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Sample records for area korea implications

  1. Repeating microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 3.0 occurred in the Seoul Metropolitan Capital Area (SNCA), Korea, on 9 February 2010. The earthquake attracted much attention and raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2011 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including 2 previously reported events and 9 newly identified ones. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative event (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using first motions. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. The orientation of P-axis is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of earthquakes in this study is far from any complete, although we have adopted a well-established method to detect earthquakes. Considering the low seismicity, extensive efforts to monitor the micro-seismicity are definitely required to obtain comprehensive picture of the seismicity pattern in

  2. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  3. Baseline geochemical characteristics of groundwater in the mountainous area of Jeju Island, South Korea: Implications for degree of mineralization and nitrate contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Chan; Chae, Gi-Tak; Yoon, Yoon-Yeol; Kang, Bong-Rae; Koh, Gi-Won; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2009-09-01

    SummaryHydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater were investigated to elucidate baseline quality for basaltic aquifers of a mountainous area dominated by natural land cover in the volcanic island of Jeju, South Korea. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in four principal components (PC) of which PC1, PC3 and PC4 represented natural mineralization by water-rock interaction, while PC2 corresponded to anthropogenic contamination from nitrate sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to assess the effect of the geochemical and hydrologic processes on each sample. Six sample groups, distinguished by total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate concentration, and water type, resulted from the HCA: high-altitude springs, low-mineral water, nitrate-contaminated water, intermediate-mineral water, and two groups of high-mineral water. Water types were transformed from Na(Mg, Ca)-HCO 3 for low-mineral water to Na-HCO 3 for high-mineral water. Nitrate-contaminated water occurred near the boundary of natural and agricultural land uses of the western area. High-mineral water had higher calcite saturation states than other groups. The high-mineral water also had tritium ( 3H) values lower than 1.5 TU, indicating a significant contribution of old groundwater. In contrast, low-mineral water had tritium values of about 3 TU, which is close to those of rainwater. Geographically, the high-mineral water was concentrated in the southwestern area, where intermediate-mineral water was also found. This distribution was likely related to the presence of extensive trachytic rocks, which could have formed locally isolated aquifers, enabling prolonged water-rock interactions; the higher location of low-permeability hydrovolcanic tuffs in the subsurface of the southern area would also increase chances of tapping aquifers below the hydrovolcanic tuffs. The cumulative probability of TDS showed two breakpoints of 50 and 150 mg/L that distinguished high-altitude springs, low

  4. Total atmospheric mercury deposition in forested areas in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Su; Seo, Yong-Seok; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-06-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) was sampled weekly in dry and wet deposition and throughfall and monthly in litterfall, and as it was volatilized from soil from August 2008 to February 2010 to identify the factors influencing the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in a temperate deciduous forest in South Korea. For this location there was no significant correlation between the estimated monthly dry deposition flux (litterfall + throughfall - wet deposition) (6.7 µg m-2 yr-1) and directly measured dry deposition (9.9 µg m-2 yr-1) likely due primarily to Hg losses from the litterfall collector. Dry deposition fluxes in cold seasons (fall and winter) were lower than in warmer seasons (spring and summer). The volume-weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in both precipitation and throughfall were highest in winter, likely due to increased scavenging by snow events. Since South Korea experiences abundant rainfall in summer, VWM Hg concentrations in summer were lower than in other seasons. Litterfall fluxes were highest in the late fall to early winter, when leaves were dropped from the trees (September to November). The cumulative annual Hg emission flux from soil was 6.8 µg m-2 yr-1. Based on these data, the yearly deposition fluxes of Hg calculated using two input approaches (wet deposition + dry deposition or throughfall + litterfall) were 6.8 and 3.6 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. This is the first reported study which measured the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in South Korea, and thus our results provide useful information to compare against data related to Hg fate and transport in this part of the world.

  5. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  6. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  7. Investigation of Groundwater Flow at Highway Construction Areas in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, Y.; Ji, S.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.

    2006-05-01

    Contamination by acid rock drainage was found at highway construction areas in Korea, where pyrites were included in materials to raise the ground level. To remediate the acid rock drainage, groundwater flow direction and total flow rate were investigated in addition to the relationship between groundwater and surface water. Multiple boreholes were installed for geological structure surveys, pumping tests, slug test and tracer tests. Geological survey showed that a water-table aquifer system included a relatively homogeneous earthen layer and an underlying undisturbed alluvial layer. Transmissivity and storativity of the upper layer were investigated 0.1-2.6m2/day and 0.3 relatively by pumping tests. Hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer was investigated 0.1m/day by slug tests. Chloride ion was used in tracer tests, which included a natural gradient method and a push-pull method. In the natural gradient method, it was failed to detect chloride ion in groundwater. In the push-pull test, dispersivity ranges from 0.001m to 0.3m for several drift time. With the characteristic parameters from aquifer tests and tracer tests, numerical modeling techniques were used to evaluate groundwater flow directions and rates. Boundary conditions were decided to reflect geological and geographical boundaries, like concrete barriers, water divides and rivers. Numerical simulations showed the differences between groundwater flow before constructions and that after constructions. After the highway constructions are finished, groundwater direction changes seriously and total amount of the acid rock drainage is estimated 166.5m3/day. To find out the effect of precipitation changes, several numerical simulations were performed. It was shown that total amount of the acid rock drainage ranges from 73.8m3/day in the dry season to 323.6m3/day in the rainy season.

  8. Dinosaur egg deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup, Korea: Diversity and paleobiological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min

    2012-08-01

    The taphonomy and depositional environments of dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, Korea, are described and their paleobiological implications are discussed in the context of global geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup is interpreted as dry floodplains with a semi-arid climate and intermittent volcanic activity. The diverse floodplain paleoenvironments include fluvial plains with meandering rivers to alluvial plains with episodic sheet-flooding. Both global and Korean dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits are generally restricted to the Late Cretaceous, a phenomenon for which two possible explanations are proposed. The first possible explanation for the temporal limitation of dinosaur egg preservation involves the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic, the Late Cretaceous ecological dispersion of angiosperm trees into swamps and floodplains, and the attendant change in herbivorous dinosaurs' diets. The second possible reason is related to nesting behavior in the Cretaceous. By contrast to the temporally limited occurrence of dinosaur eggs, paleoenvironments of nesting areas are diverse, ranging from inland areas to coastal areas. These hypotheses may provide new directions for the study and understanding of dinosaur egg distribution in the context of geologic time.

  9. Magnetic Fabrics and Source Implications of Chisulryoung Ignimbrites, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hoabin; Yu, Yongjae; Doh, Seong-Jae; Suk, Dongwoo; Kim, Jeongmin

    2016-08-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of late Cretaceous ash-flow tuffs in Chisulryoung Volcanic Formation, southeastern Korea was studied to define the primary pyroclastic flow azimuth. AMS data revealed a dominant oblate fabric with a tight clustering of k3 (minimum axis of magnetic susceptibility) and shallow dispersal of k1 (maximum axis of magnetic susceptibility) and k2 (intermediate axis of magnetic susceptibility). Dominance of oblate fabrics indicates clast imbrications imposed by compaction and welding. Flow azimuth inferred from AMS data indicates the nearby intrusive welded tuff (IWT) as the source of calderas for ignimbrites. Such an inference is supported by geologic investigations, in which the IWT displays eutaxitic textures nearly parallel to its subvertical contacts. The results are compatible with a unique prolate fabric and an anomalously high inclination observed for the IWT, possibly produced by rheomorphic flows as the welded tuff is squeezed along the rough-surfaced dyke walls due to agglutination.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Roh, Hanseong; Kim, Juhyeok; Cho, Sukhyeong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Jinwon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Chong, Hyonyong; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2015-03-20

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klesiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea. The strain K. oxytoca M1 is able to produce either 2,3-butanediol or acetoin selectively by controlling the pH and temperature.

  11. Development of a guideline on vegetation area to reduce the risk of weed pollinosis in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rang Kim, Kyu; Lee, Hye-Rim; Kim, Mijin; Baek, Won-ki; Oh, Jae-Won; Choi, Young-Jean; Jung, Hyun-Sook

    2013-04-01

    Allergenic pollens are influenced by the environmental conditions so that the daily number of pollens varies by temperature, humidity, wind speed, etc. The relationship between the daily pollens and meteorological conditions were determined and utilized to forecast daily risk level of pollen allergy in Korea. Another important factor for the daily risk level of pollens is the vegetation area of the allergenic plants. In this study, the relationship between the area and pollen concentration was identified for two major weed species: Ragweed and Japanese Hop. It was then utilized to determine the upper limit of vegetation area to confine the risk level to a certain degree in the field. Three sites with different levels of pollen concentration were selected among twelve pollen observation sites in Korea based on the historical observation of the weed pollens. The vegetation area of the two weed species within four square kilometers at each site was surveyed. The maximum daily pollen concentration was highly correlated with the vegetation area and it was selected as a dependent variable for the regression equations, which were used as the guideline for vegetation area. According to the guideline, to limit the maximum daily pollen concentration under the moderate risk level or less than 50 pollen grains per cubic meter for Ragweed, the vegetation area should remain less than 0.6% of the ground area. For the moderate risk of Japanese Hop, pollen grains should be limited less than 100 and the area be less than 0.4%.

  12. The Characterization of Microearthquakes in Offshore Area of Northeastern South Korea from Multidisciplinary Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. M.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, G.

    2015-12-01

    A number of small earthquakes in offshore Gangneung-Sokcho-Goseong area of northeastern South Korea has been identified and the hypocenters of these events are relocated by double-difference algorithm using multidisciplinary data set. Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) lists 845 events for the period Jan. 2010 - Jun. 2015 with local magnitude up to 3.3. Peer review shows that the offshore events can be grouped into a number of small clusters, whereas onshore events are relatively few and unevenly distributed. It appears to have little relationship between the location of offshore event clusters and the direction of main onshore faults running NNE - SSW. In this study, we focus on the small events occurred in the area of N37°45´-38°35´ and E128°30´ - 129°20´. The Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) network operated by KIGAM and 5 temporary stations with Guralp CMG-40T short-period seismometers placed along the east coast of South Korea record the seismic energy generated from small events. The 137 events recorded from May to October 2014, ranging in local magnitude from 0.4 to 2.3, are already relocated using 1849 direct P-wave traveltimes identified from 29 stations. Relocation produced two major clusters in offshore Goseong (cluster 1) and Yangyang (cluster 2) province. The waveforms of relocated events in cluster 1 and 2 are similar to those from explosion in waters rather than earthquake, and spectrum analysis shows energy concentration on low frequencies below 10 Hz. We are combining the multidisciplinary data set from land based broadband and short-period seismometers, Guralp OBS system deployed in July this year, accelerometer and hydrophone array mounted on the offshore platforms of the underwater seismic observatory in the north of the study area. The integration of seismic and hydro-acoustic data in offshore supplements uneven azimuthal coverage and gives improved characterization of offshore seismic activity.

  13. Historic and Instrumental Records of Repeating Seismicity in the Gyeongju Area, Southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HAN, M.; Kim, K. H.; Kang, S. Y.; Son, M.; Park, J. H.; LI, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Gyeongju area located in southeastern Korea has experienced repeated seismicity. Historic records during the last 2000 years in the area indicate the earthquake with magnitude 6.7 caused damages of human life and property in 779. During the period of modern instrumental seismic records, the area also experienced numerous small- and moderate-magnitude earthquakes. For example, an earthquake with magnitude 4.3 occurring in 1997 provided a chance for nationwide evaluations of earthquake safety and the renewal of earthquake monitoring system in Korea. The area is still experiencing small earthquakes including magnitude 3.5 in September 2014. We applied waveform correlation detector to continuously recorded seismic data from July 2014 to December 2014 to identify any repeating earthquakes. Detected waveforms are carefully inspected and more than 230 potential events are identified. Eighty three earthquakes among them have been selected for precise determination of earthquake hypocenters. Focal mechanism solutions for representative events were also determined. We further compared the results with those obtained using earthquakes prior to 2013. It has been confirmed the earthquakes in the area are clustered in space. Similar waveforms, earthquake locations, and focal mechanism solutions identified in the study indicates an active faults in the area. Since the area hosts many critical infra-structures, micro-seismicity in the area requires extensive study to address earthquake hazard issues.

  14. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  15. Debris Flow Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Area Associated with Landslide Hazard Map : Application to Busan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okjeong, Lee; Yoonkyung, Park; Mookwang, Sung; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, an urban debris flow disaster vulnerability assessment methodology is suggested with major focus on urban social and economic aspect. The proposed methodology is developed based on the landslide hazard maps that Korean Forest Service has utilized to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R model, and then urban vulnerability is evaluated by two categories; physical and socio-economic aspect. The physical vulnerability is associated to buildings that can be broken down by a landslide event directly. This study considers two popular building structure types, reinforced concrete frame and non-reinforced concretes frame, to evaluate the physically-based vulnerability. The socio-economic vulnerability is measured as a function of the resistant levels of the exposed people, the intensity and magnitude of indirect or intangible losses, and preparedness level of the local government. An indicator-based model is established to evaluate the life and indirect loss under urban debris flow disasters as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illuminate the validity of the suggested methodology, physical and socio-economic vulnerability levels are investigated for Daejeon, Korea using the proposed approach. The results reveal that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions. Key words: Debris flow disasters, Physical vulnerability, Socio-economic Vulnerability, Urban Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of Korea government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA).

  16. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  17. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  18. Patterns of drugs & poisons in southern area of South Korea in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Park, Yonghoon; Ha, Hongil; Chung, Heesun

    2016-12-01

    The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014. Among them, 15 cases were determined as drug intoxication or poisons as the cause of death, taking up 2.5% of total cases: 5 cases of intoxication by drugs, 5 by agricultural pesticides, 3 by illicit drugs, and 1 each by detergents and chemical substances. A total of 108 drugs in postmortem bloods were detected from the autopsy cases, and the top 5 drugs were chlorpheniramine, tramadol, diazepam, zolpidem and lidocaine. Meanwhile, a total of 1,728 cases were submitted for illicit drug testing in 2014. Among them, hair was the most common type of specimens, and the rate of positive detection of methamphetamine from the hair, urine, and seized materials in the southern area was over 50% in all cases, indicating that this is the most commonly abused drug in South Korea. A total of 12 types of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) were detected in the southern area in 2014; 10 were identified as synthetic cannabinoids and 2 as alkyl nitrites.

  19. Dynamic Change of Water Quality in Hyporheic Zone at Water Curtain Cultivation Area, Cheongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, S. H.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There has been recently growing numbers of facilities for water curtain cultivation of strawberry and lettuce in Korea. These areas are nearly all located in the fluvial deposits near streams which can replenish water resources into exhausted groundwater aquifers during peak season. The purpose of this study is on groundwater chemistry and the change in physical and chemical properties due to stream-groundwater exchange or mixing in the representative agricultural area among the Jurassic granitic terrain of Korea. In the study area, groundwater level continuously decreased from November through March due to intensive use of groundwater, which forced stream water into aquifer. After March, groundwater level was gradually recovered to the original state. To evaluate the extent and its variations of stream water mixing into aquifer, field parameters including T, pH, EC and DO values, concentrations of major ions and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic ratios were used. Field measurements and water sample collections were performed several times from 2012 to 2015 mainly during peak time of groundwater use. To compare the temporal variations and areal differences, 21 wells from four cross sections perpendicular to stream line were used. While water temperature, EC values and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, HCO3 showed roughly gradual increase from stream line to 150 m distance, pH and DO values showed reverse phenomenon. This can be used to evaluate the extent and limit of stream water introduction into aquifer. However, individual wells showed yearly variations in those parameters and this dynamic and unstable feature indicates that mixing intensity of stream water over groundwater in this hyporheic zone varied year by year according to amounts of groundwater use and decrease of groundwater level.

  20. Current microseismicity and generating faults in the Gyeongju area, southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minhui; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Son, Moon; Kang, Su Young

    2017-01-01

    A study of microseismicity in a 15 × 20 km2 subregion of Gyeongju, southeastern Korea, establishes a direct link between minor earthquakes and known fault structures. The study area has a complex history of tectonic deformation and has experienced large historic earthquakes, with small earthquakes recorded since the beginning of modern instrumental monitoring. From 5 years of continuously recorded local seismic data, 311 previously unidentified microearthquakes can be reliably located using the double-difference algorithm. These newly discovered events occur in linear streaks that can be spatially correlated with active faults, which could pose a serious hazard to nearby communities. At-risk infrastructure includes the largest industrial park in South Korea, nuclear power plants, and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The current work suggests that the southern segment of the Yeonil Tectonic Line and segments of the Seokup and Waup Basin boundary faults are active. For areas with high rates of microseismic activity, reliably located hypocenters are spatially correlated with mapped faults; in less active areas, earthquake clusters tend to occur at fault intersections. Microearthquakes in stable continental regions are known to exist, but have been largely ignored in assessments of seismic hazard because their magnitudes are well below the detection thresholds of seismic networks. The total number of locatable microearthquakes could be dramatically increased by lowering the triggering thresholds of network detection algorithms. The present work offers an example of how microearthquakes can be reliably detected and located with advanced techniques. This could make it possible to create a new database to identify subsurface fault geometries and modes of fault movement, which could then be considered in the assessments of seismic hazard in regions where major earthquakes are rare.

  1. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  2. The Track of Policies for Educational Equality and Its Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seog Hun

    2013-01-01

    Most countries have taken equality of education as a paramount issue, but policy initiatives have not taken the same patterns across the nations. This paper addressed the features of equality policies and their changes in South Korea through an array of target groups and types of policy measures. According to a contingency approach, Korea relied…

  3. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  4. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  5. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    exhibited - 7.35‰ and -49.40‰. The δ18O in function of δD was plotted parallel with and slightly lower than the meteoric water line (Dansgaard, 1964). In general, deep groundwater displays higher δ18O ratios than shallow groundwater does (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), since deep groundwater reacts with bedrock which commonly emits more 18O than 16O. However, δ18O ratios in the bedrock groundwater in this area opposed to general trend, indicating not enough time to react with bedrock and diffusion effect probably (Hoefs, 1997). Keywords: alluvial groundwater, bedrock groundwater, nitrogen isotope, hydrogen isotope, agricultural area Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3~4~3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center), and also supported by the agricultural groundwater management project, Korea Rural Community & Agriculture Corporation and Ministry of agriculture & Forestry, Republic of Korea.

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of geothermal waters in the Magumsan and Bugok area, southern part of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yun, S.; So, C.; Chae, G.; Koh, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotopic studies of geothermal waters in the Bugok and Magumsan area were conducted to understand the subsurface evolution of geothermal system in South Korea. Hydrochemically, the Bugok thermal waters (BTW; outflowing temperature = 45.8-78.0 degree in centigrade) belong to the Na-SO4 type, whereas the Magumsan thermal waters (MTW; 27.5-54.8 degree in centigrade) represent the Na-Cl type. Peripheral groundwaters (17.2-22.4 degree in centigrade) in both areas belong to the Ca-HCO3 type. Both BTW and MTW show a good correlation between TDS and SiO2 content. The thermodynamic calculation using SOLVEQ indicates that all the BTW and MTW are saturated or supersaturated with respect to albite, quartz, calcite, kaolinite, anorthite, muscovite and paragonite, and are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and chalcedony. A good correlation among in-situ temperature, oxygen (and hydrogen) isotope values, and tritium content is observed for BTW and MTW. The high chlorine concentration of MTW reflects the substantial mixing of paleoseawater in the geothermal system, as also suggested by Na, Br, SO4, and Cl concentrations. We propose a hydrogeochemical model for MTW, which includes the paleoseawater mixing and addition of sedimentary SO4 by water-rock interaction during the descent of meteoric recharged water and the calcite dissolution and successive CO2 degassing during the ascent of heated waters. In the case of BTW, we propose an alternative model which includes complex processes such as the recharge of meteoric waters at higher elevation, the prolonged water-rock interaction including the dissolution of sedimentary (evaporitic?) sulfates, the reduction of sulfate to form H2S, the CO2 degassing and associated calcite precipitation, and the re-oxidation of H2S to SO4. We consider that the geothermal system responsible for both MTW and BTW are located nearer to a deep heat source, compared to the other geothermal systems found in

  7. Source process and tectonic implication of the January 20, 2007 Odaesan earthquake, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ali K.; Kim, K. Y.; Fnais, M. S.; Al-Amri, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The source process for the 20th of January 2007, Mw 4.5 Odaesan earthquake in South Korea is investigated in the low- and high-frequency bands, using velocity and acceleration waveform data recorded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Seismographic Network at distances less than 70 km from the epicenter. Synthetic Green functions are adopted for the low-frequency band of 0.1-0.3 Hz by using the wave-number integration technique and the one dimensional velocity model beneath the epicentral area. An iterative technique was performed by a grid search across the strike, dip, rake, and focal depth of rupture nucleation parameters to find the best-fit double-couple mechanism. To resolve the nodal plane ambiguity, the spatiotemporal slip distribution on the fault surface was recovered using a non-negative least-square algorithm for each set of the grid-searched parameters. The focal depth of 10 km was determined through the grid search for depths in the range of 6-14 km. The best-fit double-couple mechanism obtained from the finite-source model indicates a vertical strike-slip faulting mechanism. The NW faulting plane gives comparatively smaller root-mean-squares (RMS) error than its auxiliary plane. Slip pattern event provides simple source process due to the effect of Low-frequency that acted as a point source model. Three empirical Green functions are adopted to investigate the source process in the high-frequency band. A set of slip models was recovered on both nodal planes of the focal mechanism with various rupture velocities in the range of 2.0-4.0 km/s. Although there is a small difference between the RMS errors produced by the two orthogonal nodal planes, the SW dipping plane gives a smaller RMS error than its auxiliary plane. The slip distribution is relatively assessable by the oblique pattern recovered around the hypocenter in the high-frequency analysis; indicating a complex rupture scenario for such moderate-sized earthquake, similar to those reported

  8. Microevent Detection Based on Waveform Cross-correlation in the Dogye Mining Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, M.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied induced seismicity associated with Dogye coal mine located in the eastern part of Korea. From May 2009 to March 2014, 222 events that occurred at the mining area were reported in our catalog with local magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 2.4. For 67 events we can observe that the epicenters relocated by the double difference technique with Lg waveform cross-correlation image location of the six clusters classified according to waveform similarity. On May 2014 a broadband seismometer is installed in the mine office to understand seismicity of the mining area. We cross-correlate continuous data of the installed station recorded from May 2014 to April 2015 with a comb-like waveform observed regularly. The comb-like waveform with length of 30 to 60 minutes is a signal train composed of a blast every 30 seconds. We consider the comb-like signal related directly to mining activity from the fact that the signal train appears averagely four times a day on weekdays with its monotonic amplitude. Besides the comb-like signal, events with an irregular occurrence time and amplitude is detected from the one-year continuous record of the installed station. We suggests that most of the undefined events are formed from fracturing in response to stress-perturbation on an active mining face or represent slip in existing shear zones such as a fault or dike.

  9. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  10. Impact of emission control strategy on NO 2 in urban areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Long-term trend in nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) levels was analyzed from 16 urban roadside (U-RS) locations in 7 major cities along with 5 reference background areas in Korea over an 11-year period (1998-2008). These NO 2 data were examined after being grouped into periods I (1998-2000) and II (2001-2008) in light of the major emission control strategy such as the natural gas vehicle supply (NGVS) program initiated since June 2000. There were contrasting signals between Seoul (capital) and others. Although the long-term trends were dominantly toward decline from most stations (5 out of 7) in Seoul, an increasing trend was dominant in other cities (7 out of 9 stations). A line of evidence collected in this study indicated that NO 2 levels and the emission ratio of NO 2 to NO x (f(NO 2)) in U-RS sites have gradually decreased over the years due to the combined effects of various control efforts (e.g., the implementation of NGVS and the use of low emission diesel engines).

  11. Radon concentration in groundwater of the Yongin area in Korea by using LSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sooyoung; Lee, Kilyong; Yoon, Yoonyeol; Yun, Uk; Cho, Byungwook; Ha, kyoochul; Koo, Minho

    2015-04-01

    The precise determination of 222Rn concentration in ground water is very important to understand the interactions between the groundwater and surface water interactions because it has been used frequently as a tracer for many geohydrological processes. In this study, the measurement was based on the liquid scintillation counting technique using LKB Wallac Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter(LSC) equipped with pulse shape analyzer(PSA). We have optimized the pulse-discrimination capabilities of the detector to achieve the best α/β separation, which made the lowest detection limit possible. LSC was calibrated to optimize the PSA with 241Am and 90Sr/90Y. The sample was collected from 100 groundwater sites in the Yoingin area, Korea. The relationship between chemical characteristics and depth was investigated in terms of EC, pH, and temperature. The concentration of 222Rn in ground water was measured to be about 0.6 to 678 Bq/l with an average of 217 Bq/L. However, there was no relationship between the Rn and other physicochemical components. The Rn concentration in ground water was 170 Bq/L, 210 Bq/L, 260 Bq/L for depth <50 m, 50-100 m, >100 m, respectively. When viewed from the average value, 222Rn in deep ground was relatively higher. It also was dependent on the geolocial legend: The high-Rn area corresponds to Jurassuc grabute and low-Rn to Sedunentary area. It was clearly demonstrated that the occurrence of radionuclides is closely related to radiogenic minerals. Key words: Grondwater, 222Rn, LSC, chemical characteristics, geolocial legend

  12. Traces of evaporites in Upper Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of Korea: Origin and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, In Sung; Huh, Min; So, Yoon Hwan; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2007-04-01

    Diverse types of halite and sulfate evaporite traces occur in the Upper Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of the Jindong Formation and the Jangdong Tuff in Korea, in which dinosaur tracks are common. The halite traces usually occur as casts or moulds, and they include traces of primary halite hoppers, primary and intrasedimentary skeletal halite, and intrasedimentary tiny halite. The sulfate traces occur as intrasedimentary and displacive casts filled with sediments and sparry calcite, and the casts occur as diverse modes from single crystal casts through nodular aggregates to massive aggregates. Some aggregates of the sulfate casts are aligned in crack pattern, and selective occurrence of the laths in ripple troughs are observed. Soluble sulfate evaporite minerals such as gypsum, glauberite, or mirabilite are probable for the precursors of these traces. These halite and sulfate traces are interpreted to have been formed in a saline lake and mudflats. It is interpreted that meteoric water was responsible for the evaporite precipitation in the Jindong Lake and Jangdong Lake. Recycled brine produced by the repeated dissolution of evaporites might contribute to the evaporite precipitation in the paleo-Jindong Lake and the paleo-Jangdong Lake. The development of saline lake deposits in the Jindong Formation and the Jangdong Tuff suggests that the southern part of the Korean Peninsula remained an inland continental area during the Cretaceous resulting in semi-arid paleoclimatic condition due to an orographic effect by the location of the Korean Peninsula on continental margin in mid-latitude with topographic barriers during the Cretaceous. The occurrence of dinosaur tracks in the lake margin deposits of saline lake with frequent inflow of dilute meteoric water suggests that Upper Cretaceous dinosaurs inhabiting lakes on the Korean Peninsula might have drunken brackish water.

  13. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical

  14. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  15. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  16. Epidemiologic Features of Animal Bite Cases Occurring in Rabies-Endemic Areas of Korea, 2005 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myung Guk; Jung Sang, Ryou; Jeong, Young Eui; Ju, Young Ran; Cho, Jung Eun; Park, Jun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Human rabies is a reemerging infectious disease in Korea. There was no human rabies case for 14 years until the disease had reoccurred in 1999. To prevent occurrence of human rabies, surveillance for animal bite patients in rabies endemic areas in Korea was conducted since 2005 as a part of a human rabies control program. The animal bite cases were analyzed to determine whether patients were treated according to the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guideline of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methods Information of animal bite cases that occurred from 2005 to 2009 in rabies high-risk regions were collected by cooperation with Regional Public Health Centers in 18 cities/districts of rabies endemic areas. Results A total of 2458 animal bite cases were reported. Dogs accounted for 86% of animal bites and 67% of the animals were not vaccinated against rabies virus. For PEP, among rabies-vaccinated animals, 92.7% were observed for clinical signs and 1.4% underwent necropsy. Among unvaccinated animals, 72.7% were observed for clinical signs and 4.1% underwent necropsy. The remaining animals were not available for examination. Of the animal bite patients, 32.5% received PEP and 51.6% were treated by first aid or by washing the wound. Conclusions Given that no human rabies cases were reported since 2005 and animal rabies was continuously reported in endemic areas of Korea, the human rabies control program implemented in 2005 appears to have a significant role in the prevention and control of human rabies. PMID:24159481

  17. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-20

    Objectives in an FTA ..............................................................................8 Sector -Specific Issues and the KORUS FTA...USITC). U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral Effects. Investigation No. TA-2104-24. USITC Publication 3949...transmit mad cow disease during the processing of cattle less than 30 months old when slaughtered. Both countries view this “voluntary private- sector

  18. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    8 Sector -Specific Issues and the KORUS FTA................................................................................9...International Trade Commission (USITC). U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral Effects. Investigation No. TA...countries view this “voluntary private- sector ” arrangement as a transitional step intended to improve Korean consumer confidence in U.S. beef. (See

  19. Molecular analysis of Anisakis type I larvae in marine fish from three different sea areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2014-08-01

    Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea.

  20. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-22

    South Korea’s development and implementation of reimbursement policies, including an appeal process for decisions going against U.S. manufacturers. In...from Japan were banned until 1999.141 Originally the South Korean government promoted the development of a fleet of domestically owned producers, but... South Korea is the seventh-largest trading partner of the United States and the United States is South Korea’s third largest trading partner

  1. Additional Drug Resistance Patterns among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Korea: Implications for Regimen Design

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on additional drug resistance patterns of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential to build an effective treatment regimen; however, such data are scarce in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed the results of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) of culture confirmed-TB patients from January 2010 to December 2014 in 7 university hospitals in Korea. MDR-TB was identified among 6.8% (n = 378) of 5,599 isolates. A total of 57.1% (n = 216) of the MDR-TB patients had never been treated for TB. Strains from MDR-TB patients showed additional resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) (35.7%), any second-line injectable drug (19.3%), and any fluoroquinolone (26.2%). Extensively drug resistant TB comprised 12.4% (n = 47) of the MDR-TB patients. Of 378 MDR-TB patients, 50.3% (n = 190) were eligible for the shorter MDR-TB regimen, and 50.0% (n = 189) were fully susceptible to the 5 drugs comprising the standard conventional regimen (PZA, kanamycin, ofloxoacin, prothionamide, and cycloserine). In conclusion, the proportion of new patients and the levels of additional drug resistance were high in MDR-TB patients. Considering the high levels of drug resistance, the shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen may not be feasible; instead, an individually tailored regimen based on the results of molecular and phenotypic DST may be more appropriate in MDR-TB patients in Korea. PMID:28244290

  2. Assessment of TBT and organic booster biocide contamination in seawater from coastal areas of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Hong, Sang Hee; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-01-15

    Seawater samples from major enclosed bays, fishing ports, and harbors of Korea were analyzed to determine levels of tributyltin (TBT) and booster biocides, which are antifouling agents used as alternatives to TBT. TBT levels were in the range of not detected (nd) to 23.9 ng Sn/L. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, at concentration ranges of 35-1360 ng/L and nd to 14 ng/L, respectively, were the most common alternative biocides present in seawater, with the highest concentrations detected in fishing ports. Hot spots were identified where TBT levels exceeded environmental quality targets even 6 years after a total ban on its use in Korea. Diuron exceeded the UK environmental quality standard (EQS) value in 73% of the fishing port samples, 64% of the major bays, and 42% of the harbors. Irgarol 1051 levels were marginally below the Dutch and UK EQS values at all sites.

  3. Current regional stress field and the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea and their tectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. C.; Cho, H.; Son, M.

    2014-12-01

    To determine current regional stress field and to characterize the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea, Quaternary fault, focal mechanism, and geotechnical in-situ stress data were synthetically analyzed. The Quaternary faults are extensively observed along major inherited fault zones and show compatible orientations with general trends of the inherited faults. Most of the Quaternary faults have a top-to-the-west thrust geometry and kinematics and show a tendency of upward-decreasing dip angle and upward-narrowing gouge zone. Slip-sense indicators and paleo-stress field reconstructions indicate that the faults resulted from reverse or transpressional faulting under an E-W compression. All the magnetic fabrics (AMS) of the fault gouges also indicate the prevailing reverse-slip faulting under an ENE-WNW compression. The dominant oblate magnetic fabrics parallel to fault plane and the degrees of anisotropy increasing in proportion to their oblatenesses indicate that the fabrics have formed by a progressive deformation due to continuous simple shear during the last reactivation stage as reverse faulting. The focal mechanism study in and around the Korean Peninsula show the horizontally clustered P-axes in ENE-WSW direction and the girdle-distributed T-axes in NNW trend. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in south Korea also show NE- or ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in Korea thus can be characterized by contractional structures produced under a regional E-W or ENE-WSW compression stress field, and most of the Quaternary faults resulted from the local re-activation of appropriately oriented inherited major faults. Considering the tectonic setting and structural features in Asia during the Neogene, the current stress regime is interpreted to have been caused by the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents since about 5-3.5 Ma.

  4. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-02

    23. However, access for seven U.S. products (skim and whole milk powders, evaporated milk, in-season oranges, potatoes for table use, honey, and...skim and whole milk powders, evaporated milk, in-season oranges, potatoes for table use, honey, and identity-preserved soybeans for food use) would be...1600-2000 cc market “ sweet spot” pays an extra 10% per cc ownership tax. South Korea has agreed to simplify the ranges to three: 80 won/cc below

  5. Comparative study on change in groundwaters of rural and urban areas in Korea: effects of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sang Woong; Seul Kim, Ye; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Chul; Shin, Min Cheol; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Heejung; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater occupies a considerable proportion of the world's water resources and is affected by climate change. It is important to understand how water budget responds to future precipitation variability for sustainable management of groundwater resources. In order to evaluate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources in the future, it is necessary to not only collect field data but also predict groundwater change using some groundwater numerical modelling. In this study, a relevant climate change scenario (RCP 4.5) was adopted and Visual MODFLOW was used as a main tool for predicting water budget. The predicted precipitation and air temperature data were obtained from Climate Change Information Center (CCIC) of Korea. By using the data on the scenario from 2011 to 2100, the future water budget was calculated using groundwater numerical modelling for both Wonju (WJ: urban area) and Yanggu (YG: rural area) of Gangwon Province in Korea. The model calibration was done by the groundwater level measured at 10 monitoring wells. For the numerical prediction, the groundwater recharge (WJ: 10.1%, YG: 13.3%) was estimated using watertable fluctuation (WTF) method and a concept of threshold precipitation (WJ: 240.5 mm, YG: 363.8 mm) was applied. Consequently, the water levels in both Wonju and Yanggu showed gradually increasing trends and ranged from 3.0 to 10.8 m, from 0.5 to 1.8 m in 2100, respectively. Under annual precipitation fluctuation on the scenario (2011-2100), water budget IN-OUT value (-0.87~1.07 m3/day) in Wonju city gradually increases while that (-0.73~0.46 m3/day) of Yanggu county does not. However, its annual difference is enlarged with year for both areas. The results indicate that securing groundwater resource and its management will be difficult because of frequent annual change of the groundwater storage. This work was supported by Science High School R&E program (No. C1008804-01-01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant

  6. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 μS/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 μS/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly

  7. Occurrence of perchlorate in rice from different areas in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoon, Yeomin; Baek, Kitae; Han, Jonghun; Her, Namguk

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate concentrations in rice samples from many different provinces, and correlation with surface water contamination, were investigated in the Republic of Korea. Perchlorate levels in the 51 rice samples purchased from local markets ranged from below the detection limit to 1.79 ± 0.39 μg/kg with a mean level of 0.21 μg/kg and 7 samples collected from the Nakdong River watershed ranged from 0.38 ± 0.1 to 3.23 ± 0.47 μg/kg with a mean level of 0.9 μg/kg. The correlation coefficient between perchlorate levels in rice samples from the Nakdong river watershed and the levels in surface water was estimated to be approximately 0.904 in the 95% confidence interval. These results show that surface water contamination was highly related to the perchlorate pollution of rice in the Republic of Korea.

  8. Detection of infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses in tap water in urban areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the viral contamination of tap water at 11 urban sites in Korea between 1997 and 1998 over a period of 11 months. A total of 23 tap water samples were examined for infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses by a cell culture technique followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. To identify the recovered viruses, sequence analysis of PCR products was performed. Infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses were detected in 11 (47.8%) and 9 (39.1%) of the samples, respectively. Both enteroviruses and adenoviruses were detected in five samples (21.7%). The level of viral contamination was quite high, ranging from 2 x 10(-3) to 2.9 x 10(-2) Most Probable Number of Infectious Unit L(-1), far above the recommended virus level in drinking water set by the US EPA. Poliovirus type I derived from vaccine was frequently detected and the remainder comprised coxsackievirus B type or echovirus type 6, which were causative agents of aseptic meningitis in Korea in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Several types of adenovirus were detected in tap water samples and some water samples were found to contain adenoviruses which were closely related to enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of the inherent and apparent optical properties in the sea areas around Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jee-Eun; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Ahn, Yu-Hwan

    2010-10-01

    Studying the light field of sea water is important in Ocean Color Remote Sensing (OCRS) because it brings immense information concerning the ocean environmental properties. This magnitude of the Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) emerges from the sea-surface after incidence light energy has been absorbed and scattered by sea water constituents. In this process, the amount of scattering is a lot smaller than that of absorption relatively. So the understanding of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs), especially absorption, is very important in OCRS. Many studies have been accomplished in various seas around the world. In optically more complex waters around Korea, we have found only a few investigations on the IOP and AOP. Thus, in this study we analyze the absorption coefficient of sea water constituents, phytoplankton, Suspended Sediment (SS) and Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) for the IOPs and the remote sensing reflectance for the AOPs. About 1300 water samples have been collected in the Korean waters from 1998 to 2010. It should be noted that sea areas around the Korea have different characteristics separately. So we analyzed the optical properties of each separated sea waters and compared each other results. The absorption spectral shape of SS and DOM showed exponentially decreasing pattern. Each graph's slope includes information of absorption characteristics. Using this results, in the future, we will prompt to develop the ocean environmental algorithms for ocean color satellite images, especially GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which will be launched on June 2010, around the Korean ocean.

