lake showed that the median mixing ratio of total gaseous mercury (THg) was 138 ppqv (140 ± 29 ppqv for mean ± S.D.) during the June 2011 study period. A distinct diurnal variation pattern was observed in which the highest THg levels appeared near midnight, followed by a monotonic decrease until midafternoon. The influence of oil and gas (ONG) emissions was substantial in this area, as inferred from the i-pentane/n-pentane ratio (1.17). However, few THg plumes were captured by our mobile laboratory during a ∼3700 km survey with detailed downwind measurements from 50 ONG facilities. One compressor station and one natural gas condensate processing facility were found to have significant THg emissions, with maximum THg levels of 963 and 392 ppqv, respectively, and the emissions rates were estimated to be 7.9 kg/yr and 0.3 kg/yr, respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of ONG facilities in this area are not significant sources of THg; however, it is highly likely that a small number of these facilities contribute a relatively large amount of emissions in the ONG sector.

  1. Caledonian granitoids in the Jinxiu area, Guangxi, South China: Implications for their tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Yu, Yong; Wang, Chunzeng

    2017-02-01

    Jinxiu area is tectonically located between the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks of South China. The area has three granitic plutons, Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons. Geochemically the plutons are high-K calc-alkaline, depleted in Ba, Sr, P, and Ti and rich in Pb, with decoupled Nb and Ta, and show non-island-arc magmatic affinity. Biotite monzogranite samples collected from the Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons yield zircon SHRIMP 206Pb/238U ages of 419.0 ± 5.0 Ma, 436.0 ± 4.0 Ma, and 446.1 ± 8.2 Ma, respectively, indicating that the plutons were emplaced during the Late Ordovician to Late Silurian of the Caledonian time. The granodiorite within the Lingzu biotite monzogranite pluton yields a zircon 206Pb/238U age of 174.5 ± 1.9 Ma, indicating a superimposed Late Jurassic magmatic event. The monzogranites and their enclaves show εNd(t) values of - 14.7 to - 11.1 and - 8.0 respectively and TDM2 values of 2.1-2.4 Ga and 1.8 Ga, respectively, demonstrating that the magmas were derived from re-melted Paleoproterozoic continental crust. Based on geochronology and geochemistry of the granitic plutons, as well as regional stratigraphy and paleontology, it is concluded that any existence of oceanic crust and oceanic subduction was unlikely in the Jinxiu area and vicinity during the Paleozoic Caledonian Ordovician-Silurian time.

  2. Upper Triassic reef coral fauna in the Renacuo area, northern Tibet, and its implications for palaeobiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, JingFang; Wang, XunLian; Gao, JinHan; Yao, JianXin; Wang, GenHou; Hou, EnGang

    2017-09-01

    Upper Triassic reef corals from the Riganpeicuo Formation in northern Tibet represent important scleractinian coral fauna that help explain the palaeobiogeography of the eastern Tethys region during the Late Triassic period. The corals were discovered in bedded limestone in patch reefs or biostromes of the Renacuo area. In this paper, 15 genera and 25 species are identified and categorized, the systematic composition of these corals and their relationships with other Triassic coral faunas are also discussed. The results show that these corals are composed of the typical elements of the western Tethys, with the following genera and species that are endemic to China: Radiophyllia cf. astylatus, Margarosmilia zogangensis and Conophyllopsis qamdoensis, and the genera Retiophyllia, Margarosmilia, Hydrasmilia, Procyclolites, Pamiroseris, Araiophyllum, Stylophyllopsis, Stylophyllum and Guembelastraea provide important links to the Tethys province. The coral fauna also highlights the connection between the Qiangtang terrane and the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt, but shows that the areas are distinct from the Himalayan terrane. It has been interpreted that the Qiangtang terrane and the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt were in the vicinity of the gradually-closed Paleo-Tethys Ocean, which resulted in the free transmigration of the benthonic organisms of these areas. On the other hand, the Himalayan terrane was separated from the Qiangtang terrane by a wide ocean-meso Tethys during the Late Triassic period, which made it impossible for the benthonic organisms on both flanks to freely migrate toward the opposite continental margins.

  3. Bajocian ammonoids from Pumani River area (Ayacucho, Peru): Palaeobiogeographical and palaeoenvironmental implications for the Arequipa Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sixto; Carlotto, Victor; Giraldo, Edwin; Chacaltana, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Deposits of the Socosani Formation in the Pucayacu and Pumani sections (Ayacucho Department, Peru), along several kilometres, have yielded Upper Bajocian ammonoid fossil-assemblages characterized by the occurrence of juvenile individuals belonging to endemic or pandemic genera, such as Megasphaeroceras and Spiroceras respectively. In addition, certain Bajocian genera relatively common in the Mediterranean-Caucasian Subrealm, but very scarce in the Eastern Pacific Subrealm, such as the strigoceratid Cadomoceras and the phylloceratid Adabofoloceras, occur in this area. According to the taphonomic, palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical evidence from the Pumani River area, the maximum deepening, relative sea-level rise and oceanic accessibility of a Bajocian-Bathonian, second-order, transgressive/regressive facies cycle in the marine Arequipa Basin were reached during the Late Bajocian Niortense Biochron. However, synsedimentary regional tectonics in the Pumani River area disturbed this general deepening/shallowing cycle of the Arequipa Basin, particularly during the Late Bajocian post-Niortense time-interval of the Garantiana and Parkinsoni biochrons.

  4. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  5. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  6. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D.; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Methodology Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Principal Findings Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Conclusions Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Significance Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions. PMID:20657777

  7. Startle-induced seizures associated with infantile hemiplegia: implication of the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melinda A; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Iida, Koji; Minassian, Berge A

    2005-03-01

    This case illustrates an uncommon form of symptomatic startle-induced epilepsy associated with infantile hemiplegia. Seizure semiology, neuroimaging and neurophysiological findings support involvement of the supplementary motor area in the generation of this seizure type. We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an uncommon form of startle-induced seizures, illustrated on video-EEG, against the background of left infantile hemiplegia associated with extensive right hemispheric porencephaly but preserved cognitive functioning. The epileptic focus appears to be in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, with seizure semiology involving the supplementary motor cortex.

  8. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  9. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  10. Resource use of Japanese macaques in heavy snowfall areas: implications for habitat management.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-07-01

    Populations of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) that inhabit the northernmost distribution of any nonhuman primates have been listed as endangered in Japan; however, macaques are widely known for being pests that cause agricultural damage. This study identified priority areas for the conservation and management of macaque habitats, by comparing the resource use of troops occupying remote mountains (montane troops) against troops inhabiting disturbed forests adjacent to settlements (rural troops). We collected species presence data across 2 years by radio-tracking two montane troops and two rural troops in the Shirakami Mountains. We developed seasonal utilization distributions by using the kernel method, and identified habitat characteristics by using ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA). Our results indicate that environmental factors influencing the potential habitat varied widely with season in montane troops as compared with that in rural troops. ENFA results demonstrated that rural troops exhibited more biased resource use and narrower niche breadths than montane troops. Based on our findings, we propose that (1) primary broadleaf forests are the spring habitat conservation priority of montane troops; (2) the habitat unit--the product of habitat suitability index and its surface area--for montane troops is enhanced by removing old conifer plantations from the forest edge at low elevations; (3) such removal around settlements may also contribute toward removing a frontline refuge for rural troops intruding farmlands; and (4) intensive prevention measures against macaque intrusions into settlements during the bottleneck snowy season contribute toward reducing the habitat unit of rural troops.

  11. Detailed crustal thickness variations beneath the Illinois Basin area: Implications for crustal evolution of the midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaotao; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Gilbert, Hersh; Rupp, John; Larson, Timothy H.; Chen, Chen; Carpenter, N. Seth

    2017-08-01

    We present high-resolution imaging results of crustal and upper mantle velocity discontinuities across the Illinois Basin area using both common conversion point stacking and plane wave migration methods applied to P wave receiver functions from the EarthScope Ozark, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky experiment. The images reveal unusually thick crust (up to 62 km) throughout the central and southeastern Illinois Basin area. A significant Moho gradient underlies the NW trending Ste. Genevieve Fault Zone, which delineates the boundary between the Illinois Basin and Ozark Dome. Relatively thinner crust (<45 km) underlies most of the Precambrian highlands surrounding the Illinois Basin and beneath the rift-related structures of the Reelfoot Rift and the Rough Creek Graben. We consider four hypotheses to explain the presence of thick crust under the central and southeastern Illinois Basin. Crustal thickening may have been produced (1) prior to its accretion to North America around 1.55 Ga and is an inherited characteristic of this crustal province; (2) by underthrusting or shortening during Proterozoic convergent margin tectonics around 1.55-1.35 Ga; (3) by Late Precambrian magmatic underplating at the base of older crust, associated with the creation of the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province around 1.3 Ga; and (4) through crustal "relamination" during an episode of Proterozoic flat-slab subduction beneath the Illinois Basin, possibly associated with the Grenville Orogeny.

  12. Attitudes towards mental illness in the Athens area: implications for community mental health intervention.

    PubMed

    Madianos, M G; Madianou, D; Vlachonikolis, J; Stefanis, C N

    1987-02-01

    Attitudes towards mental illness were measured in a probability sample of 1574 male and female adults, residents of two boroughs in the greater Athens area before the development of community mental health services in the area. The objective of this study was to identify the components of these attitudes, taking into account the fact that public opinions about mental illness influence the utilization of community mental health services and the level of reintegration of the mentally disabled into society. The instrument used to measure attitudinal dimensions was the Cohen and Struening Opinion about Mental Illness (O.M.I.) scale. Factor analysis revealed five attitude dimensions: social discrimination, social restriction, social care, integration, and etiology. Among the socio-demographic variables age, education, occupational status and place of residence up to 18 years of age affected the factors mainly, reflecting social discrimination and restriction. O.M.I. factor scores underlying the need for social care and reintegration of the mentally ill into society were found to be socially invariant, implying the need for social care and more humane treatment methods for mental patients. Certain population groups responded with rejection or suspicion and considerable fear of the mentally ill, indicating the necessity for the planning of appropriate community mental health intervention programs parallel to the development of community mental health services and psychiatric reforms in Greece.

  13. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  14. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Geochemical characterization of a Holocene aeolian profile in the Zhongba area (southern Tibet, China) and its paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuoyu; Wu, Yongqiu; Du, Shisong; Huang, Wenmin; Hao, Chengzhi; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Tianyang

    2016-03-01

    The Zhongba area lies in the valley of the Maquan River in southern Tibet, where there are both strong modern aeolian activities and ancient aeolian sand sediments. A Holocene aeolian sand and paleosol profile in the Zhongba area was selected for study and termed (Zhuzhu (ZZ) profile). The chronology of the ZZ profile was established by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating. Based on the grain size and geochemical elements of the ZZ profile, the geochemical characterization was analyzed, the Holocene aeolian activity processes were reconstructed in the study area, and the paleoclimatic implications were discussed. The major elements and the chemical indicators are highly correlated with different grain-sizes in the ZZ profile. The evolutionary sequence of the aeolian activities and the paleoclimate in Holocene reveal four stages: before 7.3 ka BP, the climate was warm and wet with weak winds when the sand paleosol developed; at 7.3-3.8 ka BP, the climate turned dry, with strong aeolian activities; at 3.8-0.7 ka BP, the climate became wetter and the winds weakened when the silt paleosol developed; and since 0.7 ka BP, it was cold and dry with strong aeolian activities.

  16. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  17. Norms for Behavior and Conditions in Two National Park Campgrounds in Korea

    PubMed

    Kim; Shelby

    1998-03-01

    / This study was conducted to examine norm prevalence, norm agreement, and norm stability in an international setting. Data were collected at two campgrounds in Chiri-Mountain National Park, Korea, in 1993 and 1994. Results showed that a high proportion of users could specify norms for various types of campground impacts. Users who rated high importance on impacts tended to show a higher level of norm prevalence. Generally there were differences in social norms and norm agreement across locations. Among those impacts that showed differences, social norms in a less developed area were more restrictive and norm agreement was higher. The results of this study are consistent with normative studies conducted in North America, suggesting that a normative approach can be applied in a variety of settings. Social norms for selected impact indicators were also stable over a one-year time period. Implications are discussed.KEY WORDS: Norms; Norm prevalence; Norm agreement; Norm stability

  18. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea.

  20. [Social inclusion of disabled people: achievements, challenges and implications for the nursing area].