  10. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex, South Korea, and genetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jieun; Choi, Seon-Gyu; Park, Jung-Woo; Whattam, Scott; Kim, Dong Woo; Ryu, In-Chang; Oh, Chang Whan

    2016-10-01

    The Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex occurs as an isolated individual body with an inclined pipe shape within the Precambrian Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea. The phoscorite consists mainly of olivine, apatite, magnetite, carbonates, amphibole, and phlogopite, and can be subdivided into two types, olivine-rich and apatite-rich. The carbonatite is composed of calcite, Mg-rich dolomite, Fe-rich dolomite, magnetite, apatite, and/or siderite. Intensive fenitization occurred along the boundary between the complex and the wall rocks of leucocratic banded gneiss and garnet-bearing metabasite. The paragenetic sequences of the phoscorite-carbonatite complex demonstrate that the early crystallization of silicate minerals was followed by the crystallization of carbonates as the carbonatitic melt cooled. Magnetite occurs within the complex, and the carbonatites have Fe contents that are higher than typical ferrocarbonatites, due to the high magnetite contents. The rare earth elements (REEs) in the phoscorites and carbonatites are weakly fractionated and show enrichments of LREEs and Nb relative to HREEs. Furthermore, the apatites reflect the fractionated trends of LREEs relative to HREEs. Phoscorite apatites are enriched in Sr and show substitutions between Ca and Sr. Mica chemistry reflects the evolutionary trend of Fe2 + and Mg2 + in the phoscorite-carbonatite melt without Al substitution. Micas exhibit high values of Mg# in the phoscorite-carbonatite complex, but lower values in fenites. Via thermodynamic analysis, the early stability fields of magnetite-pyrrhotite-graphite-carbonate assemblages indicate that the Yonghwa phoscorite and carbonatite crystallized under conditions of 600 °C, 2 kbar, and XCO2 = 0.2. Afterward, melts underwent an evolution to the late stability fields of magnetite-pyrite-pyrrhotite-ilmenite assemblages. The δ13C and δ18O isotopic compositions of carbonates in the Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex are - 8.2‰ to - 3.4‰ and 6.6 to 11

  11. Pygidiopsis summa (Digenea: Heterophyidae): Status of Metacercarial Infection in Mullets from Coastal Areas in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Huh, Beom-Nyung; Seok, Won-Seok

    2016-01-01

    To know the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in brackish water fish, we surveyed mullets collected from 18 coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae of Pygidiopsis summa were detected in 236 (68.2%) out of 346 mullets examined. They were found in mullets from 15 areas except for those from Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Pohang-si, and Uljin-gun (Gyeongsangbuk-do). Especially in mullets from Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do) and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), their prevalences were 100% and 95.5%, and the average metacercarial density was more than 1,000 per fish. They were also detected in mullets from 3 coastal lakes, Gyeongpoho, Songjiho, and Hwajinpoho, in Gangwon-do, and their average densities were 419, 147, and 672 per infected fish, respectively. The metacercariae of 5 other heterophyid species, including Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Metagonimus sp., Stictodora fuscata, and Stictodora lari, were found in the mullets examined. The metacercariae of H. nocens were detected in 66.7, 100, 28.6, 81.6, 3.9, 61.5, and 27.3% of mullets from Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun, Gangjin-gun, and Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun, and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), and their metacercarial intensities were 64, 84, 119, 99, 1, 24, and 24 per fish infected, respectively. From the above results, it has been confirmed that P. summa metacercariae are heavily infected in mullets from coastal areas of Korea. It is suggested that residents who frequently consume raw mullet dish can be easily infected with heterophyid flukes. PMID:27658602

  12. Seroepidemiology of Toxocariasis and Its Clinical Implications in Gwangju and Jeonnam-province, Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jin; Shin, Myung-Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the seroepidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients suspected to have toxocariasis in Gwangju and Jeonnam-province, Korea. In total, 228 specimens were analyzed for anti-Toxocara canis IgG at two university hospitals from 2010 to 2012. The overall seropositive rate was 67.1%, and the seropositive rates among the eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic groups were 76.1% (105/138) and 53.3% (48/90), respectively. Risk factors for eosinophilia and toxocariasis were male sex (odds ratios [OR]=2.632 and 3.477, respectively) and a history of ingesting raw meat (OR=2.884 and 3.274, respectively), especially raw cow liver (OR=2.089 and 10.038, respectively). T. canis seropositivity (OR=5.807, P=0.004) and a history of consuming raw cow liver (OR=2.766, P=0.052) were risk factors for organ involvement. The anti-T. canis IgG level showed weakly positive correlations with eosinophil counts (r=0.234, P<0.001) and the duration of eosinophilia (r=0.155, P=0.019). Although limited to the regions of Gwangju and Jeonnam-province, this study supports the opinion that toxocariasis is a reasonable focus as a cause of eosinophilia and that it is also associated with organ involvement.

  13. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, H.B.; Kannan, K.; Lee, S.J.; Ok, G.

    2006-11-15

    Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 {mu} m in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Moon, H-B; Kannan, K; Lee, S-J; Ok, G

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 microg/m2/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 microg/m2/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 microm in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo[g,h,i]perylene, pyrene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

  15. Microphysical properties of low-level clouds and fogs in a mountain area of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jin-Yim; Lee, Chulkyu; Jung, Hyun-Sook; Nam, Jae-Chul

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of microphysical properties in low-level clouds and fogs were carried out at Daegwallyeong in the northeastern mountainous region of South Korea. The microphysical characteristics are presented through analyzing the number concentration, mean diameter, liquid water contents and size distribution of cloud particles sampled with the groundbased Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP). The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the proposed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) type on the size and the number of cloud droplets. Observational cases are classified 5 sectors according to backward air mass trajectories from the NOAA/ARL HYSPLIT model. Clean maritime cloud is characterized by sector 1 trajectories and clean continental cloud is by sector 2. Contaminated maritime cloud is by sector 3 and contaminated continental cloud is by sector 4. Sector 5 trajectories are undefined air masses. On average, the droplet number concentrations in marine clouds were lower than for continental clouds, while the mean diameters and liquid water contents for marine clouds were larger than for continental clouds. Our observed values of microphysical properties are similar to the reported values from previous studies.

  16. The pollution status of sulfur dioxide in major urban areas of Korea between 1989 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    The pollution status of sulfur dioxide was analyzed using the datasets collected from seven major cities in Korea for the period of 1989-2010. Although there were moderate differences in SO2 levels between the cities, the temporal trends were seen to be rather distinctive between seasons or across the years. The SO2 levels consistently exhibited relative dominance during winter due to the combined effects of domestic heating and meteorological conditions. In contrast, the annual datasets underwent an abrupt decrease until the late 90s. As such, if the data are divided into two periods I (1989-1999) and II (2000-2010), the mean values were reduced considerably from a few tens of ppb (period I) to a few ppb levels (period II). This notable change is suspected to reflect the effect of gradual shift in fuel consumption patterns (e.g., from conventional fuels to cleaner renewal sources of energy). The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that emissions of SO2 are affected by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. According to the health risk assessment, the SO2 exposure to infants and adults should have decreased significantly from period I to period II (e.g., by 5-7 times).

  17. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  18. Middle Paleozoic metamorphism in the Hongseong area, South Korea, and tectonic significance for Paleozoic orogeny in northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang-Whan; Imayama, Takeshi; Yi, Sang-Bong; Kim, Taeseong; Ryu, In-Chang; Jeon, Jimin; Yi, Keewook

    2014-12-01

    The Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas are located within the Hongseong collision belt of South Korea, and the discovery of late Permian-Triassic eclogites has confirmed this belt as an extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt records a middle Paleozoic continental collision in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision of the North and South China cratons. In this paper, we present evidence for middle Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic events in the Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas. Metabasites and meta-basaltic andesites in the Baekdong area originated in an arc tectonic setting at ca. 470-437 Ma, and underwent an intermediate-P/T metamorphism (6.2-8.2 kbar, 620-700 °C) at ca. 418-405 Ma. The meta-basaltic andesite in the Gwangcheon area underwent a high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (close to the eclogite facies) at ca. 392-381 Ma. P-T values of 15.7-19.9 kbar and 860-890 °C were obtained for the peak metamorphism using conventional geothermobarometry, and conditions of 16-17 kbar and 870-920 °C were estimated by thermodynamic pseudosection analysis using the Perplex X program. Together with the late Permian-Triassic eclogites previously reported from the Hongseong area, these middle Paleozoic igneous activities that were related to subduction and metamorphism indicate that the Hongseong area underwent collision in the middle Paleozoic (418-381 Ma), in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision, as recorded in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt in China.

  19. Assessment of a Megacity Air Quality Management Policy using the GAINS-Korea : Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Amann, M.; Wagner, F.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution in and near megacities are very severe because of their massive pollutant emissions and high population density. Korea has ambitiously set its 2nd phase capitol air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets for the year 2024 are 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3 for PM10 and pm2.5, respectively and planned expenditure are almost 4 billion US dollar. Emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. Various special measures, such as cap-and-trade, LNB, EURO standards program, will be implemented to control emissions over Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do area. Smart approach of reducing air pollution and GHGs are, however, required to maximize improvement of metropolitan air quality and climate change. IIASA's Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies(GAINS) modeling framework is an widely used tool to design and manage smart emission control strategies that can achieve air quality/climate improvements with least costs. We have developed the national version of GAINS for Korea (GAINS-Korea) to set up those strategies for national and regional scale. In this study, we have implemented SAQMP in the GAINS-Korea Model and assess its effects of emissions reduction and air quality improvements. Various analysis results using the framework will be presented at site.

  20. Migration and enrichment of arsenic in the rock-soil-crop plant system in areas covered with black shale, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ji-Min; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Park, Min

    2003-04-07

    The Okchon black shale, which is part of the Guryongsan Formation or the Changri Formation of Cambro-Ordovician age in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched with potentially toxic elements such as U, V, Mo, As, Se, Cd, and Zn. In this study, the Dukpyung and the Chubu areas were selected to investigate the migration and enrichment of As and other toxic elements in soils and crop plants in areas covered with black shale. Rock and soil samples digested in 4-acid solution (HCl+HNO3+HF+HClO4) were analyzed for As and other heavy metals by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, and plant samples by INAA. Mean concentration of As in Okchon black shale is higher than those of both world average values of shale and black shale. Especially high concentration of 23.2 mg As kg(-1) is found in black shale from the Dukpyung area. Mean concentration of As is highly elevated in agricultural soils from the Dukpyung (28.2 mg kg(-1)) and the Chubu areas (32.6 mg kg(-1)). As is highly elevated in rice leaves from the Dukpyung (1.14 mg kg(-1)) and the Chubu areas (1.35 mg kg(-1)). The biological absorption coefficient (BAC) of As in plant species decreases in the order of rice leaves > corn leaves > red pepper = soybean leaves = sesame leaves > corn stalks > corn grains. This indicates that leafy plants tend to accumulate As from soil to a greater degree than cereal products such as grains.

  1. Geographical distribution of indoor radon and related geological characteristics in Bonghwa County, a provisional radon-prone area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, E R; Chang, B U; Kim, H J; Song, M H; Kim, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The detailed indoor radon survey was conducted during a year (from September 2012 to August 2013) quarterly in Bonghwa county, one of the provisional radon-prone areas in Korea. The surveyed area was selected on the basis of previously conducted nationwide radon survey results. In order to minimise statistical and environmental uncertainties, ∼3 % of the entire dwellings were carefully selected based on the statistical annual report of Bonghwa county. The measurement is carried out by using solid-state nuclear track detector. The range of indoor radon concentration in each dwelling was 4.36-858 Bq m(-3) and that of annual effective dose due to inhaled radon of the resident in each dwelling was 0.19-23.5 mSv y(-1). Each dwelling was determined for geology criterion using one-way Analysis of Variance for the purpose of comparing indoor radon distribution with geology. Geographical distribution of indoor radon is closely related to the geological characteristics of basement rocks. In addition, the comparison between geographical distribution of indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation was done.

  2. A novel assessment of odor sources using instrumental analysis combined with resident monitoring records for an industrial area in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung-Don; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Choi, Won-Joon; Lee, Sang-Sup; Lee, Min-Ho; Oh, Kwang-Joong

    2013-08-01

    The residents living nearby the Sa-sang industrial area (SSIA) continuously were damaged by odorous pollution since 1990s. We determined the concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) [hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)], nitrogenous compounds (NCs) [ammonia (NH3) and trimethylamine (TMA)], and carbonyl compounds (CCs) [acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde] by instrumental analysis in the SSIA in Busan, Korea from Jun to Nov, 2011. We determined odor intensity (OI) based on the concentrations of the odorants and resident monitoring records (RMR). The mean concentration of H2S was 10-times higher than NCs, CCs and the other RSC. The contribution from RSCs to the OI was over 50% at all sites excluding the A-5 (chemical production) site. In particular, A-4 (food production) site showed more than 8-times higher the sum of odor activity value (SOAV) than the other sites. This suggested that the A-4 site was the most malodorous area in the SSIA. From the RMR analysis, the annoyance degree (OI ≥ 2) was 51.9% in the industrial area. The 'Rotten' smell arising from the RSCs showed the highest frequency (25.3%) while 'Burned' and 'Other' were more frequent than 'Rotten' in the residential area. The correlation between odor index calculated by instrumental analysis and OI from the RMR was analyzed. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of the SOAV was the highest at 0.720 (P < 0.05), and overall results of coefficient showed a moderately high correlation distribution range (from 0.465 to 0.720). Therefore, the overall results of this research confirm that H2S emitted from A-4 site including food production causes significant annoyance in the SSIA. We also confirm RMR data can be used effectively to evaluate the characteristic of odorants emitted from the SSIA.

  3. 3D crustal velocity structure beneath the broadband seismic array in the Gyeongju area of Korea by receiver function analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Jung Mo; Cho, Hyun-Moo; Kang, Tae-Seob

    2016-10-01

    A temporary seismic array was in operation between October 2010 and March 2013 in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Teleseismic records of the seismic array appropriate for receiver function analysis were collected, and selected seismograms were split into five groups based on epicenters-the Banda-Molucca, Sumatra, Iran, Aleutian, and Vanuatu groups. 1D velocity structures beneath each seismic station were estimated by inverting the stacked receiver functions for possible groups. The inversion was done by applying a genetic algorithm, whereas surface wave dispersion data were used as constraints to avoid non-uniqueness in the inversion. The composite velocity structure was constructed by averaging the velocity structures weighted by the number of receiver functions used in stacking. The uncertainty analysis for the velocity structures showed that the average of 95% confidence intervals was ± 0.1 km/s. The 3D velocity structure was modeled through interpolation of 1D composite velocity structures. Moho depths were determined in each composite velocity structure based on the AK135-F S-wave velocity model, and the depths were similar to the H-κ analysis results. The deepest Moho depth in the study area was found to be 31.9 km, and the shallowest, was 25.9 km. The Moho discontinuity dips in a southwestward direction beneath the area. A low velocity layer was also detected between 4 and 14 km depth. Adakitic intrusions and/or a high geothermal gradient appear to be the causes of this low velocity layer. The 3D velocity structure can be used to reliably assess seismic hazards in this area.

  4. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  5. Conservation implications of the genetic diversity of Gymnospermium microrrhynchum in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Yeon, M H; Shim, J K

    2016-10-24

    Gymnospermium microrrhynchum (Berberidaceae) is an ephemeral perennial herb with a limited distributional range in the Baekdudaegan mountain areas of the Korean Peninsula, and is designated a rare plant by the Korean Forest Service. Information about its genetic variation and structure is important for developing successful conservation strategies. To investigate the genetic variation within and among seven G. microrrhynchum populations, random amplified polymorphic DNA data were obtained for 207 individuals. The populations exhibited relatively low genetic diversity: the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranged from 32.1 to 66.7% (mean = 51.4%) and Nei's gene diversity (HE) ranged from 0.116 to 0.248 (mean = 0.188). However, genetic diversity at the species level was relatively high (PPB = 98.7%, HE = 0.349). An analysis of molecular variance revealed high differentiation among populations (ΦST = 0.6818), but the low gene flow value (Nm = 0.117) suggests a low level of gene exchange occurs among populations. Principal coordinates analysis revealed that individuals were separated according to population. The high level of genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among G. microrrhynchum populations, which resulted from their isolation in alpine areas after the Ice Age, indicates that it is essential to protect and manage all populations, rather than focus on specific populations, in order to maintain the genetic diversity of this species.

  6. The concentrations and fluxes of total gaseous mercury in a western coastal area of Korea during late March 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Joon; Lee, Gangwoong

    Factors affecting the distribution and exchange of total gaseous mercury (Hg) were investigated over a bare paddy field at Hari, a relatively clean district at Kang Hwa Island, Korea in late March 2001. The Hg concentrations were quantified at two heights (1 and 5 m above the ground), and then combined with micrometeorological measurements of turbulent exchange coefficients for flux computation. During the 8-day period of measurements, mean concentrations of Hg (3.72 ng m -3, N=164) were lower than those reported from urbanized/industrialized areas but higher than the background concentration (i.e., 1-2 ng m -3). The Hg fluxes, however, were comparable to those reported in the literature for polluted environments and showed clear diurnal pattern with maximum (˜600 ng m -2 h -1) during midday and the minimum (˜100 ng m -2 h -1) at nighttime. Occasionally, at nighttime when the turbulent mixing was weak under stable conditions, a deposition of Hg was observed at much lower rates (about -32.3 ng m -2 h -1). The rate of Hg emission tended to increase with increasing air/soil temperatures and pollutant levels under enhanced turbulent mixing. By contrast, dry deposition of Hg seemed to be related to the increase of certain pollutants such as fine particles (PM 2.5) and CO. Overall, the bare paddy field was a strong source of Hg with the daily net Hg emission of 4.4 μg m -2 during the measurement period.

  7. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.

  8. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  9. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  10. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  11. Optimizing low impact development (LID) for stormwater runoff treatment in urban area, Korea: Experimental and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sang-Soo; Choi, Dong-Ho; Jung, Jae-Woon; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Hyuk; Yoon, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Currently, continued urbanization and development result in an increase of impervious areas and surface runoff including pollutants. Also one of the greatest issues in pollutant emissions is the first flush effect (FFE), which implies a greater discharge rate of pollutant mass in the early part in the storm. Low impact development (LID) practices have been mentioned as a promising strategy to control urban stormwater runoff and pollution in the urban ecosystem. However, this requires many experimental and modeling efforts to test LID characteristics and propose an adequate guideline for optimizing LID management. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to optimize the sizes of different types of LID by conducting intensive stormwater monitoring and numerical modeling in a commercial site in Korea. The methodology proposed optimizes LID size in an attempt to moderate FFE on a receiving waterbody. Thereby, the main objective of the optimization is to minimize mass first flush (MFF), which is an indicator for quantifying FFE. The optimal sizes of 6 different LIDs ranged from 1.2 mm to 3.0 mm in terms of runoff depths, which significantly moderate the FFE. We hope that the new proposed methodology can be instructive for establishing LID strategies to mitigate FFE.

  12. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  13. Characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping at Imwon area in the east coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Dae; Ahn, Jung Kwan; Nam, Myung Mo; Lee, Chu; Yoo, Hyun Il; Yeon, Su Yeoung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jang Kyun; Choi, Jae Suk

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping using hoe or high-pressure water sprayer in the period from June 2010 to April 2011. We divided the research area off the eastern coast of Korean near Imwon into 3 categories depending upon the severity of the barren ground, i.e., the urchin barren-affected, urchin barren-ongoing and urchin barren-free areas. In April 2011, in the urchin barren-affected area with 25 seaweed species, the cover percentage and importance value (IV) of crustose coralline algae were higher than those of other species. In the urchin barren-ongoing area with 33 seaweed species, crustose coralline algae (mean IV = 62%) as well as Sargassum sp. (mean IV = 28%), and Gelidium amansii (mean IV = 19%) were observed following rock scraping. In the urchin barren-free area where seaweed communities were relatively abundant with 42 species, a variety of algal species including G. amansii (mean IV = 32%) underwent algal succession. Overall, it was observed that, as an aspect of algal succession, the weaker the barren ground severity was, the more frequent and diverse the seaweeds were, and the more complex the succession pattern was in the study. As an aspect of recovering algal community, rock scraping using hoe was shown to be superior to the method using high-pressure water spraying. Therefore, we conclude that rock scraping using hoe is a very effective strategy for recovering the algal community in urchin barren-ongoing area.

  14. Determination of upwind and downwind areas of Seoul, Korea using trajectory analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, H. S.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Chang, Y. S.

    2010-09-01

    To identify the domains that have the greatest impacts on air quality at the surface, both the upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by season using refined wind fields. Four consecutive days were selected as the study period typical of each season. The mesoscale meteorology of the study period was reproduced by using the MM5 prognostic meteorological model (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model) with horizontally nested grids. The gridded meteorological field, which was used on the study area of 242 km x 226 km with grid spacing of 2 km, was generated by using the CALMET diagnostic meteorological model. Upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by calculating 24-hour backward and forward air parcel trajectories, respectively, with u, v, and w velocity vectors. The results showed that the upwind and downwind areas were extended far to the northwest and the southeast as a result of high wind speeds in the spring and winter, while they were restricted on the fringe of Seoul in the summer and fall.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of tributyltin (TBT) in seawater, sediments and bivalves from coastal areas of Korea during 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkyu; Choi, Hee-Gu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Gui-Young

    2009-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) concentrations were determined in seawater, sediments and bivalve samples collected from Korean coastal areas during 2001-2005, to investigate the levels and temporal variation in TBT contamination in relation to the timing of the imposition of regulations on TBT use in Korea. TBT concentrations ranged from <5.0 to 164 ng/L in seawater, from <7.0 to 9,576 ng/g dry weight in sediments, and from <7.0 to 6,296 ng/g dry weight in bivalves. The highest concentrations of TBT were found at locations close to intensive shipping traffic and industrial complexes, and the contamination at some hot spot areas was high enough to cause harmful effects on marine organisms. TBT concentrations and their occurrence in Korean coastal waters have been decreasing annually. In particular, TBT concentrations in seawater have dramatically decreased. This result is consistent with regulations and bans on the use of TBT in Korea.

  16. Hydrochemistry and noble gas origin of geothermal waters of Icheon and Pocheon area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan Ho; Shin, Seon Ho; Nagao, Keisuke; Kim, Kyu Han; Koh, Yung Kwon; Kim, Gun Young

    2010-05-01

    Hydrochemical, stable isotopic (δ18O and δD) and noble gas isotopic analyses of seven geothermal water samples, eleven groundwater samples and six surface water samples collected from the Icheon and Pocheon area were carried out to find out hydrochemical characteristics, and to interpret the source of noble gases and the geochemical evolution of the geothermal waters. The geothermal waters show low temperature type ranging from 21.5 to 31.4 ℃ and the pH value between 6.69 and 9.21. Electrical conductivity of geothermal waters has the range from 310 to 735 μS/cm. Whereas the geothermal in the Icheon area shows the geochemical characteristics of neutral pH, the Ca-HCO3(or Ca(Na)-HCO3) chemical type and a high uranium content, the geothermal water in the Pocheon area shows the characteristics of alkaline pH, the Na-HCO3 chemical type and a high fluorine content. These characteristics indicate that the geothermal water in the Icheon area is under the early stage in the geochemical evolution, and that geothermal water in the Pocheon area has been geochemically evolved. The δ18O and δD values of geothermal waters show the range of -10.1˜-8.69‰ and from -72.2˜-60.8‰, respectively, and these values supply the information of the recharge area of geothermal waters. The 3He/4He ratios of the geothermal waters range from 0.09×10-6 to 0.65×10-6 which are plotted above the mixing line between air and crustal components. Whereas the helium gas in the Icheon geothermal water was mainly provided from the atmospheric source mixing with the mantle(or magma) origin, the origin of helium gas in the Pocheon geothermal water shows a dominant crustal source. 40Ar/36Ar ratios of geothermal water are in the range of an atmosphere source. Key words: hot spring water, hydrochemical composition, low temperature type, 3He/4He ratios, crustal source

  17. Heavy metals in the bed and suspended sediments of Anyang River, Korea: implications for water quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Moon, Ji-Won; Moon, Hi-Soo

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare Anyang River bed sediments with water chemical composition and to assess the anthropogenic chemical inputs into the river system. Eight sampling locations were chosen along the river channel. Bed and suspended river sediments and water samples were collected, and analyzed for their chemical and physical composition. Data revealed that trace element concentrations in the river water were generally below world average, except for As, Mn, Ni and Cr. Among the three phases: water, bed and suspended sediment, more than 99% of the trace elements was associated with the bed sediment. Concentrations of trace elements in the sediment were a function a particle size distribution and organic content. The calculated degrees of enrichment based on the least influenced sample (ASD 1) indicated the river sediments were enriched with respect to background. The enrichment factors for Pb, Zn and As were relatively lower than for Cr, Co, Ni and Zn. The difference in the enrichment seems to reflect the human activities influence in the basin, and specially for Cd. Speciation of the elements in the five different chemical forms in the sediment by sequential extraction indicated that the reducible fraction was predominant for Fe, Zinc and Cu showed an irregular variation among the different fractions; whereas, Cd and Pb were more regular. Zinc and Cu highly existed mostly in exchangeable forms. Acid soluble and reducible forms were also important for most metals. The speciation implies that the metals associated with the sediment are subject to release into water bodies as goechemical variables (pH and Eh) change. Currently, the introduced metals are deposited near the source area and are mostly associated with the sediment, implying that the river bed sediment acts mainly as a sink, rather than a pool. The accumulated and enriched toxic trace elements can pose a potential pollution of river water.

  18. Late-Holocene vegetation and climate change in Jeju Island, Korea and its implications for ENSO influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungjae; Shin, Young Ho; Byrne, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Several recent studies suggest the hypothesis that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important factor controlling the Holocene East Asian Monsoon (EAM). However, the mechanism underlying this influence remains unclear due to the lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records from the coast of East Asia. Here, we provide a new record of late Holocene climate change in coastal East Asia based on multi-proxy evidence (pollen, organic content, magnetic susceptibility, grain size) obtained from a sediment core from Jeju Island, South Korea. As Jeju Island is strongly influenced by the Kuroshio flow, our sediment proxy records contain ENSO signals from the tropical Pacific. The study area was affected by dry/cool conditions in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) between 4350 and 1920 cal yr BP when El Niños were frequent, and by rapid warming/wetting and forestation since 1920 cal yr BP when La Niñas were more common. Jeju Island was relatively dry/cool between 2100 and 1600, 1300-1200, 1100-1000, 800-650, and 300-50 cal yr BP, as opposed to the Galápagos Islands, which were relatively wet/warm, reflecting the ENSO-related negative correlation between eastern and western margins of Pacific. Wet conditions may have prevailed during the early Little Ice Age (LIA) (620-280 cal yr BP) despite consistent cooling. This period of high precipitation may have been associated with the increased landfall of typhoons and with warmer Kuroshio currents under La Niña-like conditions. According to our results, EAM on the East Asian coastal margin was predominantly driven by ENSO activity, rather than by the precession effect. Paleoclimatic data from Jeju Island, with its insular position and closeness to warm Kuroshio currents, provide clear evidence of these ENSO influences.

  19. Artificial Injection of Fresh Water into a Confined Saline Aquifer: A Case Study at the Nakdong River Delta Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Senapathi, V.; Rajendran, R.; Khakimov, E.

    2015-12-01

    Injection test in a confined saline aquifer was performed to assess the potential of artificial recharge as a means of replacing saline water with fresh water, thereby securing fresh groundwater resources for the Nakdong Delta area of Busan City, Korea. The study area comprises a confined aquifer, in which a 10~21m thick clay layer overlies 31.5~36.5 m thick of sand and a 2.8~11m thick layer of gravel. EC logging of five monitoring wells yielded a value of 7~44 mS/cm, with the transition between saline and fresh water occurring at a depth of 15-38 m. Above 5 m depth, water temperature was 10~15.5°C, whereas between 5 and 50 m depth, the temperature was 15.5~17℃ and pH was 7.15~7.49. The quality of injected fresh water was 388 μS/cm with the temperature of 6.2℃, and pH was 7.70. Approximately 950 m3 of fresh water was injected into the OW-5 injection well at a rate of 370 m3/day for 62 hours, after which the fresh water zone was detected by a CTD Diver installed at a depth of 40 m. The persistence of the fresh water zone was determined via EC and temperature logging at 1 day, 21 days, 62days and 95 days after injection. The contact between fresh and saline water in the injection well was represented by a sharp boundary rather than a transitional boundary. It was concluded that the injected fresh water occupied a specific space and served to maintain the original water quality throughout the observation period. Moreover, we suggest that artificial recharge via long-term injection could help secure a new alternative water resource in this saline coastal aquifer.

  20. Analysis of climate variability under various scenarios for future urban growth in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to adjust urban growth data closer to reality in the regional climate model because urban changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere. Future urban growth, however, has not been considered widely in the prediction model for future climate change. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on cellular automata (CA) technique to predict the future urban growth. The target area is Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA) where the urban area explosively has expanded the most in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. The SLEUTH model was calibrated to know the pattern of the urban growth in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then the future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) current trends scenario (Scenario 1; SC1), (2) regional policy and urban planning scenario (Scenario 2; SC2), (3) ecologically protection scenario (Scenario 3; SC3). As a result, the urban ratios by scenarios were increased 12.87, 11.17 and 6.26 percentages of the total area for 50 years respectively. These predictions of SLEUTH model used as the boundary condition data and the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany used as the initial condition data in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We designed four different numerical experiments in accordance with the four scenarios for the urban growth (SC1, SC2, SC3 and Current condition) and carried out for 5 years (2046-2050). Overall, the increment of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase and the average wind speed to decrease in the

  1. Risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in the abandoned metal mine areas, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Chon, H. T.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to toxic heavy metals influenced by past mining activities. Environmental geochemical survey was undertaken in the abandoned metal mine areas (Dongil Au-Ag-Cu-Zn mine, Okdong Cu-Pb-Zn mine, Myungbong Au-Ag mine). After appropriate sample preparation, tailings, soils, crop plants and groundwaters were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Health risk assessment of toxic heavy metals has been performed with chemical analytical data for environmental media. Arsenic and other heavy metals are highly elevated in the tailings from the Dongil mine (8,720 As mg/kg, 5.9 Cd mg/kg, 3,610 Cu mg/kg, 5,850 Pb mg/kg, 630 Zn mg/kg), but heavy metals except As from the Okdong mine (72 As mg/kg, 53.6 Cd mg/kg, 910 Cu mg/kg, 1,590 Pb mg/kg, 5,720 Zn mg/kg) and only As from the Myungbong mine (5,810 As mg/kg). These significant concentrations can impact on soils and waters around the tailing files. Also, elevated levels of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are found in agricultural soils from these mine areas. Risk assessment modeling is subdivided into main four stages, i.e. hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity (dose-response) assessment and risk characterization. In order to assess exposure it is necessary to calculate the average daily dose (ADD) of contaminant via the three identified pathways (soil, groundwater and food (rice grain) pathways). In dose-response assessment for non-carcinogens, reference doses (RfD) are calculated and that for carcinogens, slope factors (SF) are obtained by US-EPA IRIS database. In risk characterization, the results of toxicity assessment and exposure assessment are integrated to arrive at quantitative estimates of cancer risks and hazard quotients. Toxic (non-cancer) risks are indicated in terms of a hazard quotient (H.Q.) and this risk exists for H.Q.>1. The H.Q. values for only As from the Dongil and Myungbong mine areas are 2.1 and

  2. Occurrence and Mineralogical Characteristics of Tremolite Asbestos Occurred in Boryeong area, Chungnam, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, H.

    2009-12-01

    Abandoned tremolite mines, which had been exploited for several decades since 1930, are distributed in Boryeong, Chungnam. It is known that tremolite asbestos is approximately 100 times more harmful than chrysotile asbestos. Recently, it become a regional social problem because lung disease (mesothelioma and lung cancer) suspect patients are largely found among the residents of the mining area. Therefore, Korean government making every endeavor to remove asbestos risk in the area. However, there is insufficiency geological and mineralogical studies for tremolite asbestos. In the present study, the occurrence and mineralogical characteristics of tremolite asbestos were studied using polarization microscope, XRD, XRF, EPMA, SEM and TEM. Mica-schist of precambrian metasedimentary rock, which is widely distributed in the area, is the host rock of tremolite deposits. The rocks are largely disturbed by faults and folds, and shows sudden changes in strike and slope of strata. Tremolite ore bodies, which show relatively light colored, mainly occur as stratiform or veinlet and some occurs in brecciated rock fragments. Tremolite is a major asbestos mineral, and chrysotile, talc, mica, chlorite and quartz occurs as associated minerals. Considerable amount of ore containing pure tremolite is found, and ores having mineral assemblages of tremolite+talc, tremolite+quartz and chrysotile+talc also occurs. From optical microscope observations, most tremolites are asbestos from that meets to the criterion (length > 5 μm, diameter < 3 μm, aspect ratio > 3:1) defined by the international organization (WHO, ILO), but non-asbestos form tremolites are also included. Most asbestos form tremolites have the size range of 1.0-2.0 μm width and 5-10 μm length. The length can be shorten with crushing experiments, but the width remains unchanged. Non-asbestos form hardly change to asbestos form by mechanical crushing. From comprehensive studies for geological occurrence and mineral

  3. The History of Policy Responses to Shadow Education in South Korea: Implications for the next Cycle of Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Jae; Lee, Heesook; Jang, Hyo-Min

    2010-01-01

    Shadow education has been a challenge to public education in South Korea since the 1960s. Government has responded to shadow education with various types of policy responses. The assumption on the possibility of reducing the demand mechanism led the policy to eliminate competitive high stakes examinations and even prohibit participating in shadow…

  4. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  5. An Integrated Study of Geoelectric Vertical Sounding and Hydrogeochemistry in the Riverside Alluvium around Buyeo Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, S.; Park, Y.; Yun, S.

    2005-12-01

    The water quality of alluvial aquifers in agricultural areas is sensitive to the behaviour of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and lime) and, also, to the geologic conditions. It is important to know the characteristics of the aquifers (e.g., depth, spatial distribution, and soil types) and the relationship between subsurface geology and the groundwater contamination for its effective use and management in the future. In order to provide the subsurface information of the lithology and the groundwater zone for hydrogeologic interpretations, an integrated study using twenty vertical electric soundings (VES), direct observation of lithology from two boreholes and hydrochemical data from irrigation well has been conducted in the riverside alluvium near Buyeo area, Korea. Main results of this study are as follows. The depth of main groundwater table is getting slightly deeper toward the river. The boundary between surface sandy and silty soils extends to the subsurface at depth of groundwater table. The vestige of an ancient river channel, such as an oxbow lake, can be identified by a lateral continuation of perched aquifer parallel to the river on the resistivity profiles. This perched aquifer materials are composed of clay-rich silt soils, which prohibit the infiltration of oxygen and nitrate from the land surface. Therefore, the groundwater of the main aquifer below the oxbow lake shows the very low NO3 level and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. Surface resistivity contour map indicates that the resistivity varies with a NW-SE trending zonal distribution and increases toward the river. This result shows an agreement with the spatial distribution of surface soils, implying that the variation of surface resistivity is mainly controlled by surface lithology or soil type. On the other hand, the distribution of water resistivities is correlated with that of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, while the earth resistivity of aquifer

  6. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    the Waziyu mcc indicate the non-rotation of North China and the basin [Zhu, R.X., Shao, J.A., Pan, Y.X., Shi, R.P., Shi, G.H., Li, D.M., 2002. Paleomagnetic data from Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks of West Liaoning: evidence for intracontinental rotation. Chinese Science Bulletin 47, 1832-1837]. Such upper-plate non-rotation supports our conclusion that the lower plates of the Waziyu and Liaonan metamorphic core complexes were displaced ESE-ward in an absolute sense away from the stable North China block, thus contributing to the rotation of Korea and contiguous areas. Rotation is inferred to have affected only the upper crust above mid-crustal levels into which we believe the Jinzhou and Waziyu detachment fault zones flattened. If this is the case, the regional Tan Lu fault that lies between the two core complexes was truncated at mid-crustal depth, since in areas to the south it forms the boundary between the North and South China lithospheric blocks. It is noteworthy that the two extensional complexes lie not far north of the Bohai Bay, the area proposed by Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] as the site of the pole of rotation for Korea's clockwise displacement. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] were unaware of the Liaonan and Waziyu mcc's and argued that most of the regional block rotation was post-Early Cretaceous and, in part, early Cenozoic. However, the ca. 130-120 Ma ages of the two Liaoning mcc's and a Songliao basin mcc (Xujiaweizi), the latter discovered only by recent drilling through its younger stratigraphic cover, support our and some Korean coworkers' conclusions

  7. Restoring the Nexus of History-Theory-Doctrine in Military Thought: Implications for the Republic of Korea Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    and an ironclad warship known as a Turtle Ship. As stated above, the traditional military thought of Korea was well developed and could achieve...34- 35. 15 Figure 1. The Turtle Ship (Geobukseon) and Multiple Rocket Launcher (Hwacha...Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War. 1st ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1991. Collins, Jim. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others

  8. Long-term prediction of groundwater recharge by climate changes in the Gosan agricultural area, Jeju Island of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E. H.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of long-term changes in groundwater recharge due to the climate changes is needed to secure the sustainable use of grounwater. In Jeju Island, which is composed of various formations of porous volcanic rocks, groundwater is a sole resource for water supply because of its hydrogeological characteristics. Therefore, preservation of the groundwater resource is an essential issue in the island. Prior to establishing a management plan for maintaining the groundwater resources in Jeju Island, long-term estimation of influencing factors are necessary. The Gosan study area is located in the western part of the island, where extensive agricultural activity has been performed and groundwater is a main source of supply for watering crops. In this study, we estimated the recharge changes for 100 years (2000~2099) in the Gosan agricultural area based on two climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) by using the HELP3 (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) program. The estimated component of water budget in this study are as follows (averaged in 2000~2014), precipitation: 1.28x108 m3/yr; ET: 6.49x107 m3/yr; runoff: 5.84x106 m3/yr; and recharge: 5.27x107 m3/yr. Over the 100 years of the estimated period, precipitation will have a highest increase among other meteorological parameters to be 6.16x109 m3 (RCP4.5) and 6.34 x109 m3 (RCP8.5). Increase in recharge by RCP8.5 scenario (2.75 x109 m3) will be less than that by RCP4.5 (2.77x109 m3) because ET by RCP 8.5 (ET: 3.34x109 m3; runoff: 2.27x108 m3) is estimated to be higher than ET by RCP4.5 (ET: 3.15x109 m3; runoff: 2.35x108 m3). Jeju volcanic island is known to have higher recharge proportions to the precipitation due to the distributed highly porous volcanic rocks. Therefore, variations in precipitation by climate changes would greatly affect the groundwater resource of the island. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for

  9. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a major environmental problem in South Korea with the marked expansion of the industrial base and the explosive growth of the population. Even in rural areas, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, the presence of acid-mine drainage, and increase of volumes of domestic wastewaters are adding to groundwater pollution. The DRASTIC/EGIS model was used to evaluate the potential for groundwater contamination in the Cheongju city area, the first of several pilot studies. The model allows the designation of hydrogeologic settings within the study area, based on a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors for each setting. Then, a scheme for relative ranking of the hydrogeologic factors is applied to evaluate the relative vulnerability to groundwater contamination of each hydrogeologic setting. DRASTIC/EGIS can serve as a tool to evaluate pollution potential and so facilitate programs to protect groundwater resources. Résumé La contamination de l'eau souterraine devient un problème environnemental majeur en Corée du Sud, en relation avec le développement industriel bien marqué et l'explosion démographique. Meme dans les zones rurales, l'utilisation accrue d'engrais et de pesticides, le drainage acide de mines et les rejets croissants d'eaux usées contribuent à la pollution des nappes. Le modèle DRASTIC/EGIS a été utilisé pour évaluer le potentiel de contamination des eaux souterraines dans la région de la ville de Cheongju, la première de plusieurs régions pilotes. Le modèle permet de définir des ensembles hydrogéologiques dans la région étudiée, à partir de la description composite de tous les facteurs géologiques et hydrogéologiques essentiels pour chaque ensemble. Ensuite, un schéma pour le classement des facteurs hydrogéologiques est mis en oeuvre pour évaluer la vulnérabilité relative à la contamination des eaux souterraines pour chaque ensemble. DRASTIC

  10. Characterization of Odorous Compounds (VOC and Carbonyl Compounds) in the Ambient Air of Yeosu and Gwangyang, Large Industrial Areas of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Kyo; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Baek, Sung-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Odorous compounds play an important role in air pollution in industrial areas and the residential areas surrounding them. This study measured the odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbonyl compounds at Yeosu and Gwangyang, two large industrial areas of South Korea, during four seasons of 2008-2009. Along with these two cities, the same odorous compounds were measured at Suncheon, which was selected as a control site. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyl compounds that were listed as odorous air pollutants by the Ministry of Environment of South Korea are discussed. Benzene and formaldehyde were included in the target analytes because of their carcinogenic nature. Most researchers only examined the concentration of odorous compounds in ambient air but the present study evaluated the odor intensity, which is a new parameter that will help better understand the precise odor perceived by people. This paper describes the seasonal variations and spatial distribution of the above-mentioned odorous compounds at the specified sites. Pearson correlation coefficients between the odorous compounds and other air pollutants, such as ozone, CO, SO2, NO2, and PM10, and meteorological conditions, such as temperature and wind speed, provide the source information of odorous VOC and carbonyl compounds. PMID:25309959

  11. MODIS GPP/NPP for complex land use area: a case study of comparison between MODIS GPP/NPP and ground-based measurements over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)/Net Primary Productivity (NPP) has been widely used for the study on global terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle. The current MODIS product with ~ 1 km spatial resolution, however, has limitation on the information on local scale environment (< 1km), particularly on the regions with complex land-use types. Here we try to test the performance of MODIS annual GPP/NPP for a case of Korea, where the vegetation types are mostly heterogeneous within a size of MODIS products (~1km). We selected the sites where the ground/tower flux measurements and MODIS retrievals were simultaneously available and the land classification of sites agreed the forest type map (~71m) (1 site over Gwangneung flux tower (GDK) for 2006-2008 and 2 sites of ground measurements over Cheongju (CJ1 and CJ2) for 2011). The MODIS GPP are comparable to that of GDK (largely deciduous forest) within -6.3 ~ +2.3% of bias (-104.5 - 37.9 gCm-2yr-1). While the MODIS NPP of CJ1 at Cheongju (largely Larix leptolepis) underestimated NPP by 34% (-224.5 gCm-2yr-1), the MODIS NPP of CJ2 (largely Pinus densiflora) agreed well with -0.2% of bias (1.6 gCm-2yr-1). The fairly comparable values of the MODIS here however, cannot assure the quality of the MOD17 over the complex vegetation area of Korea since the ground measurements except the eddy covariance tower flux measurements are highly inconsistent. Therefore, the comprehensive experiments to represents GPP/NPP over diverse vegetation types for a comparable scale of MODIS with a consistent measurement technique are necessary in order to evaluate the MODIS vegetation productivity data over Korea, which contains a large portion of highly heterogeneous vegetation area.