    PubMed

    de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the testimonies of disabled people about the concreteness of the social inclusion process, as well as to articulate their testimonies with the directives of Law 3289/99. Eighteen people were interviewed, six of which were physically disabled, six visually disabled, and six had hearing disabilities. Data were standardized and categorized in two meaning cores: pre-inclusivist and inclusivist guidelines of the disabled person. The methodological perspective was discourse analysis. In conclusion, these subjects had achievements in legislation that guarantees their rights to citizenship, but there are challenges in the areas of healthcare, education, professional training and insertion in the job market. The rehabilitation nurses must know the experiences of these subjects and their relatives to help them with strategies of coping for the problems affecting their inclusion, and consequently their health.

  1. Trace element geochemistry of soils and plants in Kenyan conservation areas and implications for wildlife nutrition.

    PubMed

    Maskall, J; Thornton, I

    1991-06-01

    Trace element concentrations in soils, plants and animals in National Parks and Wildlife Reserves in Kenya are assessed using geochemical mapping techniques. Soil trace element concentrations are shown to be related to soil parent material and possibly to pedological and hydrological factors. At Lake Nakuru National Park, plant trace element concentrations vary with plant species and the geochemical conditions that influence uptake are discussed. Impala at Lake Nakuru National Park and black rhino at Solio Wildlife Reserve are shown to have a lower blood copper status than animals from other areas. The trace element status of wildlife is assessed also with respect to critical concentrations used for domestic ruminants. It is suggested that at Lake Nakuru National Park, the low soil copper content and high molybdenum content of some plants contributes to the low copper status of impala and may also influence the nutrition of other species.

  2. Implications of ground-deformation measurements across earth fissures in subsidence areas in the southwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Ground deformation was monitored at earth fissures in areas of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction in the southwestern United States. The ground deformation is consistent with the mechanism that fissures are caused by horizontal strains generated by bending of overburden in response to localized differential compaction. Subsidence profiles indicated that localized differential subsidence occurred across the fissures and that maximum convex-upward curvature was at the fissure. The overall shape of the profile stayed similar with time, and maximum curvature remained stationary at the fissure. Horizontal displacements were largest near the fissure, and generally were small to negligible away from the fissure. Maximum tensile horizontal strains were at the fissure and coincided with maximum curvature in the subsidence profiles. Horizontal tensile strain continued to accumulate at fissures after they formed with rates of opening ranging from 30 to 120 microstrain/year at fissures in Arizona.

  3. ASEAN free-trade area and its implications on the battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrucho, Peter D., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    In February, 1992, the six ASEAN member nations agreed to reduce tariffs and thus, eventually, to create an ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) over 15 years. AFTA will lead to more competition in the high-growth ASEAN battery domestic market. Already about ten companies from four countries export both to markets that are rigorous in quality (e.g., the USA and Australia) and to heavily discounted markets, e.g., the Middle East. To date, however, these manufacturers rarely sell to other ASEAN markets outside their home country. AFTA should also encourage manufacturers of battery equipment, mould making, separators, battery electricals, and testing equipment to locate their facilities in an ASEAN country. Technology and productivity is high and wages are reasonable in ASEAN nations and with AFTA, the markets are larger. Manufacturing complementation programmes will also become an attractive option.

  4. Identifying Areas Suitable for the Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever in North Africa: Implications for Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Arsevska, E; Hellal, J; Mejri, S; Hammami, S; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2016-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has caused widespread outbreaks throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with serious consequences for livestock-based economies and public health. Although there have never been any reports of RVF in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, it is a priority disease in the Maghreb, due to the threat of introduction of the virus through transboundary livestock movements or infected mosquito vectors. However, the implementation of surveillance activities and early warning contingency plans requires better knowledge of the epidemiological situation. We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis, integrating host distribution with a combination of important ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance, to identify hotspots and suitable time periods for RVF enzootic circulation (i.e. stable transmission at a low to moderate level for an extended period of time) and an RVF epizootic event (i.e. a sudden occurrence of a large number of infected animals over a large geographic area) in the Maghreb. We also modelled vector species distribution using available information on vector presence and habitat preference. We found that the northern regions of the Maghreb were moderately suitable for RVF enzootics, but highly suitable for RVF epizootics. The vector species distribution model identified these regions as the most favourable mosquito habitats. Due to the low density of animal hosts and arid conditions, the desert region showed low RVF suitability, except in oases. However, the presence of competent vectors in putative unsuitable areas underlines the need for further assessments of mosquito habitat preference. This study produced monthly RVF suitability maps useful for animal health managers and veterinary services involved in designing risk-based surveillance programmes. The suitability maps can be further enhanced using existing country-specific sources of information and by incorporating knowledge

  5. Equity in Educational Resources at the School Level in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Myung Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzed the equity of resources at the elementary school level in Korea using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The data included 2,327 Korean public elementary schools in 101 Local Governments within five Local Educational Offices (LEOs). This study found that schools in low property tax per resident areas receive fewer grants,…

  6. Equity in Educational Resources at the School Level in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Myung Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzed the equity of resources at the elementary school level in Korea using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The data included 2,327 Korean public elementary schools in 101 Local Governments within five Local Educational Offices (LEOs). This study found that schools in low property tax per resident areas receive fewer grants,…

  7. Tissue parasitic helminthiases are prevalent at Cheongjin, North Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chenghua; Li, Shunyu; Zheng, Shanzi; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a small-scale serological survey to screen tissue-parasitic helminthiases of North Koreans as one of research programs for re-unification of Korea. Soil-transmitted helminthiases were found highly prevalent among North Korean residents at the border with China. ELISA using 4 tissue-parasitic helminth antigens was applied to 137 residents living in Cheongjin-shi, Hamgyeongbuk-do, North Korea and 133 female refugees in South Korea in 2004-2005. Among a total of 270 samples, 31 (11.5%), 25 (9.3%), and 11 (4.1%) were positive for specific IgG antibodies to antigens of Clonorchis sinensis, Taenia solium metacestode, and sparganum, respectively. The overall positive rate was 21.5%; 38.2% in males and 15.8% in females. The present finding suggests that tissue parasites, such as C. sinensis, T. solium metacestode and sparganum are highly prevalent in some limited areas of North Korea. These foodborne tissue-parasitic helminthiases should be considered for future control measures of parasitic diseases in North Korea. PMID:17570978

  8. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  9. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

  10. Tissue parasitic helminthiases are prevalent at Cheongjin, North Korea.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenghua; Li, Shunyu; Zheng, Shanzi; Choi, Min Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Hong, Sung Tae

    2007-06-01

    We investigated a small-scale serological survey to screen tissue-parasitic helminthiases of North Koreans as one of research programs for re-unification of Korea. Soil-transmitted helminthiases were found highly prevalent among North Korean residents at the border with China. ELISA using 4 tissue-parasitic helminth antigens was applied to 137 residents living in Cheongjin-shi, Hamgyeongbuk-do, North Korea and 133 female refugees in South Korea in 2004-2005. Among a total of 270 samples, 31 (11.5%), 25 (9.3%), and 11 (4.1%) were positive for specific IgG antibodies to antigens of Clonorchis sinensis, Taenia solium metacestode, and sparganum, respectively. The overall positive rate was 21.5%; 38.2% in males and 15.8% in females. The present finding suggests that tissue parasites, such as C. sinensis, T. solium metacestode and sparganum are highly prevalent in some limited areas of North Korea. These foodborne tissue-parasitic helminthiases should be considered for future control measures of parasitic diseases in North Korea.

  11. Population dynamics and threats to an apex predator outside protected areas: implications for carnivore management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Samual T; Williams, Kathryn S; Lewis, Bradley P; Hill, Russell A

    2017-04-01

    Data on the population dynamics and threats to large carnivores are vital to conservation efforts, but these are hampered by a paucity of studies. For some species, such as the leopard (Panthera pardus), there is such uncertainty in population trends that leopard trophy hunting has been banned in South Africa since 2016 while further data on leopard abundance are collected. We present one of the first assessments of leopard population dynamics, and identify the key threats to a population of leopards outside of protected areas in South Africa. We conducted a long-term trap survey between 2012 and 2016 in the Soutpansberg Mountains, and drew on a previous estimate of leopard population density for the region from 2008. In 24 sampling periods, we estimated the population density and assessed population structure. We fitted eight leopards with GPS collars to assess threats to the population. Leopard population density declined by 66%, from 10.73 to 3.65 leopards per 100 km(2) in 2008 and 2016, respectively. Collared leopards had a high mortality rate, which appeared to be due to illegal human activity. While improving the management of trophy hunting is important, we suggest that mitigating human-wildlife conflict could have a bigger impact on carnivore conservation.

  12. Ultrasound Assessment of the Rectus Femoris Cross-Sectional Area: Subject Position Implications.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Garkova, Miglena

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of the rectus femoris (RF) is a novel, proxy measure for muscle strength. The impact of hip flexion/head of bed positioning on RF cross-sectional area (CSA) has not been fully explored. This study describes and compares differences in RF CSA across four degrees of hip flexion. This repeated-measures, comparative study enrolled healthy, pre-menopausal women (n = 20). RF CSA of the dominant leg was measured using the SonoSite M-Turbo ultrasound system with the head of bed at 0°, 20°, 30°, and 60°. One-way repeated measures indicated significant differences in RF CSA, F(3, 17) = 14.18, p < .001, with variation in hip flexion/head of bed elevation and significant RF CSA differences between: (a) 0° and 20°, (b) 0° and 30°, (c) 0° and 60°, and (d) 20° and 60°. Standardizing patient positioning when conducting ultrasonic measurement of RF CSA is vital for researchers who assess muscle mass. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  14. Environmental implications on the oxygenation of gasoline with ethanol in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Vera, M; Díaz, L; Guzmán, E; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2001-05-15

    Motor vehicle emission tests were performed on 12 in-use light duty vehicles, made up of the most representative emission control technologies in Mexico City: no catalyst, oxidative catalyst, and three way catalyst. Exhaust regulated (CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons) and toxic (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene) emissions were evaluated for MTBE (5 vol %)- and ethanol (3, 6, and 10 vol %)-gasoline blends. The most significant overall emissions variations derived from the use of 6 vol % ethanol (relative to a 5% MTBE base gasoline) were 16% decrease in CO, 28% reduction in formaldehyde, and 80% increase in acetaldehyde emissions. A 26% reduction in CO emissions from the oldest fleet (< MY 1991, without catalytic converter), which represents about 44% of the in-use light duty vehicles in Mexico city, can be attained when using 6 vol% ethanol-gasoline, without significant variation in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions, when compared with a 5% vol MTBE-gasoline. On the basis of the emissions results, an estimation of the change in the motor vehicle emissions of the metropolitan area of Mexico city was calculated for the year 2010 if ethanol were to be used instead of MTBE, and the outcome was a considerable decrease in all regulated and toxic emissions, despite the growing motor vehicle population.

  15. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity.

  16. Population dynamics and threats to an apex predator outside protected areas: implications for carnivore management

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bradley P.

    2017-01-01

    Data on the population dynamics and threats to large carnivores are vital to conservation efforts, but these are hampered by a paucity of studies. For some species, such as the leopard (Panthera pardus), there is such uncertainty in population trends that leopard trophy hunting has been banned in South Africa since 2016 while further data on leopard abundance are collected. We present one of the first assessments of leopard population dynamics, and identify the key threats to a population of leopards outside of protected areas in South Africa. We conducted a long-term trap survey between 2012 and 2016 in the Soutpansberg Mountains, and drew on a previous estimate of leopard population density for the region from 2008. In 24 sampling periods, we estimated the population density and assessed population structure. We fitted eight leopards with GPS collars to assess threats to the population. Leopard population density declined by 66%, from 10.73 to 3.65 leopards per 100 km2 in 2008 and 2016, respectively. Collared leopards had a high mortality rate, which appeared to be due to illegal human activity. While improving the management of trophy hunting is important, we suggest that mitigating human–wildlife conflict could have a bigger impact on carnivore conservation. PMID:28484625

  17. The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: implications for the pathobiology of autism.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Robert T; Grelotti, David J; Klin, Ami; Kleinman, Jamie; Van der Gaag, Christiaan; Marois, René; Skudlarski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A region in the lateral aspect of the fusiform gyrus (FG) is more engaged by human faces than any other category of image. It has come to be known as the 'fusiform face area' (FFA). The origin and extent of this specialization is currently a topic of great interest and debate. This is of special relevance to autism, because recent studies have shown that the FFA is hypoactive to faces in this disorder. In two linked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of healthy young adults, we show here that the FFA is engaged by a social attribution task (SAT) involving perception of human-like interactions among three simple geometric shapes. The amygdala, temporal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, inferolateral frontal cortex and superior temporal sulci were also significantly engaged. Activation of the FFA to a task without faces challenges the received view that the FFA is restricted in its activities to the perception of faces. We speculate that abstract semantic information associated with faces is encoded in the FG region and retrieved for social computations. From this perspective, the literature on hypoactivation of the FFA in autism may be interpreted as a reflection of a core social cognitive mechanism underlying the disorder. PMID:12639338

  18. Effectiveness of mosquito magnet in preserved area on the coastal Atlantic rainforest: implication for entomological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chaves, L S M; Laporta, G Z; Sallum, M A M

    2014-09-01

    A variety of traps are used for sampling, surveillance, and monitoring of mosquito vector species associated with parasite and pathogen transmission. Here, we assessed the performance of the Mosquito Magnet Independence trap with Lurex3 (MMI), by comparing its effectiveness with those of a Centers forDisease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC-LT) and CDC with CO2 and Lurex3 (CDC-A) in a dense tropical rainforest. Multivariate generalized linear models revealed significant differences among the traps regarding mosquito composition and abundance (deviance = 768; P = 0.016). Variance analyses indicated that the MMI captured significantly more mosquitoes compared with CDC-LT (P < 0.01) and CDC-A (P < 0.03). The abundance values did not significantly differ between the CDC-LT and CDC-A traps (P = 0.7). Mosquito species richness was higher from the MMI than from the CDC-LT and CDC-A traps. Furthermore, medically important mosquito species captured by the three traps showed high association with MMI. These results suggest the potential to use the MMI in studies aiming to obtain entomological surveillance information about medically important mosquitoes that occur in tropical rainforest areas. The MMI could also be used in faunal studies focusing on increasing knowledge about mosquito diversity. Considering the present positive results, the effectiveness of the MMI should additionally be evaluated in other Brazilian natural ecosystems. Further studies are also needed to address demographic data from the mosquito population sampled by the MMI.

  19. The frequency of allergens implicated in bronchial asthma in different areas of Romania.

    PubMed

    Chirilă, M; Florescu, L; Popescu, M; Capetti, E; Panait, E

    1984-01-01

    The study carried out on 582 asthma patients and 164 healthy controls, ranging in age from 5 to 60 years, dwelling in four different towns ( Sibiu , Mediaş, Baia Mare, Sighetul Marma tiei ) showed that the most frequently involved antigen in allergic bronchial asthma was house dust (50.3 to 86%), followed by Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and atmospheric fungi, and the most frequently encountered associations were likewise between these allergens, hence the orientation towards a specific hyposensitizing therapy. In these localities with a rich gramineous vegetation there was a high per cent of sensitization to the polen of these plants. Sensitization to woollen hairs has been reported in a high percent in the region of Maramure ş and is linked to its ethnical characteristics. In many cases the patients also exhibited hypersensitiveness to bacteria, associated with environmental allergens, the vicious circle realized by an allergic-infectious mechanism being known. The conclusions of the study on the etiology of bronchial asthma in these geographical areas will be used as a basis for the treatment and its orientation.

  20. Nationwide evaluation of nitrate in groundwater of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Park, Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant frequently occurring in both urban and rural groundwaters in Korea. Korean government has performed a regular monitoring of groundwater quality across the whole country since 1999 and as of 2014 the number of monitoring wells reached over 2000. Here we evaluated spatial distribution and temporal changes of nitrate concentrations from the monitoring wells for 2001-2013. The evaluation revealed that the maximum and mean nitrate concentrations are obviously decreasing for the period and especially the decreasing trend is marked for the groundwater wells used for agricultural irrigation. Reduced nitrogen fertilizer application with decrease of cropland area is inferred as the most plausible cause of this decrease. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The GAIA project" and also was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (No. NRF-2015R1A4A1041105).

  1. Surfactant-Induced Flow in Unsaturated Porous Media: Implications for Air-Water Interfacial Area Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza-Robinson, M. S.; Zheng, Z.; Estabrook, B.; Henry, E. J.; Littlefield, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Air-water interfacial area (AI) in porous media is an important factor governing equilibrium contaminant retention, as well as the kinetics of interphase mass transfer. Interfacial-partitioning tracer (IPT) tests are a common technique for measuring AI at a given moisture saturation (SW), where AI is calculated based on the ratio of arrival times of a surfactant and a non-reactive tracer. At surfactant concentrations often used, the aqueous surface tension of the interfacial tracer solution is ~30% lower than that of the resident porewater in the system, creating transient surface tension gradients during the IPT measurement. Because surface tension gradients create capillary pressure gradients, surfactant-induced unsaturated flow may occur during IPT tests, a process that would violate fundamental assumptions of constant SW, of steady-state flow, and of nonreactive and surfactant tracers experiencing the same transport conditions. To examine the occurrence and magnitude of surfactant-induced flow, we conducted IPT tests for unsaturated systems at ~84% initial SW using surfactant input concentrations that bracket concentrations commonly used. Despite constant boundary conditions (constant inlet flux and outlet pressure), the introduction of the surfactant solution induced considerable transience in column effluent flowrate and SW. Real-time system mass measurements revealed drainage of 20-40% SW, with the amount of drainage and the maximum rate of drainage proportional to the influent surfactant concentration, as would be expected. Because AI is inversely related to SW, the use of higher surfactant concentrations should yield larger AI estimates. Measured AI values, however, showed no clear relationship to surfactant concentration or the time-averaged SW of the system. These findings cast doubt on the reliability of IPT for AI determination.

  2. Future Interannual Variability of Arctic Sea Ice Area and its Implications for Marine Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Mioduszewski, J.; Holland, M. M.; Wang, M.; Landrum, L.

    2016-12-01

    As both a symbol and driver of ongoing climate change, the diminishing Arctic sea ice pack has been widely studied in a variety of contexts. Most research, however, has focused on time-mean changes in sea ice, rather than on short-term variations that also have important physical and societal consequences. In this study we test the hypothesis that interannual Arctic sea ice variability will increase in the future by utilizing a set of 40 independent simulations from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble for the 1920-2100 period. The model projects that ice variability will indeed grow substantially in all months but with a strong seasonal dependence in magnitude and timing. The variability increases most during late autumn (November-December) and least during spring. This increase proceeds in a time-transgressive manner over the course of the year, peaking soonest (2020s) in late-summer months and latest (2090s) during late spring. The variability in every month is inversely correlated with the average melt rate, resulting in an eventual decline in both terms as the ice pack becomes seasonal by late century. These projected changes in sea ice variations will likely have significant consequences for marine navigation, which we assess with the empirical Ice Numeral (IN) metric. A function of ice concentration and thickness, the IN quantifies the difficulty in traversing a transect of sea ice-covered ocean as a function of vessel strength. Our results show that although increasingly open Arctic seas will mean generally more favorable conditions for navigation, the concurrent rise in the variability of ice cover poses a competing risk. In particular, future intervals featuring the most rapid declines in ice area that coincide with the highest interannual ice variations will offer more inviting shipping opportunities tempered by less predictable navigational conditions.

  3. Stratigraphic controls on seawater intrusion and implications for groundwater management, Dominguez Gap area of Los Angeles, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, T.; Siade, A.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Ponti, D.J.; Canales, A.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater pumping has led to extensive water-level declines and seawater intrusion in coastal Los Angeles, California (USA). A SUTRA-based solute-transport model was developed to test the hydraulic implications of a sequence-stratigraphic model of the Dominguez Gap area and to assess the effects of water-management scenarios. The model is two-dimensional, vertical and follows an approximate flow line extending from the Pacific Ocean through the Dominguez Gap area. Results indicate that a newly identified fault system can provide a pathway for transport of seawater and that a stratigraphic boundary located between the Bent Spring and Upper Wilmington sequences may control the vertical movement of seawater. Three 50-year water-management scenarios were considered: (1) no change in water-management practices; (2) installation of a slurry wall; and (3) raising inland water levels to 7.6 m above sea level. Scenario 3 was the most effective by reversing seawater intrusion. The effects of an instantaneous 1-m sea-level rise were also tested using water-management scenarios 1 and 3. Results from two 100-year simulations indicate that a 1-m sea-level rise may accelerate seawater intrusion for scenario 1; however, scenario 3 remains effective for controlling seawater intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  4. Economic burden of acute pesticide poisoning in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeongchull; Kim, Younhee; Ko, Yousun; Cha, Eun S; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won J

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of the economic burden resulting from acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in South Korea. The total costs of APP from a societal perspective were estimated by summing the direct medical and non-medical costs together with the indirect costs. Direct medical costs for patients assigned a disease code of pesticide poisoning were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Reimbursement Data. Direct non-medical costs were estimated using the average transportation and caregiving costs from the Korea Health Panel Survey. Indirect costs, incurred by pre-mature deaths and work loss, were obtained using 2009 Life Tables for Korea and other relevant literature. In 2009, a total of 11,453 patients were treated for APP and 1311 died, corresponding to an incidence of 23.1 per 100,000 population and a mortality rate of 2.6 per 100,000 population in South Korea. The total costs of APP were estimated at approximately US$ 150 million, 0.3% of the costs of total diseases. Costs due to pre-mature mortality accounted for 90.6% of the total costs, whereas the contribution of direct medical costs was relatively small. Costs from APP demonstrate a unique characteristic of a large proportion of the indirect costs originating from pre-mature mortality. This finding suggests policy implications for restrictions on lethal pesticides and safe storage to reduce fatality and cost due to APP. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  6. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  8. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  9. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  10. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  11. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  12. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  13. Tidal Power Exploitation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Jae Cheon

    The highest tides in South Korea are found along the northwest coast between latitudes 36-38 degrees and the number of possible sites for tidal range power barrages to create tidal basins is great due to irregular coastlines with numerous bays. At present Lake Sihwa tidal power plant is completed. The plant is consisted of 10 bulb type turbines with 8 sluice gates. The installed capacity of turbines and generators is 254MW and annual energy output expected is about 552.7 GWh taking flood flow generation scheme. Three other TPP projects are being progressed at Garolim Bay (20 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Kangwha (28 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Incheon (44 or 48 turbines with 30 MW capacity) and project features will be outlined here. The introduction of tidal barrages into four major TPP projects along the Kyeonggi bay will render wide range of potential impacts. Preliminary attempts were performed to quantify these impacts using 2 D hydrodynamic model demonstrating the changes in tidal amplitude and phase under mean tidal condition, associated changes in residual circulation (indicator for SPM and pollutant dispersion), bottom stress (indicator for bedload movement), and tidal front (positional indicator for bio-productivity) in both shelf scale and local context. Tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in strong tidal current region including off southwestern tip of the Peninsula (Uldolmok , Jangjuk, Wando-Hoenggan), Daebang Sudo (Channel) and Kyeonggi Bay. With this simulation system, real tidal time simulation of extended springneap cycles was performed to estimate spatial distribution of tidal current power potentials in terms of power density, energy density and then extrapolated annual energy density.

  14. [Biosafety of microbiological laboratories in Korea].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Eun, Sang-Jun; Park, Ki-Dong; Kim, Jong-Kyun; Im, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Yoo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Ik

    2005-11-01

    The biosafety level (BSL) practiced in microbiology laboratories in Korea according to the laboratory biosafety manual published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was evaluated using the data obtained by a survey. Under the advise of Clinical Laboratory Physicians, 144 types of microorganisms were screened based on the guidelines of biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories published by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention and classified into 1-4 risk groups. A questionnaire containing 21 questions in 5 areas was developed using the biosafety manual by published WHO. Of the 1,876 different organizations sent the survey, 563 responded to the survey (response rate: 30.0%). The species of microoganisms handled by as well as the biosafety level in microbiology laboratories were analyzed. There were 123 species of microorganisms handled in microbiology labs in Korea. The BSL required in 512 microbiology labs was answered by the survey responders as the first grade in 33 labs (6.4%), 2nd in 437 (85.4%), 3rd in 42 (8.2%), and 4th in none. The average number of items satisfied was 12.2, showing only a 57.9% satisfactory rate and normal distribution. The state of overall observance of BSL in most microbiology labs of Korea was evaluated as lagging compared with the standard set up by WHO. Therefore, the Korean government need to produce and distribute a biosafety manual in microbiology laboratories and make efforts to prevent this threat through measures such as training in biosafety in microbiology labs.