  12. Assessment of air quality in the coastal area of South Korea using principal component analysis combined with cluster analysis and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.; Kwack, W.; Ha, H.; Choe, C.; Kim, Y.; Zoh, K.; Yi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of ambiet air pollution in relation with meteorological parameters is a topic of great interest to maintain and manage ambient air quality in the coastal region of South Korea. The objectives of this study were: (i) to locate emission sources qualitatitively and quantitatively, (ii) to identify air quality by day with similar air pollution behaviors; and (iii) to evaluate the effect of sea salt on the aerosols. Two statistical techniques, principal components analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) were applied to the concentrations of five pollutants(PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3). The enrichment factor(EF) representing the ratio of Cl/Na in aerosol to Cl/Na in sea water was calculated with 2 soluble ions(Na+ and Cl-) in PM10 analyzed by ion chromatograph in coastal urban area of Incheon city, South Korea from January to December 2008. PCA results show three emission sources; (i) high PM10, NO2 and CO with low temperature, radiation and wind speed(35.9%), (ii) high O3 with high radiation and wind speed, and low humidity(18.2%), (iii) high NO2 and O3 with high temperature and radiation, and low wind speed(11.2%), respectively. CA results show three groups; (i) Friday (high PM10 and NO2, low O3), (ii) Sunday (low PM10 and NO2, high O3), (iii) Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Saturday (medium PM10, NO2 and O3). EF was 1.02 implying contribution of sea salt on the aerosol level with various anthropogenic sources. In conclusion, PCA and CA are suitable for idenfying and estimating the sources of air pollution. EF allows for investigating the effect of sea salt on the PM10 in the region where sea-land breezes. It was conclueded that the sea wind had an important contribution towards the variation of air pollutants. Key words : air pollutants, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, enrichment factor Fig. 1. Dendrogram using average linkage of cluster analysis for PM10 at coastal urban area of Incheon, South Korea. Table 1 Main results of PCA

  13. A questionnaire survey exploring healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards teamwork and safety in acute care areas in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sang Jin; Oh, Je Hyeok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Ryu, Ji Yeong; Jang, Hye Young; Choi, Yoon Hee; Kim, Su Jin; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although human factors are important in terms of patient safety, there have been very few reports on the attitudes of healthcare professionals working in acute care settings in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the attitudes of such professionals, their cultures and their management systems. Design A questionnaire survey with 65 items covering nine themes affecting patient safety. Nine themes were compared via a three-or-more-way analysis of variance, with interaction, followed by multiple comparisons among several groups. Setting Intensive care units, emergency departments and surgical units of nine urban hospitals. Participants 592 nurses and 160 physicians. Intervention None. Outcome measures Mean scores using a five-point scale and combined response scores for each of the nine themes. Results The mean score for information-sharing was the highest (3.78±0.49) and that for confidence/assertion was the lowest (2.97±0.34). The mean scores for teamwork, error management, work value, organisational climate, leadership, stress and fatigue level, and error/procedural compliance were intermediate. Physicians showed lower scores in leadership and higher scores in information-sharing than nurses. Respondents with 24 months or less of a clinical career showed higher scores in leadership, stress and fatigue, and error scores and lower scores in work value than more experienced respondents. Conclusions Our results suggest that medical personnel in Korea are relatively reluctant to disclose error or assert their different opinions with others. Many did not adequately recognise the negative effects of fatigue and stress, attributed errors to personal incompetence, and error-management systems were inadequate. Discrepancies in leadership and information-sharing were evident between professional groups, and leadership, stress, fatigue level, work value and error scores varied with the length of work experience. These can be used as baseline data

  14. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater using multivariate statistical analysis and tritium in the mountainous area of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, D.; Chae, G.; Kang, B.; Koh, G.; Yoon, Y.; Ko, K.; Park, K.

    2008-12-01

    sources in the mountainous area. These threshold values were consistent with the result of PCA and HCA. PCA and HCA are more effective than other threshold calculating statistics because PCA and HCA have implication of geochemical processes and anthropogenic contamination. It is suggested that PCA and HCA could be used as complementary method for determining threshold values.

  15. Phylogenetic lineage of Tobacco leaf curl virus in Korea and estimation of recombination events implicated in their sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Kim, Sunghan; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2011-08-01

    New strains of Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV) were isolated from tomato plants in four different local communities of Korea, and hence were designated TbLCV-Kr. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the whole genome and of individual ORFs of these viruses indicated that they are closely related to the Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV) cluster, which includes Honeysuckle yellow vein virus (HYVV), Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), and TbLCJV isolates. Four putative recombination events were recognized within these virus sequences, suggesting that the sequence variations observed in these viruses may be attributable to intraspecific and interspecific recombination events involving some TbLCV-Kr isolates, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV), and a local isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV).

  16. Evidence for terrigenic SF6 in groundwater from basaltic aquifers, Jeju Island, Korea: Implications for groundwater dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, D.-C.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Kim, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), tritium (3H), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in groundwater from basaltic aquifers in Jeju Island, Korea, demonstrate a terrigenic source of SF6. Using a lumped-parameter dispersion model, groundwater was identified as young water (<15 years), old water with negligible CFC-12 and 3H, and binary mixtures of the two. Model calculations using dispersion models and binary mixing based on 3H and CFC-12 concentrations demonstrate a non-atmospheric excess of SF6 relative to CFC-12 and 3H concentrations for more than half of the samples. The non-atmospheric excess SF6 may have originated from terrigenic sources in relict volcanic fluids, which could have acquired SF6 from granites and basement rocks of the island during volcanic activity. Local excess anthropogenic sources of SF6 are unlikely. The SF6 age is biased young relative to the CFC-12 age, typically up to 20 years and as high as 30 years. This age bias is more pronounced in samples of groundwater older than 15 years. The presence of terrigenic SF6 can affect the entire dating range for groundwater in mixtures that contain a fraction of old water. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  19. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  20. Morphology of pedestrian roads and thermal responses during summer, in the urban area of Bucheon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gook-Sup; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of urban morphology representing sky view factor (SVF) on urban microclimate and on human thermal responses. The physical environments and the changes in body temperatures as well as psychological responses were investigated in summer in Bucheon, Korea. The dry bulb temperature ranged from 31.5 °C at SVF 0.082 site to 35.7 °C at SVF 0.922 site. Most of the environmental elements were statistically correlated to the SVF: the dry bulb temperature R 2 = 0.602, UVB R 2 = 0.556 and the illumination level R 2 = 0.609. The mean skin temperature increased up to 36.0 °C at the SVF 0.940 site and decreased to 33.9 °C at the SVF 0.082 site. The mean skin temperature was statistically correlated to the SVF ( p = 0.005). However, the core body temperature was not correlated to SVF because of time delay effect to the previously exposed thermal environment. In the investigation of thermal acceptability, only 5 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road that was covered with plentiful trees; in contrast, approximately 50 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road with poor solar obstacles in the summer. The thermal stress was affected by the urban morphology, and the plentiful urban greening improved thermal comfort.

  1. Effects of an urban park and residential area on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Joo, Seung Jin; Lee, Chang Seok

    2013-03-01

    The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2-4 March 2011), the growing season (10-12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22-24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600-1000 LST and 1800-2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.

  2. Long-term trend of NO2 in major urban areas of Korea and possible consequences for health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hang Thi; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Park, Chuljin

    2015-04-01

    Long-term trend of the atmospheric NO2 was analyzed using ambient monitoring data collected from seven major cities in Korea over two decades (1989-2010). In light of the notable environmental policies initiated since June 2000, these NO2 data were also evaluated after dividing the entire study period into period I (1989-1999) and period II (2000-2010). Accordingly, the mean concentrations of NO2 in five out of seven cities in period II were higher by 1-26% than period I. This recognizable increase in period II is likely to reflect the effect of increasing consumption rates in primary energy (e.g., petroleum and LNG). An examination of the seasonal trend of NO2 consistently indicates the highest concentrations occurred during winter because of the combined effects of the anthropogenic emission and meteorological conditions. A health risk assessment of our data indicated that the NO2 exposure (to adults, children, and infants) increased from period I to period II. Also, the long-term trends of NO2 were analyzed based on the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slopes. It revealed that NO2 levels of most cities had the linearly increasing trends during period I. However, decreasing trends appeared during period II to reflect the direct effect of implementation of administrative efforts including the fuel switching control policy.

  3. Attitudes and knowledge regarding breast-feeding: a survey of obstetric residents in metropolitan areas of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S

    1996-07-01

    A 15-minute, 6-page questionnaire on breast-feeding was administered to the obstetric residents in four metropolitan academic training programs in Korea to assess their attitudes toward and knowledge about breast-feeding and their confidence in managing breast-feeding problems. The questionnaires were self-administered and confidential, and the participation rate was 84% (n=76). Overall, the study participants indicated a neutral attitude toward breast-feeding (2.9 on a 6-point scale, where 1 equals the most positive attitude and 6 equals the most negative attitude). Their self-confidence was inappropriately high, with 49% of the total sample describing themselves as "confident" or "very confident" to manage common breast-feeding problems. Female residents had a higher confidence level than male residents. Although high in self-confidence about breast-feeding, the residents in this study were not knowledgeable about breast-feeding management, answering only 38% of the questions correctly. To be truly supportive of breast-feeding, obstetricians should receive didactic and clinical training in breast-feeding management.

  4. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and <1% (PFOS in adults, and PFOA in both toddlers and adults) of the overall-EDIs. In conclusion, house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the

  5. Relations of As concentrations among groundwater, soil, and bedrock in Chungnam, Korea: implications for As mobilization in groundwater according to the As-hosting mineral change.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Jeong, Gi Young; Kim, Rak-Hyeon

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic (As) concentrations and As-bearing minerals in bedrock and soil, and their relations with groundwater concentrations were investigated in a small agricultural area of Korea. The As concentration of the bedrock shows a wide variation (<0.5-3990 mg/kg) and is well correlated with that in the contacting groundwaters (23-178 μg/L). Soils, the weathering product of bedrock, show the lower and more dispersed As concentrations (8.8-387 mg/kg) than the bedrock. But the soil As concentrations are very high relative to those reported from other areas. The As concentrations in the shallow groundwaters are comparatively low (<20 μg/L) and are independent of the soil concentration. Arsenopyrite is the major As-bearing mineral in the bedrock and its oxidation controls the As levels in deep groundwater. In contrast, As mostly resides in soil as Fe-(hydr)oxide-bound forms. Due to low pH and oxidizing redox condition, the release of As from Fe-(hydr)oxides is largely suppressed, and the shallow groundwater shows low As concentrations generally satisfying the drinking water limit. However, it is suggested that the disturbance of soil geochemical conditions by land use changes would cause a serious As contamination of the shallow groundwaters.

  6. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  7. Geoelectric resistivity sounding of riverside alluvial aquifer in an agricultural area at Buyeo, Geum River watershed, Korea: an application to groundwater contamination study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Hee; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2007-12-01

    Twenty profiles of vertical electric soundings (VES) were obtained in a riverside alluvium at the Buyeo area, South Korea, to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The combination of the VES data with the borehole data provided useful information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions. The vestige of an ancient river channel (e.g. oxbow lake) was identified on the resistivity profiles by the lateral continuation of a near-surface perched aquifer parallel to the river. Such a perched aquifer is typically developed in the area with a clay-rich silty surface alluvium which prohibits the infiltration of oxygen. Therefore, groundwater below the oxbow lake shows a very low nitrate concentration and Eh values under the strong anoxic condition. The distribution of water resistivity is correlated with that of measured total dissolved solids concentration in groundwater, while the earth resistivity of the aquifer shows a significant spatial variation. It is interpreted that the earth resistivity of the aquifer is mainly controlled by the soil type rather than by the water chemistry in the study area.

  8. Oceanisphaera aquimarina sp. nov., Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Sediment of Ocean Coastal Area from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seonghyeon; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-11-01

    Strain S33(T) was isolated from oil-contaminated sediment of Tae-an coastal region of South Korea. Cells are aerobic, motile, Gram staining-negative, and coccoid shaped. Strain S33(T) grew optimally at the temperature of 25 °C (range of 4-40 °C), pH 6.0 (range of pH 6.0-10.0), and in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl (range of 0-10 %). Ubiquinone-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. C16:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c) and C18:1ω7c were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol. Strain S33(T) showed the ability to degrade benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene after 3 days incubation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain S33(T) was most closely related to Oceanisphaera sediminis TW92(T) (97.3 %), Oceanisphaera profunda SM1222(T) (97.2 %), and Oceanisphaera ostreae T-w6(T) (97.1 %) and <97 % with other members of the genus Oceanisphaera. The genomic DNA G+C mol% content of strain S33(T) was 51.0 mol%. Based on distinct phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic analysis, strain S33(T) was proposed to represent a novel species in the genus Oceanisphaera as Oceanisphaera aquimarina sp. nov. (= KEMB 1002-058(T) = JCM 30 794(T)).

  9. Identification and interpretation of representative ozone distributions in association with the sea breeze from different synoptic winds over the coastal urban area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Oh, In-Bo; Lee, Hwa Woon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2007-12-01

    To aid the studies of long-term impact assessment of cumulative ozone (O3) exposures, the representative 8-hr O3 pollution patterns have been identified over the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) in Korea. Principal component analysis and two-stage clustering techniques were used to identify the representative O3 patterns, and numerical and observational analyses were also used to interpret the identified horizontal distribution patterns. The results yielded three major O3 distribution patterns, and each of the three patterns was found to have strong correlations with local and synoptic meteorological conditions over the GSA. For example, pattern 1, accounting for 46% of O3 concentration distributions, mostly occurred under relatively weak westerly synoptic winds. The predominant features of this pattern were infrequent high O3 levels but a distinct gradient of O3 concentration from the western coastal area to the eastern inland area that was mainly induced by the local sea breeze. Pattern 2, accounting for 31% of O3 concentration distributions, was found with higher O3 levels in the western coastal area but lower in the eastern inland area. This is due to the modified sea breeze under the relatively stronger easterly opposing synoptic wind, affecting the high O3 occurrence in the western coastal area only. However, pattern 3, accounting for 21% of O3 concentration distributions, showed significantly higher O3 concentrations over the whole GSA mainly due to the retarded and slow-moving sea-breeze front under the weak opposing synoptic flow. Modeling study also indicated that local and synoptic meteorological processes play a major role in determining the high O3 concentration distribution patterns over the GSA.

  10. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  11. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  12. Fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation (Miocene) in the Bukpyeong Basin at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea: occurrences, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik; Paik, In Sung

    2016-04-01

    Abundant and diverse plant fossils such as land plants and subaqueous plants, freshwater mollusc fossils and invertebrate trace fossils are found in the Miocene Bukpyeong Formation at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation are described and their taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications are interpreted. Based on fossil occurrences, lithofacies and sedimentary features of the fossil-bearing deposits, eight taphofacies are classified as the following: (1) Taphofacies 1: Gastropod fossils in massive silty mudstone; (2) Taphofacies 2: Bivalve fossils in massive silty mudstone; (3) Taphofacies 3: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in massive silty mudstone; (4) Taphofacies 4: Gastropod and plant fossils in massive silty mudstone; (5) Taphofacies 5: Plant fossils in weakly fissile silty mudstone; (6) Taphofacies 6: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (7) Taphofacies 7: Plant fragment fossils in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (8) Taphofacies 8: Plant debris in planar- to cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone. Taphonomy of taphofacies 1, 2, and 4 including freshwater mollusc fossils is interpreted to have been reworked or transported by turbidity currents after death and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Taphonomy of taphofacies 3, 5, 6, and 7 including plant fossils is interpreted to have been transported by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited by settling down in open lake. Taphofacies 8 including plant debris has been deposited in shallow lake by input of intensive episodic flooding from the land. The occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits indicate that most of the fossils were transported by turbidity current induced by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Moreover, plant fossils from the Bukpyeong

  13. Detrital modes of the Pyeongan Supergroup (Late Carboniferous Early Triassic) sandstones in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Il; Sheen, Dong-Hee

    1998-08-01

    Medium to coarse sandstones of the Carboniferous to Early Triassic Pyeongan Supergroup in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea, were studied to infer the provenance and tectonic settings of the source areas. Sandstone detrital modes change upwards stratigraphically. Sandstone types from the Manhang to Dosagog formations low to middle in the sequence are quartzarenite, and sublitharenite to litharenite, whereas sandstones of the Gohan and Donggo formations high in the sequence are feldspathic litharenite and arkose, respectively. Using various ternary diagrams, the provenance of the Manhang to Gohan formations is suggested to be a recycled orogen setting. Some Gohan Formation sandstones plot within the arc-related setting field, and the Donggo Formation sandstones plot within both continental block and recycled orogen fields. Results of quartz grain petrography are consistent with those of detrital modes. Quartz in sandstones of all units except the Donggo Formation indicates derivation from low-rank metamorphic sources. Quartz in Donggo sandstones was derived from medium- to high-rank metamorphic and plutonic source rocks. Considering the sandstone composition and palaeocurrent data, the Pyeongan Supergroup probably was deposited in a molasse foreland basin and was derived from a synbasinal orogenic belt, probably the Akiyoshi orogen located in southwest Japan.

  14. Metallic elements in PM2.5 in different functional areas of Korea: Concentrations and source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Ji; Kim, Hyun-Woong; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Pyung-Rae; Kim, Woo-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Both PM2.5 mass concentration and its chemical composition are a great concern to human health. In this study, the concentrations of PM2.5 and their metallic elements were measured to identify the characteristics and to trace sources at two different functional areas, a residential and a cement industrial area. The average PM2.5 concentrations were not significantly different between the two sites, but their chemical compositions were clearly different. Crustal elements in PM2.5 were significantly higher in the residential area, while the concentrations of metals typically emitted from anthropogenic sources were generally higher in the cement industrial area. Crustal elements often increased during spring in the residential area due to the blustery weather with high wind speeds; however, most metallic elements were enhanced during winter in the cement industrial area. Principal component analysis was used to trace the sources. Soil re-suspension, traffic-related sources, and asphalt concrete production were identified as the main sources of PM2.5 in the residential area, while the cement industry, Ni-Cr plating industry, and other industrial activities were identified in the cement industrial area.

  15. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, d'E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  16. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  17. Effect of model error on precipitation forecasts in the high-resolution limited area ensemble prediction system of the Korea Meteorological Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, SeHyun; Kim, Hyun Mee

    2015-04-01

    In numerical weather prediction using convective-scale model resolution, forecast uncertainties are caused by initial condition error, boundary condition error, and model error. Because convective-scale forecasts are influenced by subgrid scale processes which cannot be resolved easily, the model error becomes more important than the initial and boundary condition errors. To consider the model error, multi-model and multi-physics methods use several models and physics schemes and the stochastic physics method uses random numbers to create a noise term in the model equations (e.g. Stochastic Perturbed Parameterization Tendency (SPPT), Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter (SKEB), Stochastic Convective Vorticity (SCV), and Random Parameters (RP)). In this study, the RP method was used to consider the model error in the high-resolution limited area ensemble prediction system (EPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The EPS has 12 ensemble members with 3 km horizontal resolution which generate 48 h forecasts. The initial and boundary conditions were provided by the global EPS of the KMA. The RP method was applied to microphysics and boundary layer schemes, and the ensemble forecasts using RP were compared with those without RP during July 2013. Both Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and spread of wind at 10 m verified by surface Automatic Weather System (AWS) observations decreased when using RP. However, for 1 hour accumulated precipitation, the spread increased with RP and Equitable Threat Score (ETS) showed different results for each rainfall event.

  18. Late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Burkett, Douglas A.; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Hee-Il; Lee, Jong-Soo; Shin, E-Hyun; Wirtz, Robert A.; Cho, Hae-Wol; Claborn, David M.; Coleman, Russel E.; Kim, Wan Y; Klein, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    Field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 September 2000 in a malarious area near Paekyeon-ri (Tongil-Chon ) and Camp Greaves in Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap during hours when temperatures exceeded 15℃. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test was compared using a block design. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected, such that, the Mosquito MagnetTM with octenol > Shannon trap > ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Miniature Black Light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) ≥ New Jersey Trap > ABC light trap with light only. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles lesteri Baisas and Hu, An. sinensis Weidemann, An. sineroides Yamada, An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett L., Cx. orientalis Edwards and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Host-seeking activity for most common species showed a similar bimodal pattern. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance current vector and disease surveillance efforts especially for the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:11949213

  19. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae-Ji; Shim, So-Hee; Ha, Si-Jung; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Richards, Allen L; Yi, Suk-Hee; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented.

  20. Enrichment of hexabromocyclododecanes in coastal sediments near aquaculture areas and a wastewater treatment plant in a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-02-01

    The contamination status and potential sources of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the coastal environment were investigated using sediment samples from a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea. HBCDs displayed a very different distribution profile compared to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and nonylphenol, indicating different emission sources inside the bay. A strong enrichment of HBCDs was found near aquaculture areas that used expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys, which were confirmed to be the main source of HBCDs following an analysis of buoys collected from a market and the coast. EPS buoys contained large amounts of HBCDs, with lower levels in the outside layer than inside, implying the leaching of HBCDs from the surface throughout their lifetime. This was reflected in the high levels of HBCDs measured in coastal sediments near aquaculture farms. A wastewater treatment plant was found to be an additional source of HBCDs. A dated core sample revealed an increase in HBCD concentrations over time. The isomeric profiles for most of the surface and core sediment samples were dominated by the γ-diastereoisomer.

  1. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-21

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean=35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  2. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-01

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean = 35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  3. [The trend and prospect of studies in the modern history of medicine in Korea].

    PubMed

    Park, Yunjae

    2010-06-30

    The Korean Journal of Medical History published in 1992 provides spaces for publication to medical historians who have been growing increasingly since the 1990s, thereby stimulating studies in the modern history of medicine in Korea. Through research published in the Korean Journal of Medical History and other journals, the course through which medicine in Korea in the modern times has been formed and the content of medicine that composed that course are elucidated. This article concludes that the various research tend to posit the view that the modern history of medicine in Korea evolves through a process of accommodation with Western medicine rather than being a complete transplantation of Western medicine, and describes medicine as it is viewed by consumers rather than the operators of medicine. How government power or colonial power utilized medicine in order to stabilize their rule is also a common theme. Now, it is come time to interrogate the viewpoints and analytical methods of medical history studies. Given that medicine is one area that drives changes in Korea in contemporary times, the outcomes obtained through this field can be sufficiently utilized when studying other areas. For instance, agony over the modernity of missionary medicine being studied recently provides meaningful implications in understanding the modernity of Korea. However, the importance of substantiation should not be overlooked as theories not supported by thorough documentary evidence are weak.

  4. Terrestrial biomarker records in Seomjin Estuary in the South Sea of Korea: Implication for terrestrial flux and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kim, Songyi; hyun, Sangmin; Kim, Wonnyon; Hyeong, Kiseong

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution records of terrestrial biomarkers, n-alkane compounds, were investigated in two gravity cores (SJP-2 and SJP-4) to evaluate variations in terrestrial organic matter influx. Based on 14C dating, sediments in both cores were deposited during the mid-Holocene; the ages of the bottom sediments of SJP-2 and SJP-4 reached 5,500 Cal yr BP and 5,000 Cal yr BP, respectively. High concentrations of total n-alkanes (nC25-35) in the two cores showed an increasing tendency from 4,500 yr to ca. 2,000 yr. The composition changed at the boundary of 2,500 yr in both cores, suggesting a variation in terrestrial biomarker influx at this time. Several indices including average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (ICP), and paleo-vegetation index (Paq) showed coincident variations in both cores; ACL exhibited a narrow range of variations with a slight shift at 2,500 yr, CPI showed a decreasing tendency from 4,000 yr to 2,500 yr, and Paq increased during these intervals. Furthermore, the ratios of C23/C31 and C25/C31, indicate a relative abundance of epicuticular wax from vascular plants with coincident variations in both cores, and this also marched well with Paq. CPI excursions suggested that the total n-alkane proxy of the two cores might not only be linked to local climatic variability but also to local oceanographic conditions due to the different sedimentation rates. Variations in paleovegetation and paleoclimate around the study area might be strongly associated with the influx of terrestrial organic compounds derived from vascular plants. Additional 14C dating and isotope study of individual n-alkane biomarkers will provide detailed information on paleoclimatic and paleovegetation changes.

  5. Temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in recently reclaimed intertidal flats of the Saemangeum area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Yeonjung; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Son, SeungHyun; Lee, Shing Yip; Nam, Jungho; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-10-01

    Trophodynamics of intertidal mudflats are significantly driven by microphytobenthos (MPB) production but spatial and temporal dynamics of this production source is poorly known. To understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of intertidal MPB, benthic chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, and sediment properties were determined in Gyehwa (sandy) and Gwanghwal (muddy) tidal flats of Saemangeum area over a year at 97 stations. This study set out to: (i) characterize the spatial-temporal patterns in MPB biomass on a year-round basis, (ii) identify the abiotic and biotic factors associated with MPB distributions, (iii) investigate the use of satellite-derived chlorophyll a data and verify with in field measurements, and (iv) determine minimum required sample size for in situ biomass measurement. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were greater in winter and spring with a high magnitude of variance than in summer and fall at both areas. Benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments tended to decrease approaching lower tidal zone, being associated with the corresponding decrease in shore level and/or exposure duration. Compared to available data on macrozoobenthos distribution, the spatial variation of microalgal biomass seems to be attributed to distribution of deposit-feeders. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) between in situ MPB biomass and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values was observed, but was much weaker in the lower tidal zone. Mirroring algal heterogeneity, the minimum required sample size for in situ biomass measurement were greater in blooming season and sandy bottom, suggesting that sampling design for spatio-temporal mapping of MPB should consider the sampling season and/or abiotic and biotic features of study area. Overall, spatio-temporal dynamics of intertidal MPB seem to be influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors.

  6. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  7. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  8. Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals in acid mine drainage: an example from the abandoned Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hun-Bok; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Soon-Oh; Park, Seong-Sook; Lee, Pyeong-Koo

    2005-08-01

    Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals (Cr, Co, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd) in acid mine drainage were studied in two creeks in the Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, southern part of Korea. Chemical analysis of stream waters and the weak acid (0.1 N HCl) extraction, strong acid (HF-HNO3-HClO4) extraction, and sequential extraction of stream sediments were performed. Heavy metal pollution of sediments was higher in Chonam-ri creek than in Sagok-ri creek, because there is a larger source of base metal sulfides in the ores and waste dump upstream of Chonam-ri creek. The sediment-water distribution coefficients ( K d) for metals in both creeks were dependent on the water pH and decreased in the order Pb ≈ Al > Cu > Mn > Zn > Co > Ni ≈ Cd. K d values for Al, Cu and Zn were very sensitive to changes in pH. The results of sequential extraction indicated that among non-residual fractions, Fe-Mn oxides are most important for retaining trace metals in the sediments. Therefore, the precipitation of Fe(-Mn) oxides due to pH increase in downstream sites plays an important role in regulating the concentrations of dissolved trace metals in both creeks. For Al, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn, the metal concentrations determined by 0.1 N HCl extraction (Korean Standard Method for Soil Pollution) were almost identical to the cumulative concentrations determined for the first three weakly-bound fractions (exchangeable + bound to carbonates + bound to Fe-Mn oxides) in the sequential extraction procedure. This suggests that 0.1 N HCl extraction can be effectively used to assess the environmentally available and/or bioavailable forms of trace metals in natural stream sediments.

  9. The ecological importance of the dwarf seagrass Zostera japonica in intertidal areas on the southern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Kun-Seop; Li, Wen-Tao; Park, Sang Rul

    2016-03-01

    The intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica, which is distributed in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, is exposed to nutrients from over-enriched land-based discharge and storm water runoff before they can be washed out to sea. Despite its ecological importance, only a few studies have examined the ecology and physiology of Z. japonica in northeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the productivity and tissue nutrient contents of above- and below-ground tissues to evaluate the potential role of Z. japonica in carbon capture and as a nutrient sink. The average total, above-, and below-ground productivity per shoot was 0.56, 0.34, and 0.21 mg DW shoot-1 day-1, respectively. Annual leaf production was 1.5 times higher than annual below-ground production. Estimated annual whole-plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus incorporation based on shoot production and tissue nutrient contents was 312.8 g C m-2 y-1, 25.7 g N m-2 y-1, and 1.6 g P m-2 y-1, respectively. These values were equivalent to 7.8 × 103 kg C y-1, 6.4 × 102 kg N y-1, and 40 kg P y-1 for all Z. japonica beds in Geoje Bay. This suggests that Z. japonica meadows can incorporate a considerable amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the intertidal zone. High N:P ratios of above- and below-ground tissues suggest that Z. japonica growth is probably limited by phosphorus availability in the study area.

  10. Hydrogeochemistry and Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Compositions of Sea Water Intrusion in Masan-Jinhae Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, H.; Song, Y.; Jeong, C.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the geochemical characteristics of the sea water intrusion in Masan - Jinhae area that is bounded by the South Sea of the Korean Peninsula. Sampling of precipitation, stream water, groundwater and sea water in the hydrologic cycle, measurement in field, and the analysis of dissolved ions and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes were carried out in order to understand hydrogeochemical property, and to analyze the mixing status of sea water with fresh water. The most appropriate parameters for understanding the status of sea water intrusion were also discussed in this study. Electric conductivity value shows outlier over 1000 §Á/§¯ in some groundwater, which suggests the evidence of sea water intrusion around the well. Groundwater is divided into three types; (Ca,Mg)-(HCO3) type, (Ca,Mg)-(Cl,SO4) type, and (Na+K)-(Cl,SO4) type. In particular, the second type could be due to geochemical evolution through reverse ion exchange reaction with sea water, and third type is chemically similar to sea water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of precipitation, stream water, groundwater and sea water show that precipitation reflects seasonal variation, and that stream water is more affected by groundwater rather than surface water. The origin of groundwater is also related to the meteoric water. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the collected sea water are lower than normal sea water. In order to understand the source of salinity in saline groundwater, hydrogeochemical parameters, and oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions were introduced in this stduy. All the parameters and isotope composition data indicate that the salinity was originated from sea water intrusion. The mixing ratios of sea water was determined by using Br, Cl concentration and ¥ä18O. Mixing ratio of sea water in saline groundwater shows scarce changes in most of the wells.

  11. Vitamin A status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungah; Kim, Young-Nam

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were estimated in assessing the vitamin A status of Korean adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 106 healthy subjects (33 males and 73 females) aged 20-59 years. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were obtained and plasma retinol and carotenoids were analyzed. The daily vitamin A intakes (mean ± SD) were 887.77 ± 401.35 µg retinol equivalents or 531.84 ± 226.42 µg retinol activity equivalents. There were no significant differences in vitamin A intakes among age groups. The retinol intake of subjects was 175.92 ± 129.87 µg/day. The retinol intake of the subjects in their 50's was significantly lower than those in their 20's and 30's (P < 0.05). Provitamin A carotenoid intakes were 3,828.37 ± 2,196.29 µg/day β-carotene, 472.57 ± 316.68 µg/day α-carotene, and 412.83 ± 306.46 µg/day β-cryptoxanthin. Approximately 17% of the subjects consumed vitamin A less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A. The plasma retinol concentration was 1.22 ± 0.34 µmol/L. There was no significant difference in plasma retinol concentrations among age groups. However, the concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein of subjects in their 50's were significantly higher than those of in their 20's. Only one subject had a plasma retinol concentration < 0.70 µmol/L indicating marginal vitamin A status. Plasma retinol concentration in 30% of the subjects was 0.70- < 1.05 µmol/L, which is interpreted as the concentration possibly responsive to greater intake of vitamin A. In conclusion, dietary intakes and status of vitamin A were generally adequate in Korean adults examined in this study. PMID:22413040

  12. Structural analysis and evolution of the Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Yeongnam massif, Korea: a NS-trend tectonic frame in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deok-Seon, Lee; Ji-Hoon, Kang

    2016-04-01

    The Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, is mainly composed of Precambrian Hadong anorthosite complex (HAC), Precambrian Jirisan metamorphic rock complex (JMRC), Jurassic˜Triassic granitoids which intrude them, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which unconformably cover them. Lithofacies distribution and tectonic frame of the Precambrian constituent rocks mainly show a NS trend, unlike a general NE trend of those in the Korean Peninsula. To unravel the geological structures associated with the NS-trend tectonic frame which was built in the HAC and JMRC, we researched the structural characteristics of each deformation phase based on the geometric and kinematic features and the forming sequence of rock structures of the multi-deformed HAC and JMRC. The results indicate that the pre-Late Paleozoic geological structures of this area were formed at least through the following three times of ductile deformation phases. The D1 deformation happened due to the large-scale top-to-the SE shearing, and formed sheath or A-type folds and a regional NE trend of tectonic frame in the HAC and JMRC. The D2 deformation occurred under the EW-directed tectonic compression, and formed a regional NS trend of active and passive folds and Hadong ductile shear zone over 2.3˜1.4 km width, and transposed most of D1 tectonic frame into D1-2 composite tectonic frame. The extensive Hadong shear zone, which was formed in the mylonitization process accompanying the passive folding, was persistently developed along the eastern boundary of HAC and JMRC which corresponds to a limb of passive fold on a geological map scale. It produced a very strong mylonitic structure and stretching lineation. The NE-trend D1 structural elements were mainly reoriented into NS trend by the powerful active and passive folding. The D3 deformation occurred under the NS-trend tectonic compression environment, and formed EW-trend kink or open folds, and partially rearranged

  13. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  14. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung; Kaown, Dugin; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Jin-Yong; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-11-15

    An integrated study based on hydrogeochemical, microbiological and dual isotopic approaches for nitrate and sulfate was conducted to elucidate sources and biogeochemical reactions governing groundwater contaminants in different seasons and under different land use in a basin of Korea. The land use in the study area is comprised of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and others (3.0%). The concentrations of NO3-N and SO4(2-) in groundwater in vegetable fields were highest with 4.2-15.2 mg L(-1) and 1.6-19.7 mg L(-1) respectively, whereas under paddy fields NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0 to 10.7 mg L(-1) and sulfate concentrations were ~15 mg L(-1). Groundwater with high NO3-N concentrations of >10mgL(-1) had δ(15)N-NO3(-) values ranging from 5.2 to 5.9‰ and δ(18)O values of nitrate between 2.7 and 4.6‰ suggesting that the nitrate was mineralized from soil organic matter that was amended by fertilizer additions. Elevated concentrations of SO4(2-) with δ(34)S-SO4(2-) values between 1 and 6‰ in aquifers in vegetable fields indicated that a mixture of sulfate from atmospheric deposition, mineralization of soil organic matter and from synthetic fertilizers is the source of groundwater sulfate. Elevated δ(18)O-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-SO4(2-) values in samples collected from the paddy fields indicated that denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction are actively occurring removing sulfate and nitrate from the groundwater. This was supported by high occurrences of denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria in groundwater of the paddy fields as evidenced by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis. This study shows that dual isotope techniques combined with microbial data can be a powerful tool for identification of sources and microbial processes affecting NO3(-) and SO4(2-) in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use.

  15. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  16. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  17. Ground Fire Effects on Hydrology and Habitat: Implications for Fire Management in Areas with Organic Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. A.; Watts, A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in wetlands can move into organic soils, where the resulting ground fires can smolder and consume large amounts of soil. These long-duration fires have a number of negative effects including air quality and motorist safety, as well as large-scale implications resulting from their release of large quantities of stored carbon. However, the ecological implications of the frequency and intensity of organic soil combustion occurrence are relatively unexplored. Smoldering fires in organic soils may increase local hydroperiod and wetland storage by lowering elevation, conferring benefits to wildlife (e.g., dry season refugia and feeding grounds). Short-term increases in productivity due to nutrient availability from ash may occur in or adjacent to areas affected by ground fires. Short-term negative feedbacks to fire return period are also likely to occur locally, due to increased hydroperiods; however, adjacent uplands may experience hydrologic changes as well, including factors which may affect fire risk far from areas of organic soil consumption. To explore hydrologic implications of soil-consuming ground fires, we developed a model based on a low-relief region in southern Florida (U.S.A.) that is characterized by seasonal hydrologic fluctuations and areas of organic soil distributed across a landscape that experiences frequent fire (i.e., 2-4 year return interval in uplands adjacent to wetlands). Parameterizing the model with local soil and hydrologic properties, as well as observed effects of fire in the region's organic soils, the model predicts changes to wetland depths, bathymetry, and storage competence as a function of fire severity (i.e., area and depth of burn) that may be ecologically significant. Our findings imply that soil-consuming ground fires—and their prevention—have ecohydrological implications that must be considered when developing ecosystem and fire management protocols.

  18. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  19. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  20. Implications of Spatial Data Variations for Protected Areas Management: An Example from East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km2), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  1. Influence of uraniferous black shales on cadmium, molybdenum and selenium in soils and crop plants in the Deog-Pyoun-g area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, K W; Thornton, I

    1993-09-01

    The influence of naturally occurring uraniferous black shales on cadmium, molybdenum and selenium concentrations in soils and plants is examined. The possible implications of element concentrations to animal and human health are considered for the Deog-Pyoung area.Geochemical surveys have been undertaken within 13 river tributary valleys in the area underlain by uraniferous black shales and black slates or grey chlorite schists. Sampling of rocks, soils and plants has been carried out along transect lines within each valley. Samples were analysed for trace elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and for uranium by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Soil pH, cation exchange capacity, loss on ignition and particle size distribution have been measured for selected samples.Average trace element concentrations of the Okchon uraniferous black shales were 6.3 μg g(-1) Cd, 136 μg g(-1) Mo and 8.6 μg g(-1) Se. Soils derived from these rocks tend to reflect their extreme geochemical composition. Trace element concentrations in alluvial soils derived in part from these black shales averaged 1.2 μg g(-1) Cd, 20 μg g(-1) Mo and 1.5 μg g(-1) Se. Trace element concentrations in plants were found to be influenced by those of soils. Cadmium accumulated in tobacco leaves up to 46 μg g(-1) (D.M.) and leafy plants such as lettuce contain up to 0.5 μg g(-1) Se (D.M.).In addition to total concentrations in soils, soil pH is a major factor influencing uptake of Mo into crop plants and soil texture for Se. Concentrations of trace elements in plants also varied between plant species. The relative concentrations of Cd were found to vary in the order tobacco > lettuce > red pepper > rice grain.Elevated concentrations of Cd in crop plants and in tobacco may possibly have deleterious effects on human health in this area. The low Cu:Mo ratio in rice stalk of 2.65:1 may be associated with disturbed Cu metabolism in ruminant animals which regularly

  2. Family factors for child meal skipping in low-income families in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwa-ok; Kim, Meesook; Hong, Soon-Myung

    2010-04-01

    The present study proposed to examine whether family factors are associated with child meal skipping in Korea. Family factors were divided into risk factors and protective factors on conceptual and theoretical bases. The sample was obtained from the Survey of Meal Service for Poor Children conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs in 2007. A final sample was composed of 944 children in low-income families who are served by the public meal program. Child meal skipping was positively associated with risk factors and negatively associated with protective factors, as hypothesized. Single-father family, middle or small urban area, presence of caretaker after school, health level of caretaker, caretaker's concern about child's diet, and degree of family cohesion significantly predicted child meal skipping. The authors suggest a few implications for practice based on the study findings.