  15. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  16. Relaying support in disaster-affected areas: the social implications of a 'pay-it-forward' network.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Tomohide

    2014-07-01

    When a disaster strikes a country, a temporary so-called post-disaster utopia emerges in which local residents help each other and outsiders support survivors and victims. However, this utopia does not last. Survivors are likely to have no chance to pay people back for the help they have received and thus return to their daily lives with a sense of debt. After the Great East Japan Earthquake the author motivated survivors of other disasters to help survivors in the Tohoku region in eastern Japan in return for the support they had received in the past. Two findings are revealed: firstly, this pay-it-forward support among disaster-affected areas allows for intermittent rebuilding of the post-disaster utopia. Secondly, a theoretical examination of the network theory also suggests that the pay-it-forward network is likely to expand and cover the whole of society very quickly. The psychological and sociological implications of these findings are also discussed.

  17. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  18. Processing Marine Gravity Data Around Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y.; Chang, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea currently 4 research ships are under operating in Korea, after the first research vessel equipped shipborne gravity meter was introduced in 1990s. These are Onnuri(launch 1991) of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute), Haeyang2000(launch 1996), Badaro1(launch 2002) of NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute) and Tamhae2(launch 1997) of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). Those of research vessel, Haeyang2000 have observed marine gravity data over 150,000 points each year from year 1996 to year 2003. Haeyang2000, about 2,500 tons, is unable to operate onshore so NORI has constructed another 600 tons research ship Badaro1 that has observed marine gravity data onshore since year 2002. Haeyang2000 finished observing marine gravity data offshore within Korean territorial waters until year 2003. Currently Badaro1 is observing marine gravity data onshore. These shipborne gravity data will be very useful and important on geodesy and geophysics research also those data can make a contribution to developing these studies. In this study NORI's shipbrne gravity data from 1996 to 2007 has been processed for fundamental data to compute Korean precise geoid. Marine gravity processing steps as followed. 1. Check the time sequence, latitude and longitude position, etc. of shipborne gravity data 2. Arrangement of the tide level below the pier and meter drift correction of each cruise. 3. Elimination of turning points. 4. The time lag correction. 5. Computation of RV's velocities, Heading angles and the Eötvös correction. 6. Kalman filtering of GPS navigation data using cross-over points. 7. Cross-over correction using least square adjustment. About 2,058,000 points have been processed with NORI's marine gravity data from 1996 to 2007 in this study. The distribution of free-air anomalies was -41.0 mgal to 136.0 mgal(mean 8.90mgal) within Korean territorial waters. The free-air anomalies processed with the marine gravity data are

  19. Genetic positioning of aquabirnavirus isolates from cultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-04-23

    Aquabirnavirus is an epizootic virus in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica farms in Korea, although its origin is unclear. In the present study, nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS junction region of 9 Korean aquabirnaviruses from cultured eel in various areas of Korea during 2000-2009 were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. The nucleotide sequences showed more than 94.2% identity among the 9 Korean eel isolates, 71.2% identity among 16 Korean isolates from freshwater and marine fish, and 71.1% identity among 25 worldwide isolates. All 9 isolates in this study were phylogenetically classified into genogroup II, including isolates from Denmark, Spain, Taiwan and Japan, and were discrete from salmonid and marine fish isolates (genogroup I and VII) in Korea. These results suggest that the Korean eel isolates have most likely been introduced from outside the country and not from coastal areas of Korea.

  20. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  1. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  2. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-06

    15 Niksch, Larry A., North Korea and Terrorism: The Yokita Megumi Factor. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis. Spring 2002. pp. 14-16. 16 For...remains were not those of Megumi Yokota or Kaoru Matsuki, as Pyongyang had claimed, and the issue remained contentious at year’s end. Four Japanese

  3. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  4. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Representative for the DPRK. 41 Smith, Overcoming Humanitarian Dilemmas, p.13 Source: World Food Program, Map Resources. Adapted by CRS. (K. Yancey 3/18/04...2003 e-mail correspondence with Rick Corsino, former WFP Country Director for North Korea. 44 May 2005 e-mail correspondence with Richard Ragan, WFP

  5. Shanghanlun in Korea, 1610-1945

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean physicians of traditional medicine have utilized Zhang Ji’s 張 機 (150–219 CE) Shanghanlun 傷寒論 (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, just Treatise hereafter) from the 17th century to the early twentieth century. As one of the two most influential pillars of Chinese medicine, the Treatise, with its clinical implications, has inspired many scholars and practitioners in their pursuit of medical innovation. What, then, have been the Korean motivations in referring to the Treatise over the past few centuries? What does the Korean utilization and modification of the Chinese classic tell us about the desires, limits, and possibilities of pursuing medical innovations in Korea? By examining the ways in which major pre-modern Korean texts employed the Treatise, this article primarily aims to reveal patterns of (re)arranging the Treatise that formed an indigenous style of medicine. Under the growing sense of nationalist concern and colonial contestation in the early twentieth century, the Korean compilation of the Treatise began to depart from the earlier interpretations. A range of nationalist rhetoric and editorial designs reflect the Korean urgency in seeking resources to compete with Western medicine. The postcolonial consumption of the Treatise also reflects Korean strategies in navigating medical references from outside to meet their social and clinical agendas. The changing pattern of textual and professional utilization of the Treatise exemplifies how a significant Chinese text continues to be a living tradition in Korea by expanding the targeted audience and satisfying local demands. PMID:26778942

  6. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Gunhui

    2017-04-01

    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  7. Projection of Future Heatwave and Its Potential Exposure in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.

    2015-12-01

    South Korea has suffered from heatwave in summer since several decades. 1994, there were more than 3,000 victims due to the extreme heatwave event. This study will cover the projection of heatwave in Korea with RCP scenarios from NCAR's CESM model. The climate model outputs have been dynamically downscaled with 7.5 km spatial resolution by WRF model. And the model bias has been estimated and corrected with meteorological measurements network in Korea. We also analyzed the exposed population to heatwave in the future with sampling of population data of local government and the model grids, which can help the climate change adaptation policy for the future. Based on RCP 4.5, the areas of heatwaves in summer will be extended by more than 200% in 2050 comparing to year 2006 and the frequency of the heatwave event will be increased dramatically. The population exposure to heatwave will also be increased by more than twice. Such analysis will be compared with other climate scenarios from different climate model, and the changes in mortality rate of Korea need to be estimated.

  8. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals.

  9. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Motivation and Ill-Structured Problem Solving in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Min Kyeong; Cho, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use and application of an ill-structured problem to pre-service elementary teachers in Korea in order to find implications of pre-service teacher education with regard to contextualized problem solving by analyzing experiences of ill-structured problem solving. Participants were divided into small groups depending on the…

  10. Geographic Distribution of Urologists in Korea, 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun Seob; Shim, Sung Ryul; Jung, Insoo; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Song, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Ko, Young Myoung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2015-11-01

    The adequacy of the urologist work force in Korea has never been investigated. This study investigated the geographic distribution of urologists in Korea. County level data from the National Health Insurance Service and National Statistical Office was analyzed in this ecological study. Urologist density was defined by the number of urologists per 100,000 individuals. National patterns of urologist density were mapped graphically at the county level using GIS software. To control the time sequence, regression analysis with fitted line plot was conducted. The difference of distribution of urologist density was analyzed by ANCOVA. Urologists density showed an uneven distribution according to county characteristics (metropolitan cities vs. nonmetropolitan cities vs. rural areas; mean square=102.329, P<0.001) and also according to year (mean square=9.747, P=0.048). Regression analysis between metropolitan and non-metropolitan cities showed significant difference in the change of urologists per year (P=0.019). Metropolitan cities vs. rural areas and non-metropolitan cities vs. rural areas showed no differences. Among the factors, the presence of training hospitals was the affecting factor for the uneven distribution of urologist density (P<0.001). Uneven distribution of urologists in Korea likely originated from the relatively low urologist density in rural areas. However, considering the time sequencing data from 2007 to 2012, there was a difference between the increase of urologist density in metropolitan and non-metropolitan cities.

  11. An assessment of forest cover trends in South and North Korea, from 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Engler, Robin; Teplyakov, Victor; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments--based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea--suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.

  12. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  13. In situ U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of zircons from the Sancheong-Hadong AMCG suite, Yeongnam Massif, Korea: Implications for the petrogenesis of ∼1.86 Ga massif-type anorthosite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuyoung; Cho, Moonsup; Yi, Keewook

    2017-05-01

    Isotopic and geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite have long been used for tracing the mantle-crustal source and magmatic evolution. We analyzed Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of zircon from the Sancheong-Hadong AMCG complex, Yeongnam Massif, Korea, in order to understand tectonomagmatic evolution of the Paleoproterozoic AMCG suite occurring at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The anorthositic rocks in this complex, associated with charnockitic and granitic gneisses, were recrystallized to eradicate magmatic features. In situ SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) U-Pb analyses of zircon from a leuconorite and an oxide-bearing gabbroic dyke yielded weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1870 ± 2 Ma and 1861 ± 6 Ma, respectively. Charnockitic, granitic, and porphyroblastic gneisses yielded weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb zircon ages of 1861 ± 6 Ma, 1872 ± 6 Ma, and 1873 ± 4 Ma, respectively. These crystallization ages, together with our previous geochronological data for anorthosites (1862 ± 2 Ma), are indicative of episodic AMCG magmatism over an ∼10 Ma interval. Initial εHf(t) values of zircon analyzed from five anorthositic rocks and four felsic gneisses range from +2.1 to -6.1 and -0.3 to -5.4, respectively. Zircon Hf isotopic data in combination with available whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that anorthositic parental magma was most likely derived from a mantle source and variably affected by crustal contamination. This crustal component is also reflected in charnockitic-granitic magmas produced primarily by the melting of lower crust. Taken together, the AMCG magmatism at 1.87-1.86 Ga in the Yeongnam Massif is most likely a late orogenic product of Paleoproterozoic NCC amalgamation tectonically linked to assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.

  14. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  15. Structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Comparative study of singles in metropolitan area of Korea, Japan and China

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boram

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to recent changes in social structure, single-person households are on the rise worldwide and therefore the interest in the quality of life of singles is increasing, but the research on the relationships related to their diet-related quality of life is scarce. This research analyzes the structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style of Korean, Japanese and Chinese singles. SUBJECTS/METHODS The targets of this study were Korean, Japanese, and Chinese singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, having economic capabilities or working and living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. In an attempt to study the level of satisfaction with convenience food in accordance to dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. RESULTS Of the three countries, regarding the effect of dietary style on singles' quality of life, the convenience-oriented style was found to have a negative effect on Korean singles' overall quality of life, but a positive effect on Japanese singles' overall quality of life, and a negative effect on Chinese singles' positive psychological aspect of quality of life. In addition, although Chinese singles have a high level of interest in health, they have an overall high level of satisfaction regarding fast food and its nutritional value. CONCLUSIONS The number of singles in Korea, Japan, and China has been consistently increasing in recent years, and there is a need for continuous interest in their healthy dietary lifestyles in terms of convenience, economy, and taste. PMID:24944777

  16. Structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Comparative study of singles in metropolitan area of Korea, Japan and China.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boram; Joo, Nami

    2014-06-01

    Due to recent changes in social structure, single-person households are on the rise worldwide and therefore the interest in the quality of life of singles is increasing, but the research on the relationships related to their diet-related quality of life is scarce. This research analyzes the structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style of Korean, Japanese and Chinese singles. The targets of this study were Korean, Japanese, and Chinese singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, having economic capabilities or working and living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. In an attempt to study the level of satisfaction with convenience food in accordance to dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. Of the three countries, regarding the effect of dietary style on singles' quality of life, the convenience-oriented style was found to have a negative effect on Korean singles' overall quality of life, but a positive effect on Japanese singles' overall quality of life, and a negative effect on Chinese singles' positive psychological aspect of quality of life. In addition, although Chinese singles have a high level of interest in health, they have an overall high level of satisfaction regarding fast food and its nutritional value. The number of singles in Korea, Japan, and China has been consistently increasing in recent years, and there is a need for continuous interest in their healthy dietary lifestyles in terms of convenience, economy, and taste.

  17. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    Second- 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...The White House, Roundtable Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea...2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the

  18. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-10

    and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. Korea’s nuclear programs and...the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 30 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan navy intercepted and

  19. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  20. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...clarified that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related assistance for North Korea.” The House Appropriations Committee report on the other...and Diplomacy, by Larry A. Niksch, and CRS Report RL34256, North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 22 See CRS Report

  1. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-09

    Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response...North Korean denuclearization efforts. Later in the report , the Committee clarifies that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related...Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 19 See CRS Report RL30613, North Korea: Terrorism List Removal, by Larry A. Niksch. 20

  2. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    News , December 1, 2012. U.S.- South Korea Relations Congressional Research Service 7 • China’s rising influence in ...entered into force and will be eliminated completely in the fifth year of the agreement. South Korea also agreed to allow U.S.-based car manufacturers to...sell in South Korea up to 25,000 cars per year per manufacturer as long as they met U.S. safety and environmental standards. This

  3. Future change of climate classification over South Korea in multi regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeon-Jae; Kim, Gayoung; Park, Changyong; Cha, Dong-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Regional climate simulations for the CORDEX East Asia domain were conducted between 1981 and 2100 using five models to produce climate change projection based on RCP26, 45, 60, 85 scenarios. In this study using the ensemble of five model results, future changes in climate zones of South Korea were investigated according to Köppen-Trewartha's classification criteria. Four periods, historical (1981 2005), early future (2021 2040), middle future (2041 2070), and late future (2071 2100) were analyzed to examine future changes. In historical (1981 2005) period, the subtropical zones are only dominant in the south coastal regions and Jeju island, while those tend to expand in the future periods. Depending on the RCP scenarios, the more radiative forcing results in the larger subtropical zone over South Korea. The expansion of the subtropical zone in metropolitan areas is more evident than that in rural areas. In addition, the enlargement of subtropical zone in coastal regions is more prominent that in inland regions. Particularly, the subtropical climate zone for the late future period of RCP85 scenario is significantly dominant in most South Korea. Acknowledgement The research was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development program under grant KMIPA 2015-2083 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  4. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  5. Sex preferences and fertility in South Korea during the year of the Horse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin; Paik, Myungho

    2006-05-01

    Since antiquity, people in several East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and South Korea, have believed that a person is destined to possess specific characteristics according to the sign of the zodiac under which he or she was born. South Koreans, in particular, have traditionally considered that the year of the Horse bears inauspicious implications for the birth of daughters. Using monthly longitudinal data at the region level in South Korea between 1970 and 2003, we found that in the year of the Horse, the sex ratio at birth significantly increased while fertility decreased.

  6. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  7. Spatiotemporal study of elderly suicide in Korea by age cohort.

    PubMed

    Joo, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial diffusion of elderly suicide by age cohort, in Korea. The research investigated the elderly suicide rates of the 232 municipal units in South Korea between 2001 and 2011. The Gi* score, which is a spatially weighted indicator of area attributes, was used to identify hot spots and the spatiotemporal pattern of elderly suicide in the nation during the last 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix and spatial dynamic panel data model were employed to identify and estimate the diffusion effect. The suicide rate among elderly individuals 75 years and older was substantially higher than the rate for those between 65 and 74 years of age; however, the spatial patterns of the suicide clusters were similar between the two groups. From 2001 to 2011, the spatial distribution of elderly suicide hot spots differed each year. For both age cohorts, elderly suicide hot spots developed around the north area of South Korea in 2001 and moved to the mid-east area and the mid-western coastal area over 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix indicates that the change in the suicide rate of one area was affected by the suicide rates of neighbouring areas from the previous year, which suggests that suicide increase in one area inflates a neighbouring area's suicide rate over time. Using a spatial dynamic panel data model, elderly suicide diffusion effects were found to be statistically significant for both age cohorts even after economic and demographic indicators and a time variable are included. For individuals 75 years and older, the diffusion effect appeared to be larger. This study demonstrates that elderly suicide can spread spatially over time in both age cohorts. Thus, it is necessary to design a place-based and age-differentiated intervention policy that precisely considers the spatial diffusion of elderly suicide. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

    2006-10-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  9. Long-distance feedback projections to area V1: implications for multisensory integration, spatial awareness, and visual consciousness.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Simon; Falchier, Arnaud; Kennedy, Henry

    2004-06-01

    It is generally agreed that information flow through the cortex is constrained by a hierarchical architecture. Recent experimental evidence suggests that projections descending the hierarchy and targeting the primary visual cortex (area V1) may play an essential role in perceptual processes. We have, therefore, reexamined feedback projections to area V1, using retrograde tracer injections in this area In addition to well-known areas, quantification of labeling in higher cortical areas reveals a number of hitherto unknown long-distance feedback connections originating from auditory (A1), multisensory (STP) cortices, but also from a perirhinal area (36). These feedback projections from advanced cortical stations, a global feature shared by areas that belong to the ventral visual stream, could play an important role in early multisensory integration and spatial awareness and could provide the physical substrate for the involvement of area V1 in visual consciousness.

  10. Current status and strategies for hepatitis B control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Sung Eun; Suk, Ki Tae; An, Jihyun; Jeong, Soung Won; Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Yoon Jun

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases in Korea. After the introduction of the universal HBV vaccination program, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was markedly reduced, and Korea is now classified as an area of intermediate endemicity for HBV. However, there are still hurdles for elimination of hepatitis B, such as immunoprophylaxis failure against vertical transmission, occurrence of acute hepatitis B among peoples who did not have vaccination at younger age, and rapid increase of immigrant populations from HBV endemic areas. To achieve the World Health Organization goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 in Korea, we suggest comprehensive policies for more effective control of hepatitis B as following: i) insurance coverage for antiviral prophylaxis in mothers with high viremia, ii) screening for hepatitis B seromarkers and catch-up HBV vaccinations of susceptible persons with hepatitis B, iii) establishment of an independent 'viral hepatitis sector' in Centers for Disease Control & Prevention to organize and execute comprehensive strategy for management of viral hepatitis, iv) encourage of management of HBV infection in immigrant populations, v) national campaign to promote awareness of hepatitis B.

  11. Status of hot spring water development in Korea 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cholwoo; Park, Chan-Hee; Cho, Yong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    As of 2014, a number of Oncheon (hot spring) sites in Korea is 447. 207 sites among the total sites are located in the south-east part of Korea, because geothermal gradient in the region is higher than the average geothermal gradient of 25℃/km in Korea. The higher gradient leads to reduced drilling cost. 50% of the Oncheon sites are alkaline and their pH is higher than 8.5. pH for other 43% is between 7.5 and 8.5. As for the ion-type of Oncheon, 55% is are primarily the type of Na-HCO3. 20 % of Oncheon is the type of Na-Cl secondarily. 9% of Oncheon is the type of Na-SO4. While the well drilled deepest is 2,003 m from the surface, the average depth is 747 m. The highest temperature of hot spring is 78℃, while the average temperature is 30℃. The area of Oncheon development was big until year 2000. Since then, the development area has shrunk to less than 20,000m2 to reduce risks for initial investment and stabilize the Oncheon management. Keywords : Hot spring, Geothermal gradient, Temperature

  12. Occurrence of Narcissus Smoulder Caused by Botrytis narcissicola in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Wan Gyu; Cho, Weon Dae; Kim, Hong Gi

    2007-12-01

    Leaf blight and bulb rot symptoms were observed on narcissus plants grown in Yongin, Cheongwon and Namhae areas in Korea during disease survey from 1999 to 2002. A total of 15 isolates of Botrytis sp. were obtained from the infected plant parts of narcissus. All the isolates were identified as Botrytis narcissicola based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Three isolates of B. narcissicola were tested for their pathogenicity to leaves and bulbs of narcissus by artificial inoculation. All the isolates induced leaf blight and bulb rot symptoms on the plants of narcissus by artificial inoculation. The symptoms induced by artificial inoculation were similar to those observed in the fields. This is the first report of narcissus smoulder caused by B. narcissicola in Korea.

  13. Occurrence of Narcissus Smoulder Caused by Botrytis narcissicola in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Cho, Weon Dae; Kim, Hong Gi

    2007-01-01

    Leaf blight and bulb rot symptoms were observed on narcissus plants grown in Yongin, Cheongwon and Namhae areas in Korea during disease survey from 1999 to 2002. A total of 15 isolates of Botrytis sp. were obtained from the infected plant parts of narcissus. All the isolates were identified as Botrytis narcissicola based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Three isolates of B. narcissicola were tested for their pathogenicity to leaves and bulbs of narcissus by artificial inoculation. All the isolates induced leaf blight and bulb rot symptoms on the plants of narcissus by artificial inoculation. The symptoms induced by artificial inoculation were similar to those observed in the fields. This is the first report of narcissus smoulder caused by B. narcissicola in Korea. PMID:24015104

  14. Real-time GPS Ionospheric TEC Estimation over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Roh, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2013-09-01

    Ionosphere is one of the largest error sources when the navigational signals produced by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are transmitted. Therefore it is very important to estimate total electron contents (TEC) in ionosphere precisely for navigation, precise positioning and some other applications. When we provide ionospheric TEC values in real-time, its application can be expanded to other areas. In this study we have used data obtained from nine Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations which have been operated by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) to detect ionospheric TEC over South Korea in real-time. We performed data processing that covers converting 1Hz raw data delivered from GNSS reference stations to Receiver INdependent Exchange (RINEX) format files at intervals of 5 minutes. We also analyzed the elevation angles of GPS satellites, vertical TEC (VTEC) values and their changes.

  15. Characteristics of Carbonaceous and Ionic Species and Direct Aerosol Forcing of the Aerosols over Gosan, Jeju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Kim, Y.; Kang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, consisting of elemental carbon (EC) are emitted into the atmosphere through incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel. It directly warms the air by absorbing solar radiation. Another major pollutant emitted by fossil fuel combustion is SO2, which result in the formation of particulate sulfate (SO42-) compounds, contribute substantially to cool the air by scattering solar radiation. Therefore, carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols play an important role in regulating the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the earth atmosphere. (Charlson et al. 1992; Jacobson, 2004; Khan et al., 2010) Carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols are both temporally and spatially variable. Northeast Asia is characterized by high energy consumption. China, Japan, and South Korea have consumed 16.8%, 4.7%, and 2.1% of the world total primary energy, respectively in 2007 (BP, 2008). Consequently, there are resultant huge emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Therefore, the effect on climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols are even more important in this region. In this study, PM2.5 intensive measurement data for 18 separate periods at Gosan, Jeju, Korea from 1994 to 2006 were analyzed. Gosan is one of the cleanest areas in Korea and an excellent location to study the ambient aerosols in Northeast Asia (Kim et al., 2009). The characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols and anthropogenic ions such as SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ were analyzed. Also, direct aerosol forcing due to EC and SO42- were calculated. The net aerosol forcing were about -0.5 W m-2 to -0.1 W m-2 at Gosan. References BP, www.bp.com/statisticalreview, 2008. Charlson, R.J., Schwartz, S.E., Hales, J.M., Cess, R.D., Coakley, J.A.Jr., Hansen, J.E., and Hofmann, D.J. (1992) Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols, Science, 255, 423-430. Jacobson, M.Z. (2004) Climate response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot's feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity, Journal of

  16. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  17. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  18. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  19. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  20. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  1. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  2. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  3. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  4. Introduction of Micro-meteorology Monitoring System for Test-bed Region in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C.; Byon, J.; Kahng, K.; Park, Y.; Jung, H.

    2013-12-01

    Changbum Cho, Jae-Young Byon, Keumah Kahng, Young-San Park, and Hyun-Sook Jung National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, Korea National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  5. Geotourism and educational utilization of geosites in the Byeonsanbando National Park, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kyu-Seong; Park, Kyeong-Jin

    2014-05-01

    This study is to investigate the possibility of geotourism and educational use of geosites in the Byeonsanbando national park, Korea. Geosites within the national park were explored through literature search and field work, and 207 tourists were surveyed to identify the educational utilization of geosites. The results suggest seventeen geosites in the western coastal areas of Byeonsanbando such as various sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, magmatic intrusive rock with contact metamorphism, and dinosaur track fossils. To develop effective geotourism educational programs, diverse experience programs and abundant information were regarded as important elements. If additional geological surveys of geosites are conducted and educational programs for geotourism are developed in the Byeonsanbando area in Korea, this area is likely to be valuable as the national geopark of Korea.