  3. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (FAR EAST, SOUTHEAST ASIA, PACIFIC) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE... whales ” China and Japan. South Korea may be the fuse for an unprecedented shift in balance of power in the region. The implications for regional...South Korea. Therefore, historical study of the anti-Americanism is crucial to understand the sources of the increase in anti-Americanism. Chapter II

  4. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  5. Seasonal variations of diacids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in aerosols at Gosan, Jeju Island, South Korea: Implications for sources, formation, and degradation during long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Shuvashish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol samples (n = 84) were collected continuously from April 2003 to April 2004 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. The samples were analyzed for diacids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls, as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and water-soluble inorganic ions. Oxalic acid (C2) was the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) in all the seasons. The mean concentration (784 ng m-3) of total diacids (C2-C12) and their relative abundances in total organic species detected, OC and WSOC were found to be the highest in summer, whereas those of ketoacids and dicarbonyls were the highest in winter. The annual mean contributions of diacids, ketoacids, and dicarbonyls to WSOC are 12, 1, and 0.4%, respectively. They are several times higher than those reported in East Asia from which air masses are transported to Gosan, indicating an importance of photochemical processing of aerosols during a long-range transport. Diacids and related compounds show different seasonal variations, suggesting their season-specific sources and photochemical processing. This study demonstrates an enhanced photochemical production and degradation of water-soluble organics in summer. In contrast, higher positive correlations between combustion tracers (non-sea-salt K+ and EC) and diacids and related compounds were observed in the winter, pointing out higher emission of diacids and related compounds or their precursors from fossil fuel/biomass burning.

  6. Paleointensity determination of Late Cretaceous basalts in northwest South Korea: implications for low and stable paleofield strength in the Late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Bongsu; Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yu, Yongjae

    2013-12-01

    To clarify geomagnetic field behavior in the Late Cretaceous, paleointensity and rock-magnetic studies were carried out on basalts with K-Ar ages of 78.6 ± 2.5 and 73.1 ± 1.6 Ma in northwest South Korea. A total of 314 samples (262 from six lava flows and 52 from massive basalts) were subjected to Thellier-type IZZI paleointensity experiments. Through the application of seven paleointensity selection criteria that mainly verify the thermal alteration of magnetic minerals and the stability of remanence direction, fifteen paleointensity data were obtained from five of the lava flows. Based on rock-magnetic experiments and microscopic observations, it is revealed that the measured paleointensity is carried by single-domain (titano)magnetite. The site-mean paleointensities ranged 13.1-21.3 μT, which corresponds to a virtual axial dipole moment of 2.3-3.8 × 1022 Am2. The combination of this result with selected data from the IAGA paleointensity database establishes the existence of different dipole moments according to rock type. In particular, the geomagnetic field strength recorded in Late Cretaceous crystalline volcanic rock was relatively low and stable, with a mean dipole moment of 4.0 ± 1.9 × 1022 Am2 regardless of geomagnetic field reversals.

  7. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  8. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  9. A short note on a euphausiid, Euphausia pacifica, an important food source to demersal fishes in Uljin area, the eastern coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jinho; Han, Changhoon; Lee, Jae Hac; Hong, Jae Sang

    2008-07-01

    Gut contents of two species of demersal fishes, Pleurogrammus azonus and Dasycottus steiger were examined to understand the importance of a euphausiid, Euphausia pacifica as prey of demersal fishes at coastal waters off Uljin, the eastem Korea where aggregations of large amounts of the euphausiids were found. Euphausiids were significantly important food source to the species of fishes examined. All of the stomachs of P. azonus examined contained euphausiids (% of a food item frequency occurred, F = 100%) in March and June 2003. Individual numbers of euphusiids in the guts ranged from 10 to 540 individuals per gut. Percents of individual number of food item were 99.60 and 99.96 for euphausiids in March and June 2003, respectively The guts of D. steiger also frequently contained euphausiids (F = 86.67 and 79.20% in October 2002 and June 2003, respectively), while amphipods (F = 36.67% and 16.17%,) and other fishes (F = 33.33% and 45.80%) were also often observed. Pleurogrammus azonus preferred larger euphausiids with size range 16.9-28.4 mm, while the range of euphausiids distributed in the ambient water column was much broader (from eggs to adults).

  10. Genetic status of Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) reintroduced into South Korea based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yung-Kun; Hong, Yoon-Jee; Min, Mi-Sook; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Smith, Gavin J D; Cuong, Nguyen Dinh; Tho, Huynh Huu; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Doo-Ha; Kim, Chang-Bae; Lee, Hang

    2011-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear is one of the most endangered mammals in South Korea owing to population declines resulting from human exploitation and habitat fragmentation. To restore the black bear population in South Korea, 27 bear cubs from North Korea and Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai) were imported and released into Jirisan National Park, a reservoir of the largest wild population in South Korea, in 2004. To monitor the success of this reintroduction, the genetic diversity and population structure of the reintroduced black bears were measured using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Mitochondrial D-loop region DNA sequences (615 bp) of 43 Japanese black bears from previous study and 14 Southeast Asian black bears in this study were employed to obtain phylogenetic inference of the reintroduced black bears. The mitochondrial phylogeny indicated Asiatic black bear populations from Russian Far East and North Korea form a single evolutionary unit distinct from populations from Japan and Southeast Asia. Mean expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across 16 microsatellite loci was 0.648 for Russian and 0.676 for North Korean populations. There was a moderate but significant level of microsatellite differentiation (F(ST) = 0.063) between black bears from the 2 source areas. In addition, genetic evidences revealed that 2 populations are represented as diverging groups, with lingering genetic admixture among individuals of 2 source populations. Relatedness analysis based on genetic markers indicated several discrepancies with the pedigree records. Implication of the phylogenetic and genetic evidences on long-term management of Asiatic black bears in South Korea is discussed.

  11. Study on Asia's growing cities: Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of migration and urbanization in Korea is on the following: historical perspective, implications of urban growth, urbanization trends and population distribution, patterns of migration, socioeconomic differences, and population redistribution policies. Korea is one of the most densely populated countries in Asia. Attempts to deal successfully with this phenomenon have met with varying degrees of success. Population concentration in the capital region continues to be a problem and has resulted in acute housing shortages, rapidly rising land prices, and on encroachment of urban land use into prime agricultural land surrounding the Seoul metropolitan region. Between 1955-1975 the population of Seoul increased from 1.6 million to 6.9 million for the capital city proper and to 9.4 million for its metropolitan region, including 5 satellite cities. This fringe spillover began in the late 1960s. The metropolitan area, comprising 4 cities around the fast growing city of Busan in the south, was formed in the mid-1970s with 3.2 million people. At this time major policy concerns center on the demographic phenomenon of continued concentrations in the Seoul and Busan regions. Problem issues which persist include nonfarm polarization, regional imbalance, diverging intra-sectoral incomes, and the aging rural labor force. Despite its nearness to the demilitarized zone, Seoul was and continues to be the focal point of economic and educational opportunity. The early 1960s brought little variation in migration and urbanization trends. In 1961 family planning and planned economic development were initiated but their impact came several years later. The overall urban growth rate dropped from 5.4 to 4.6% in the 1960-1966 period, and Seoul's pace of expansion slowed down to an annual average of 6.5%. Yet, the capital continued its urbanizing dominance. By 1975 Korea had 3 cities with a population of over 3 million: Seoul, Busan, and Daegu. In 1975 48.4% of the

  12. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  13. The Developmental History of Labor Education in South Korea from a Sociopolitical and Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yangyi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a considerable body of research regarding the relationships between the sociopolitical and economic transition and its implications for the education system in South Korea, there is little known about how sociopolitical and economic factors affect labor education practice in South Korea. The premise of the study is that the…

  14. The analysis of interseismic GPS observation and its implication to seismic activity in Taiwan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. C.; Yu, S. B.; Shin, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is an active tectonic area with about 80 mm/yr plate convergence rate. To understand the crustal deformation and seismic potential in Taiwan area. We derived 2009-2014 interseismic GPS velocity field and strain rate, implicate to seismic activity of 2005-2014. Data collected by 281 sites of Taiwan Continuous GPS (cGPS) Array and processed with GAMIT/GLOBK software. Stacking of power spectral densities from cGPS data in Taiwan, we found the errors type can be described as a combination of white noise and flicker noise. The common errors are removed by stacking 50 cGPS sites with data period larger than 5 years. By removing the common errors, the precision of GPS data has been further improved to 2.3 mm, 1.9 mm, and 6.9 mm in the E, N, U components, respectively. After strictly data quality control, time series analysis and noise analysis, we derive an interseismic ITRF2008 velocity field from 2009 to 2014 in the Taiwan area. The general pattern is quite similar with previous studies, but the station density is much larger and spatial coverage better. Based on this interseismic velocity field, we estimate the crustal strain rate in Taiwan area. Approximately half of plate convergence strain rate is accommodated on the fold and thrust belt of western Taiwan and another half is taken up in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. The maximum dilatation rates is about -0.75~-0.9 μstrain/yr in WNW-ESE direction. The velocities in western Taiwan generally show a fan-shaped pattern, consistent with the direction of maximum compression tectonic stress. Extension in the E-W direction is observed at the Central Range area, the focal mechanism results also indicate the earthquake type here most are normal faults. In northern Taiwan, the velocity vectors reveal clockwise rotation, indicating the on-going extensional deformation related to the back-arc extension of the Okinawa Trough. In southern Taiwan, the horizontal velocity increases from

  15. Photochemical degradation of hydroxy PAHs in ice: Implications for the polar areas.

    PubMed

    Ge, Linke; Li, Jun; Na, Guangshui; Chen, Chang-Er; Huo, Cheng; Zhang, Peng; Yao, Ziwei

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are derived from hydroxylated PAHs as contaminants of emerging concern. They are ubiquitous in the aqueous and atmospheric environments and may exist in the polar snow and ice, which urges new insights into their environmental transformation, especially in ice. In present study the simulated-solar (λ > 290 nm) photodegradation kinetics, products and pathways of four OH-PAHs (9-Hydroxyfluorene, 2-Hydroxyfluorene, 1-Hydroxypyrene and 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene) in ice were investigated, and the corresponding implications for the polar areas were explored. It was found that the kinetics followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics with the photolysis quantum yields (Φs) ranging from 7.48 × 10(-3) (1-Hydroxypyrene) to 4.16 × 10(-2) (2-Hydroxyfluorene). These 4 OH-PAHs were proposed to undergo photoinduced hydroxylation, resulting in multiple hydroxylated intermediates, particularly for 9-Hydroxyfluorene. Extrapolation of the lab data to the real environment is expected to provide a reasonable estimate of OH-PAH photolytic half-lives (t1/2,E) in mid-summer of the polar areas. The estimated t1/2,E values ranged from 0.08 h for 1-OHPyr in the Arctic to 54.27 h for 9-OHFl in the Antarctic. In consideration of the lower temperature and less microorganisms in polar areas, the photodegradation can be a key factor in determining the fate of OH-PAHs in sunlit surface snow/ice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the photodegradation of OH-PAHs in polar areas.

  16. Small-Area Estimation of Spatial Access to Care and Its Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Monica; Isett, Kim; Serban, Nicoleta; Swann, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Local or small-area estimates to capture emerging trends across large geographic regions are critical in identifying and addressing community-level health interventions. However, they are often unavailable due to lack of analytic capabilities in compiling and integrating extensive datasets and complementing them with the knowledge about variations in state-level health policies. This study introduces a modeling approach for small-area estimation of spatial access to pediatric primary care that is data "rich" and mathematically rigorous, integrating data and health policy in a systematic way. We illustrate the sensitivity of the model to policy decision making across large geographic regions by performing a systematic comparison of the estimates at the census tract and county levels for Georgia and California. Our results show the proposed approach is able to overcome limitations of other existing models by capturing patient and provider preferences and by incorporating possible changes in health policies. The primary finding is systematic underestimation of spatial access, and inaccurate estimates of disparities across population and across geography at the county level with respect to those at the census tract level with implications on where to focus and which type of interventions to consider.

  17. Effects of groundwater residence time and recharge rate on nitrate contamination deduced from δ18O, δD, 3H/ 3He and CFCs in a small agricultural area in Chuncheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, Dugin; Koh, Dong-Chan; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2009-03-01

    SummaryStable isotopes of water, chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), and 3H/ 3He were applied in combination with hydrogeochemical data to analyze recharge patterns and nitrate contamination of shallow groundwater systems in a small agricultural area, Yupori, Chuncheon (Korea), where the eastern part is on hill slopes and the western part is low lands. The values of δ18O and δD indicated that groundwater is derived mainly from summer precipitation, which is more pronounced in the western part than in the eastern part. The apparent groundwater ages using CFC-113 and 3H/ 3He ranged from 13 to 31 yr, and are younger in the western part than in the eastern part. Dispersion models fit concentrations of 3H and CFC-113 for most wells of the eastern part with intermediate dispersion parameters. Nitrate concentrations were higher in the western part than the eastern part due to the land use pattern and topography. Stable isotopes of water and groundwater ages indicated that higher recharge rate affected by multiple sources of contamination is dominant in the western part whereas limited recharge with weak nitrate sources is considerable in the eastern part. This groundwater flow pattern corresponds to the different nitrate concentrations in the western and the eastern part. Groundwater residence time and recharge rate play an important role in the spatial distribution of NO 3 concentration in the study area as well as land use pattern.

  18. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  19. Spatial variability of chloride deposition in a vegetated coastal area: Implications for groundwater recharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, E.; Ordens, C. M.; Werner, A. D.; Batelaan, O.; Guan, H.; Post, V. E. A.

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of atmospheric chloride deposition is a prerequisite for applying the chloride mass balance (CMB) method for groundwater recharge estimation. Compared to bare areas, vegetated areas can significantly enhance chloride deposition rates as the vegetation canopy provides a large surface onto which water droplets and aerosols settle. Although generally acknowledged, this effect has often been ignored in practical applications of the CMB method. This paper studies the variability of chloride deposition in a coastal basin characterised by a heterogeneous vegetation cover, and the implications of this variability for groundwater recharge estimation using observation wells in the saturated zone. The study area is located on the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia. The theory of the CMB method for groundwater recharge estimation is revised in the context of highly spatially variable chloride deposition. A GIS-based approach is developed for mapping the chloride deposition accounting for distance from the coast, distribution of vegetation and edge effects; the latter implying a lower chloride deposition inside a vegetation stand than at the edge. In order to quantify the significance of one or several of these effects for recharge estimation, different chloride deposition maps and corresponding recharge estimates are derived. Compared with the reference scenario that accounts for all effects, neglecting the coastal effect results in a 33-36% higher average recharge estimate, whereas neglecting the vegetation effect results in a 17-22% lower average recharge estimate. The latter numbers are likely to represent a lower bound of the impact of neglecting the vegetation effect. A critical factor for accurate determination of the influence of vegetation appears to be the edge effect, albeit its importance is subject to significant uncertainty that warrants further monitoring.

  20. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2

  1. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  2. Naturopaths in Ontario, Canada: geographic patterns in intermediately-sized metropolitan areas and integration implications.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Stephen P

    2017-02-14

    Evaluating conventional medicine (CM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with respect to integration opportunities (such as patient referrals and professional knowledge sharing) and possible geographic implications is novel. This research utilizes nearest neighbour and local spatial autocorrelation statistical analyses and surveys directed towards Doctors of Naturopathic Medicine (NDs) and their patients to better understand the geographic patterns of NDs and potential integration qualities. While the statistical tests reveal that the offices of NDs and Doctors of Medicine (MDs) display clustered patterns in intermediately-sized census metropolitan areas in Ontario and that the majority of NDs are near MDs, proximity is not manifesting in discernible integration tendencies between NDs and MDs. The NDs polled were strongly in favour of greater integration with the CM sector (as were their patients) to: achieve better patient health outcomes and to gain efficiencies within the health care system. Yet, both surveys also indicate that the barriers to integration are substantial and, generally speaking, centre on the perception that many MDs lack respect for, and/or knowledge about, naturopathic approaches. It is speculated that as students in conventional medical schools are increasingly exposed to CAM approaches, perhaps more MDs in the future will be receptive to greater integration with CAM. Should this occur, then it is also possible that geographic proximity may be a catalyst for deeper CAM-CM integration; as it has been for CAM-CAM relationships.

  3. Planimetric frontal area in the four swimming strokes: implications for drag, energetics and speed.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Giorgio; Cortesi, Matteo; Fantozzi, Silvia; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the planimetric method to determine frontal area (Ap) throughout the stroke cycle in the four swimming strokes as well as during "streamlined leg kicking". The minimum Ap values in all strokes are similar to those assessed during "streamlined leg kicking" (about 0.13m(2)). Active drag (Da=1/2ρ Cd Ap v(2)) was then calculated/estimated based on the average Ap values, as calculated for a full cycle in each condition. Da is the lowest in the "streamlined leg kicking" condition (Da=19.5v(2), e.g., similar to the values of passive drag reported in the literature), is similar in front crawl (Da=30.0v(2)), backstroke (Da=26.9v(2)) and butterfly (Da=28.5v(2)) and is the largest in the breaststroke (Da=37.5v(2)). Based on the C vs. v relationships reported in the literature for the four strokes it is then possible to estimate drag efficiency: for a speed of 1.5ms(-1), it ranges from 0.035-0.038 (breaststroke and backstroke, respectively) to 0.052-0.058 (butterfly and front crawl, respectively). This study is the first to establish Ap values throughout the swimming cycle for all swimming strokes and these findings have implications for active drag estimates, for the energetics of swimming and for swimming speed.

  4. Properties and functional implications of I (h) in hippocampal area CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warren D; Galván, Emilio J; Mauna, Jocelyn C; Thiels, Edda; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2011-12-01

    The present study examines the biophysical properties and functional implications of I (h) in hippocampal area CA3 interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare. Characterization studies showed a small maximum h-conductance (2.6 ± 0.3 nS, n = 11), shallow voltage dependence with a hyperpolarized half-maximal activation (V (1/2) = -91 mV), and kinetics characterized by double-exponential functions. The functional consequences of I (h) were examined with regard to temporal summation and impedance measurements. For temporal summation experiments, 5-pulse mossy fiber input trains were activated. Blocking I (h) with 50 μM ZD7288 resulted in an increase in temporal summation, suggesting that I (h) supports sensitivity of response amplitude to relative input timing. Impedance was assessed by applying sinusoidal current commands. From impedance measurements, we found that I (h) did not confer theta-band resonance, but flattened the impedance-frequency relations instead. Double immunolabeling for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated proteins and glutamate decarboxylase 67 suggests that all four subunits are present in GABAergic interneurons from the strata considered for electrophysiological studies. Finally, a model of I (h) was employed in computational analyses to confirm and elaborate upon the contributions of I (h) to impedance and temporal summation.

  5. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  6. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  7. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  8. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  9. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  10. Verification of NOx emission inventories over North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Morino, Yu; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season.

  11. An interpretation of induced-polarization data collected in the Haenam area, southern part of Korea Peninsula, based on effective nonlinear inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bitnarae; Jang, Hannuree; Nam, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Joon; Son, Jeong-Sul

    2015-04-01

    The Haenam area in the southern tip of Korean Peninsula, which experienced broad hydrothermal transition during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary times and whose geology is composed of granitic rocks, quartz porphyry, andesite, rhyolite, tuff and sedimentary rocks, is known to have many clay-alunite and gold-silver deposits. For the investigation of new gold deposits near an existing gold mine, both electrical-resistivity and induced polarization (IP) surveys have been conducted based on dipole-dipole array with 10 m-electrode spacing. The survey line is set to be 200 m and nearly normal to the geological strike. Together with the surveys, an investigation borehole was drilled about 130 m away from the survey line, and coring has been conducted during the drilling. For the interpretation of IP data, linear inversion of IP data based on approximate linearization has been conducted after making 3D inversion of electrical-resistivity data. The inversion result shows that area of high intrinsic chargeability complies with area of high-salinity, which is interpreted from the borehole data. However, the linear inversion has high chance to contain unwanted error during the inversion process since the inversion is based on the linearization approximation of a non-linear problem by assuming the value of intrinsic chargeability is very small. In this study, we first develop an efficient non-linear inversion algorithm to invert the IP data based on finite element method using tetrahedral elements. Then, we apply the developed algorithm to synthetic IP data and compare its results with those from existing IP inversion algorithms. Finally, we make non-linear inversion of the Haenam field data not only to interpret the data more precisely but also to compare its results with existing-interpretation results from linear-IP inversion. The analysis confirms that the non-linear time domain IP inversion reflects the geological characteristics in the survey area, complying with

  12. Development of a speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system--a case study on the precursors of photochemical smog in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, J W

    2000-03-01

    A speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system (SHEMS) was developed and applied in predicting hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The primary goal of the SHEMS was to produce a systemized emission inventory for air pollutants including ozone precursors for modeling air quality in urban areas. The SHEMS is principally composed of three parts: (1) a pre-processor to process emission factors, activity levels, and spatial and temporal information using a geographical information system; (2) an emission model for each source type; and (3) a post-processor to produce report and input data for air quality models through database modeling. The source categories in SHEMS are point, area, mobile, natural, and other sources such as fugitive emissions. The emission database produced by SHEMS contains 22 inventoried compounds: sulfur dioxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, and 19 speciated volatile organic compounds. To validate SHEMS, the emission data were tested with the Urban Airshed Model to predict NO2 and O3 concentrations in the SMA during selected episode days in 1994. The results turned out to be reliable in describing temporal variation and spatial distribution of those pollutants.

  13. Development of Airborne LiDAR based Sky View Factors to Estimate Micro-scale Energy Budget of Forest Areas: a Case Study of Taehwa Forest, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, S.; Woo, J.; Kim, B.; Hong, J.; Kim, S.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.; Quan, S.

    2012-12-01

    About 6% of earth incoming solar radiation energy (nearly 173 petawatts) is absorbed by the ground surface, which fuels earth surface energy budget and physical/biological/ecological cycles including biogenic emission processes. Many key factors and indices have been proposed to understand the phenomenon initiated from solar energy. In this study, we proposed a new solar energy estimation parameter, the Sky View Factor (SVF), to understand energy budget of vegetated surface. The SVF is a ratio between an open sky area and covered surroundings, such as building and colonnade, which represents an estimation of the visible area of the sky from an earth view point. The high resolution airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) dataset instead of low resolution satellite information was used to develop SVFs, because the more reliable ground surface information are very important to correctly estimate the factors. The airborne LiDAR-based SVF calculator tool was also developed to estimate SVFs efficiently then applied to estimate SVFs at Taehwa forest area in support of surface landcover composition analysis. The validation results using shortwave and longwave radiation flux data monitored from Taehwa flux tower and the satellite remote sensing data (LANDSAT ETM+) will be discussed.

  14. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    contusions, concussions, fractured skulls , ruptured occipital bones, facial lacerations, injuries to eyes and noses, and damaged blood vessels in the... Alienation "The principal reason the military cannot preside over a civilian government is that we officers have a strong tendency of confusing...KOREA socially alienated classes that could be potentially rebel- lious. Chong reacted by inviting the principals of the nation’s leading high

  15. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  16. English Educational Policies of the U.S. Army Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948 and Their Effects on the Development of English Language Teaching in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Gyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the English language teaching (ELT) policies and measures taken under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) from 1945 to 1948, in an attempt to illuminate their implications on the current ELT in Korea. The study analyzes data derived from documents of the Korean and the U.S. governments, literature on…

  17. Secondary Preservice Teachers Remember Their Favorite Writing Experience: Insights and Implications for Content Area Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy L.

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe secondary preservice teachers' (N = 113) past favorite writing experiences and its implications for including writing in their future instruction. (Methodology) Data was collected through a survey and drawings. (Results) Preservice teachers' written answers were helpful to inform specifically…

  18. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  19. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  20. Successful Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2009-01-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  1. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as...

  2. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Assessment of Cropland Water and Nitrogen Balance from Climate Change in Korea Peninsular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. H.; Song, C.; Kim, T.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    If crop growth is based on cropland productivity, the changes are due to changes in water and nitrogen balance from climate. In this study, order to estimation the change in cropland water and nitrogen balance in Korea peninsular using meteorological data observed last 30 years(1984-2013y). And we used soil, topography and management data about cropland. So as to estimating water and nitrogen variables, we used to the GIS based EPIC model that is major crop model in agro-ecosystem modelling field. Among the much of water and nitrogen variables, we selected to evapotranspiration, runoff, precipitation, nitrification, N lost, N contents and denitrification for this analysis. This selected variables associate with cropland water and nitrogen balance.First result, we can found the water balance changes in Korea peninsular, especially South Korea better condition than North Korea. In North Korea, evapotranspiration and precipitation result were lower than South Korea, but runoff result was bigger than South Korea. And we got a result about nitrogen balance changes in Korea peninsular from climate. In spatially, South and North Korea showed to similar condition on nitrogen balance in whole period. But in temporally, showed negative trends as time goes on, it caused by climate change. Overall condition of water and nitrogen balance on last 30 years in Korea peninsular, South Korea showed better condition than North Korea. Water and nitrogen balance change means have to be changed on agriculture management action, such as irrigation and fertilizer. In future period, climate change will cause a large effect to cropland water and nitrogen balance in mid-latitude area, so we have to prepare the change of this field for wise adaptation by climate change.

  4. Implications of heterogeneous impacts of protected areas on deforestation and poverty.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas are a popular policy instrument in the global fight against loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the effectiveness of protected areas in preventing deforestation, and their impacts on poverty, are not well understood. Recent studies have found that Bolivia's protected-area system, on average, reduced deforestation and poverty. We implement several non-parametric and semi-parametric econometric estimators to characterize the heterogeneity in Bolivia's protected-area impacts on joint deforestation and poverty outcomes across a number of socioeconomic and biophysical moderators. Like previous studies from Costa Rica and Thailand, we find that Bolivia's protected areas are not associated with poverty traps. Our results also indicate that protection did not have a differential impact on indigenous populations. However, results from new multidimensional non-parametric estimators provide evidence that the biophysical characteristics associated with the greatest avoided deforestation are the characteristics associated with the potential for poverty exacerbation from protection. We demonstrate that these results would not be identified using the methods implemented in previous studies. Thus, this study provides valuable practical information on the impacts of Bolivia's protected areas for conservation practitioners and demonstrates methods that are likely to be valuable to researchers interested in better understanding the heterogeneity in conservation impacts.

  5. Implications of heterogeneous impacts of protected areas on deforestation and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, Merlin M.; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a popular policy instrument in the global fight against loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the effectiveness of protected areas in preventing deforestation, and their impacts on poverty, are not well understood. Recent studies have found that Bolivia's protected-area system, on average, reduced deforestation and poverty. We implement several non-parametric and semi-parametric econometric estimators to characterize the heterogeneity in Bolivia's protected-area impacts on joint deforestation and poverty outcomes across a number of socioeconomic and biophysical moderators. Like previous studies from Costa Rica and Thailand, we find that Bolivia's protected areas are not associated with poverty traps. Our results also indicate that protection did not have a differential impact on indigenous populations. However, results from new multidimensional non-parametric estimators provide evidence that the biophysical characteristics associated with the greatest avoided deforestation are the characteristics associated with the potential for poverty exacerbation from protection. We demonstrate that these results would not be identified using the methods implemented in previous studies. Thus, this study provides valuable practical information on the impacts of Bolivia's protected areas for conservation practitioners and demonstrates methods that are likely to be valuable to researchers interested in better understanding the heterogeneity in conservation impacts. PMID:26460125

  6. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  7. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  8. Size-dependent leaf area ratio in plant twigs: implication for leaf size optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J.; Xiang, Shuang; Sun, Shucun

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Although many hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in leaf size, the mechanism underlying the variation remains not fully understood. To help understand leaf size variation, the cost/benefit of twig size was analysed, since, according to Corner's rule, twig size is positively correlated with the size of appendages the twig bears. Methods An extensive survey of twig functional traits, including twig (current-year shoots including one stem and few leaves) and leaf size (individual leaf area and mass), was conducted for 234 species from four broadleaved forests. The scaling relationship between twig mass and leaf area was determined using standardized major axis regression and phylogenetic independent comparative analyses. Key Results Leaf area was found to scale positively and allometrically with both stem and twig mass (stem mass plus leaf mass) with slopes significantly smaller than 1·0, independent of life form and habitat type. Thus, the leaf area ratio (the ratio of total leaf area to stem or twig mass) decreases with increasing twig size. Moreover, the leaf area ratio correlated negatively with individual leaf mass. The results of phylogenetic independent comparativeanalyses were consistent with the correlations. Based on the above results, a simple model for twig size optimization was constructed, from which it is postulated that large leaf size–twig size may be favoured when leaf photosynthetic capacity is high and/or when leaf life span and/or stem longevity are long. The model's predictions are consistent with leaf size variation among habitats, in which leaf size tends to be small in poor habitats with a low primary productivity. The model also explains large variations in leaf size within habitats for which leaf longevity and stem longevity serve as important determinants. Conclusions The diminishing returns in the scaling of total leaf area with twig size can be explained in terms of a very simple model on twig size

  9. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  10. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  11. Norms for Behavior and Conditions in Two National Park Campgrounds in Korea

    PubMed

    Kim; Shelby

    1998-03-01

    / This study was conducted to examine norm prevalence, norm agreement, and norm stability in an international setting. Data were collected at two campgrounds in Chiri-Mountain National Park, Korea, in 1993 and 1994. Results showed that a high proportion of users could specify norms for various types of campground impacts. Users who rated high importance on impacts tended to show a higher level of norm prevalence. Generally there were differences in social norms and norm agreement across locations. Among those impacts that showed differences, social norms in a less developed area were more restrictive and norm agreement was higher. The results of this study are consistent with normative studies conducted in North America, suggesting that a normative approach can be applied in a variety of settings. Social norms for selected impact indicators were also stable over a one-year time period. Implications are discussed.KEY WORDS: Norms; Norm prevalence; Norm agreement; Norm stability

  12. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  13. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  14. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  15. Women Soldiers in Korea: Troop Viewpoints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    27. Recreation/Education Services6-Satisfaction Score Analisis 121 29. Women-in Co--mba Attitude Sore Anaysis 123 28. then i Comy Atitude ,Scii Anaysis... data with respect to some known aspects of soldiering in Korea ard women in the Army;.,and (2) to explore for some newunderstanding of the problem areas...dbsents and suggetiohs: The write-in data is not the focus of this report. That information was reviewed, summarized and presented, to the comma nd-for

  16. A Case Study on Accessibility of School in Tribal Areas and Its Implications on Educational Inclusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajankar, Vishal D.

    2016-01-01

    Schools accessibility has been areas of concern for the development and proliferation of the education system in any developing nation. India is no exception to the same. Since the time India gained independence efforts have been made to provide inclusiveness in the dissemination of educational facilities across the nation. However, geographical…

  17. Forest area and distribution in the Mississippi alluvial valley: Implications for breeding bird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Knowing the current forest distribution and patch size characteristics is integral to the development of geographically defined, habitat-based conservation objectives for breeding birds. Towards this end, we classified 2.6 million ha of forest cover within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley using 1992 thematic mapper satellite imagery. Although historically this area, from southern Illinois to southern Louisiana, was dominated by forested wetlands, forest cover remains on less than 25% of the floodplain. Remaining forest cover is comprised of > 38,000 discrete forest patches > 2 ha. Mean patch area (64.1?5.2 ha; 0 ?SE) was highly skewed towards small fragment size. Larger patches had a higher proportion of more hydric forest cover classes than did smaller patches which had a higher proportion of less hydric forest cover classes. Public lands accounted for 16% of remaining forested wetlands. Fewer than 100 forest patches exceeded our hypothesized habitat objective (4000 ha minimum contiguous forest area) intended to support self-sustaining populations of forest breeding birds. To increase the number of forest patches exceeding 4000 ha contiguous area, and thereby increase the likelihood of successful forest bird conservation, we recommend afforestation adjoining existing forest fragments ?1012 ha and focused within designated Forest Bird Conservation Regions.

  18. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Bridget L.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Bromen, Nicholas A.; Cassidy, Kira A.; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W.; Prugh, Laura R.

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997–2013 and YNP from 2008–2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies. PMID:27124729

  19. [Groundwater quality in two arid areas of Morocco: impact of pollution on biodiversity and paleogeographic implications].

    PubMed

    Boughrous, A A; Yacoubi Khebiza, M; Boulanouar, M; Boutin, C; Messana, G

    2007-11-01

    The biodiversity and the quality of subterranean waters have been comparatively studied in the Haouz plain near Marrakesh and in the Tafilalet, in south-eastern Morocco. For this purpose, physicochemical and faunistic analyses were carried out on the water of ten wells and springs located in the area of Marrakesh, and in Errachidia area respectively. In the wells of Marrakesh, the average stygobiologic diversity is relatively high in the wells located upstream the dumping from the city where the ground water presents low contents of nitrates and orthophosphates. In contrast, the wells located in the spreading zone of Marrakesh wastewaters are characterized by the scarcity or the absence of stygobitic species; in these latter wells, the water is highly polluted. It is rich in nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and the conductivity is rather high. In the area of Errachidia the faunistic inventory gathers some ten species, some of which are living in hot springs. The subterranean water is highly mineralised. In the two studied areas, the biodiversity decreases when well water is locally polluted, and the subterranean fauna completely disappears if the degree of contamination is important. This relation between the biodiversity and water quality which had already appeared in surface water, is confirmed within the wells of Marrakech. The groundwater fauna of both two areas presents similarities in relation to their geological history, mainly the various marine cycles of marine transgressions-regressions, which were at the origin of the settlement of the ancestors of the extant species, and the Atlasic orogenesis which separated the common ancestral populations into two separated stocks, involving a different evolution of the ancestors and a resulting speciation by vicariance.

  20. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borg, Bridget L; Arthur, Stephen M; Bromen, Nicholas A; Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W; Prugh, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  1. Equity in Educational Resources at the School Level in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Myung Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzed the equity of resources at the elementary school level in Korea using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The data included 2,327 Korean public elementary schools in 101 Local Governments within five Local Educational Offices (LEOs). This study found that schools in low property tax per resident areas receive fewer grants,…

  2. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

  3. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  4. Caledonian granitoids in the Jinxiu area, Guangxi, South China: Implications for their tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Yu, Yong; Wang, Chunzeng

    2017-02-01

    Jinxiu area is tectonically located between the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks of South China. The area has three granitic plutons, Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons. Geochemically the plutons are high-K calc-alkaline, depleted in Ba, Sr, P, and Ti and rich in Pb, with decoupled Nb and Ta, and show non-island-arc magmatic affinity. Biotite monzogranite samples collected from the Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons yield zircon SHRIMP 206Pb/238U ages of 419.0 ± 5.0 Ma, 436.0 ± 4.0 Ma, and 446.1 ± 8.2 Ma, respectively, indicating that the plutons were emplaced during the Late Ordovician to Late Silurian of the Caledonian time. The granodiorite within the Lingzu biotite monzogranite pluton yields a zircon 206Pb/238U age of 174.5 ± 1.9 Ma, indicating a superimposed Late Jurassic magmatic event. The monzogranites and their enclaves show εNd(t) values of - 14.7 to - 11.1 and - 8.0 respectively and TDM2 values of 2.1-2.4 Ga and 1.8 Ga, respectively, demonstrating that the magmas were derived from re-melted Paleoproterozoic continental crust. Based on geochronology and geochemistry of the granitic plutons, as well as regional stratigraphy and paleontology, it is concluded that any existence of oceanic crust and oceanic subduction was unlikely in the Jinxiu area and vicinity during the Paleozoic Caledonian Ordovician-Silurian time.

  5. Implications of macroalgal isolation by distance for networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Halley M S; Burridge, Christopher P; Kelaher, Brendan P; Barrett, Neville S; Edgar, Graham J; Coleman, Melinda A

    2014-04-01

    The global extent of macroalgal forests is declining, greatly affecting marine biodiversity at broad scales through the effects macroalgae have on ecosystem processes, habitat provision, and food web support. Networks of marine protected areas comprise one potential tool that may safeguard gene flow among macroalgal populations in the face of increasing population fragmentation caused by pollution, habitat modification, climate change, algal harvesting, trophic cascades, and other anthropogenic stressors. Optimal design of protected area networks requires knowledge of effective dispersal distances for a range of macroalgae. We conducted a global meta-analysis based on data in the published literature to determine the generality of relation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance among macroalgal populations. We also examined whether spatial genetic variation differed significantly with respect to higher taxon, life history, and habitat characteristics. We found clear evidence of population isolation by distance across a multitude of macroalgal species. Genetic and geographic distance were positively correlated across 49 studies; a modal distance of 50-100 km maintained F(ST) < 0.2. This relation was consistent for all algal divisions, life cycles, habitats, and molecular marker classes investigated. Incorporating knowledge of the spatial scales of gene flow into the design of marine protected area networks will help moderate anthropogenic increases in population isolation and inbreeding and contribute to the resilience of macroalgal forests.

  6. Bajocian ammonoids from Pumani River area (Ayacucho, Peru): Palaeobiogeographical and palaeoenvironmental implications for the Arequipa Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sixto; Carlotto, Victor; Giraldo, Edwin; Chacaltana, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Deposits of the Socosani Formation in the Pucayacu and Pumani sections (Ayacucho Department, Peru), along several kilometres, have yielded Upper Bajocian ammonoid fossil-assemblages characterized by the occurrence of juvenile individuals belonging to endemic or pandemic genera, such as Megasphaeroceras and Spiroceras respectively. In addition, certain Bajocian genera relatively common in the Mediterranean-Caucasian Subrealm, but very scarce in the Eastern Pacific Subrealm, such as the strigoceratid Cadomoceras and the phylloceratid Adabofoloceras, occur in this area. According to the taphonomic, palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical evidence from the Pumani River area, the maximum deepening, relative sea-level rise and oceanic accessibility of a Bajocian-Bathonian, second-order, transgressive/regressive facies cycle in the marine Arequipa Basin were reached during the Late Bajocian Niortense Biochron. However, synsedimentary regional tectonics in the Pumani River area disturbed this general deepening/shallowing cycle of the Arequipa Basin, particularly during the Late Bajocian post-Niortense time-interval of the Garantiana and Parkinsoni biochrons.

  7. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D.; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Methodology Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Principal Findings Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Conclusions Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Significance Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions. PMID:20657777

  8. Startle-induced seizures associated with infantile hemiplegia: implication of the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melinda A; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Iida, Koji; Minassian, Berge A

    2005-03-01

    This case illustrates an uncommon form of symptomatic startle-induced epilepsy associated with infantile hemiplegia. Seizure semiology, neuroimaging and neurophysiological findings support involvement of the supplementary motor area in the generation of this seizure type. We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an uncommon form of startle-induced seizures, illustrated on video-EEG, against the background of left infantile hemiplegia associated with extensive right hemispheric porencephaly but preserved cognitive functioning. The epileptic focus appears to be in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, with seizure semiology involving the supplementary motor cortex.

  9. Geochemical characterization of a Holocene aeolian profile in the Zhongba area (southern Tibet, China) and its paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuoyu; Wu, Yongqiu; Du, Shisong; Huang, Wenmin; Hao, Chengzhi; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Tianyang

    2016-03-01

    The Zhongba area lies in the valley of the Maquan River in southern Tibet, where there are both strong modern aeolian activities and ancient aeolian sand sediments. A Holocene aeolian sand and paleosol profile in the Zhongba area was selected for study and termed (Zhuzhu (ZZ) profile). The chronology of the ZZ profile was established by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating. Based on the grain size and geochemical elements of the ZZ profile, the geochemical characterization was analyzed, the Holocene aeolian activity processes were reconstructed in the study area, and the paleoclimatic implications were discussed. The major elements and the chemical indicators are highly correlated with different grain-sizes in the ZZ profile. The evolutionary sequence of the aeolian activities and the paleoclimate in Holocene reveal four stages: before 7.3 ka BP, the climate was warm and wet with weak winds when the sand paleosol developed; at 7.3-3.8 ka BP, the climate turned dry, with strong aeolian activities; at 3.8-0.7 ka BP, the climate became wetter and the winds weakened when the silt paleosol developed; and since 0.7 ka BP, it was cold and dry with strong aeolian activities.

  10. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province.

  11. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  12. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  13. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. ASEAN free-trade area and its implications on the battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrucho, Peter D., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    In February, 1992, the six ASEAN member nations agreed to reduce tariffs and thus, eventually, to create an ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) over 15 years. AFTA will lead to more competition in the high-growth ASEAN battery domestic market. Already about ten companies from four countries export both to markets that are rigorous in quality (e.g., the USA and Australia) and to heavily discounted markets, e.g., the Middle East. To date, however, these manufacturers rarely sell to other ASEAN markets outside their home country. AFTA should also encourage manufacturers of battery equipment, mould making, separators, battery electricals, and testing equipment to locate their facilities in an ASEAN country. Technology and productivity is high and wages are reasonable in ASEAN nations and with AFTA, the markets are larger. Manufacturing complementation programmes will also become an attractive option.

  15. Implications of ground-deformation measurements across earth fissures in subsidence areas in the southwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Ground deformation was monitored at earth fissures in areas of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction in the southwestern United States. The ground deformation is consistent with the mechanism that fissures are caused by horizontal strains generated by bending of overburden in response to localized differential compaction. Subsidence profiles indicated that localized differential subsidence occurred across the fissures and that maximum convex-upward curvature was at the fissure. The overall shape of the profile stayed similar with time, and maximum curvature remained stationary at the fissure. Horizontal displacements were largest near the fissure, and generally were small to negligible away from the fissure. Maximum tensile horizontal strains were at the fissure and coincided with maximum curvature in the subsidence profiles. Horizontal tensile strain continued to accumulate at fissures after they formed with rates of opening ranging from 30 to 120 microstrain/year at fissures in Arizona.

  16. Trace element geochemistry of soils and plants in Kenyan conservation areas and implications for wildlife nutrition.

    PubMed

    Maskall, J; Thornton, I

    1991-06-01

    Trace element concentrations in soils, plants and animals in National Parks and Wildlife Reserves in Kenya are assessed using geochemical mapping techniques. Soil trace element concentrations are shown to be related to soil parent material and possibly to pedological and hydrological factors. At Lake Nakuru National Park, plant trace element concentrations vary with plant species and the geochemical conditions that influence uptake are discussed. Impala at Lake Nakuru National Park and black rhino at Solio Wildlife Reserve are shown to have a lower blood copper status than animals from other areas. The trace element status of wildlife is assessed also with respect to critical concentrations used for domestic ruminants. It is suggested that at Lake Nakuru National Park, the low soil copper content and high molybdenum content of some plants contributes to the low copper status of impala and may also influence the nutrition of other species.

  17. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  18. The frequency of allergens implicated in bronchial asthma in different areas of Romania.

    PubMed

    Chirilă, M; Florescu, L; Popescu, M; Capetti, E; Panait, E

    1984-01-01

    The study carried out on 582 asthma patients and 164 healthy controls, ranging in age from 5 to 60 years, dwelling in four different towns ( Sibiu , Mediaş, Baia Mare, Sighetul Marma tiei ) showed that the most frequently involved antigen in allergic bronchial asthma was house dust (50.3 to 86%), followed by Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and atmospheric fungi, and the most frequently encountered associations were likewise between these allergens, hence the orientation towards a specific hyposensitizing therapy. In these localities with a rich gramineous vegetation there was a high per cent of sensitization to the polen of these plants. Sensitization to woollen hairs has been reported in a high percent in the region of Maramure ş and is linked to its ethnical characteristics. In many cases the patients also exhibited hypersensitiveness to bacteria, associated with environmental allergens, the vicious circle realized by an allergic-infectious mechanism being known. The conclusions of the study on the etiology of bronchial asthma in these geographical areas will be used as a basis for the treatment and its orientation.

  19. Environmental implications on the oxygenation of gasoline with ethanol in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Vera, M; Díaz, L; Guzmán, E; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2001-05-15

    Motor vehicle emission tests were performed on 12 in-use light duty vehicles, made up of the most representative emission control technologies in Mexico City: no catalyst, oxidative catalyst, and three way catalyst. Exhaust regulated (CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons) and toxic (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene) emissions were evaluated for MTBE (5 vol %)- and ethanol (3, 6, and 10 vol %)-gasoline blends. The most significant overall emissions variations derived from the use of 6 vol % ethanol (relative to a 5% MTBE base gasoline) were 16% decrease in CO, 28% reduction in formaldehyde, and 80% increase in acetaldehyde emissions. A 26% reduction in CO emissions from the oldest fleet (< MY 1991, without catalytic converter), which represents about 44% of the in-use light duty vehicles in Mexico city, can be attained when using 6 vol% ethanol-gasoline, without significant variation in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions, when compared with a 5% vol MTBE-gasoline. On the basis of the emissions results, an estimation of the change in the motor vehicle emissions of the metropolitan area of Mexico city was calculated for the year 2010 if ethanol were to be used instead of MTBE, and the outcome was a considerable decrease in all regulated and toxic emissions, despite the growing motor vehicle population.

  20. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity.

  1. Ultrasound Assessment of the Rectus Femoris Cross-Sectional Area: Subject Position Implications.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Garkova, Miglena

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of the rectus femoris (RF) is a novel, proxy measure for muscle strength. The impact of hip flexion/head of bed positioning on RF cross-sectional area (CSA) has not been fully explored. This study describes and compares differences in RF CSA across four degrees of hip flexion. This repeated-measures, comparative study enrolled healthy, pre-menopausal women (n = 20). RF CSA of the dominant leg was measured using the SonoSite M-Turbo ultrasound system with the head of bed at 0°, 20°, 30°, and 60°. One-way repeated measures indicated significant differences in RF CSA, F(3, 17) = 14.18, p < .001, with variation in hip flexion/head of bed elevation and significant RF CSA differences between: (a) 0° and 20°, (b) 0° and 30°, (c) 0° and 60°, and (d) 20° and 60°. Standardizing patient positioning when conducting ultrasonic measurement of RF CSA is vital for researchers who assess muscle mass.

  2. Effectiveness of mosquito magnet in preserved area on the coastal Atlantic rainforest: implication for entomological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chaves, L S M; Laporta, G Z; Sallum, M A M

    2014-09-01

    A variety of traps are used for sampling, surveillance, and monitoring of mosquito vector species associated with parasite and pathogen transmission. Here, we assessed the performance of the Mosquito Magnet Independence trap with Lurex3 (MMI), by comparing its effectiveness with those of a Centers forDisease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC-LT) and CDC with CO2 and Lurex3 (CDC-A) in a dense tropical rainforest. Multivariate generalized linear models revealed significant differences among the traps regarding mosquito composition and abundance (deviance = 768; P = 0.016). Variance analyses indicated that the MMI captured significantly more mosquitoes compared with CDC-LT (P < 0.01) and CDC-A (P < 0.03). The abundance values did not significantly differ between the CDC-LT and CDC-A traps (P = 0.7). Mosquito species richness was higher from the MMI than from the CDC-LT and CDC-A traps. Furthermore, medically important mosquito species captured by the three traps showed high association with MMI. These results suggest the potential to use the MMI in studies aiming to obtain entomological surveillance information about medically important mosquitoes that occur in tropical rainforest areas. The MMI could also be used in faunal studies focusing on increasing knowledge about mosquito diversity. Considering the present positive results, the effectiveness of the MMI should additionally be evaluated in other Brazilian natural ecosystems. Further studies are also needed to address demographic data from the mosquito population sampled by the MMI.

  3. The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: implications for the pathobiology of autism.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Robert T; Grelotti, David J; Klin, Ami; Kleinman, Jamie; Van der Gaag, Christiaan; Marois, René; Skudlarski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A region in the lateral aspect of the fusiform gyrus (FG) is more engaged by human faces than any other category of image. It has come to be known as the 'fusiform face area' (FFA). The origin and extent of this specialization is currently a topic of great interest and debate. This is of special relevance to autism, because recent studies have shown that the FFA is hypoactive to faces in this disorder. In two linked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of healthy young adults, we show here that the FFA is engaged by a social attribution task (SAT) involving perception of human-like interactions among three simple geometric shapes. The amygdala, temporal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, inferolateral frontal cortex and superior temporal sulci were also significantly engaged. Activation of the FFA to a task without faces challenges the received view that the FFA is restricted in its activities to the perception of faces. We speculate that abstract semantic information associated with faces is encoded in the FG region and retrieved for social computations. From this perspective, the literature on hypoactivation of the FFA in autism may be interpreted as a reflection of a core social cognitive mechanism underlying the disorder. PMID:12639338

  4. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  5. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99... goods as described in this section to North Korea. (4) TSU for operation technology and software for lawfully exported commodities as set forth in § 740.13(a) and sales technology as set forth in § 740.13...

  6. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  7. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea...

  8. Tidal Power Exploitation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Jae Cheon

    The highest tides in South Korea are found along the northwest coast between latitudes 36-38 degrees and the number of possible sites for tidal range power barrages to create tidal basins is great due to irregular coastlines with numerous bays. At present Lake Sihwa tidal power plant is completed. The plant is consisted of 10 bulb type turbines with 8 sluice gates. The installed capacity of turbines and generators is 254MW and annual energy output expected is about 552.7 GWh taking flood flow generation scheme. Three other TPP projects are being progressed at Garolim Bay (20 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Kangwha (28 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Incheon (44 or 48 turbines with 30 MW capacity) and project features will be outlined here. The introduction of tidal barrages into four major TPP projects along the Kyeonggi bay will render wide range of potential impacts. Preliminary attempts were performed to quantify these impacts using 2 D hydrodynamic model demonstrating the changes in tidal amplitude and phase under mean tidal condition, associated changes in residual circulation (indicator for SPM and pollutant dispersion), bottom stress (indicator for bedload movement), and tidal front (positional indicator for bio-productivity) in both shelf scale and local context. Tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in strong tidal current region including off southwestern tip of the Peninsula (Uldolmok , Jangjuk, Wando-Hoenggan), Daebang Sudo (Channel) and Kyeonggi Bay. With this simulation system, real tidal time simulation of extended springneap cycles was performed to estimate spatial distribution of tidal current power potentials in terms of power density, energy density and then extrapolated annual energy density.

  9. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  10. Surfactant-Induced Flow in Unsaturated Porous Media: Implications for Air-Water Interfacial Area Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza-Robinson, M. S.; Zheng, Z.; Estabrook, B.; Henry, E. J.; Littlefield, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Air-water interfacial area (AI) in porous media is an important factor governing equilibrium contaminant retention, as well as the kinetics of interphase mass transfer. Interfacial-partitioning tracer (IPT) tests are a common technique for measuring AI at a given moisture saturation (SW), where AI is calculated based on the ratio of arrival times of a surfactant and a non-reactive tracer. At surfactant concentrations often used, the aqueous surface tension of the interfacial tracer solution is ~30% lower than that of the resident porewater in the system, creating transient surface tension gradients during the IPT measurement. Because surface tension gradients create capillary pressure gradients, surfactant-induced unsaturated flow may occur during IPT tests, a process that would violate fundamental assumptions of constant SW, of steady-state flow, and of nonreactive and surfactant tracers experiencing the same transport conditions. To examine the occurrence and magnitude of surfactant-induced flow, we conducted IPT tests for unsaturated systems at ~84% initial SW using surfactant input concentrations that bracket concentrations commonly used. Despite constant boundary conditions (constant inlet flux and outlet pressure), the introduction of the surfactant solution induced considerable transience in column effluent flowrate and SW. Real-time system mass measurements revealed drainage of 20-40% SW, with the amount of drainage and the maximum rate of drainage proportional to the influent surfactant concentration, as would be expected. Because AI is inversely related to SW, the use of higher surfactant concentrations should yield larger AI estimates. Measured AI values, however, showed no clear relationship to surfactant concentration or the time-averaged SW of the system. These findings cast doubt on the reliability of IPT for AI determination.

  11. Stratigraphic controls on seawater intrusion and implications for groundwater management, Dominguez Gap area of Los Angeles, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, T.; Siade, A.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Ponti, D.J.; Canales, A.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater pumping has led to extensive water-level declines and seawater intrusion in coastal Los Angeles, California (USA). A SUTRA-based solute-transport model was developed to test the hydraulic implications of a sequence-stratigraphic model of the Dominguez Gap area and to assess the effects of water-management scenarios. The model is two-dimensional, vertical and follows an approximate flow line extending from the Pacific Ocean through the Dominguez Gap area. Results indicate that a newly identified fault system can provide a pathway for transport of seawater and that a stratigraphic boundary located between the Bent Spring and Upper Wilmington sequences may control the vertical movement of seawater. Three 50-year water-management scenarios were considered: (1) no change in water-management practices; (2) installation of a slurry wall; and (3) raising inland water levels to 7.6 m above sea level. Scenario 3 was the most effective by reversing seawater intrusion. The effects of an instantaneous 1-m sea-level rise were also tested using water-management scenarios 1 and 3. Results from two 100-year simulations indicate that a 1-m sea-level rise may accelerate seawater intrusion for scenario 1; however, scenario 3 remains effective for controlling seawater intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  12. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  13. Processing Marine Gravity Data Around Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y.; Chang, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea currently 4 research ships are under operating in Korea, after the first research vessel equipped shipborne gravity meter was introduced in 1990s. These are Onnuri(launch 1991) of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute), Haeyang2000(launch 1996), Badaro1(launch 2002) of NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute) and Tamhae2(launch 1997) of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). Those of research vessel, Haeyang2000 have observed marine gravity data over 150,000 points each year from year 1996 to year 2003. Haeyang2000, about 2,500 tons, is unable to operate onshore so NORI has constructed another 600 tons research ship Badaro1 that has observed marine gravity data onshore since year 2002. Haeyang2000 finished observing marine gravity data offshore within Korean territorial waters until year 2003. Currently Badaro1 is observing marine gravity data onshore. These shipborne gravity data will be very useful and important on geodesy and geophysics research also those data can make a contribution to developing these studies. In this study NORI's shipbrne gravity data from 1996 to 2007 has been processed for fundamental data to compute Korean precise geoid. Marine gravity processing steps as followed. 1. Check the time sequence, latitude and longitude position, etc. of shipborne gravity data 2. Arrangement of the tide level below the pier and meter drift correction of each cruise. 3. Elimination of turning points. 4. The time lag correction. 5. Computation of RV's velocities, Heading angles and the Eötvös correction. 6. Kalman filtering of GPS navigation data using cross-over points. 7. Cross-over correction using least square adjustment. About 2,058,000 points have been processed with NORI's marine gravity data from 1996 to 2007 in this study. The distribution of free-air anomalies was -41.0 mgal to 136.0 mgal(mean 8.90mgal) within Korean territorial waters. The free-air anomalies processed with the marine gravity data are

  14. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  15. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  16. Genetic positioning of aquabirnavirus isolates from cultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-04-23

    Aquabirnavirus is an epizootic virus in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica farms in Korea, although its origin is unclear. In the present study, nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS junction region of 9 Korean aquabirnaviruses from cultured eel in various areas of Korea during 2000-2009 were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. The nucleotide sequences showed more than 94.2% identity among the 9 Korean eel isolates, 71.2% identity among 16 Korean isolates from freshwater and marine fish, and 71.1% identity among 25 worldwide isolates. All 9 isolates in this study were phylogenetically classified into genogroup II, including isolates from Denmark, Spain, Taiwan and Japan, and were discrete from salmonid and marine fish isolates (genogroup I and VII) in Korea. These results suggest that the Korean eel isolates have most likely been introduced from outside the country and not from coastal areas of Korea.

  17. Shanghanlun in Korea, 1610-1945

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean physicians of traditional medicine have utilized Zhang Ji’s 張 機 (150–219 CE) Shanghanlun 傷寒論 (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, just Treatise hereafter) from the 17th century to the early twentieth century. As one of the two most influential pillars of Chinese medicine, the Treatise, with its clinical implications, has inspired many scholars and practitioners in their pursuit of medical innovation. What, then, have been the Korean motivations in referring to the Treatise over the past few centuries? What does the Korean utilization and modification of the Chinese classic tell us about the desires, limits, and possibilities of pursuing medical innovations in Korea? By examining the ways in which major pre-modern Korean texts employed the Treatise, this article primarily aims to reveal patterns of (re)arranging the Treatise that formed an indigenous style of medicine. Under the growing sense of nationalist concern and colonial contestation in the early twentieth century, the Korean compilation of the Treatise began to depart from the earlier interpretations. A range of nationalist rhetoric and editorial designs reflect the Korean urgency in seeking resources to compete with Western medicine. The postcolonial consumption of the Treatise also reflects Korean strategies in navigating medical references from outside to meet their social and clinical agendas. The changing pattern of textual and professional utilization of the Treatise exemplifies how a significant Chinese text continues to be a living tradition in Korea by expanding the targeted audience and satisfying local demands. PMID:26778942

  18. Relaying support in disaster-affected areas: the social implications of a 'pay-it-forward' network.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Tomohide

    2014-07-01

    When a disaster strikes a country, a temporary so-called post-disaster utopia emerges in which local residents help each other and outsiders support survivors and victims. However, this utopia does not last. Survivors are likely to have no chance to pay people back for the help they have received and thus return to their daily lives with a sense of debt. After the Great East Japan Earthquake the author motivated survivors of other disasters to help survivors in the Tohoku region in eastern Japan in return for the support they had received in the past. Two findings are revealed: firstly, this pay-it-forward support among disaster-affected areas allows for intermittent rebuilding of the post-disaster utopia. Secondly, a theoretical examination of the network theory also suggests that the pay-it-forward network is likely to expand and cover the whole of society very quickly. The psychological and sociological implications of these findings are also discussed.

  19. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Motivation and Ill-Structured Problem Solving in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Min Kyeong; Cho, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use and application of an ill-structured problem to pre-service elementary teachers in Korea in order to find implications of pre-service teacher education with regard to contextualized problem solving by analyzing experiences of ill-structured problem solving. Participants were divided into small groups depending on the…

  20. Projection of Future Heatwave and Its Potential Exposure in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.

    2015-12-01

    South Korea has suffered from heatwave in summer since several decades. 1994, there were more than 3,000 victims due to the extreme heatwave event. This study will cover the projection of heatwave in Korea with RCP scenarios from NCAR's CESM model. The climate model outputs have been dynamically downscaled with 7.5 km spatial resolution by WRF model. And the model bias has been estimated and corrected with meteorological measurements network in Korea. We also analyzed the exposed population to heatwave in the future with sampling of population data of local government and the model grids, which can help the climate change adaptation policy for the future. Based on RCP 4.5, the areas of heatwaves in summer will be extended by more than 200% in 2050 comparing to year 2006 and the frequency of the heatwave event will be increased dramatically. The population exposure to heatwave will also be increased by more than twice. Such analysis will be compared with other climate scenarios from different climate model, and the changes in mortality rate of Korea need to be estimated.

  1. Geographic Distribution of Urologists in Korea, 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun Seob; Shim, Sung Ryul; Jung, Insoo; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Song, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Ko, Young Myoung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2015-11-01

    The adequacy of the urologist work force in Korea has never been investigated. This study investigated the geographic distribution of urologists in Korea. County level data from the National Health Insurance Service and National Statistical Office was analyzed in this ecological study. Urologist density was defined by the number of urologists per 100,000 individuals. National patterns of urologist density were mapped graphically at the county level using GIS software. To control the time sequence, regression analysis with fitted line plot was conducted. The difference of distribution of urologist density was analyzed by ANCOVA. Urologists density showed an uneven distribution according to county characteristics (metropolitan cities vs. nonmetropolitan cities vs. rural areas; mean square=102.329, P<0.001) and also according to year (mean square=9.747, P=0.048). Regression analysis between metropolitan and non-metropolitan cities showed significant difference in the change of urologists per year (P=0.019). Metropolitan cities vs. rural areas and non-metropolitan cities vs. rural areas showed no differences. Among the factors, the presence of training hospitals was the affecting factor for the uneven distribution of urologist density (P<0.001). Uneven distribution of urologists in Korea likely originated from the relatively low urologist density in rural areas. However, considering the time sequencing data from 2007 to 2012, there was a difference between the increase of urologist density in metropolitan and non-metropolitan cities.

  2. An assessment of forest cover trends in South and North Korea, from 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Engler, Robin; Teplyakov, Victor; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments--based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea--suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.

  3. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  4. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    Second- 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...The White House, Roundtable Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea...2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the

  5. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-10

    and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. Korea’s nuclear programs and...the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 30 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan navy intercepted and

  6. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    News , December 1, 2012. U.S.- South Korea Relations Congressional Research Service 7 • China’s rising influence in ...entered into force and will be eliminated completely in the fifth year of the agreement. South Korea also agreed to allow U.S.-based car manufacturers to...sell in South Korea up to 25,000 cars per year per manufacturer as long as they met U.S. safety and environmental standards. This

  7. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  8. Sex preferences and fertility in South Korea during the year of the Horse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin; Paik, Myungho

    2006-05-01

    Since antiquity, people in several East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and South Korea, have believed that a person is destined to possess specific characteristics according to the sign of the zodiac under which he or she was born. South Koreans, in particular, have traditionally considered that the year of the Horse bears inauspicious implications for the birth of daughters. Using monthly longitudinal data at the region level in South Korea between 1970 and 2003, we found that in the year of the Horse, the sex ratio at birth significantly increased while fertility decreased.

  9. The United States-Republic of Korea Alliance: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Korea in order to deter an attack by the Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea. This paper examines the security alliance that exists between the...region: The Republic of Korea, the Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea, the Peoples ’ Republic of China, Japan and the Russian Federation. This paper...of Korea (ROK), Alliance, South Korea, North Korea, Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea (DPRK), United States Forces Korea (USFK), Korea Command

  10. Structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Comparative study of singles in metropolitan area of Korea, Japan and China

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boram

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to recent changes in social structure, single-person households are on the rise worldwide and therefore the interest in the quality of life of singles is increasing, but the research on the relationships related to their diet-related quality of life is scarce. This research analyzes the structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style of Korean, Japanese and Chinese singles. SUBJECTS/METHODS The targets of this study were Korean, Japanese, and Chinese singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, having economic capabilities or working and living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. In an attempt to study the level of satisfaction with convenience food in accordance to dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. RESULTS Of the three countries, regarding the effect of dietary style on singles' quality of life, the convenience-oriented style was found to have a negative effect on Korean singles' overall quality of life, but a positive effect on Japanese singles' overall quality of life, and a negative effect on Chinese singles' positive psychological aspect of quality of life. In addition, although Chinese singles have a high level of interest in health, they have an overall high level of satisfaction regarding fast food and its nutritional value. CONCLUSIONS The number of singles in Korea, Japan, and China has been consistently increasing in recent years, and there is a need for continuous interest in their healthy dietary lifestyles in terms of convenience, economy, and taste. PMID:24944777

  11. Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

    2006-10-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  12. The relationship between railway noise and community annoyance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Changwoo; Kim, Jaehwan; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab

    2006-10-01

    A study of community annoyance caused by exposures to railway noise was carried out in 18 areas along railway lines to accumulate social survey data and assess the relationship between railway noise levels and annoyance responses in Korea. Railway noise levels were measured with portable sound-level meters. Social surveys were administered to people living within 50 m of noise measurement sites. A questionnaire contained demographic factors, degree of noise annoyance, interference with daily activities, and health-related symptoms. The question relating to noise annoyance was answered on an 11-point numerical scale. The randomly selected respondents, who were aged between 18 to 70 years of age, completed the questionnaire independently. In total, 726 respondents participated in social surveys. Taking into consideration the urban structure and layout of the residential areas of Korea, Japan, and Europe, one can assume that the annoyance responses caused by the railway noise in this study will be similar to those found in Japan, which are considerably more severe than those found in European countries. This study showed that one of the most important factors contributing to the difference in the annoyance responses between Korea and Europe is the distance between railways and houses.

  13. Status of hot spring water development in Korea 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cholwoo; Park, Chan-Hee; Cho, Yong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    As of 2014, a number of Oncheon (hot spring) sites in Korea is 447. 207 sites among the total sites are located in the south-east part of Korea, because geothermal gradient in the region is higher than the average geothermal gradient of 25℃/km in Korea. The higher gradient leads to reduced drilling cost. 50% of the Oncheon sites are alkaline and their pH is higher than 8.5. pH for other 43% is between 7.5 and 8.5. As for the ion-type of Oncheon, 55% is are primarily the type of Na-HCO3. 20 % of Oncheon is the type of Na-Cl secondarily. 9% of Oncheon is the type of Na-SO4. While the well drilled deepest is 2,003 m from the surface, the average depth is 747 m. The highest temperature of hot spring is 78℃, while the average temperature is 30℃. The area of Oncheon development was big until year 2000. Since then, the development area has shrunk to less than 20,000m2 to reduce risks for initial investment and stabilize the Oncheon management. Keywords : Hot spring, Geothermal gradient, Temperature

  14. Real-time GPS Ionospheric TEC Estimation over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Roh, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2013-09-01

    Ionosphere is one of the largest error sources when the navigational signals produced by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are transmitted. Therefore it is very important to estimate total electron contents (TEC) in ionosphere precisely for navigation, precise positioning and some other applications. When we provide ionospheric TEC values in real-time, its application can be expanded to other areas. In this study we have used data obtained from nine Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations which have been operated by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) to detect ionospheric TEC over South Korea in real-time. We performed data processing that covers converting 1Hz raw data delivered from GNSS reference stations to Receiver INdependent Exchange (RINEX) format files at intervals of 5 minutes. We also analyzed the elevation angles of GPS satellites, vertical TEC (VTEC) values and their changes.

  15. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  16. Korea in the 21st Century.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Amsden, Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industralization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). 17 manage the absorption of North Korea by...is to use this new airport as a light industry and biotechnology hub with easy com- munications and transportation to and from China, Japan, Russia

  17. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  18. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  19. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  20. Geotourism and educational utilization of geosites in the Byeonsanbando National Park, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kyu-Seong; Park, Kyeong-Jin

    2014-05-01

    This study is to investigate the possibility of geotourism and educational use of geosites in the Byeonsanbando national park, Korea. Geosites within the national park were explored through literature search and field work, and 207 tourists were surveyed to identify the educational utilization of geosites. The results suggest seventeen geosites in the western coastal areas of Byeonsanbando such as various sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, magmatic intrusive rock with contact metamorphism, and dinosaur track fossils. To develop effective geotourism educational programs, diverse experience programs and abundant information were regarded as important elements. If additional geological surveys of geosites are conducted and educational programs for geotourism are developed in the Byeonsanbando area in Korea, this area is likely to be valuable as the national geopark of Korea.

  1. Introduction of Micro-meteorology Monitoring System for Test-bed Region in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C.; Byon, J.; Kahng, K.; Park, Y.; Jung, H.

    2013-12-01

    Changbum Cho, Jae-Young Byon, Keumah Kahng, Young-San Park, and Hyun-Sook Jung National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, Korea National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  2. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm] at p. 147. 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet...Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan

  3. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.; Song, C. H.; Yoon, S. C.; Han, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  4. Long-distance feedback projections to area V1: implications for multisensory integration, spatial awareness, and visual consciousness.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Simon; Falchier, Arnaud; Kennedy, Henry

    2004-06-01

    It is generally agreed that information flow through the cortex is constrained by a hierarchical architecture. Recent experimental evidence suggests that projections descending the hierarchy and targeting the primary visual cortex (area V1) may play an essential role in perceptual processes. We have, therefore, reexamined feedback projections to area V1, using retrograde tracer injections in this area In addition to well-known areas, quantification of labeling in higher cortical areas reveals a number of hitherto unknown long-distance feedback connections originating from auditory (A1), multisensory (STP) cortices, but also from a perirhinal area (36). These feedback projections from advanced cortical stations, a global feature shared by areas that belong to the ventral visual stream, could play an important role in early multisensory integration and spatial awareness and could provide the physical substrate for the involvement of area V1 in visual consciousness.

  5. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 30, 2007, the United States and the Republic of Korea...

  6. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  7. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea).

    PubMed

    Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the

  8. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.J.

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  9. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

    PubMed Central

    Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world’s largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the

  10. Road traffic accidents and policy interventions in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bong-Min; Kim, Jinhyun

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of road traffic crashes, in conjunction with the absence of order on the road, has long been considered a critical social problem in Korea. The Korean public seems to agree that high priority ought to be placed on policies for improving road safety. Using data from government sources, this study describes what has happened in the area of road traffic crashes since 1970, the causes of traffic crashes, and the relative importance of traffic injuries as a cause of death in Korea. Road traffic crashes in Korea increased nearly eight-fold, from 37,000 in 1970 to 290,481 in 2000. The fatalities increased three-fold and injuries ten-fold over the same period. Road traffic injuries were the leading cause of death for people under 29. However, through multiple policy interventions, partly in response to the 2002 FIFA World Cup, about two thousand road traffic deaths and nine thousand traffic-related disabilities were averted in 2001 alone. The policy interventions included enforcement of penalties for seven risky driving behaviours, including drunk driving and speeding, installation of traffic-monitoring cameras, financial rewards for citizens who reported traffic violations, introduction of a road safety evaluation system, correction of accident black spots in existing roads, and road safety education programs. Through multiple policy interventions, road traffic crashes in Korea were reduced in a relatively short time period, along with their associated injuries and fatalities. However, road traffic crashes still pose a major public health problem, threatening the quality of life of the Korean people.

  11. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  12. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  13. Effusion rate, length, and area relationships for some lava flows on Hawaii and Mount Etna with planetary implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D.; Baloga, S.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the radiative cooling of thermally well mixed lava flows is presented and the relationship between effusion rate and length and area is analyzed. If radiative cooling is the prime mode of heat loss for a lava flow, one should expect to see a stronger correlation between the effusion rate and the plan area of the flow, than between effusion rate and just flow length. Different flows on a single volcano with differing initial temperatures, volatile content, and gross compositions should yield different areas for a given effusion rate. Likewise, a range of slopes for the relationship between effusion rate and flow area should result from comparisons between different volcanoes. As a test of these ideas, available data on the effusion rates, lengths, and areas of Hawaiian and Etnean flow is studied. It was found that: (1) the effusion rate/area correlation was statistically more significant than the correlation between effusion rate and length for four out of the five eruption episodes which met the necessary criteria of more than three individual flows with area, length, and effusion rate independently measured; (2) that there exists a minimum length and area for a given effusion rate, reflecting competition between overall characteristic proportionality between effusion rate and flow length, width, and area.

  14. Channel and perennial flow initiation in headwater streams: management implications of variability in source-area size.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kristin L; Montgomery, David R; Bolton, Susan M

    2007-11-01

    Despite increasing attention to management of headwater streams as sources of water, sediment, and wood to downstream rivers, the extent of headwater channels and perennial flow remain poorly known and inaccurately depicted on topographic maps and in digital hydrographic data. This study reports field mapping of channel head and perennial flow initiation locations in forested landscapes underlain by sandstone and basalt lithologies in Washington State, USA. Contributing source areas were delineated for each feature using a digital elevation model (DEM) as well as a Global Positioning System device in the field. Systematic source area-slope relationships described in other landscapes were not evident for channel heads in either lithology. In addition, substantial variability in DEM-derived source area sizes relative to field-delineated source areas indicates that in this area, identification of an area-slope relationship, should one even exist, would be difficult. However, channel heads and stream heads, here defined as the start of perennial flow, appear to be co-located within both of the lithologies, which together with lateral expansion and contraction of surface water around channel heads on a seasonal cycle in the basalt lithology, suggest a controlling influence of bedrock springs for that location. While management strategies for determining locations of channel heads and perennial flow initiation in comparable areas could assign standard source area sizes based on limited field data collection within that landscape, field-mapped source areas that support perennial flow are much smaller than recognized by current Washington State regulations.

  15. Does Higher Education Foster Critical and Creative Learners? An Exploration of Two Universities in South Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jihyun; Makara, Kara A.; Fishman, Barry J.; Hong, Young-Il

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two studies that explore students' beliefs about critical and creative learning at two universities, and considers the implications of those beliefs in comparison to the universities' stated education goals. One is a mixed method study of students at a top university in Korea, and the second is a comparative study between the…

  16. Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

  17. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  18. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  19. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  20. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  1. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  2. Mid-Tertiary structural evolution of the Old Woman Mountains area: Implications for crustal extension across southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, G.E.; Miller, C.F. ); Knoll, M.A. Univ. of Texas, El Paso )

    1990-01-10

    The Old Woman Mountains area is a moderately extended region that lies between two highly extended terranes, the Central Mojave Extensional Complex and the Colorado River Extensional Corridor. Two normal faults and a high-angle fault that the authors interpret to be a transfer structure divide the area into four distinct structural blocks. These blocks correspond to the four mountain ranges of the area: the Old Woman, Piute, Little Piute, and Ship mountains. Other major faults involved in tilting are inferred to be buried beneath alluvium in surrounding valleys. Deformation occurred in part before, but primarily after, deposition of the Peach Springs Tuff, an 18.5 Ma regional stratigraphic marker. Transport directions of hanging walls are westward on the west side of the Old Woman Mountains area and east-southeastward on the east side. The authors suggest that the Old Woman Mountains area is a less extended portion of a continuous extensional terrane that stretches from the central Mojave Desert across the Colorado River to the transition zone of the Colorado Plateau. Lower strain in the Old Woman Mountains area than in most of the Colorado River Extensional Corridor and Central Mojave Extensional Complex and age relations across the terrane can be explained by a model in which the principal locus of upper crustal breakaway to an east dipping low-angle simple shear zone shifted at about 18-20 Ma from a position far to the west to just east of the Old Woman Mountains area.

  3. Antiviral treatment of influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2015-06-01

    Antiviral therapy has an important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. At present, two classes of antiviral agents, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are available for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza in Korea. Because of the widespread resistance against adamantanes, neuraminidase inhibitors are mainly used. Because each country has a unique epidemiology of influenza, the proper use of antiviral agents should be determined based on local data. Decisions on the clinical practice in the treatment of influenza in South Korea are guided by the local surveillance data, practice guidelines, health insurance system and the resistance patterns of the circulating influenza viruses. This review highlights the role of antiviral agents in the treatment and outcome of influenza in Korea by providing comprehensive information of their clinical usage in Korea.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  5. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society.

  6. Negotiations with North Korea: Lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallucci, Robert L.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, I summarize the events leading to the negotiation of the Agreed Framework with North Korea. I also highlight the threats that result from the current situation, and some of the technical issues relevant to understanding events.

  7. The role of ELM filaments in setting the ELM wetted area in MAST and the implications for future devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, A. J.; Allan, S. Y.; Dudson, B. D.; Elmore, S. D.; Fishpool, G. M.; Harrison, J. R.; Kirk, A.; The MAST Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The ELM wetted area is a key factor in the peak power load during an ELM, as it sets the region over which the ELM energy is deposited. The deposited heat flux at the target is seen to have striations in the profiles that are generated by the arrival of filaments ejected from the confined plasma. The effect of the filaments arriving at the target on the ELM wetted area, and the relation to the midplane mode number is investigated in this paper using infrared (IR) thermography and high speed visible imaging (>10 kHz). Type I ELMs are analysed, as these have the largest heat fluxes and are observed to have toroidal mode numbers of between 5 and 15. The IR profiles during the ELMs show clear filamentary structures that evolve during the ELM cycle. An increasing number of striations at the target is seen to correspond to an increase in the wetted area. Analysis shows that the ratio of the ELM wetted area to the inter-ELM wetted area, a key parameter for ITER, for the type I ELMs is between 3 and 6 for lower single null plasmas and varies with the ELM midplane mode number, as determined by visible measurements. Monte-Carlo modelling of the ELMs is used to understand the variation seen in the wetted area and the effect of an increased mode number; the modelling replicates the trends seen in the experimental data and supports the observation of increased toroidal mode number generating larger target ELM wetted areas. ITER is thought to be peeling unstable which would imply a lower ELM mode number compared to MAST which is peeling-ballooning unstable. The results of this analysis suggest that the lower n peeling unstable ELMs expected for ITER will have smaller wetted areas than peeling-ballooning unstable ELMs. A smaller wetted area will increase the level of ELM control required, therefore a key prediction required for ITER is the expected ELM mode number.

  8. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of H5N2 influenza viruses from pigs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Han; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk; Baek, Yun Hee; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Hwan-Woon; Sung, Moon-Hee; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Poo, Haryoung; Choi, Young Ki

    2009-05-01

    Due to dual susceptibility to both human and avian influenza A viruses, pigs are believed to be effective intermediate hosts for the spread and production of new viruses with pandemic potential. In early 2008, two swine H5N2 viruses were isolated from our routine swine surveillance in Korea. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of surface proteins revealed that the Sw/Korea/C12/08 and Sw/Korea/C13/08 viruses were derived from avian influenza viruses of the Eurasian lineage. However, although the Sw/Korea/C12/08 isolate is an entirely avian-like virus, the Sw/Korea/C13/08 isolate is an avian-swine-like reassortant with the PB2, PA, NP, and M genes coming from a 2006 Korean swine H3N1-like virus. The molecular characterization of the two viruses indicated an absence of significant mutations that could be associated with virulence or binding affinity. However, animal experiments showed that the reassortant Sw/Korea/C13/08 virus was more adapted and was more readily transmitted than the purely avian-like virus in a swine experimental model but not in ferrets. Furthermore, seroprevalence in swine sera from 2006 to 2008 suggested that avian H5 viruses have been infecting swine since 2006. Although there are no known potential clinical implications of the avian-swine reassortant virus for pathogenicity in pigs or other species, including humans, at present, the efficient transmissibility of the swine-adapted H5N2 virus could facilitate virus spread and could be a potential model for pandemic, highly pathogenic avian influenza (e.g., H5N1 and H7N7) virus outbreaks or a pandemic strain itself.

  10. Wet precipitation of major ions, polonium-210, and organic carbon in a metropolitan city, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive survey of chemical constituents in precipitation including dissolved organic carbon, dissolved nitrogen, major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides was conducted in a representative urban environment of Seoul over one-year period from 2009 to 2010. The sources for these chemical species were apportioned by applying principal component analysis (PCA) in association with commonly acknowledged key tracers, such as Na, K, Ca, and V. The fossil fuel combustion (especially coal) was shown to be the dominant source for most constituents being investigated, with biomass burning being recognized as another significant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of the chemical species in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from the eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. Overall, our study suggests the significant role of human activities in altering the atmospheric environment of Seoul and presumably most urban areas around the world, highlighting its profound environmental implications, such as health risks posed by excessive polonium-210, enhanced rainwater acidity from organic acids, and radiative forcing by organic aerosols.

  11. Hypertension in Korea: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Jones, D W; Kim, S J; Hong, Y P

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors, we performed a population-based national cross-sectional blood pressure (BP) survey in Korea in 1990. Through cluster sampling, we selected for study individuals older than 30 years of age in 190 of 154,082 districts. Among 25,567 eligible individuals, 21,242 subjects had measurements of BP and body mass index (BMI) and underwent a standard interview. BP was recorded as the mean of two measurements on a standard mercury manometer. The prevalence of HTN varied widely by area of residence. Overall prevalence was 19.8% for HTN defined as BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg or subject on medication, and 12.4% for BP > or = 160/95 mm Hg or subject on medication. Correlates for HTN identified by logistic regression analysis included positive family history of HTN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2,), age (10 years); OR = 1.9), alcohol intake (500 cc; OR = 1.4), urban location (versus rural; OR = 1.3), and BMI (1 BMI unit; OR = 1.2). [Am J Prev Med 1994;10:200-4

  12. Seismicity of microearthquakes around Gyeongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula which is located in an intraplate area is known as seismically inactive region. However there were unusual several offshore earthquakes occurred around the southwestern Korean Peninsula in 2013. In addition, a small earthquake (Ml 3.5) occurred on 23 September 2014 around Gyeongju close to a nuclear power plant and many people felt a shock of the earthquake. Concerns over the safety of nuclear power plants were rising and therefore seismicity in this region was investigated. There were 61 earthquakes with local magnitude (Ml) greater than 1.7 occurred around Gyeongju since 1994 by KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) catalog. These events were relocated and calculated focal mechanisms. Also, I analyzed using continuous waveform data within 7 days before and after the mainshock recorded at HDB station with the epicentral distance of about 9 km, to find smaller events of the 2014 Gyeongju earthquake. 84 foreshocks and 108 aftershocks were identified and I located events with a minimum of 5 phases (4 P and 1 S). According to the relocated results, I may classify seismicity roughly into two groups. One group is aligned along right-hand side of the Ulsan Fault and the other is located near by the Bomunho. 13 quakes occurred from 1999 to 2003 close by artificial lake called Bomunho created in the late 1970s may be triggered microearthquakes by artificial water reservoirs but further research is needed to find causes of the events.

  13. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    led Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement negotiations. Strategic Cooperation and the U.S.-ROK Alliance Dealing with North Korea...78.49 yrs.; North Korea = 69.2 yrs.) Infant Mortality: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births (U.S. = 6.00) Fertility Rate: 1.24 children born/woman...its “interest” in joining the twelve-nation Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement 3

  14. US Military Presence in a Unified Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    profiles/ap_mp_05.cfm ; Internet; accessed 11 March 2003; and World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York...New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 108, 771, 799, 801, 843. 15 Han Woo-Keun, The History of Korea (Seoul, Korea: The Eul-Yoo Publishing Company...January 2003. 37 World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York, New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 218. 38

  15. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas Published and Distributed by the Armed Forces Pest Management Board Information... Ecology Profile: The Koreas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...presumed to be higher in the absence of sophisticated programs to suppress vectors or limit disease transmission. Disease Vector Ecology Profiles

  16. An overview of biotechnology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi; Hahm; Rhee; Han

    1999-03-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, Korea has invested heavily in biotechnology research and development, with the aim of becoming a leading nation in this field. It is important to understand the historical progress of this development in order to appreciate the current state of biotechology in Korea. However, it is equally important to know what research is currently being planned and carried out, and by whom.