  6. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  7. In situ colonization of marine biofilms on UNS S32760 duplex stainless steel coupons in areas with different water qualities: Implications for corrosion potential behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messano, Luciana V. R. de; Ignacio, Barbara L.; Neves, Maria H. C. B.; Coutinho, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    In the presence of biofilms, stainless steels (SS) exhibits an increase in corrosion potential, called ennoblement. In the present study, the corrosion potential ( E corr) behavior of the duplex SS UNS S32760 was recorded simultaneously with the in situ marine biofilm formation in two areas at Arraial do Cabo, Southeastern Brazil. The biofilm at Forno Harbor (an anthropogenically disturbed area) was characterized by higher relative abundances of Bacteria at day 2, followed by diatoms (especially Navicula sp.) on day 10 and dinoflagellates on day 18, whereas no clear trend was recorded at Cabo Frio Island (an undisturbed area). The ennoblement of E corr values was site-dependent. In a complementary laboratory assay, biofilms were removed and the E corr values registered in sterile conditions for the subsequent 10 days and corroborated in situ results. Understanding biofilms and SS interactions has important implications for materials science and engineering decisions as well as helping to fill in important gaps in this knowledge.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of self-reported student maltreatment by teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2015-08-01

    This study first investigated the prevalence of emotional and physical maltreatment by teachers in South Korea and then identified factors that predict student maltreatment by teachers. Specific areas of interest were the associations between student demographic characteristics (gender and grade level), family (economic status), and school experience (academic performance and student-teacher relationships) and how these characteristics were related to student maltreatment. Data were obtained by questionnaire from a random sample of 1,777 students in middle schools in Seoul, the largest metropolitan area, and its surrounding province, Gyeonggi-Do. Questionnaires were completed during school time. All information was collected anonymously. Of those surveyed, 18.2% reported emotional maltreatment by teachers and 24.3% physical maltreatment. Overall, 30.7% reported being either emotionally or physically mistreated by teachers at least once in the previous year. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender, family economic status, academic performance, and student-teacher relationships were predictors of student maltreatment by teachers. The results have practical and policy implications for the design of programs that will results in altering abusive teacher classroom behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Planning for a Peaceful Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    military service schools , • highlight the range of damage that U.S. and South Korean forces could inflict in a variety of counterstrikes against a North...majority of the North’s so-called 29 “technocrats” have not been educated at places like MIT, the Ivy League, Stanford, or the London School of...recollections that somehow on the flight home from World War II, Korea got caught in a badminton game between the United States and the USSR, and ended up

  10. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm] at p. 147. 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet...Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan

  11. The demographic transition in the Korean peninsula, 1910-1990: South and North Korea compared.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S

    1994-12-01

    North and South Korea have both experienced demographic transition and fertility and mortality declines. The fertility declines came later in North Korea. In 1990, the population was 43.4 million in South Korea and 21.4 million in North Korea and the age and sex compositions were similar. This evolution of population structure occurred despite differences in political systems and fertility determinants. Differences were in the fertility rate and the rate of natural increase. The total fertility rate was 2.5 children in North Korea and 1.6 in South Korea. The rate of natural increase was 18.5 per 1000 in North Korea and 9.8 in South Korea. Until 1910, the Korean peninsula was in the traditional stage characterized by high fertility and mortality. The early transitional stage came during 1910-45 under the Japanese annexation. Health and medical facilities improved and the crude birth rate rose and then declined. With the exception of the war years, population expanded as a function of births, deaths, and international migration. Poor economic conditions in rural areas acted as a push factor for south-directed migration, migration to Japan, and urban migration. Next came the chaotic stage, during 1945-60. South Korean population expanded during this period of political unrest. Repatriation and refugee migration constituted a large proportion of the population increase. Although the war brought high mortality, new medicine and disease treatment reduced the mortality rate after the war. By 1955-60, the crude death rate was 16.1 per 1000 in South Korea. The crude birth rate remained high at 42 per 1000 between 1950-55. The postwar period was characterized by the baby boom and higher fertility than the pre-war period of 1925-45. Total fertility was 6.3 by 1955-60. The late transitional stage occurred during 1960-85 with reduced fertility and continued mortality decline. By 1980-85, total fertility was 2.3 in the closed population. The restabilization stage occurred during

  12. Channel and perennial flow initiation in headwater streams: management implications of variability in source-area size.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kristin L; Montgomery, David R; Bolton, Susan M

    2007-11-01

    Despite increasing attention to management of headwater streams as sources of water, sediment, and wood to downstream rivers, the extent of headwater channels and perennial flow remain poorly known and inaccurately depicted on topographic maps and in digital hydrographic data. This study reports field mapping of channel head and perennial flow initiation locations in forested landscapes underlain by sandstone and basalt lithologies in Washington State, USA. Contributing source areas were delineated for each feature using a digital elevation model (DEM) as well as a Global Positioning System device in the field. Systematic source area-slope relationships described in other landscapes were not evident for channel heads in either lithology. In addition, substantial variability in DEM-derived source area sizes relative to field-delineated source areas indicates that in this area, identification of an area-slope relationship, should one even exist, would be difficult. However, channel heads and stream heads, here defined as the start of perennial flow, appear to be co-located within both of the lithologies, which together with lateral expansion and contraction of surface water around channel heads on a seasonal cycle in the basalt lithology, suggest a controlling influence of bedrock springs for that location. While management strategies for determining locations of channel heads and perennial flow initiation in comparable areas could assign standard source area sizes based on limited field data collection within that landscape, field-mapped source areas that support perennial flow are much smaller than recognized by current Washington State regulations.

  13. The relation of radar to cloud area-time integrals and implications for rain measurements from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, David; Bell, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    The relationships between satellite-based and radar-measured area-time integrals (ATI) for convective storms are determined, and both are shown to depend on the climatological conditional mean rain rate and the ratio of the measured cloud area to the actual rain area of the storms. The GOES precipitation index of Arkin (1986) for convective storms, an area-time integral for satellite cloud areas, is shown to be related to the ATI for radar-observed rain areas. The quality of GPI-based rainfall estimates depends on how well the cloud area is related to the rain area and the size of the sampling domain. It is also noted that the use of a GOES cloud ATI in conjunction with the radar area-time integral will improve the accuracy of rainfall estimates and allow such estimates to be made in much smaller space-time domains than the 1-month and 5-deg boxes anticipated for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.

  14. Effusion rate, length, and area relationships for some lava flows on Hawaii and Mount Etna with planetary implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D.; Baloga, S.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the radiative cooling of thermally well mixed lava flows is presented and the relationship between effusion rate and length and area is analyzed. If radiative cooling is the prime mode of heat loss for a lava flow, one should expect to see a stronger correlation between the effusion rate and the plan area of the flow, than between effusion rate and just flow length. Different flows on a single volcano with differing initial temperatures, volatile content, and gross compositions should yield different areas for a given effusion rate. Likewise, a range of slopes for the relationship between effusion rate and flow area should result from comparisons between different volcanoes. As a test of these ideas, available data on the effusion rates, lengths, and areas of Hawaiian and Etnean flow is studied. It was found that: (1) the effusion rate/area correlation was statistically more significant than the correlation between effusion rate and length for four out of the five eruption episodes which met the necessary criteria of more than three individual flows with area, length, and effusion rate independently measured; (2) that there exists a minimum length and area for a given effusion rate, reflecting competition between overall characteristic proportionality between effusion rate and flow length, width, and area.

  15. Effusion rate, length, and area relationships for some lava flows on Hawaii and Mount Etna with planetary implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D.; Baloga, S.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the radiative cooling of thermally well mixed lava flows is presented and the relationship between effusion rate and length and area is analyzed. If radiative cooling is the prime mode of heat loss for a lava flow, one should expect to see a stronger correlation between the effusion rate and the plan area of the flow, than between effusion rate and just flow length. Different flows on a single volcano with differing initial temperatures, volatile content, and gross compositions should yield different areas for a given effusion rate. Likewise, a range of slopes for the relationship between effusion rate and flow area should result from comparisons between different volcanoes. As a test of these ideas, available data on the effusion rates, lengths, and areas of Hawaiian and Etnean flow is studied. It was found that: (1) the effusion rate/area correlation was statistically more significant than the correlation between effusion rate and length for four out of the five eruption episodes which met the necessary criteria of more than three individual flows with area, length, and effusion rate independently measured; (2) that there exists a minimum length and area for a given effusion rate, reflecting competition between overall characteristic proportionality between effusion rate and flow length, width, and area.

  16. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.; Song, C. H.; Yoon, S. C.; Han, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  17. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  18. Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

  19. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  20. Relating Point to Area Average Rainfall in Semiarid West Africa and the Implications for Rainfall Estimates Derived from Satellite Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flitcroft, I. D.; Milford, J. R.; Dugdale, G.

    1989-04-01

    The variability of rainfall over small areas (100 km2) in the West African Sahel has been investigated using a dense network of raingages in the Republic of Niger. Rainfall was as well or better correlated over small distances as rainfall in other semiarid climates. A regression model was developed to specify the systematic correction required, when a raingage measurement is used to represent an area average rainfall and to quantify the errors involved. It was found that in this particular climate large point measurements are not representative of even small areas and need to be reduced by a factor which depends on the size of the area. Rainfall estimates based on satellite observations often use point rainfall to calibrate and validate estimates of areas average (pixel) rainfall. The effect of satellite location errors on the correct pairing of point measurements and pixel estimates, and the subsequent effect on the assessment of the accuracy of rainfall estimates based on satellite data are discussed.

  1. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 30, 2007, the United States and the Republic of Korea...

  2. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  3. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  4. Resurgence of Mumps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Routine vaccination against mumps has markedly reduced its incidence. However, the incidence of mumps continuously has increased since 2007. In 2013, a large mumps epidemic occurred in Korea, and this epidemic is still an ongoing problem. This epidemic occurred primarily in school settings and affected vaccinated adolescents, predominantly male students. The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures. Containment of mumps outbreaks is challenging because the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is low among vaccinees and control measures are less efficient because of the inherent nature of the mumps virus. Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era. In order to control the current mumps epidemic and prevent further outbreaks, we need to better understand the dynamics of mumps among vaccinated populations and the changing epidemiology in Korea. Concerted efforts should be made to systematically monitor the immunization status of the Korean population and to improve diagnosis efficiency. Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future. PMID:25844258

  5. Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Changwon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.; Suk, H.

    2005-12-01

    In Book-Myeon and Daesan-Myeon in Changwon city, South Korea, riverbank filtration and groundwater pumping plants have been constructed and pumping wells have been operated to extract water from the subsurface. To keep the quality of water that is extracted from those pumping wells to a proper level, contaminant discharge from the background area is needed to be controlled. Knowing the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants is important for this. The adjoint backward equation of advection dispersion equation is applied in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater. The location and travel time probability of contaminants to a pumping well is derived from the adjoint backward equation. The backward probability model has an advantage that it is physically based on the process of contaminant transport. It can be used to predict the impact of contamination event to a well. With the backward probability model one can have information about the travel time and location of the contaminant discharged at any point in the field site to the pumping well. This method is applied to Book-Myeon and Daesan-Myeon to assess the vulnerability of groundwater from pumping wells to contaminant. From the result of the backward probability model, the information about the location of high risk and the acceptable quantity of contaminant discharge from the background area are given. This information can be useful in setting the better management plan to protect the water quality of the water supply plants.

  6. Mid-Tertiary structural evolution of the Old Woman Mountains area: Implications for crustal extension across southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, G.E.; Miller, C.F. ); Knoll, M.A. Univ. of Texas, El Paso )

    1990-01-10

    The Old Woman Mountains area is a moderately extended region that lies between two highly extended terranes, the Central Mojave Extensional Complex and the Colorado River Extensional Corridor. Two normal faults and a high-angle fault that the authors interpret to be a transfer structure divide the area into four distinct structural blocks. These blocks correspond to the four mountain ranges of the area: the Old Woman, Piute, Little Piute, and Ship mountains. Other major faults involved in tilting are inferred to be buried beneath alluvium in surrounding valleys. Deformation occurred in part before, but primarily after, deposition of the Peach Springs Tuff, an 18.5 Ma regional stratigraphic marker. Transport directions of hanging walls are westward on the west side of the Old Woman Mountains area and east-southeastward on the east side. The authors suggest that the Old Woman Mountains area is a less extended portion of a continuous extensional terrane that stretches from the central Mojave Desert across the Colorado River to the transition zone of the Colorado Plateau. Lower strain in the Old Woman Mountains area than in most of the Colorado River Extensional Corridor and Central Mojave Extensional Complex and age relations across the terrane can be explained by a model in which the principal locus of upper crustal breakaway to an east dipping low-angle simple shear zone shifted at about 18-20 Ma from a position far to the west to just east of the Old Woman Mountains area.