  17. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  18. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L.; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle. PMID:24311996

  19. A geochemical investigation of selected areas in Greenville and Laurens counties, South Carolina--implications for mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to geochemically evaluate three areas within the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle (see index map) that have been shown by previous studies to contain anomalously high amounts of tin. Jackson and Moore (1992) reported the presence of cassiterite (SnO2)-bearing heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment samples that were collected during a regional geochemical reconnaissance of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle. The data reported here confirm identified in selected heavy-mineral concentrate samples. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of barium, beryllium, lanthanum, and thorium are also reported for parts of the same areas. No significant mineral deposits are known to occur in the study areas. There was, however, minor production of monazite from several nearby localities (Sloan, 1908), and gold was produced from deposits in the northeastern part of Greenville County and nearby Spartanburg County (McCauley and Butler, 1966). The three areas selected for resampling are located in the Inner Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina (see index map). The generalized tectonic setting of the region and the locations of the study is just north of Greenville, S.C. Much of it is within the moderately to steeply sloped terrane of Paris Mountain State Park where elevations reach approximately 600 m. Simpsonville, S.C., is neat the center of the second study area, and the southernmost study area is near Hickory Tavern, S.C. Both the Simpsonville and Hickory Tavern study areas are in more gently rolling Piedmont terrane. Each of the sampled areas is drained by tributaries of the Enoree and Reedy Rivers. Parts of three different thrust sheets underlie the region covered by this study (fig. 1); in ascending structural position, they are the Six Mile, Paris Mountain, and Laurens thrust sheets (Nelson and others, 1987). Nelson (1988, p. 7) described the contacts between these sheets as being along unnamed faults. The rocks in and

  20. BET surface area distributions in polar stream sediments: Implications for silicate weathering in a cold-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    BET surface area values are critical for quantifying the amount of potentially reactive sediments available for chemical weathering and ultimately, prediction of silicate weathering fluxes. BET surface area values of fine-grained (<62.5 μm) sediment from the hyporheic zone of polar glacial streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (Wright and Taylor Valleys) exhibit a wide range (2.5–70.6 m2/g) of surface area values. Samples from one (Delta Stream, Taylor Valley) of the four sampled stream transects exhibit high values (up to 70.6 m2/g), which greatly exceed surface area values from three temperate proglacial streams (0.3–12.1 m2/g). Only Clark stream in Wright Valley exhibits a robust trend with distance, wherein surface area systematically decreases (and particle size increases) in the mud fraction downstream, interpreted to reflect rapid dissolution processes in the weathering environment. The remaining transects exhibit a range in variability in surface area distributions along the length of the channel, likely related to variations in eolian input to exposed channel beds, adjacent snow drifts, and to glacier surfaces, where dust is trapped and subsequently liberated during summer melting. Additionally, variations in stream discharge rate, which mobilizes sediment in pulses and influences water:rock ratios, the origin and nature of the underlying drift material, and the contribution of organic acids may play significant roles in the production and mobilization of high-surface area sediment. This study highlights the presence of sediments with high surface area in cold-based glacier systems, which influences models of chemical denudation rates and the impact of glacial systems on the global carbon cycle.

  1. Volcanic risk perception of young people in the urban areas of Vesuvius: Comparisons with other volcanic areas and implications for emergency management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Mayberry, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    More than 600 000 people are exposed to volcanic risk in the urban areas near the volcano, Vesuvius, and may need to be evacuated if there is renewed volcanic activity. The success of a future evacuation will strongly depend on the level of risk perception and preparedness of the at-risk communities during the current period of quiescence. The volcanic risk perception and preparedness of young people is of particular importance because hazard education programs in schools have been shown to increase the clarity of risk perception and students often share their knowledge with their parents. In order to evaluate young people's risk perception and preparedness for a volcanic crisis, a multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to 400 high-school students in three municipalities located close to the volcano. The overall results suggest that despite a 60-year period of quiescence at Vesuvius, the interviewed students have an accurate perception of the level of volcanic risk. On the other hand, the respondents demonstrate a clear lack of understanding of volcanic processes and their related hazards. Also, the interviewed students show high levels of fear, poor perceived ability to protect themselves from the effects of a future eruption, and insufficient knowledge of the National Emergency Plan for Vesuvian Area (NEPVA). The latter result suggests that in comparison with volcanic crises in other regions, during a future eruption of Vesuvius, there may not be enough time to educate the large number of people living near the volcano about how to appropriately respond. The inadequate risk education and preparedness of respondents implies that a strong effort is needed to improve communication strategies in order to facilitate successful evacuations. Therefore, it is important to take advantage of the present period of quiescence at Vesuvius to improve the accuracy of risk perception of youth in local communities. ?? 2008.

  2. Factor Analysis of Wildfire and Risk Area Estimation in Korean Peninsula Using Maximum Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Teayeon; Lim, Chul-Hee; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kim, YouSeung; Heo, Seongbong; Cha, Sung Eun; Kim, Seajin

    2016-04-01

    The number of wildfires and accompanying human injuries and physical damages has been increased by frequent drought. Especially, Korea experienced severe drought and numbers of wildfire took effect this year. We used MaxEnt model to figure out major environmental factors for wildfire and used RCP scenarios to predict future wildfire risk area. In this study, environmental variables including topographic, anthropogenic, meteorologic data was used to figure out contributing variables of wildfire in South and North Korea, and compared accordingly. As for occurrence data, we used MODIS fire data after verification. In North Korea, AUC(Area Under the ROC Curve) value was 0.890 which was high enough to explain the distribution of wildfires. South Korea had low AUC value than North Korea and high mean standard deviation which means there is low anticipation to predict fire with same environmental variables. It is expected to enhance AUC value in South Korea with environmental variables such as distance from trails, wildfire management systems. For instance, fire occurred within DMZ(demilitarized zone, 4kms boundary from 38th parallel) has decisive influence on fire risk area in South Korea, but not in North Korea. The contribution of each environmental variables was more distributed among variables in North Korea than in South Korea. This means South Korea is dependent on few certain variables, and North Korea can be explained as number of variables with evenly distributed portions. Although the AUC value and standard deviation of South Korea was not high enough to predict wildfire, the result carries an significant meaning to figure out scientific and social matters that certain environmental variables has great weight by understanding their response curves. We also made future wildfire risk area map in whole Korean peninsula using the same model. In four RCP scenarios, it was found that severe climate change would lead wildfire risk area move north. Especially North

  3. Origin of microseism observed in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.; You, S.; Rhie, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise has been widely used for imaging crustal structure as an alternative passive source, even where traditional seismic imaging is not possible due to low seismicity. Long before the sensational applications of seismic noise, the origin of the noise has already been studied to understand its nature and characteristics for several decades. In this study, we investigate the origin of microseism observed in South Korea. Annual spectrograms in the microseismic frequency range up to 0.4 Hz show coherent peaks at about 0.2 Hz in the winter, which is at the frequency band of the double-frequency microseism. However, the primary microseism is only rarely observed in South Korea when the Pacific typhoon is close to the Southern Sea of Korea. Polarization analysis and noise cross correlation indicate that the energy of the double-frequency microseism comes dominantly from the east of the Korean Peninsula. Comparison of the results from the operational wave model of the Korea Meteorological Administration and seismic data shows a strong correlation of spectral amplitude of seismic data with the significant wave heights and periods of ocean waves, implying that the primary and the double-frequency microseism observed in South Korea are generated at the Southern Sea of Korea and at nearby shorelines of the east coast of Japan, respectively.

  4. Allochthonous subsidies of organic matter across a lake-river-fjord landscape in the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for marine zooplankton in inner fjord areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Martinez, Rodrigo A.; San Martin, Valeska; Aguayo, Mauricio; Silva, Nelson; Torres, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystems can act as both sources and sinks of allochthonous nutrients and organic matter. In this sense, fjord ecosystems are a typical interface and buffer zone between freshwater systems, glaciated continents, and the coastal ocean. In order to evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter across fjord ecosystems, we characterized particulate organic matter along a lake-river-fjord corridor in the Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope (δ 13C) and lipid (fatty acid composition) biomarker analyses. Furthermore, estimates of zooplankton carbon ingestion rates and measurements of δ 13C and δ 15N in zooplankton (copepods) were used to evaluate the implications of allochthonous subsidies for copepods inhabiting inner fjord areas. Our results showed that riverine freshwater flows contributed an important amount of dissolved silicon but, scarce nitrate and phosphate to the brackish surface layer of the fjord ecosystem. Isotopic signatures of particulate organic matter from lakes and rivers were distinct from their counterparts in oceanic influenced stations. Terrestrial allochthonous sources could support around 68-86% of the particulate organic carbon in the river plume and glacier melting areas, whereas fatty acid concentrations were maximal in the surface waters of the Pascua and Baker river plumes. Estimates of carbon ingestion rates and δ 13C in copepods from the river plume areas indicated that terrestrial carbon could account for a significant percentage of the copepod body carbon (20-50%) during periods of food limitation. Particulate organic matter from the Pascua River showed a greater allochthonous contribution of terrigenous/vascular plant sources. Rivers may provide fjord ecosystems with allochthonous contributions from different sources because of the distinct vegetation coverage and land use along each river's watershed. These observations have significant implications for the management of local riverine areas in the context of

  5. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  6. Suicides around Major Public Holidays in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-07-23

    A dip and peak pattern of suicide around major public holidays has been found in developed countries and explained by the broken promise effect. Focusing on two major holidays in South Korea (New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day, both on the lunar calendar), replication of the dip and peak pattern was done by analyzing individual information on all suicides from 1997 to 2014. The replicated pattern revealed the most vulnerable group to be married men aged 50+ in nonmetropolitan areas in 2006-2014. Families, friends, and policy makers can use these findings to save the vulnerable.

  7. 77 FR 75975 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative... the Republic of Korea (Korea). For information on the estimated subsidy rates, see the ``Suspension of... Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination...

  8. Possible emissions of POPs in plain and hilly areas of Nepal: Implications for source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Breivik, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air is a core media chosen for monitoring under the Stockholm Convention on POPs. While extensive monitoring of POPs in ambient air has been carried out in some parts of the globe, there are still regions with very limited information available, such as some developing countries as Nepal. This study therefore aims to target the occurrence of selected POPs in Nepal in suspected source areas/more densely populated regions. Four potential source regions in Nepal were furthermore targeted as it was hypothesized that urban areas at lower altitudes (Birgunj and Biratnagar located at approximately 86 and 80 m.a.s.l.) would be potentially more affected by OCPs because of more intensive agricultural activities in comparison to urban areas at higher altitudes (Kathmandu, Pokhara located 1400 and 1135 m.a.s.l). As some of these areas could also be impacted by LRAT, air mass back trajectories during the sampling period were additionally evaluated using HYSPLIT. The concentrations of overall POPs were twice as high in plain areas in comparison to hilly areas. DDTs and HCHs were most frequently detected in the air samples. The high p,p'-DDT/(pp'-DDE + pp'-DDD) ratio as well as the low o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratio observed in this study was inferred as continuing use of technical DDT. High levels of ∑26PCBs were linked to proximity to highly urbanized and industrial areas, indicating the potential source of PCBs. The measured concentrations of legacy POPs in air from this study is assumed to represent a negligible health risk through inhalation of ambient air, however, other modes of human exposure could still be relevant in Nepal. The air mass backward trajectory analysis revealed that most of the air masses sampled originated from India and the Bay of Bengal.

  9. Allocation of aid for health institutions in Ukraine: implications from a case study of Chornobyl (Chernobyl) area hospitals.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Renata; Bezchlibnyk-Butler, Kalyna; Wodoslawsky, Marika Dubyk

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, numerous non-governmental organizations have sought to improve the health status of populations struggling with the lingering effects of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear disaster. Political and economic features of Ukraine's government produced a health system unable to provide services required by its population. To compensate somewhat for these shortcomings, Ukraine's health institutions rely on foreign donations. However, to effectively target foreign aid efforts, a more thorough understanding of the administration of health institutions in Ukraine is needed. This study investigates the organizational structures, care delivery, and legislative and financial regulations in the country's health system and their implications for patient care. Through an exhaustive study of four representative health institutions across Ukraine, the authors identify how donor organizations can achieve their aid objectives and work within the country's health infrastructure.

  10. Radioelement distributions and analysis of microtopographical influences in a shallow covered area, Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengbin; Chen, Jianguo; Xiao, Fan; Fode, Tounkara; Li, Liqing

    2016-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry is one of the most cost-effective prospecting methods for investigating anomalies in potassium, uranium, thorium and alteration indexes associated with hydrothermal and radioactive ore deposits. In this work, we selected an arid grass covered landscape micro-region in Inner Mongolia as the study area to examine the radioelement distributions and microtopographical influences on a gamma ray spectrometry survey. In general, concentrations of K, U, Th and TC (total count) of intrusive rocks are higher than the overburden cover. Overburden mixing with the eolian dust and in-situ weathered material reduces the gamma radiation penetrating into the Earth's surface. Similar to overburden, the thin layers of eolian dust in the concave areas of intrusive rock also reduce the measured radioelement concentrations. The decreasing order of radioelement concentrations in the study area is: Jurassic granodiorite > Carboniferous biotite porphyry > overburden. Th, U, K and TC increase with elevation, and all show positive correlations with elevation. The Th and TC have stronger correlations with elevation than K and U. Thus, K and U show relative local enrichment in low-lying areas, whilst Th and TC do not; alteration indices proposed to improve the discrimination of potassic alteration also generate false anomalies, caused by local enrichment of the K and U in low-lying areas. Therefore, the geological interpretation of gamma ray surveys for mineral exploration needs to consider the topography in order to reject false anomalies and retain the true anomalies associated with ore deposits.

  11. Emergence of GII.4 Sydney norovirus in South Korea during the winter of 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Seok; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2013-11-28

    Norovirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Between November 2012 and June 2013, 1718 stool samples were requested for norovirus antigen testing in the metropolitan areas of South Korea, and 91 samples were genotyped. The norovirus antigen-positive rate peaked at 52.8% in December 2012. [corrected]. A novel norovirus GII.4 variant, GII.4 Sydney 2012, was the most frequently found genotype (60.4%) during this period. This study demonstrates that norovirus activity increased during the winter of 2012-2013 in South Korea and that norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the cause of the norovirus epidemic during this period.

  12. Characteristics of Team-Based Organization Introduced to Academic Libraries in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hye-Young

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze characteristics of a team-based organization introduced lately to many academic libraries in South Korea. The major areas of exploration included the introduction of the team approach, team empowerment, leadership of team leaders, open communication, and the director's commitment. The study used a survey design…

  13. Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies--Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This study describes the Republic of Korea's efforts to provide universal primary education. Chapter One analyzes the causes of the explosive expansion of the population eligible for educational services. Chapter Two reports strategies for universalizing elementary education. Chapter Three points out areas needing improvement, including class…

  14. Transnational Corporations as Educational Institutions for National Development: The Contrasting Cases of Mexico and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Economic development in South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Ireland has accelerated dramatically since the 1960s, as it has in China more recently. These areas share a common element in their development strategies--the aggressive pursuit, acquisition, and incorporation of knowledge from industrialized nations. In this article, the…

  15. New Records and Reference Collection of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Cx. la’otoensis and Cx. pipie •s which have been reported in the Mr. Songni of north Chung- cheong Province and Hapcheon region of South Gye...the Halla mountain area. In Korea this species has only been reported from Jeju Island. The adults of Cx. kvotoensis are quite similar to Cx. pipi

  16. A Changed Context of Lifelong Learning under the Influence of Migration: South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how Korean society is being changed under the impact of migration and the kinds of learning domains that are evolving through participation in social interaction between migrant workers and local citizens in South Korea. Employing a qualitative case study, participants' changed learning areas were investigated.…

  17. Mass Communication in Republic of Korea: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Taeyoul, Comp.

    As one of a series of ten bibliographies on Asian countries, this work covers the multi-disciplinary field of mass communication in the country of Korea. For the bibliography, areas such as agriculture, anthropology, community development, economics, education, law, political science, population, public administration, sociology, social…

  18. The Emergence of Student Creativity in Classroom Settings: A Case Study of Elementary Schools in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Younsoon; Chung, Hye Young; Choi, Kyoulee; Seo, Choyoung; Baek, Eunjoo

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the emergence of student creativity in classroom settings, specifically within two content areas: science and social studies. Fourteen classrooms in three elementary schools in Korea were observed, and the teachers and students were interviewed. The three types of student creativity emerging in the teaching and learning…

  19. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... application for standard design certification of the APR1400 Standard Plant Design. The APR1400 stands for... advanced design features to enhance plant safety, economical efficiency, and convenience of operation...

  20. Stratified and nonstratified areas in the North Sea: Long-term variability and biological and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Sonja; Tett, Paul; Mills, David; van der Molen, Johan

    2015-07-01

    The European Unions' Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to limit anthropogenic influences in the marine environment. But marine ecosystems are characterized by high variability, and it is not trivial to define its natural state. Here, we use the physical environment as a basis for marine classification, as it determines the conditions in which organisms must operate to survive and thrive locally. We present a delineation of the North Sea into five distinct regimes, based on multidecadal stratification characteristics. Results are based on a 51 year simulation of the region using the coupled hydrobiogeochemical model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. The five identified regimes are: permanently stratified, seasonally stratified, intermittently stratified, permanently mixed, and Region Of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). The areas characterized by these regimes show some interannual variation in geographical coverage, but are overall remarkable stable features within the North Sea. Results also show that 29% of North Sea waters fail to classify as one of the defined stratification regimes, due to high interannual variability. Biological characteristics of these regimes differ from diatom-based food webs in areas with prolonged stratification to Phaeocystis-dominated food webs in areas experiencing short-lived or no stratification. The spatial stability of the identified regimes indicates that carefully selected monitoring locations can be used to represent a substantive area of the North Sea.

  1. Water quality in the St. Louis River Area of Concern, Lake Superior: Historical and current conditions and delisting implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the lower St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) from two stations over a 60 year period (19532013) and system-wide (20122013) was examined to determine if the AOC beneficial use impairment of excessive loading of sediment and nutrients could be considered for rem...

  2. Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwee, Pamela D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

  3. Extent of Low-accumulation 'Wind Glaze' Areas on the East Antarctic Plateau: Implications for Continental Ice Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scambos, Theodore A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Haran, T.; Bohlander, J.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.; Jezek, K.; Long, D.; Urbini, S.; Farness, K.; Neumann, T.; Albert, M.; Winther, J.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent katabatic winds form widely distributed localized areas of near-zero net surface accumulation on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) plateau. These areas have been called 'glaze' surfaces due to their polished appearance. They are typically 2-200 square kilometers in area and are found on leeward slopes of ice-sheet undulations and megadunes. Adjacent, leeward high-accumulation regions (isolated dunes) are generally smaller and do not compensate for the local low in surface mass balance (SMB). We use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field-gathered datasets to map the extent of wind glaze in the EAIS above 1500m elevation. Mapping criteria are derived from distinctive surface and subsurface characteristics of glaze areas resulting from many years of intense annual temperature cycling without significant burial. Our results show that 11.2 plus or minus 1.7%, or 950 plus or minus 143 x 10(exp 3) square kilometers, of the EAIS above 1500m is wind glaze. Studies of SMB interpolate values across glaze regions, leading to overestimates of net mass input. Using our derived wind-glaze extent, we estimate this excess in three recent models of Antarctic SMB at 46-82 Gt. The lowest-input model appears to best match the mean in regions of extensive wind glaze.

  4. Recent seismicity and crustal stress field in the Lucanian Apennines and surrounding areas (Southern Italy): Seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, C.; Frepoli, A.; Cimini, G. B.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the instrumental seismicity of Southern Italy in the area including the Lucanian Apennines and Bradano foredeep, making use of the most recent seismological data base available so far. P- and S-wave arrival times, recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC) operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), were re-picked along with those of the SAPTEX temporary array deployed in the region in the period 2001-2004. For some events located in the upper Val d'Agri, we also used data from the Eni-Agip oil company seismic network. We examined the seismicity occurred during the period between 2001 and 2006, considering 514 events with magnitudes M ≥ 2.0. We computed the VP/ VS ratio obtaining a value of 1.83 and we carried out an analysis for the one-dimensional (1D) velocity model that approximates the seismic structure of the study area. Earthquakes were relocated and, for well- recorded events, we also computed 108 fault plane solutions. Finally, using 58 solutions, the most constrained, we computed regional stress field in the study area. Earthquake distribution shows three main seismic regions: the westernmost (Lucanian Apennines) characterized by high background seismicity, mostly with shallow hypocenters, the easternmost below the Bradano foredeep and the Murge with deeper and more scattered seismicity, and finally the more isolated and sparse seismicity localized in the Sila Range and in the offshore area along the northeastern Calabrian coast. Focal mechanisms computed in this work are in large part normal and strike-slip solutions and their tensional axes ( T-axes) have a generalized NE-SW orientation. The denser station coverage allowed us to improve hypocenters determination compared to those obtained by using only RSNC data, for a better characterization of the crustal and subcrustal seismicity in the study area.

  5. Area-to-point Kriging in spatial hedonic pricing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, E.-H.; Kyriakidis, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a geostatistical hedonic price model in which the effects of location on house values are explicitly modeled. The proposed geostatistical approach, namely area-to-point Kriging with External Drift (A2PKED), can take into account spatial dependence and spatial heteroskedasticity, if they exist. Furthermore, this approach has significant implications in situations where exhaustive area-averaged housing price data are available in addition to a subset of individual housing price data. In the case study, we demonstrate that A2PKED substantially improves the quality of predictions using apartment sale transaction records that occurred in Seoul, South Korea, during 2003. The improvement is illustrated via a comparative analysis, where predicted values obtained from different models, including two traditional regression-based hedonic models and a point-support geostatistical model, are compared to those obtained from the A2PKED model.

  6. Analyzing the success of the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seejeen; Lah, T J

    2015-09-01

    For more than a decade, South Korea has been ranked first among the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) members in their municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate. One of the major contributing factors for its outstanding MSW recycling performance is the volume-based waste fee (VWF) system implemented in 1995. Despite the perceived success of VWF, there has been few research conducted that has sought to demonstrate the success of the policy in an empirical manner. Research conducted currently on VWF in South Korea tends to have limitations in empirical approaches and identifying the intervention effect of VWF on recycling performance. This study attempts to empirically test whether the adoption of VWF positively affected recycling performance in Korea over time. The findings suggest that although there was a dramatic increase of the recycling rate with the introduction of VWF in 1995, Korea's MSW recycling performance settled back again and showed the constant pace after the intervention. No significant differences in recycling rate were found between before and after 1995 period. In conclusion, implications and suggestions for both research and practice are proposed.

  7. Upper-crust Tomographic Structure of the Southern Korea Peninsula from Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, J. H.; Kang, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We derived the three dimensional P wave velocity model for the uppermost 14 km of crust in the southern Korea peninsula using travel-time data from local earthquakes which are recorded by two nation-wide seismic networks operated by Korea Meteorological Administration and Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. Earthquakes in the study occurred between 2001 and 2014. 19,935 P wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes observed by 184 seismic stations are selected for the 3-D tomographic inversion. In order to secure best possible data for tomography inversion, we applied a strict criteria during the selection of earthquakes and travel-times. The study area is parameterized by 10km×10km×4km grid for velocity inversion and 1km×1km×1km grid for travel time calculations. Checkerboard resolution test are used to demonstrate the ray coverage and the resolution for the given station-event configurations. The results indicate P-wave velocity model at shallow depths less than 2 km are not properly resolved mainly due to the insufficient ray coverage. The model at deeper depths greater than 14 km also suffered by lack of ray coverage. Thus, we limit our interpretations of the preliminary P wave velocity model to areas that are illuminated by enough rays. P wave velocity model indicates there are significant lateral velocity variations across the southern Korea peninsula. Most distinguished feature in the velocity model is the higher velocity anomaly beneath the southeastern Korea peninsula. The anomaly regions is distinguished by well-defined tectonic boundary. At 8 km depth, lower velocity anomaly is observed in Gyeonggi massif and high-mountain regions in the southern Korea peninsula. The 3-D velocity model is compared with geophysical and geological observations.

  8. Relationship between the perifornical hypothalamic area and oral pontine reticular nucleus in the rat. Possible implication of the hypocretinergic projection in the control of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A; Moreno-Balandrán, M E; Rodrigo-Angulo, M L; Garzón, M; De Andrés, I

    2006-11-01

    The perifornical (PeF) area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus has been implicated in several physiological functions including the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. Some PeF neurons, which contain hypocretin, have been suggested to play an important role in sleep-wake regulation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the PeF area and hypocretin on the electrophysiological activity of neurons of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO), which is an important structure in the generation and maintenance of rapid eye movement sleep. PnO neurons were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. Extracellular recordings were performed by means of tungsten microelectrodes or barrel micropipettes. Electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral PeF area elicited orthodromic responses in both type I (49%) and type II (58%) electrophysiologically characterized PnO neurons, with a mean latency of 13.0 +/- 2 and 8.3 +/- 5 ms, respectively. In six cases, antidromic spikes were evoked in type I PnO neurons with a mean latency of 3.2 +/- 0.4 ms, indicating the existence of PnO neurons that projected to the PeF area. Anatomical studies showed retrogradely labeled neurons in the PeF area from the PnO. Some of these neurons projecting to the PnO contained hypocretin (17.8%). Iontophoretic application of hypocretin-1 through a barrel micropipette in the PnO induced an inhibition, which was blocked by a previous iontophoretic application of bicuculline, indicating that the inhibitory action of hypocretin-1 may be due to activation of GABA(A) receptors. These data suggest that the PeF area may control the generation of rapid eye movement sleep through a hypocretinergic projection by inhibiting the activity of PnO neurons.

  9. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health.

  10. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  11. The Diabetes Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0%) aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic. PMID:27586447

  12. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed.

  13. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, L; Solís, M

    2008-06-01

    Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (< 100 m) and slope (< 10%), and locate the key breeding and nursing habitat of the species within the continental shelf domains. Proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPA's) network plans should consider connectivity of Cafio Island-Drake Bay and the extension of Corcovado National Park maritime borders.

  14. Sedimentology of a glaciofluvial landsystem, Lough Ree area, Central Ireland: implications for ice margin characteristics during Devensian deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Catherine

    2002-05-01

    Eskers in a glaciofluvial landsystem in the Lough Ree area, Central Ireland, exhibit two orientations. The most southerly esker in the area, the Athlone Esker, forms part of a dendritic esker system with paleocurrent directions indicating eastward drainage, while the Rooskagh Esker and associated eskers and kames immediately to the north were formed during southward drainage. Sediments indicate that sharp-crested, steep-sided sections of both ridges were formed within subglacial tunnels, while fan-shaped and flat-topped areas were formed as subaqueous outwash fans and deltas in standing water immediately in front of an ice-margin. The deposition of ice-marginal deposits indicating southward paleoflows against the side of the eastward flowing Athlone Esker indicates a 90° shift in the direction of ice surface slope, and a similar shift in the likely orientation of the ice margin. The absence of any evidence of intermediate ice- or water-flow directions indicates that the shift reflects a recession of ice, followed by a readvance from the north.

  15. Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

    2012-11-01

    Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

  16. Internet Reagency: The Implications of a Global Science for Collaboration, Productivity, and Gender Inequity in Less Developed Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. Paige; Duque, Ricardo; Anderson, Meredith; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Palackal, Antony; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.; Mbatia, Paul N.; Shrum, Wesley

    This article focuses on the nature of scientific research in less developed areas in the context of new information and communication technologies (ICTs). We examine the notion that the internet will globalize the practice of science by creating connections between researchers from geographically dispersed areas. By altering the spatial and temporal mechanisms through which professional ties are developed and maintained, internet access and use in less developed areas may change the nature of knowledge production or simply reproduce traditional practices and relationships. The diffusion of the internet to Africa, Asia, and Latin America requires us to go beyond traditional views of development and technology transfer, to contemporary neo-institutional and reagency perspectives. The potential of the internet to globalize science, however, is largely dependent on the places and institutions in which it is used, as well as the identities of its users. Reviewing data collected in Africa and Asia since 1994, we summarize findings on access to and use of the internet and its impact on scientific productivity, collaboration, networking, and gender inequity.

  17. A Comparison of 20th Century and Holocene Historical Lake Areas and Implications for Reconstruction of Holocene Moisture Balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, C. P.; Ferreira, M.; Shuman, B.; Ito, E.

    2005-12-01

    Low lake stands during the Holocene document a period of drier than modern conditions in the upper Midwest after 8000 cal yr B.P. Here, we seek to compare the magnitudes and spatial extent of these mid-Holocene water-level changes with the changes that occurred during the 1930s Dust Bowl drought. The comparison allows us to consider the potential range of hydrologic conditions in the mid-continent, and to detect similarities or differences between the two periods as a way to learn more about the climatic controls on the mid-Holocene moisture-balance. (How good an analog is the 1930s drought for the mid-Holocene aridity?) Each lake record, however, is unique and comparisons among lakes have been hindered by local hydrologic influences and sedimentary processes. We therefore test the simple methodological assumption that the stratigraphic records of small lakes may be used in concert to produce valid and meaningful maps of Holocene moisture balance. First we confirm that broad regional trends in lake area reflect long-term moisture balance patterns by studying the 1930s aerial photography. Second, we confirm that regionally coherent patterns of sedimentary change related to past water levels can be detected for the mid-Holocene via GPR profiles. Changes in open water surface area in response to the 1930's drought are quantified and mapped for over 300 small (1km sq. or less) lakes of northern and central Minnesota in order to determine if small basins responded to drought with explainable regional coherency. A map of percent area change (between AD 1930 and 2003) reveals that coherent trends in surface area response reflect the gradient of moisture balance change over the same period. We found a trend in percent surface area change from east to west with western lakes completely drying out (>100% change), a wider variability of responses in central Minnesota, and eastern lakes undergoing almost no change (<10%). GPR profiles were collected on two east-west transects

  18. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required. PMID:19543418

  19. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-06-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

  20. Multifractal interpolation and spectrum-area fractal modeling of stream sediment geochemical data: Implications for mapping exploration targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Abbas; Yousefi, Mahyar; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.

    2017-04-01

    The spectrum-area (S-A) fractal model is a powerful tool for decomposition of complex anomaly patterns of gridded geochemical data. Ordinary moving average interpolation techniques are commonly being used for gridding geochemical data; however, these methods suffer from two major drawbacks of (1) ignoring the locally high values and (2) smoothing the interpolated surface. Multifractal moving average interpolation methods have been developed to overcome the shortcomings of ordinary moving average methods. This study seeks to compare two sets of multifractal and ordinary gridded geochemical data using success rate curves and applies the S-A fractal model to decompose anomalous geochemical patterns. A set of stream sediment geochemical data in Ahar area, NW Iran, was used as a case study. Then, a mineralization-related multi-element geochemical signature was gridded by ordinary and multifractal approaches and considered for further analyses. The S-A fractal method was applied to decompose anomaly and background components of the resultant multi-element geochemical signature. Exploration targets were delimited and further evaluated using two bivariate statistical procedures of Student's t-value and normalized density index. The results revealed that (a) application of multifractal gridded data enhances the predicting ability of geochemical signatures, (b) application of S-A fractal model on multifractal gridded data allows for superior discrimination of geochemical anomalies, and (c) the multi-element geochemical anomalies in the Ahar area related to porphyry-Cu deposits were properly delineated through sequence application of multifractal interpolation and S-A fractal model.

  1. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    PubMed

    Leake, Jonathan R; Adam-Bradford, Andrew; Rigby, Janette E

    2009-12-21

    Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our

  2. Identification and characterization of avian hepatitis E virus genotype 2 from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Byung-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2016-10-01

    A new avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) GI-B was identified in broiler breeders with hematomas, liver rupture, and splenomegaly, along with excessive abdominal fat, in Korea. Previously, genotype 1 had been identified in avian HEV strains in Korea. Complete sequence analyses revealed that the new avian HEV clustered in genotype 2, which has been identified in the USA and Spain; the GI-B isolate was closely related to the USA prototype avian HEV isolated from a chicken with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome. Although some HEV genotypes show a geographical distribution pattern, the discovery of genotype 2 in addition to genotype 1 in Korea suggests that the geographical grouping might be reconsidered. These findings have important implications for understanding the global epidemiology and spread of avian HEV.

  3. Introduction of an Area Deprivation Index Measuring Patient Socioeconomic Status in an Integrated Health System: Implications for Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Knighton, Andrew J; Savitz, Lucy; Belnap, Tom; Stephenson, Brad; VanDerslice, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intermountain Healthcare is a fully integrated delivery system based in Salt Lake City, Utah. As a learning healthcare system with a mission of performance excellence, it became apparent that population health management and our efforts to move towards shared accountability would require additional patient-centric metrics in order to provide the right care to the right patients at the right time. Several European countries have adopted social deprivation indices in measuring the impact that social determinants can have on health. Such indices provide a geographic, area-based measure of how socioeconomically deprived residents of that area are on average. Intermountain’s approach was to identify a proxy measure that did not require front-line data collection and could be standardized for our patient population, leading us to the area deprivation index or ADI. This paper describes the specifications and calculation of an ADI for the state of Utah. Results are presented along with introduction of three use cases demonstrating the potential for application of an ADI in quality improvement in a learning healthcare system. Case Description: The Utah ADI shows promise in providing a proxy for patient-reported measures reflecting key socio-economic indicators useful for tailoring patient interventions to improve health care delivery and patient outcomes. Strengths of this approach include a consistent standardized measurement of social determinants, use of more granular block group level measures and a limited data capture burden for front-line teams. While the methodology is generalizable to other communities, results of this index are limited to block groups within the state of Utah and will differ from national calculations or calculations for other states. The use of composite measures to evaluate individual characteristics must also be approached with care. Other limitations with the use of U.S. Census data include use of estimates and missing data

  4. Implications of differential urbanization on deconcentration in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H S

    1990-01-01

    Population migration and differences in urbanization patterns in South Africa are examined. "Indications are that the Blacks--a low-income group--are increasing proportionally, while the Whites--the highest-income group--are diminishing proportionally in the inner core zone of the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area (PWV), and vice versa in the other zones.... Study results presented in this paper reiterate [inadequacies of government policies] and stress the need for changes in the present official spatial policy for the PWV."

  5. Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Lane, Kevin J; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-11-01

    Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea.

  6. Infection status of dragonflies with Plagiorchis muris metacercariae in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, S J; Woo, H C; Lee, S U; Huh, S

    1999-06-01

    Plagiorchis muris has been found in both house and field rats as well as in humans. The infection status of the second intermediate hosts of P. muris is prerequisite in understanding their biological features in an ecosystem. Six species of dragonflies were caught in a wide range of areas in Korea; and they were Sympetrum darwinianum, S. eroticum, S. pedomontanum, S. infuscatum, Pantala flavoscens, Calopteryx atrata, and Orthetrum albistylum speciosum. The occurrence of P. muris metacercariae in dragonflies was nationwide with various infection rates. The metacercarial burden of P. muris in the surveyed areas was the highest in S. eroticum followed by S. darwinianum, S. pedomontanum, and C. atrata. The highest infection rate by P. muris metacercariae was found in S. darwinianum followed by S. eroticum. The metacercarial burden was particularly heavy in the dragonflies found in Hamyang-gun and Kosong-gun, Kyongsangnam-do. It is, therefore, likely that dragonflies play a significant role as the second intermediate host in the life cycle of P. muris in Korea.

  7. Infection status of dragonflies with Plagiorchis muris metacercariae in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ho-Chun; Lee, Soo-Ung; Huh, Sun

    1999-01-01

    Plagiorchis muris has been found in both house and field rats as well as in humans. The infection status of the second intermediate hosts of P. muris is prerequisite in understanding their biological features in an ecosystem. Six species of dragonflies were caught in a wide range of areas in Korea; and they were Sympetrum darwinianum, S. eroticum, S. pedomontanum, S. infuscatum, Pantala flavoscens, Calopteryx atrata, and Orthetrum albistylum speciosum. The occurrence of P. muris metacercariae in dragonflies was nationwide with various infection rates. The metacercarial burden of P. muris in the surveyed areas was the highest in S. eroticum followed by S. darwinianum, S. pedomontanum, and C. atrata. The highest infection rate by P. muris metacercariae was found in S. darwinianum followed by S. eroticum. The metacercarial burden was particularly heavy in the dragonflies found in Hamyang-gun and Kosong-gun, Kyongsangnam-do. It is, therefore, likely that dragonflies play a significant role as the second intermediate host in the life cycle of P. muris in Korea. PMID:10388263

  8. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-28

    foodgrains. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the administrations of Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun; but the...market. The regime has spent little of several billion dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has...within North Korea. Key principles of this conciliation policy have been: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the

  9. Strategic Partners: South Korea and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    South Korea’s economic growth, has fallen off, forcing South Korea into new mar- kets. In 1984, the construction industry received a...are in - cluded in the calculation. Since the 1970s, South Korea and the United States have begun a new stage of extensive economic contact, although...The Japanese Outlook 78 The Korean Peninsula’s Future 80 6. US INTERESTS AND OPTIONS IN SOUTH KOREA 83 Carter Administration Korean Policy 83

  10. North Korea’s 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-02

    conduct nuclear tests. Nonnuclear experiments can answer some questions important to the design of nuclear weapons, but many processes essential to... Hydrosphere and in Natural Gas Reservoirs, Potsdam, Germany, February 28-March 2, 2007, p. 1, http://bib.gfz-potsdam.de/pub/minoga...the earth materials following a detonation, but there is a further complication. Important processes occur during a time span that ranges from

  11. Advising Foreign Security Forces: Implications of Korea and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    the requirements for successful foreign internal defense operations.”111 In early-2008, Army Special Forces Lieutenant Colonel John Mulberry argued...purpose force is robust enough to execute any advisory effort with little preparation. Similar to Maxwell, Mulberry makes a case for the...April 2009), While Mulberry argues that foreign internal defense http

  12. Ambient noise tomography in the Naruko/Onikobe volcanic area, NE Japan: implications for geofluids and seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Jun; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the earthquake generation in volcanic areas, it is important to investigate the presence of geofluids in the uppermost crust. We applied ambient noise tomography to the Naruko/Onikobe volcanic area and constructed a detailed 3-D S-wave velocity ( V s) model using continuous records from a dense seismic network and surrounding stations. The low-velocity zones were found beneath Naruko Volcano, Onikobe Caldera, and Mt. Kurikoma. The low-velocity zone beneath Onikobe Caldera may correspond to a magma reservoir, which is also characterized by surrounding S-wave reflectors. The molten magma originates from the upwelling flows in the mantle wedge. We also conducted the relocation of aftershocks of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake by double-difference tomography based on the obtained velocity model. Beneath Mt. Kurikoma, aftershock distribution delineates one of the unfavorably oriented fault planes of the main shock, which implies that the low-velocity zone around the fault plane is related to the presence of overpressurized fluid.

  13. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Mondragon, Jennifer; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  14. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  15. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... the United States is materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power transformers... power transformers from Korea were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of section 733(b) of the...

  16. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of the... of large power transformers from Korea. Accordingly, effective July 14, 2011, the...

  17. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  18. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  19. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  20. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  1. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  2. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  3. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized imports from Korea and less-than-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  4. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... materially injured by reason of imports from Korea of large residential washers that are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of Korea....

  5. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Korea... subsidized by the Government of Korea and sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV)....

  6. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  7. Spent fuel management status perspectives in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, B.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Concomitant with steadily increasing nuclear power program in Korea, a national radioactive waste management program has been in initial implementation stage for several years. In late 1990, however, a serious confrontation was witnessed at Anmyon area where residents expressed strong opposition against any possibility to consider that site as a potential candidate for waste disposal by the Authority. As far as spent fuel management is concerned, an interim storage policy was adopted by Korean Atomic Energy Commission. A decision to build a centralized wet storage facility was made followed by a conceptual design. Due to the incident at Anmyon site, the public has became more concerned about radioactive wastes management. Parallel efforts are being made to ameliorate public acceptance in regard to radioactive waste management and in particular to spent fuel management. There are substantial uncertainties, however, whether any site could be found given that precarious mood has been prevailing against radioactive wastes throughout the world. In the meantime waiting for successful siting, various research and development for future perspectives are in order. Of particular importance in such endeavor is to provide technological impetus for future perspectives as well as public acceptance through safety demonstrations of certain viable technology alternatives. The dry storage option, for instance, is acclaimed for intrinsic safety and lower cost as prospective alternative. Combined with rod consolidation, dry storage technologies which have not extensively applied in the past, could be considered as a technological basis for longer term management of spent fuel. Conscious of such global trend, some appropriate programs in preparation for such perspectives have been launched by KAERI.

  8. The history of vaccination and current vaccination policies in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There may be many reasons for the significant decrease in the incidence of the pediatric infectious diseases in modern Korea; this could be due to the improvement of sanitary facilities, significant growth of Korean economy, improvement of nutrition, development and dissemination of antibiotics and implantation of vaccination, and overall improvement of medical technology. The development of vaccination has been highlighted as a striking achievement of the modern medical sciences with new technologies in many fields of medicine. Since 1876, the method for vaccination has opened its new era by Suk-Young Jee, known as the Jenner in Korea who wrote a book about smallpox vaccination, and it led an opportunity to propagate the needs for the vaccination in Korea. There was a time when pediatric wards were full of patients with parasitic diseases and many vaccine-preventable diseases such as diphtheria, pertussis, Japanese B encephalitis, and poliomyelitis in 1950s-1960s. We do not see those infectious diseases that often any more in recent years. However, we still have patients with water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases related to increasing international travels. We just experienced the first pandemic influenza of the 21st century in 2009 and avian influenza is still a threat to humans in other parts of the world with an unpredictable potential of pandemicity. In addition, we have tough battles with emerging antibiotic resistance in many strains of bacteria and increased opportunistic infections due to improvement of medical technology involving more aggressive treatment modality and use of medical devices. Researches in many areas are under way and we hope that some of them may be preventable and decreased with a development of new vaccines in the future. PMID:23596573

  9. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  10. Female circumcision and its health implications: a study of the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebong, R D

    1997-04-01

    A total of 400 subjects was randomly selected from 40 villages in the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State for the study. The purposes of the study were to: i. identify the 'established benefits' of female circumcision; ii. identify the health hazards that accompany the practice; and iii. create awareness among community members of the ill-effects of the practice. The study discovered a strong belief in the established benefits and poor appreciation of the health hazards of female circumcision by the participants. Recommendations were made for more efforts in public health education programmes on the ill-effects of the practice. Studies were also recommended to be conducted in other parts of the country to assess the level of awareness on the ill-effects of such an operation and the institution of educational programmes where applicable.

  11. The role of counter ions in nano-hematite synthesis: Implications for surface area and selenium adsorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, Amanda W; Yamani, Jamila S; Johnston, Chad P; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2016-06-05

    Nano metal oxides are of interest for aqueous selenium (Se) remediation, and as such, nano-hematite (nα-Fe2O3) was examined for use as a Se adsorbent. The effect of surface area on adsorption was also studied. nα-Fe2O3 particles were synthesized from Fe(NO3)3 and FeCl3 via forced hydrolysis. The resulting particles have similar sizes, morphologies, aggregate size, pore size, and PZC. The nα-Fe2O3 from FeCl3 (nα-Fe2O3-C) differs from the nα-Fe2O3 from Fe(NO3)3 (nα-Fe2O3-N) with a ∼25±2m(2)/g greater surface area. Selenite Se(IV) adsorption capacity on nα-Fe2O3 has a qmax ∼17mg/g for the freeze-dried and re-suspended nα-Fe2O3. The Δqmax for nα-Fe2O3 from Fe(NO3)3 and FeCl3 that remained in suspension was 4.6mg/g. For selenate Se(VI), the freeze-dried and re-suspended particles realize a Δqmax= 1.5mg/g for nα-Fe2O3 from Fe(NO3)3 and FeCl3. The nα-Fe2O3 from Fe(NO3)3 and FeCl3 that remained in suspension demonstrated Se(VI) Δqmax=5.4mg/g. In situ ATR-FTIR isotherm measurements completed for Se(VI) at a pH 6 suggest that Se(VI) forms primarily outer-sphere complexes with nα-Fe2O3 synthesized from both salts.

  12. Metals bioaccumulation and biomarkers responses in the Neotropical freshwater clam Anodontites trapesialis: Implications for monitoring coal mining areas.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana Fernandes de; Cabral, Millena Terezinha; Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino; Antoniazzi, Matheus Henrique; Risso, Wagner Ezequiel; Martinez, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis

    2016-11-15

    As one of the most impactful industries, coal mining can promote several alterations at surrounding environment. In surface water, elevated concentrations of metals like Mn, Zn, Fe and Al are often observed. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation and the sub-lethal effects of these metals on various organs of the Neotropical bivalve Anodontites trapesialis confined along a stream located near a coal mine, in order to assess a set of biomarkers that could be used for effectively monitoring coal mining areas. Clams were caged, for 96h, at two sites located upstream (Up1 and Up2) and two sites downstream (Dw1 and Dw2) from the mine. Metals bioaccumulation was determined in gills, mantle, digestive gland, muscle and hemolymph and the following biomarkers were measured in A. trapesialis tissues: total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, metallothionein content, lipid peroxidation (LPO), proteins carbonylation, glutathione S-transferase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The results showed that Al and Fe bioaccumulation in the gills and hemolymph, Al bioaccumulation in the mantle and muscle, increased LPO in the gills (Dw1 and Dw2) and mantle (Dw1), as well as reduced AChE activity in the muscle (Dw1 and Dw2) should be considered effective biomarkers for monitoring coal mining areas. A. trapesialis proved to be an efficient biological model, considering that biomarkers responses were observed in the clams after only 96h of confinement at Dw sites, accordingly this species could be a good candidate for monitoring Neotropical freshwaters.

  13. Cretaceous and Paleogene granitoid suites of the Sikhote-Alin area (Far East Russia): Geochemistry and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebennikov, Andrei V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Gonevchuk, Valeriy G.; Kovalenko, Sergey V.

    2016-09-01

    The Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological history of NE Asia comprises alternating episodes of subduction or transform strike-slip movement of the oceanic plate along the continental margin of Eurasia. This sequence resulted in the regular generation of granitoid suites that are characterized by different ages, compositions, and tectonic settings. The Hauterivian-Aptian orogenic stage of the Sikhote-Alin, associated with the strike-slip displacement of the early Paleozoic continental blocks, the successive deformation of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous terranes, and the injection of the earliest S-type granitoids. During late Albian, the area underwent syn-strike-slip compression caused by collision with the Aptian island arc and resulted in the injection of voluminous magmas of calc-alkaline magnesian (S- and I-type) and alkali-calcic ferroan (A-type) granitoids into syn-faulting compressional and extensional basins, respectively. Northwestward to westward movement of the Izanagi Plate resulted in the initiation of frontal subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate during the Cenomanian-Maastrichtian. In turn, this resulted in the generation of plateau-forming ignimbrites and their intrusive analogs formed from metaluminous I-type felsic magmas. Paleocene-Eocene magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin area commenced after the termination of subduction in a rifting regime related to strike-slip movement of the oceanic plate relative to the continent. The break-off of the subducted plate and the injection of oceanic asthenospheric material into the subcontinental lithosphere resulted in the eruption of lamproites and fayalite rhyolites, and coeval intrusions of gabbro and alkali feldspar granites (А-type). The A-type granitic-rocks and coeval gabbro-monzonites are considered to be reliable indicators of the transform continental margin geodynamic settings.

  14. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    chlorine (Cl)] exhibited moderate associations with respiratory mortality on the following day (p < 0.10). Conclusions: Our findings link PM2.5 constituents with mortality and have implications for policy making on sources of PM2.5 and on the relevance of PM2.5 health studies from other areas to this region. PMID:22440884

  15. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy.

  16. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  17. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-22

    humanitarian aid. Sources: Kim Myong Chol, “Kim Jong-il shifts to plan B,” Asia Tiimes, May 21, 2009, Online edition. “North Korea begins ‘Plan C...Asia Times, October 14, 2009, Online edition. Zhang Lianqui, “There is a Dangerous Component in the ‘Warm Winter’ of the DPRK Nuclear Issue, Huanqiu...Boycott Six-Party Talks ,” The Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2009, Online version. 7 Denis D. Gray, “North Korea turns to air smuggling,” Associated

  18. The exploration potential of offshore northwest Korea (P. D. R. K. )

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, P.; Bishopp, D. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent political changes have demonstrated that previously taboo countries are now becoming fair game for western explorationists. Numerous areas or basins that have not been the focus of high technology - Technologically Attenuated Basins (TABs) - offer a new challenge for the new venture groups of E and P companies. Most recently the USSR together with other Eastern European countries continue to be a source of technical interest and frustration. The People's Democratic Republic of Korea, North Korea, possibly the most isolated of the Communist block, contains several TABs where there has been minimal exploration. One such TAB is West Korea Bay, which covers an area of 25,000 km{sup 2} containing at least one major Tertiary basin. The tectonic evolution of the Tertiary basin is similar to the intracratonic Chinese basins with significant differences, notably the Songnim and Daebo orogenies (Middle Triassic to Upper Jurassic and Jurassic to middle Cretaceous) that resulted in extensive igneous activity, folding, and thrust faulting, followed by an extensional stress regime during the Mesozoic and Cainozoic. Very few wells have been drilled in West Korea Bay in the past decade (one per 2,500 km{sup 2}). Though commercially unsuccessful, the wells have proven the existence of oil, mature source rocks, and reservoirs (Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Oligo-Miocene). Structural plays such as rotated Jurassic and Cretaceous fault blocks predominate, but there is also potential for higher risk stratigraphic potential in the Jurassic and Tertiary, with expected field size distributions in the 20-180 MMBOR range.

  19. Mapping South Korea's Paddy Rice During 2001-2015 Based on Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land use change substantially affects terrestrial water and carbon cycles, and it is also significant for food security. Rice is an important food crop in South Korea, and its planting area has changed over the past years due to climate change and social development. However, the paddy rice maps in South Korea with high spatial, temporal resolutions and quality are still unavailable. In this study, annual paddy rice planting areas in South Korea during 2001-2015 were extracted using the phenology-based and artificial neural networks(ANN)-based method according to the availability of Landsat images. Three types of vegetation indices, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), were calculated for both methods. For the phenology-based method, we calculated difference and ratio of the vegetation indices from the Landsat images before and after the inundating/transplanting phase, and set the extraction thresholds for rice paddy using the training samples. For the ANN-based method, using the vegetation indices of the Landsat image after inundation, slope and soil type data of the training samples as input, an ANN was established for rice paddy identification. The resultant maps of paddy rice were evaluated using validation samples and agricultural statistics. Finally, we analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of South Korea's rice paddy during 2001-2015, and investigated the possible reasons.

  20. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA.

  1. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils.

  2. American badgers selectively excavate burrows in areas used by black-footed ferrets: implications for predator avoidance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated how American badgers (Taxidea taxus) might exert selective pressure on black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) to develop antipredator defenses. In a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in South Dakota, badgers concentrated their activities where burrow openings and prairie dogs were abundant, a selective behavior that was exhibited by ferrets in the same colony. Badgers excavated burrows more often when in areas recently used by a ferret, suggesting that badgers hunt ferrets or steal prey from ferrets, or both. We also conducted an analysis of survival studies for ferrets and Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii) released onto prairie dog colonies. This polecat is the ferret's ecological equivalent but evolved without a digging predator. Badgers accounted for 30.0% of predation on polecats and 5.5% of predation on ferrets. In contrast, both polecats and ferrets have evolutionary experience with canids, providing a plausible explanation for the similar relative impact of coyotes (Canis latrans) on them (65.0% and 67.1% of predation, respectively). We hypothesize that ferrets and badgers coexist because ferrets are superior at exploitation competition and are efficient at avoiding badgers, and badgers are superior at interference competition.

  3. [A comparative study on Koii (public doctor) system and its effect on public health in colonial Taiwan and Korea].

    PubMed

    Moon, Myungki

    2014-08-01

    Koii(Public Doctor) System introduced into Taiwan in 1896 for the purpose of filling up medical vacuum of rural area and therefore spreading modern medical system all over Taiwan, was transplanted in 1913 into Colonial Korea for the same purpose. In terms of system itself Koii system in both areas were almost the same, but quite different in practices. First, Koiis in Taiwan was forced to write concrete medical report every month on the medical situation in the area under jurisdiction, whereas to those in Korea writing monthly report was not so compulsory. This difference resulted in some gaps in the quality of medical statistics of the two areas. Second, Unlike their counterparts in Korea, Koiis in Taiwan organized their own associations both locally and nationally and it helped to build up their own networks and share informations on medical situation including informations on infectious diseases. Third, Koiis in Taiwan formed more harmonious relationship between Taiwanese Police than their counterparts in Korea, which helped them to execute various medical activities in more comfortable environment. Taiwanese People went to medical institutions a lot more frequently than Korean People, and this difference was basically derived from the quite different density of Koii assignment in both areas. Korean People had to spend more time and money to utilize modern medical institutions than Taiwanese People did. The different density of Koii assignment also affected the results of prevention and eradication of infectious diseases; in Taiwan plague and small-pox has been successfully controled, whereas Chosun Government general was not so successful in controling infectious diseases including small-pox. Small-pox infected in Korea was about 6 times to Taiwan, and the number of death by small-pox was 9 times to Taiwan. One of the keys to this difference is the different role of Koiis. In Korea, Koiis could do little thing about infectious diseases mainly because of

  4. Crustal reflectivity near the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary in northern Sweden and implications for the tectonic evolution of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Elming, S.-Å.; Mellqvist, C.; Öhlander, B.; Weihed, P.; Wikström, A.

    2002-07-01

    Sm-Nd isotope ratios of 1.9-1.8 Ga granitoids delineate the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary in northern Sweden, an important feature in the Fennoscandian Shield. The boundary strikes approximately WNW-ESE and is defined as a c. 20 km wide zone with juvenile Palaeoproterozoic rocks to the SSW and Archaean and Proterozoic rocks, derived to a large extent from Archaean sources, to the NNE. It therefore constitutes the strongly reworked margin of the old Archaean craton. Extrapolation of the boundary offshore into the Bothnian Bay and correlation with the marine reflection seismic BABEL Lines 2 and 3/4 indicates that the boundary dips to the south-southwest, consistent with interpretation of the Sm-Nd data. In order to tie the BABEL results with onshore surface geology and obtain detailed images of the uppermost crust a short (30 km of subsurface coverage) pilot profile was acquired in the Luleå area of northern Sweden during August 1999. The profile consisted of a high-resolution shallow component (1 kg shots) and a lower-resolution deep component (12 kg shots). Both components image most of the reflective crust, with the deep component providing a better image below 10 s. Comparison of signal penetration curves with data acquired over the Trans-Scandinavian Igneous Belt (a large batholith) indicate the transparent nature of the crust there to be caused by geological factors, not acquisition parameters. Lower crustal reflectivity patterns on the Luleå test profile are similar to those observed on the BABEL lines, suggesting the same lower crust onshore as offshore. Interpreted Archaean reflective upper crust in the NE extends below more transparent Proterozoic crust in the SW. This transparent crust contains a number of high-amplitude reflectors that may represent shear zones and/or mafic rock within granite intrusions. A marked boundary in the magnetic field in the SW has been interpreted as being the result of a gently west-dipping contact zone between meta

  5. Mineral chemical compositions of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Giresun area, NE Turkey: Implications for the crystallization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oǧuz, Simge; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This contribution contains phenocryst assemblages and mineral chemical data of late Cretaceous volcanic (LCV) rocks from the south of Görele and Tirebolu areas (Giresun, NE Turkey) in order to investigate their crystallization conditions. The LCV rocks in the study area occur in two different periods (Coniasiyen-Early Santonian and Early-Middle Campanian), which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic and rhyolitic) within each period. The basaltic and andesitic rocks in both periods generally exhibit porphyritic to hyalo-microlitic porphyritic texture, and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas the dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the volcanic sequence usually show a vitrophyric texture with predominant plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and lesser amphibole-biotite phenocrysts. Zoned plagioclase crystals of the mafic and felsic rocks in different volcanic periods are basically different in composition. The compositions of plagioclase in the first-stage mafic rocks range from An52 to An78 whereas those of plagioclase from the first-stage felsic rocks have lower An content varying from An38 to An50. Rim to core profile for the zoned plagioclase of the first-stage mafic rocks show quite abrupt and notable compositional variations whereas that of the first-stage felsic rocks show slight compositional variation, although some of the grains may display reverse zoning. On the other hand, although no zoned plagioclase phenocryst observed in the second-stage mafic rocks, the compositions of microlitic plagioclase show wide range of compositional variation (An45-80). The compositions of zoned plagioclase in the second-stage felsic rocks are more calcic (An65-81) than those of the first-stage felsic rocks, and their rim to core profile display considerable oscillatory zoning. The compositions of pyroxenes in the first- and second-stage mafic-intermediate rocks vary over a wide range from

  6. Chemical characteristics of precipitation observed in korea peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Seop; Yu, Jegyu; Choi, Jae-Cheon; Heo, Bok-Haeng

    2014-05-01

    We have observed and analyzed the precipitation in four stations, Anmyeondo (Western part of Korea, 36.53N, 126.32E) Gosan (Southern Part, 33.30N, 126.21E), Uljin (Eastern Part, 36.98N, 129.42E), and Ulleungdo (Eastern Part, 37.48N, 130.90E) since 1997. Korea is not only located in downwind area from Asia Continental but also is characterized with seasonal wind direction. In this study, we analyzed the seasonal precipitation data obtained in the four stations from 2001 to 2012 with pH, Electric conductivity, and soluble ions such as F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. The precipitation samples were collected during 24 hours and then analyzed cat-ions and an-ions using IC (Ion chromatography, ICS2000 DIONEX) after filtering to remove the aerosols. Their QA/QC are made with ion balance and conductivity balance as following GAW report (No. 160, 2004). The average weighted with precipitation amounts for pH and soluble ions of the period from 2001 to 2012 was calculated. For pH, it showed the high value in order of Uljin (4.88) > Gosan (4.84) > Ulleng-do (4.83) > Anmyendo (4.68) indicating western part of Korea had the lowest value during the period from 2001 to 2012. The mean concentrations of the secondary pollutants, such as NO3-, nss-SO42-, and NH4+ were the highest value in Anmyeondo as indicating 32.0 μeq L-1, 47.6 μeq L-1, and 35.1 μeq L-1 respectively while those of species in Uljin were the lowest as showing 17.9 μeq L-1, 7.9 μeq L-1, and 16.2 μeq L-1 respectively during the same period. For potassium which is derived from the biomass burning, it was the highest concentration in Ullengdo, eastern part of Korea, indicating it was 10 times higher than other three stations. All four stations showed the decrease of pH during the period and lowest value in winter (December to February) out of four seasons.

  7. A comparative approach using biomarkers in feral and caged Neotropical fish: Implications for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems in agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Cabrera, Liziara Costa; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; Fillmann, Gilberto; Bianchini, Adalto; Bueno Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of biomarkers in feral and caged fish and the capacity of these biomarkers to discriminate contamination levels along a stream located in an agricultural area in Southern Brazil. Specimens of the Neotropical fish, Astyanax altiparanae, were confined for 168h in three lakes along the stream. Additionally, during the weeks of in situ exposure, wild specimens of this species were collected from the same sites. Biochemical biomarkers were analyzed, such as phase I biotransformation enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase, and we also determined hepatic and branchial levels of non-protein thiols (NPSH), oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in muscle and brain. Genetic biomarkers such as DNA breaks (comet assay), frequency of micronuclei (MN) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) were also examined. The results indicate that the most sensitive biomarkers for discriminating contamination levels are DNA breaks, LPO and AChE activity. Similar results were obtained for both caged and feral fish. The biomarkers that reflect the results of cumulative events, such as ENA, were more discriminative for chronically exposed specimens (feral fishes). Analyzing biomarkers using an integrated response index showed that both approaches (using feral and caged A. altiparanae) were effective for discriminating contamination levels along the stream, corroborating the results of chemical analyses for selected pesticides. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of biomarker selection and show that both approaches (caged and feral fish) are satisfactory for evaluating water quality in streams impacted by agricultural activities.

  8. Search for gamma-ray spectral lines with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and dark matter implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Izaguirre, E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Snyder, A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2013-10-22

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a theoretical class of particles that are excellent dark matter candidates. WIMP annihilation or decay may produce essentially monochromatic γ rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) against the astrophysical γ -ray emission of the Galaxy. We have searched for spectral lines in the energy range 5–300 GeV using 3.7 years of data, reprocessed with updated instrument calibrations and an improved energy dispersion model compared to the previous Fermi-LAT Collaboration line searches. We searched in five regions selected to optimize sensitivity to different theoretically motivated dark matter density distributions. We did not find any globally significant lines in our a priori search regions and present 95% confidence limits for annihilation cross sections of self-conjugate WIMPs and decay lifetimes. Our most significant fit occurred at 133 GeV in our smallest search region and had a local significance of 3.3 standard deviations, which translates to a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations. We discuss potential systematic effects in this search, and examine the feature at 133 GeV in detail. We find that the use both of reprocessed data and of additional information in the energy dispersion model contributes to the reduction in significance of the linelike feature near 130 GeV relative to significances reported in other works. We also find that the feature is narrower than the LAT energy resolution at the level of 2 to 3 standard deviations, which somewhat disfavors the interpretation of the 133 GeV feature as a real WIMP signal.

  9. Assessment of Habitat Representation across a Network of Marine Protected Areas with Implications for the Spatial Design of Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mary; Carr, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment) and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc.) done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network. PMID:25760858

  10. A Complex Systems Approach to Evaluate HIV Prevention in Metropolitan Areas: Preliminary Implications for Combination Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Paczkowski, Magdalena M.; Seemann, Lars; Tempalski, Barbara; Pouget, Enrique R.; Galea, Sandro; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU) is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, “agents” represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing) and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA) population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence) against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. Conclusions/Significance Complex systems models of adaptive HIV transmission

  11. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in South Korea, 2013-2015

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Jin; Park, Sang-Won; Bae, In-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Han; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kim, Hyun Ah; Jang, Hee-Chang; Hur, Jian; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Younghee; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Kim, Young Keun; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jeong, Hye Won; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Eu Suk; Oh, Myoung-don

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was recently identified in China, South Korea and Japan. The objective of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of SFTS in South Korea. Methods/Principal Findings SFTS is a reportable disease in South Korea. We included all SFTS cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) from January 2013 to December 2015. Clinical information was gathered by reviewing medical records, and epidemiologic characteristics were analyzed using both KCDC surveillance data and patient medical records. Risk factors for mortality in patients with SFTS were assessed. A total of 172 SFTS cases were reported during the study period. SFTS occurred throughout the country, except in urban areas. Hilly areas in the eastern and southeastern regions and Jeju island (incidence, 1.26 cases /105 person-years) were the main endemic areas. The yearly incidence increased from 36 cases in 2013 to 81 cases in 2015. Most cases occurred from May to October. The overall case fatality ratio was 32.6%. The clinical progression was similar to the 3 phases reported in China: fever, multi-organ dysfunction, and convalescence. Confusion, elevated C-reactive protein, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times were associated with mortality in patients with SFTS. Two outbreaks of nosocomial SFTS transmission were observed. Conclusions SFTS is an endemic disease in South Korea, with a nationwide distribution and a high case-fatality ratio. Confusion, elevated levels of C-reactive protein, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times were associated with mortality in patients with SFTS. PMID:28033338

  12. Delineating Floodplain in North Korea using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Korea has been divided into two countries after World War II. So environmental studies about North Korean are not easy and very limited. There were several flood damages every summer in North Korea since 1995, which induces lots of economic loss and agricultural production decrease. Delineating floodplain is indispensable to estimate the magnitude of flood damage and restore the flooded paddy field after unification. Remote Sensing (RS) can provide opportunity to study inaccessible area. In addition, flooding detection is possible. Several research groups study about flooding disaster using RS. Optical images and microwave images have been used in that field. Also, Digital topographic data have been used for flooding detection. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the land characteristics of floodplain by delineating floodplain in inaccessible North Korea using Landsat and digital topographic data. Landsat TM 5 images were used in this study. North Korea had severe flooding disaster since 1995. Among them 1995, 2007 and 2012 flooding are known for serious damages. Two Landsat images before and after flooding of each year were used to delineate floodplain. Study areas are Pyongyang City, Nampo City, North and South Hwanghae Province and South Pyongan Province. Floodplain are derived from overlaid classification image and flood-depth map. 1:25,000 scale digital topographic data were used to make flood-depth map. For land cover classification image enhancement and supervised classification with maximum likelihood classifier were used. Training areas were selected by visual interpretation using Daum-map which provides high resolution image of whole North Korea. The spatial characteristics of the floodplain were discussed based on floodplain map delineated in this study.

  13. Area Handbook Series: North Korea, A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    national security systems and institutions, and examining the interrelation- ships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors...institutions, and their attitudes toward each other and toward their social system and political order. The books represent the analysis of the authors and...reviewed parts of the text and answered queries pertaining to the judicial and the legal systems ; and C. Kenneth Quinones of the Department of State who

  14. The Environment of South Korea and Adjacent Sea Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    issued covering a period of eight days. In addition to the casualty list cited earlier, the South Korean Ministry of Social Affairs reported property ...7.4 ASW OPERATIONS Data on the major physical properties of the seas around the Korean Peninsula are somewhat sparse; therefore, the emphasis here is...MR. ISM~ Si + i+ + + + -4 o,+ + 4- 4-z +F ++30 + + +00 + +4 + + ± + + + + + AUGUIST771 B Figu.re C-21. Prof iles for August. C-34 SOUN SPED (/SFC

  15. Area Handbook Series: South Korea: A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    parents for occasional economic assistance- for example, in purchasing a house. Because urban families usually live apart from their paternal in-laws...34Hermit Kingdom," to European- style trade and diplomatic relations. In the end, Japan forced open the Korean door, imposing a Western- style "unequal treaty... style . Korean scholar-officials cultivated their skills in the arts of Confucian culture-Chinese poetry, calligraphy, and landscape painting. Poetry

  16. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

  17. Deconvolving the process-origin of sediments on volcanic mountains and implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction: Mt Ruapehu area, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Glaciation on the central North Island of New Zealand is limited to the volcanoes of Tongariro National Park, including Mt Ruapehu, the largest and most active andesitic stratovolcano on the North Island. At 2797 m asl, Mt Ruapehu represents the only peak in the North Island to currently intercept the permanent snowline, with small cirque glaciers descending to an altitude of ~2300 m. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), small ice-caps existed on Mt Ruapehu and the Tongariro Massif (15 km to the NNE of Ruapehu), with a series of small (<10 km-long) valley glaciers radiating out from domes centered on the summit areas to altitudes of ~1200 m. Holocene glacier advances have left smaller deposits inboard of some of the LGM moraines. However, understanding of moraine deposition and reconstructing former glacier extent is limited by: (1) the fragmentary nature of glacier moraines in this high precipitation environment; and (2) the broad range of possible process-origins for unconsolidated debris ridges on active volcanoes. Here, we describe the clast roundness, clast shape and textural characteristics associated with active and former glaciers on Mt Ruaephu and the Tongariro Massif, in order to assist in classifying the process-origin of sediments on glaciated volcanic mountains. Supraglacial inputs include rockfall, tephra, and avalanche material delivered to the surface of glaciers. Basal debris, where observed at the terminus of active cirque glaciers, consists mainly of incorporated fluvial material. Following deposition, reworking is mainly by proglacial streams, debris flows and lahars. Within the vicinity of glaciers, the dominant facies appear to be: (i) bouldery gravel with angular clasts on steep slopes surrounding glaciers, (ii) silty-sandy boulder gravel, with mainly subangular clasts, forming lateral moraines, (iii) boulder/cobble gravel with mainly subrounded clasts and associated laminated sediments representing fluvially-reworked material; and (iv

  18. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China: Consequences for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    This change has accelerated the growth of both of their already booming economies . Beyond that, it has helped propel Beijing into a pivotal role of...South Korea and China normalized relations in 1992. This change has accelerated the growth of both of their already booming economies . Beyond that...and South Korea will provide an opportunity for Pyongyang to improve its economy , thereby strengthening its standing and legitimacy internationally

  19. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy.

  20. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  1. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  2. Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Ranka, L. S.; Onguso, B.; Kanda, I.; Opiyo-Akech, N.; Sharp, Z. D.; Hilton, D. R.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Muirhead, J.

    2013-12-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in

  3. Surveillance of classical swine fever in wild boar in South Korea from 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Jae-Jo; Cho, Yoon-Young; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hoe; Park, Eun-Hye; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide.

  4. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN KOREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA WAS 27,184,000 IN 1963. AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY THE KOREAN WAR, HAS RECEIVED EMPHASIS THROUGH EXPORT PROMOTION, TAX REFORM, AND A STABILIZATION PROGRAM. A 6-YEAR FREE COMPULSORY EDUCATION IS SUPPLEMENTED BY "CIVIC SCHOOLS" AND "HIGHER CIVIC SCHOOLS"…

  5. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  6. Security Cooperation and Deterrence in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) School of Advanced Military Studies 250 Gibbon Ave. Ft...Soviet Union’s 53 Finley, The US Military Experience 1871-1982, 42. 54 Ibid., 43-44. 55 Ibid., 6. 56 Alan R. Millett, The War for Korea, 1950-1951

  7. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  8. Telecommunications and Data Communication in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Moon-Suk

    All facilities of the Ministry of Communications of Korea, which monopolizes telecommunications services in the country, are listed and described. Both domestic facilities, including long-distance telephone and telegraph circuits, and international connections are included. Computer facilities are also listed. The nation's regulatory policies are…

  9. [Gregarines from South Korea (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Théodoridés, J; Desportes, I; Jolivet, P

    1976-01-01

    Study of 14 species of Gregarines from terrestrial arthropods (Myriapoda and Insecta) of south Korea. Some of them (Ramicephalus ozakii, Gregarina monoducta, Hoplorhynchus ozakii, Stylocephalus bahli) are typically asiatic whereas the others were already described from identical or similar european hosts.

  10. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  11. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  12. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  13. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...] [Pages 67912-67918] [FR Doc No: 2010-27829] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  14. Incidence of hip fractures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Koo, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Myoung Hee; Shin, Kun Hong; Ha, Yong Chan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chan Soo

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in both Western and Asian populations. Because the aged population in Korea is increasing, the number of osteoporotic fractures is thought to be also increasing. However, there has been no nationwide analysis of osteoporotic fractures in Korea. We analyzed the incidence and cost of hip fracture from 2001 to 2004 by using data from the Health Insurance Review Agency, Korea. In the over 50 years age group, the number of hip fractures in women increased from 250.9/100,000 persons in 2001 to 262.8/100,000 in 2004, a 4.7% increase. However, that in men decreased from 162.8/100,000 in 2001 to 137.5/100,000 in 2004, a 15.5% decrease. Direct medical care costs of hip fracture increased from $62,707,697 in 2001 to $65,200,035 in 2004, and the proportional cost of hip fractures in the national medical costs increased by 4.5% over 4 years (from 0.200% in 2001 to 0.209% in 2004). On analysis of the population-based data obtained from the whole country from 2001 to 2004, the incidence rate of hip fractures in women, not in men, and its cost have increased in Korea. The gender distribution of hip fractures underlines the need for aggressive intervention in osteoporosis in elderly women.

  15. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  16. Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

    2011-06-01

    The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 μg/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards.

  17. [Becoming medical doctors in colonial Korea: focusing on the faculty of medical colleges in early north Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Geun Bae

    2014-12-01

    This paper traces how Koreans of north area became medical doctors in colonial Korea. Most of the past research have focused only on the well-known medical doctors, or even when they discussed a great number of doctors, many research tended to only pay attention to the explicit final results of those doctors. This research, on the other hand, includes ordinary medical doctors as well as the renowed ones, and adjusts the focus to the lifetime period of their growth and activities. As a result, the misunderstanding and obscurity about the Korean medical doctors of north area during this period have been cleared. The new characteristics of the Korean medical doctors of this period have been found, along with their embodiment of historical significance. At the time, Koreans had to get through a number of qualifications in order to become doctors. First is the unique background of origin in which the family held interest in the modern education and was capable of supporting it financially. Second is the long-term status of education that the education from elementary to high school was completed without interruption. Third is the academic qualification that among various institutions of higher education, medical science was chosen as a major. Fourth is the condition of career in which as the career as a doctor had consistently continued. Thus, in oder to become a modern medical doctor, Koreans had to properly complete these multiple steps of process. The group of Korean medical doctors in north area, which was formed after getting through these series of process, possessed a number of characteristics. Firstly, as the upper-middle classes constituted the majority of medical doctors in Korea, the societal status of doctors rose and the foundation for the career as a doctor to be persisted as the family occupation settled. Secondly, the research career and academic degree became the principal method to escape from the discrimination and hierarchy existed between doctors. A

  18. A Comparative Study of the Epidemiology of Human Leptospirosis in Korea and Japan between 2006 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong-Jin; Miki, Shinichiro; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Lee, Won-Chang

    2016-05-20

    We undertook a comparative analysis of the epidemiology of reported human leptospirosis (HL) cases in Korea and Japan. Between 2006 and 2012, the cumulative incidence of HL in Korea was higher than that in Japan (1.26 vs. 0.14 per 100,000 population, respectively), and the total reported cases were 632 and 196, respectively. Significantly more men were infected than women in both Korea (63.0% men, P < 0.01) and Japan (87.8% men, P < 0.01). In both countries, the incidence was highest among those aged 40 years and older (60%), and peaked in autumn (78.5% cases in Korea, and 46.9% cases in Japan). However, Japan exhibited a significantly higher proportion of male cases, a younger age distribution, and less prominent seasonality. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of HL between the capital city and rural areas in Korea, but not in Japan. The differences in agricultural and forestry practices, and the efficacy or wastewater treatment infrastructure might influence the incidence level in rural areas in both countries. The differences between the 2 countries might be because of their unique geographical characteristics and variations in their levels of industrialization.

  19. Climate- and remote sensing-based tools for drought management application in North and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, W.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Tadesse, T.; Svoboda, M.; Fuchs, B.; Wilhite, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    North and South Korea have experienced more frequent and extreme droughts since the late 1990s. In recent years, severe droughts in 2000-2001, 2012, and 2015 have led to widespread agricultural and environmental impacts, and resulted in water shortages and large reductions in crop yields. This has been particularly problematic in the agricultural sector of North Korea, which has a high-level of vulnerability due to variations of climate and this, in turn, results in food security issues. This vulnerability is exacerbated by North Korea's relatively small area of arable land, most of which is not very productive. The objective of this study was to develop a drought management application using climate- and remote sensing-based tools for North and South Korea. These tools are essential for improving drought planning and preparedness in this area. In this study, various drought indicators derived from climate and remote sensing data (SPI, SC-PDSI, SPEI, and VegDRI-Korea) were investigated to monitor the current drought condition and evaluate their ability to characterize agricultural and meteorological drought events and their potential impacts. Results from this study can be used to develop or improve the national-level drought management application for these countries. The goal is to provide improved and more timely information on both the spatial and temporal dimensions of drought conditions and provide a tool to identify both past and present drought events in order to make more informed management decisions and reduce the impacts of current droughts and reduce the risk to future events.

  20. 76 FR 76146 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of... transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea... petitioners to the Department, entitled ``Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea--...

  1. Factors associated with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening in Korea: the Third and Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III and IV).

    PubMed

    Rim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Byun, Il Hwan; Kim, Han Sang; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to identify and determine the socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening in Korea. Participants included 2,660 adults, aged 40 or older, with diabetes. Of the 2,660 adults, 998 (37%) and 1,226 (46.1%) had received a diabetic retinopathy and a nephropathy screening within one year, respectively. Regarding retinopathy, subjects older than 65, living in urban areas, with high educational levels, and with self-reported "unhealthy" status were likely to receive annual screening. Subjects living in urban areas, with higher educational levels, with self-reported "fair" or "unhealthy" status, and with 1 to 2 co-morbidities were likely to receive annual nephropathy screening. The Korea Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) continued to rise until 2007 when it started to decline over the subsequent years, following the same curve as the diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening rates during that time. Together with the financial matter, lack of patient education proved to be a hindrance to diabetes-related screening. The relatively low screening rates in Korea compared to the Western countries are likely to be due to the difference in the health system, economic situations and national demographics.

  2. Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual and other core features of autism revealed by cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Krista L; Samson, Fabienne; Evans, Alan C; Mottron, Laurent

    2010-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex neurodevelopmental variant thought to affect 1 in 166 [Fombonne (2003): J Autism Dev Disord 33:365-382]. Individuals with autism demonstrate atypical social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors, but can also present enhanced abilities, particularly in auditory and visual perception and nonverbal reasoning. Structural brain differences have been reported in autism, in terms of increased total brain volume (particularly in young children with autism), and regional gray/white matter differences in both adults and children with autism, but the reports are inconsistent [Amaral et al. (2008): Trends Neurosci 31:137-145]. These inconsistencies may be due to differences in diagnostic/inclusion criteria, and age and Intelligence Quotient of participants. Here, for the first time, we used two complementary magnetic resonance imaging techniques, cortical thickness analyses, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), to investigate the neuroanatomical differences between a homogenous group of young adults with autism of average intelligence but delayed or atypical language development (often referred to as "high-functioning autism"), relative to a closely matched group of typically developing controls. The cortical thickness and VBM techniques both revealed regional structural brain differences (mostly in terms of gray matter increases) in brain areas implicated in social cognition, communication, and repetitive behaviors, and thus in each of the core atypical features of autism. Gray matter increases were also found in auditory and visual primary and associative perceptual areas. We interpret these results as the first structural brain correlates of atypical auditory and visual perception in autism, in support of the enhanced perceptual functioning model [Mottron et al. (2006): J Autism Dev Disord 36:27-43].

  3. A shift toward building with nature in the dredging and port development industries: managerial implications for projects in or near Natura 2000 areas.

    PubMed

    Vikolainen, Vera; Bressers, Hans; Lulofs, Kris

    2014-07-01

    Building with Nature is a new approach to designing water infrastructure, one that seeks to realize socioeconomic project goals in harmony with the environment. The Dutch dredging industry is promoting its application in the Netherlands, but similar concepts are emerging internationally. The Working with Nature concept has been developed under the auspices of the World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure, Engineering with Nature by the US Army Corps of Engineers, and Flanders Bays 2100 by a group of Belgian dredging companies and international consultants. The research discussed in this article focuses on the feasibility of implementing the Building with Nature approach in the context of EU Natura 2000 governance. The initial expectation of the industry was that Natura 2000 regulations would obstruct innovative Building with Nature attempts. The empirical evidence points to a shift toward Building with Nature have taken place on the governance and project levels, and the goals of Natura 2000 and Building with Nature converging in practice. Using specific project-level variables identified by researchers, guidance for project development in Natura 2000 areas was proposed. We conclude by discussing the implications of the research results for the dredging industry dealing with Natura 2000 regulations in Europe and similar overarching nature regulations elsewhere.

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

    2011-07-01

    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p < 0.05) prevalence of infection. Meanwhile, the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) had the highest ova or oocyst counts and variety of gastrointestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (< 12 months) and females had higher infection rates (p < 0.05) than their counterparts. In conclusion, the primates harboured several parasites of zoonotic importance.

  5. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ACTIVE GALAXY 4C +55.17: STEADY, HARD GAMMA-RAY EMISSION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C. C.; Ajello, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Donato, D.; Finke, J.; Furniss, A.; Williams, D. A.; Orienti, M.; Reyes, L. C.; Rossetti, A. E-mail: stawarz@astro.isas.jaxa.jp

    2011-09-10

    We report Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations and broadband spectral modeling of the radio-loud active galaxy 4C +55.17 (z = 0.896), formally classified as a flat-spectrum radio quasar. Using 19 months of all-sky survey Fermi-LAT data, we detect a {gamma}-ray continuum extending up to an observed energy of 145 GeV, and furthermore we find no evidence of {gamma}-ray variability in the source over its observed history. We illustrate the implications of these results in two different domains. First, we investigate the origin of the steady {gamma}-ray emission, where we re-examine the common classification of 4C +55.17 as a quasar-hosted blazar and consider instead its possible nature as a young radio source. We analyze and compare constraints on the source physical parameters in both blazar and young radio source scenarios by means of a detailed multiwavelength analysis and theoretical modeling of its broadband spectrum. Second, we show that the {gamma}-ray spectrum may be formally extrapolated into the very high energy (VHE, {>=}100 GeV) range at a flux level detectable by the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. This enables us to place constraints on models of extragalactic background light within LAT energies and features the source as a promising candidate for VHE studies of the universe at an unprecedented redshift of z = 0.896.