  7. The role of ELM filaments in setting the ELM wetted area in MAST and the implications for future devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, A. J.; Allan, S. Y.; Dudson, B. D.; Elmore, S. D.; Fishpool, G. M.; Harrison, J. R.; Kirk, A.; The MAST Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The ELM wetted area is a key factor in the peak power load during an ELM, as it sets the region over which the ELM energy is deposited. The deposited heat flux at the target is seen to have striations in the profiles that are generated by the arrival of filaments ejected from the confined plasma. The effect of the filaments arriving at the target on the ELM wetted area, and the relation to the midplane mode number is investigated in this paper using infrared (IR) thermography and high speed visible imaging (>10 kHz). Type I ELMs are analysed, as these have the largest heat fluxes and are observed to have toroidal mode numbers of between 5 and 15. The IR profiles during the ELMs show clear filamentary structures that evolve during the ELM cycle. An increasing number of striations at the target is seen to correspond to an increase in the wetted area. Analysis shows that the ratio of the ELM wetted area to the inter-ELM wetted area, a key parameter for ITER, for the type I ELMs is between 3 and 6 for lower single null plasmas and varies with the ELM midplane mode number, as determined by visible measurements. Monte-Carlo modelling of the ELMs is used to understand the variation seen in the wetted area and the effect of an increased mode number; the modelling replicates the trends seen in the experimental data and supports the observation of increased toroidal mode number generating larger target ELM wetted areas. ITER is thought to be peeling unstable which would imply a lower ELM mode number compared to MAST which is peeling-ballooning unstable. The results of this analysis suggest that the lower n peeling unstable ELMs expected for ITER will have smaller wetted areas than peeling-ballooning unstable ELMs. A smaller wetted area will increase the level of ELM control required, therefore a key prediction required for ITER is the expected ELM mode number.

  8. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  9. Volcanic risk perception of young people in the urban areas of Vesuvius: Comparisons with other volcanic areas and implications for emergency management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Mayberry, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    More than 600 000 people are exposed to volcanic risk in the urban areas near the volcano, Vesuvius, and may need to be evacuated if there is renewed volcanic activity. The success of a future evacuation will strongly depend on the level of risk perception and preparedness of the at-risk communities during the current period of quiescence. The volcanic risk perception and preparedness of young people is of particular importance because hazard education programs in schools have been shown to increase the clarity of risk perception and students often share their knowledge with their parents. In order to evaluate young people's risk perception and preparedness for a volcanic crisis, a multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to 400 high-school students in three municipalities located close to the volcano. The overall results suggest that despite a 60-year period of quiescence at Vesuvius, the interviewed students have an accurate perception of the level of volcanic risk. On the other hand, the respondents demonstrate a clear lack of understanding of volcanic processes and their related hazards. Also, the interviewed students show high levels of fear, poor perceived ability to protect themselves from the effects of a future eruption, and insufficient knowledge of the National Emergency Plan for Vesuvian Area (NEPVA). The latter result suggests that in comparison with volcanic crises in other regions, during a future eruption of Vesuvius, there may not be enough time to educate the large number of people living near the volcano about how to appropriately respond. The inadequate risk education and preparedness of respondents implies that a strong effort is needed to improve communication strategies in order to facilitate successful evacuations. Therefore, it is important to take advantage of the present period of quiescence at Vesuvius to improve the accuracy of risk perception of youth in local communities. ?? 2008.

  10. Volcanic risk perception of young people in the urban areas of Vesuvius: Comparisons with other volcanic areas and implications for emergency management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Mayberry, G. C.

    2008-05-01

    More than 600 000 people are exposed to volcanic risk in the urban areas near the volcano, Vesuvius, and may need to be evacuated if there is renewed volcanic activity. The success of a future evacuation will strongly depend on the level of risk perception and preparedness of the at-risk communities during the current period of quiescence. The volcanic risk perception and preparedness of young people is of particular importance because hazard education programs in schools have been shown to increase the clarity of risk perception and students often share their knowledge with their parents. In order to evaluate young people's risk perception and preparedness for a volcanic crisis, a multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to 400 high-school students in three municipalities located close to the volcano. The overall results suggest that despite a 60-year period of quiescence at Vesuvius, the interviewed students have an accurate perception of the level of volcanic risk. On the other hand, the respondents demonstrate a clear lack of understanding of volcanic processes and their related hazards. Also, the interviewed students show high levels of fear, poor perceived ability to protect themselves from the effects of a future eruption, and insufficient knowledge of the National Emergency Plan for Vesuvian Area (NEPVA). The latter result suggests that in comparison with volcanic crises in other regions, during a future eruption of Vesuvius, there may not be enough time to educate the large number of people living near the volcano about how to appropriately respond. The inadequate risk education and preparedness of respondents implies that a strong effort is needed to improve communication strategies in order to facilitate successful evacuations. Therefore, it is important to take advantage of the present period of quiescence at Vesuvius to improve the accuracy of risk perception of youth in local communities.

  11. A geochemical investigation of selected areas in Greenville and Laurens counties, South Carolina--implications for mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to geochemically evaluate three areas within the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle (see index map) that have been shown by previous studies to contain anomalously high amounts of tin. Jackson and Moore (1992) reported the presence of cassiterite (SnO2)-bearing heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment samples that were collected during a regional geochemical reconnaissance of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle. The data reported here confirm identified in selected heavy-mineral concentrate samples. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of barium, beryllium, lanthanum, and thorium are also reported for parts of the same areas. No significant mineral deposits are known to occur in the study areas. There was, however, minor production of monazite from several nearby localities (Sloan, 1908), and gold was produced from deposits in the northeastern part of Greenville County and nearby Spartanburg County (McCauley and Butler, 1966). The three areas selected for resampling are located in the Inner Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina (see index map). The generalized tectonic setting of the region and the locations of the study is just north of Greenville, S.C. Much of it is within the moderately to steeply sloped terrane of Paris Mountain State Park where elevations reach approximately 600 m. Simpsonville, S.C., is neat the center of the second study area, and the southernmost study area is near Hickory Tavern, S.C. Both the Simpsonville and Hickory Tavern study areas are in more gently rolling Piedmont terrane. Each of the sampled areas is drained by tributaries of the Enoree and Reedy Rivers. Parts of three different thrust sheets underlie the region covered by this study (fig. 1); in ascending structural position, they are the Six Mile, Paris Mountain, and Laurens thrust sheets (Nelson and others, 1987). Nelson (1988, p. 7) described the contacts between these sheets as being along unnamed faults. The rocks in and

  12. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

    PubMed Central

    Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world’s largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the

  13. Impact of paraquat regulation on suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-04-01

    Ingestion of pesticides (mainly paraquat) accounted for one-fifth of suicides in South Korea in 2006-10. We investigated the effect on suicide mortality of regulatory action, culminating in a ban on paraquat in South Korea in 2011-12. We calculated age-standardized method-specific suicide mortality rates among people aged ≥15 in South Korea (1983-2013) using registered death data. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate changes in the rate and number of pesticide suicides in 2013, compared with those expected based on previous trends (2003-11). Pesticide suicide mortality halved from 5.26 to 2.67 per 100 000 population between 2011 and 2013. Compared with the number expected based on previous trends, the regulations were followed by an estimated 847 [95% confidence interval (CI) -1180 to -533] fewer pesticide suicides, a 37% reduction in rates (rate ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) in 2013. The decline in pesticide suicides after the regulations was seen in all age/sex/geographical groups. The absolute reduction in the number of suicides was greatest among men, the elderly and in rural areas. The reduction in pesticide suicides contributed to 56% of the decline in overall suicides that occurred between 2011 and 2013. There was no impact of the regulations on crop yield. The regulation of paraquat in South Korea in 2011-12 was associated with a reduction in pesticide suicide. Further legislative interventions to prevent the easy availability of highly lethal suicide methods are recommended for reducing the number of suicides worldwide. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea).

    PubMed

    Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the

  15. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.J.

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  16. Road traffic accidents and policy interventions in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bong-Min; Kim, Jinhyun

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of road traffic crashes, in conjunction with the absence of order on the road, has long been considered a critical social problem in Korea. The Korean public seems to agree that high priority ought to be placed on policies for improving road safety. Using data from government sources, this study describes what has happened in the area of road traffic crashes since 1970, the causes of traffic crashes, and the relative importance of traffic injuries as a cause of death in Korea. Road traffic crashes in Korea increased nearly eight-fold, from 37,000 in 1970 to 290,481 in 2000. The fatalities increased three-fold and injuries ten-fold over the same period. Road traffic injuries were the leading cause of death for people under 29. However, through multiple policy interventions, partly in response to the 2002 FIFA World Cup, about two thousand road traffic deaths and nine thousand traffic-related disabilities were averted in 2001 alone. The policy interventions included enforcement of penalties for seven risky driving behaviours, including drunk driving and speeding, installation of traffic-monitoring cameras, financial rewards for citizens who reported traffic violations, introduction of a road safety evaluation system, correction of accident black spots in existing roads, and road safety education programs. Through multiple policy interventions, road traffic crashes in Korea were reduced in a relatively short time period, along with their associated injuries and fatalities. However, road traffic crashes still pose a major public health problem, threatening the quality of life of the Korean people.

  17. BET surface area distributions in polar stream sediments: Implications for silicate weathering in a cold-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    BET surface area values are critical for quantifying the amount of potentially reactive sediments available for chemical weathering and ultimately, prediction of silicate weathering fluxes. BET surface area values of fine-grained (<62.5 μm) sediment from the hyporheic zone of polar glacial streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (Wright and Taylor Valleys) exhibit a wide range (2.5–70.6 m2/g) of surface area values. Samples from one (Delta Stream, Taylor Valley) of the four sampled stream transects exhibit high values (up to 70.6 m2/g), which greatly exceed surface area values from three temperate proglacial streams (0.3–12.1 m2/g). Only Clark stream in Wright Valley exhibits a robust trend with distance, wherein surface area systematically decreases (and particle size increases) in the mud fraction downstream, interpreted to reflect rapid dissolution processes in the weathering environment. The remaining transects exhibit a range in variability in surface area distributions along the length of the channel, likely related to variations in eolian input to exposed channel beds, adjacent snow drifts, and to glacier surfaces, where dust is trapped and subsequently liberated during summer melting. Additionally, variations in stream discharge rate, which mobilizes sediment in pulses and influences water:rock ratios, the origin and nature of the underlying drift material, and the contribution of organic acids may play significant roles in the production and mobilization of high-surface area sediment. This study highlights the presence of sediments with high surface area in cold-based glacier systems, which influences models of chemical denudation rates and the impact of glacial systems on the global carbon cycle.

  18. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  19. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L.; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle. PMID:24311996

  20. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.

  1. Possible emissions of POPs in plain and hilly areas of Nepal: Implications for source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Breivik, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air is a core media chosen for monitoring under the Stockholm Convention on POPs. While extensive monitoring of POPs in ambient air has been carried out in some parts of the globe, there are still regions with very limited information available, such as some developing countries as Nepal. This study therefore aims to target the occurrence of selected POPs in Nepal in suspected source areas/more densely populated regions. Four potential source regions in Nepal were furthermore targeted as it was hypothesized that urban areas at lower altitudes (Birgunj and Biratnagar located at approximately 86 and 80 m.a.s.l.) would be potentially more affected by OCPs because of more intensive agricultural activities in comparison to urban areas at higher altitudes (Kathmandu, Pokhara located 1400 and 1135 m.a.s.l). As some of these areas could also be impacted by LRAT, air mass back trajectories during the sampling period were additionally evaluated using HYSPLIT. The concentrations of overall POPs were twice as high in plain areas in comparison to hilly areas. DDTs and HCHs were most frequently detected in the air samples. The high p,p'-DDT/(pp'-DDE + pp'-DDD) ratio as well as the low o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratio observed in this study was inferred as continuing use of technical DDT. High levels of ∑26PCBs were linked to proximity to highly urbanized and industrial areas, indicating the potential source of PCBs. The measured concentrations of legacy POPs in air from this study is assumed to represent a negligible health risk through inhalation of ambient air, however, other modes of human exposure could still be relevant in Nepal. The air mass backward trajectory analysis revealed that most of the air masses sampled originated from India and the Bay of Bengal.