  6. Behavioral and musical characteristics of the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty in South Korea: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinah; Kim, Kwanghyuk

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted on primary school aged children (N=302) between seven to twelve years of age, who attend the local Community Child Centers (CCC) in the economically deprived areas of Jeollabukdo in South Korea for the purpose of identifying the children who have been exposed to on-going child maltreatment and poverty, and their needs. Both standardized and non-standardized self-report types of surveys were carried out and completed by both the children and the teachers of the CCC. As would be expected, emotional and behavioral problems are more pronounced by the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty compared to the children who were not exposed to these adversities, or who were not poor. The more severely abused children in terms of frequency and co-occurrence of different abuses appear to display more behavioral problems than less severely abused children. Teachers reported that the children who were able to play a musical instrument and had arts therapy experiences appear to have less behavioral problems, particularly delinquent and aggressive behavior in comparison to the children who did not have such ability and experiences. Through the survey, it was possible to identify the children in need of therapeutic intervention and discover clinically relevant information. Clinical implications will be discussed further.

  7. Pathways to support genetically modified (GM) foods in South Korea: Deliberate reasoning, information shortcuts, and the role of formal education.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Besley, John C

    2013-02-01

    Analyzing survey data on the issue of GM foods in South Korea, this study examines two competing routes - deliberate reasoning versus information shortcuts - to forming opinions on controversial science. Findings indicated that both deliberate reasoning and information shortcuts were in play; but the process was moderated by a person's education level. The well educated were more likely than the less educated to engage in deliberate reasoning when shaping their support for GM foods. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail.

  8. Recovery of Oswaldotrema nacinovici from Whimbrels (Aves) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Il; Chung, Ok-Sik; Seo, Min

    2016-01-01

    Adult specimens of Oswaldotrema nacinovici (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) have been first identified in Korea from 2 migratory birds (whimbrels, Numenius phaeopus) which were found dead at a western seashore area near Gunsan. The worms were recovered in the intestine of these birds. The worms were morphologically characterized by a large ventral sucker in comparison to the oral sucker, an external seminal vesicle extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and conspicuous uterine seminal receptacle. It was noteworthy that metacercariae-like bodies were contained within the inflated regions of 2 ceca. Other intestinal trematode species found in whimbrels included Spelotrema pygmeum, Gynaecotyla squatarolae, Maritrema obstipum, and Himasthla megacotyle. Zoonotic potential of these trematode species should be taken into considerations. PMID:28095668

  9. Effects of gravity data quality and spacing on the accuracy of the geoid in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, C.-K.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, B. M.; Lee, J.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, S.-B.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of gravity data quality and spacing on the accuracy of the computed geoid are analyzed. The analysis is performed using simulated gravity data that accommodate the real gravity signal in South Korea. The reference geoid is generated using both simulated gravity data and digital terrain models (DTM), assuming that both data sets are errorless. By artificially controlling the gravity data quality and spacing, we are able to calculate and analyze the geoid errors. The results show that the current distribution of real gravity data in South Korea causes geoid errors, with the standard deviation being as much as 8 cm, and that these geoid errors are mainly caused by the distribution of gravity data rather than by the noise in the data. Areas showing large geoid errors are also clearly identified; these areas should be subjected to supplementary gravity surveying at data spacing smaller than 2 km to achieve a 5-cm level of geoid accuracy.

  10. Topographic effect in marine magnetotelluric data and implications to the electrical conductivity structure of the mantle beneath the Tristan da Cunha hotspot area in southern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, K.; Chen, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Utada, H.; Kammann, J.; Geissler, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Kiyoshi Baba1,2, Jin Chen2, Marion Jegen2, Hisashi Utada1, Janina Kammann3, and Wolfram H. Geissler4 1. Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo2. GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel3. University of Hamburg4. Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchTristan da Cunha Island is one of the hot spots in the Atlantic Ocean. The discussion about its source have not reached consensus yet whether it is in shallow asthenosphere or deeper mantle, because of lack of the geophysical observations in the area. A marine magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted together with seismological observations in the area in 2012-2013 by collaboration between Germany and Japan, in order to give further constraints on the physical state of the mantle beneath the area. A total of 26 seafloor stations were deployed around the Tristan da Cunha islands and available data were retrieved from 23 stations. The MT responses were estimated for those available sites. The detailed data processing will be presented by Chen et al. in this meeting. In this study, we report on the topographic effect on the observed MT responses. During the cruises for seafloor instruments deployment and recovery, detailed bathymetry data were collected around the stations by onboard multi-narrow beam echo sounding (MBES) system. We compiled the MBES data and ETOPO1 data to incorporate the local and regional topography. Then, we applied iterative topographic effect correction and one-dimensional (1-D) conductivity structure inversion. The MT responses of each station were simulated by three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling. Preliminary results show the overall feature of the observed MT responses at some stations were qualitatively well explained by the seafloor topography included in the conductivity structure model over the 1-D mantle structure. An extreme example is the station near the Tristan da Cunha Island. The impedance phases varies ~300 degrees in

  11. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  12. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  13. Air Shower Events of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Measured at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wooram; Shin, Jae-Ik; Kim, Hongki; Lee, Seulgi; Lim, Sunin; Nam, Sinwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Cheon, Byunggu; Bang, Hyungchan; Kwon, Youngjoon

    2011-09-01

    The COsmic ray Research and Education Array (COREA) collaboration has installed an array of six detector stations at two high schools in and near Seoul, Korea for measurement of air-shower events from high-energy cosmic rays. Three stations are installed at each site, where each station consists of four plastic scintillation detectors covering an area of 2m2. In this presentation, we report the currenst status of the COREA project, describing the experimental equipment and measurement of coincident events.

  14. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) and Infectious Diseases of Military Significance in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-21

    were conducted throughout Korea to better characterize the distribu- tion of militarily important human infections. Antibodies to hantaviruses were...of antibodies to hantaviruses , rickettsiae, and hepatitis viruses’. Surveys were carried out in the rural areas surrounding Chorwon near the "Iron...20 yrs). The prevalence of antibodies to hantaviruses was 6.2" overall (Q30 yrs = 14.6%). Scrub typhus antibodies were present in 5% of individuals

  15. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, April 23- 28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    operations research discipline . The method has its origin in work done by F.L. Hitchcock in 1941 with a study titled "The Distribution of a Product from...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS r 0.PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJFCT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Military Operations Research Society of Korea2 1 I Korean...development work on transport systems analysis during the past two decades has been directed towards the urban transport sector. The dominant transport

  16. The National 3-D Geospatial Information Web-Based Service of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. T.; Kim, C. W.; Kang, I. G.

    2013-09-01

    3D geospatial information systems should provide efficient spatial analysis tools and able to use all capabilities of the third dimension, and a visualization. Currently, many human activities make steps toward the third dimension like land use, urban and landscape planning, cadastre, environmental monitoring, transportation monitoring, real estate market, military applications, etc. To reflect this trend, the Korean government has been started to construct the 3D geospatial data and service platform. Since the geospatial information was introduced in Korea, the construction of geospatial information (3D geospatial information, digital maps, aerial photographs, ortho photographs, etc.) has been led by the central government. The purpose of this study is to introduce the Korean government-lead 3D geospatial information web-based service for the people who interested in this industry and we would like to introduce not only the present conditions of constructed 3D geospatial data but methodologies and applications of 3D geospatial information. About 15% (about 3,278.74 km2) of the total urban area's 3D geospatial data have been constructed by the national geographic information institute (NGII) of Korea from 2005 to 2012. Especially in six metropolitan cities and Dokdo (island belongs to Korea) on level of detail (LOD) 4 which is photo-realistic textured 3D models including corresponding ortho photographs were constructed in 2012. In this paper, we represented web-based 3D map service system composition and infrastructure and comparison of V-world with Google Earth service will be presented. We also represented Open API based service cases and discussed about the protection of location privacy when we construct 3D indoor building models. In order to prevent an invasion of privacy, we processed image blurring, elimination and camouflage. The importance of public-private cooperation and advanced geospatial information policy is emphasized in Korea. Thus, the progress of

  17. End-of-life vehicle recycling and international cooperation between Japan, China and Korea: Present and future scenario analysis.

    PubMed

    Che, Jia; Yu, Jeong-Soo; Kevin, Roy Serrona

    2011-06-01

    In the area of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) recycling, Japan passed the Automobile Recycling Law in January 2005, the first in Asia. Korea followed suit with the passage of the resource circulation method in 2009. China is expected make a new recycling law in 2011. In contribution to these initiatives, Tohoku University made a comparative analysis of ELV recycling laws, advance dismantling experiments and scenario analysis to promote international cooperation. This is envisioned to introduce ELV recycling system in Japan, China and Korea and in developing countries as well.

  18. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  19. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-24

    42 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 43...Print Media, August 30, 3007. 46 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune...attempts in late 2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers

  20. Occupational Burden of Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The extent of the occupational cancer burden has rarely been estimated in Korea. The aim of this study is to provide an estimation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) of occupational cancer in Korea. Methods Nine kinds of Group 1 carcinogens addressed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and 7 kinds of cancer were selected for the target carcinogens and diseases, respectively. The prevalence of carcinogen-exposed workers was estimated and correction factors were applied so that the value would be representative of the total population. Data on relative risk (RR) were taken from IARC reports and were compared with the RRs from the studies on Korean workers. The PAF was estimated according to Levin's formula. Results The proportion of the general Korean population exposed to carcinogens was 9.7%. The PAF of total cancer was 1.1% for incident cancer cases and 1.7% for cancer deaths. The PAFs of lung cancer and leukemia were 7.0% and 4.%, respectively. With the RRs reported from Korean studies, the PAF for lung cancer and leukemia were 3.7% and 3.4%, respectively. Conclusion The PAF in this study (1.1%) was lower than that reported in previous studies (2-4%) from developed countries. Considering that only 9 of the 29 kinds of Group 1 carcinogens were included in this study, the PAF might be underestimated. However, because the process of industrialization in Korea differs from that which occurred in other developed countries, 1.1% of the PAF might be appropriate for Korea. PMID:22953164

  1. ROK Military Policy Recommendations Toward North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    though the South Korean Navy won the battle in the Yellow Sea, Kim Dae-Jung fired the fleet commander, Admiral Park Jung- seung , because North Korea...during the administration of President Kim Dae-jung and continued for 10 years through the Roh Moo-hyun Administration. This unilateral policy was based...changed during the administration of President Kim Dae-jung and continued for 10 years through the Roh Moo-hyun Administration. This unilateral policy

  2. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls.

  3. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The...Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ’—WikiLeaks,” Agence France-Press, November 30, 2010. Accessed January 12, 2011. http

  4. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  5. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-28

    2015 joint statement on North Korea says, “The United States will continue to strongly support [President Park’s] vision of a peacefully unified Korean...around the year 2020 . 51 The city of Dongducheon, where those soldiers are based, has protested this decision and withdrawn some cooperation with the...munitions, and ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) assets. Reportedly, the Opcon transfer may not occur until 2020 or later. 67

  6. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-04

    plan B,” Asia Tiimes, May 21, 2009, Online edition. 2 The extent that Pyongyang has...Mother Jones, Vol. 28, No. 3, May 1, 2003. p. 52. 42 Food and Agriculture Organization. Food Security Statistics. Online at http://www.fao.org...for Military.” People’s Daily Online , April 12, 2005. 64 Asia: The deal that wasn’t; North Korea. The Economist. London: September 24, 2005. p. 81

  7. Mathematics Instruction and Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2007 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J, Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective teaching practice for improving student achievement in mathematics is a critical area for instructional design. Further, results from international assessments of mathematics achievement have indicated that students in Korea typically earned test scores higher then international averages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  8. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  9. Criminal Sovereignty: Understanding North Korea’s Illicit International Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    authorities in Myanmar who believed that local insurgent groups were intent on trading heroin for the arms.21 North Korea has also used its diplomatic...represent another strategic dimension of threats emanating from North Korea . While most of the world is focused on the country’s nuclear weapons and...incident, groups in Myanmar do not earn their profits from street sales, but from the middleman that has been, in certain instances, North Korea . Acting

  10. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    members on a state visit to Rangoon, Burma . In 1987 North Korea shot down a Korean Air Lines commercial flight.9 Besides the North Korean threat, South...arrivals of North Korean defectors ................................................37 Figure 4. Anti-terrorism-related organizations in Korea after 9.11...study will determine whether current Korean anti-terrorism programs effectively address all terrorist threats, including threats from North Korea

  11. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-25

    Bush Administration in 2008 committed 500,000 tons of foodgrains.. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the...dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has not adopted agricultural reforms similar to those of... conciliation policy were: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the promotion of North-South economic relations

  12. United States National Interests in the Republic of Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    South Korea by the United States. 41 During the war, the United Nations set up the Civilian Relief Agency to provide medicine, food , and shelter to...Japanese coast. Their mission was to escort and protect vessels carrying food , oil and other resources to Japan along two sea lanes, one connecting...Sales credits to South Korea for FY 87 to $230 mlllion.l II Security Assistance to the Republic of Korea has been instrumental in perserving peace In the

  13. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    between 30 and 50 kilograms, enough for five to eight atomic weapons. After North Korea tested a nuclear device in October 2006, the six party talks...the plutonium reprocessing plant produced enough weapons grade plutonium for the production of several atomic bombs. North Korea tested an atomic...produces and tests atomic bombs, and the locations where North Korea stores plutonium and atomic bombs. The declaration also reportedly contains no

  14. Military Armistice in Korea: A Case Study for Strategic Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiation the questions of the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Korea , the peaceful settlement of the Korean question, etc.5 Both sides did meet in...invasion]."𔃺 The Republic of Korea faced an insurgency and guerilla warfare that followed the Maoist model and culminated in the North Korean Army...the United States through a proxy. 12 . The first year of the war saw four major shifts in momentum. First, the DPRK (or North Korea ) thrust its Korean

  15. The Chinese Intervention in Korea: An Analysis of Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-19

    precepts to Korea as early as 1936 when he wrote, "If the Koreans wish to break away from the claims of Japanese [read American] imperi- alism, we will... Korea . Both actions .Vcre preceded by the White Paper and Secretary of State Dean Acheson’s public statements that delineated an American defensive ...predictably denounced the American action in Korea , but did so in a manner that indicated little concern over Korean events. What shocked and incensed

  16. Defense Industry and Its Impacts on Economic Growth in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    is likely in Korea . Some argue that the Korean economy would have developed much faster without the burden of the defense spending. We could have...industry to the civilian industry in Korea . The intent of this study is to determine how much impact and influence the Korean defense industry has had...in Korea based on 1987 data. Dr. Dong J. Hwang studied the future of the Korean defense industry. But none of these authors studied the defense

  17. The Future of United States Forces in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-22

    Kwak, The Reduction of US Forces in Korea in the Inter- Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990, pp... Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990. 11. Levin, Norman D., and Richard L. Sneider, " Korea in...group with 500 officers and enlisted personnel. After the Korean war broke out in June 1950, the United States sent its troops to Korea in July under

  18. Log-centric Airbase-opening Strategies in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    is becoming politically less viable.”4 In the Korean theater of operations (KTO), Republic of Korea (ROK) and U.S. plan- ners, from Combined Forces...in the Korean War. —Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker, Commander, 8th U.S. Army, Korea , 19501 South Korean military members participate with U.S...pallet buildup and cargo loading Supplies are loaded onto Korean C–130 at Hickam Air Base, Hawaii Republic of Korea air force security advisor speaks

  19. The Ecology of Medical Care in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Choi, Yong Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the ecology of medical care in Korea. Using the yearly data of 2012 derived from the Korea Health Panel, we estimated the numbers of people per 1,000 residents aged 18 and over who had any health problem and/or any medical care at a variety of care settings, such as clinics, hospitals, and tertiary hospitals, in an average month. There was a total of 11,518 persons in the study population. While the number of those who had any health problem in an average month was estimated to be 939 per 1,000 persons, the estimated numbers of ambulatory care users were 333 at clinics, 101 at hospital outpatient departments, 35 at tertiary hospital outpatient departments, and 38 for Korean Oriental medical providers. The number of people who used emergency care at least once was 7 per 1,000 persons in an average month. The numbers of people hospitalized in clinics and hospitals were 3 and 8, respectively, while 3 persons were admitted to tertiary hospitals. There was a gap between the number of people experiencing any health problem and that of those having any medical care, and primary care comprised a large share of people's medical care experiences. It was noteworthy that more patients received ambulatory care at tertiary hospitals in Korea than in other countries. We hope that discussion about care delivery system reform and further studies will be encouraged.

  20. Prevalence of primary immunodeficiency in Korea.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jung Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Bong Seong; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hwi; Kim, Hwang Min; Park, Hee Ju; Pai, Ki Soo; Son, Byong Kwan; Shin, Kyung Sue; Oh, Moo Young; Woo, Young Jong; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kun Soo; Lee, Kyung Yil; Lee, Chong Guk; Lee, Joon Sung; Chung, Eun Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Youn Soo; Park, Hyun Young; Kim, Joong Gon

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the first epidemiological study based on the national registry of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Korea. Patient data were collected from 23 major hospitals. A total of 152 patients with PID (under 19 yr of age), who were observed from 2001 to 2005, have been entered in this registry. The period prevalence of PID in Korea in 2005 is 11.25 per million children. The following frequencies were found: antibody deficiencies, 53.3% (n = 81), phagocytic disorders, 28.9% (n = 44); combined immunodeficiencies, 13.2% (n = 20); and T cell deficiencies, 4.6% (n = 7). Congenital agammaglobulinemia (n = 21) and selective IgA deficiency (n = 21) were the most frequently reported antibody deficiency. Other reported deficiencies were common variable immunodeficiencies (n = 16), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 15), IgG subclass deficiency (n = 4). Phagocytic disorder was mostly chronic granulomatous disease. A small number of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency were also registered. Overall, the most common first manifestation was pneumonia. This study provides data that permit a more accurate estimation PID patients in Korea.

  1. Characteristics and Factors Associated with Death among Patients Hospitalized for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, South Korea, 2013.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeseung; Kwon, Donghyok; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-10-01

    In South Korea, nationwide surveillance for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) began during 2013. Among 301 surveillance cases, 35 hospitalized case-patients in 25 areas were confirmed by using virologic testing, and 16 (46%) case-patients subsequently died. The SFTS cases occurred during May-November and peaked during June (9 cases, 26%). The incidence of SFTS was higher in the southern regions of South Korea. Age and neurologic symptoms, including decreased level of consciousness and slurred speech, were heavily associated with death; neurologic symptoms during the first week after disease onset were also associated with death. Although melena was common among patients who died, no other hemorrhagic manifestations were substantively more common among those who died. No effective treatments, including ribavirin, were identified. Expansion of SFTS surveillance to include the outpatient sector and development of an antibody test would enhance completeness of SFTS detection in South Korea.

  2. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-04-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea.

  3. Phylogeography of western Pacific Leucetta 'chagosensis' (Porifera: Calcarea) from ribosomal DNA sequences: implications for population history and conservation of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (Australia).

    PubMed

    Wörheide, Gert; Hooper, John N A; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-09-01

    Leucetta 'chagosensis' is a widespread calcareous sponge, occurring in shaded habitats of Indo-Pacific coral reefs. In this study we explore relationships among 19 ribosomal DNA sequence types (the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region plus flanking gene sequences) found among 54 individuals from 28 locations throughout the western Pacific, with focus on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Maximum parsimony analysis revealed phylogeographical structuring into four major clades (although not highly supported by bootstrap analysis) corresponding to the northern/central GBR with Guam and Taiwan, the southern GBR and subtropical regions south to Brisbane, Vanuatu and Indonesia. Subsequent nested clade analysis (NCA) confirmed this structure with a probability of > 95%. After NCA of geographical distances, a pattern of range expansion from the internal Indonesian clade was inferred at the total cladogram level, as the Indonesian clade was found to be the internal and therefore oldest clade. Two distinct clades were found on the GBR, which narrowly overlap geographically in a line approximately from the Whitsunday Islands to the northern Swain Reefs. At various clade levels, NCA inferred that the northern GBR clade was influenced by past fragmentation and contiguous range expansion events, presumably during/after sea level low stands in the Pleistocene, after which the northern GBR might have been recolonized from the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea. The southern GBR clade is most closely related to subtropical L. 'chagosensis', and we infer that the southern GBR probably was recolonized from there after sea level low stands, based on our NCA results and supported by oceanographic data. Our results have important implications for conservation and management of the GBR, as they highlight the importance of marginal transition zones in the generation and maintenance of species rich zones, such as the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.

  4. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  5. Microbiological examination of vegetable seed sprouts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Lee, Youngjun; Beuchat, Larry R; Yoon, Bong-June; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Sprouted vegetable seeds used as food have been implicated as sources of outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. We profiled the microbiological quality of sprouts and seeds sold at retail shops in Seoul, Korea. Ninety samples of radish sprouts and mixed sprouts purchased at department stores, supermarkets, and traditional markets and 96 samples of radish, alfalfa, and turnip seeds purchased from online stores were analyzed to determine the number of total aerobic bacteria (TAB) and molds or yeasts (MY) and the incidence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Enterobacter sakazakii. Significantly higher numbers of TAB (7.52 log CFU/g) and MY (7.36 log CFU/g) were present on mixed sprouts than on radish sprouts (6.97 and 6.50 CFU/g, respectively). Populations of TAB and MY on the sprouts were not significantly affected by location of purchase. Radish seeds contained TAB and MY populations of 4.08 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas populations of TAB were only 2.54 to 2.84 log CFU/g and populations of MY were 0.82 to 1.69 log CFU/g on alfalfa and turnip seeds, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected on any of the sprout and seed samples tested. E. sakazakii was not found on seeds, but 13.3% of the mixed sprout samples contained this potentially pathogenic bacterium.

  6. Social media use, body image, and psychological well-being: a cross-cultural comparison of Korea and the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Lee, Hye Eun; Choi, Jounghwa; Kim, Jang Hyun; Han, Hae Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships among social media use for information, self-status seeking and socializing, body image, self-esteem, and psychological well-being, and some cultural effects moderating these relationships. Americans (n = 502) and Koreans (n = 518) completed an online survey. The main findings showed that (a) social media use for information about body image is negatively related to body satisfaction in the United States and Korea, while social media use for self-status seeking regarding body image is positively related to body satisfaction only in Korea; and (b) body satisfaction has direct and indirect positive effects on psychological well-being manifested in similar ways in the United States and Korea. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  7. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Suk, Mee-Hee; Paik, Nam Won

    2010-03-01

    Recently in Korea, the treatment of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in building has emerged as one of the most important environmental health issues. This study was conducted to identify the distribution and characteristics of ACM and airborne asbestos concentrations in industrial buildings in Korea. A total of 1285 presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) samples were collected from 80 workplaces across the nation, and 40% of the PACMs contained more than 1% of asbestos. Overall, 94% of the surveyed workplaces contained ACM. The distribution of ACM did not show a significant difference by region, employment size, or industry. The total ACM area in the buildings surveyed was 436,710 m2. Ceiling tile ACM accounted for 61% (267,093 m2) of the total ACM area, followed by roof ACM (32%), surfacing ACM (6.1%), and thermal system insulation (TSI). In terms of asbestos type, 98% of total ACM was chrysotile, while crocidolite was not detected. A comparison of building material types showed that the material with the highest priority for regular management is ceiling tile, followed by roof, TSI, and surfacing material. The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc).

  8. 3D image of Brittle/Ductile transition in active volcanic area and its implication on seismicity: The Campi Flegrei caldera case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Luca, D'auria; Susi, Pepe; Giuseppe, Solaro; Pietro, Tizzani

    2015-04-01

    determine the rheological stratification of the crust beneath caldera. The best-fit model suggested that the uprising of a ductile layer, which connects the upper mantle to the volcanic feeding system, could have determined the stress condition that controls the distribution and magnitude of seismicity. Indeed, the computed 3D imaging of Brittle/Ductile transition agreed well with the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the considered area. The location of the Benioff strain release, of the energy and of the number of earthquakes point out clearly that most of the seismicity occurs above 3500-4000 [m] depth, where the transition zone is individuated. Finally, our analysis revealed that the distribution of the Brittle/Ductile transition has also important implication in constraining the potential seismogenic volume. The inferred depth of 4000 [m] (for ɛ= 10-8 [s-1]), implies that a fault spanning the whole caldera (about 8000 [m]) with a stress drop of 4 [bar] would result in an event with magnitude 5.1. However, because of its highly fractured structure, such a long seismic rupture is unrealistic for CF caldera, at least in pre-eruptive conditions. In this scenario, a more realistic fault sizes (i.e. 4000x4000 [m2]) suggest as magnitude of pre-eruptive earthquakes at CF caldera lower than 5.

  9. Impacts of typhoon and heavy rain disasters on mortality and infectious diarrhea hospitalization in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunduk; Shin, Yongseung; Kim, Ho; Pak, Haeoyong; Ha, Jongsik

    2013-01-01

    Several studies for health impacts of natural disasters have not been comprehensive with respect to disaster type and areas, nor quantitative. The aim of our study is to quantitatively examine the associations between disasters and human health in South Korea. This study considered "special disasters" that occurred from 2003 to 2009 in seven metropolitan cities and nine provinces in South Korea. First, we completed health impact counts in both disaster periods and reference periods. We then calculated the rate ratios between health impact counts in these two periods. Mortality is estimated to be higher in the case of typhoons, whereas morbidity is estimated to be higher in heavy rain disasters. The difference in health impacts of typhoons and heavy rain may be explained by the difference in meteorological exposure patterns. Consequentially, we suggest the development of properly adaptive plans against the influence of future natural disasters on human health.

  10. Cercaria caribbea LVIII Cable, 1963 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) in the Republic of Korea and its surface ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun-Taek; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2012-06-01

    Cercaria caribbea LVIII Cable, 1963 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) was detected from a brackish water gastropod species (Cerithideopsilla cingulata) in a coatal area of Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do (Province), the Republic of Korea, and its surface ultrastructure was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The cercariae were found freely swimming or enveloped within daughter sporocysts when the snail host was mechanically broken. They were morphologically characterized by a linguiform and ventrally concave body, a long and bifurcated tail, and the presence of a holdfast (=tribocytic) organ posterior to the ventral sucker. On the whole ventral and dorsal surfaces, peg-like tegumental spines were densely distributed. Around the oral sucker, several sensory papillae, each with a short cilium, were distributed, and on the tail, sensory papillae, each with an extensively long cilium, were observed. This is the first record describing a cyathocotylid cercaria from a brackish water gastropod in the Republic of Korea.

  11. New Rust Disease of Korean Willow (Salix koreensis) Caused by Melampsora yezoensis, Unrecorded Pathogen in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran; Yoon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Hoo Hyun; Son, Seung Yeol

    2016-01-01

    During the growing season of 2015, leaf specimens with yellow rust spots were collected from Salix koreensis Andersson, known as Korean willow, in riverine areas in Cheonan, Korea. The fungus on S. koreensis was identified as the rust species, Melampsora yezoensis, based on the morphology of urediniospores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the molecular properties of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the urediniospores are the causal agent of the rust symptoms on the leaves and young stems of S. koreensis. Here, we report a new rust disease of S. koreensis caused by the rust fungus, M. yezoensis, a previously unrecorded rust pathogen in Korea. PMID:28154494

  12. First Report of Dieback Caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Strawberry Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Tae il; Lee, Eun Mo; Park, Jong Dae; Kim, Hong Gi

    2016-01-01

    Dieback in strawberry (Seolhyang cultivar) was first observed during the nursery season (June to September) in the Nonsan area of Korea in the years 2012 and 2013. Initial disease symptoms included dieback on runners, as well as black rot on roots, followed by wilting and eventually blackened, necrotic discoloration in the crowns of daughter plants. A fungus isolated from the diseased roots, runners, and crowns is close to Lasiodiplodia theobromae based on morphological characteristics. Analysis of a combined dataset assembled from sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes grouped nine fungal isolates with the type strain of L. theobromae. The isolates showed strong pathogenicity on strawberry cultivars Kumhyang, Seolhyang, and Akihimae, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Based on these results, the pathogen responsible for dieback on strawberry plants in Korea was identified as L. theobromae. PMID:28154491

  13. New Rust Disease of Korean Willow (Salix koreensis) Caused by Melampsora yezoensis, Unrecorded Pathogen in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran; Yoon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Hoo Hyun; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    During the growing season of 2015, leaf specimens with yellow rust spots were collected from Salix koreensis Andersson, known as Korean willow, in riverine areas in Cheonan, Korea. The fungus on S. koreensis was identified as the rust species, Melampsora yezoensis, based on the morphology of urediniospores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the molecular properties of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the urediniospores are the causal agent of the rust symptoms on the leaves and young stems of S. koreensis. Here, we report a new rust disease of S. koreensis caused by the rust fungus, M. yezoensis, a previously unrecorded rust pathogen in Korea.

  14. Serological surveillance studies confirm the Rift Valley fever virus free status in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Jee-Yong; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Cho, Yun-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Ji-Youn; Cho, In-Soo; Yoo, Han-Sang

    2015-10-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants. This disease causes abortions in pregnant animals, and it has a high mortality rate in newborn animals. Recently, a Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) outbreak in the Arabian Peninsula increased its potential spread to new regions worldwide. In non-endemic or disease-free countries, early detection and surveillance are important for preventing the introduction of RVFV. In this study, a serological surveillance was conducted to detect antibodies against RVFV. A total of 2382 serum samples from goats and cattle were randomly collected from nine areas in South Korea from 2011 to 2013. These samples were tested for antibodies against RVFV, using commercial ELISA kits. None of the goats and cattle were positive for antibodies against RVFV. This finding suggests that this disease is not present in South Korea, and furthermore presents the evidence of the RVFV-free status of this country.

  15. High prevalence of Theileria sp. in wild Chinese Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sook-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2009-10-14

    Wild Chinese Water Deer exist in large numbers in Northeast Asia, including South Korea. The deer population is so widespread that they are common even in urban areas, resulting in increased contact with humans and domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer in South Korea. Using biomolecular techniques, blood samples taken from 18 wild Chinese Water Deer were examined. Thirteen of the 18 samples (72%) tested positive for infection. In 11 of the deer, a Theileria sp. was detected that is nearly identical to the highly pathogenic Theileria sp. reported in China. Theileria ovis and Theileria capreoli were also detected individually in two deer. These results indicate that there may be a high prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer, and that the deer may act as a reservoir for the Theileria sp. infection of domestic animals.

  16. A journey of suffering: living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyunjin; Schepp, Karen G; McGrath, Barbara B

    2014-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presents significant challenges for patients because of the devastating disease characteristics and the fact that there is no treatment available. In this article, we explored the illness experiences from the perspectives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the sociocultural context of South Korea. Fifteen patients were observed and interviewed between September 2009 and July 2010 in the metropolitan area of South Korea. We used an ethnographic approach for data collection and analysis. The meta-theme generated was "a journey of suffering," and three themes emerged: (a) off the course, (b) drifting, and (c) on a new boat. Participants experienced multidimensional suffering as the disease progressed. Healthcare professionals should understand that, for many patients, this disease is a process or a series of experiences rather than a single diagnosis. This knowledge would allow healthcare providers to help patients prepare for those needs that arise as the disease worsens.

  17. Quantitative definition and spatiotemporal distribution of little water season (LIWAS) in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Su-Jeong; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Deo, Ravinesh C.

    2016-08-01

    Like other continental climatic regions Korea has a period around the spring when agricultural activities are interrupted frequently by a shortage of available water resources during the season. This season, which is termed the Little Water Season (LIWAS) in this study, has important implications for many socio-economic activities but the scientific definition of this season remains vague. In this study, the onset and termination dates, as well as the characteristics of the LIWAS have been defined based on the Available Water Resources Index (AWRI). Based on the proposed definition of LIWAS, the implications on hydrological conditions over a range of geographic scales and their inter-annual variations on the water resource environments in Korea have been assessed. To develop an appropriate index for LIWAS based on AWRI, the criterion value (CV) for LIWAS was set as the lowest 25th percentile of the AWRI values averaged for 30 years (1981-2010). Therefore, the Little Water Season for Korea (LIWAS_K) was considered as the period when the daily averaged AWRIs were successively lower than the CV (143.7 mm). Based on this, the mean onset and end date of LIWAS_K, was 9 February and 11 May which also reflected the period in the spring season when the available water resources are expected to the lowest. Moreover, a number of seasonal characteristics of the water availability during the LIWAS, such as the Little Water Intensity (LWI), Water Deficit Amount (WDA) and Water Deficit Intensity (WDI) have been defined for the particular study region. Based on our results, we aver that the proposed season classification of the LIWAS can be better analyzed using the concept of usable water resources as a classification of dry period instead of using temperature and raw rainfall datasets.

  18. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Incheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ban, S.; Lee, C.; Yi, S.; Zoh, K.

    2011-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Incheon, Korea, every third day from Jun 2009 to may 2010 and analyzed their chemical species. In this study, we investigated the source of PM2.5 using Positive Matrix Factorization(PMF), the source area from Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Conditional Probability Function(CPF), and characterized source variation among episode, non-episode, yellow sand events. Incheon, study site, is located at the mid-western tip of the Korean Peninsula with a population of 2.6 million people and area of 1029.4 km2, respectively. As a transportation hub, the city also holds the importance of meteological/geological aspect affecting the air quality of capital region, in that is prevailing westerlies zone and a air passageway from China to Japan passing through seoul, korea. In the study, the Four channel based on Annular Denuder System(ADS) were used for sample collection(URG co, USA). The filter samples were analyzed with respect to species type such as ion group, metal, and OC/EC compound using ion chromatography, ICP/MS, and NIOSH TOT method, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration was 43ug/m3 that is almost three times higher than the US NAAQS annual PM2.5 standard of 15ug/m3. Nine PM2.5 sources were resolved from PMF analysis that provided reasonable source profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate(26.4%), secondary sulfate(17.3%), gasoline(16.4%), and residual oil combustion(13.5%), with lesser contributions from biomass burning (7.5%), road dust(6.9%), soil (5.5%), coal fire powerplant (4.0%), and free sea salt(2.4%). CPF results identified possible local source directions such as motor vehicles, free sea salt. PSCF results indicated that likely pollution areas increased secondary particle concentrations(sulfate and nitrate) in Incheon to be the major industrial areas in China

  19. Sexual Violence among Men in the Military in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

    2007-01-01

    This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…

  20. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to... contained in USITC Publication 4254 (August 2011), entitled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film from...

  1. The Beginnings of Modern Education in Korea, 1883-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Korea opened up to foreign intercourse in 1876, when the country concluded its first international treaty with Japan. Similar treaties with European and American nations followed during the 1880s. The period until 1910, when Korea was annexed to the Japanese Empire, saw manifold attempts to reform as well as resistance to these reforms. Against…

  2. Promoting E-Learning for Human Resource Development in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    In Korea, e-learning is becoming increasingly prevalent and spreading into various aspects of human resources development. Korea's Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOEHRD) and Ministry of Labor (MOL) have been especially active in establishing the legal basis and institutional framework to make e-learning a reality.…

  3. Japanese Higher Education Policy in Korea (1910-1945).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea and analyzes Japanese educational policy in Korea in the colonial period (1910-1945). Identifies beneficial and negative impacts of the Japanese colonial education system. (SLD)

  4. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  5. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  6. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  7. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  8. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  9. U.S. Regional Strategy for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 O PPO RTUN ITIES...will stress South Korea’s ability to absorb them into their society and economy over the long-run. ECONOMIC INSTABILITY The North Korean economy is in...enormous costs of absorbing the broken economy of the North.40 When contrasted with German reunification, the economy and infrastructure of North Korea are

  10. Today and Yesterday in Early Childhood Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper…

  11. A new method for estimating the prevalence of clonorchiasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Young; Lee, Jin Yong; Chung, Byung-Suk; Choi, Younghyun; Alley, Allison Baer; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract South Korea presently uses an arbitrary sampling method to monitor the prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in the endemic areas of the country. However, the present method is not standardized and focuses primarily on individuals who reside nearest to the mainstream river. We propose a new sampling method that combines cluster sampling with proportionate quota sampling to ensure that the entire endemic area is accurately represented. We tested the new method in Okcheon-gun, South Korea, and determined that the C sinensis infection prevalence (8.9%) in 2013 was higher than that (6.9%) estimated in 2012 when the arbitrary method was used. Additionally, no difference was observed in the prevalence based on the distance from the riverside areas, including branches and creeks, between the areas <1 and >1 km away from the riversides. Therefore, health authorities should place equal emphasis on all regions within the endemic areas. Based on the findings, we recommend the following: the clonorchiasis prevalence rate must be measured using probability sampling, (clear guidelines on survey coverage should be provided to include the riverside areas and all areas nearby branch streams, and regional cohorts should be created for continuous monitoring of prevalence rates across the region. PMID:28353615

  12. Remnants of a Late Triassic ocean island in the Gufeng area, northern Tibet: Implications for the opening and early evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Wang, Ming; Liu, Yi-Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present new major and trace element compositions of basaltic rocks in the Gufeng ocean island (GFOI) area in the western segment of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone, northern Tibet. Our aim was to assess the genesis of these rocks and discuss the implications of this new dataset for the evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean. An ocean-island-type double-layer structure comprising a basaltic basement and an oceanic sedimentary cover sequence found within the GFOI provides direct evidence for the interpretation that the assemblage is a typical ocean island. The basalts in the GFOI can be divided into three types (named G1, G2 and G3 basalts), and these basalts range in composition from MORB to OIB types, which is typical of ocean islands. The G1 basalts have MORB-type affinities, possibly indicating the existence of MORB oceanic crust under the GFOI. The G2 basalts represent the early stage of formation of the GFOI, and are produced by the interaction of rising OIB-type basaltic magma and the existing MORB oceanic crust. The G3 basalts are typical OIB basalts and they are the products of the direct eruption of OIB-type basaltic magmas. The G3 basalts have high (La/Yb)N (12.3-14.4), (Ce/Yb)N (10.8-11.8), (La/Sm)N (2.39-2.76), and (Sm/Yb)N (4.89-5.23) ratios, indicating the presence of oceanic lithosphere below the GFOI with a thickness of 50-60 km. Geochemical analyses of the GFOI cherts show that they contain terrigenous material, indicating the GFOI formed close to a continental margin. Norian conodont fossils within the GFOI limestones indicate the GFOI formed during the Late Triassic. These data, combined with geological evidence and a half-space model of lithosphere cooling, where the thickness of the oceanic lithosphere is determined from the age of the lithosphere, indicate that the western segment of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean opened initially in the late Permian, expanded rapidly during the Early-Middle Triassic, and was a

  13. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population.

  14. Epidemiology of Biliary Atresia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the major cause of cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT). However, the incidence of BA in Korea has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and clinical outcomes of BA in Korea. We used the Korean universal health insurance database and extracted data regarding BA patients younger than 18 years of age admitted between 2011 and 2015. The incidence of BA was calculated by dividing the number of BA patients by the number of live births. Two hundred forty infants were newly diagnosed with BA. A total of 963 BA patients younger than 18 years of age were followed up for 5 years. The overall incidence of BA was 1.06 cases per 10,000 live births. The incidence of BA was 1.4 times higher for female patients than for male patients. Additionally, significant seasonal variation was observed; in particular, the incidence of BA was 2 times higher from June through August than from December through February. Congenital anomalies were found in 38 of 240 patients (15.8%). Congenital heart diseases were major associated congenital anomalies (6.3%). Several complications developed during the study period, including cholangitis (24.0%), varix (6.2%), and gastrointestinal bleeding (4.4%). Three hundred and one of the 963 BA patients under 18 years of age (31.3%) received LT for BA. The incidence of BA is higher in Korea than that in Western countries. We also report significant gender-associated differences and seasonal variation with respect to the incidence of BA. PMID:28244293

  15. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.

  16. The history of dental hygiene in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.

  17. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  18. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    2007. 46 See http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm at p. 147. 47 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5. 52 Japanese...several North Korean attempts in late 2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti

  19. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis. PMID:27587956

  20. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632