  2. The subsurface cross section resistivity using magnetotelluric method in Pelabuhan Ratu area, West Java, implication for geological hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2016-02-01

    Pelabuhan Ratu area is located on the south coast of West Java. Pelabuhan Ratu area's rapid development and population growth were partly stimulated by the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 66 the year 1998 that made Pelabuhan Ratu the capital city of the district of Sukabumi. Because of this fact, it is very important to create a geological hazard mitigation plan for the area. Pelabuhan Ratu were passed by two major faults: Cimandiri fault in the western and Citarik fault in the eastern. Cimandiri fault starts from the upstream of Cimandiri River to the southern of Sukabumi and Cianjur city. While Citarik fault starts from the Citarik River until the Salak Mountain. These two faults needs to be observed closely as they are prone to cause earthquake in the area. To mitigate earthquake that is estimated will occur at Cimandiri fault or the Citarik fault, the Research Center for Geotechnology LIPI conducted research using Magnetotelluric (MT) method with artificial Phoenix MT tool to determine the cross-section resistivity of the Pelabuhan Ratu and the surrounding area. Measurements were taken at 40 points along the highway towards Jampang to Pelabuhan Ratu, and to Bandung towards Cibadak with a distance of less than 500 meters between the measuring points. Measurement results using this tool will generate AMT cross-section resistivity to a depth of 1500 meters below the surface. Cross-section resistivity measurement results showed that there was a layer of rock with about 10 Ohm-m to 1000 Ohm-m resistivity. Rocks with resistivity of 10 Ohm-m was interpreted as conductive rocks that were loose or sandstone containing water. If an earthquake to occur in this area, it will lead to a strong movement and liquefaction that will destroy buildings and potentially cause casualties in this area.

  3. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  4. Allochthonous subsidies of organic matter across a lake-river-fjord landscape in the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for marine zooplankton in inner fjord areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Martinez, Rodrigo A.; San Martin, Valeska; Aguayo, Mauricio; Silva, Nelson; Torres, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystems can act as both sources and sinks of allochthonous nutrients and organic matter. In this sense, fjord ecosystems are a typical interface and buffer zone between freshwater systems, glaciated continents, and the coastal ocean. In order to evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter across fjord ecosystems, we characterized particulate organic matter along a lake-river-fjord corridor in the Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope (δ 13C) and lipid (fatty acid composition) biomarker analyses. Furthermore, estimates of zooplankton carbon ingestion rates and measurements of δ 13C and δ 15N in zooplankton (copepods) were used to evaluate the implications of allochthonous subsidies for copepods inhabiting inner fjord areas. Our results showed that riverine freshwater flows contributed an important amount of dissolved silicon but, scarce nitrate and phosphate to the brackish surface layer of the fjord ecosystem. Isotopic signatures of particulate organic matter from lakes and rivers were distinct from their counterparts in oceanic influenced stations. Terrestrial allochthonous sources could support around 68-86% of the particulate organic carbon in the river plume and glacier melting areas, whereas fatty acid concentrations were maximal in the surface waters of the Pascua and Baker river plumes. Estimates of carbon ingestion rates and δ 13C in copepods from the river plume areas indicated that terrestrial carbon could account for a significant percentage of the copepod body carbon (20-50%) during periods of food limitation. Particulate organic matter from the Pascua River showed a greater allochthonous contribution of terrigenous/vascular plant sources. Rivers may provide fjord ecosystems with allochthonous contributions from different sources because of the distinct vegetation coverage and land use along each river's watershed. These observations have significant implications for the management of local riverine areas in the context of

  5. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  6. Allocation of aid for health institutions in Ukraine: implications from a case study of Chornobyl (Chernobyl) area hospitals.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Renata; Bezchlibnyk-Butler, Kalyna; Wodoslawsky, Marika Dubyk

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, numerous non-governmental organizations have sought to improve the health status of populations struggling with the lingering effects of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear disaster. Political and economic features of Ukraine's government produced a health system unable to provide services required by its population. To compensate somewhat for these shortcomings, Ukraine's health institutions rely on foreign donations. However, to effectively target foreign aid efforts, a more thorough understanding of the administration of health institutions in Ukraine is needed. This study investigates the organizational structures, care delivery, and legislative and financial regulations in the country's health system and their implications for patient care. Through an exhaustive study of four representative health institutions across Ukraine, the authors identify how donor organizations can achieve their aid objectives and work within the country's health infrastructure.

  7. Demography of domestic dogs in rural and urban areas of the Coquimbo region of Chile and implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Cleaveland, S; Cunningham, A A; Bronsvoort, B M Dec

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted along two transects (80 and 45km long) from Coquimbo and Ovalle cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region of Chile in 2005-2007 to investigate the demography of dogs in the context of a study of canine infectious diseases. Data were collected on the number of dogs per household, fecundity, mortality, and sex and age distribution. The results from 1021 households indicated that dog ownership was common, with a higher proportion of households owning dogs in rural areas (89%), than in towns (63%) or cities (49%). Dog density ranged from 1380+/-183 to 1509+/-972 dogs km(-2) in cities, from 119+/-18 to 1544+/-172 dogs km(-2) in towns, and from 1.0+/-0.4 to 15.9+/-0.4 dogs km(-2) in rural sites. The dog population was estimated to be growing at 20% in cities, 19% in towns and 9% in rural areas. The human:dog ratio ranged from 5.2 to 6.2 in cities, from 2.3 to 5.3 in towns, and from 1.1 to 2.1 in rural areas. A high percentage of owned dogs was always allowed to roam freely in the different areas (27%, 50% and 67% in cities, towns and rural areas, respectively). Observations of free-roaming dogs of unknown owner were reported from a greater proportion of respondents in cities (74%), followed by towns (51%) and finally by rural areas (21%). Overall only 3% of dogs had been castrated. In addition, only 29% of dogs were reported to have been vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and 30% against canine parvovirus (CPV). The higher population size and density, higher growth rate and a higher turnover of domestic dogs in urban than in rural areas and the poorly supervised and inadequately vaccinated dog populations in urban areas suggest that urban areas are more likely to provide suitable conditions for dogs to acts as reservoirs of pathogenic infections. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seaweed Farms in South Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The dark squares that make up the checkerboard pattern in this image are fields of a sort—fields of seaweed. Along the south coast of South Korea, seaweed is often grown on ropes, which are held near the surface with buoys. This technique ensures that the seaweed stays close enough to the surface to get enough light during high tide but doesn’t scrape against the bottom during low tide. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 acquired this image of seaweed cultivation in the shallow waters around Sisan Island on January 31, 2014. Home to a thriving aquaculture industry, the south coast of South Korea produces about 90 percent of the country’s seaweed crop. The waters around Sisan are not the only place where aquaculture is common. View the large image to see how ubiquitous seaweed aquaculture is along the coast in Jeollanam-do, the southernmost province on the Korean peninsula. Two main types of seaweed are cultivated in South Korea: Undaria (known as miyeok in Korean, wakame in Japanese) and Pyropia (gim in Korean, nori in Japanese). Both types are used generously in traditional Korean, Japanese, and Chinese food. Since 1970, farmed seaweed production has increased by approximately 8 percent per year. Today, about 90 percent of all the seaweed that humans consume globally is farmed. That may be good for the environment. In comparison to other types of food production, seaweed farming has a light environmental footprint because it does not require fresh water or fertilizer. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Adam Voiland. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  9. Radioelement distributions and analysis of microtopographical influences in a shallow covered area, Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengbin; Chen, Jianguo; Xiao, Fan; Fode, Tounkara; Li, Liqing

    2016-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry is one of the most cost-effective prospecting methods for investigating anomalies in potassium, uranium, thorium and alteration indexes associated with hydrothermal and radioactive ore deposits. In this work, we selected an arid grass covered landscape micro-region in Inner Mongolia as the study area to examine the radioelement distributions and microtopographical influences on a gamma ray spectrometry survey. In general, concentrations of K, U, Th and TC (total count) of intrusive rocks are higher than the overburden cover. Overburden mixing with the eolian dust and in-situ weathered material reduces the gamma radiation penetrating into the Earth's surface. Similar to overburden, the thin layers of eolian dust in the concave areas of intrusive rock also reduce the measured radioelement concentrations. The decreasing order of radioelement concentrations in the study area is: Jurassic granodiorite > Carboniferous biotite porphyry > overburden. Th, U, K and TC increase with elevation, and all show positive correlations with elevation. The Th and TC have stronger correlations with elevation than K and U. Thus, K and U show relative local enrichment in low-lying areas, whilst Th and TC do not; alteration indices proposed to improve the discrimination of potassic alteration also generate false anomalies, caused by local enrichment of the K and U in low-lying areas. Therefore, the geological interpretation of gamma ray surveys for mineral exploration needs to consider the topography in order to reject false anomalies and retain the true anomalies associated with ore deposits.

  10. High-frequency imaging of elastic contrast and contact area with implications for naturally observed changes in fault properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagata, Kohei; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Nakatani, Masao

    2014-01-01

    During localized slip of a laboratory fault we simultaneously measure the contact area and the dynamic fault normal elastic stiffness. One objective is to determine conditions where stiffness may be used to infer changes in area of contact during sliding on nontransparent fault surfaces. Slip speeds between 0.01 and 10 µm/s and normal stresses between 1 and 2.5 MPa were imposed during velocity step, normal stress step, and slide-hold-slide tests. Stiffness and contact area have a linear interdependence during rate stepping tests and during the hold portion of slide-hold-slide tests. So long as linearity holds, measured fault stiffness can be used on nontransparent materials to infer changes in contact area. However, there are conditions where relations between contact area and stiffness are nonlinear and nonunique. A second objective is to make comparisons between the laboratory- and field-measured changes in fault properties. Time-dependent changes in fault zone normal stiffness made in stress relaxation tests imply postseismic wave speed changes on the order of 0.3% to 0.8% per year in the two or more years following an earthquake; these are smaller than postseismic increases seen within natural damage zones. Based on scaling of the experimental observations, natural postseismic fault normal contraction could be accommodated within a few decimeter wide fault core. Changes in the stiffness of laboratory shear zones exceed 10% per decade and might be detectable in the field postseismically.

  11. Factor Analysis of Wildfire and Risk Area Estimation in Korean Peninsula Using Maximum Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Teayeon; Lim, Chul-Hee; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kim, YouSeung; Heo, Seongbong; Cha, Sung Eun; Kim, Seajin

    2016-04-01

    The number of wildfires and accompanying human injuries and physical damages has been increased by frequent drought. Especially, Korea experienced severe drought and numbers of wildfire took effect this year. We used MaxEnt model to figure out major environmental factors for wildfire and used RCP scenarios to predict future wildfire risk area. In this study, environmental variables including topographic, anthropogenic, meteorologic data was used to figure out contributing variables of wildfire in South and North Korea, and compared accordingly. As for occurrence data, we used MODIS fire data after verification. In North Korea, AUC(Area Under the ROC Curve) value was 0.890 which was high enough to explain the distribution of wildfires. South Korea had low AUC value than North Korea and high mean standard deviation which means there is low anticipation to predict fire with same environmental variables. It is expected to enhance AUC value in South Korea with environmental variables such as distance from trails, wildfire management systems. For instance, fire occurred within DMZ(demilitarized zone, 4kms boundary from 38th parallel) has decisive influence on fire risk area in South Korea, but not in North Korea. The contribution of each environmental variables was more distributed among variables in North Korea than in South Korea. This means South Korea is dependent on few certain variables, and North Korea can be explained as number of variables with evenly distributed portions. Although the AUC value and standard deviation of South Korea was not high enough to predict wildfire, the result carries an significant meaning to figure out scientific and social matters that certain environmental variables has great weight by understanding their response curves. We also made future wildfire risk area map in whole Korean peninsula using the same model. In four RCP scenarios, it was found that severe climate change would lead wildfire risk area move north. Especially North

  12. Republic of Korea`s security in northeast Asia. Regional strategic appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    Although the Cold War is over, the security environment in Northeast Asia is not stable. This study summarizes Korea`s national interests from a Korean soldier`s perspective. The threats and issues are described according to the format of a regional strategic appraisal. This study recommends the organization of a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Northeast Asia (CSCNEA). This organization would be composed of the two Koreas(or eventually a reunified Korea), the United States, Japan, China, and Russia. Before the establishment of the organization, the enlargement of bilateral cooperation is recommended.

  13. Does Higher Education Foster Critical and Creative Learners? An Exploration of Two Universities in South Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jihyun; Makara, Kara A.; Fishman, Barry J.; Hong, Young-Il

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two studies that explore students' beliefs about critical and creative learning at two universities, and considers the implications of those beliefs in comparison to the universities' stated education goals. One is a mixed method study of students at a top university in Korea, and the second is a comparative study between the…

  14. Does Higher Education Foster Critical and Creative Learners? An Exploration of Two Universities in South Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jihyun; Makara, Kara A.; Fishman, Barry J.; Hong, Young-Il

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two studies that explore students' beliefs about critical and creative learning at two universities, and considers the implications of those beliefs in comparison to the universities' stated education goals. One is a mixed method study of students at a top university in Korea, and the second is a comparative study between the…

  15. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  16. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  17. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  18. Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwee, Pamela D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected