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Sample records for area kyushu japan

  1. Tributyltin contamination of bivalves in coastal areas around northern Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Suguru; Abe, Shin-ichiro; Oshima, Yuji; Kai, Norihisa; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2006-06-01

    We determined tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in bivalve samples of blue mussel (Myitlus edulis), Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and pen shell (Atrina pectinata) collected from coastal areas around northern Kyushu in 1998 and 2001. TBT was detected in all bivalve samples collected, ranging in concentration from 0.008 to 0.135 microg/g wet wt. In Hakata Port, which is an industrial area, high TBT concentrations were detected in bivalves (blue mussel, maximum concentration of 0.135 microg/g wet wt). In the Ariake Sea, which is an important bivalve habitat, TBT concentrations in Manila clams ranged from 0.062 to 0.125 microg/g wet wt in 1998 and from 0.008 to 0.033 microg/g wet wt in 2001. In addition, concentrations of TBT in pen shells collected from the Ariake Sea in 2001 ranged from 0.009 to 0.095 microg/g wet wt. These results clearly demonstrate that, despite the regulation of TBT usage since 1990 in Japan, contamination of bivalves by TBT has persisted in coastal areas around northern Kyushu. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The geological record of prehistorical tsunami at a coastal area of Beppu Bay in eastern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Fujino, S.; Chiba, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Okuwaki, R.; Takeda, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunamis are typically generated by plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones, but also vertical displacement associated with intraplate earthquakes. Historical written records documented that coasts of Beppu Bay, eastern Kyushu, Japan was devastated by a tsunami associated with the AD 1596 Keicho-Bungo earthquake (M7.0). It is considered that the earthquake occurred at submarine active faults in the bay. The aim of this study is to unravel the occurrence age and source of tsunamis that struck the coast of the bay in prehistorical ages. This study may also make a contribution to the understanding of tsunami-generating system at submarine active faults. We conducted a coring survey at paddy fields along the north coast of the bay. The 10 cm thick muddy sand layer with a few granules (hereinafter, sand layer), bounded by sharp contacts, was evident in the 1.7 m long sediment core taken at 700 m from the shoreline. Plant materials obtained from mud above the sand layer was dated to 1880-2000 cal. yr BP. Sharp contacts between sand and surrounding muds imply that the sand layer is formed by a sudden event. Existence of mud clast in the sand layer indicates erosion of surface mud. There were no brackish-marine diatoms in surrounding mud, but they accounted for 5-6% of the total within the sand layer, indicating that the sand grains were sourced at least in part from brackish-marine environment. Mean grain size/sorting of the sand layer and beach sand were 2.31/0.94 and 2.03/0.41 phi. The difference in sorting probably suggests that the sand layer partly contains the onshore sediments eroded in inundation process. Additional coring surveys would clarify the distribution of prehistorical tsunami deposits and source of past tsunamis.

  3. Crustal deformation model of the Beppu-Shimabara graben area, central Kyushu, Japan, based on inversion of three-component GNSS data in 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Kazuma; Mitsui, Yuta

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes, including an Mw-7 right-lateral earthquake on April 15 (UTC), occurred along faults within the Beppu-Shimabara graben in central Kyushu, Japan. Previous studies showed that the graben area was under heterogeneous stress conditions with north-south T-axes and spreading in a north-south direction. Here, we construct a detailed crustal deformation model using three-component Global Navigation Satellite System data in 2000-2010 and considering the distribution of geological fault traces in this area. Our inversion analysis suggests that the strain accumulation rate for the right-lateral seismic slip segment (corresponding to the Futagawa fault), where the largest of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes ruptured, was several times smaller than the other segments in the Beppu-Shimabara graben. Furthermore, we observe distinct subsidence along the Beppu-Shimabara graben. Our base model attributes the subsidence to deflation of magma reservoirs beneath volcanoes, but the observed vertical velocities are poorly fit. In order to improve the fitting results for the vertical deformation, we need more sophisticated volcano-deformation model (such as a sill-like deformation source for Mt. Aso) or graben model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. The Quaternary adakite distribution of Kyushu Island, Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takemura, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Quaternary volcanoes are widely distributed in Kyusu Island, Japan. Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath Kyushu. Clear distribution of deep seismic foci is observed below the Quaternary volcanoes in southern area, but not in northern area. Notsu et al. (1990, JVGR) examined the contribution of subduction to the magma source, and emphasized that no slab derived material is observed in northern area from Sr isotopic compositions. Volcanic activity similar to the within-plate type volcanism has been also emphasized for the magma genesis of this area (e.g. Kita et al, 2001, JVGR). However, we found adakitic rocks, which show high Sr/Y ratios and low Y concentrations (e.g. Defant and Drummond, 1990, Nature) from some Quaternary volcanoes in north Kyushu on the basis of published data (Otha et al, 1990, GANKO; Itoh, 1990, GANKO). Therefore, the magma genesis is still controversial. We studied lateral variations of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic and trace element compositions for Quaternary volcanics from Kyushu to investigate the magma genesis. From the results, a clear variation of Sr/Y ratio, decreasing from north to south, is observed along the volcanic front. Some of the Sr/Y ratio of the most northern part of Kyusu shows the value >100. The all analyzed Pb isotope compositions show a single liner trend in 208Pb/204Pb v.s. 206Pb/204Pb diagram. The liner trend of Pb isotope ratios can be explained by the binary mixing of the Shikoku Basin basalt and tereginious sediment which might be a constituent of the subducting slab. The similar binary mixing relationships are found in Sr and Nd isotopic systematics. The isotopic characteristics of the Quaternary magma in Kyushu can be explained by the magma generation process of island arc, in spite of the lack of deep seismic foci in northern area. It is considered that high and low Sr/Y ratios suggest the contributions of partial melt in the north and aqueous fluid derived from subducting slab in the south, respectively. If

  5. Positive Action Using Quotas for Women in Kyushu University, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jotaki, Eriko

    In the field of physics, the ratio of female researchers is still low among APPC12 member countries. Associations and institutions in many countries are making efforts to increase the number of female physicists. Since 2009, Kyushu University in Japan has carried out positive action using quotas for women in order to increase female faculty members, mainly in the fields of Science, Engineering, and Agriculture. These efforts have had a significant impact and achieved beneficial results.

  6. Eruptive History of Ikeda Caldera, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inakura, H.; Naruo, H.; Okuno, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Tamura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ikeda caldera is a small-scale caldera (about 4 km in diameter), located in the southern tip of the Satsuma Peninsula, southern Kyushu, Japan. The information on the onset of the caldera-forming eruption is gone due to the catastrophic eruption, but Ikeda caldera is a relatively small-scale eruption that the information before the eruption may have been conserved. We conducted a geological research to understand the eruptive history of Ikeda caldera, including a study of the processes leading to the catastrophic eruption. Pre-caldera activity began at about 20 cal kBP by Iwamoto ash and the effusion of Senta lava, which may have similar composition as the caldera-forming eruption. The caldera-forming eruption began at 6.4 cal kBP with a phreatic explosion that produced the Ikezaki tephra. The phreatic eruption was followed by Osagari scoria, Mizusako scoria and Ikeda pumice plinian eruption. During the climactic stage, Ikeda ignimbrite was erupted and reclaimed the coastal area at that time, and formed the ignimbrite plateau along the coast. Immediately after this event, four maars were formed to the southeast of the caldera. Yamagawa maar, which is the largest and is located at the southeastern end of the fissure vent, erupted pumiceous base surge (Yamagawa base surge), but other maars ejected small amount of accidental materials. During the late stage of the Ikeda eruption, phreatomagmatic eruption occurred at the bottom of the caldera floor, and erupted the Ikedako ash which covered a wide area. The Central lava dome was generated at the late stage of this eruption. After Ikedako ash deposition, secondary explosion of Ikeda ignimbrite occurred mainly along the coastal area, generating small-scale base surge deposits. About two thousand years after the caldera-forming eruption at 4.8 cal kBP, new magmatic activity began on the margin of the caldera rim, and generated Nabeshimadake lava dome.

  7. Souther portion of Island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    City of Kagoshima and Kagoshima Bay area of the southern portion of the island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 9th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 125 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 12 hours and 10 minutes.

  8. Souther portion of Island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    City of Kagoshima and Kagoshima Bay area of the southern portion of the island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 9th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 125 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 12 hours and 10 minutes.

  9. Do plumes exist beneath Northwest Kyushu southwest Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashima, H.

    2014-12-01

    A thermal plume model was proposed for the Hot-spot type volcanism at Northwest Kyushu, southwest Japan in the post period of opening of the Sea of Japan. The model regards the Northwest Kyushu Basalts (NWKBs) were magmas fractionated from parental magmas with MgO = 12.8 - 18.8 wt. %, indicating that partial melting occurred at temperatures from 1330 to 1500 °C and at pressures from 1.5 to 3.0 GPa (Sakuyama et al., 2009; 2014). Previous petrological and observations, however, indicate that the NWKBs separated from the source mantle at pressures shallower than those inferred from the plume model. The Mg-Fe-Ni compositions of some NWKBs suggest that they could have been in equilibrium with mantle olivines with Fo = 81 - 87, meaning that they would have been not fractionated but primitive magmas. The NWKBs are associated with primitive high magnesium andesites, indicating that partial melting continued at low pressure such as 0.5 GPa (Mashima, 2009a, b). NWKBs include not garnet lherzolite xenoliths but spinel lherzolite, showing that primitive melt separation occurred at pressure lower than 2GPa (Arai et al., 2001). These lines of evidence indicate that the separation of primitive NWKBs occurred at temperature up to 1250 °C and pressures from 0.5 to 1.5 GPa, significantly lower than those assumed by the plume model. Instead of the plume model, geology of NW Kyushu infers that the volcanism was a consequence of the tectonic evolution of NW Kyushu. The volcanism was leaks of asthenosphere thickened extensional tectonics from the Paleogene to the early Miocene. Orientations of NWKB dikes indicate their eruption was induced by the reactivation of preexisting faults under horizontal compressive stress field oriented to a NW-SE direction. This horizontally compressive stress field would have been caused by mechanical interactions between the subducting Philippine Sea pate and the Eurasian Plate. The NW Kyushu volcanism could be explained in the context of plate

  10. View of Island of Kyushu, Japan from Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-01-08

    SL4-139-3971 (8 Jan. 1974) --- An oblique view of Japan as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Island of Kyushu is at center left. The Island of Honshu is in the right background. The Korean Peninsula is in the left background. This picture was taken by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen using a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera with a 100mm lens. The plume form Kyushu's volcano Sakurajima is clearly seen in this photograph. Volcanic activity at Sakurajima is known to have occurred for over 1,200 years (first recorded in the year 708 A.D.) but for the first time the entire volcanic plume can be documented at one time. Skylab photographs and crew descriptions are much more detailed then information available from other satellites. The volcano and its plume were observed at least seven times during Skylab 4, and photographed and documented with television. In repeated observations the plume was seen to stream out to the south or southeast and become increasingly diffuse away from the volcano. As the plume reached the open ocean cast of Kyushu it changed direction, sometimes abruptly, and fanned out to the northeast. In this photograph it extends about 80 kilometers (50 miles) east from the volcano; the distribution and dispersion of particulate materials and volcanic gasses will be studied in this and similar Skylab photographs. Although the plume is primarily water vapor, it contains significant quantities of oxides of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen. These gases are considered pollutants, and understanding their abundance and distribution will help to evaluate the relative effect and significance of man-made atmospheric pollutants. Photo credit: NASA

  11. View of Island of Kyushu, Japan from Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-01-07

    SL4-139-3942 (7 Jan. 1974) --- This oblique view of the Island of Kyushu, Japan, was taken from the Earth-orbiting Skylab space station on Jan. 8, 1974 during its third manning. A plume from the volcano Sakurajima (bottom center) is clearly seen as it extends about 80 kilometers (50 miles) east from the volcano. (EDITOR'S NOTE: On Jan. 10, 2013, a little over 39 years after this 1974 photo was made from the Skylab space station, Expedition 34 crew members aboard the International Space Station took a similar picture (frame no. ISS034-E-027139) featuring smoke rising from the same volcano, with much of the island of Kyushu visible. Interesting comparisons can be made between the two photos, at least as far as the devices used to record them. The Skylab image was made by one of the three Skylab 4 crew members with a hand-held camera using a 100-mm lens and 70-mm color film, whereas the station photo was taken with 180-mm lens on a digital still camera, hand-held by one of the six crew members). Photo credit: NASA

  12. Stress, strain rate and anisotropy in Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. K.; Aoki, Y.; Unglert, K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Iguchi, M.; Tameguri, T.; Ohminato, T.; Mori, J.

    2016-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of wave speeds, may be caused by stress-oriented cracks or by strain-oriented minerals, yet few studies have quantitatively compared anisotropy to stress and strain over large regions. Here we compare crustal stress and strain rates on the Island of Kyushu, Japan, as measured from inversions of focal mechanisms, GPS and shear wave splitting. Over 85,000 shear wave splitting measurements from local and regional earthquakes are obtained from the NIED network between 2004 and 2012, and on Aso, Sakurajima, Kirishima and Unzen volcano networks. Strain rate measurements are made from the Japanese Geonet stations. JMA-determined S arrival times processed with the MFAST shear wave splitting code measure fast polarisations (Φ), related to the orientation of the anisotropic medium and time delays (dt), related to the path length and the percent anisotropy. We apply the TESSA 2-D delay time tomography and spatial averaging code to the highest quality events, which have nearly vertical incidence angles, separating the 3455 shallow (depth < 40 km) from the 4957 deep (> = 40 km) earthquakes. Using square grids with 30 km sides for all the inversions, the best correlations are observed between splitting from shallow earthquakes and stress. Axes of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) and Φ correlate with a coefficient c of 0.56, significant at the 99% confidence level. Their mean difference is 31.9°. Axes of maximum compressional strain rate and SHmax are also well aligned, with an average difference of 28°, but they do not correlate with each other, meaning that where they differ, the difference is not systematic. Anisotropy strength is negatively correlated with the stress ratio parameter determined from focal mechanism inversion (c = - 0.64; significant at the 99% confidence level). The anisotropy and stress results are consistent with stress-aligned microcracks in the crust in a dominantly strike-slip regime. Eigenvalues of

  13. Spatial variation of attenuation factor in subduction zone of Philippine Sea slab around Kyushu Island Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parithusta, Rizkita; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-05-01

    Kyushu Island, in south-western part of Japan is characterized by subduction from Philippine Sea Slab and Eurasian Plate (Amurian); volcanic front seen in islands arcs runs through the central part of Kyushu Island. In Kyushu, shallow and intermediate-depth earthquakes occur robustly through a depth of about 200 km. We estimated attenuation structure beneath Southern Part of Japan, at subduction zone of Philippine Sea Slab by applying modified coda normalization method (Eq.1) proposed by Parithusta, et.al. (2008*). The method estimates relative source spectra by taking spectral ratio in coda waves between two events at first. From a lot of the spectral data, those can be estimated with higher stability through singular value decomposition. After that, the relative source effect between event pair can be eliminated by the solution from ratios between direct wave spectra for many event pairs. We confirmed the estimation of source factor by assessment with empirical method, the result show that estimates of source factor almost satisfy empirical relation between magnitude and energy relation. The attenuation factor can be obtained from a relation below; ( ) Edij(tij,?-)- -1 dn = ln Edi'j(ti'j,?) = - ?Q(?) (tij - ti'j)+ const.... (1) Where: Ed denotes Direct S-wave power spectrum and Q is attenuation factor at target area; t is lapse time from origin time. Subscript i,jdenote identification number for event and station, respectively. Q-1 factor can be estimated from decay with ?tii'j(= tij - ti'j). By using this method, we obtained frequency dependent Q-1 value with smaller estimation error than previous study carried by Matsumoto et.al (2007). We used waveform data from earthquakes occurred in Philippine Sea Slab, recorded by Hi-net and Kyushu University seismic networks. Window length adopted here is 2.5 seconds for taking spectrum. The results shows the Q-1 values around Bungo-Suido area, northern part of Kyushu. Q-1 values are plotted in seven depth ranges as a

  14. Identification of a volcaniclastic tsunami deposit at a volcanically active region in southeastern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Moriwaki, H.; Chiba, T.; Fujino, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of two pumiceous layers bounded by sharp upper and lower contacts with surrounding mud were evident in almost all of the 19 sediment cores in southeastern Kyushu, Japan. The upper orange-tinged pumiceous layer A with approx. 5 cm thickness was present at around 2.0-3.5 m deep, while the lower white-tinged pumiceous layer B with a few millimeters to 1.5 cm thickness was found beneath the layer A. The major element composition and refraction index of volcanic glass shards in layers A and B were consistent with those of standard sample of Kr-M and Sz-7, respectively. The Kr-M tephra, sourced from the Mt. Kirishima in southern part of Kyushu, was deposited approx. 4600 years ago, while the Sz-7 tephra, sourced from the Sakurajima in southern part of Kyushu, was deposited approx. 5000 years ago. Selected seeds, leaves, and plant debris obtained from mud samples immediately beneath the layers A and B provided their limiting-maximum ages of approx. 4500 cal. yr BP and 4500-4600 cal. yr BP. The results of the tephra analyses and radiocarbon age indicate that the layer A is the Kr-M fall tephra. However, the limiting-maximum age of the layer B is 400 years younger than the fall age of Sz-7. Given the higher percentage of marine and brackish diatoms than the background mud, deposition of the layer B is thought to be due to a seawater inundation event such as tsunami. It is quite likely that volcaniclastic tsunami deposits exist not only in Kyushu, but also at any site in the subduction zones all over the world. The same approach as this study contributes to the discovery of overlooked tsunami deposits in other areas.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors, Sleeping Environment, for Allergic Diseases in Infant: Analysis of a Data Subset from the South Kyushu and Okinawa Study Area of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Wataru; Lu, Xi; Oda, Masako; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Aoki, Kazuo; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohba, Takashi; Katoh, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of infant allergic diseases have increased recently, and it may be caused by multiple influences of both genetic and environmental factors from the fetal stage through infancy. In this study, we analyzed a data subset from the South Kyushu and Okinawa (SKO) Study Area of Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) to determine the relationship of allergic diseases in infants with mothers' characteristics and/or infants' life habits, especially sleeping. A total of 3873 mother-infant pairs from the SKO Regional Center of JECS were included. The mothers responded to questionnaires in the first trimester of their pregnancy and the self-reported questionnaire when their infants were 1 year old. Student's t-test, chi-square test, trend test, and logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyze the associations between the infants' allergic diseases and the mothers' genetic characteristics and/or sleeping habits of infants. Maternal allergic diseases were significantly associated with increased infant allergy risk (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.63-2.27). The number of allergic diseases of mothers was also significantly associated with infant allergy, and the trend test showed an increasing risk of infant allergy (p<0.001). Regarding infants' life habits, the infants who sleep in the prone position had a higher allergic disease risk than those who sleep in other positions (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.17-1.83). These significant associations were observed regardless of the presence of allergy in mothers. This study suggests that the development of allergic diseases in infants may be caused by the multiple participation of both genetic and environmental factors.

  16. Inelastic strain rate in the seismogenic layer of Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takuya; Ohkura, Takahiro

    2016-12-01

    Seismic activity is associated with crustal stress relaxation, creating inelastic strain in a medium due to faulting. Inelastic strain affects the stress field around a weak body and causes stress concentration around the body, because the body itself has already released stress. Therefore, the understanding of inelastic deformation is important as it generates earthquakes. We investigated average inelastic strain in a spatial bin of Kyushu Island, Japan, and obtained the inelastic strain rate distribution associated with crustal earthquakes, based on the analysis of fault plane solutions and seismic moments. Large inelastic strains (>10-7 year-1) were found in the Beppu-Shimabara area, located in the center of Kyushu Island. The strain rate tensor was similar to that of the stress tensor except the absolute value in the area, implying that the inelastic strain was controlled by the stress field. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence (maximum magnitude 7.3) occurred in the Beppu-Shimabara area, with the major earthquakes located around the high inelastic strain rate area. Inelastic strain in the volume released the stress. In addition, the inelastic strain created an increment of stress around the volume. This indicates that the spatial heterogeneity of inelastic strain might concentrate stress.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Source model estimation of the 2005 Kyushu Earthquake, Japan using Modified Semi Empirical Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep; Joshi, A.; Sah, S. K.; Kumar, Parveen; Lal, Sohan; Vandana; Kamal; Singh, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The 2005 Kyushu earthquake (MW 6.6, MJMA 7.0) occurred northwest of Fukuoka, Japan causing much damage and injuries. Here, we model the earthquake's source using the data recorded at surrounding field stations. Two isolated strong motion generation areas (SMGA) are identified on the rupture plane. The parameters of each SMGA are estimated using source displacement spectra and then used the spatiotemporal distribution of aftershocks to identify possible locations of SMGAs on the rupture plane. A modified semi empirical technique (MSET) simulated the records for the estimated rupture model. We then compared the observed and simulated acceleration records from eight regional stations. A comparable match between the observed and simulated records confirms the robustness of two SMGA rupture model and ability of MSET to simulate strong ground motion.

  18. Repeating deep tremors on the plate interface beneath Kyushu, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Suguru; Ide, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the subduction zone south of Kyushu Island, at the western extension of the Nankai subduction zone, southwest Japan, the age of the oceanic crust increases toward the south across the subducting Kyushu-Palau ridge. While tremor activity is very high in Nankai, tectonic tremors have only recently been discovered in Kyushu. In this study, we examined tremors beneath Kyushu using an improved version of the envelope correlation method. In doing so, we distinguished tremors from normal earthquakes and background noise using the criteria of source duration and the spectrum ratio between low and high frequencies. Accurate measurement of S- P times, using cross-correlation between vertical and horizontal seismograms, constrains the tremor depth precisely. Tremor activity is low and within a small region in southern Kyushu, where thick crust of the Kyushu-Palau ridge is being subducted, at depths between 35 and 45 km (i.e., shallower than intra-slab earthquakes by about 20 km), which is consistent with the location of the plate interface within uncertainties proposed in previous studies. Establishing precise depth estimates for tectonic tremors beneath Kyushu, which results from shear slip along the plate interface, is useful in defining the plate interface within the Nankai subduction zone.

  19. Information Literacy Education on College of Technology at Kyushu Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozono, Kazutake; Ikeda, Naomitsu; Irie, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Yoichi; Oshima, Shunsuke; Murayama, Koichi; Taguchi, Hirotsugu

    Recently, the importance of an engineering education increases by the development of the information technology (IT) . Development of the information literacy education is important to deal with new IT in the education on college of technology. Our group investigated the current state of information literacy education on college of technology at Kyushu area and the secondary education. In addition, we investigated about the talent whom the industrial world requested. From these investigation results, this paper proposed cooperation with the elementary and secondary education, enhancement of intellectual property education, introduction of information ethics education, introduction of career education and enhancement of PBL to information literacy education on college of technology.

  20. Repeating tectonic tremors on a middle-aged oceanic plate: Kyushu, Japan & North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, S.; Ide, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic tremors and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) are observed in many subduction zones, where typically young and warm oceanic plate is subducting. Here we report the discovery of tectonic tremor in Kyushu, Japan and the North Island of New Zealand, where a middle-aged oceanic plate (>50Ma) is subducting. Generally, old oceanic plate is considered incapable of supplying water near the Moho discontinuity of the overriding plate, where tectonic tremor occurs in warm subduction zones, This is probably because dehydration reaction is delayed by the low temperature of old subducting plate, but the limit of the age or temperature for tremor generation has not been clear yet. Thus the discovery of tremor in middle-aged subduction zones helps to constrain the condition for tremor generation. We apply the envelope correlation method of Ide et al. (2010) to continuous records of Hi-net NIED for Kyushu and Geo-Net for the North Island. In both data sets, we find characteristic waveforms of tectonic tremors, which are dominant in frequency range at 2-8 Hz, with detectable S-wave arrivals and obscure P-waves, and successive for a long time. However, waveforms have very small amplitude, which makes low signal to noise ratio and has prevented detection. In Kyushu, we identify eight tremor episodes repeated almost every eight month, from April 2004 to September 2009. S-P times measured by cross-correlating envelopes between vertical and horizontal components indicate that these tremors occurred at 35-45 km depth, which might be a little shallower than the plate interface, since a receiver function study estimated the local depth of the plate interface as about 50 km (Abe et al., 2011). The distribution of tectonic tremors is limited in a small area, unlike wide and dense tremor activities in the Nankai subduction zone next to Kyushu. Beneath the North Island, Kim et al., (2011) discovered tectonic tremor near the northern end of the island and Fry et al. (2011) detected

  1. Magma generation process beneath volcanic front of Kyushu arc, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Hasenaka, T.; Wallace, P. J.; Yasuda, A.; Mori, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We presents data for major and volatile (H2O, CO2, S, Cl) elements in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Quaternary volcanoes (Aso, Kuju, Kirishima and Kaimon) along volcanic front of Kyushu arc, southwest Japan. Melt inclusion data are corrected for post-entrapment modifications including diffusive Fe-loss, H2O loss and post-entrapment crystallization. The primitive magma compositions calculated from corrected melt inclusion data are used to estimate the degree of partial melting and compositions of slab-derived fluids beneath Kyushu volcanic front. The result show that magmatism of four volcanoes in Kyushu arc is divided into two groups (Group A and B). Group A indicates high K2O contents in primitive magmas and in fluids at Aso and Kuju volcanoes, northern Kyushu arc. Group B indicates low K2O contents in primitive magmas and in fluids at Kirishima and Kaimon volcanoes, southern Kyushu arc. K2O contents of Group A and B are impossible of explaining by degree of partial melting and the origin of hydrous mantle. High K2O content in fluids is attributed to dehydration of phengite-bearing slab at deep depth (about 140 km) in Group A compared with shallow depth (about 100 km) in Group B. Phengite is dehydrated from submerging plate beneath 110 km depth. This study suggests that compositions of primitive magmas beneath Kyushu arc are reflected by the depth of slab and the kind of dehydrating hydrous minerals.

  2. Three new species of the salamander genus Hynobius (Amphibia, Urodela, Hynobiidae) from Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-08-14

    Three new species of lotic breeding Hynobius, formerly assigned to H. boulengeri, are described from the Kyushu region, southwestern Japan. They differ from all the known congeners by a unique combination of body size, character ratios, coloration, mtDNA, and allozymic characteristics. Together with H. stejnegeri they form a clade, which is not a sister group of H. boulengeri, and their speciation in Kyushu is surmised to have occurred at the end of Miocene, accompanied by differentiations in larval period and metamorphosing size. Measures of conservation of these new species are discussed briefly. 

  3. A revised tsunami source model for the 1707 Hoei earthquake and simulation of tsunami inundation of Ryujin Lake, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumura, Takashi; Imai, Kentaro; Maeda, Takuto

    2011-02-01

    Based on many recent findings such as those for geodetic data from Japan's GEONET nationwide GPS network and geological investigations of a tsunami-inundated Ryujin Lake in Kyushu, we present a revised source rupture model for the great 1707 Hoei earthquake that occurred in the Nankai Trough off southwestern Japan. The source rupture area of the new Hoei earthquake source model extends further, to the Hyuga-nada, more than 70 km beyond the currently accepted location at the westernmost end of Shikoku. Numerical simulation of the tsunami using a new source rupture model for the Hoei earthquake explains the distribution of the very high tsunami observed along the Pacific coast from western Shikoku to Kyushu more consistently. A simulation of the tsunami runup into Ryujin Lake using the onshore tsunami estimated by the new model demonstrates a tsunami inundation process; inflow and outflow speeds affect transport and deposition of sand in the lake and around the channel connecting it to the sea. Tsunamis from the 684 Tenmu, 1361 Shokei, and 1707 Hoei earthquakes deposited sand in Ryujin Lake and around the channel connecting it to the sea, but lesser tsunamis from other earthquakes were unable to reach Ryujin Lake. This irregular behavior suggests that in addition to the regular Nankai Trough earthquake cycle of 100-150 years, there is a hyperearthquake cycle of 300-500 years. These greater earthquakes produce the largest tsunamis from western Shikoku to Kyushu.

  4. Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nose, Mine; Miyahara, Fumihiko; Ohira, Mineko; Matsunaga, Koji; Tobase, Masashi; Koyama, Takao; Yoshimoto, Kikuo

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island. PMID:22736814

  5. Geothermal resources of Kyushu, southwest Japan with special focus on the Kuju volcanic region

    SciTech Connect

    Ehara, S.

    1995-12-31

    Tectonic and geothermal backgrounds of Kyushu Island, are described to understand the thermal regime of Kuju volcano. A model for the geothermal system beneath Kuju volcano is presented based on thermal, isotopic and structural data. Based on the model, the geothermal resources beneath Kuju volcano are classified into five categories and are estimated by a volume method. The volcano energy stored beneath Kuju volcano is one of very promising potential resources in Japan. It would seem more reasonable to develop technologies to utilize volcano energy step by step.

  6. Bayesian inference and interpretation of centroid moment tensors of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallo, Miroslav; Asano, Kimiyuki; Gallovič, František

    2017-09-01

    On April 16, 2016, Kumamoto prefecture in Kyushu region, Japan, was devastated by a shallow M JMA7.3 earthquake. The series of foreshocks started by M JMA6.5 foreshock 28 h before the mainshock. They have originated in Hinagu fault zone intersecting the mainshock Futagawa fault zone; hence, the tectonic background for this earthquake sequence is rather complex. Here we infer centroid moment tensors (CMTs) for 11 events with M JMA between 4.8 and 6.5, using strong motion records of the K-NET, KiK-net and F-net networks. We use upgraded Bayesian full-waveform inversion code ISOLA-ObsPy, which takes into account uncertainty of the velocity model. Such an approach allows us to reliably assess uncertainty of the CMT parameters including the centroid position. The solutions show significant systematic spatial and temporal variations throughout the sequence. Foreshocks are right-lateral steeply dipping strike-slip events connected to the NE-SW shear zone. Those located close to the intersection of the Hinagu and Futagawa fault zones are dipping slightly to ESE, while those in the southern area are dipping to WNW. Contrarily, aftershocks are mostly normal dip-slip events, being related to the N-S extensional tectonic regime. Most of the deviatoric moment tensors contain only minor CLVD component, which can be attributed to the velocity model uncertainty. Nevertheless, two of the CMTs involve a significant CLVD component, which may reflect complex rupture process. Decomposition of those moment tensors into two pure shear moment tensors suggests combined right-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip mechanisms, consistent with the tectonic settings of the intersection of the Hinagu and Futagawa fault zones.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. In situ observation of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Murakami, Hirishi; Miyamura, Kazuyoshi; Siawanto, Eko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Joji

    2014-05-01

    Oita coast, where is in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan, is a richly fish aquaculture area. However, sometimes harmful algal blooms occur in this region, especially harmful dinoflagellates blooms, and cultured fish mortality occurs. Ocean color remote sensing is expected as a useful tool to reduce the financial damage of harmful algal blooms. However, ocean color data is low accuracy in the coastal region because colored dissolved organic matter and suspended solid are dominant. More optical data of harmful algal blooms are required because there are few data in harmful algal blooms. The field observation was conducted to understand the inherent optical property of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Oita prefecture on April and August 2013. Chlorophyll-a maximum (>24 mg m^-3) was observed in the subsurface layer on April 2013. The dominant phytoplankton species in this chlorophyll-a maximum layer was dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (>300 cells ml^-1) and early stage of the bloom was formed. Peak of the remote sensing reflectance was near 565nm due to strong phytoplankton absorption within 400 ~ 500 nm domain from the subsurface bloom layer. Moreover, high phytoplankton absorption coefficient was observed at the shorter wavelength (< 400nm). This strong absorption might be due to mycosporine-like amino acids, which absorb the UV (Kahru and Mitchell, 1998). And this subsurface C. polykrikoides bloom was detected by using dinoflagellate bloom detection algorithm, which is a simpler new satellite remote sensing-based harmful algal blooms detection method for JAXA's GCOM-C/SGLI (Siswanto et al., 2013). However, detection of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi bloom by using the algorithm on August 2013 was difficult as colored dissolved organic matter and detritus absorptions were high. Although the algorithm could detect the early stage of C. polycrikoides bloom, the algorithm improvement to detect the harmful algal blooms in the case II

  8. Observations at Kuchinoerabu-jima volcano, southern Kyushu, Japan, by using unmanned helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Kanda, W.; Tameguri, T.; Kazahaya, R.

    2015-12-01

    Kuchinoerabu-jima, volcano is a volcanic island located southern Kyushu, Japan. In 3 August, 2014, a small eruption at active summit crater, Shin-dake, destroyed all the observation stations near the summit. Since then, this volcano was only poorly monitored. After the eruption, entering within 2km from Shin-dake crater was strictly prohibited and thus it was impossible to fix summit stations on site. In April, 2015, we conducted seismic sensor installation by using unmanned helicopter (RMAX-G1 manufactured by Yamaha) so as to reestablish the seismic monitoring network near the summit area. We installed four seismic stations in the summit area. We also conducted various types of near-summit observations including an aero-magnetic measurement over the summit area, taking visual and infra-red images from low altitude, and volcanic gas sampling. We present preliminary results of the near summit observations using unmanned helicopter. The light-weight (5kg) and solar-powered seismic stations were designed exclusively for helicopter installation. They transmit seismic data every 10 minutes by using mobile data communication network. We could install them within 500m from the summit crater on 17, April. On 29 May, Shin-dake crater erupted again and the newly installed seismic stations were all destroyed by this eruption. The seismic stations could transmit data until just before the eruption. These data made us possible to evaluate the change in seismic activity leading up to the eruption. An aero-magnetic survey was conducted on 17 and 18 April. The flight altitude was between 100m and 150m above the ground (i.e a draped magnetic survey) . Path interval is 100m and the total flight path length is 80km. The magnetic intensity data were converted to magnetization of the edifice of Shin-dake. Comparison between the result this time with that obtained in 2001 shows demagnetization near the summit area. Temperature measurement over the summit area detected 368ºC at the

  9. Atmopheric source and prediction of meteotsunamis (Abiki) in the west of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Asano, T.

    2012-12-01

    Abiki is a local name of a meteotsunami in the west Kyushu, Japan, one of the area that such kind of ocean oscillation frequently occurred. The event in March 1979 at Nagasaki port is one of the famous event of meteotsunami, in which the study of the Hibiya and Kajiura (1982) pointed out the propagation of the pressure wave from the west coastal area of the East China Sea, as cited by much of the meteotsunami scientists. The development of synoptic and mesoscale meteorology (e.g, the numerical modelling such as WRF or JMA-NHM, in situ and satellite observation, and gridded dataset technique and so on) has made scientists be able to detect the atmospheric source of the Abiki phenomena. The summary of the common characteristics of the meteorological condition, brought Abiki in the west Kyushu, is as follows. 1) The wet moist air along the subtropical high on the western Pacific Ocean lifted by mountain orography in the South China. Joining the lifted moist air and the dry air mass (RH< 20%) in the mid-troposhere below the subtrobical jet yielded so-called wave-CISK (Conditional Instability for the Second Kind) over the land area of the South Middle China and covered with the East China Sea. 2) In low level air over the East China Sea, the cold air mass brought by the polar front jet stream from the northwest direction. 3) The coupling of the unstable air in the midtroposhere and stable air in the low-level troposphere has generated wave-ducting layer, which can propagate the acoustic gravity wave for a long distance. 4) The wind speed of the midtroposhere over the wave-ducting layer, equivalent to the propagation speed of the atmospheric wave, ranged 25 ~ 35m/s, which is as same as the mean phase speed of the ocean long wave in the East China Sea. 5) The period of the pressure disturbance, both the model output and observation, ranges 10 ~ 60 minutes in the most of cases. This range is as same magnitude as the eigenoscillation period of the small bay (with the length

  10. Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted.

  11. FDM simulation of earthquakes off western Kyushu, Japan, using a land-ocean unified 3D structure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Taro; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hara, Tatsuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Seismic activity occurred off western Kyushu, Japan, at the northern end of the Okinawa Trough on May 6, 2016 (14:11 JST), 22 days after the onset of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence. The area is adjacent to the Beppu-Shimabara graben where the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence occurred. In the area off western Kyushu, a M7.1 earthquake also occurred on November 14, 2015 (5:51 JST), and a tsunami with a height of 0.3 m was observed. In order to better understand these seismic activity and tsunamis, it is necessary to study the sources of, and strong motions due to, earthquakes in the area off western Kyushu. For such studies, validation of synthetic waveforms is important because of the presence of the oceanic water layer and thick sediments in the source area. We show the validation results for synthetic waveforms through nonlinear inversion analyses of small earthquakes ( M5). We use a land-ocean unified 3D structure model, 3D HOT finite-difference method ("HOT" stands for Heterogeneity, Ocean layer and Topography) and a multi-graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration to simulate the wave propagations. We estimate the first-motion augmented moment tensor (FAMT) solution based on both the long-period surface waves and short-period body waves. The FAMT solutions systematically shift landward by about 13 km, on average, from the epicenters determined by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The synthetics provide good reproductions of the observed full waveforms with periods of 10 s or longer. On the other hand, for waveforms with shorter periods (down to 4 s), the later surface waves are not reproduced well, while the first parts of the waveforms (comprising P- and S-waves) are reproduced to some extent. These results indicate that the current 3D structure model around Kyushu is effective for generating full waveforms, including surface waves with periods of about 10 s or longer. Based on these findings, we analyze the 2015 M7.1 event using the cross

  12. Paleomagnetism of Harutagawa formation in the Hohi Volcanic Zone in northeastern part of Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudou, T.; Shibuya, H.

    2008-12-01

    The Beppu-Shimabara graben in the Hohi Volcanic Zone (HVZ) in northeastern part of Kyushu Island, Japan is thought to be a volcano-tectonic depression. Volcanic stratigraphy and age studies of the area have unraveled the late Pliocene structural formation history of HVZ (e.g. Kamata, 1994, Kido, 2007). The age and sedimentation rate of lacustrine deposits in HVZ is one of the keys for interpreting the temporal relation between the formation of Beppu-Shimabara graben and the huge pyroclastic flows appeared in the area. We study the magnetostratigraphy of the Harutagawa formation, which is one of those lacustrine deposits. The formation is dominated by conglomerates and mad stones to siltstones, in the lower and upper parts, respectively, but bares many tuff layers all over the formation. Fission track ages of two tuff layers, one is from lower part and the other is from upper part of Harutagawa formation, are determined as 3.86 ± 0.77Ma and 3.6 ± 0.2Ma, respectively (Kido, 2007). Samples for paleomagnetic analyses have been collected at 28 sites in several continuous outcrop of the Harutagawa formation. The sites are set to be spaced equally in the stratigraphy. Samples were collected by a portable electric motor drill. A few pilot specimens from each site are subjected to progressive thermal and alternating field (AF) demagnetization. However, AF demagnetization is not effective. All remaining specimens are, therefore, submitted to the progressive thermal demagnetization. The samples have mean magnetic intensity of 1.7 × 10- 4A/m and 7.7 × 10-5A/m before and after demagnetization, respectively. Samples from 6 sites have no stable component or are thought to be completely remagnetized by the present magnetic field. As the result, 22 sites are determined their polarities; 8 were reversed and 14 were normal. The normal polarity sites were correlative to Sidufjall, Nunivak and Cochiti subchrons in the Gilbert reversed polarity chron. This correlation indicates that

  13. Three-dimensional electromagnetic imaging of upwelling fluids in the Kyushu subduction zone, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Maki; Oshiman, Naoto; Yoshimura, Ryokei; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Uyeshima, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) lithospheric-scale electrical resistivity model, developed using network-magnetotelluric (network-MT) data, contains structures associated with arc magmatism beneath Kyushu Island in the Southwest Japan arc. Kyushu Island, where the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, can be divided into northern and southern volcanic regions separated by a nonvolcanic region. Many active Quaternary volcanoes occur along the volcanic front (VF) associated with the PSP in the two volcanic regions. Our 3-D electrical resistivity model shows three different shapes of upwelling fluid-like conductive anomalies, indicative of either slab-derived aqueous fluid and/or partial melt beneath the volcanic and nonvolcanic regions. A conductive anomaly in the northern volcanic region, located at some distance from the subducting PSP, extends from the surface to depths of <100 km, whereas another conductive anomaly in the southern volcanic region, located along the subducting PSP at >70 km depth, extends from the surface to depths of >100 km. In the nonvolcanic region, the upper region of a relatively conductive anomaly extends upward to a depth of ~50 km along the subducting plate. The degrees of magmatism and the relative contribution of slab-derived fluids to the magmatism vary spatially in the one nonvolcanic and two volcanic regions.

  14. Correlation between earthquake occurrence and the anomalous propagation of VHF radio waves indicated by the gain and the p-value of prediction maps produced by a simple objective algorithm at the Shimabara area, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, S.; Nakatani, M.; Mogi, T.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic precursors associated with the impending earthquake, such as variations of geoelectric current, total electron contents in the ionosphere, and anomalous transmission of radio waves in the VLF or VHF band, have been observed (ex. Hayakawa, 1996). Recently, some researchers have discussed how these precursory phenomena relate statistically to the impending earthquake (Le et al., 2010; Orihara et al., 2012, Hattori et al., 2013, Han et al. 2014). The observation of anomalous VHF-band radio-wave propagation beyond the line of sight prior to earthquakes is one of candidate method to predict an earthquake. It is considered that the anomalous propagation events were the result of scattering of VHF-band radio waves in preparatory process of immediately prior to earthquakes occurring around the observation area (Kushida and Kushida, 2002 Moriya et al.,2010). And, quantitative correlation between logarithm of the total duration of scattered wave transmission and the magnitude, or maximum seismic intensity has been proposed (Moriya et al., 2010). Hokkaido University monitors this anomalous VHF-band radio-wave propagation at some region which supposed to have the possibility of large earthquakes in Japan. Mw 7.0 earthquake occurred at Kumamoto, April 14th 2016. Before the event, anomalous wave propagation was observed at Shimabara receiving station (west part from the epicenter) which comes from Miyazaki, Shimanto, Kanoya and Niihama broadband station. Though that data is not enough quantity to consider, it is wonder whether these results have the significance statistically. In this study, we used data received at Shimabara station for 2011 to 2016 to make Earthquake prediction maps. If 6 min-average sampled data exceeds a threshold in 2 consecutive samples, we labeled that time as anomaly (Morita and Mogi, 2015, IUGG). After anomaly, we turn ON the alarm for a certain period of time L, and this divide all time into "Alarm ON", "Alarm OFF", and "Undecided (due

  15. Dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, estimated by eigenvectors of gravity gradient tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2016-09-01

    We estimated the dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, by using the dip of the maximum eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor. A series of earthquakes in Kumamoto and Oita beginning on 14 April 2016 occurred along this tectonic line, the largest of which was M = 7.3. Because a gravity gradiometry survey has not been conducted in the study area, we calculated the gravity gradient tensor from the Bouguer gravity anomaly and employed it to the analysis. The general dip distribution of the Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line was found to be about 65° and tends to be higher towards its eastern end. In addition, we estimated the dip around the largest earthquake to be about 60° from the gravity gradient tensor. This result agrees with the dip of the earthquake source fault obtained by Global Navigation Satellite System data analysis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Restoration of the depression structure at the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan by means of dislocation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Takemura, Keiji; Fukuda, Yoichi; Takemoto, Shuzo

    1999-02-01

    We have attempted to restore a subsurface structure in the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan, by combining fault motions which were modeled as dislocation planes embedded in an elastic isotropic half space. The simulated crustal deformation pattern was compared with the subsurface structures estimated from gravity anomalies and/or seismic prospecting. The modeling procedure successfully restored all tectonic basins in the area without any need for motive forces for uplift or subsidence. The results also suggest that two major tectonic events have occurred in this region. Those are (1) the formation of half-graben caused by north-south extension, and (2) the formation of the pull-apart basin caused by east-west compression.

  17. Along-arc variation in water distribution in the upper mantle beneath Kyushu, Japan, as derived from receiver function analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Ohkura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Shibutani, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Kyushu district, Japan, under which the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate is subducting in a WNW direction, has several active volcanoes. On the volcanic front in Kyushu, a 110 km long gap in volcanism exists in the central part of Kyushu and volcanic rocks with various degrees of contamination by slab-derived fluid are distributed. To reveal the causes of the gap in volcanism and the chemical properties of volcanic rocks and to understand the process of magma genesis and water transportation, we should reveal along-arc variation in water distribution beneath Kyushu. We investigated the seismic velocity discontinuities in the upper mantle beneath Kyushu, with seismic waveform data from 65 stations of Hi-net, which are established by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, and 55 stations of the J-array, which are established by Japan Meteorological Agency, Kyushu University, Kagoshima University and Kyoto University. We used receiver function analyses developed especially for discontinuities with high dipping angles (Abe et al., 2011, GJI). We obtained the geometry and velocity contrasts of the continental Moho, the oceanic Moho, and the upper boundary of the PHS slab. From the geometry of these discontinuities and contrast in S wave velocities, we interpreted that the oceanic crust of the PHS slab has a low S wave velocity and is hydrated to a depth of 70 km beneath south Kyushu, to a depth of 80-90 km beneath central Kyushu, and to a depth of no more than 50 km beneath north Kyushu. We also interpreted that the fore-arc mantle beneath central Kyushu has a low velocity region (Vs < 3.2 km/s) that can contain hydrated materials and free aqueous fluid. Such a low velocity fore-arc mantle does not exist beneath north and south Kyushu. Beneath north Kyushu, the oceanic crust does not appear to convey much water in the mantle wedge. Beneath south Kyushu, water dehydrated from the slab could move to the back-arc side and cause arc volcanism

  18. Simulating and analyzing engineering parameters of Kyushu Earthquake, Japan, 1997, by empirical Green function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zongchao; Chen, Xueliang; Gao, Mengtan; Jiang, Han; Li, Tiefei

    2016-09-01

    Earthquake engineering parameters are very important in the engineering field, especially engineering anti-seismic design and earthquake disaster prevention. In this study, we focus on simulating earthquake engineering parameters by the empirical Green's function method. The simulated earthquake (MJMA6.5) occurred in Kyushu, Japan, 1997. Horizontal ground motion is separated as fault parallel and fault normal, in order to assess characteristics of two new direction components. Broadband frequency range of ground motion simulation is from 0.1 to 20 Hz. Through comparing observed parameters and synthetic parameters, we analyzed distribution characteristics of earthquake engineering parameters. From the comparison, the simulated waveform has high similarity with the observed waveform. We found the following. (1) Near-field PGA attenuates radically all around with strip radiation patterns in fault parallel while radiation patterns of fault normal is circular; PGV has a good similarity between observed record and synthetic record, but has different distribution characteristic in different components. (2) Rupture direction and terrain have a large influence on 90 % significant duration. (3) Arias Intensity is attenuating with increasing epicenter distance. Observed values have a high similarity with synthetic values. (4) Predominant period is very different in the part of Kyushu in fault normal. It is affected greatly by site conditions. (5) Most parameters have good reference values where the hypo-central is less than 35 km. (6) The GOF values of all these parameters are generally higher than 45 which means a good result according to Olsen's classification criterion. Not all parameters can fit well. Given these synthetic ground motion parameters, seismic hazard analysis can be performed and earthquake disaster analysis can be conducted in future urban planning.

  19. Simulating and analyzing engineering parameters of Kyushu Earthquake, Japan, 1997, by empirical Green function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zongchao; Chen, Xueliang; Gao, Mengtan; Jiang, Han; Li, Tiefei

    2017-03-01

    Earthquake engineering parameters are very important in the engineering field, especially engineering anti-seismic design and earthquake disaster prevention. In this study, we focus on simulating earthquake engineering parameters by the empirical Green's function method. The simulated earthquake (MJMA6.5) occurred in Kyushu, Japan, 1997. Horizontal ground motion is separated as fault parallel and fault normal, in order to assess characteristics of two new direction components. Broadband frequency range of ground motion simulation is from 0.1 to 20 Hz. Through comparing observed parameters and synthetic parameters, we analyzed distribution characteristics of earthquake engineering parameters. From the comparison, the simulated waveform has high similarity with the observed waveform. We found the following. (1) Near-field PGA attenuates radically all around with strip radiation patterns in fault parallel while radiation patterns of fault normal is circular; PGV has a good similarity between observed record and synthetic record, but has different distribution characteristic in different components. (2) Rupture direction and terrain have a large influence on 90 % significant duration. (3) Arias Intensity is attenuating with increasing epicenter distance. Observed values have a high similarity with synthetic values. (4) Predominant period is very different in the part of Kyushu in fault normal. It is affected greatly by site conditions. (5) Most parameters have good reference values where the hypo-central is less than 35 km. (6) The GOF values of all these parameters are generally higher than 45 which means a good result according to Olsen's classification criterion. Not all parameters can fit well. Given these synthetic ground motion parameters, seismic hazard analysis can be performed and earthquake disaster analysis can be conducted in future urban planning.

  20. Tephrostratigraphy during 3000 years recorded in the sedimentary sequence of Beppu Bay, central Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Yamada, K.; Kuwae, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Danhara, T.

    2012-12-01

    The tephrostratigraphy around Beppu Bay, central Japan, is investigated using a 9m-long sedimentary core (KT09-3) collected in 2009 with a piston corer. Beppu Bay is located to the east of active volcanic region in Kyushu Island in southwest Japan. Eruptive history of their active volcanoes and widespread tephra records may be preserved in the sedimentary sequence in bay environment. A method to determine the down-hole content of volcanic glass was used in this study. This method consists of four steps: (1) continuous measurement of magnetic susceptibility with lithological observation of sediments, (2) systematic separation of the volcanic glass particles from samples taken at close intervals, and the determination of relative concentration; (3) mineral assemblages counted in the size of 63-125 micro meter fraction; (4) precise measurement of the refractive indices of the separated glass particles. A refractive index measuring system (RIMS) based on the thermal immersion method permitted quick and accurate measurement of the refractive index of a large number of samples. Core (KT09-3) is one of fourteen piston and gravity cores which were retrieved at the center of the basin. Correlation of cores was conducted using sand and silt seams related by events such as turbidite or flood or volcanic ash air fall, and the age-depth model was created by wiggle-matching of forty-two AMS radiocarbon dates from bivalve mollusk shells and excess Pb-210 and Cs-137 concentrations (Kuwae et al., 2012). The sedimentation rates were 230-300 cm/ky. Core is composed of massive diatomaceous clays with 18 event sediments of coarse fractions. Two distinct volcanic ash horizons and several cryptically deposited horizons are found within the sequence. Upper distinct volcanic ash of 509.2 cm depth is composed of many volcanic glasses and heavy minerals of Opx and Cpx with GHb and BHb. Most of volcanic glasses have characteristic high refractive index of about 1.559. This tephra is

  1. Eruption sequence of the Suwanoharu tuff ring in the Pliocene Oyano formation, western Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, H.; Yokose, H.

    2005-12-01

    Volcanism in the Ariake sea region, west Kyushu, Japan, where is the northern extension of the Okinawa trough, have been active during the last 5 million years, from Pliocene to present Unzen volcano. The region has been subsided with development of the tectonic graben. Pliocene Oyano formation is predominated in shallow marine pyroclastic deposits including some base surge deposits. A series of stratified pyroclastic deposits, which were originated by phreatomagmatic eruption cycles is exposed on a sea cliff and is considered to be a remnant of tuff ring, which is called Suwanoharu tuff ring. Suwanoharu tuff ring is expected to preserve the complete eruption sequence. The sequence is basically alternation of massive white tuff layers and laminated gray coarse to lapilli tuff layers. We can identify seven eruption cycles bounded by the massive white air fall pyroclastic deposits (unit 1- 7). The gray pyroclastic deposits consist of massive dark gray medium tuff, crudely laminated medium to coarse-grained tuff, inversely graded lapilli tuff, cross-bedded lapilli tuff, and lapillistone and are considered to be a base surge deposit. Ascending to the eruption cycles, the thickness of massive white tuff layers is decreasing, but the gray layers are increasing. Representative samples were collected from 42 horizons of the tuff ring sequence and analyzed the bulk rock chemical compositions using XRF and the mineral assemblages using XRD. The bulk rock chemical compositions of the gray layers changes from andesite at the lower horizon to basalt at the upper horizon. On the other hand, massive white tuff layers have almost identical and are andesite. Because the compositions of basal layers are very similar to the silt of the basement rock, the beds in the unit 1 may have been deposited fragmented basement rocks by the first phreatomagmatic eruption. At the upper layers of the first eruption cycle (unit 1), chlorine contents are up to the maximum level (ca. 4%) and the

  2. Crustal anatexis and melt migrations in the Higo metamorphic terrane, west-central Kyushu, Kumamoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagakawa, K.; Odawara, S.; Osanai, Y.

    1994-03-01

    This paper deals with the anatectic migmatites and leucogranites developed in a high- T, low- P metamorphic terrane, Kyushu, Japan. The migmatites in this terrane are divided into metatexites and diatexites and they occur at and above the garnet-cordierite grade. Layers, lenses and pods of leucogranite (a few centimeters up to 6 m in thickness) are wide-spread in the metamorphic terrane and are most abundant, not in the highest grade zone, but in intermediate grade zones, in which migmatites do not develop. The migmatite leucosomes are typically depleted in orthoclase component, while many leucogranites contain abundant orthoclase. It is suggested that the leucogranites are crystal cumulates precipitated from peraluminous melts, that had been generated and ascended from deeper levels in the crust and that the zone of metatectic migmatites represents both the source region and passage region for the anatectic melts. It is thus clear that the anatectic melts had segregated and ascended on the order of 5 km in the crust of this region. Diatexites on the other hand represent solid-melt mixtures at more advanced stages of partial melting, dominated by biotite breakdown. Implications of the observations made in the Higo terrane are discussed in reference to an evolutionary scheme for crustal anatexis and granite magma genesis.

  3. Re-evaluation of the regional tectonic stress fields and faulting regimes in central Kyushu, Japan, behind the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    To re-evaluate the regional tectonic stress fields in central Kyushu, Japan, the region in which the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes occurred on 14 April 2016 (Mw 6.2) and 16 April (Mw 7.0), the faulting regimes in central Kyushu were analyzed using the focal mechanisms of this earthquake sequence. Results show that almost all of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring along the active Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone fall into two spatial faulting regimes: a strike-slip (SS) regime along this fault zone and a pure normal faulting (NF) regime without or with minor strike-slip component in the northern part of this fault zone. In terms of the relationship between the two horizontal principal stresses acting on Kyushu Island, these two regimes are regarded as a set of tectonics stress fields. The highly accumulated strain energy along this fault zone and asymmetrically unbalanced stress condition for the maximum horizontal principal stress acting on the east-west sides of the crustal blocks in this area expected from a pair of these two regimes might explain the relatively large number of aftershocks following the Kumamoto Earthquake as compared to other recent inland earthquakes in the Japanese Islands. From the results of the present analyses, it is considered that the regional stress field of Honshu Island could be extended to Kyushu Island and that the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate may have been affecting the stress field in Kyushu since the late Miocene.

  4. Monitoring Heat Losses Using Landsat ETM + Thermal Infrared Data: a Case Study in Unzen Geothermal Field, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md. Bodruddoza; Bromley, Chris J.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2013-12-01

    The Unzen geothermal field, our study area, is situated in the Shimabara Peninsula of Kyushu Island in Japan and is an area of active fumaroles.. Our prime objectives were (1) to estimate radiative heat flux (RHF), (2) to calculate approximately the heat discharge rate (HDR) using the relationship of RHF with the total heat loss derived from two geothermal field studies, and (3) finally, to monitor RHF as well as HDR in our study area using seven sets of Landsat 7 ETM + images from 2000 to 2009. We used the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) method for spectral emissivity estimation, the mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST), and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation analyzing those satellite TIR images for RHF. We estimated that the maximum RHF was about 251 W/m2 in 2005 and minimum was about 27 W/m2 in 2001. The highest total RHF was about 39.1 MW in 2005 and lowest was about 12 MW in 2001 in our study region. We discovered that the estimated RHF was about 15.7 % of HDR from our studies. We applied this percentage to estimate HDR in Unzen geothermal area. The monitoring results showed a single fold trend of HDR from 2000 to 2009 with highest about 252 MW in 2005 and lowest about 78 MW in 2001. In conclusion, TIR remote sensing is thought as the best option for monitoring heat losses from fumaroles with high efficiency and low cost.

  5. Hydrological Observation on the Water Budget at the Cornfield in Northern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueda, T.; Shimada, J.; Ohba, K.; Maruyama, A.; Yamamiya, K.

    2007-12-01

    If global warming will proceed constantly, we may face the crisis of decreasing available water. To use limited water resource for agriculture efficiently, it is important to understand the hydrological cycle and to analyze the water budget in agricultural land. Although there are various factors related to hydrological cycle in agricultural land, it is not well known how these factors contribute to the process of hydrological cycle. In order to reply to this problem, we observed the components on the water budget at the feed-crop cornfield in northern Kyushu, Japan. The study cornfield is on the pyroclastic flow deposits upland at the foot of Mt. Aso caldera. The observation period is from May to August, 2007 that corresponds to the period between seeding and harvesting of the corn. When corns were harvested, they were about 2.5m tall. During three months growing periods, it is thought that the content of the water budget was different at each growing stage. As corns grew taller and taller, corn leaves intercepted rainfall more and more to prevent the direct free-throughfall to the soil surface because of shapes of corn leaves. For this study, we defined three water budget equations. They were based on 1) distribution of gross rainfall through the corn canopy, 2) components of evapotranspiration, and 3) water budget around the soil surface, respectively. Because these equations must be correlated each other, we could evaluate the interception and the fluctuation of soil water content which are related above three water budget equations. Also we observed the fluctuation of soil water content during rainfall-infiltration process by using the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We also evaluate the water budget during the whole period between seeding and harvesting by using the all monitored hydrological elements; gross rainfall, throughfall, stem flow, interception loss, surface evaporation, transpiration, soil water content, surface flow, and infiltration.

  6. Observations of eruption clouds from Sakura-zima volcano, Kyushu, Japan from Skylab 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.D.; Heiken, G.; Randerson, D.; McKay, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    Hasselblad and Nikon stereographic photographs taken from Skylab between 9 June 1973 and 1 February 1974 give synoptic plan views of several entire eruption clouds emanating from Sakura-zima volcano in Kagoshima Bay, Kyushu, Japan. Analytical plots of these stereographic pairs, studied in combination with meteorological data, indicate that the eruption clouds did not penetrate the tropopause and thus did not create a stratospheric dust veil of long residence time. A horizontal eddy diffusivity of the order of 106 cm2 s-1 and a vertical eddy diffusivity of the order of 105 cm2 s-1 were calculated from the observed plume dimensions and from available meteorological data. These observations are the first, direct evidence that explosive eruption at an estimated energy level of about 1018 ergs per paroxysm may be too small under atmospheric conditions similar to those prevailing over Sakura-zima for volcanic effluents to penetrate low-level tropospheric temperature inversions and, consequently, the tropopause over northern middle latitudes. Maximum elevation of the volcanic clouds was determined to be 3.4 km. The cumulative thermal energy release in the rise of volcanic plumes for 385 observed explosive eruptions was estimated to be 1020 to 1021 ergs (1013 to 1014 J), but the entire thermal energy release associated with pyroclastic activity may be of the order of 2.5 ?? 1022 ergs (2.5 ?? 1015 J). Estimation of the kinetic energy component of explosive eruptions via satellite observation and meteorological consideration of eruption clouds is thus useful in volcanology as an alternative technique to confirm the kinetic energy estimates made by ground-based geological and geophysical methods, and to aid in construction of physical models of potential and historical tephra-fallout sectors with implications for volcano-hazard prediction. ?? 1976.

  7. Characteristics of landslides in unwelded pyroclastic flow deposits, southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamao, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Gomi, T.; Imaizumi, F.

    2015-10-01

    We investigated 184 landslides that occurred in unwelded pyroclastic flow deposits (Shirasu) on southern Kyushu Island, Japan, that included detailed data on the rainfall characteristics and the timing of slope failure. Localized rainfall intensity, antecedent rainfall, and topography affected the hydrologic processes that triggered landslides. Antecedent rainfall (adjusted for evapotranspiration losses) for large (> 200 mm) storms that triggered landslides was much lower than for smaller (≤ 200 mm) storms. Mean storm intensity and antecedent 7 day rainfall (API7) thresholds of > 5 mm h-1 and ≤ 30 mm (or API30 ≤ 60 mm), respectively, were useful to identify landslides triggered by rapid pore water pressure response, especially for shorter (< 20 h) duration events. During smaller storms with lower intensity, landslides are likely affected by a combined increase in soil weight and loss of suction when API30 ≥ 150 mm; simulations indicated that these weight and suction changes due to rainfall accumulation decreased factor of safety in steep Shirasu slopes, but did not necessarily trigger the landslides. All but two of the 21 landslides that plotted below a general rainfall intensity-duration threshold for landslide initiation had API30 values > 235 mm, indicating that they were highly influenced by the combined effects of the accumulated weight of rainfall and loss of suction. Our findings show that both event rainfall characteristics and antecedent conditions affect the hydrogeomorphic processes that trigger different types of landslides in Shirasu. This knowledge and the thresholds we have identified are useful for predicting the occurrence of different types of landslides in Shirasu deposits and improving sediment disaster prevention practices, including real-time warning systems.

  8. Characteristics of landslides in unwelded pyroclastic flow deposits, southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamao, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Gomi, T.; Imaizumi, F.

    2016-03-01

    We investigated 184 landslides that occurred in unwelded pyroclastic flow deposits (Shirasu) on southern Kyushu Island, Japan, that included detailed data on the rainfall characteristics and the timing of slope failure. Localized rainfall intensity, antecedent precipitation index (API), and topography affected the hydrologic processes that triggered landslides. API (adjusted for evapotranspiration losses) for large ( > 200 mm) storms that triggered landslides was much lower than for smaller ( ≤ 200 mm) storms. Mean storm intensity and 7-day API (API7) thresholds of > 5 mmh-1 and ≤ 30 mm (or API30 ≤ 60 mm), respectively, were useful to identify landslides triggered by rapid pore water pressure response, especially for shorter ( < 20 h) duration events. During smaller storms with lower intensity, landslides are likely affected by a combined increase in soil weight and loss of suction when API30 ≥ 150 mm; simulations indicated that these weight and suction changes due to rainfall accumulation decreased the factor of safety in steep Shirasu slopes, but did not necessarily trigger the landslides. Most of the landslides that were plotted below a general rainfall intensity-duration threshold for landslide initiation occurred during smaller storms with API30 values > 200 mm, indicating that they were highly influenced by the combined effects of the accumulated weight of rainfall and loss of suction. Our findings show that both event rainfall characteristics and API affect the hydrogeomorphic processes that trigger different types of landslides in Shirasu. This knowledge and the thresholds we have identified are useful for predicting the occurrence of different types of landslides in unwelded Shirasu deposits and improving sediment disaster prevention practices, including real-time warning systems.

  9. Distribution patterns of salinity and 222Rn in Yatsushiro Inland Sea, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikpeyman, Y.; Ono, N.; Hosono, T.; Yang, H.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Shimada, J.; Takikawa, K.

    2015-03-01

    Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), as a way through which solutes and nutrients travel from terrestrial areas towards coastal areas, is part of the hydrological cycle. Various methods are used to locate SGD at different scales. Among them, 222Rn has been developed with the viewpoint of accurate local estimations of SGD points indirectly. This research aims to identify SGD areas in the Yatsushiro Sea, southwest Japan, using the 222Rn method, while considering rivers with high 222Rn concentration in the study area. The area is an inland sea with high tidal fluctuations and there is a large contribution between the sea and groundwater, which are greatly affected by rivers. A multi-detector 222Rn survey has been carried out simultaneously with sea water electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature. In addition, several river grab samples were analysed for 222Rn concentration. Considering the sea water radon distribution and river characteristics, several points were selected for future SGD volume estimations.

  10. Repeat Absolute and Relative Gravity Measurements for Geothermal Reservoir Monitoring in the Ogiri Geothermal Field, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, J.; Umeda, C.; Fujimitsu, Y.; Takayama, J.; Hiraga, N.; Higuchi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Repeat hybrid microgravity measurements were conducted around the Ogiri Geothermal Field on the western slope of Kirishima volcano, southern Kyushu, Japan. This study was undertaken to detect the short-term gravity change caused by the temporary shutdown of production and reinjection wells for regular maintenance in 2011 and 2013. Repeat microgravity measurements were taken using an A-10 absolute gravimeter (Micro-g LaCoste) and CG-5 gravimeter (Scintrex) before and after regular maintenance. Both instruments had an accuracy of 10 μgal. The gravity stations were established at 27 stations (two stations for absolute measurements and 25 stations for relative measurements). After removal of noise effects (e.g., tidal movement, precipitation, shallow groundwater level changes), the residual gravity changes were subdivided into five types of response. We detected a gravity decrease (up to 20 μgal) in the reinjection area and a gravity increase (up to 30 μgal) in the production area 1 month after the temporary shutdown. Most of the gravity stations recovered after the maintenance. The temporal density changes in the geothermal reservoir were estimated based on these gravity changes.

  11. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.

    2012-12-01

    Many droughts (shortage of water) have broken out by extreme small amount rainfall in recent Japan. So far,in order to prevent these droughts,artificial rainfall methods with 'AgI' or 'dry ice' have been widely used in Japan. However,these methods have many problems,which a large amount of overcooling liquid in the cumulus cloud was not able to be converted into precipitation efficiently. So as to solve these problems,new artificial rainfall method using liquid carbon dioxide (LC) was proposed by Fukuta (1996). This new method consists of the generation of ice particles by homogeneous nucleation using LC and the subsequent more effective growth for ice particles without competition process. And, this method is called 'Low-Level Penetration Seeding of Homogeneous Ice Nucleant (LOLEPSHIN)' ; this induces a 'Roll-up Expansion of Twin Horizontal Ice-crystal Thermals (RETHIT)' and a subsequent 'Falling growth-Induced Lateral Air Spreading (FILAS)'. This LC method was applied to thin super-cooled cumulus clouds in Saga prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan on February 4,2006. The seeding airplane took off the Atugi Airport in Kanagawa Prefecture toward the Iki Island around 0830JST. Many cloud bands were cofirmed in the flight going to the experimental area and the cloud base temperature was approximately -9C (1200m). Scince some young developing thin cumuli were found over the Iki Island, LC seeding to these clouds was carried out two times from 0841JST until 0919JST penetrating the -9C (1200m) altitude. The first precipitation seeding ebded in failure. The second penetration seeding was done for 115 seconds around 0917JST. This penetration led to success of developing one artificial echo (Echo I) in the leeward side of the Iki Island. Eco I moved from NNW to SSW. The maximum area of Echo I were 48km2 (at 1033JST) and first comfirmed by the Kyushu University radar (KU radar) at 1006JST (46 min. after LC seeding) around Mt.Sefuri in Saga Prefecture. It can be inferred that

  12. Differential energy radiation from two earthquakes in Japan with identical Mw: The Kyushu 1996 and Tottori 2000 earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine two closely located earthquakes in Japan that had identical moment magnitudes Mw but significantly different energy magnitudes Me. We use teleseismic data from the Global Seismograph Network and strong-motion data from the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's K-Net to analyze the 19 October 1996 Kyushu earthquake (Mw 6.7, Me 6.6) and the 6 October 2000 Tottori earthquake (Mw 6.7, Me 7.4). To obtain regional estimates of radiated energy ES we apply a spectral technique to regional (<200 km) waveforms that are dominated by S and Lg waves. For the thrust-fault Kyushu earthquake, we estimate an average regional attenuation Q(f) 230f0:65. For the strike-slip Tottori earthquake, the average regional attenuation is Q(f) 180f0:6. These attenuation functions are similar to those derived from studies of both California and Japan earthquakes. The regional estimate of ES for the Kyushu earthquake, 3:8 ?? 1014 J, is significantly smaller than that for the Tottori earthquake, ES 1:3 ?? 1015 J. These estimates correspond well with the teleseismic estimates of 3:9 ?? 1014 J and 1:8 ?? 1015 J, respectively. The apparent stress (Ta = ??Es/M0 with ?? equal to rigidity) for the Kyushu earthquake is 4 times smaller than the apparent stress for the Tottori earthquake. In terms of the fault maturity model, the significantly greater release of energy by the strike-slip Tottori earthquake can be related to strong deformation in an immature intraplate setting. The relatively lower energy release of the thrust-fault Kyushu earthquake can be related to rupture on mature faults at a subduction environment. The consistence between teleseismic and regional estimates of ES is particularly significant as teleseismic data for computing ES are routinely available for all large earthquakes whereas often there are no near-field data.

  13. Magma Genesis of Sakurajima, the Quaternary post- Aira caldera volcano, southern Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Suzuki, J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Miki, D.; Takemura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Sakurajima volcano is the Quaternary post-caldera volcano of Aira caldera, which was caused by the eruption of huge amount of silicic pyroclastics, situated on Ryukyu arc, southern Kyushu Island, Japan. This volcano is quite active, so it can be considered that the preparation of next caldera-forming eruption with huge amount of silicic magma is proceeding. It is, therefore, expected that the investigation of magma genesis of Sakurajima volcano give us information for the mechanism generating huge amount of silicic magma, which cause the caldera formation. We analyzed major and trace elements with Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of volcanic rocks from Sakurajima volcano. We sampled (ol) - opx - cpx - pl andesite and dacite from almost all the volcanic units defined by Fukuyama and Ono (1981). In addition to Sakurajima samples, we also studied basaltic rocks erupted at pre-caldera stage of the Aira caldera to estimate the primary magma of Sakurajima volcano. Major and trace element variations generally show linear trends on the Harker diagrams, with the exception of P2O5 and TiO2. Based on the trend of P2O5 vs.SiO2, we divided studied samples low-P (P2O5 < 0.15 wt. %) and high-P (P2O5 > 0.15 wt. %) groups and these groups also display two distinct trends on TiO2-SiO2 diagram. The composition of trace elements shows typical island arc character as depletion of Nb and enrichments of Rb, K and Pb, suggesting addition of aqueous fluids to the mantle wedge. The Zr and Nb concentrations make a liner trend (Zr/Nb = 27) and this trend across from tend of MORB (Zr/Nb = 35) to that of crustal materials (Zr/Nb=17). The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions broadly plot to on the mixing curve connecting MORB-type mantle and sediments of the Philippine Sea Plate, indicating that the primary magma was generated by partial melting of MORB-type mantle wedge, which was hydrated with fluids derived from the subducted Philippine Sea sediments. But we found that our data plot apart

  14. Climate Change, Resource Management and Human Safety in the Watershed -The Nishinotani Stream Case Study, Kyushu; Japan-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Fandiño, V.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is occurring already and heavy rain appears to be one of the many indicators. This requires revisiting the integration of resource management and policy making particularly in mountainous areas exposed to flashfloods with the view of increasing human safety too. Devastating flooding took place in the main island of Kyushu due to heavy rain during the second week of July 2012 causing major devastation in various watershed, cities and towns. This event has been tagged as unprecedented although a similar one with records of 27 inches of rain occurred in 1953 as reported in the literature and newspapers of the time. Levels of 7 inches per hour and about 31 inches of raining 72 hours were recorded in certain parts of the island causing most of the rivers to burst their banks, and produce large landslides in Kumamoto, Oita, Fukushima and Saga Prefectures. One of the many impacted upper watersheds belong to the Hoshino-Yokoyamawa river in the Minou Renzan mountains in Yame City; Fukuoka Prefecture. The Yokoyamawa waters flow downstream within high concrete walls with sporadic containments while receiving various affluents along its course. This type of embankment's design is typical of steep river courses and large seasonal discharge fluctuations, which is typical of many rivers in Japan. Along the embankments there are forest areas mainly of Japanese cedar (Sugi), bamboo trees as well as rice growing terraces and farmer houses. The lack of proper environmental management, safe planning by the local municipalities and peoples awareness came to light in many areas after the floods resulting in large damage. A particular case in point was identified in the Nishinotani stream, which feeds the Yokoyamawa River where a large farmer's house and rice field was built directly facing the stream flow direction. Furthermore, the municipality built a small bridge over the stream to allow for traffic. Both proved to be most inappropriate and unwise decisions causing

  15. Constraining tephra dispersion and deposition from three subplinian explosions in 2011 at Shinmoedake volcano, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Fukashi; Nagai, Masashi; Nakada, Setsuya; Burden, Rose E.; Engwell, Samantha; Suzuki, Yuki; Kaneko, Takayuki

    2014-06-01

    Constraining physical parameters of tephra dispersion and deposition from explosive volcanic eruptions is a significant challenge, because of both the complexity of the relationship between tephra distribution and distance from the vent and the difficulties associated with direct and comprehensive real-time observations. Three andesitic subplinian explosions in January 2011 at Shinmoedake volcano, Japan, are used as a case study to validate selected empirical and theoretical models using observations and field data. Tephra volumes are estimated using relationships between dispersal area and tephra thickness or mass/area. A new cubic B-spline interpolation method is also examined. Magma discharge rate is estimated using theoretical plume models incorporating the effect of wind. Results are consistent with observed plume heights (6.4-7.3 km above the vent) and eruption durations. Estimated tephra volumes were 15-34 × 106 m3 for explosions on the afternoon of 26 January and morning of 27 January, and 5.0-7.6 × 106 m3 for the afternoon of 27 January; magma discharge rates were in the range 1-2 × 106 kg/s for all three explosions. Clast dispersal models estimated plume height at 7.1 ± 1 km above the vent for each explosion. The three subplinian explosions occurred with approximately 12-h reposes and had similar mass discharge rates and plume heights but decreasing erupted magma volumes and durations.

  16. Epidemiological study of hepatitis E virus infection in the general population of Okinawa, Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sawayama, Yasunori; Hayashi, Jun

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in the general population of Japan by determining presence of the antibody to HEV (anti-HEV). The prevalence of HEV infection was determined by positivity of serum antibody to HEV (anti-HEV). On retrospective analysis, a significant decrease in anti-HEV prevalence was found in Okinawa healthy residents from 1995 (15.8%) to 2005 (5.5%) (P < 0.0001). In 2005, the anti-HEV prevalence was significantly higher in Okinawa wild boar hunters (25.3%) than in the residents (male 7.7% and female 4.1%) (P < 0.0001). A significant difference was found in the history of consumption of undercooked or raw boar meat between anti-HEV positive and negative hunters (100% vs 64.3%) (P = 0.0018). In conclusion, the anti-HEV prevalence has decreased in the residents of this area, but HEV infection has continued at a high rate in the hunters through the custom of eating undercooked or raw boar meat.

  17. Imaging and 2.5D Modeling of Receiver Functions from Deep Virtual Receivers in Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Ueda, T.; Murakoshi, T.; Okamoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Receiver function analysis is very useful tool to image the seismic velocity structures. We apply it to image seismic structure beneath Kyushu island, Japan. Kyushu region is characterized by active subduction of the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) beneath the Eurasian plate and many active volcanoes. In this study, we use teleseismic records from Hi-net seismic stations (borehole stations) and F-net stations (near-surface stations) in Kyushu, which are supplied by the NIED. Because most of these seismic stations are located at the top or in the sedimentary layer, the records may include strong effect of reverberation within the sedimentary layer, and this effect makes the image of the structure unclear. To overcome this problem, we exploit the modified S-wavevector receiver functions (SWV-RFs). The SWV-RFs are derived by deconvolving the upgoing S-wave component with the upgoing P-wave component of the records. Although it was originally proposed for surface records by Reading et al. (2003, GRL), we use Takenaka and Murakoshi's (2010) method in which we virtually move the seismic sensor at the surface or in the borehole down to the top of the basement layer and calculate the SWV-RFs at that location for suppressing the sedimentary layer effect. This method needs the structure model from the surface to the virtual sensor location. Here we apply the Integrated Velocity Structure Model by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. We take several cross sections in Kyushu Island to map the calculated SWV-RFs. We then interpret the continental Moho and low velocity zones in the SWV-RFs. The Moho depth beneath Kyushu varies from 25 km to 33 km. We found two types of exceptional occurrence of 'inverted' Moho (IM): one is the top of sill-like low velocity zones just under active volcanoes, and the other is non-sill type events beneath fore-arc regions of northern Kyushu, which may be attributed to dehydration of PHS. The latter-type IM has been observed by Abe et al

  18. Numerical modeling of the three-layered hydrothermal system in the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araragi, K.; Ehara, S.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical modeling of hydrothermal systems beneath active volcanoes has been conducted. Their purposes were, however, confined to interpret individual geothermal systems. We constructed a numerical model of the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan using 3-D finite-difference code HYDROTHERM ver.2.2 (Hayba and Ingebritsen, 1994). The central part of Kuju volcano is categorized as an active magmatic hydrothermal system. Otake-Hatchobaru geothermal area, where two geothermal power plants are in operation, is known as a typical liquid dominated hydrothermal system. These two types of geothermal systems are closely located in the region. Moreover, subsurface horizontal temperature distributions in the Kuju volcanic region consist of a three-layered structure. A horizontal temperature anomaly at a depth of -2000m separates into two anomalies at depths of about 0m. Five anomalies appear in the horizontal temperature distribution of 80m depth. Geothermal systems or such characteristics of the thermal structure should be related to the influence of the magma chamber in the region. Existence of molten magma was suggested from seismic observations (Yoshikawa et al., 2005). Therefore, we presumed that the geothermal systems in Otake- Hatchobaru geothermal area and in the central part of Kuju volcano can be explained by a common magma chamber. We determined the calculation time as 40000 based on the age of the latest large pyroclastic flow deposit (Kamata, 1997). The temperature of the magma chamber in the model was maintained at a constant value during the calculation. Parameter studies of crustal permeabilities were conducted to reproduce temperature profiles obtained by logging at shallow depths (NEDO, 1987). The calculated results show that temperature anomalies in the basement rock seemed to be directly affected by the magma chamber. The results also indicate that molten materials have been continuously supplied from the bottom of the magma chamber of Kuju volcano

  19. Complex vertical migration of larvae of the ghost shrimp, Nihonotrypaea harmandi, in inner shelf waters of western Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Akio; Mandal, Sumit; Agata, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Ikumi; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kanehara, Hisao; Aoshima, Takashi; Fukuda, Yasushi; Tsukamoto, Hideshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    The position of meroplanktonic larvae in the water column with depth-dependent current velocities determines horizontal transport trajectories. For those larvae occurring in inner shelf waters, little is known about how combined diel and tidally-synchronized vertical migration patterns shift ontogenetically. The vertical migration of larvae of Nihonotrypaea harmandi (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Callianassidae) was investigated in mesotidal, inner shelf waters of western Kyushu, Japan in July-August 2006. The larval sampling at seven depth layers down to 60 m was conducted every 3 h for 36 h in a 68.5-m deep area 10 km off a major coastal adult habitat. Within a 61-65-m deep area 5-7.5 km off the adult habitat, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a concentration, and photon flux density were measured, and water currents there were characterized from harmonic analysis of current meter data collected in 2008. The water column was stratified, with pycnocline, chlorophyll a concentration maximum, and 2% of photon flux density at 2 m, recorded at around 22-24 m. The stratified residual currents were detected in their north component, directed offshore and onshore in the upper and lower mixed layers, respectively. More than 87% of larvae occurred between 20 m and 60 m, producing a net onshore transport of approximately 1.3 km d -1. At the sunset flooding tide, all zoeal-stage larvae ascended, which could further promote retention (1.4-km potential onshore transport in 3 h). The actual onshore transport of larvae was detected by observing their occurrence pattern in a shallow embayment area with the adult habitat for 24 h in October 1994. However, ontogenetic differences in the vertical migration pattern in inner shelf waters were also apparent, with the maximum mean positions of zoeae deepening with increasing stages. Zoeae I and II performed a reverse diel migration, with their minimum and maximum depths being reached around noon and midnight, respectively. Zoeae IV

  20. Impact and issues of detecting fetal congenital heart defects in Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikane, Yukako; Yoshizato, Toshiyuki; Maeno, Yasuki; Nishibatake, Makoto; Kan, Nobuhiko; Fusazaki, Naoki; Hirose, Shinichi

    2011-07-01

    To determine the current status of fetal CHD screening in our region and to establish a CHD screening system in Japan. Subjects were 168 fetuses prenatally-diagnosed with CHD at four referral centers in Japan from 2003 to 2007. Subjects were divided into two groups: group A (n = 84) included cases without extracardiac sonographic abnormalities and known risk factors for CHD and group B (n = 84) included those with extracardiac sonographic abnormalities or risk factors. The diagnostics and outcomes between the groups were analyzed. There were more cases of single ventricle and restrictive ductus arteriosus and fewer cases of ventricular septal defect and double outlet right ventricle in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). In group A, the most frequent referral reason was an abnormal four-chamber view. In group B, 37 cases had chromosomal anomalies. The mortality rates in group B were higher than those in group A (P < 0.05). There were no differences in mortality rates between fetuses without chromosomal anomalies in group B and group A. Prenatally-diagnosed CHD were mostly limited to those cases with obvious abnormalities in the four-chamber view or those with chromosomal anomalies. Prenatal detection of CHD is useful for the prediction of outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp., a common parasite from wild boar in Kyushu Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uni, S; Bain, O; Takaoka, H; Miyashita, M; Suzuki, Y

    2001-09-01

    We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. This study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. Compared with Onchocerca dewittei dewittei from Sus scrofa jubatus in Malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. In addition, its microfilariae (from uteri) are shorter (192-210 microns compared with 228-247 microns), and only the posterior third of the microfilarial body is coiled, instead of the entire body. The Onchocerca species parasitic in suids (these two subspecies and O. ramachandrini from the warthog in the Ethiopian region) form a group sharing several characters. Among the most unusual characters are the body swellings (a specialized apparatus for mating, known in only a few other genera). In addition, longitudinal cuticular crests were found on males of both subspecies from wild boar and on females of O. ramachandrini.

  2. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  3. Distribution of trace metals in the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and crabs from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Szefer, P.; Frelek, K.; Geldon, J.

    1997-01-01

    Oysters are known to be exceptional accumulators of Zn and Cu, and their tissue concentrations appear to reflect contamination of metals. According to Lauenstein and Dolvin, oysters clearly have a greater affinity for Ag, Cu and Zn than do mussels, while mussels have greater affinity for Cr and Pb. Oysters have been considered to be potential bioindicators for monitoring metallic pollution in marine environments. Extensive investigations of oysters from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, have been performed. The aim of the study was to examine spatial differences in metal concentrations in soft tissues of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and whole bodies (soft tissues with shells) of the crabs Goetice depressa and Leptodius exaratus inhabiting the Japanese coastal region of the Pacific. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Mercury and other trace metals (Ag, Cr, Co, and Ni) in soft tissue and byssus of Mytilus edulis from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Szefer, P; Ikuta, K; Frelek, K; Zdrojewska, I; Nabrzyski, M

    1999-05-19

    Concentrations of Hg and other metals such as Ag, Cr, Co and Ni in soft tissues and byssi of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from three sites along the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, were determined by a cold-vapor technique. Large inter-regional differences in metal concentrations in both soft tissues and byssi were observed. The tissue concentrations of Hg were significantly greater in M. edulis from the most contaminated locations (Saganoseki) compared to those from a non-industrialized area (Urashiro). It is evident that, compared to the soft tissue, byssus is a more sensitive biomonitor for Hg, Cr, Co and Ni. From the data obtained in the present study evidently results that the soft tissue and especially byssi of M. edulis appear to be good bioindicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to Hg contaminants.

  5. Sr and Nd isotope compositions of atmospheric mineral dust at the summit of Mt. Sefuri, north Kyushu, southwest Japan: A marker of the dust provenance and seasonal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Tomoharu; Hamamoto, Reiko; Yanagi, Takeru

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed Rb-Sr-Nd isotope ratios of mineral dust in total aerosol load collected with rainwater continuously from 1998 to 2006 at the summit of Mt. Sefuri, northern Kyushu, southwestern Japan. During this period, the total mass of the dust generally increased in late winter, peaked in early spring, and then decreased. 87Sr/ 86Sr in atmospheric mineral dust varied from 0.7096 to 0.7180, and ɛNd(0) CHUR from -19.9 to -3.5. During heavy deposition periods, the dust had high 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratios and low to middle ɛNd(0) CHUR values, respectively. These compositions are comparable to those of sand and loess in arid areas of Northeast China, Takla Makan and Western Beijing. Such particles were transported by westerlies from those areas to northern Kyushu in winter and spring. In summer and autumn, the isotopic compositions of the dust varied greatly; however, during light deposition periods, the Sr isotope composition was low. In these seasons, the contributions to the dust from Japanese soils and volcanic ash, transported by southern winds, were relatively larger than in winter and spring because of decreased mineral dust particle transport from the continent. Nevertheless, fine sandy desert particles and loess in general accounted for most mineral dust deposition in northern Kyushu year-round, even in summer. Local soils derived from weathered granite and volcanic ash were minor components only. The net mass of water-insoluble inorganic matter in the collected mineral dust fluctuated from year-to-year; deposition on Mt. Sefuri was relatively large before 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2005, and increased greatly in spring 2006. These year-to-year differences probably reflected changes in the strength of the westerlies and in climate conditions in the arid source areas.

  6. Seismic Structure of the Northernmost Ryukyu Subduction Zone, Southward Offshore of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, A.; Oikawa, M.; Kaneda, K.; Kasahara, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Philippine Sea plate subducts northwest beneath the Eurasian Plate along the Nankai Trough in the north and the Nansei-Shoto (Ryukyu) Trench in the south at a rate of about 50-60 mm/year. Magnitude 8-class earthquakes occurred repeatedly along the Nankai Trough in the northeastern neighborhood, while the largest earthquake ever recorded is at most 7.6 along the northernmost Ryukyu Trench in the southern neighborhood. We carried out five ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) and multi-channel seismic (MCS) profiles in the northernmost Ryukyu subduction zone and obtained seismic velocity structural models related to the characteristics of the earthquakes in this region. For each investigation in 2005 and 2006, we shot a tuned airgun array with a volume of 8,040 cubic inches at an interval of 200 m for the wide-angle seismic profiles and at 50 m for the MCS (480 channels, 60 folds) profiles. The OBSs were deployed at an average interval of 5 km, which provided us dense data of high quality. The OBS data were modeled by a tomographic inversion, two-dimensional ray tracing and synthetic seismograms. The obtained MCS records show distinct reflections from the subducting plate boundary beneath the landward slope of the Ryukyu Trench and low velocity (Vp < 4 km/s) and thick (~ 8 km) materials above and on the decollement zone are modeled from the OBS data. Both the MCS and OBS records give clear images of very rough sea bottom configuration of the northern extension of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and Amami Plateau below the landward slope. Such strong undulations of the plate boundary may constrain the sizes and/or natures of the asperities in this region. In addition, the estimated position of the seismic asperity of 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake (Mw 7.5) corresponds to high velocity materials ascending in our P-wave velocity model.

  7. Genesis of high-magnesium andesites and associated basalts from Saga-Futagoyama, northwest Kyushu, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashima, H.

    2009-10-01

    High-magnesium andesites associated with basalts erupted after the opening of the Sea of Japan are present at Saga-Futagoyama in northwest Kyushu, southwest Japan. High Mg/(Mg + Fe) [=0.84] of orthopyroxene phenocrysts and bulk rock Mg-Fe-Ni compositions suggest that these high-magnesium andesites were originally primitive melts insignificantly modified in crustal magma chambers. KDCa-Na [= (Ca/Na) pl/(Ca/Na) bulk rock] ranges from 1.21 to 0.97 and suggests that the high-magnesium andesite magmas would originally have contained H 2O less than 1.8 wt.%. Nb/La does not show a negative correlation with respect to SiO 2. These lines of evidence indicate that hydrous components derived from the subducting slab would not have played a significant role in the genesis of the high-magnesium andesite magmas. Instead, the normative olivine - quartz - [CaTs + Jd] compositions and a negative correlation between Sr/Nd and SiO 2 indicate that the basalt-high-magnesium andesite association would have been formed by multi-stage partial melting of relatively anhydrous source at pressure ranging from 1.5 to 0.5 GPa.

  8. Petrological studies of volcanic ash from Sakurajima volcano in 2013, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andri Kurniawan, Idham; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Suparka, Emmy

    2017-06-01

    Many petrological studies of volcanic rocks have attempted to better predict future volcanic activity. In this study, we examined volcanic ash samples from Showa Crater in Sakurajima, Japan, which were erupted from January to October 2013. This study was used two types of juvenile material; black vesicular volcanic rock (BVVR) and black non-vesicular volcanic rock (BNVVR) to determine the variable of magmatic processes in the magma conduit during the 2013 eruption. We divided the duration into three periods such as January to April, April to July, and July to October based on the variable tendency of SiO2 contents and volume abundance of the interstitial glasses in BVVR and BNVVR. The estimated melt compositions demonstrate that the variability of SiO2 contents and volume abundance of microcrystal in the groundmass (BVVR and BNVVR) over time were caused by micro-crystallization processes. The estimated of water contents and vesicle volume shows the influence of degassing process in the rock forming. Also, the correlation of petrological features with the number of eruptions and eruptive volumes, exhibit the variable of magma supply into conduit in each period. Consequently, careful monitoring of the petrological features of erupted materials may provide useful constraints on future eruptive activity and thereby assist in the mitigation of volcanic hazards.

  9. Characteristics of the surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, central Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahama, Yoshiki; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Awata, Yasuo; Maruyama, Tadashi; Azuma, Takashi; Miyashita, Yukari; Mori, Hiroshi; Imanishi, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Naoto; Ochi, Tadafumi; Otsubo, Makoto; Asahina, Daisuke; Miyakawa, Ayumu

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence started with a M J (Japan Meteorological Agency magnitude) 6.5 event on April 14, and culminated in a M J 7.3 event on April 16. Associated with the sequence, approximately 34-km-long surface ruptures appeared along the eastern part of the Futagawa fault zone and the northernmost part of the Hinagu fault zone. We carried out an urgent field investigation soon after the earthquake to map the extent and displacement of surface ruptures with the following results. (1) The rupture zone generally consisted of a series of left-stepping en echelon arrays of discontinuous fault traces of various lengths. (2) Slip exceeding 100 cm occurred on previously unrecognized fault traces in the alluvial lowland of the Kiyama plain and on the western rim of the Aso volcano caldera. (3) Large slip with maximum dextral slip of 220 cm was measured throughout the central section of the rupture zone along the Futagawa segment, and the slip gradually decreased bilaterally on the adjoining northeastern and southwestern sections. (4) The surface rupture mostly occurred along fault traces mapped in previous active fault investigations. (5) Most of the surface ruptures were produced by the mainshock, and significant postseismic slip occurred after the mainshock.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. A revisit to the Higo terrane, Kyushu, Japan: The eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Kenshi; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Mayuko

    2017-08-01

    The Higo and Manotani high-T metamorphic rocks belong to the Higo terrane, central Kyushu, Japan. This terrane has been suggested as the eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone based mainly on the similar petrological and geochronological data to the north Dabie high-grade rocks. In this study, detrital zircon U-Pb dating for the Higo metamorphic rocks yielded a maximum depositional age of 197 Ma with a prominent component at 193-284 Ma (62-95%) and a subsidiary peak at 1847-1875 Ma (19-28%); whereas for the Manotani metamorphic rocks, the maximum depositional age is 263 Ma with a prominent component at 263-304 Ma (98%). These results suggest that the protoliths of the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks might be equivalent to those of the early-middle Jurassic Chizu and late Triassic Suo high-P metamorphic rocks, southwest Japan, respectively. The absence of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon (c. 700-825 Ma) is incompatible with a proposition that the proto-Japan might have been located close to the South China craton, where Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks contain a significant amount of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon. The zircon provenance of the Higo terrane, as well as of the Chizu and Suo belts, could therefore be the North China craton, suggesting that the Suo metamorphic rocks, including the Manotani metamorphic rocks, have formed at the subduction plate boundary in the east, which changed into the contemporaneous North China-South China collision plate boundary in the west, likely passing through the Korean Peninsula. The transformation of the Chizu and Suo metamorphic rocks to the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks can be accounted for by the oceanward advance of the volcanic arc during trench retreating. The Cretaceous high-T metamorphism and related igneous intrusions of the Higo terrane would be regarded as the initial phase of the Ryoke event.

  11. Tsunami History Associated with Oceanic Intraplate Earthquakes in Beppu Bay, Eastern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Fujino, S.; Chiba, T.; Chague-Goff, C.

    2016-12-01

    Results of earlier acoustic and coring surveys in Beppu Bay suggest that active faults in the center of the bay have been active five times in the past 7000 years. Historical written records document that the tsunami generated by the latest earthquake in AD1596 (M=6.9) affected the entire coastal area of the bay. The aim of this study was to establish a detailed chronology of tsunamigenic intraplate earthquakes that occurred in the bay before AD1596 using data from onshore sediment cores. Ten sediment cores, up to 8.8 m long, were obtained from a 100 m wide coastal freshwater marsh located on the south coast of the bay. At the coring site 170 m from the shoreline, there was a thick organic-rich mud layer at 2.1-4.6 m depth between the recent agricultural soil and 7300-year-old K-Ah tephra, which also contained a 5700-year-old scoria (Kj-DS). Three thin sand layers observed in the organic-rich mud exhibited sharp upper and lower contacts with the surrounding mud, indicating that they were most probably deposited by sudden events. They were characterized by higher magnetic susceptibility associated with higher counts of titanium and iron, as well as higher counts of calcium and strontium, suggesting that the sand grains were transported from different environments. Brackish-marine benthic diatom assemblages in the sand layers support the hypothesis that the sand units have, at least partly, a marine source. The sedimentary record since the K-Ah tephra includes at least three probable prehistorical tsunami deposits from 3300-3450 cal. yr BP, 4400-4530 cal. yr BP, and 5030-5290 cal. yr BP. As the material for radiocarbon dating was collected from just beneath and above the event deposits, results provide higher resolution ages than those from offshore seabed studies.

  12. Low-velocity zones in the crust beneath Aso caldera, Kyushu, Japan, derived from receiver function analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Yuki; Ohkura, Takahiro; Shibutani, Takuo; Hirahara, Kazuro; Yoshikawa, Shin; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Aso volcano, in central Kyushu Island in southwest Japan, has a large caldera (18 × 25 km) that formed by the ejection of more than 600 km3 of deposits 89 thousand years ago. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic waveform data obtained from densely distributed stations in and around the caldera. We estimated the crustal S wave velocity structure from the receiver functions by using genetic algorithm inversion. We detected a low-velocity zone (Vs > 2.2 km/s) at a depth of 8-15 km beneath the eastern flank of the central cones. A sill-like deformation source has been detected at a depth of 15.5 km by analyses of GPS data, and a swarm of low-frequency earthquakes exists at depths of 15-25 km just beneath this low-velocity zone. Magma may be newly generated and accumulated in this low-velocity zone as a result of hot intrusions coming from beneath it. Except for the region beneath the eastern flank of the central cones, a second low-velocity zone (Vs > 1.9 km/s) extends in and around the caldera at a depth of 15-23 km, although phenomena representing intrusions have not been detected below it. From the estimated velocity structure, these low-velocity zones are interpreted to contain a maximum of 15% melt or 30% water.

  13. FDM Simulation of The 2016 West Off Satsuma Peninsula, Kyushu, Japan, Earthquakes by Using Land-Ocean Unified 3D Structure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, T.; Takenaka, H.; Nakamura, T.; Hara, T.

    2016-12-01

    A seismic activity occurred west off Satsuma Peninsula, Kyushu, Japan, from May 6, 2016 (UT), 22 days after the onset of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence. The area is in the northern end of the Okinawa trough and to the southwest of the Beppu-Shimabara graben where the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence have occurred. In fact, both the trough and the graben are actively spreading places, and the graben might even be the land-ward extension of the Okinawa trough (Tada, 1993). Further, in the area adjacent to the May 2016 activity area a M7.1 earthquake occurred on Nov. 13, 2015 (UT) and a tsunami with a height of 0.3 m was observed. Because of these seismic activities and tectonic settings, it is necessary to study the earthquake sources and the strong motions due to earthquakes west off Satsuma Peninsula. For that purposes the validation of the synthetic waveforms is important because the oceanic water layer and thick sediments are present in the source area. Thus we select small earthquakes ( M5) and estimate best point source parameters by using a non-linear inversion method (Okamoto & Takenaka, 2009) and validate the synthetic waveforms for the K-NET (NIED) strong motion data. We use a land-ocean unified 3D structure model for which we compiled the land-ocean topography (Kisimoto 2000), the J-SHIS V2 model (Fujiwara et al. 2009), the Japan structure model (Koketsu et al. 2008), and the results by Iwasaki et al. (1990). We use 3D HOT-FDM (Nakamura et al. 2012) and apply multi-GPU acceleration (Okamoto et al. 2010, 2013) on the TSUBAME supercomputer in TokyoTech. As an example, we analyzed the May 7, 2016 M5.5 earthquake for 0.025-0.1 Hz frequency band. The obtained moment tensor is similar to the F-net solution (NIED) while the estimated source depth of 16 km is deeper than that of the F-net solution (5 km). The observed waveforms are well reproduced by the synthetics (square residual 0.475). For 0.025-0.143 Hz band the observed surface waves are still

  14. Late Quaternary Activity of active faults in the Unzen Graben, western Kyushu, Japan, based on tectonic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Matsuoka, A.; Tsutsumi, H.

    2004-12-01

    The Unzen Graben, which is bounded by normal faults to the north and south, is located on the western end of the Beppu-Shimabara Graben, west Kyushu, Japan. The faults in the Unzen Graben have developed with the growth of the Unzen volcanoes and dislocated volcanic materials such as lavas and pyroclastic deposits. The detailed location and vertical offsets of the active faults have been reported by previous studies, but the timing of faulting was poorly constrained. We estimated the vertical offsets based on topographic profiling, and calculated vertical slip rate based on recently obtained ages of volcanic rocks and sediments. In addition, we excavated two trenches at Chijiwa Town (western part of Unzen Graben) in order to reveal the timing of recent faulting events, and also found several outcrops across the active faults. Based on these surveys, the active faults in the Unzen Graben can be divided into four groups. Two groups of faults, which are located on the northern and southeastern margins of the Unzen Graben, have vertical slip rates as high as 0.13 to 1.0 mm/yr. A group of faults inside the Unzen Graben has slip rate 0.085 to 0.46 mm/yr except for the Akamatsudani fault which has slip rate 0.91 to 1.7 mm/yr. Three groups of faults mentioned above show cumulative vertical offsets and their rates of activity tends to be higher around the edifice of the Fugen volcano. On the other hand, the group outside the Unzen Graben is 0.026 to 0.068 mm/yr.

  15. Physical factors influencing immature-fish communities in the surf zones of sandy beaches in northwestern Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Ryutei; Nishida, Takashi; Onikura, Norio; Eguchi, Katsuhisa; Kawagishi, Motoyoshi; Nakatani, Masaya; Oikawa, Shin

    2010-02-01

    We aim to understand the relationships between physical conditions and characteristics of the immature-fish community in surf zones of sandy beaches. Therefore, we obtained fish samples between March 2007 and February 2008 and analyzed certain physical conditions in the surf zones of 21 sandy beaches on the coastline of the northwestern Kyushu Island, Japan. We collected a total of 83 species and 6458 immature individuals. In a BIO-ENV analysis, the highest correlation was observed between fish assemblage and S20 (i.e., the slope from the shoreline to the sites where the depth was 20 m) and current velocity (CV) values. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the number of species and individuals decrease with an increase in the S20 and CV values. These results show that species richness and the abundance of immature-fish increase under shelving and calm conditions. Thus, immature-fish assemblages are strongly influenced by the prevailing physical conditions. Moreover, in six of the 10 dominant species, a negative correlation was observed between CV and abundance. On the other hand, S20 was found to be the explanatory variable only in the case of the most dominant species, i.e., Gymnogobius breunigii. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between S1 (i.e., the slope from the shoreline to the sites where the depth was 1.0 m at the mean tidal level) and median particle size (i.e., MPS of the sediments) and the abundances of Sillago japonica and Favonigobius gymnauchen, respectively, and a negative correlation with salinity, in the case of Acanthogobius lactipes. We conclude that the characteristics of the fish community in surf zones on sandy beaches are determined by not only the shelving and calm conditions, which influence fish assemblages and abundances, but also the habitat diversity, which influences the diversity of fish species.

  16. Asymmetrically multi-collapsed structure of Kikai caldera in southern off Kyushu Island, Japan: A reconstruction from seismic reflection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, F.; Kiyokawa, S.; Oiwane, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Kameo, K.; Minowa, Y.; Kuratomi, T.

    2012-12-01

    Kikai caldera (Matsumoto, 1943) is a mostly submerged highly active caldera complex located in the southern Japan 40 km off Kyushu Island. The caldera has bathymetrically two rims partially that are previously considered as older-outer and newer-inner ones (Yokoyama et al., 1966). The caldera is believed to be the source of Akahoya tephra (Machida and Arai, 1978) which date was determined as 7300 cal. BP (Fukusawa, 1995) which is the most recent VEI-7 class eruption in the eastern margin of Asia. Intense earthquakes (Naruo and Kobayashi, 2002), low-aspect ratio Koya ignimbrite (Maeno and Taniguchi, 2007) and tsunami (Geshi, 2009) are presumed to have taken place at the climax of the eruption. There are at least two other series of giant eruption deposits that are considered to have originated from the Kikai caldera (Ono et al., 1986) and this indicates that it has been serving as an eruptive center for the past 150,000 years. We conducted seismic reflection observations in two survey cruises (KT-10-18 and KT-11-11) in 2010 and 2011 using a research vessel Tansei-maru of JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology). The sound source was a 150 cubic inches G-I gun with 10 seconds of shot interval, and a 48-channled streamer cable was used for acquisition. Totally 24 profiles were obtained with the speed of 4 knots. First, the absence of large fault in northern and western caldera rim indicates Kikai likely had an asymmetric "trapdoor" style collapse (Lipman, 1995) rather than the ideal "piston" type one. Inner and outer topographic rims at the east to south do correspond with large faults, however the both of them may have worked in 7300 BP eruption because they reach to the seafloor. Such asymmetric multi-collapse would provide some characteristics to the climactic pyroclastic flow in 7300 BP. Second, the bathymetric rise at the center of the caldera consists of high-amplitude surface and chaotic thick facies outwardly collapsed by intense normal

  17. Distribution and association of trace metals in soft tissue and byssus of Mytilus edulis from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Szefer, P; Ikuta, K; Kushiyama, S; Szefer, K; Frelek, K; Geldon, J

    1997-02-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Cr, Co Ni, Mn, andFe in soft tissues and byssi of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) fromthree sites along the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, were determined byAAS method. Large inter-regional differences in metal concentrations in bothsoft tissues and byssi (Cu, Cd, and Pb and Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Mn, and Fe,respectively) were recorded. Highly significant correlations (p< 0.01) were observed between tissue and byssal concentrations of Pb,Cu, Zn, and Mn. The tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Pb were two ordersof magnitude greater in Mytilus edulis from expected to be themost contaminated locations compared to those from a nonindustrialized area. Intercomparison of the present study data with those published previouslyindicates that the soft tissue and especially byssus are useful in detectingsome areas of some metallic contaminants. The high concentrations of Cd, andespecially Pb and Cu, in Saganoseki mussels and moderately elevatedconcentrations of these metals in Akamizu mussels may be attributed to theanthropogenic emissions from a metallic refinery and an artificial fiberfactory, respectively. It is evident that, compared to the soft tissue, theincrease of Cu levels relative to Zn levels in the byssi of M.edulis are eight times higher, with a slope b (Cu/Zn) of 7.5 for byssusand 0.93 for soft tissue. This suggests that byssus, as compared to softtissue, is a more sensitive bioindicator for Cu. From the data obtained, thesoft tissue and especially byssi of M. edulis appear to be goodbioindicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to metalliccontaminants.

  18. Paleoseismological analysis on the basis of precise sea bottom topography and sonic prospecting along the normal fault in the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone in Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Yamada, K.; Yoshinaga, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The subaqueous topography of bays or lakes along the large active faults are influenced by displacement on fault and strong motion related sediments such as land slide, turbidite etc. We carried out precise topographic survey using multi-beam sonic survey, and seismic reflection survey to about 40m deep sediments in Beppu Bay, which is a pull apart basin with normal faults related to right lateral movements of Median Tectonic Line in southwest Japan. In west central Kyushu, long active fault zone named as Beppu - Haneyama Fault zone runs with E-W direction normal fault zone. The southwest boundary of Beppu Bay is a part of Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone and normal fault of pull apart basin. The multi beam sonic data show the characteristic altitude distribution (topography) of steep inclining slope from shore side to the deepest part with 70m below sea level along the coast, and also submarine slidings occurred at off Beppu and off Oita. Within those areas, several blocks of more than 100m has preserved shape and developed to sliding direction. From the viewpoint of sliding topography, sliding movements are thought sector collapse during short interval, and main cause is thought the movement of directly below active fault and related strong seismic motion. The sonic prospecting data show several reflection horizons indicating volcanic ashes and sand seams. Around two submarine sliding deposit areas, continuation of clear reflections are sparse influenced by event sedimentation and thick coarse sediments. 88 m sediment cores from 7 sites (core length: 8m to 20m long per site) from deepest part and submarine sliding area in late July this year (2015) will make clear that construction age of these topography and construction mechanism from lithological characteristics, and comparison to historical record including large earthquake occurred in 1596.

  19. Estimation and monitoring heat discharge rates using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data: a case study in Unzen geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md. B.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Bromely, Chris J.

    2012-10-01

    The Unzen geothermal field, our study area is active fumaroles, situated in Shimabara Peninsula of Kyushu Island in Japan. Our prime objectives were (1) to estimate radiative heat flux (RHF), (2) to calculate approximately heat discharge rate (HDR) using the relationship of radiative heat flux with the total heat loss derived from two geothermal field studies and (3) finally, to monitor RHF as well as HDR in our study area using seven sets of Landsat 7 ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We used the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method for spectral emissivity estimation, the mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation analyzing those satellite TIR images for RHF. We obtained a desired strong correlation of LST above ambient with RHF using random samples. We estimated that the maximum RHF was about 251 W/m2 in 2005 and minimum was about 27 W/m2 in 2001. The highest total RHF was about 39.1 MW in 2005 and lowest was about 12 MW in 2001 in our study region. We discovered that the estimated RHF was about 15.7 % of HDR from our studies. We applied this percentage to estimate heat discharge rate in Unzen geothermal area. The monitoring results showed a single fold trend of HDR from 2000 to 2009 with highest about 252 MW in 2005 and lowest about 78 MW in 2001. In conclusion, TIR remote sensing is thought as the best option for monitoring heat losses from fumaroles with high efficiency and low cost.

  20. Atmospheric mercury concentrations at two sites in the Kyushu Islands, Japan, and evidence of long-range transport from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takami, Akinori

    2015-09-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric gaseous mercury at Fukuoka and Minamata in the Kyushu Islands, western Japan, was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013 to investigate the influence of long-range transport of mercury in the Asian region. Speciation data at Fukuoka indicated that approximately 99% of the atmospheric mercury was in the gaseous elemental form. The average concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Fukuoka was slightly higher than that of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at Minamata. Synchronous pollution events of higher concentrations of both GEM at Fukuoka and TGM at Minamata were frequently observed from late fall to early spring. We infer that these events occurred due to long-range transport of mercury rather than local, domestic emission sources because the two sites are far apart (about 150 km), and local sources would be unlikely to synchronously influence concentrations at both sites over such a long distance. The results of backward trajectory analyses indicated that these events occurred when air masses came from the Asian continent. In addition, the pollution events were often the result of cold fronts or migratory anticyclones that passed over the Kyushu Islands, often accompanied by descending cool and heavy air currents. Thus, these results indicate that, under specific climate conditions, higher concentrations of atmospheric mercury are transported to the Kyushu Islands from the Asian continent, and are evident in ground-based observations there.

  1. The Role of Philippine Sea Plate to the Genesis of Quaternary Magmas of Northern Kyushu Island, Japan, Inferred from Along-Arc Geochemical Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, J.; Ujike, O.; Miyoshi, M.; Takemura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Quaternary volcanoes on Kyushu Island comprise volcanoes Himeshima, Futagoyama, Yufu-Tsurumi, Kuju, Aso, Kirishima and Sakurajima from north to south alongstrike the volcanic front. Adakitic lavas are observed from Yufu-Tsurumi and Kuju volcanoes in northern Kyushu (Kita et al., 2001; Sugimoto et al., 2007), whereas no Quaternary adakites were observed at Aso (e.g., Hunter, 1998) and the volcanoes south of Aso along the entire Ryukyu arc. Sugimoto et al. (2007) suggested that the trace element and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of adakitic magmas from Yufu-Tsurumi volcano indicate derivation of the magmas by partial melting of the subducting PSP. In contrast, Zellmer et al. (2012) suggested that these adakites may have formed by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas within the garnet stability field in the crust. The Honshu-Kyushu arc transition is a particular favorable setting to address these controversial models for the origin of the adakitic lavas, because of the potential relationship between the PSP materials and the alongstrike variation of the lava chemistry. The Palau-Kyushu ridge divides the oceanic crust of the PSP into northeastern and southwestern segments with ages of 26-15 (Shikoku Basin) and 60-40 Ma (West Philippine Basin), respectively (Mahony et al., 2011). Although there are no clear plate images beneath northern Kyushu, the northern extension of the Palau-Kyushu ridge potentially corresponds to the boundary between the SW Japan and Ryukyu arcs. If adakite genesis was related to the subducted slab rather than the overlying crust, then the spatial distribution of Quaternary adakites should correlate with the age of the subducted PSP. In order to test such correlation and elucidate the petrogenesis of the northern Kyushu adakites, we compiled major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios from volcanoes along the arc front that includes the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic arc volcanism. Comprehensive

  2. Applications of a new ecosystem model to study the dynamics of phytoplankton and nutrients in the Ariake Sea, west coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh Hang, Nguyen Thi; Cao Don, Nguyen; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present the development and application of a new ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model to describe the important physical, chemical and biological processes of an ecosystem in the marine environment, the Ariake Sea in the west coast of Kyushu, Japan. The model was calibrated and validated using in-situ field measurements from various monitoring stations in the sea. The presented results covered the period from January 1991 to December 2000. The results showed that chlorophyll- a, nutrients and dissolved oxygen levels varied seasonally in response to weather and boundary condition. Through this study, the model was shown to be able to handle the flooding and drying processes that usually exist and play an essential role over the estuarine-tidal flats of the sea.

  3. A study of production/injection data from slim holes and large-diameter wells at the Takigami Geothermal Field, Kyushu, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Combs, J.; Azawa, Fumio; Gotoh, Hiroki

    1996-11-01

    Production and injection data from nine slim holes and sixteen large-diameter wells at the Takigami Geothermal Field, Kyushu, Japan were analyzed in order to establish relationships (1) between injectivity and productivity indices, (2) between productivity/injectivity index and borehole diameter, and (3) between discharge capacity of slim holes and large-diameter wells. Results are compared with those from the Oguni and Sumikawa fields. A numerical simulator (WELBOR) was used to model the available discharge rate from Takigami boreholes. The results of numerical modeling indicate that the flow rate of large-diameter geothermal production wells with liquid feedzones can be predicted using data from slim holes. These results also indicate the importance of proper well design.

  4. Itazuke AB, Fukoka Kyushu, Japan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-06-16

    percentage frequency of occuring tables. 44 -7 . [ N L SS F E 2,. L SECURIT -;A|F~ ’TO - F T-SP G(hND~ aIi~ t 7t2 i’ - - -. - , R E V I S E D ADDITIONAL...NUMIER OF OSI|VATIONS I 71 fl 121OWS J ,U25m.I 0-14-5 (Dot 50) PI.vIou. ,DITION OF THIS FORM AR OlOLTIK V! - -7 -r ti" I LATA PROCFSSI? 4G DIVISION ETAC...1! .. .. .1 _ IATA PR0CLSSI’ 4G UIVII(JN S C ETAC, WSAF SKY COVER ASI-[VILLT, N.C. 28S01 4331C FUKUCKA KYUSHIJ JAPAN/I IAZUKI: Ab 48-,4 f_

  5. Effect of a rotation training system on the mental health status of postgraduate dental trainees at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2014-02-01

    In Japan, the increasing frequency of mental health problems in postgraduate dental trainees has recently become apparent. To our knowledge, there has been no previous research to investigate the influence of the type of training program on the mental health of dental residents during one year of postgraduate clinical training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mental health of two groups of dental trainees at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan: those who undertook a rotation training program and those who trained solely in one department (the control group). Study subjects in both groups completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) at five intervals throughout the postgraduate training year. Analysis of the questionnaire responses were performed by Student's t-test, analysis of variance, Bonferroni's test, and the chi-square test. Statistical tests showed differences in the mean scores of POMS-30 subscales and GHQ-28. The mood of anger was the factor that seemed to best describe the trainees' response to stress. The study results led to the conclusion that dental trainees' mental health is influenced by the type of training program and that dental trainees in rotation training programs may need more mental health support.

  6. The basalt-high magnesium andesite association formed by multi-stage partial melting of a heterogeneous source mantle: Evidence from Hirado-Seto, Northwest Kyushu, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashima, Hidehisa

    2009-10-01

    An association of basalts and high magnesium andesites (HMAs), erupted at 7 Ma after the opening of the Sea of Japan, exposed at Hirado-Seto in northwest Kyushu, southwest Japan. The rocks are aphyric and are characterized by enrichments in incompatible trace elements similar to those seen for oceanic island basalts, although the HMAs show a weak negative Nb anomaly. High MgO, Ni and low FeO*/MgO indicate that the Hirado-Seto rocks were originally primitive magmas. They do not show a positive correlation between K 2O/La and SiO 2, or between Pb/La and SiO 2, indicating that hydrous components derived from a subducting slab did not play a significant role in the genesis of the Hirado-Seto basalt-HMA magmas. Alternatively, the normative olivine-quartz-[Jd + CaTs] compositions indicate that the Hirado-Seto basalt-HMA magmas were formed by multi-stage partial melting of the source mantle at pressures ranging from 1 to 0.5 GPa along the 1300 °C mantle adiabat, assuming anhydrous conditions. Basalt magmas separated from the source mantle at 1 GPa. HMA magmas separated at 0.5 GPa. A weak negative anomaly for Nb in HMAs can be explained by precipitation of Ti-P oxides during their ascent under high fO 2 condition. Thinning of the Hirado-Seto lithosphere caused by transtensional strain during the opening of the Sea of Japan would have enabled separation of HMA magmas at unusually low pressures.

  7. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Only one Brazilian study has examined the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current cross-sectional study examined this issue in Japan. Study subjects were 1744 pregnant women. Between April 2007 and March 2008, information under study was obtained. Dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis of 33 predefined food groups based on a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score ≥ 16. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, employment, household income, education, and body mass index. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy', characterized by high intake of green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, pulses, seaweed, potatoes, fish, sea products, miso soup, sugar, and shellfish; 'Japanese', characterized by high intake of rice and miso soup; and 'Western', characterized by high intake of beef and pork, processed meat, vegetable oil, chicken, eggs, shellfish, and salt-containing seasonings. The healthy and Japanese patterns were independently inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals, P for trend) between extreme quartiles were 0.56 (0.43-0.73, < 0.0001) and 0.72 (0.55-0.94, 0.008), respectively. No association was observed between the Western pattern and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Information was obtained between the 5th and 39th week of pregnancy. The healthy and Japanese dietary patterns may be inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Tribological Behavior of Polyphenyl Ether and Polyphenyl Thioether Aromatic Lubricants. Ph.D. Thesis - Kyushu Univ., Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The tribological behavior of several polyphenyl ethers and polyphenyl thioethers is reported. Tribological areas covered include: surface tension and wettability measurements, boundary lubrication, ferrography, thermal and oxidative stability and chemiluminescence.

  9. Use of fracture filling mineral assemblages for characterizing water-rock interactions during exhumation of an accretionary complex: An example from the Shimanto Belt, southern Kyushu Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Metcalfe, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Various fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals in fracture walls were formed by fluid-rock interaction during the exhumation of the Palaeogene Shimanto Belt of Kyushu, Japan, which is located in an accretionary complex. Each mineral formed under favourable geological conditions and can be used to estimate the conditions of accretion and formation of the related rock sequences. Petrographic observations, mineralogical and geochemical analyses were made on fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals from boreholes of ca. 140 m depth, drilled in the Shimanto Belt. Results reveal that the secondary minerals were formed in three major stages distinguished by the sequential textural relationships of the minerals and the interpreted environment of mineral formation. Filling mineral assemblages show that the studied rock formation has been subducted to a depth of several km and the temperature reached was ca. 200-300 °C. After the subduction, the rock formation was uplifted and surface acidic water penetrated up to 80 m beneath the present ground surface. The acid water dissolved calcite fracture filling minerals to form the present groundwater flow-paths, which allowed recent wall rock alteration to occur. The results shown here imply that filling mineral assemblages can be an effective tool to evaluate the environmental changes during exhumation of an accretionary complex.

  10. Surface water chemistry, particularly concentrations of NO -3 and DO and δ 15N values, near a tea plantation in Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ii, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Tatemasa; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Tase, Norio

    1997-12-01

    To investigate the influence of chemical fertilizers on drinking water neighboring tea plantations in Kyushu, Japan, time series of chemical concentrations and nitrogen isotopic ratios within local ponds were studied. Results indicated that the main dissolved components of spring and river water originating from a tea plantation catchment were Ca 2+, Mg 2+, NO -3, and SO 2-4. Furthermore, pH values were below 7 due to plantation soil enrichment using nitrogen fertilizers and calcium and magnesium carbonates. Although acidic spring water flowed into a local pond, the pH value of the pond water remained mostly above 7. Occasionally, excessive spring water influx after heavy rains caused the pond water pH to dip below 7. The pond water showed temporal variations of pH ranging over 4 orders of magnitude within a 3-4 month period. The increase in pH values within the pond was associated with an increase in dissolved oxygen (DO) and δ 15N values and the partial disappearance of NO -3. This is explained by nitrogen assimilation and production of oxygen during photosynthesis by algae.

  11. Japan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  12. Clinical features and treatment of patients with esophageal cancer and a history of gastrectomy: a multicenter, questionnaire survey in Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, H; Mori, N; Tanaka, T; Morita, M; Toh, Y; Saeki, H; Maehara, Y; Nakamura, K; Honda, H; Yoshida, N; Baba, H; Natsugoe, S

    2016-11-01

    It is still controversial whether patients with a history of gastrectomy have high risk of esophageal carcinogenesis. On the other hand, the treatment strategy for esophageal cancer patients after gastrectomy is complicated. The association between histories of gastrectomy and esophageal carcinogenesis was retrospectively analyzed, and the treatment of esophageal cancer patients after gastrectomy was evaluated based on questionnaire data collected from multiple centers in Kyushu, Japan. The initial subject population comprised 205 esophageal cancer patients after gastrectomy. Among them, 108 patients underwent curative surgical treatment, and 70 patients underwent chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The time between gastrectomy and esophageal cancer development was longer in peptic ulcer patients (28.3 years) than in gastric cancer patients (9.6 years). There were no differences in the location of esophageal cancer according to the gastrectomy reconstruction method. There were no significant differences in the clinical background characteristics between patients with and without a history of gastrectomy. Among the 108 patients in the surgery group, the 5-year overall survival rates for stages I (n = 30), II (n = 18), and III (n = 60) were 68.2%, 62.9%, and 32.1%, respectively. In the CRT group, the 5-year overall survival rate of stage I (n = 29) was 82.6%, but there were no 5-year survivors in other stages. The 5-year overall survival rate of patients with CR (n = 33) or salvage surgery (n = 10) was 61.2% or 36%, respectively. For the treatment of gastrectomized esophageal cancer patients, surgery or CRT is recommended for stage I, and surgery with or without adjuvant therapy is the main central treatment in advanced stages, with surgery for stage II, neoadjuvant therapy + surgery for stage III, and CRT + salvage surgery for any stage, if the patient's condition permits. © 2015 The Authors. Diseases of the Esophagus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  13. Guadalupian (Middle Permian) giant bivalve Alatoconchidae from a mid-Panthalassan paleo-atoll complex in Kyushu, Japan: A unique community associated with Tethyan fusulines and corals.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Yukio

    2006-03-01

    Unique new fossil assemblages containing the large bivalve family Alatoconchidae are recorded from the Guadalupian (Middle Permian) shallow marine limestone in Kamura, Kyushu. The large bivalves occur in the Neoschwagerina Zone and Lepidolina Zone. This discovery establishes that the biostratigraphic range of the family Alatoconchidae extends up to the top of the Lepidolina Zone (upper Capitanian of upper Guadalupian) i.e., to the end-Guadalupian extinction level. The largest Alatoconchidae in Kamura occurs in the Neoschwagerina Zone, the size of which is up to 50 cm long and 5 cm thick. Although details are still unknown, their morphology with a wing-like side projection of their valves appears very similar to that of Alatoconchidae that includes the well-known genus Shikamaia Ozaki. The bivalve-bearing Iwato Formation was derived from a mid-oceanic shallow marine carbonate build-up formed on a mid-oceanic paleo-seamount. The close association among the Alatoconchidae, typical Tethyan fusulines (Verbeekinidae) and rugose corals (Waagenophyllidae), plus their common extinction pattern suggests that the Alatoconchidae flourished in warm, shallow (photic) marine environments in low latitude areas in Panthalassa as well as Tethys. The extra-large size and double-layered shell with a translucent outer layer composed of prismatic calcite suggests that these bivalves may have hosted abundant photosynthetic algal symbionts to support their large-body metabolism.

  14. Landslides induced by heavy rainfall in July 2012 in Northern Kyushu District, Japan and the influence of long term rainfall increase comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Aditian, Aril

    2013-04-01

    1. Objective We had a deluge in July 2012 in the northern Kyushu district with intense rainfall of 800mm and 108mm/hr. This intensity yielded countless traces of debris flow and landslides, slope failures that induced tremendous damage and causalities in the area. Hence, several field investigations and reconnaissance tasks were conducted to delve into this sediment-related disaster. The various results and the information obtained through this investigation were reported, mentioning the damage, the meteorological condition, geologic-geomorphologic features and hydraulic characteristics of the debris flows, vegetation effects, and the influence of the climate change. Increase in rainfall that may be induced by the global climate change is obvious in Kyushu district, Japan, according to the analysis of rain data observed in various locations including mountainside points that are not influenced by local warming due to urbanization. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide to this increase in rainfall. Hence, its long term impact on this landslide disaster is also analyzed comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking. 2. Method and target areas Field investigation on landslides slopes, slope failures and torrents where debris flows occurred are conducted to obtain the geologic data, geo-structure, vegetation feature, soil samples and topographic data i.e. cross sections, then soil shear tests and soil permeability tests are also conducted. The rainfall data at the nearest rain observatory were obtained from the database of Japan meteorological agency. The long term impact on the slope stability at some slopes in the area is analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) combined with rain infiltration and seepage analysis with the long term rainfall fluctuation data, obtaining factor of safety ( Fs) on real landslide slopes. The results are compared with the destabilized influence on the slopes due to the

  15. Integrated magnetobiochronology of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Miyazaki succession, southern Kyushu, southwest Japan: Implications for an Early Pleistocene hiatus and defining the base of the Gelasian (P/P boundary type section) in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Motoyoshi; Chiyonobu, Shun; Torii, Masayuki; Otomo, Takashi; Morimoto, Jumpei; Satou, Yuri; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ashikawa, Matsuaki; Tominaga, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An integrated magnetobiochronology of the Miyazaki Pliocene-Pleistocene succession in the Miyazaki area, southwest Japan, was established using planktic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy together with paleomagnetic data. The upper Miyazaki succession in the northern Miyazaki region can be divided into the Takanabe, Hisamine (redefined), and Higoyashiki (new) Formations, in ascending order. A depositional hiatus between the Hisamine Formation and the Takanabe and/or older formations was also identified based on integrated magnetobiostratigraphy from five sections including the Nagatani River (NGT) section through the uppermost Miyazaki succession. The hiatus, herein called the Hisamine unconformity, is equivalent to the Kurotaki unconformity between the Miura and Kazusa groups of the Boso Peninsula in central Japan. The depositional hiatus recognised in the lower Pleistocene of Pacific coastal areas in southwestern and central Japan may have resulted from tectonic activity associated with a change in the subduction direction of the Philippine Sea plate, which commenced prior to ca. 2.2 Ma. The youngest unit just below the hiatus is the upper part of the Takanabe Formation in the NGT section. The NGT section represents the continuous Late Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene sequence including the Gauss/Matuyama boundary and is here proposed as the type section for the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary in Japan, which the IUGS ratified as the base of the Gelasian in 2009.

  16. 3-D electrical resistivity structure based on geomagnetic transfer functions exploring the features of arc magmatism beneath Kyushu, Southwest Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Maki; Uyeshima, Makoto; Handa, Shun; Shimoizumi, Masashi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Utada, Hisashi; Munekane, Hiroshi; Ichiki, Masahiro; Fuji-ta, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our 3-D electrical resistivity model clearly detects particular subsurface features for magmatism associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) in three regions: a southern and a northern volcanic region, and a nonvolcanic region on the island of Kyushu. We apply 3-D inversion analyses for geomagnetic transfer function data of a short-period band, in combination with results of a previous 3-D model that was determined by using Network-Magnetotelluric response function data of a longer-period band as an initial model in the present inversion to improve resolution at shallow depths; specifically, a two-stage inversion is used instead of a joint inversion. In contrast to the previous model, the presented model clearly reveals a conductive block on the back-arc side of Kirishima volcano at shallow depths of 50 km; the block is associated with hydrothermal fluids and hydrothermal alteration zones related to the formation of epithermal gold deposits. A second feature revealed by the model is another conductive block regarded as upwelling fluids, extending from the upper surface of the PSP in the mantle under Kirishima volcano in the southern volcanic region. Third, a resistive crustal layer, which confines the conductive block in the mantle, is distributed beneath the nonvolcanic region. Fourth, our model reveals a significant resistive block, which extends below the continental Moho at the fore-arc side of the volcanic front and extends into the nonvolcanic region in central Kyushu.

  17. Tetrodotoxin poisoning due to smooth-backed blowfish, Lagocephalus inermis and the toxicity of L. inermis caught off the Kyushu coast, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kadoyama, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Terayama, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Food poisoning due to ingestion of a puffer fish occurred in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, in October 2008, causing neurotoxic symptoms similar to those of tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning. In the present study, we identified the species, toxicity, and toxins using the remaining samples of the causative puffer fish. The puffer fish was identified as smooth-backed blowfish Lagocephalus inermis by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and cytochrome b gene fragments of muscle mitochondrial DNA. The residual liver sample showed toxicity as high as 1,230 mouse unit (MU)/g by bioassay and TTX was detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We therefore concluded that the food poisoning was due to TTX caused by consumption of the toxic liver of L. inermis. This is the first report that the liver of L. inermis caught in Japanese waters is strongly toxic, with levels exceeding 1,000 MU/g. In this context, we re-examined the toxicity of L. inermis collected off the coast of Japan. Of 13 specimens assayed, 12 were toxic, although the toxicity varied markedly among individuals and tissues. Because the intestine and ovary of L. inermis have been considered non-toxic, it is particularly noteworthy that these organs were determined to be toxic, with a maximum toxicity of 43.6 MU/g and 10.0 MU/g, respectively. Furthermore, kidney, gallbladder, and spleen, whose toxicity has been unknown, were frequently found to be weakly toxic with levels ranging from 10 to 99 MU/g. Therefore, further study is needed to re-examine the toxicity of smooth-backed blowfish L. inermis in the coastal waters of Japan.

  18. Seaweed consumption and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-09-03

    Seaweed is a popular traditional food in Japan and is a rich source of bioactive metabolites. The neuroprotective properties of seaweed have attracted attention; to date, however, there has been no epidemiological evidence regarding the relationship between seaweed consumption and depression. The current cross-sectional study investigated the association between seaweed consumption and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan. Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Dietary consumption during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of children; family structure; history of depression; family history of depression; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; job type; household income; education; body mass index; and intake of fish and yogurt. The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. After adjustment for possible dietary and non-dietary confounding factors, higher seaweed consumption was independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms during pregnancy in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of seaweed consumption were 1 (reference), 0.72 (0.51 - 1.004), 0.71 (0.50 - 1.01), and 0.68 (0.47 - 0.96), respectively (P for trend = 0.03). The present results suggest that seaweed consumption may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japanese women.

  19. Milk intake during pregnancy is inversely associated with the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms in Japan: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Only one epidemiologic study has investigated the association between dairy product intake during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms. Epidemiologic evidence on the relationships between calcium and vitamin D intake during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms is also lacking. The present prospective study examined these issues in Japan. Study subjects were 1319 women. During pregnancy, dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire in the baseline survey. Postpartum depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 9 or higher between 3 and 4 months postpartum. Adjustment was made for age, gestation at baseline, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, job type, education, body mass index, having smoked during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, and total energy intake. After adjustment for the confounding factors, compared with milk intake in the lowest quartile, intake levels in the second and fourth quartiles were independently associated with a reduced risk of postpartum depressive symptoms, although the inverse exposure-response relationship was not significant: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.93; P for trend = .12). No material relationships were observed between intake of total dairy products, yogurt, cheese, calcium, or vitamin D and the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms. The present prospective cohort study in Japan suggests that higher milk intake during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  20. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  1. Campylobacter and Salmonella are prevalent in broiler farms in Kyushu, Japan: results of a 2-year distribution and circulation dynamics audit.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, W; Uemura, R; Sekiguchi, S; Dong, J-B; Watanabe, S; Kirino, Y; Mekata, H; Nonaka, N; Norimine, J; Sueyoshi, M; Goto, Y; Horii, Y; Kurogi, M; Yoshino, S; Misawa, N

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the distribution and circulation dynamics of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Japanese chicken broiler flocks. A 2-year investigation of the distribution of Campylobacter and Salmonella was conducted in 25 broiler flocks at nine farms in Japan from 2013 to 2014. Campylobacter and Salmonella tested positive in 11 (44·0%) and 24 (96·0%) broiler flocks respectively. One hundred and ninety-five Campylobacter and 184 Salmonella isolates were characterized into 12 Campylobacter (including two novel genotypes) and three Salmonella MLST genotypes. Only Salmonella isolation between caecal and environmental samples were significantly correlated. Further, one litter sample tested positive for Salmonella before new chicks were introduced. The Campylobacter strains rapidly lost culturability within 2-18 days; in contrast, the Salmonella strains survived from 64-211 days in artificially inoculated water samples. No persistent circulation-mediated Campylobacter contamination was observed. In contrast, circulation of Salmonella in broiler houses was seen, apparently due to the litter excreted from broiler flocks, as well as Salmonella-contaminated water and feed. This paper provides the distribution, genotypic data and circulation dynamics of Campylobacter and Salmonella as recently observed in Japanese chicken broiler farms. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Fish and fat intake and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between consumption of meat, fish, and specific types of fatty acids and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan. Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Information on dietary factors was collected using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Higher intake levels of fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between extreme quartiles (95% confidence intervals [CIs], P for trend) were 0.61 (0.42-0.87, 0.01), 0.66 (0.46-0.95, 0.02) and 0.64 (0.44-0.93, 0.007), respectively. Higher intake levels of total fat and saturated fatty acids were independently related to a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs between extreme quartiles (95% CIs, P for trend) were 1.42 (1.00-2.03, 0.06) and 1.74 (1.22-2.49, 0.001), respectively. There were no significant associations between intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), α-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, or cholesterol or the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Intake levels of fish, EPA, and DHA may be inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy while intake levels of total fat and saturated fatty acids may be positively related to depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Manganese intake is inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2017-03-15

    One epidemiological study in Canada has addressed the association between zinc intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy while another epidemiological study in Korea has examined the association between iron intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The present cross-sectional study in Japan examined the association between intake of zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, education, body mass index, and intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, calcium, vitamin D, and isoflavones. In crude analysis, significant inverse associations were observed between intake levels of zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, and manganese and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. After adjustment for confounding factors, only manganese intake was independently inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted prevalence ratio between extreme quartiles was 0.74 (95% confidence interval:0.56-0.97, P for trend=0.046). Information was obtained between the 5th and 39th week of pregnancy. The current cross-sectional study of Japanese women demonstrated higher manganese intake to be independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Soy isoflavone intake and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2016-10-15

    Several observational studies and trials examined the relationship between isoflavones or soybeans and depressive symptoms among peri- and postmenopausal women. We cross-sectionally evaluated the associations between intake of soy products and isoflavones and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan. Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Higher intake of total soy products, tofu, tofu products, fermented soybeans, boiled soybeans, miso soup, and isoflavones was independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: The adjusted prevalence ratios (95 % confidence intervals, P for trend) between extreme quartiles were 0.63 (0.47-0.85, 0.002), 0.72 (0.54-0.96, 0.007), 0.74 (0.56-0.98, 0.04), 0.57 (0.42-0.76, <0.0001), 0.73 (0.55-0.98, 0.03), 0.65 (0.49-0.87, 0.003), and 0.63 (0.46-0.86, 0.002), respectively. A significant positive exposure-response relationship was found between miso intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. No material relationship was observed between soymilk intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Our study is the first to show independent inverse relationships between intake of total soy products, tofu, tofu products, fermented soybeans, boiled soybeans, miso soup, and isoflavones and depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  5. Volcanisme, activité anthropique et circulation des masses océaniques : leur influence respective sur la distribution des populations d'ostracodes dans la baie de Kagoshima (île de Kyushu, Japon)Impact of volcanism, human activities, and water mass circulation on the distribution of ostracod populations in Kagoshima Bay (Kyushu Island, southern Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodergat, Anne-Marie; Oki, Kimihiko; Ishizaki, Kunihiro; Rio, Michel

    2002-11-01

    The distribution of ostracod populations in Kagoshima Bay (Japan) is analysed with reference to different environmental parameters. The bay is an area of volcanic activity of Sakurajima volcano under the influence of the Kuroshio Current. Most of the Head environment is occupied by an acidic water mass. Numbers of individual and species decrease from the Mouth of the bay towards the Basin and Head environments. In this latter, acidic water mass has a drastic effect on ostracod populations, whereas volcanic ashes and domestic inputs are not hostile. Ostracod distribution is influenced by the quality and structure of water masses. To cite this article: A.-M. Bodergat et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1053-1059.

  6. The 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes and lessons learned for large earthquakes in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Kato, Aitaro; Nakamura, Kouji; Hiyama, Yohei

    2017-04-01

    A series of devastating earthquakes hit the Kumamoto districts in Kyushu, Japan, in April 2016. A M6.5 event occurred at 21:26 on April 14th (JST) and, 28 hours later, a M7.3 event occurred at 01:25 on April 17th (JST) at almost the same location at a depth of 10 km. Both earthquakes were felt at the town of Mashiki with a seismic intensity of 7 according to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale. The intensity of 7 is the highest level in the JMA scale. Very strong accelerations were observed by the M6.5 event with 1,580 gal at KiKnet Mashiki station and 1,791 gal for the M7.3 event at Ohtsu City station. As a result, more than 8,000 houses totally collapsed, 26,000 were heavily damaged, and 120,000 were partially damaged. More than 170 people were killed by the two earthquakes. The important lesson from the Kumamoto earthquake is that very strong ground motions may hit within a few days after a first large event. This can have serious impacts to houses already damaged by the first large earthquake. In the 2016 Kumamoto sequence, there were also many strong aftershocks including M5.8-5.9 events until April 18th. More than 180,000 people had to take shelter because of ongoing strong aftershocks. We discuss both the natural and human aspects of the Kumamoto earthquake disaster caused by inland shallow large earthquakes. We will report on the lessons learned for large earthquakes hitting the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan.

  7. Urban climate in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Fujibe, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Long-term climate changes related with urbanization in Tokyo, Japan, and recent temperature and heavy rainfall distribution in the Tokyo metropolitan area are reviewed. A relatively high temperature increase in annual mean temperature at the rate of 3.0°C/century was detected in Tokyo for the period 1901-2015. Some observational evidence showed the existence of both thermal and mechanical effects of urbanization on recent heavy rainfall occurrences, and modeling studies also support precipitation enhancement. Urban influences were recognized in other climatological elements, such as number of fog days, relative humidity, and wind circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Survival strategies of male nurses in rural areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Ikue

    2011-12-01

    This study seeks to describe the survival strategies of male nurses in Japanese rural areas. Interviews were conducted with 12 male nurses who described their occupational experiences. The modified grounded theory approach was used for the data collection and analysis. The survival strategies of these male nurses can be categorized into four types: (i) giving priority to the achievement of financial security; (ii) agreeing to a dependent relationship with doctors; (iii) maintaining one's male identity through supporting the female nurses; and (iv) making an appeal to the significance of men in the female-dominated nursing profession. The survival strategies that were used by the male nurses were subtle, allowing them to influence indirectly both the female nurses and the doctors. These findings contribute to our understanding of the experiences of male nurses, a gendered minority in a female-dominated workplace, and encourage gender equality in the nursing profession. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. An automated system to simulate the River discharge in Kyushu Island using the H08 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, A.; Jeon, J.; Seto, S.

    2015-12-01

    Kyushu Island is located in southwestern part of Japan, and it is often affected by typhoons and a Baiu front. There have been severe water-related disasters recorded in Kyushu Island. On the other hand, because of high population density and for crop growth, water resource is an important issue of Kyushu Island.The simulation of river discharge is important for water resource management and early warning of water-related disasters. This study attempts to apply H08 model to simulate river discharge in Kyushu Island. Geospatial meteorological and topographical data were obtained from Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The number of the observation stations of AMeDAS is limited and is not quite satisfactory for the application of water resources models in Kyushu. It is necessary to spatially interpolate the point data to produce grid dataset. Meteorological grid dataset is produced by considering elevation dependence. Solar radiation is estimated from hourly sunshine duration by a conventional formula. We successfully improved the accuracy of interpolated data just by considering elevation dependence and found out that the bias is related to geographical location. The rain/snow classification is done by H08 model and is validated by comparing estimated and observed snow rate. The estimates tend to be larger than the corresponding observed values. A system to automatically produce daily meteorological grid dataset is being constructed.The geospatial river network data were produced by ArcGIS and they were utilized in the H08 model to simulate the river discharge. Firstly, this research is to compare simulated and measured specific discharge, which is the ratio of discharge to watershed area. Significant error between simulated and measured data were seen in some rivers. Secondly, the outputs by the coupled model including crop growth

  10. Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, T

    1988-01-01

    Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan were investigated by means of a questionnaire. One hundred and sixty out of the 319 families residing on a small island were randomly chosen and 94 percent of them (average age 48 years, male 57 percent; living with parents 41 percent) responded. The respondents did not clearly distinguish the dead from the living in their life-styles. They seemed to recognize a continuity between living and death. They reported having confronted death as members of a family or small local community rather than individually. Community or family is seen as playing a more important role in determining respondents' attitudes toward death than their personal feelings.

  11. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  12. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  13. Geochemistry of arsenic and other trace elements in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Shahadat; Hosono, Takahiro; Shimada, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Total arsenic (As), As(III) species, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate (δ34SSO4), major ions and trace elements were measured in groundwater collected from boreholes and wells along the flow lines of western margins of Kumamoto basin, at central part of Kyushu island in southern Japan. Kumamoto city is considered as the largest groundwater city in Japan. 100% people of this city depends on groundwater for their drinking purpose. In this study, we used trace elements data and δ34SSO4 values to better understand the processes that are likely controlling mobilization of As in this area. Arsenic concentrations ranges from 1 to 60.6 μg/L. High concentrations were found in both shallow and deep aquifers. The aquifers are composed of Quaternary volcanic (pyroclastic) flow deposits. In both aquifers, groundwaters evolve along the down flow gradient from oxidizing conditions of recharge area to the reducing conditions of stagnant area of Kumamoto plain. 40% samples from the Kumamoto plain area excced the maximum permissible limit of Japan drinking water quality standard (10 μg/L). In the reducing groundwater, As(III) constitutes typically more, however; 50% samples dominated with As(III) and 50% samples dominated with As(V) species. High As concentrations occur in anaerobic stagnant groundwaters from this plain area with high dissolved Fe, Mn, moderately dissolved HCO3, PO4, DOC and with very low concentrations of NO3 and SO4 suggesting the reducing condition of subsurface aquifer. Moderately positive correlation between As and dissolved Fe, Mn and strong negative correlation between As(III)/As(V) ratio and V, Cr and U reflect the dependence of As concentration on the reductive process. The wide range of δ34SSO4 values (6.8 to 36.1‰) indicate that sulfur is undergoing redox cycling. Highly enriched values suggesting the process was probably mediated by microbial activity. It also be noted from positive values of sulfur

  14. An Evaluation of the Numazu Operating Area and Kagoshima Harbor, Japan, as Typhoon Havens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED An Evaluation of the Numazu Operating Area and Kagoshima Harbor, Japan as Typhoon Havens «. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT...HARBOR, JAPAN AS TYPHOON HAVENS by DECEMBER 1975 NAVAL ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTION RESEARCH FACIUTY MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA 93940 Qualified requestors...TROPICAL CYCLONES 10 2.4 INTENSITY 13 3. JAPAN 14 3.1 JAPANESE ISLANDS 14 3.2 HONSHU 14 4. NUMAZU OPERATING AREA -- GENERAL DESCRIPTION .... 17

  15. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  16. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  17. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  18. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  19. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  20. The susceptibility analysis of landslides induced by earthquake in Aso volcanic area, Japan, scoping the prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tsuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Kumamoto earthquake on April 16th 2016 in Kumamoto prefecture, Kyushu Island, Japan with intense seismic scale of M7.3 (maximum acceleration = 1316 gal in Aso volcanic region) yielded countless instances of landslide and debris flow that induced serious damages and causalities in the area, especially in the Aso volcanic mountain range. Hence, field investigation and numerical slope stability analysis were conducted to delve into the characteristics or the prediction factors of the landslides induced by this earthquake. For the numerical analysis, Finite Element Method (FEM) and CSSDP (Critical Slip Surface analysis by Dynamic Programming theory based on limit equilibrium method) were applied to the landslide slopes with seismic acceleration observed. These numerical analysis methods can automatically detect the landslide slip surface which has minimum Fs (factor of safety). The various results and the information obtained through this investigation and analysis were integrated to predict the landslide susceptible slopes in volcanic area induced by earthquakes and rainfalls of their aftermath, considering geologic-geomorphologic features, geo-technical characteristics of the landslides and vegetation effects on the slope stability. Based on the FEM or CSSDP results, the landslides occurred in this earthquake at the mild gradient slope on the ridge have the safety factor of slope Fs=2.20 approximately (without rainfall nor earthquake, and Fs>=1.0 corresponds to stable slope without landslide) and 1.78 2.10 (with the most severe rainfall in the past) while they have approximately Fs=0.40 with the seismic forces in this earthquake (horizontal direction 818 gal, vertical direction -320 gal respectively, observed in the earthquake). It insists that only in case of earthquakes the landslide in volcanic sediment apt to occur at the mild gradient slopes as well as on the ridges with convex cross section. Consequently, the following results are obtained. 1) At volcanic

  1. High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan Trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Regalla, Christine; Takahashi, Narumi

    2013-05-01

    obtained high-resolution seismic data reveal the detailed structure of the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, Japan, in the region of large shallow slip during the 11 March 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. Correlation of seismic images with previous drilling results identifies a possible basal chert-rich layer and hemipelagic/pelagic mudstones overlying igneous Pacific crust. Mapping of acoustic basement depicts the subduction of horst-and-graben topography. The basement and basal chert are subducted beneath a seismically chaotic frontal prism, but the majority of overlying hemipelagic mudstones is offscraped and imbricated at the trench axis as a result of plate boundary compression. A possible décollement is imaged as a seaward dipping reflection at landward part of the trench graben and was likely generated by loading and failure of underthrust sediments. Collectively, these analyses provide a structural framework for understanding sedimentary inputs and the localization of shallow plate boundary slip at the Japan Trench.

  2. Survey of Francisella tularensis in Wild Animals in Japan in Areas Where Tularemia is Endemic.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chu-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Sharma, Neekun; Uda, Akihiko; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2016-09-21

    Samples taken from 428 wild animals and 126 ticks, collected from a tularemia-endemic area in Japan between 2005 and 2013, were analyzed for the presence of Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis was isolated from a Japanese hare carcass whereas the samples from live animals and ticks were negative for F. tularensis by real-time PCR. Our results suggest that F. tularensis is still present in Japan although its prevalence is considerably low even in areas where tularemia is endemic.

  3. Forecasters Handbook for Japan and Adjacent Sea Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    trenches (greatest depth over 6,000 m), belts of seamounts , deep basins, and a number of island arcs. The sea is separated on the east from the Pacific...horizontal. Projecting through the sediment of the plain near 42.5 0 N, 1360E is Bogorov Seamount , a north-south oriented, 45-mile (75-km) long...44 0 N where it is terminated by a 500-fathom (900-meter) drop to the Japan Basin. The large, flat-topped seamount at 440N, 138015’E and other small

  4. Long Term Stratospheric Aerosol Lidar Measurements in Kyushu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Motowo

    1992-01-01

    Lidar soundings of the stratospheric aerosols have been made since 1972 at Fukuoka, Kyushu Island of Japan. Volcanic clouds from eruptions of La Soufriere, Sierra Negra, St. Helens, Uluwan, Alaid, unknown volcano, and El Chichon were detected one after another in only three years from 1979 to 1982. In july 1991 strong scattering layers which were originated from the serious eruptions of Pinatubo in June and were almost comparable to the El Chichon clouds were detected. Volcanic clouds from pinatubo and other volcanos mentioned are examined and carefully compared to each other and to the wind and temperature which was measured by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory almost at the same time as the lidar observation was made.

  5. Precursory Slope Deformation around Landslide Area Detected by Insar Throughout Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Wada, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Kamiya, I.; Nakajima, H.

    2016-06-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique is able to detect a slope deformation around landslide (e.g., Singhroy et al., 2004; Une et al., 2008; Riedel and Walther, 2008; Sato et al., 2014). Geospatial Information Authority (GSI) of Japan has been performing the InSAR analysis regularly by using ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data throughout Japan. There are a lot of small phase change sites except for crustal deformation with earthquake or volcano activity in the InSAR imagery. Most of the phase change sites are located in landslide area. We conducted field survey at the 10 sites of those phase change sites. As a result, we identified deformation of artificial structures or linear depressions caused by mass movement at the 9 sites. This result indicates that InSAR technique can detect on the continual deformation of landslide block for several years. GSI of Japan will continue to perform the InSAR analysis throughout Japan. Therefore, we will be able to observe and monitor precursory slope deformation around landslide areas throughout Japan.

  6. Lower air temperature is associated with ambulance transports and death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochimasu, Kazumi Dokai; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Naoko; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and air temperature in Takamatsu area, Japan. Monthly data of ambulance transports (total and acute disease) and the number of death from 2004 to 2012 were obtained from Fire Department Service in Takamatsu and Takamatsu city official website, Japan. Climate parameters for required period were also obtained from Japan Meteorological Agency. Population data in Takamatsu area were also used to adjust ambulance transports and the number of death. The linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and climate parameters was evaluated by ecological analysis. Total ambulance transports (/a hundred thousand people/day) and ambulance transports due to acute disease (/a hundred thousand people/day) were 12.3 ± 0.9 and 6.8 ± 0.7, respectively. The number of death (/a hundred thousand people/day) was 2.5 ± 0.4. By quadratic curve, ambulance transports due to acute disease and the number of death were significantly correlated with the parameters of air temperature. However, the number of death was the highest in January and the lowest in August. Although higher air temperature was only associated with higher ambulance transports, lower air temperature was associated with both higher ambulance transports and the number death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

  7. History of pine wilt disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Y

    1988-04-01

    Pine wilt disease induced by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a great threat to pine forests in Japan. The first occurrence of the disease was reported in Nagasaki, Kyushu. During the 1930s the disease occurrence was extended in 12 prefectures, and in the 1940s the disease was found in 34 prefectures. The annual loss of pine trees increased from 30,000 m(3) to 1.2 million m(3) during these two decades. The enormous increase in timber loss in the 1970s resulted in 2.4 million m(3) of annual loss in 1979. The affected area expanded into 45 prefectures of 47 prefectures in Japan. In cool areas the disease differs in epidemiology from that in heavily infested areas in the warm regions. A national project for controlling pine wilt disease lays special emphasis on the healthy pine forests predominating throughout cool areas in northern Japan.

  8. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  9. Unequal Accessibility of Nurseries for Sick Children in Over- and Under-Populated Areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Infants and toddlers are prone to rapidly contracting illnesses, which are usually attributed to infectious diseases. Most nurseries and schools in Japan, however, refuse to accept children even with mild illnesses. For working parents, a sick child may therefore create new problems as the situation requires new day-care arrangements. To support such families, the Japanese government subsidizes construction and management of nurseries that operate especially for sick children. However, it has not been known whether most families are able to access such nurseries. To clarify the accessibility of these services, I calculated the distance to the nurseries from each of the 211,012 "blocks" (small residential areas with a median of 0.18 km(2)) in Japan and determined the proportion of children aged 0-4 years who lived within 3, 5, 10, 20 or 30 km of the nearest such nursery. Overall, 82.1% of these children lived within 10 km. However, the proportion was lower in northern parts of Japan such as Hokkaido and Tohoku, which have expansive land areas and low population and pediatric department densities. The proportion of children who lived within that same distance of the nearest nursery was also much lower in small towns and villages with 10,000 or fewer residents. Nurseries for sick children were not evenly distributed, and children and their caregivers in under-populated areas had to travel further to access these facilities. As the national government subsidizes such services, children and caregivers throughout Japan should have equal access to them.

  10. Change of atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan from the viewpoint of rainfall intensity.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan was examined from the viewpoint of a 14-year trend in the rainfall intensity. To cancel the wide-area meteorological phenomena such as a typhoon and a front, the rainfall datasets obtained not only in an urban area but also in a rural area was studied. The rainfall datasets collected on a 0.5 mm rainfall basis was used. The rainfall intensity dominantly increased in urban area, while that in rural area neither increased nor decreased. An increasing trend was clearly observed for rainfall with precipitation amounts of 5 and 10 mm. Rainfall with precipitation amounts of 15 and 20 mm showed neither an increasing nor a decreasing trend. The results of this study show that there is a high probability of a connection between the urbanization and the change of rainfall intensity.

  11. Four Sporadic Pediatric Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infection in a Rural Area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kisei; Yasuda, Ryu; Terakawa, Runa; Koike, Yumi; Takeuchi, Koichi; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Horiuchi, Ayaka; Kubota, Noriko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-24

    In the spring of 2015, we experienced a cluster of 4 sporadic cases of yersiniosis in children in Nagano prefecture, a rural area of Japan. Two patients developed appendicitis-like episodes; one had acute gastroenteritis, and the other had bacteremia associated with liver abscess. The causative agent of these infections was Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:8. None of the patients had an underlying illness, and all have recovered completely. The patients were neither socially nor geographically related to each other. These 4 consecutive cases suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:8 has spread substantially in the middle part of Japan, and that this virulent strain might be more common than previously reported in our country.

  12. Altitudes of residential areas affect salt intake in a rural area in Japan: a Shimane CoHRE Study.

    PubMed

    Ferdaus, Sonia I; Kohno, Kunie; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Miwako; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Isomura, Minoru; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Nabika, Toru

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between residential environments and hypertension. As shown in our previous study, the inconvenience of the locations of residential areas may be one of the factors influencing the blood pressures of inhabitants. Salt intake is one of the likely mediators between inconvenience and hypertension. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between the altitudes of residential areas and salt intake in a rural Japanese region because altitude may be one of the proxies for inconvenience. In this cross-sectional study, 1016 participants living in a mountainous region in Japan were recruited during health examinations. The altitude of each participant's residence was estimated using a geographic information system. Subjects were divided into quartile groups according to the altitudes of their residences. To evaluate salt intake, we employed the 24-h salt intake estimation of Kawano et al. (e24-h salt intake) and the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (uNa/K). Linear regression analyses indicated that altitude was an independent factor influencing both e24-h salt intake and uNa/K after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, triglycerides and county of residence. The same result was observed when the subjects who did not take antihypertensive medications were analyzed (N=633). The present study indicated that altitude of residence had a significant positive influence on salt intake in a rural area of Japan.

  13. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection by birth year and geographic area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Junko; Gosho, Masahiko; Inui, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Toru; Sakakibara, Masatoshi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Nakajima, Shigemi; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Yasuda, Mitsugi; Kawai, Takashi; Murakami, Kazunari; Kamada, Tomoari; Mizuno, Motowo; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong; Kato, Mototsugu

    2014-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related diseases are responsible for a tremendous amount of morbidity and mortality in Japan. We estimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection by sex, birth year, and geographic area among Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 14,716 subjects aged 20 years or more who underwent a health checkup between May 1997 and March 2013 in seven geographic areas throughout Japan. Relevant information on the demographics and status of H. pylori infection was retrieved from the electronic database. The univariate log-binominal regression model was used to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection, taking birth year into consideration. The multivariate log-binominal regression model was used to compare the prevalence of H. pylori infection between seven geographic areas. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 37.6% in women and 43.2% in men. Among seven geographic areas, Hokkaido showed the lowest prevalence (29.4%), while Yamagata Prefecture represented the highest (54.5%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was highest in the 1940-1949 birth cohort and then decreased in the ensuing birth cohorts; the risk ratio (RR) was 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.87) for changes in the 10-year birth cohort. Individuals in Yamagata Prefecture had the highest RR of acquiring H. pylori infection in all three birth cohorts (RR = 1.53 for 1940, RR = 1.69 for 1950, and RR = 1.85 for 1960) when compared with those in Hokkaido. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age and exhibits geographic variation in Japan. There has been a striking decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, especially in younger Japanese populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 3D seismic Interpretation of Methane-Hydrate-Concentrated Zone Offshore Japan -Noto Sado area-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Fujii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Kotera, T.

    2016-12-01

    JOGMEC, as a member of research group for resources assessment of Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), has been conducting resources assessment of methane hydrate (MH) offshore surrounding Japan. This study aims to assess the distribution of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) and methane hydrate concentrated zones (MHCZ) offshore Japan. In terms of resources assessment, it is important that MH concentrated in pore-filling sand . The interpretation of 3-D seismic data acquired by geophysical vessel `Shigen', which is owned by Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, were carried out. We interpreted the distribution of MHCZ in Noto Toho and Sado Seiho areas, which are located in the southwest Sado Island, using high density velocity analysis and channel analysis. The characteristic of 3-D seismic data in this study area showed several folds and faults which does not show the large displacement. The BSR was very visible continuously. Clear velocity contrast in the boundary between above and below of BSR, and the high velocity anomaly above BSR were confirmed in the high density velocity analysis profile. MHs were assumed to exist in sand heterogeneously because the velocity distribution in the extracted zones is inhomogeneous. In the results of geomorphological analysis, channel deposits and mid submarine fan deposits, which are located above BSR, were presumed sandy sediment. As above, even the area has not been drilled, the extraction of MHCZ can be conducted by the interpretation of the seismic data, the result of the high density velocity analysis, and the distribution of sand by geomorphological analysis. These results will be useful for the plan of the future drilling programme.

  15. Resilience in schizophrenia: A comparative study between a remote island and an urban area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Suzuki, Takefumi; Imasaka, Yasushi; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Mizuno, Yuya; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The resilience levels between patients with schizophrenia residing in a rural island and a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan, was compared and the factors associated with resilience were explored. The Resilience Scale (RS) and EuroQol were assessed, together with biological markers and multiple demographic variables. No significant difference was found in the RS scores between the two groups (40 subjects each). However, longer duration of illness and higher EuroQol score were significantly associated with a greater RS score, which indicates that potentially successful adaptation and subjective perspectives appear more pertinent than the degree of urbanicity in determining resilience levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil volume estimation in debris flow areas using lidar data in the 2014 Hiroshima, Japan rainstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-10-01

    Debris flows triggered by the rainstorm in Hiroshima, Japan on August 20th, 2014 produced extensive damage to the built-up areas in the northern part of Hiroshima city. In order to consider various emergency response activities and early-stage recovery planning, it is important to evaluate the distribution of the soil volumes in the debris flow areas immediately after the disaster. In this study, automated nonlinear mapping technique is applied to light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) observed before and after the disaster to quickly and accurately correct geometric locational errors of the data. The soil volumes generated from the debris flows are estimated by subtracting the pre- and post-event DEMs. The geomorphologic characteristics in the debris flow areas are discussed from the distribution of the estimated soil volumes.

  17. Cadmium levels in the urine of female farmers in nonpolluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    About 1200 urine samples were collected, mostly in winter seasons in 1982-1984, from adult women in 7 nonpolluted areas in widely separated parts of Japan, and analyses for cadmium (Cd-U) were conducted in a single laboratory. The geometric mean (GM) by decades of age groups of Cd-U, after adjustment for a specific gravity of urine of 1.016, increased from 0.88 microgram/l in the twenties to reach a maximum of 1.78 micrograms/l in the fifties followed by gradual decrease to 1.31 micrograms/l in the eighties. The effect of smoking (about 8 cigarettes/d as a mean) was absent. Analyses of additional 125 urine samples from men revealed that Cd-U in men was not higher than that in women. When classified geographically, Cd-U was higher in the area on the coast of the Sea of Japan, as suspected in preceding studies on blood cadmium levels and dietary cadmium intakes. The Cd-U levels observed in the present study are similar to the values in previous publications on the Japanese and are apparently higher than the counterpart values from Europe, the United States, and New Zealand.

  18. Is global dimming and brightening in Japan limited to urban areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Ohmura, Atsumu; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Ohkawara, Nozomu

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide observations indicate secular trends of all-sky surface solar radiation on a decadal time scale, termed global dimming and brightening. Accordingly, the observed surface radiation in Japan generally shows a strong decline until the end of the 1980s and then a recovery until around 2000. Because a substantial number of measurement stations are located within or close to populated areas, one may speculate that the observed trends are strongly influenced by local air pollution and are thus not of large-scale significance. This hypothesis poses a serious question as to what regional extent the global dimming and brightening are significant: are the global dimming and brightening truly global phenomena, or regional, or even only local? Our study focused on 14 meteorological observatories that measured all-sky surface solar radiation, zenith transmittance, and maximum transmittance. On the basis of municipality population time series, historical land use maps, recent satellite images, and actual site visits, we concluded that eight stations have been significantly influenced by urbanization, with the remaining six stations being left pristine. Between the urban and rural areas, no marked differences were identified in the temporal trends of the aforementioned meteorological parameters. Our findings suggest that global dimming and brightening in Japan occurred on a large scale, independently of urbanization.

  19. Outline of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquakes and lessons for a large urban earthquake in Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.

    2016-12-01

    A series of devastating earthquakes hit Kumamoto districts in Kyushu, Japan, in April, 2016. The M6.5 event occurred at 21:26 on April 14th (JST) and, 28 hours later, the M7.3 event occurred at 01:25 on April 17th (JST) at almost the same location with a depth of 10 km. The both earthquakes were felt with a seismic intensity of 7 in Japan Metrological Agency (JMA) scale at Mashiki Town. The intensity of 7 is the highest level by definition. Very strong accelerations are observed by the M6.5 event with 1,580 gal at KiK-net Mashiki station and 1,791 gal by the M7.3 event at Ohtsu City station. As a result, more than 8,000 houses are totally collapsed, 26,000 are heavily collapsed, and 120,000 are partially damaged. There are 49 people directly killed and 32 are indirectly killed by the quakes. The most important lesson from the Kumamoto earthquake is that a very strong ground motion may hit immediately after the first large event, say in a few days. This has serious impact to a house damaged by the first large quake. In the 2016 Kumamoto sequence there are also many strong aftershocks including 4 M5.8-5.9 events till April 18th. More than 180,000 people, at most, took shelter because of scaring many strong aftershocks. I will discuss both natural and human aspects of the Kumamoto earthquake disaster by the in-land shallow large earthquakes suggesting lessons for the large Metropolitan Earthquakes in Tokyo, Japan.

  20. Building areas of hospitals in Japan and distribution of areas by department--1980's.

    PubMed

    Itoh, M; Nakayama, S; Liu, Y Y; Kawaguchi, Y

    1993-07-01

    (1) Areas of entire hospitals which have been continuously increasing in the past 30 years are finally showing signs for slowing down. The areas of the hospitals completed in the 1980's were generally 50 to 80 m2 per bed. (2) The distribution of the nursing department to the entire hospitals in area ratio ranges from 30 to slightly more than 40%, or higher than 35% in most cases. The actual areas of the nursing department has surpassed 20 m2 per bed in a considerably large number of hospitals. (3) The area ratio of the outpatient department tends to concentrate to about 12%. Of this percentage, in almost all hospitals, the proportion of the emergency division was less than 2%. (4) As in the 1970's, the diagnostic and treatment facilities were within the range of 18 to 22% in the majority of the hospitals. The distribution shifted to ratios higher than the previous survey. The distributions for the various sections are as follows: 1) Specimen test rooms 3 to 5% 2) Physiological examination rooms slightly below 1% to slightly above 2% 3) X-ray diagnosis rooms about 4% 4) Radiation therapy rooms about 1% 5) Nuclear medicine rooms about 1% 6) Operating department 3 to 5%, 2 to 3 m2/bed 7) Delivery suite less than 1% 8) Rehabilitation department 1 to 4% 9) Hemodialysis suite about 1% (5) The area ratios of the supply department dispersed substantially between 12 and 25%. About 70% of the hospitals remained in the range of 15 to 20%. The ratios of the various sections in the department are as follows: 1) Pharmacy: slightly less than 2% to slightly less than 3% 2) Central sterile and supply department: about 2% 3) Blood bank: installed in hospitals with more than 500 beds 4) Kitchen: slightly more than 2% to slightly more than 3%, 1.5 to 2.5 m2/bed 5) Laundry: less than 1% 6) Central storage and material hundling unit: about 1% 7) Mechanical plant: 5 to 13% (6) The administration department allocates 7 to 14% of its area to the management division and 2 to 6% to the

  1. Staff Study Olympic Operations in Southern Kyushu

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-29

    miles north of MIYAZAKI. (3) High ground southwest of MIYAZAKI ..dominating coastal road leading to MIYAIlAHOJO. c. Beaches. TAKANABE BEACH AREA. • • (1...width of r.bout 1O miles.. It is locally hilly but the most hilly portion approaches close to the sea northward of TAKANABE ,. The terrain...immediately behind the beach consists mainly of a belt of wind-blown sand along the southern half of the beach. Inland of the beach from TAKANABE northward

  2. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 101 marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. In particular, to determine the degree of PCB contamination in the fish, we investigated the concentration of total PCB (∑PCB) and the proportions of 209 individual PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ∑PCB concentration was 1.7-33 ng/g in fat greenling (n = 29), 0.44-25 ng/g in flounder (n = 36), and 1.6-86 ng/g in mackerel (n = 36), all values being much lower than the provisional regulatory limit in Japan. In the congener analysis, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners dominated in all samples (comprising over 86% of the ∑PCB). The proportions of the chlorinated PCB congeners were similar to the contamination patterns derived from Kanechlor in the environment, implying that the marine fish were not contaminated with fresh PCBs.

  3. The study of mesoscale phenomena, winter monsoon clouds and snow area. [Sea of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The clouds under a moderate winter monsoon situation taken with S190A camera reveal existence of clouds with band structure of various wavelengths. The wavelength ranges from 0.4 to 3.5 kms. There was a good relationship between the longitudinal cloud band and vertical wind shear. There was a distinct difference in size of clouds between the Japan Sea side or upwind side and the Pacific Ocean side or downwind side of the Japanese mainland. Large solid cumulus clusters have the size of 20 x 35 sq km over the Japan Sea off the coast of Hokuriku District. It was found that S190A aerial color pictures showing shadows of fair weather cumuli over the sea could be successfully used in estimating cloud height while S190A station 1 picture was more useful over the land since it could more clearly distinguish shadow from vegetation. The height of fair weather cumuli estimated from shadows agree with the lifted condensation level. It was also found that these pictures were effectively used in delineating snow cover area. S192 data, especially IR channel, were found to be effective in finding topography of nimbostratus.

  4. Analyzing a relationship between climate change and terrestrial carbon fluxes over Japan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Setoyama, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, terrestrial vegetation undergoes dramatic change in climate. Areal difference of climate change has been gradually large, and ecosystem differ in response to climate change, leading that terrestrial carbon exchange between atmosphere and biosphere has also undergone much change for each region. A purpose of this study is to examine a relationship between climate parameter and terrestrial carbon flux over Japan region. The carbon flux data used are GPP, NPP, and NEP at 1km grid resolution, they were estimated by the satellite-driven biosphere model, BEAMS. The climate data are the MODIS land products and NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data set. We calculated annual and seasonal anomalies, and correlation coefficient between climate parameters and carbon fluxes from 2001 to 2010. The study area is Japan region (125°-150°E, 30°-50°N). We found in inter-annual change anomalies that NEP plays a role of sizable carbon sink in 2004 and 2007, and carbon source in 2003 and 2006. In 2004 and 2007, as full-year air temperature is high, an end of plant growing season might be delayed. In 2003 and 2006, low solar radiation due to rainy season front decreases NEP. By analyzing a relationship between climate parameters and carbon fluxes for each region, we could understand a characteristic of climate change and ecosystem, and a mechanism of terrestrial carbon cycle.

  5. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Komagata, Osamu; Yonejima, Mayuko; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Hirabayashi, Kimio; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Nihei, Naoko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2014-09-01

    A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV) infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12°C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Site amplification factors of whole Japan area estimated from spectral ratio of direct S-wave and their application to the real-time prediction of ground motion in Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiso, M.; Aoki, S.; Hoshiba, M.

    2014-12-01

    For applying the real-time prediction of ground motion proposed by Hoshiba (2013a, JGR) to Earthquake Early Warning, it is necessary to correct a site amplification factor in an observed waveform. In this study, we aim to estimate site amplification factors at whole area of Japan, and apply the real-time correction proposed by Hoshiba (2013b, BSSA) of site amplification factors to investigate their validity. To estimate site amplification factors, we used the spectral ratio of direct S-wave at two adjunct stations. We constructed a network with many pairs of stations, then solved the equations of the network in a least square sense. As a result, we successfully estimated site amplification factors almost whole of the Japan area, except a part of Hokkaido and Kyushu region, and Islands area. Next, we applied the real-time correction of site amplification factors in the observed waveforms of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0). Distribution of site-corrected seismic intensity calculated in time domain (Kunugi et al., 2008) showed clear distance-dependent relation of seismic intensity, which was not found in the distribution of non-corrected seismic intensity. Finally, we compared the two waveforms recorded in the Ishikari Plain, Hokkaido region, Japan, with correction of site amplification factors. The features of waveform in one station was well reproduced from the waveform of other station with the correction of site amplification factor. Although there are some subjects, e.g. nonlinear behavior of the ground with strong ground motion and azimuth dependency of site amplification factors which are not considered in this study, estimated site amplification factors in this study is effective in real-time prediction of ground motion.

  7. Tremor Hypocenters Form a Narrow Zone at the Plate Interface in Two Areas of SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The tremor detectors developed for accurately locating tectonic tremor in Cascadia [Armbruster et al., JGR 2014] have been applied to data from the HINET seismic network in Japan. In the overview by Obara [Science 2002] there are three strong sources of tectonic tremor in southwest Japan: Shikoku, Kii Pen. and Tokai. The daily epicentral distributions of tremor on the HINET web site allow the identification of days when tremor in each source is active. The worst results were obtained in Shikoku, in spite of the high level of tremor activity observed there by others. This method requires a clear direct arrival of the S and P waves at the stations for coherence to be seen, so scattering and shear wave splitting are possible reasons for poor results there. Relatively wide station spacing, 19-30 km, is another possible reason. The best results were obtained in Tokai with stations STR, HRY and TYE spacing 18-19 km, and Kii Pen. with stations KRT, HYS and KAW spacing 15-22 km. In both of those areas the three station detectors see strong episodes of tremor. If detections with three stations are located by constraining them to the plate interface, a pattern of persistent sources is seen, with some intense sources. This is similar to what was seen in Cascadia. Detections with four stations give S and P arrival times of high accuracy. In Tokai the hypocenters form a narrow, 2-3 km thick, zone dipping to the north, consistent with the plate interface there. In Kii Pen. the hypocenters dip to the northwest in a thin, 2-3 km thick, zone but approximately 5 km shallower than a plate interface model for this area [Yoshioka and Murakami, GJI 2007]. The overlap of tremor sources in the 12 years analyzed here suggests relative hypocentral location errors as small as 2-3 km. We conclude that the methods developed in Cascadia will work in Japan but the typical spacing of HINET stations, ~20 km, is greater than the optimum distance found in analysis of data from Cascadia, 8 to 15 km.

  8. Landslide and debris-flow hazard analysis and prediction using GIS in Minamata Hougawachi area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Esaki, Tetsuro; Xie, Mowen; Qiu, Cheng

    2006-10-01

    On July 20, 2003, following a short duration of heavy rainfall, a debris-flow disaster occurred in the Minamata Hougawachi area, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. This disaster was triggered by a landslide. In order to assess the landslide and debris-flow hazard potential of this mountainous region, the study of historic landslides is critical. The objective of the study is to couple 3D slope-stability analysis models and 2D numerical simulation of debris flow within a geographical information systems in order to identity the potential landslide-hazard area. Based on field observations, the failure mechanism of the past landslide is analyzed and the mechanical parameters for 3D slope-stability analysis are calculated from the historic landslide. Then, to locate potential new landslides, the studied area is divided into slope units. Based on 3D slope-stability analysis models and on Monte Carlo simulation, the spots of potential landslides are identified. Finally, we propose a depth-averaged 2D numerical model, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be a uniform continuous, incompressible, unsteady Newtonian fluid. The method accurately models the historic debris flow. According to the 2D numerical simulation, the results of the debris-flow model, including the potentially inundated areas, are analyzed, and potentially affected houses, river and road are mapped.

  9. Geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.; Shimada, J.

    2013-12-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area (103 Km2) in southern Japan. The modeling was based on flow paths proposed by different researcher using different techniques, and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in hydrochemical data of groundwater, mineralogical data, and saturation indices data of minerals in groundwater. Hydrochemical data from a total of 180 spring, river and well water samples were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control groundwater chemistry. The samples from the area were classified as recharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 type), lateral flow to discharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type) and stagnant zone water (Na-Cl type). The inverse geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive water chemistry in the area. The downstream changes in groundwater chemistry could be largely explained by the weathering of plagioclase to kaolinite, with possible contributions from weathering of biotite and pyroxene. In a broad sense, the reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the area fall into three categories (1) silicate weathering reactions (2) precipitation of amorphous silica and clay minerals and (3) Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ to Na+.

  10. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Saori; Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster) and 2012 (post-disaster), we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics. The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (-5.3%) and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%). The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture's population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: -1.9% and 3.2%, respectively). Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20-50 km and 50-100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.7) and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8) more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area.

  11. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Methods Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster) and 2012 (post-disaster), we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics. Results The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (–5.3%) and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%). The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture’s population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: –1.9% and 3.2%, respectively). Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20–50 km and 50–100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6–5.7) and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.8) more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusions The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area. PMID:28046089

  12. Anthropogenic changes due to partial dike removal in the Honjo Area of Nakaumi Lagoon, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K.; Dettman, D. L.; Kurata, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Irizuki, T.; Takata, H.

    2009-12-01

    Nakaumi Lagoon is a coastal brackish water lake formed by the Yumigahama peninsula in Shimane and Tottori Prefectures, Southwest Japan. In 1981 the Honjo Area, approximately the northern quarter of Nakaumi Lagoon, was almost completely isolated by the Moriyama, O-misaki and West Dikes constructed by the Nakaumi Reclamation and Desalination Project. A connection remained with Nakaumi Lagoon via one shallow channel in the West Dike. In 2002, the reclamation project was canceled and restoration work has been undertaken and planned during 2007-2009, such as the opening of 60 meters of the Moriyama Dike and the removal of West Dike. The inflow of high salinity water allowed by this restoration work is expected to have a large impact on the present ecosystem of the Honjo Area. In May 2009 the opening of Moriyama Dike was carried out and the water chemistry of the Honjo Area changed drastically. In this study, we document changes in the water environment resulting from the opening of Moriyama Dike. The monitoring program is made up of 60 water quality measurement sites and 12 detailed sampling localities in a traverse line through the lake system and observations were made at monthly intervals from May 2006 to present. At detailed sampling locations we measured standard water quality variables, collected water samples for biomass and stable isotope chemistry, and collected surface sediment samples for geochemistry and benthos censusing. Before the Moriyama Dike was opened, the salinity difference between surface and bottom water remained between 2 and 4 psu except during winter when strong winds mix the Honjo Area waters vertically. For most of the year the water was stratified and bottom water in the Honjo Area showed oxygen depletion. The dissolved oxygen of bottom water decreased early in the year on the Moriyama Dike side of the Honjo Area. This oxygen-poor water was easily up-welled by winds because the vertical salinity difference was small. At times the observed

  13. Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2010-05-01

    Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide area is located on a socially very important place, where are major lifelines connecting east and west Japan: Tokaido railway, Tokaido Shinkansen, and Tomei highway. The Yui landslide area comprises many landslide units and has been causing many catastrophs. The lateral spreading is characterized by NS-trending multiple ridges and linear depressions as long as 1 to 2 km and up to 60 m deep. These features are observable on the aerial photographs and are clearly identified by using airborne laser scanner. Mountains subjected to the lateral spreading is 3 km wide in EW and 6 km long in NS and are 250 to 500 m high above sea level. These morphological features suggest that the NS trending ridges spread laterally to EW and their central parts settled down like the way by which horsts and grabens are made. The ridges are underlain by Miocene beds consisting of the alternating beds of mudstone and sandstone in the lower part and of sandstone and conglomerate in the upper part. The spreading ridge occupies the axial part of a NS-trending syncline, which has a half wave length longer than 2 km and comprises minor folds with a wavelength on the order of hundred meters. This structure, synclinorium, suggests that there could be decollements along the enveloping surface of the minor folds and that the lateral spreading could have a low-angle slip surface along the enveloping surface of the minor folds. There are many landslides along the side slopes of the laterally spread ridges and they have been moving many times by rainstorms and also by earthquakes. The movements are recorded since 1781, but the

  14. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  15. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  16. Landslide properties Controlled by the Denudation degree on Granite area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Makoto; Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Ishizuka, Tadanori

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, numerous shallow landslides were induced in a cretaceous granite region by heavy rainstorms in the area of the city of Hofu, Yamaguchi Prefecture, in western Japan. Fourteen people were killed by the debris flow. This area has a widely distributed plantation surface, and topography formed by denudation processes such as the 2009 landslides. The plantation surface area is known for the frequent occurrence of landslides in the past. However, the relation between the landslide properties and the degree of mountain denudation, which is important for predicting the landslide risk, has not been clarified. We examined the relation between the degree of mountain denudation and the shallow landslide properties [landslide density (number/km2), landslide form, and soil layer structure]. First, we classified the slopes based on the degree of mountain denudation and interpretation of the 2009 landslide scars, using 1-m resolution DEMs, aerial photographs, and field surveys. As a result, the slopes were classified into three types as follows: (1) lightly denuded slopes (L-slope), (2) moderately denuded slopes (M-slope), and (3) heavily denuded slopes (H-slope). The landslide numbers were 23, 54, and 21 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope regions, respectively. Next, we analyzed the landslide properties using ESRI ArcGIS10. The landslide densities were 77/ km2, 115/ km2, and 41/ km2 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. The investigation area experienced heavy precipitation (about 250-300 mm per day). The landslide average volumes were 423 m3, 401 m3, and 173 m3 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. The landslide average angles were 28.5° , 33.2° , and 40.4° in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. Finally, we surveyed the landslide form and soil layer structure using detailed field surveys. The landslide form in the L-slope and M-slope areas was that of an 'arc shape type', and in the H-slope area was that of

  17. Grouping and representativeness of monitoring stations based on wind speed and wind direction data in urban areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    Data on wind speed and wind direction from 27 air pollution monitoring stations in an urban area of Japan were analyzed and studied for the future assessment of the urban heat island phenomenon. A cluster analysis clarified the regionality of the wind speed and wind direction. In the study area, land and sea breeze developed and controlled the wind direction. On the other hand, the mountain and valley wind should be studied to determine their typical behavior.

  18. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59-9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95-6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31-2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05-2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17-2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06-3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25-0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40-0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood.

  19. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  20. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Miyahara, Masaya; Fujii, Kazushi; Machiyama, Asako; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year. PMID:28848519

  1. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  2. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  3. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Miyahara, Masaya; Fujii, Kazushi; Machiyama, Asako; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  4. Associations of street layout with walking and sedentary behaviors in an urban and a rural area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Sugiyama, Takemi; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Liao, Yung; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-03-10

    We examined whether street layout -a key urban design element- is associated with walking and sedentary behaviors in the context of a non-Western country; and, whether such associations differ between an urban and a rural area. In 2011, 1076 middle-to-older aged adults living in an urban and a rural area of Japan reported their walking and sedentary (sitting) behaviors. Two objective measures of street layout (intersection density and street integration) were calculated. Participants exposed to more-connected street layouts were more likely to walk for commuting and for errands, to meet physical activity recommendations through walking for commuting, and less likely to drive. These relationships differed between the urban and the rural area. This shows that previous findings from Western countries on associations of street connectivity with travel behaviors may also be applicable to Japan.

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Typhoon - and Tsunami - Induced Deposits from Western Kyushu Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamaru, K.; Woodruff, J. D.; Kundu, S.; Cook, T.

    2014-12-01

    Western Kyushu Island is a region of Japan frequently impacted by typhoon landfalls. This region is relatively tectonically stable with few active faults and therefore known for far fewer great earthquakes when compared to the Nankai Trough region. Only a few studies have examined the history of tsunamis impacting the region. Hence, studies from western Kyushu provide a unique opportunity to study tsunami deposits in a broader geographic context in order to delineate regional typhoon impacts. This study presents results from both modern analogue from Typhoon Neoguri in 2014 and legendary Kamikaze Typhoons from 13th century. The initial coring was conducted in 2010. Total of 9 sediment cores were collected from two natural freshwater lakes along the western coast of Kyushu: Lake Daija (32.248°N, 129.985°E) and Lake Kawahara (32.624°N, 129.831°E). In order to further understand the characteristics of typhoon deposits, we collected 4 additional sediment cores from Kawahara in July of 2014, approximately one week after landfall of Typhoon Neoguri. We use a multi-proxy approach to identify event deposits. These approaches include loss on ignition, X-Ray fluorescence, X-radiograph, grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and SEM/EDS analyses. Initial results yielded commonalities between the two lakes. Linear interpolation of the most prominent event deposits within multiple cores, presenting highs in Sr and Ca intensities, constrain the dates of deposits of interest to the late 13th century—consistent with the Mongol invasions. Here we present preliminary geochemical results from Lake Kawahara, which further constrain the typhoon deposits, and use this as a reference event for comparison to tsunami deposits found in other regions.

  6. Taxonomic Richness of Yeasts in Japan within Subtropical and Cool Temperate Areas

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Masako; Sugita, Takashi; Van, Bui Hong; Nakamura, Megumi; Endoh, Rikiya; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the role of yeasts in the environment has been uncertain because estimates of population size and diversity have often been based on species identifications that were determined from a limited number of phenotypic characteristics. DNA-based species identification has now become widely used, allowing an accurate assessment of species in different habitats. However, there are still problems in classification because some genera are polyphyletic. Consequently, the identification of yeasts and measurement of their diversity at the genus level remains difficult, as does assignment of genera to higher taxonomic ranks. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1021 yeast strains was isolated from soil samples and plant materials collected from Japan’s subtropical Iriomote Island and the cool temperate Rishiri Island. Based on sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene, these 1021 strains were tentatively classified into 183 species, with apparent new species accounting for approximately half of the total species isolated (60 and 46, Iriomote and Rishiri, respectively). The yeast species composition was statistically different between the two sites with only 15 species in common. Rarefaction curves of respective sources/areas gave distinctive patterns when the threshold of sequence identity became broader, indicating that the yeast diversity was distinct at the different taxonomic levels compared. Conclusions/Significance Our isolation study of yeasts in Japan has enabled us to expand the inventory of species diversity because a large number of new species was observed in the sampling areas. Further, we propose use of a particular diversity threshold as an “indicator” to recognize species, genera and higher taxonomic ranks. PMID:23226383

  7. Dissolved zinc and its speciation in the coastal hydrothermal area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, H.; Kim, T.; Gamo, T.; Takeda, S.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for marine bacteria and phytoplankton. Previous studies indicated that organic complexes of dissolved zinc in surface waters account for about 98% of the total dissolved zinc in the open ocean (e.g., Bruland, 1989; Ellwood and van den Berg, 2000). However, distributions of dissolved Zn and its speciation were not clarified yet in the coastal areas. In this study, we have investigated dissolved Zn distribution and its speciation in the Tachibana Bay (Japan), where an active hydrothermal activity was reported at the coastal areas. Seawater samples were collected from surface to near bottom (D=36 m) in the Tachibana Bay, Nagasaki Prefecture, by using acid-cleaned samplers in May 2012 and 2013. Total dissolved Zn was determined by using CSV after UV-digestion. For the Zn speciation, ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants were obtained from a titration using competitive ligand equilibrium / adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (van den Berg, 1985). In the Tachibana Bay, total dissolved Zn (D-Zn) ranged from 0.33 to 3.1 nM, which were similar concentration levels to those in the open ocean. D-Zn was sharply decreased toward the bottom. High sulfide concentration (94 nM) in coastal bottom waters was observed, reflecting active hydrothermal system near the bottom of Tachibana Bay coast. Zn is seemingly removed as Zn-sulfides from the water column. Also, relatively high total ligand concentration was calculated near the bottom. The biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the Tachibana Bay is considerably affected by hydrothermal system.

  8. Mineralization of Fe/Mn-precipitates From Hot Springs in the Sanbe Volcanic Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Kimura, H.

    2007-12-01

    Mt. Sanbe is an active volcano located in western Japan. At southwest slope of Mt.Sanbe, hot springs are discharged with flow rate of 2000 liter per minute, which are accomapnied by iron and manganese precipitates. We studied chemical composition of hot spring waters by IC, ICP-AES and AA analysis, and of precipitates by XRF analysis. Water chemistry of the main hot spring (t= 30-39 °C) is Na-Cl type and contains significant iron (= 5.6-7.5 mg/l) and manganese (= 1.1-1.6 mg/l). Around the main spring discharge, both ferrihydrites (contains 67-76% of Fe) and manganese oxides (contains 71-79% of Mn) are precipitated. About 30 to 100m east from the main hot spring, black precipitates mainly consists of manganese oxides (contains 5-83% of Mn) are distributed in the area of 90 m × 45 m. Cold spring waters (t= 12-20 °C) in this area also contains Mn (0.1-0.6 mg/l), but their Fe concentration was under detection limit. Relative chemical comoposition of the cold spring waters are similar to that of the main hot spring, which implies dilution with groundwater. Total bacterial count measured by DAPI staining was 16,000-37,000 cells/ml in these waters. In order to estimate microbial activity, we conducted manganese oxidizing experiments. The oxidation rate was estiamted as 4-5 nM per hour for the experiment in which 5 g of fresh manganese wad was added to 200ml of the 0.20 μm filtered hot spring water. This rapid oxidation rate would suggest that microbial activity plays important role in manganese precipitation from the Sanbe hot/cold spring waters.

  9. Implications of climate change for crop production in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    This study uses climate change scenarios derived from three global climate models (GCMs) to assess the possible impacts of climate change on rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica), maize (Zea mays L.), and wheat (Triticum spp.) production in Japan. Crop models were used to simulate the possible changes in crop yields under different climate change scenarios. Increased temperatures resulted in decreases in simulated crop yield in many regions under the present management systems. While the direct beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} may compensate for the yield decreases in central and northern Japan, the effects did not compensate for the larger yield decreases in southwestern japan, especially in Kyushu. Early planting and irrigation are possible adaptation strategies of the management systems to climate change. In most cases, simulated yields increased under climate change conditions if an earlier planting date was adopted; however, in Kyushu because of high temperature stress, an earlier planting did not improve simulated yields, and the introduction of new cultivars better adapted to the climate change conditions would be required. In Hokkaido, the major upland production area of Japan, climate change increased simulated crop yields under some conditions, depending on the scenario precipitation and irrigation systems.

  10. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  11. Geophysics. Migrating tremor off southern Kyushu as evidence for slow slip of a shallow subduction interface.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Yakiwara, H; Asano, Y; Shimizu, H; Uchida, K; Hirano, S; Umakoshi, K; Miyamachi, H; Nakamoto, M; Fukui, M; Kamizono, M; Kanehara, H; Yamada, T; Shinohara, M; Obara, K

    2015-05-08

    Detection of shallow slow earthquakes offers insight into the near-trench part of the subduction interface, an important region in the development of great earthquake ruptures and tsunami generation. Ocean-bottom monitoring of offshore seismicity off southern Kyushu, Japan, recorded a complete episode of low-frequency tremor, lasting for 1 month, that was associated with very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) activity in the shallow plate interface. The shallow tremor episode exhibited two migration modes reminiscent of deep tremor down-dip of the seismogenic zone in some other subduction zones: a large-scale slower propagation mode and a rapid reversal mode. These similarities in migration properties and the association with VLFEs strongly suggest that both the shallow and deep tremor and VLFE may be triggered by the migration of episodic slow slip events. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  13. Investigations of the Piezomagnetic Field in the Slow Slip Event Epicentral Area in Tokai Area, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Uyeshima, M.; Ogawa, T.; Koyama, S.

    2006-12-01

    The University of Tokyo has conducted continuous geomagnetic observations in the Tokai area, central Japan. In this area, large interplate earthquakes have occurred repeatedly due to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. The main objective of our geomagnetic observations is to detect tectonomagnetic signals accompanied with the subduction process. At each station, total forces of the geomagnetic field are measured every minute using proton precession magnetometers. Observed value at the reference station in Yatsugatake, several tens of km away from the investigated area, was subtracted from those at respective stations to establish daily mean simple differences. The data at one station show a characteristic variation. Until 2000, it had decreased at a rate of 1 nT/year. However, the decrease had stopped during a period from 2000 to 2004. And it started decreasing again in 2005. The period during which the decrease had stopped corresponds to the Tokai Slow Slip Event which was detected by geodetic observations. Therefore, the variation found in the total force differences may have some relation to the Slow Slip Event. To investigate the possible relation between the changes in the geomagnetic total force and the Tokai Slow Slip Event, we performed piezomagnetic modelings. In general, piezomagnetic field is generated by the heterogeneities of the initial magnetization of rocks and/or those of stress field in the crust. To clarify which heterogeneity is dominant for explaining the observational results in Tokai area, we conducted two types of numerical modelings, one for the uniformly magnetized crust with the realistic stress field, and one for the uniform regional stress field with the highly magnetized rock bodies near the station. In the former case, the stress field variation calculated from the slip distribution estimated by Ohta et al. (2004) was substituted to the calculation. Expected changes in the total intensity amount to only less than 1/100 nT. These

  14. Anomalous intra-plate high-Mg andesites in the Choshi area (Chiba, Central Japan) produced during early stages of Japan Sea opening?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Jun'ichi; Flower, Martin F. J.

    2009-10-01

    Geochemical and isotopic data are reported for 20 Ma high-magnesian andesite (HMA) lavas erupted on the forearc side of Central Japan in the Choshi coastal area (Chiba). Rarely olivine-phyric (< 3% vol), these rocks have ca. 56 wt.% SiO 2, Na 2O ranging between 3.9 and 4.2 wt.%, and relatively low K 2O/Na 2O ratios (ca. 0.44). Their Mg numbers are relatively high (ca. 0.64) and matched by high Cr (> 345 ppm), high Sr (> 520 ppm), high Sr/Y (ca. 30), and high [La/Yb] N (> 8), conforming to the definition of low-silica adakites, transitional in character to HMA. However, despite slight negative Nb and Ta 'troughs' in a few samples, their incompatible element distribution patterns appear closer to those of intra-plate basalts, apparently confirming previous suggestions that terms such as HMA and adakite cover a diverse range of compositions. Enriched in radiogenic Sr and Nd (ca. 0.7040 to 0.7043 and 0.5128 to 0.51275, respectively), the Choshi HMA shows relatively low 206Pb/ 204Pb (18.25 to 18.35) and 208Pb/ 204Pb (38.37 to 38.48) ratios, resembling those of late Miocene intra-plate basalts in the Japan Sea and SW Japan. In this regard the Choshi HMA differs from those of the 'classic' Middle Miocene (14 to 12 Ma) HMA described from the Setouchi volcanic belt (e.g. Tatsumi, 1981), a short distance to the west which also shows relative high K contents. Although HMAs have been generally attributed to subduction-related processes, the lack of high field strength element (HFSE) depletions cf. large ionic lithophile elements (LILE) in most Choshi HMA suggests an absence of so-called 'subduction signatures'. Accordingly, we suggest that the Choshi HMA probably tapped a fertile (asthenospheric) region of the convecting mantle wedge, primitive melt products having acquired HMA-like character as a result of shallow level modification by interaction with lithospheric components, aided by thermal input resulting from mantle extrusion, during the early stages of Japan Sea opening

  15. Microbial Diversity in Sediments Collected from the Deepest Cold-Seep Area, the Japan Trench.

    PubMed

    Li; Kato; Horikoshi

    1999-07-01

    : The Japan Trench land slope at a depth of 6,400 m is the deepest cold-seep environment with Calyptogena communities. Sediment samples from inside and beside the Calyptogena communities were collected, and the microbial diversity in the sediment samples was studied by molecular phylogenetic techniques. From DNA extracted directly from the sediment samples, 16S rDNAs were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method. The sequences of the amplified 16S rDNAs selected by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were determined and compared with sequences in DNA databases. The results showed that 33 different bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the two samples analyzed fell into similar phylogenetic categories, the alpha-, gamma-, delta-, and varepsilon-subdivisions of Proteobacteria, Cytophaga, and gram-positive bacteria; some of the 16S rDNA sequences were common to both samples. delta- and varepsilon-Proteobacteria-related sequences were abundant in both sediments. These sequences are mostly related to sulfate-reducing or sulfur-reducing bacteria and epibionts, respectively. Eight different archaeal 16S rDNA sequences were cloned from the sediments. The majority of the archaeal 16S rDNA sequences clustered in Crenarchaeota and showed high similarities to marine group I archaeal rDNA. A Methanococcoides burtonii-related sequence obtained from the sediment clustered in the Euryarchaeota indicating that M. burtonii-related strains in the area of Calyptogena communities may contribute to production of methane in this environment. From these results, we propose a possible model of sulfur circulation within the microbial community and that of Calyptogena clams in the cold-seep environment.

  16. Seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan based on adjoint tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, T.; Obayashi, M.; Tono, Y.; Tsuboi, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained a three-dimensional (3D) model of seismic wave-speed structure beneath the metropolitan area of Japan. We applied the spectral-element method (e.g. Komatitsch and Tromp 1999) and adjoint method (Liu and Tromp 2006) to the broadband seismograms in order to infer the 3D model. We used the travel-time tomography result (Matsubara and Obara 2011) as an initial 3D model and used broadband waveforms recorded at the NIED F-net stations. We selected 147 earthquakes with magnitude of larger than 4.5 from the F-net earthquake catalog and used their bandpass filtered seismograms between 5 and 20 second with a high S/N ratio. The 3D model used for the forward and adjoint simulations is represented as a region of approximately 500 by 450 km in horizontal and 120 km in depth. Minimum period of theoretical waveforms was 4.35 second. For the adjoint inversion, we picked up the windows of the body waves from the observed and theoretical seismograms. We used SPECFEM3D_Cartesian code (e.g. Peter et al. 2011) for the forward and adjoint simulations, and their simulations were implemented by K-computer in RIKEN. Each iteration required about 0.1 million CPU hours at least. The model parameters of Vp and Vs were updated by using the steepest descent method. We obtained the fourth iterative model (M04), which reproduced observed waveforms better than the initial model. The shear wave-speed of M04 was significantly smaller than the initial model at any depth. The model of compressional wave-speed was not improved by inversion because of small alpha kernel values. Acknowledgements: This research was partly supported by MEXT Strategic Program for Innovative Research. We thank to the NIED for providing seismological data.

  17. A serological survey of minute virus of canines (MVC; canine parvovirus type-1) in dogs in the Tokai area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, A; Takiguchi, M; Hirai, K; Kida, H; Carmichael, L E

    2001-11-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to minute virus of canines (MVC) by use of a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test was performed on sera collected from dogs in the Tokai area of Japan. Forty-one of 266 (15.4%) sera had positive titers of 1:40 or higher against the MVC. Results suggest that MVC may have been present in dogs in Japan since, at least, 1990. From this serosurvey, MVC appears to be established in the dog population in Japan. MVC may have a role as a newly recognized viral pathogen of dogs in Japan.

  18. The serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin level and the diet of a Japanese population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    PubMed

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Eiichi; Okada, Kyoko; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The elevated serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) level is related to osteoporosis. In Japan, vitamin K intake is lower, and the incidence of hip fractures noticeably higher in northern Kyushu than in other areas. The study was done to determine the serum ucOC levels in a Japanese population and its association with diet and glucose metabolism. The data of 3,658 healthy adults aged 40-69 (1,373 men and 2,285 women) who lived in northern Kyushu area were analyzed. The data included anthropometric measurements and a self-reported personal interview on daily intake of foods. The serum ucOC level of each participant was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Glycohemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and serum insulin concentrations were measured. The median serum ucOC level of the women (4.65 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that of the men (3.04 ng/mL) (P = 0.0021). The age-specific ucOC levels of the men decreased significantly with age. In contrast, the ucOC levels of the women aged ≥50 were elevated, but the levels varied markedly within the other age groups. For both men and women, multivariate analysis identified a daily diet rich in vitamin K and HbA1c level as independently having a significant, negative relationship to serum ucOC level. Our study indicates that the serum ucOC decreases with age in men, increases postmenopausally in women, and correlates inversely with dietary consumption of certain foods and with fasting glucose and HbA1c level.

  19. Structural Analysis of Serpentinite in the Jikkoku Pass Area, Northwestern Kanto Mountains, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirauchi, K.; Hisada, K.

    2004-12-01

    Serpentinite is a product made by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite. It has been understood that serpentinite along a fault or a plate boundary plays a role as a lubricant for rheological properties. However, it is unknown how serpentinite actually acts through its deformation processes. The study area is located on the Jikkoku Pass area, northwestern Kanto Mountains, central Japan. Serpentinite bodies are intermittently distributed along fault boundaries. In this study, we divided serpentinite into four deformation stages (D1-D4) based on meso- and microstructures. 1) D1 stage: It is represented by block-in-matrix structure. Block sizes are various, and their longest axis is about 1 m. Shapes of blocks are almost oblate type and rounded to subangular. The long axes of blocks nearly show a same orientation, and planar structures are nearly parallel to them. Inner structures of blocks are entirely deformed, and mesh texture as a pseudomorph of olivine and euhedral chromian spinels are observed. Serpentines consist mainly of lizardite and chrysotile. Fine-gained serpentines of various sizes are randomly scattered in the matrix. 2) D2 stage: It is represented by alternation in portions of different colors and textures. Colors consist mainly of dark green and yellowish green. Intervals of this alternation vary from 1 to 3 mm. In portions of dark green, needle-shaped antigorites have a preferred orientation. Antigorites are remarkably fine-grained in some cases, and are similar to characteristics of ultramylonite. Portions of yellowish green include opaque minerals such as magnetite, forming planar structures. A chromian spinel occurs as a porphyroclast (rounded shape) together with fine-grained recrystallized antigorites. 3) D3 stage: It is represented by fracture foliation. It is formed by foliation as fracture planes that are penetratively developed with a few hundreds of ƒEm intervals. Besides, intervals of this foliation also vary on

  20. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  1. A Review of HRD Research in Three Areas of East Asia: Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Jie; Paprock, Kenneth E.; Lynham, Susan A.; Li, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research focusing on Human Resource Development (HRD) in East Asia is attracting increasing attention. The purpose of the study is to explore the definition and practice of HRD, together with influencing cultural factors, in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. The results indicate a difference in the definition and implementation of HRD…

  2. PiSAR-L2 observation of agricultural area damaged by seawater during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Manabu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Naoki, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Masanobu

    2012-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, a massive earthquake occurred on the eastern coast of Japan. The magnitude 9.0 quake was the most powerful ever recorded in Japan. The height of the tsunami that followed the earthquake was estimated to be more than 10 m. The water reached a few kilometers inland and resulted in thousands of casualties as well as serious damage to buildings and agricultural areas along the coastline. Several PiSAR-L2 observations were carried out in these tsunamiaffected areas from April to September in 2012, and field experiments were performed in agricultural areas that had been damaged by seawater. The complex dielectric constant and the electrical conductivity of the soil were measured to estimate the soil's salinity. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant for a tsunami-damaged area 0.7 km from the coastline was shown to be 37.1 at 1 GHz, and the electric conductivity was shown to be 7.8 mS/cm. These values exceeded those from non-damaged inland areas. One of the full polarimetric parameters, co-polarization backscattering ratio (σ0HH/σ0VV) derived from PiSAR-L2 data, were examined and compared for damaged/non-damaged areas. The analysis indicates that the higher-salinity area was well detected by σ0HH/σ0VV. However, water areas and flat surfaces covered by gravel exhibit similar characteristics, and this may result in the false detection of salt-affected agricultural areas.

  3. Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan: a cross-sectional ecological study.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kimiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Oshima, Akira

    2005-10-01

    Cancer mortality is generally high in people of low socioeconomic status compared with people of high socioeconomic status (SES). Although these differences in mortality may be caused by differences in cancer incidence and survival, analysis of these factors has rarely been conducted. The objective of our cross-sectional ecological study was to analyze socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence, mortality and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, age-adjusted mortality rates, relative 5-year survival, and proportions of early stage cancer were calculated for 67 municipalities in Osaka, Japan. For area-based socioeconomic variables, we used the percentages of male unemployment, college or graduate school graduates, home ownership, households receiving government assistance, and households below the subsistence habitation level in each municipality. We performed linear regression taking each municipality's population as weight to examine the relationships between measurements relating cancer and socioeconomic variables. Factor analysis of socioeconomic variables was carried out to determine whether a particular socioeconomic variable tended to be associated with another. Cancer incidence, cancer mortality, 5-year cancer survival, and proportion of early stage cancer were highly correlated with each socioeconomic variable at the municipality level. Five area-based socioeconomic variables could be explained by three factors: economic status, housing characteristics and educational attainment. Despite the major limitation of a lack of individual information about socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes related to cancer, we hypothesize that a municipal area's socioeconomic status might be a predictor of individual incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer.

  4. Current and future activities in the area of optical space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Araki, Ken'ichi; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Furuhama, Yoji

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of current and prospective activities in Japan in the field of optical space communications (OSC) and its associated optical technologies. These activities are conducted by NASDA, the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute, and the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Attention is given to such initiatives as high-precision tracking, bidirectional OSC, laser beam propagation, optical ground stations, and a free-space simulator for laser transmission.

  5. Trends of second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Japan: a multicenter study in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Kawai, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kurihara, Naoto; Ito, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Omata, Fumio; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Torii, Akira; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the eradication rate of first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) has been decreasing because of a high prevalence of CAM resistance. A possible decrease of the eradication rate for second-line therapy with a PPI, AMPC and metronidazole (MNZ) is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the trends in second-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Japan. We accumulated data retrospectively on patients administered second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori with a PPI, AMPC, and MNZ for 1 week after failure of first-line eradication therapy with a PPI, AMPC and CAM at 15 facilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan from 2007 to 2011. Trends for second-line eradication rates in modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were investigated. Second-line eradication rates were categorized by three PPIs (rabeprazole (RPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OMZ)) and evaluated. We accumulated data on 1373 patients. The overall second-line eradication rate was 92.4%. Second-line eradication rates in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were 97.7, 90.6, 94.5, 91.8 and 91.8%, respectively, with no significant trends revealed. Second-line eradication rates categorized by three PPIs for the entire 5-year period were 91.6, 93.4 and 92.4% (RPZ, LPZ and OPZ, respectively) with no significant differences among the three PPIs. From 2007 to 2011, there were no significant trends in the second-line eradication rates and the rates remained consistently high. From the viewpoint of high prevalence of CAM resistance in Japan, triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and MNZ may be a better strategy for first-line therapy compared to triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and CAM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of the Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in Coastal Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Uehara, Keita; Shah, Md Mahfuzur Rahman; Suda, Shoichiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Background The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP): one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. Methods/Principal Finding A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006–2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8–D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2), two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi) and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8–D10 as

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from vaccinated commercial poultry farms in non-epidemic areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Umali, Dennis Villaseñor; Ito, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Terumasa; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu; Ito, Toshihiro

    2013-11-09

    Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of poultry. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available regarding the causes of ND outbreaks in vaccinated commercial poultry farms. Knowing the genomic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infecting commercial poultry operations in spite of vaccination might give important insights on the infection dynamics of these viruses. In addition, molecular analyses at the subgenotype level and studies on the relationship of Japanese NDVs with other isolates from around the world are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterize nine NDVs isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry flocks in five different Prefectures in non-epidemic areas of Japan between 1969 and 2002. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic studies were performed to characterize the complete fusion (F)-protein gene, 3-prime end of the nucleoprotein (NP)-gene and 5-prime end of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L)-gene. Sequence data were compared with 180 NDV strains from GenBank representing different NDV genotypes and subgenotypes from different regions of the world at different time periods. Deduced amino acids were analyzed for homologies, recombination and mutation. Recombination events were estimated using Recombination Detection Program (RDP) version 3.44. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine evolutionary relationships among strains. Mean death time (MDT: 48-56 hr), Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI: 1.7-1.9) and deduced amino acid sequences of the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (112RRQKR116) revealed that all nine field isolates were velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates could be classified into two genetic lineages and three sublineages namely genotypes VIa (lineage 4a), VId (lineage 4d) and VIId (lineage 5d). No recombination events were observed but a point mutation in one of

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from vaccinated commercial poultry farms in non-epidemic areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of poultry. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available regarding the causes of ND outbreaks in vaccinated commercial poultry farms. Knowing the genomic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infecting commercial poultry operations in spite of vaccination might give important insights on the infection dynamics of these viruses. In addition, molecular analyses at the subgenotype level and studies on the relationship of Japanese NDVs with other isolates from around the world are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterize nine NDVs isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry flocks in five different Prefectures in non-epidemic areas of Japan between 1969 and 2002. Methods Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic studies were performed to characterize the complete fusion (F)-protein gene, 3-prime end of the nucleoprotein (NP)-gene and 5-prime end of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L)-gene. Sequence data were compared with 180 NDV strains from GenBank representing different NDV genotypes and subgenotypes from different regions of the world at different time periods. Deduced amino acids were analyzed for homologies, recombination and mutation. Recombination events were estimated using Recombination Detection Program (RDP) version 3.44. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine evolutionary relationships among strains. Results Mean death time (MDT: 48-56 hr), Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI: 1.7-1.9) and deduced amino acid sequences of the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (112RRQKR116) revealed that all nine field isolates were velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates could be classified into two genetic lineages and three sublineages namely genotypes VIa (lineage 4a), VId (lineage 4d) and VIId (lineage 5d). No recombination events were observed but

  9. Quasi-periodic slow slip events in the afterslip area of the 1996 Hyuga-nada earthquakes, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarai, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Shinzaburo

    2013-05-01

    The time evolution of afterslip on a plate boundary experiencing interplate earthquakes is expected to show logarithmic decay. The global positioning system network in Japan has been monitoring transient deformation since the occurrence of two large interplate earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 6.8 and 6.7 in the Hyuga-nada area, southwest Japan, in 1996. The spatial and temporal evolution of aseismic interplate slip based on crustal deformation data indicates that afterslip followed the two earthquakes and gradually declined to background rates by around 2004 with total moment magnitude of 7.3. However, quasi-periodic slow slip events suddenly began within the afterslip area in 2005 with approximately one year duration and two-year recurrence interval. The moment magnitudes of the three slow slip events since January 2005 range from 6.7 to 6.8. This differs greatly from the expected behavior of logarithmic decay over time. Both velocity-strengthening and velocity-weakening rate-and-state modes have been implicated as the cause of afterslip, whose location is complementary to the main shock area of velocity-weakening, while a slow slip event occurs in the velocity-weakening area with different frictional properties from those of an afterslip area. In light of the seemingly different frictional properties, the coexistence of afterslip and slow slip events in the same area would provide additional information about precisely how the plate interface is behaving. The monitoring of these slow slip events should give the clues to understanding the coexistence of long-term afterslip and slow slip events and the increasing risk of earthquakes in neighboring areas.

  10. Seismicity controlled by resistivity structure: the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes, Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Koki; Asaue, Hisafumi; Koike, Katsuaki; Takakura, Shinichi; Utsugi, Mitsuru; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Ryokei; Yamazaki, Ken'ichi; Komatsu, Shintaro; Uyeshima, Makoto; Koyama, Takao; Kanda, Wataru; Shiotani, Taro; Matsushima, Nobuo; Hata, Maki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Uchida, Kazunari; Tsukashima, Yuko; Shito, Azusa; Fujita, Shiori; Wakabayashi, Asuma; Tsukamoto, Kaori; Matsushima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Kondo, Kentaro; Takashima, Kanade; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tamura, Makoto; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Manami; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The M JMA 7.3 Kumamoto earthquake that occurred at 1:25 JST on April 16, 2016, not only triggered aftershocks in the vicinity of the epicenter, but also triggered earthquakes that were 50-100 km away from the epicenter of the main shock. The active seismicity can be divided into three regions: (1) the vicinity of the main faults, (2) the northern region of Aso volcano (50 km northeast of the mainshock epicenter), and (3) the regions around three volcanoes, Yufu, Tsurumi, and Garan (100 km northeast of the mainshock epicenter). Notably, the zones between these regions are distinctively seismically inactive. The electric resistivity structure estimated from one-dimensional analysis of the 247 broadband (0.005-3000 s) magnetotelluric and telluric observation sites clearly shows that the earthquakes occurred in resistive regions adjacent to conductive zones or resistive-conductive transition zones. In contrast, seismicity is quite low in electrically conductive zones, which are interpreted as regions of connected fluids. We suggest that the series of the earthquakes was induced by a local accumulated stress and/or fluid supply from conductive zones. Because the relationship between the earthquakes and the resistivity structure is consistent with previous studies, seismic hazard assessment generally can be improved by taking into account the resistivity structure. Following on from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake series, we suggest that there are two zones that have a relatively high potential of earthquake generation along the western extension of the MTL. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Volcanic-related alteration and geochemistry of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyushu, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaki, S.

    2002-03-01

    Satsuma-Iwojima is located near the northwestern margin of Kikai caldera, and active Mt. Iwodake is one of the post-caldera cones. Inside the summit crater of about 300 m diameter and 50 m depth, volcanic gas with maximum temperature >800°C is discharged. At Iwodake, the rhyolite is strongly altered by volcanic vapor and acid hydrothermal solution inside and around the summit crater. The main alteration mineral assemblages at surface include quartz-tridymite-cristobalite, tridymite-cristobalite-alunite and cristobalite-(alunite) inside the summit crater and on the flank. Molybdenum blue sublimates are forming at the surface around high-temperature fumaroles inside the summit crater. The ground surface is commonly cemented by amorphous silica or cristobalite. The original rhyolite with SiO2 = 71-72 wt% has been leached, resulting in a rock with maximum SiO2 = 97 wt%. All major elements are leached except for TiO2. Although LIL (large-ion lithophile) elements have leached, HFS (high field-strength) elements appear to be immobile. Rare earth elements are considered to have been soluble as a complex with sulfate mainly in the low pH hydrothermal fluid during the silicification of the rhyolite. There is abundant Mo, Pb, Zn, Bi, Sn and much lower As in the volcanic sublimates and altered rocks inside the summit crater. By contrast, the rocks near the acid springs at the foot of the cone are As-rich, but with lower Pb, Zn, Bi and little Mo in comparison with the summit. The fractures and fumarole locations around Iwodake summit and erosional ridges on the flanks reflects a NE-SW trend that is parallel to the trace of the outer ring of Kikai caldera. In addition, this is the same direction as the alignment of Shin-Iwojima, Iwodake and Inamuradake, all of which are post-caldera cones. Zones of structural weakness parallel to the caldera rim may exist, acting as pathways for the ascending volcanic gases and hydrothermal solutions. Fumarolic activity appears to be shifting gradually to the eastern part of the summit crater.

  12. Assessment of dam removal from geochemical examination of Kuma River sediment, Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Young, Sansfica M; Ishiga, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if Arase dam gate removal and flushing elevated concentrations of any trace elements in Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay sediments or caused riverine environmental change. The Arase dam gate on the Kuma River was opened in April 2010. Surface and bottom sediments were compared using 10-cm-long cores (2011) and two grain size fractions. Surface sediment data from 2002, 2012, and 2013 from the Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay were also compared. The sediments were analyzed using XRF for 23 elements, and the grain size analysis was done. The short core surface and bottom sediments do not show major chemical changes, and therefore, may not represent post-and pre-dam sediments. Results based on 2011 samples show that the removal of the Arase dam gates in 2010 has been geoenvironmentally beneficial due to the decrease of environmentally related trace elements Pb and Zn in 2013. However, a slight increase in the levels of Cr, Cu, Zr, and Nb in 2013 indicates that periodic flushing in winter leads to elevation in these elements due to an increase in the fine fraction. Metal enrichment factors (EF) in 2002 are higher and these have decreased by 2013. Some elements exceed environmental guidelines, but this is due to natural background values, and there is no anthropogenic contamination. Thus, the environment of the river and bay has been significantly improved due to the dam opening. This result suggests that assessment and environmental monitoring studies are very important for dam management and future decision making.

  13. Thick massive gas hydrate deposits were revealed by LWD in Off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of Japan Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    GR14 and HR15 survey cruises, which were dedicated to the LWD (Logging While Drilling), were carried out in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the "gas chimney" structures in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drilling were performed in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas along eastern margin of Japan Sea during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION were used during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR14. The data quality was generally good. "Gas chimney" structures with acoustic blanking columns on the high frequency seismic sections with mound and pockmark morphologic features on the sea bottom, are well developed within survey areas. Every LWD records taken from gas chimney structures during the cruises show high resistivity and acoustic velocity anomalies which suggest the development of gas hydrate. Characteristic development of massive gas hydrate was interpreted at the Umitaka CW mound structure, Off-Joetsu. The mound lies at 890-910m in water depth and has very rough bottom surface, regional high resistivity, regional high heat flow, several natural seep sites, 200m x 300m area, and 10-20m height. 8 LWD holes, J18L to J21L and J23L to J26L, were drilled on and around the mound. There are highly anomalous intervals which suggest the development of massive gas hydrate at J24L, with high resistivity, high Vp and Vs, high neutron porosity, low natural gamma ray intensity, low neutron gamma density, low NMR porosity, low NMR permeability, low formation sigma, from 10 to 110m-bsf with intercalating some thin less hydrate layers. It is interpreted that there is several tens of meter thick massive gas hydrate in the gas chimney mound. It is partly confirmed by the later nearby coring result which showed the repetition of

  14. Institutional care versus home care for the elderly in a rural area: cost comparison in rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Naomi, Akiyama; Shiroiwa, Takeru; Fukuda, Takashi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in institutional care costs, such as that associated with care in chronic hospitals or nursing homes, is a serious social concern in Japan, and this is particularly so in rural areas which are more rapidly aging than others. This has led to a proposal to reduce costs by deinstitutionalizing the disabled elderly. However, the actual financial benefit of deinstitutionalizing the disabled elderly is unclear. To examine the effectiveness of deinstitutionalizing the disabled elderly with the aim of cost reduction. This study utilized a cross-sectional design and complete census survey. The participants were 139 residents of a rural town in Hokkaido who were institutionalized as of 1 July 2007, and whose Care Needs Levels were classified according to Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) in Japan. Of these, 87 participants were considered candidates for deinstitutionalization. Participants who were considered unable to stay alone at home, such as those with behavioral problems, at risk of falling, or in need of hospital medical care, were excluded. Data were collected on institutional care costs, and an original questionnaire was distributed asking institutional staff about participant characteristics and physical function levels. Existing costs were collected and costs were calculated if participants were discharged from institutions to their homes. Approximately 20% of participants lived alone, and 80% had a severe disability. The estimated costs of discharging patients to their homes were higher than existing institutional care costs for 98% of participants. The gap in cost tended to be greater in patients with higher care needs. The deinstitutionalization of disabled elderly is not an effective measure to help reduce healthcare costs in rural areas of Japan.

  15. Prevalence of anemia among healthy women in 2 metropolitan areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Eiji; Shoji, Midori; Endou, Shigeyuki; Kishi, Yukiko; Shibata, Taro; Murashige, Naoko; Hamaki, Tamae; Matsumura, Tomoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kami, Masahiro

    2006-10-01

    Anemia is common among young women, and iron deficiency is one of the leading causes. In Europe and the US, the iron fortification of flour increased oral iron intake and decreased anemia prevalence from 30% to 10%. The National Nutrition Survey in Japan revealed that anemia prevalence among young Japanese women is increasing; however, no nationwide preventive policy has been aimed at iron deficiency anemia. The endpoint of this study was the estimation of anemia prevalence among healthy Japanese woman, based on a large sample size. We collected data from the consecutive check-up examination records of apparently healthy women (n = 13,147). We defined hemoglobin lower than 12 g/dL as anemia, hemoglobin lower than 10 g/dL as severe anemia, and a mean corpuscular volume lower than 80 fl as microcytic anemia. Of the 13,147 persons, anemia was identified in 2331 (17.3 %), and severe and microcytic anemia in 438 (3.3 %) and 700 (5.2 %), respectively. Among women younger than 50 years, anemia was identified in 22.3 %, and 25.2 % of them had severe anemia. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia and severe anemia among young women is high in Japan. Some action needs to be considered to improve women's quality of life.

  16. The origin of muddy sand sediments associated with mud volcanism in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Kazuya; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Murakami, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    The origin of muddy sand and gas in muddy sand sediments in the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, Japan, was investigated by analyzing the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the sediments and the chemical/isotopic compositions of the gas. X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that chemically, the muddy sand is derived from a mixing of components from the Hakobuchi and overlying formations, and that the characteristic mineral of the muddy sand is heulandite, which, in the study area, has been detected only in the Hakobuchi Formation. These results suggest that the sediments ascended from depths of at least 2200-2400 m. The δ13CCH4 values and the methane/(ethane + propane) ratios of the gas indicate that the primary origin of the methane is by thermogenic decomposition of coal-bearing beds in the Haboro or Hakobuchi formations, or further deep sources. This study provides new data on processes of onshore mud volcanism in Japan, and contributes to an understanding of processes of subsurface mass transport in regions of mud-volcanic activity.

  17. Submarine landslide identified in MD179 cores, off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuwa, Yoshitaka; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2014-08-01

    Gas hydrate is exposed on the sea floor and is buried in shallow sediments in the off-Joetsu area at the eastern margin of the Sea of Japan. Sediment cores recovered from topographic highs of the Joetsu Knoll and Umitaka Spur show pockmarks and mounds formed by gas hydrate dissociation, but those from the Un-named ridge have no such topographic features. All topographic highs and pockmarks mainly comprise bioturbated layers interbedded with thinly laminated (TL) layers, which are common Sea of Japan sediments. Recovered sediments are, however, mostly disturbed by submarine landslides, showing tilted horizons, faults, slump folds, and breccia, except that from the Un-named ridge. The timing of events is well constrained by identification of the number of TL layers in some sediment cores. Landslides occurred both during the cold glacial period of the late MIS3 to the last glacial maximum (LGM) and during the warm interglacial period of the post-LGM. All were caused by the explosive rise of gas hydrate formed at very shallow depths of the sea bottom by the supply of gas from the depth of the gas hydrate stability zone through gas chimney passages developed under the pockmarks. Seismic activity demands consideration as a factor because the off-Joetsu area is tectonically active.

  18. Trends in the incidences of acute myocardial infarction in coastal and inland areas in Japan: The Yamagata AMI Registry.

    PubMed

    Wanezaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Arimoto, Takanori; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kawasaki, Ryo; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that there are regional differences in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in regional differences in AMI incidence and dyslipidemia between coastal and inland areas. We investigated trends in AMI incidence and risk factors in 5325 first-ever AMI patients residing in a coastal area (n=1817), a rural inland area (n=1959), or an urban inland area (n=1549) for the periods 1994-2002, and 2003-2010, using data from the Yamagata AMI Registry. Patients in the coastal area were significantly older than those in rural and urban inland areas and had a lower prevalence of dyslipidemia. The age-adjusted incidence rate of AMI was significantly lower in coastal and rural inland areas patients than those from urban inland area (males: 43.3, 42.2, and 51.3/10(5) person-years; females: 17.4, 20.0, and 23.7/10(5) person-years, respectively) during 2 observation periods. Due to a large increase in AMI incidence in younger males of the coastal area and a decrease in AMI incidence in late elderly females of the urban inland area, no significant regional differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates of AMI were observed during the 2003-2010 period in both genders. The increase in AMI incidence in males in the coastal area was associated with an increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia. There were no longer any regional differences observed in AMI incidence, which was considered to be associated with increased dyslipidemia especially in the coastal area. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  20. S-wave reflection and surface wave surveys in liquefaction affected areas: a case study of the Hinode area, Itako, Ibaraki, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Toshiyuki; Jinguuji, Motoharu; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Murata, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    Property damage results from liquefaction that occurs easily in soft sandy layers. Moreover, liquefaction damage tends to be more serious at locations where earthquake ground motions are locally amplified. It is commonly understood that ground stiffness is correlated with S-wave velocity (Vs); in addition, the structure of the local subsurface is important for predicting local earthquake ground motion. Surface wave and S-wave reflection surveys are efficient, non-destructive techniques used to obtain two-dimensional S-wave velocity distributions and to map subsurface structures. In this study, we performed surface wave and S-wave reflection surveys to investigate the Hinode area of Itako, Ibaraki, Japan. This area suffered serious liquefaction damage during the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011. Using subsurface boundaries imaged by the reflection surveys and the Vs structures obtained by surface wave analyses, it is possible to extrapolate geological and hydraulic information obtained by boring and cone penetration tests (CPTs). The combined information was used to delineate the layer in which liquefaction occurred, identified as an artificial layer of sandy dredged material, formed after 1970. The results of this study confirmed the effectiveness and applicability of geophysical surveys to the evaluation of the liquefaction potential. These methods enable us to predict the spatial distribution of liquefiable soils for future large earthquakes.

  1. A study of the morphology of winter sprites in the Hokuriku area of Japan in relation to cloud charge height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myokei, K.; Matsudo, Y.; Asano, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hobara, Y.; Michimoto, K.; Hayakawa, M.

    2009-04-01

    Continuous observations of sprites in the Hokuriku area of Japan were performed from two optical sites during the three winter periods. The purpose of this observation is to study the major effect in the appearance of sprites and in determining the morphology of sprites (columns or carrots). Detailed analysis is performed based on the estimation of the height of -10 °C at the time of sprite occurrence. When the height of -10 °C is lower than 1800 m, the occurrence of sprites is infrequent, and the dominant shape is column. Then when it is increased (1800-3000 m), a new situation takes place, namely the occurrence of sprites is very enhanced and more spectacular shapes like carrots tend to be frequently observed in addition to column sprites. These sprite characteristics are first compared with those of parent lightning in the Hokuriku area and with our latest computer simulations on sprite initiation.

  2. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  3. Cadmium and other metal levels in autopsy samples from a cadmium-polluted area and non-polluted control areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chiyo; Koizumi, Naoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Koizumi, Naoru; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and other metals in kidney and liver in autopsy samples and to compare the levels between those in an area with heavy Cd exposure and those in no-polluted areas in Japan. Data on Cd and other metals in kidney (cortex and medulla) and liver in 95 cases (87 women and eight men; the exposed) in a Cd-polluted area and 43 cases (21 women and 22 men; the controls) in non-polluted areas were cited from 15 previous publications to be summarized together with six unpublished cases. Cd levels in kidney cortex and medulla were significantly lower in the exposed (31.5 and 23.8 μg/g wet tissue as GM, respectively) than in the controls (82.7 and 36.4 μg/g, respectively), whereas Cd levels in liver was higher in the exposed (60.2 μg/g) than in the controls (8.1 μg/g). Exposed women had lower Cd in the cortex (29.9 μg/g) and medulla (22.7 μg/g) than exposed men (55.4 and 38.1 μg/g, respectively) as well as in cortex of control women (92.9 μg/g). Comparison with worldwide data other than Japan for non-exposed populations [19.1, 9.3, and 1.3 μg/g in cortex, medulla, and liver, respectively, as the inverse variance-weighted averages (IVWA) of GM values for each of 22 reports] suggests that the levels for the non-exposed Japanese (123.3, 33.5, and 3.9 μg/g as IVWA) tended to be higher than the levels in other countries, possibly reflecting high dietary Cd intake in the past.

  4. Terrestrial heat flow distribution in Japan area based on the temperature logging in the borehole of NIED Hi-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of heat flow and geothermal gradient using boreholes on land are often concentrated in specific areas such as geothermal region, so the measured heat flow data in non-volcanic area is poorly mapped. We newly measured thermal gradients and heat flow all over Japanese Islands by using the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's (NIED) high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) boreholes. NIED Hi-net is composed of about 800 borehole stations installed almost homogeneously over the Japanese Islands with an average spacing of 20km. Although majority of the Hi-net stations have the boreholes of 100- 200m in depth, 55 deep (300-1000m) and 29 very deep (1000-3500m) observation wells were constructed at some specific sites if necessary. Because these Hi-net boreholes are designed for a long-term observation, these are structurally stable with using casing pipe. These borehole temperature profiles contain an influence of climate change, so we correct temperature profile for climatic change, the rapid warming of 1950-2000A.D. Comprehensive heat flow distribution in Japan is as follows: low heat flow in forearc region, high heat flow in back-arc region, and there seems to be the correlation between the seismogenic layer thickness in upper crust and terrestrial heat flow. In the volcanic chain area, very high terrestrial heat flow over 200mW/m2 are observed. In the fore-arc area, low heat flow under 50mW/m2 are observed. In the South Kanto area where is metropolitan Tokyo and the Hokkaido Hidaka area, very low heat flow under 40 mW/m2 are observed. In the southern Kii Peninsula, there are many non-volcanic hot springs, so around this area high heat flow over 150mW/m2 are observed. In Shikoku area also high heat flow over 100mW/m2 are observed. Geographical distributions of terrestrial heat flow show that high heat flow stations are observed along the region where non-volcanic long-period tremors occur about 30km deep. In SW Japan

  5. Extraction of Flooded Areas due the 2015 Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall in Japan Using PALSAR-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, F.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    Triggered by two typhoons, heavy rainfall hit Kanto and Tohoku regions of Japan from September 9 to 11, 2015. Increased river water by the continuous rainfall overflowed and destroyed several river banks and caused damaging floods in wide areas. PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 satellite carried out emergency observation for the impacted areas during and after the heavy rainfall. In this study, two pre-event and four co- and post-event PALSAR-2 images were used to extract the inundation area in Joso city, Ibaraki prefecture. First, using the pre-event SAR intensity image and a detailed topographic map, the backscattering coefficient of river water was investigated. Then the flooded areas were extracted by a common threshold value of backscatter for water bodies in the six temporal images. The colour composite of the sigma naught values was also made to visualize pixels that had been converted from ground to water. Finally, the extracted results were compared with those from the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey reports. This comparison revealed that the accuracy of the flood extraction was fairly good for agricultural lands and non-urban land uses. But for built-up urban areas, it was not easy to extract water body since radar illumination did to reach the ground (water) surface.

  6. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  7. Geologic factors contributing to landslide generation in a pyroclastic area: August 1998 Nishigo Village, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro

    2002-07-01

    Vertical contrasts in permeability, particularly where permeable surface materials overlie impermeable materials that prohibit the downward infiltration of groundwater, concentrate the groundwater and become an important focus of landslides that are triggered by intense rainfall. Just such a hydrogeological structure is present within the pyroclastics in Nishigo Village in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, where intense rainfall of 1200 mm in 6 days generated more than 1000 landslides in August 1998. Three types of landslides occurred. The first type occurred along the edges of small plateaus, where horizontal beds of permeable ash, scoria, and pumice overlie impermeable mudflow deposits consisting of tuffaceous fines and andesite blocks, and massive, weakly consolidated ignimbrites. The rainfall on the plateaus infiltrated downward first, then laterally within the permeable beds, finally gushing out at the plateau edges and triggering landslides. The second type of landslide occurred where weathered tuff of the same ignimbrite was present with a slip surface at the base of the heavily weathered zone. Within this heavily weathered zone, the tuff exfoliated into thin weak plates running parallel to the slope surface. The third type of landslide involved failure of colluvium or ash that filled hollows. This type occurred as a result of subsurface erosion caused by the groundwater infiltrating the superficial beds above the impermeable tuff.

  8. Service-mix in general dental practice in Japan: a survey in a suburban area.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, M; Sasaki, T; Imai-Tanaka, T; Yamasaki, Y; Iwamoto, Y

    1998-12-01

    Overseas investigations have reported the amount and variety of dental services provided. An understanding of the current service-mix in private general practice is important in the anticipation of the future practice of dentistry. The main purpose of this study was to describe the service-mix of private general practitioners in Japan, which was recorded using the Australian Dental Association Dental Procedure Code. Some comparisons with previous studies were offered. The youngest age group and adolescents formed only a small percentage of the total patients, while the greatest percentage of patients occurred in the 45-64 year age group. The services provided were mainly restorative, diagnostic advanced restorative and endodontic services. Preventive services represented a minority of dental activity, especially for young patients. Periodontic and orthodontic services were also remarkable for their low percentage in all age groups. In comparison with an Australian study, the percentage of preventive services was considerably lower. Movement toward a preventive emphasis in Japanese dentistry requires a change in the clinical model, de-emphasizing biomedical and aetiological approaches and placing greater emphasis on the patient and factors affecting dental practice.

  9. Clinical features of Vibrio vulnificus infections in the coastal areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kouichi; Ohshige, Kenji; Fujita, Naohiro; Tomita, Yukiko; Mitsumizo, Shinji; Nakashima, Mikio; Oishi, Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection can result in necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis and is associated with high mortality. Most patients infected with this microbe have liver dysfunction as an underlying disease. However, because of the sporadic nature of outbreaks and unidentified cases, extensive evaluation of clinical features and identification of factors affecting prognosis have not been performed. We retrospectively analyzed 37 cases in Japan from 1984 to 2008 to review clinical features and to identify risk factors associated with prognosis. Statistical differences between clinical features (patient's characteristics, initial clinical laboratory data, symptoms upon admission, and other risk indicators) and prognosis were analyzed by use of the chi(2) test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed to assess factors which potentially affect hospital mortality. The mortality rate was 64.9%. An underlying liver disease was observed in 91.6% of the patients. The presence of liver cirrhosis tended to be related to hospital mortality; however, statistical significance was not achieved. Advanced age, lower platelet counts, and the presence of extensive skin lesions at onset affected outcomes with statistical significance. The prognosis of this disease is poor, because septic shock and necrotizing fasciitis often develop within a few days. Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to improve the prognosis of V. vulnificus infection.

  10. Overview of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC).

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    Starting in the late 1980s a major collaborative effort has been carried out in Japan to increase knowledge about factors contributing to mortality from cancer and circulatory disease. This Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study) is sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan (Monbukagakusho) and has contributions from 45 areas of the country. With Drs Kunio Aoki and Yoshiyuki Ohno as leading figures in this endeavour, the cohort now covers more than 100,000 participants enrolled at various centers located from Hokkaido in the North to Kyushu in the South. To collect epidemiological information at baseline, a self-administered questionnaire was used. Follow-up up was to 2003 in the majority of cases and a total of 17,404 deaths were registered, the five commonest sites of cancer development being the lung, stomach, liver, pancreas and colon in men, and the stomach, lung, liver, colon and pancreas in women.

  11. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-13

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 "Decade" volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00504

  12. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  13. Comparison of eating habits in obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chu Hyang; Saito, Emiko

    2015-04-01

    This study compares eating habits among obese and non-obese Filipinas living in an urban area of Japan. We used self-report questionnaires to study 635 Filipinos. Body mass index (BMI) and eating/lifestyle habits were noted. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Seventeen percent (24/140) were obese. Results of the age-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis show that the following responses were associated with obesity: "frequency of eating high green and yellow vegetables" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) [OR 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-14.8] and "frequency of eating high fruits" (every day: 0, not every day: 1) (OR .2; 95% CI .1-.7). We suggest strategies to prevent obesity and improve eating habits among this Filipina population.

  14. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  15. Quantitative PCR assay for detection and enumeration of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Gonyaulacales) in coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Hariganeya, Naohito; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2016-02-01

    In Japan, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been increasingly reported not only in subtropical areas but also in temperate areas in recent years, causing a serious threat to human health. Ciguatera fish poisoning is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated toxins produced by an epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate, genus Gambierdiscus. Previous studies revealed the existence of five Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes in Japan: Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus, Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, Gambierdiscus sp. type 3, and Gambierdiscus (Fukuyoa) cf. yasumotoi. Among these, G. australes, G. scabrosus, and Gambierdiscus sp. type 3 strains exhibited toxicities in mice, whereas Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 strains did not show any toxicity. Therefore, it is important to monitor the cell abundance and dynamics of these species/phylotypes to identify and characterize CFP outbreaks in Japan. Because it is difficult to differentiate these species/phylotypes by observation under a light microscope, development of a rapid and reliable detection and enumeration method is needed. In this study, a quantitative PCR assay was developed using a TaqMan probe that targets unique SSU rDNA sequences of four Japanese Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes and incorporates normalization with DNA recovery efficiency. First, we constructed standard curves with high linearity (R(2)=1.00) and high amplification efficiency (≥1.98) using linearized plasmids that contained SSU rDNA of the target species/phylotypes. The detection limits for all primer and probe sets were approximately 10 gene copies. Further, the mean number of SSU rDNA copies per cell of each species/phylotype was determined from single cells in culture and from those in environmental samples using the qPCR assay. Next, the number of cells of each species/phylotype in the mixed samples, which were spiked with cultured cells of the four species/phylotypes, was calculated by division of the total number of rDNA copies

  16. Morphology of Gambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales): a new epiphytic toxic dinoflagellate from coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2014-06-01

    A new epiphytic dinoflagellate is described, G ambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov., from tidal pools and rocky shores along the coastal areas of Japan. Cells are 63.2 ± 5.7 μm in depth, 58.2 ± 5.7 μm in width, and 37.3 ± 3.5 μm in length. The plate formula of G . scabrosus is Po, 4', 0a, 6'', 6c, ?s, 5''', 0p, and 2''''. Morphologically, G . scabrosus resembles G . belizeanus as follows: anterioposteriorly compressed cell shape, narrow 2'''' plate, and areolated surface. Despite this similarity, the cells of G . scabrosus can be distinguishable by the presence of the asymmetric shaped 3'' plate and the rectangular shaped 2' plate.

  17. Comparison of fecal microflora of elderly persons in rural and urban areas of Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Benno, Y; Endo, K; Mizutani, T; Namba, Y; Komori, T; Mitsuoka, T

    1989-01-01

    The Fecal microflora of 15 healthy elderly persons with a median age of 84 years in a rural area whose inhabitants tend to be long-lived (Yuzurihara-area, Uenohara, Yamanashi Prefecture) was compared with the microflora of individuals with a median age of 68 years in an urban area (Tokyo). The diet of the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area is characterized by a high intake of dietary fiber. Total numbers of anaerobic bacteria were significantly smaller in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area than those in the Tokyo area. A significantly large number of bifidobacteria, but not of lecithinase-negative clostridia, was observed in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area. Large numbers and high incidences of bacilli and lecithinase-positive clostridia (mainly Clostridium perfringens) were found in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Twenty-five genera and over 81 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area, and 25 genera and over 92 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Furthermore, significantly larger numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Fusobacterium mortiferum strains were found in the Yuzurihara group, but significant reductions in the Bacteroides buccae-oris group, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides spp., C. coccoides, C. paraputrificum, and Clostridium spp. were observed in the same group. A significantly higher isolation rate of Bacillus subtilis was observed in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. The difference in the fecal microflora between elderly persons in Yuzurihara and those in the Tokyo area might be due to a difference in the intake of dietary fiber. PMID:2547333

  18. Clinical characteristics of healthcare-associated pneumonia in a public hospital in a metropolitan area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Midori; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Aki; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Shingu, Akiko; Narato, Ritsuko; Nomura, Koichiro

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new category that is essential in the present aging society. Knowing the different characteristics and outcomes between patients with HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) would help physicians manage and treat HCAP patients. Although HCAP is thought to be heterogeneous in regions, there are no reports from a metropolitan area in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings of all consecutive pneumonia patients who required hospitalized care in our hospital between April 2006 and March 2010. There were 184 (35.0%) patients with HCAP and 342 (65.0%) patients with CAP. Previous hospitalization within 90 days of the infection was the most common criterion for HCAP (63.0%). HCAP patients were significantly older than CAP patients (82.5 vs. 70.0 years, P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with poor functional status was higher in HCAP than CAP (64.0% vs. 26.6%, P < 0.001). Hospital mortality was significantly higher in HCAP patients than in CAP patients (15.8% vs. 5.0%, P < 0.001). Low levels of serum albumin (odds ratio, 0.126; 95% CI, 0.025-0.640; P = 0.012) and high scores in the ADROP (age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation, and blood pressure) system (odds ratio, 2.846; 95% CI, 1.449-5.587; P = 0.002) were the risk factors for HCAP mortality. In conclusion, patients with HCAP have different epidemiological characteristics compared with those with CAP in a metropolitan area of Japan. Outcomes and risk factors for mortality of patients with HCAP included poor nutritional status and high severity scores on the pneumonia severity scoring system.

  19. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. T. N.; Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Yashiro, H.; Sudo, K.; Tomita, H.; Murata, R.; Masaki, S.

    2016-12-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. In this study, we investigated the surface ozone concentration over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for summer 2010 simulated by online coupling of a chemical transport model (CHASER) with a stretched NICAM model. The simulation was conducted at high resolution, with 10 km grids in the target area of the Kanto Plain. Simulation results were compared with observed data for model validation. The model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles, the general distribution and meteorological fields over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69 - 0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of local meteorological conditions such as precipitation, pressure, wind field, humidity and temperature in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and bias was lower (<35%) when meteorological conditions was settled. In contrast, wind field and the dominance of local pressure system were main reasons for overestimated surface ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. Uncertainty of emission inventories for ozone precursors and existence of high ozone concentration of upper regions in the boundary layer mainly contributed to surface ozone at night in this study. Therefore, adding proper factors of CO and NOx emission strength as well as reducing VOC emission strength to overcome uncertainty of emission inventories was effective on decreasing the overestimated ozone concentrations. The model facilitated for long time simulation of air pollution transport in regional scale without nesting technique which helped to reveal ozone distribution and precursors as well as an important relation of location and topography to ozone concentration. It can be applied as a semi regional model useful for air pollution prediction in Japan.

  20. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  1. Contamination and biomethylation of organotin compounds in pearl/fish culture areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Tao, Hiroaki; Hojo, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Uwakai of Japan is famous for pearl and yellowtail fish culture. Recently, pearl culture farming in that region has suffered from a low production of pearls. An illegal use of organotin antifouling paints on fishing nets was reported. In the line of pollution studies, thus, the present investigation was carried out to examine the contamination status and fate of organotin compounds. Totally, 23 water, 10 sediment and 8 pearl oyster tissue samples were analyzed for tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPT), and their breakdown products (di- and mono compounds) by gas chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/ICP-MS). The results show that the TBT concentrations in water, sediment and biota were in the range from 0.11 to 10.6 ng Sn l(-1), 0.35 to 2500 ng Sn g(-1), and 50.4 to 181 ng Sn g(-1), respectively. The values for sediment and biota are expressed on the dry-weight basis. Triphenyltin in water, sediment and biota were in the range from 0.009 to 0.108 ng l(-1), non-detect to 12.7 ng g(-1), and non-detect to 6.83 ng g(-1), respectively. Although the TBT concentration in seawater is below the tentative assessment level of 10 ng l(-1) set by the Japanese Environment Agency in 1992, it may cause endocrine disruption/other effects in aquatic organisms. Octyltin compounds (mono-, di- and trioctyltin) were also quantified in seawater and sediment. The detection of dibutyldimethyltin (DBDMT) and tributylmonomethyltin (TBMMT) in sediment (methylated butyltins comprised 2.8-31% of total butyltins), and TBMMT in seawater suggested that biomethylation of anthropogenic tributyltins is a significant transformation pathway in the coastal environment.

  2. Interpretation of the concentrations of aldehydes in rainwater over a wide area and local areas of Japan by some dominant factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Shigeru; Murai, Keita; Takamatsu, Mizuho; Hayakawa, Yukari; Tamizu, Shinya; Kuwata, Makoto; Katayama, Yuuki; Kuramitz, Hideki; Hata, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Rainwater pollution with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aliphatic aldehydes was investigated from May 2008 to June 2011 at 19 locations over a wide area in Japan to survey the pollution level. The pollution level was remarkably controlled by the amount of precipitation. The concentrations of total aliphatic aldehydes and formaldehyde sometimes exceeded 0.6 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1 when the rainfall was small, and decreased rapidly with increasing the amount of rainfall. And in larger rainfall, the concentrations were converged to ca. 0.09 mg L-1 and 0.06 mg L-1 respectively. It was found that the concentration of the pollutants collected in a bottle for a single rainfall event is expressed by an equation based on a dilution model where heavy deposition occurred only at early rainfall followed by continuous dilution of the water with less polluted rainwater. These results were interpreted that the aldehydes in air were washed out very quickly due to their high solubility in water. As progressing of rainfall, the pollution level attained to an equilibrium state between influx and outflux of the pollutants. Precise investigation through a sequential sampling of rainwater by 1 mm during a rainfall event was also performed at several sites. It was found that a break of rainfall is another dominant factor to control the pollution level. A break of rainfall quickly enhanced the pollution level of the resumed rain. Regional difference on rainwater pollution level was observed only at the early stage throughout a rainfall event. The air-pollution levels were high just before beginning rainfall, and they decreased quickly with increasing the amount of rainfall, but never converged to zero. These results suggest that continuous influx of the pollutants occurs in a wide area in Japan besides regional influx.

  3. Green-tuff landslide areas are beneficial for rice nutrition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tazaki, Kazue

    2006-12-01

    Japanese Islands are covered with weathered volcanic rocks and soils. Terraced rice field are located in green-tuff areas which are very fertile but where landslides occur associated to strong earthquakes. The Xray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses of the soils in landslide area identified predominant smectite and Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, Mn and Fe are main components. The rice leaf showed that S, Cl, K and Ca play important roles for nutrients in the area. Drainpipe systems have set up in the green- tuff areas to reduce the risks of landslides. Reddish brown microbial mats inhabited bacteria and diatom in the drainpipe outlets. The microbial mats are rich in Fe and PO4(3-). The iron bacteria in the ground water have a high metabolic rate suggesting that the weathering materials were produced by not only physical and chemical influence but also by microorganism. Many microorganisms attach to mineral surfaces and show their high impact in the water mineral chemistry in the landslide area. Bacteria in the green-tuff over landslide area play important roles for sustainable agriculture including rice nutrition.

  4. Effects of subsurface structures of source regions on long-period ground motions observed in the Tokyo Bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, Tomiichi

    2017-05-01

    We compared the long-period ground motion observed in the Tokyo Bay area during two shallow M6.7 earthquakes that occurred in northern Nagano Prefecture, Japan, on March 12, 2011, and November 22, 2014. The magnitudes, focal depths, and source mechanisms of these events were almost identical, but their seismograms were quite different. Significant long-period later arrivals with a predominant period of 5 s were recognized in the velocity traces of the 2011 event, but there were no such remarkable later arrivals in the 2014 event traces. The ground motions at stations located outside the basin area were studied as incident waves to the Kanto Basin. A large wave packet with a predominant period of 5 s was recognized in the velocity traces of the 2011 event, but there was no significant wave packet in the 2014 event traces. Based on particle motion, this wave packet was hypothesized to be a Rayleigh wave. The source regions of the two events have quite different subsurface structures. The different characteristics in long-period ground motion in the Tokyo Bay area during the two events were due to different Rayleigh wave excitations in the source regions.

  5. Standardization of the body surface area (BSA) formula to calculate the dose of anticancer agents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tsutomu; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Mukai, Hirofumi; Ando, Masashi; Watanabe, Toru

    2003-06-01

    The importance of deciding the appropriate dose of anticancer agents cannot be overemphasized. Body surface area (BSA) has been used to calculate the dose in anticancer therapy since the 1950s. Japanese oncologists, often use their own Japanese BSA formula instead of western BSA formulae. However, it is not widely known that some discrepancies exist between the BSA products of the Japanese and western styles. On the other hand, recently dose-calculations according to BSA were criticized from the standpoint of pharmacokinetics (PK). Lately, we have had many opportunities for international collaborations, which make it necessary to review these BSA formulae, and the BSA-based dosing method. A unified BSA formula in cancer therapy is needed in Japan. We searched and compiled frequently used BSA formulae across the world using the MEDLINE search, oncology text, a web search on cancer clinical trial groups, and personally communicated with medical oncologists from western countries. Using these formulae, we calculated BSA for a typical Japanese individual, and compared their products. We calculated BSA using these formulae for individuals of widely varying physique, from 140 to 185 cm in height, and from 30 to 96 kg in weight, and estimated the amount of discrepancies among them. Among the various BSA formulae used in western countries, the DuBois formula is the standard. In Japan, the Fujimoto formula has been used frequently. The Fujimoto formula was based on a study of 201 Japanese subjects in 1949. For the average Japanese individual, the BSA calculated using the Fujimoto formula was about 3% lower than that which was calculated by western formulae. The BSA calculated for all heights and body weights using the Fujimoto formula, ranged between 0.7 and 4.8% less than those calculated by using the DuBois formula. The other western formulae showed larger discrepancies than the Fujimoto and DuBois formulae. BSA-based dosing has failed to standardize the variation in PK

  6. Streamlining of medical relief to areas affected by the Great East Japan earthquake with the "area-based/line-linking support system".

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ishii, Tadashi; Morino, Kazuma; Furukawa, Hajime; Hozawa, Atsushi; Ochi, Sae; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    When disasters that affect a wide area occur, external medical relief teams play a critical role in the affected areas by helping to alleviate the burden caused by surging numbers of individuals requiring health care. Despite this, no system has been established for managing deployed medical relief teams during the subacute phase following a disaster. After the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the Ishinomaki Medical Zone was the most severely-affected area. Approximately 6,000 people died or were missing, and the immediate evacuation of approximately 120,000 people to roughly 320 shelters was required. As many as 59 medical teams came to participate in relief activities. Daily coordination of activities and deployment locations became a significant burden to headquarters. The Area-based/Line-linking Support System (Area-Line System) was thus devised to resolve these issues for medical relief and coordinating activities. A retrospective analysis was performed to examine the effectiveness of the medical relief provided to evacuees using the Area-Line System with regards to the activities of the medical relief teams and the coordinating headquarters. The following were compared before and after establishment of the Area-Line System: (1) time required at the coordinating headquarters to collect and tabulate medical records from shelters visited; (2) time required at headquarters to determine deployment locations and activities of all medical relief teams; and (3) inter-area variation in number of patients per team. The time required to collect and tabulate medical records was reduced from approximately 300 to 70 minutes/day. The number of teams at headquarters required to sort through data was reduced from 60 to 14. The time required to determine deployment locations and activities of the medical relief teams was reduced from approximately 150 hours/month to approximately 40 hours/month. Immediately prior to establishment of the Area-Line System, the variation

  7. Remote connection to the Kyushu University Medical Center LAN using digital and analog telephone lines.

    PubMed

    Antoku, Y; Hanada, E; Akazawa, K; Kenjo, Y; Nose, Y

    1997-08-01

    SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) has recently become popular, as it makes working at home possible. Computers or Local Area Networks(LAN) connected to the office network from home are necessary for the implementation of this concept. Kyushu University has begun a service connecting home computers to the campus LAN for researchers, staff and students of the Faculty of Medicine. We have two different telephone connection methods. One connects the campus LAN and the home computer LAN using routers through the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). The other connects computers at home to the workstation in the university, using modems and the PPP (Point to Point Protocol) through a public telephone analog line. This paper outlines our university SOHO connection system and discusses the merits and demerits of using telephone line connections.

  8. Spatial distribution of microbial populations and carbon cycle in the subsurface environment of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Y.; Ise, K.; Terashima, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Amamiya, H.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms are widely distributed in the subsurface environments. However, the distribution, role and rate of metabolisms, and the source of their activity are not well known. In this study, we investigated deep groundwater samples from sedimentary rocks, containing saturated methane and CO2, using boreholes at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL), northern Hokkaido, Japan. The hydrochemical conditions of groundwaters, such as in-situ water pressure, temperature, electric conductivity, pH, redox potential, were monitored without degassing at multiple intervals along the borehole. Groundwater samples were taken periodically and chemical composition was analyzed using ICP-MS, etc. Cell counts were in the range of 103 to 105 cells ml-1. Molecular analyses revealed the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the microbial population. Abundant methanogens were detected in the groundwater, and 80% of them were related to either Methanoregula boonei or Methanobacterium flexile that can utilize H2/CO2 by methanogenesis. Phylotypes clustered within the phylum Firmicutes, beta-Proteobacteria, delta-Proteobacteria and candidate division TM7 were dominant in the groundwater samples. Laboratory experiments using a culture technique showed that humic substances purified from the groundwater at Horonobe area appear to be degraded by microorganisms. Our results suggest that microbial spatial distributions in the subsurface environment were correlated closely with geochemical conditions, such as redox condition and carbon sources. In addition, it is inferred that humic substances are one of the important carbon sources for the subsurface microbial redox processes in the environment. This study was partly funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan.

  9. Upper Mantle Structure and the 660-km Discontinuity beneath Japan Sea and its adjacent Areas Determined from Waveform Triplication data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C.; Ning, J.; Niu, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Grand, S. P.; Kawakatsu, H.; Tanaka, S.; Necessarray Project Team

    2011-12-01

    We applied a forward waveform modeling method to determine upper mantle structure mainly in the transition zone beneath Japan Sea area. A propagation matrix method proposed by Wang (1999) was used to compute synthetic seismograms. According to the analysis of the difference between the synthetic results and real observations, we adjusted the one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and found the best fitting one at last. Concretely speaking, the time interval between arrivals that turns near the top and the bottom of the transition zone could constrain the velocity gradient in the transition zone. Relative timing and amplitudes between arrivals turning just above and below a discontinuity constrain both the contrast and the depth of the discontinuity. The data we used in this work are mainly from the NorthEast China Extended SeiSmic Array (NECESSArray) in northeast China. NECESSArray is a large deployment of 120 broadband seismographs from September 2009 to August 2011 operated by an international collaboration of China, United States and Japan. It is designed to study the behavior of the Pacific subducting slab in the mantle transition zone, the cause of intraplate continental magmatism and tectonics in Northeast China, as well as the evolution of ancient Archean lithosphere. Preliminary result shows that the best fitting velocity model is rather close to the global average model IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). The depth of the 660-km discontinuity and the structure below it are the same with IASP91. The velocity gradient from 520 km to 660 km is slightly larger and makes the velocity jump at 660-km discontinuity 0.1043 km/s smaller. This result may come from the special ray paths and the subduction geometry. At the time of the AGU fall meeting, we will show the detailed images and discuss their correlation with other observations.

  10. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities-Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama-were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  11. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities—Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama—were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95 % confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  12. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  13. Improving the interpretability of climate landscape metrics: An ecological risk analysis of Japan's Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    García Molinos, Jorge; Takao, Shintaro; Kumagai, Naoki H; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Burrows, Michael T; Fujii, Masahiko; Yamano, Hiroya

    2017-10-01

    Conservation efforts strive to protect significant swaths of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems from a range of threats. As climate change becomes an increasing concern, these efforts must take into account how resilient-protected spaces will be in the face of future drivers of change such as warming temperatures. Climate landscape metrics, which signal the spatial magnitude and direction of climate change, support a convenient initial assessment of potential threats to and opportunities within ecosystems to inform conservation and policy efforts where biological data are not available. However, inference of risk from purely physical climatic changes is difficult unless set in a meaningful ecological context. Here, we aim to establish this context using historical climatic variability, as a proxy for local adaptation by resident biota, to identify areas where current local climate conditions will remain extant and future regional climate analogues will emerge. This information is then related to the processes governing species' climate-driven range edge dynamics, differentiating changes in local climate conditions as promoters of species range contractions from those in neighbouring locations facilitating range expansions. We applied this approach to assess the future climatic stability and connectivity of Japanese waters and its network of marine protected areas (MPAs). We find 88% of Japanese waters transitioning to climates outside their historical variability bounds by 2035, resulting in large reductions in the amount of available climatic space potentially promoting widespread range contractions and expansions. Areas of high connectivity, where shifting climates converge, are present along sections of the coast facilitated by the strong latitudinal gradient of the Japanese archipelago and its ocean current system. While these areas overlap significantly with areas currently under significant anthropogenic pressures, they also include much of the MPA

  14. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieu, Tran Thi Ngoc; Goto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Hisashi; Murata, Ryo; Sudo, Kengo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-03-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. The spatial distribution of the air pollution has been estimated by chemical transport models, but still there are large uncertainties depending on detailed condition of the region. In this study, we extended Goto et al. (2015a) for implementing a chemical transport model to simulate short-lived gases such as ozone over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for August 2010. Comparison of simulation results with observed data indicated that the model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69-0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of meteorological conditions in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and biases were lower (<35%) when the meteorological conditions were stable. In contrast, dominance of local pressure system and an associated complex wind field were main reasons for overestimated surface ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. This study helped achieve a better understanding of the chemistry transport model performance under unstable meteorological conditions in the Kanto area. Maximal association between meteorological factors and surface ozone distribution was revealed. In addition, uncertainty of emission inventories of ozone precursors especially the underestimate NOx level certainly contributed to high level surface ozone during nighttime in this study.

  15. Lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake: The need for disaster preparedness in the area of disaster mental health for children.

    PubMed

    Kozu, Shuei; Homma, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 brought unprecedented challenges to individuals, families, and communities of the Tohoku region in Japan. Children are especially vulnerable to the postdisaster risk factors that impact their ability to heal. The destruction of the infrastructure by the disasters made it more challenging to reach out to children in an area where the stigma against mental illness is persistent. The authors share their experiences, what they heard from patients, and their reflections on lessons learned. The authors recommend the development of a coordinated mental health response system in preparation for the next disaster.

  16. How Japan Might Counter the Anti-Access/Area Denial Environment in the Western Pacific?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-02

    stretches as long as 2,000 miles from Sea of Okhotsk in the north to Taiwan and the East China Sea in the south, continental nations need to pass through...bases, air and sea assets, and the networks that support them.Ŗ In other words, 1 China’s rapidly developing anti-access/area denial (A2/AD...1,600 nm~·¥ It has been reported that the H-6K can carry Kh-31A, a sea -skimming supersonic cruise missile with an attack range of over 50 nm. They

  17. Exploration and monitoring geothermal activity using Landsat ETM + images. A case study at Aso volcanic area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md. Bodruddoza; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Thermal activity monitoring in and around active volcanic areas using remote sensing is an essential part of volcanology nowadays. Three identical approaches were used for thermal activity exploration at Aso volcanic area in Japan using Landsat ETM + images. First, the conventional methods for hydrothermal alteration mapping were applied to find the most active thermal region after exploring geothermal indicator minerals. Second, we found some thermally highly anomalous regions around Nakadake crater using land surface temperature estimation. Then, the Stefan-Boltzmann equation was used for estimating and also monitoring radiative heat flux (RHF) from the most active region of about 8 km2 in and around Nakadake crater in the central part of the Aso volcano. To fulfill the required parameter in the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiative heat flux, the NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) method was used for spectral emissivity, and the mono-window algorithm was used for land surface temperature of this study area. The NDVI value was used to divide land-cover in the study area into four types: water, bare ground, mixed and vegetated land. The bare land was found within the most active region. Vegetation coverage area showed an inverse relationship with total RHF in this study as health of thermally stressed vegetation supports this relationship. The spatial distribution of spectral emissivity ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 in our study. Land surface temperature was estimated using a mono-window algorithm and was highest LST in 2008 and lowest in 2011. The results of RHF showed that the highest pixel RHF was found to be about 296 W/m2 in 2008. Total RHF was obtained of about 607 MW in 2002 and the lowest was about 354 MW in 2008. The RHF anomaly area was found the highest in 2002 and was lowest in 2011. The highest total heat discharge rate (HDR) obtained about 3918 MW in 2002 and lowest total HDR about 2289 MW in 2008 from this study area. But in the case of

  18. Impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with cardiac origin in non-disaster areas [corrected].

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Nishiyama, Chika; Kawamura, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    To examine changes in the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with cardiac origin in the non-disaster areas of Japan before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. The 35 prefectures in Japan with no dead or missing caused directly by the earthquake were defined as the non-disaster areas. Data of adult OHCA patients in the non-disaster areas from March 4 to 24 each year from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. Risk ratios (RRs) of OHCA incidence and 95% CIs were estimated for three specific weeks in 2011 (1 week before and 2 weeks after the earthquake) by applying multivariable Poisson regression model. Incidence in the corresponding periods of March 4-24 from 2005 to 2010 was set as the baseline risk. In the analyses from a total of 17,353 OHCA patients, the incidence statistically significantly increased in the first week after the earthquake in all adults (adjusted-RR=1.13, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.22, p=0.001) and in elderly women (adjusted-RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.11 to 1.37, p<0.001). The Great East Japan Earthquake caused the increase of OHCA among elderly women even in the non-disaster areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  20. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Spontaneous elimination of hepatitis C virus RNA in individuals with persistent infection in a hyperendemic area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Uto, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kusumoto, Kazunori; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Kodama, Mayumi; Ido, Akio; Kohara, Michinori; Stuver, Sherri O; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    The natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers is not well understood. We examined the clinical characteristics of individuals exhibiting spontaneous elimination of HCV as part of a cohort study of residents of a HCV hyperendemic area in Japan. In individuals who were judged to have persistent HCV infection in 1995, 302 had at least 4 annual ALT measurements between 1993 and 2000, and had not been treated with IFN. They were tested for the presence of HCV RNA in 2001 and/or 2002 and HCV RNA could not be detected in 20 of the 302 individuals. In these 20 individuals, 7 were confirmed to have detectable HCV RNA and 13 were not until 2000. Thus, 2.4% (7/289) were judged to have spontaneously eliminated the HCV infection during that 6-year period. Although there were no differences in age, sex, ALT levels, or serologically defined HCV genotype between individuals with and without exhibiting spontaneous elimination, there was a significant relationship between the elimination of HCV RNA and a low level of HCVcAg (<20pg/mL) (P<0.001) upon testing in 1995. These results suggest that spontaneous elimination of HCV RNA following persistent infection is rare and appears to be related to viral load.

  2. Monitoring heat losses using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data — a case study at Kuju fumarolic area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Md.; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2013-10-01

    To monitor heat losses using Landsat 7 thermal infrared data from 2002 to 2010 within the active fumarolic region of Kuju volcano in Japan, we used the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiative heat flux (RHF) estimation. Heat discharge rate (HDR) was calculated by using the relationship coefficient of RHF and HDR, obtained from two previous studies. The highest total RHF was found to be about 57.7 MW in 2002 and the lowest was about 21.1 MW in 2010. We found the highest HDR, of about 384.5 MW, in 2002 and the lowest, of about 140.8 MW, in 2010. The RHF anomalous areas were showing a declining trend during our study period. The relationship between the land surface temperature (LST) above ambient and RHF was, as expected, in a strong correlation for each result during our study period. Overall, our study was able to delineate the declining trend of heat losses that supports a previous study of similar declining trend of HDR using steam maximum diameter method from the active fumarolic region of Kuju volcano.

  3. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  4. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  5. A STUDY ON EMERGENCYWATER DELIVERY IN WIDE-AREA EARTHQUAKE DISASTER - A CASE STUDY OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yoji; Kuwata, Yasuko

    The Great East Japan earthquake disaster caused water outage to 2. 25 million customers in all the eastern part of Japan. It was so-called "wide-area earthquake disaster". Japanwater supply authorities have improved disaster assistant system after the lessons learned from the Kobe earthquake. This study focuses on the emergency response capacity on water delivery in such a wide-area earthquake disaster reviewing the activity in assisting and assisted municipalities during the latest earthquake. The total of 355 water trucks dispatched is thought to be the maximum from the availablemunicipalities. It is turned out that the objective amount of 3 litters per person by the water delivery cannot be reached in the wide-area earthquake disaster.

  6. Sediment records of historical and pre-historical tsunamis in the last 4000 years in the Tonankai area, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, S.; Kimura, H.; Shishikura, M.; Komatsubara, J.; Namegaya, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal tsunami history of thousands of years that complement and extend existing past tsunami records along the Nankai Trough, Pacific coast of western Japan. It is certainly noted that tsunamis inundated the study site in the Tonankai area in AD 1096, 1498, 1605, 1707, 1854 and 1944. The study site in the Shima Peninsula is a coastal lowland formed by filling of a drowned valley behind a barrier spit. Wetland lower than 1 m above sealevel distributes more than 700 m inland at the site. Hand coring and drilling survey exposed at least 9 sand layers in the 3-4 m thick marsh deposit of organic-rich silt. All of the sand layers contain bioclasts of marine and brackish water organisms such as gastropod, bivalve, calcareous algae and foraminifera. In most cases, these sand layers are few centimeters thick and have sharp basal contacts. Soft x-ray imaging shows that some of the sand layers includes rip-up clasts and are composed of two or more sub-layers of paired sand and silt. It is considered from the sedimentary features and geomorphological setting that these sand layers were deposited by past tsunamis which provably occurred off the study area. There is no record of sand layer deposition and significant seawater inundation at the study site even at the time of one of the biggest typhoon in recorded history. The AD 1944 Showa-Tonankai earthquake tsunami exceeded the height of the barrier spit, but those of the AD 1946 Showa-Nankai earthquake tsunami occurred in the Nankai area and the AD 1960 Chilean tsunami were lower than the barrier spit. Radiocarbon ages of seeds and leaves indicate that the shell-rich sand layers deposited in the last 4000 years, and that younger three sand layers were deposited by the historical tsunamis in AD 684, 1096 and 1498 respectively. This result supports archaeological studies, which suggest that the rupture of the AD 684 earthquake extended to the Tonankai area. We do not see traces of the AD 887 and 1361

  7. Reproductive parameters and cub survival of brown bears in the Rusha area of the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimozuru, Michito; Yamanaka, Masami; Nakanishi, Masanao; Moriwaki, Jun; Mori, Fumihiko; Tsujino, Masakatsu; Shirane, Yuri; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Kasai, Shinsuke; Nose, Takane; Masuda, Yasushi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the reproductive characteristics of a species is essential for the appropriate conservation and management of wildlife. In this study, we investigated the demographic parameters, including age of primiparity, litter size, inter-birth interval, reproductive rate, and cub survival rate, of Hokkaido brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, based on a long-term, individual-based monitoring survey. A total of 15 philopatric females were observed nearly every year from 2006 to 2016, and these observations were used to estimate reproductive parameters. The mean age of primiparity was 5.3 ± 0.2 (SE) years (n = 7, 95% CI = 5.0-5.6). We observed 81 cubs in 46 litters from 15 bears. Litter size ranged from one to three cubs, and averaged 1.76 ± 0.08 (SE) cubs/litter (95% CI = 1.61-1.91). Inter-birth intervals ranged from 1 to 4 years, and the mean value was estimated as 2.43 (95% CI = 2.16-2.76) and 2.53 (95% CI = 2.26-2.85) years in all litters and in litters that survived at least their first year, respectively. The reproductive rate was estimated from 0.70 to 0.76 young born/year/reproductive adult female, depending on the method of calculation. The cub survival rate between 0.5 and 1.5 years ranged from 60 to 73%. Most cub disappearances occurred in July and August, suggesting that cub mortality is mainly due to poor nutrition in the summer. All reproductive parameters observed in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula fell within the range reported in Europe and North America, and were among the lowest or shortest age of primiparity, litter size, and inter-birth intervals, and ranked at a high level for reproductive rate.

  8. Density structure inferred from gravity anomalies in the eastern area of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komazawa, Masao

    2004-12-01

    A gravity survey was conducted between October 2002 and December 2003 in and around the eastern area of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). The total number of measurement points amounted to about 436 and 326 stations were taken at the same points as the seismic survey points. The location and altitude were decided by differential GPS and the accuracy is thought to be within several ten-centimeters. The data was compiled from existing data (Geological Survey of Japan, 2000), so the total number of compiled gravity maps is about 3,540 points. All measured gravity data were referred to the International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 (IGSN71) and the normal gravity values were estimated according to the gravity formula of 1980. Terrain corrections were conducted within a range of 60 km by approximating the real topography to an assemblage of annular prisms interpolated by mesh terrain data and random terrain data of the gravity points. The effect of the sinking of the topography due to the Earth's curvature was taken into consideration. Bouguer corrections within a range of 60 km in arc distances were made using a spherical cap crust formula. The density for both terrain correction and Bouguer corrections was chosen to be 2,670 kg/m3, because the mean surface density of the whole area is estimated to be a slightly large density by the CVUR method. The features of Bouguer anomalies is characterized by a low anomaly in Omachi city, in the northern parts of Matsumoto basin, and a high anomaly in the central highlands, Central Uplift Zone, about 10 km west of Ueda city. The low anomaly shows that the thickness of the sedimentary layer is more than 1 km from 2D/3D automatic analysis.

  9. Cross-checking groundwater age by 4He and 14C dating in a granite, Tono area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Tomioka, Yuichi; Goto, Kazuyuki; Kashiwaya, Koki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Takeda, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater dating was performed simultaneously by the 4He and 14C methods in granite of the Tono area in central Japan. Groundwater was sampled at 30 packed-off sections of six 1000-m boreholes. 4He concentrations increased and 14C concentrations decreased along a groundwater flow path on a topographic gradient. 4He ages were calculated by using the in situ 4He production rate derived from the porosity, density, and U and Th content of the rock, neglecting external flux. 14C ages were calculated with a noncorrected model in which the initial 14C content was 100 percent of the modern radiocarbon level (Co = 100 pmC), a statistical model using the average 14C content of tritium-bearing samples (Co = 46.4 pmC), and a δ13C model based on the isotopic mass balance. Although the absolute 14C ages calculated by the models were different, the relative 14C ages were almost identical. The relative 14C ages were considered reliable because dissolved inorganic carbon has no significant geochemical reactions in granite. The relation between the 4He ages and the noncorrected 14C ages was [4He age] = 1.15 [14C age] + 7200 (R2 = 0.81), except in the discharge area. The slope of this relation was equivalent to unity, which indicates that the 4He accumulation rate is confirmed by the relative 14C ages. Moreover, the accumulated 3He/4He ratio was equivalent to that derived from the 6Li(α,n)3H reaction in granite. These results show that the accumulated He is of crustal origin, produced in situ without external flux, except in the discharge area. The intercept value of 7200 a implies that the 14C concentrations were diluted due to geochemical reactions. Tritium-bearing samples supported this result. Simultaneous measurements make it feasible to estimate the accumulation rate of 4He and initial dilution of 14C, which cannot be done with a single method. Cross-checking groundwater dating has the potential to provide more reliable groundwater ages. The circulation time of the

  10. Long-term SSEs in the Tokai Area, Central Japan, and Their Relationships Between Released Moment and Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, T.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term slow slip event (LSSE) in the Tokai area, central Japan, had continued five years from mid-2000 to mid-2005 [Suito and Ozawa (2009)]. LSSEs detected along many subduction zones and were considered to have some relationship between the released moments and their durations [e.g. Schwartz and Rokosky (2007)]. The duration of the Tokai LSSE in the first half of 2000s, expressed 'the latest event' hereafter, is very long and it is interesting to find an answer whether the latest event in the Tokai area is anomalous or not. In order to reveal this question, I analyzed a leveling data from 1981 to 1999 -- before the era of GNSS -- and the length change data between 1974 and 1992.The deduced rates show two sorts of spatial patterns and the patterns appear alternately. One of them resembles the pattern during the latest event. Summing up the results and accounting for the estimation errors, it is clear that there are at least three events in the last thirty years; 2000-2005 (already and well known event), 1987-1990, and around 1983. The 2000-2005 event is the biggest and longest one, while 1983 event is the smallest and shortest one in the three events. It suggests that the duration of the event is longer, the interval to the next event becomes longer, and that there are some relationships between the size, duration time, and the recurrence interval of the events.The second event, from 1987 to 1990, made clearer signal in the leveling data than the the first one made. I examined a forward modeling for the second event, assuming uniform slip on a rectangular fault that located the same place as the latest SSE occurred on. The results of the modeling show that the amount of the slip during the second event was around 5 to 15 mm/yr and the corresponding released moment is about Mw 6.6, which was smaller than the latest SSE done. It suggests that the duration of LSSEs in the Tokai Area is longer than that was expected from the relationship between the released

  11. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, By Keishin

    2017-08-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  12. Host preference and species richness of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi in a cool temperate area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Tsutomu; Abe, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    We examined the species richness and host utilization patterns of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi (polypores and related fungi) in an old-growth beech and oak forest in a cool, temperate area of Japan. Coarse woody debris (CWD) > or = 20 cm diam within a 6 ha plot was surveyed in Sep 2002. Tree genus, diameter, decay class and tree part of CWD samples were recorded. Fruiting bodies of aphyllophoraceous fungi that arose from the CWD were surveyed three times and identified to species. In total 256 CWD samples from 12 tree genera were surveyed with Quercus being the most frequent followed by Castanea and Fagus. From 196 CWD samples we recorded 436 wood-inhabiting fungi belonging to 63 species. Fifteen fungal species had at least 10 records, with Hymenochaete rubiginosa, Daedalea dickinsii, Xylobolus frustulatus, Rigidoporus cinereus and the small form of Fomes fomentarius being the most frequent. The number of fungal species that appeared on Fagus was significantly larger than that on Castanea, when the number of fruiting bodies collected was at least 50. The occurrences of the 15 dominant fungal species, except Trametes versicolor, were related to traits of the CWD. Tree genus was a predictor variable that affected the appearance of 11 of the 15 species of wood-inhabiting fungi. Only the tree part was selected for the models of Rigidoporus eminens, Schizopora flavipora and Stereum ostrea. Our results suggest that tree genus and tree part are important factors determining fungal community structure because these were selected as complementary predictor variables. Both oak and beech appear to be the most important tree genera for maintaining wood-inhabiting fungal species richness because the fungal flora formed on oak CWD is nearly complementary to those on chestnut, with low fungal species richness.

  13. Possible Long-term SSEs in the Tokai Area, Central Japan, After 1981: Size, Duration, and Recurrence Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, T.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term slow slip event (LSSE) in the Tokai area, central Japan, from mid-2000 to mid-2005 [Suito and Ozawa (2009)], had continued five years, which was much longer than other LSSEs around the world [e.g. Schwartz and Rokosky (2007)]. After the termination of the SSE in 2005, no obvious long-term SSE was detected and that makes difficult to discuss a recurrence interval of the events. In order to reveal whether the event repeats or not, and if it repeats, to clarify the interval and a temporal and spatial change of the coupling and the LSSE, I analyzed a leveling data from 1981 to 1999 -- before the era of GNSS -- and deduced spatial patterns of the vertical crustal deformation rate.The deduced rates show two sorts of spatial patterns and the patterns appear alternately. One of them resembles the pattern during the LSSE between 2000 and 2005. Summing up the results and accounting for the estimation errors, it is clear that there are at least three events in the last thirty years; 2000-2005 (already and well known event), 1987-1990, and around 1983. The 2000-2005 event is the biggest and longest one, while 1983 event is the smallest and shortest one in the three events. It suggests that the duration of the event is longer, the interval to the next event becomes longer, and that there are some relationships between the size, duration time, and the recurrence interval of the events. These features are very unique for the Tokai LSSEs compared with those in the other regions such as the Bungo Channel and Cascadia.

  14. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A quantitative evaluation method of flood risks in low-lying areas associated with increase of heavy rainfall in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in flood risk, especially in low-lying areas, is predicted as a consequence of global climate change or other causes. Immediate measures such as strengthening of drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more-frequent flooding. Typically, drainage pump capacities of in paddy areas are planned by using a result of drainage analysis with design rainfall (e.g. 3-day rainfall amount with a 10-year return period). However, the result depends on a hyetograph of input rainfall even if a total amount of rainfall is equal, and the flood risk may be different with rainfall patterns. Therefore, it is important to assume various patterns of heavy rainfall for flood risk assessment. On the other hand, a rainfall synthesis simulation is useful to generate many patterns of rainfall data for flood studies. We previously proposed a rainfall simulation method called diurnal rainfall pattern generator which can generate short-time step rainfall and internal pattern of them. This study discusses a quantitative evaluation method for detecting a relationship between flood damage risk and heavy rainfall scale by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. In addition, we also approached an estimation of flood damage which focused on rice yield. Our study area was in the Kaga three-lagoon basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. There are two lagoons in the study area, and the low-lying paddy areas extend over about 4,000 ha in the lower reaches of the basin. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level on channels and paddies. Next, the heavy rainfall data for drainage analysis were generated. Here, the 3-day rainfalls amounts with 9 kinds of different return periods (2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 50-, 100-, and 200-year) were derived, and three hundred hyetograph patterns were generated for each rainfall amount by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. Finally, all data

  16. Seismic wavefield imaging in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, based on the replica exchange Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Masayuki; Nagao, Hiromichi; Nagata, Kenji; Ito, Shin-ichi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hori, Muneo; Hirata, Naoshi

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes sometimes cause serious disasters not only directly by ground motion itself but also secondarily by infrastructure damage, particularly in densely populated urban areas. To reduce these secondary disasters, it is important to rapidly evaluate seismic hazards by analyzing the seismic responses of individual structures due to the input ground motions. Such input motions are estimated utilizing an array of seismometers that are distributed more sparsely than the structures. We propose a methodology that integrates physics-based and data-driven approaches in order to obtain the seismic wavefield to be input into seismic response analysis. This study adopts the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which is one of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, for the estimation of the seismic wavefield together with one-dimensional local subsurface structure and source information. Numerical tests show that the REMC method is able to search the parameters related to the source and the local subsurface structure in broader parameter space than the Metropolis method, which is an ordinary MCMC method. The REMC method well reproduces the seismic wavefield consistent with the true one. In contrast, the ordinary kriging, which is a classical data-driven interpolation method for spatial data, is hardly able to reproduce the true wavefield even at low frequencies. This indicates that it is essential to take both physics-based and data-driven approaches into consideration for seismic wavefield imaging. Then the REMC method is applied to the actual waveforms observed by a dense seismic array MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), in which 296 accelerometers are continuously in operation with several kilometer intervals in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The estimated wavefield within a frequency band of 0.10-0.20 Hz is absolutely consistent with the observed waveforms. Further investigation suggests that the seismic wavefield is successfully

  17. Opening of the closed water area and consequent changes of ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra activity ratios in coastal lagoon Nakaumi, southwest Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ritsuo; Nakamura, Kosaku; Seto, Koji; Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki

    2013-11-01

    In Lake Nakaumi, the second largest coastal lagoon in Japan, artificially closed (Honjyo) area, which was left untouched for 28 years, was partly opened in May, 2009. (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of waters in Honjyo area and Lake Nakaumi showed a well-tuned seasonal variation exhibiting high value in summer. After the opening event, however, the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in the Honjyo water showed an unclear seasonal variation in both surface and deep water. This opening event caused the change of active movement of lake and marine water.

  18. Magnetic properties of Japan Sea sediments in areas which host shallow gas hydrates and in relation to the the amount of gas hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, T.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    Shallow gas hydrate is known to occur as massive nodular aggregates in subsurface and/or shallow marine sediments (e.g. Matsumoto et al. 2009). We conducted a rock magnetic study of marine core sediments to clarify the relationship between shallow gas hydrate and the surrounding sediments. The core samples were taken from around Oki area and offshore Joetsu, the eastern margin of Japan Sea, during PS15 cruise in 2015. We mainly report magnetic susceptibility measurement of whole-round core samples. From the onboard measurements, the magnetic susceptibilities of gas hydrates indicated diamagnetic mineral like water or ice ( -0.9 x 10-5 vol. SI). Moreover, we introduce a method to assess the amount of gas hydrate present within marine sediments using magnetic susceptibility and rock magnetic analyses. This study was conducted under the commission from AIST as a part of the methane hydrate research project of METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  19. THE IMPACT OF THE DRASTIC DECLINE IN RAW SILK UPON LAND USE AND INDUSTRY IN SELECTED AREAS OF SERICULTURAL SPECIALIZATION IN JAPAN.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AGRICULTURE, *JAPAN), (*SILK, JAPAN), NATURAL RESOURCES, TERRAIN, SITE SELECTION, TEXTILE INDUSTRY , IMPACT, TREES, INSECTICIDES, SPRAYS, PRODUCTION, LEPIDOPTERA, FOOD, RIVERS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION, MAPS

  20. Analysis of the population genetics of clades of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- isolated in three areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirai, S; Yokoyama, E; Etoh, Y; Seto, J; Ichihara, S; Suzuki, Y; Maeda, E; Sera, N; Horikawa, K; Yamamoto, T

    2014-10-01

    The genetic differences of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strains isolated from humans in three widely-separated areas in Japan were analysed to provide information on possible geographic aspects of O157 pathogenicity. Epidemiologically unlinked O157 strains were isolated in Chiba (300 strains), Fukuoka (260 strains) and Yamagata (81 strains) prefectures. These strains were classified in clades by single nucleotide polymorphism in seven loci and lineage-specific polymorphism assay-6, and differences between the strains in each clade were compared by population genetic analyses using the IS-printing system. Analysis of the clades from the three areas showed linkage disequilibrium of the strains in each clade. Comparison of the genetic differences of strains from the three areas in each clade, from calculated ΦPT values, indicated that the strains in each clade were the same population in all three areas, except possibly the clade 12 strains. Population genetics analyses confirmed that the distribution of O157 strains in the clades isolated in three areas in Japan were similar and stable. The pathogenicity of O157 strains infecting humans was comparable due to the similar, stable geographic distribution of O157 clades. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; P<.01). No difference was observed in overall PDD rates between DBHs and general hospitals (GHs); however, when analysis was limited to cases with an in-hospital cause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; P<.05). The most common causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at

  2. Migration area of the Tsushima Warm Current Branches within the Sea of Japan: Implications from transport of 228Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Shirotani, Y.; Furusawa, Y.; Fujimoto, K.; Kofuji, H.; Yoshida, K.; Nagao, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hamajima, Y.; Honda, N.; Morimoto, A.; Takikawa, T.; Shiomoto, A.; Isoda, Y.; Minakawa, M.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated lateral profiles of 228Ra (half-life; 5.75 years) activity and 228Ra/226Ra (1600 years) activity ratio using 241 surface water samples collected in/around the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea (ECS) during June-October of 2009-2014. In the ECS, the 228Ra/226Ra ratio in the surface waters exhibited markedly wide variation (<0.05-3.5) in June, predominantly reflecting the mixing between the 228Ra-rich continental shelf water and the 228Ra-depleted Kuroshio Current water. In July, the surface waters of the central Sea of Japan (135-138°E) became separated into three currents: the Offshore Branch of the Tsushima Warm Current (OBTWC) (228Ra/226Ra =0.7-1.2) at 39-41°N, the Coastal Branch of the TWC (CBTWC) ( 0.7) on the southern side, and sub-Arctic Current ( 0.7) on the northern side. From the central to northeastern Sea of Japan, the 228Ra/226Ra ratio at the surface (0.8-1.0) was within a range between that of the CBTWC and OBTWC. The fraction of continental shelf water in the CBTWC, OBTWC, and in their combined current was estimated to be 11-16%, 8%, and 10-11%, respectively.

  3. Current state and future prospects for psychosomatic medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masato; Nakai, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe the history and current state of psychosomatic medicine (PSM) in Japan and propose measures that could be considered based on our view of the future prospects of PSM in Japan. The Japanese Society of PSM (JSPM) was established in 1959, and the first Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine in Japan was established at Kyushu University In 1963. PSM in Japan has shown a prominent, unique development, with 3,300 members (as of March 2016), comprised of 71.6% of medical doctors including psychosomatic internal medicine (PIM) specialists, general internists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, dentists, dermatologists, and others. Most of the non-physician members include psychology and nursing staff specialists. The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine (JSPIM), founded in 1996, is another major society with more than 1,200 physicians that is mainly composed of internists. The first joint congress of the five major PSM societies from each field was held in 2009. They included the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Psychosomatic Pediatric Medicine, Psychosomatic Dental Medicine, and Psychosomatic Internal Medicine. Several subdivided societies in related medical fields have also been established for cardiovascular, digestive, dermatological, and oriental medicine and for eating disorders, pain, fibromyalgia, stress science, behavioral medicine, and psycho-oncology. JSPM and JSPIM participate in international activities including publishing BioPsychoSocial Medicine (BPSM) and the establishment of a sister society relationship with the Germany College of PSM. PSM in Japan has adopted a variety of professional psychotherapies, including transactional analysis, autogenic therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Mutual interrelationship has been promoted by the Japanese Union of Associations for Psycho-medical Therapy (UPM). Although PSM in Japan is

  4. Social Ties May Play a Critical Role in Mitigating Sleep Difficulties in Disaster-Affected Communities: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Ishinomaki Area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Inoue, Machiko; Muto, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the association between social factors and sleep difficulties among the victims remaining at home in the Ishinomaki area after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and identified potentially modifiable factors that may mitigate vulnerability to sleep difficulties during future traumatic events or disasters. Design: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012 (6-12 mo after the disaster) in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between social factors and sleep difficulties. Participants: We obtained data on 4,176 household members who remained in their homes after the earthquake and tsunami. Interventions: N/A. Results: Sleep difficulties were prevalent in 15.0% of the respondents (9.2% male, 20.2% female). Two potentially modifiable factors (lack of pleasure in life and lack of interaction with/visiting neighbors) and three nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable factors (sex, source of income, and number of household members) were associated with sleep difficulties. Nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences caused directly by the disaster (severity of house damage, change in family structure, and change in working status) were not significantly associated with sleep difficulties. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the lack of pleasure in life and relatively strong networks in the neighborhood, which are potentially modifiable, might have stronger associations with sleep difficulties than do nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences of the disaster (e.g., house damage, change in family structure, and change in work status). Citation: Matsumoto S; Yamaoka K; Inoue M; Muto S. Social ties may play a critical role in mitigating sleep difficulties in disaster-affected communities: a cross-sectional study in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. SLEEP 2014;37(1):137-145. PMID:24470703

  5. Committed to working for the community: experiences of a public health nurse in a remote area during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mari; Atogami, Fumi; Nakamura, Yasuka; Kusaka, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    We examined the experiences of a public health nurse (PHN) in a rural area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. We used an ethnographic method to obtain in-depth information about her experiences, from which six themes were developed. The PHN risked her life to protect members of the community, but she remained anxious to see her own young children as soon as possible. Nevertheless, she was strongly committed to helping community members and continued to work for them. We suggest creating a practical system to allow PHNs to obtain information about the safety of their own families during a disaster.

  6. A new model of slab tear of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate associated with Kyushu-Palau Ridge subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lingmin; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Shiguo; Gao, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    We suggest that the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) plays a key role in the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and the origin of the Abu volcano in the southwestern Japan. The 3-D P-wave velocity structure was imaged to approximately 300 km beneath the Abu volcano using a large number of P-wave arrivals from local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results indicate that a high-velocity anomaly beneath the Abu volcano is associated with the subducting PSP; however, the anomaly is not continuous, being interrupted apparently by a low-velocity anomaly zone extending northwestwards from 80 km to great depth. The PSP appears to be tearing and then forms a 'slab window' corresponding to KPR subduction at ca. 2 Ma. The low-velocity anomaly may indicate hot upper mantle material rising through the slab window and causing partial melting both of the lower crust of the overriding plate and the oceanic crust of the subducted KPR. A new model is presented for slab tearing of the PSP associated with the subduction of the buoyant, wide and thick KPR and directional change in the motion of the plate, contributing to better understanding of the Abu volcanism.

  7. Evaluation of Line Immunoassay to Detect HTLV-1 Infection in an Endemic Area, Southwestern Japan; Comparison with Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western Blot.

    PubMed

    Umeki, Kazumi; Umekita, Kunihiko; Hashikura, Yuuki; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been recognized as a cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and HTLV-1-associated uveitis. HTLV-1 infection is normally detected by screening for HTLV-1 antibodies, and positive samples are confirmed by Western blot (WB). However, WB fails to confirm some samples that were positive for HTLV-1 antibodies on screening. Line immunoassay (LIA) is commonly used in Europe and Brazil, but not in Japan. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of LIA as a method of confirming HTLV-1 antibodies using samples in Japan. LIA was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and WB using 50 negative and 70 positive samples tested by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) in Miyazaki, Japan, an HTLV-1 endemic area. LIA (INNO-LIA HTLVI/II Score) and WB (Problot HTLV-I) were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Real-time PCR for HTLV-1 pX region was performed using DNA derived from white blood cells. The samples that tested negative by real-time PCR were further tested by nested PCR. All 50 CLEIA negative samples were determined to be negative by LIA and PCR. Of the 70 positive samples, 66 tested positive by both of LIA and PCR. Three samples tested negative by LIA and PCR, and the remaining sample (PCR negative) showed non-specific staining in LIA and WB. WB showed more indeterminate results than LIA. Gp21 antibody in LIA demonstrated a high ability to discriminate between positive and negative PCR results. Furthermore, the degree of gp21 antibody reaction by LIA showed correlation with HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs). Our results indicate that LIA performs well in confirming HTLV-1 seropositivity by showing a low incidence of indeterminate results and good agreement with PCR using samples in Japan, although the number of samples tested was small. In addition, semi-quantitative antibody titer to gp21 correlated well with HTLV-1 PVLs. Further study

  8. Investigation of Heavy Thunderstorm With Tornadoes In Fukuoka, Japan, On June 29, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.

    During a rainy season (BAIU) in Japan, many thunderstorms occur frequently and widely along a BAIU front, where maintains its strength and becomes stationary with repeating a slight movement along a latitude direction in the Japan Island according to a dynamical equilibrium between the 'warm' Pacific high pressure system and the 'cold' northern latitude high pressure system. Heavy thunderstorms in this season oc- cur as follows. Since abundant warm and humid air supplied continuously for a long term into the BAIU front under the influence of the Pacific high pressure contributes to the generation and maintenance of the strong atmospheric instability. Consequently, heavy thunderstorms occur frequently along the BAIU front and cause serious dis- asters involving intense flood due to heavy precipitation, dangerous tornadoes, wind gusts with a downburst which occasionally contains hailstones, etc. On June 29, 1999, heavy precipitation occurred in the Northern Kyushu, located in the western edge of Japan and was observed by the meteorological radar equipped in Kyushu University, which has the detective extent of 100 km by 100 km in the Northern Kyushu. As a result, Rainfall amounts of more than 70 mm/h were recorded at some observational points including AMeDAS, which represents the Automated Meteorological Data Ac- quisition System, in Fukuoka urban area and brought urban flood damage including inundation due to internal runoff. Furthermore, this heavy storm caused strong wind gusts and two weak tornadoes, which were confirmed through the investigation of de- stroyed houses and trees, in the southern area of Fukuoka as well as heavy precipita- tion over the Northern Kyushu. In this research, some features of PPI images detected by Kyushu University radar on this day were investigated using meteorological data from the observational networks in Japan. Consequently, some notable features as- sociated closely with serious disasters including tornadoes and wind gust and

  9. Social ties may play a critical role in mitigating sleep difficulties in disaster-affected communities: a cross-sectional study in the Ishinomaki area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Inoue, Machiko; Muto, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between social factors and sleep difficulties among the victims remaining at home in the Ishinomaki area after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and identified potentially modifiable factors that may mitigate vulnerability to sleep difficulties during future traumatic events or disasters. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from October 2011 to March 2012 (6-12 mo after the disaster) in the Ishinomaki area, Japan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between social factors and sleep difficulties. We obtained data on 4,176 household members who remained in their homes after the earthquake and tsunami. N/A. Sleep difficulties were prevalent in 15.0% of the respondents (9.2% male, 20.2% female). Two potentially modifiable factors (lack of pleasure in life and lack of interaction with/visiting neighbors) and three nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable factors (sex, source of income, and number of household members) were associated with sleep difficulties. Nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences caused directly by the disaster (severity of house damage, change in family structure, and change in working status) were not significantly associated with sleep difficulties. Our data suggest that the lack of pleasure in life and relatively strong networks in the neighborhood, which are potentially modifiable, might have stronger associations with sleep difficulties than do nonmodifiable or hardly modifiable consequences of the disaster (e.g., house damage, change in family structure, and change in work status).

  10. Host-feeding habits of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at the urban and suburban residential areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Kyoko; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Sasaki, Toshinori; Roychoudhury, Sudipta; Higa, Yukiko; Kasai, Shinji; Tsuda, Yoshio; Nishiumi, Isao; Hisai, Nobuo; Hamao, Shoji; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes for viruses in Japan, the host-feeding habits of the mosquitoes were analyzed by sequencing polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments of the cytochrome b and 16S ribosomal RNA regions of the mitochondrial DNA of 516 mosquitoes of 15 species from seven genera that were collected from residential areas during 2003-2006. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse were the most commonly collected species in urban and suburban residential areas. Anautogenous Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett was distinguished from the autogenous Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskal using a polymerase chain reaction-based identification method. Both Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. form molestus exhibited similar host-feeding habits, broadly preferring avian (50.0 and 42.5% of avian, respectively) and mammalian (38.6 and 45.0% of avian, respectively) hosts, such as tree sparrows, ducks, and humans. Conversely, Ae. albopictus exhibited a highly mammalophilic and anthropophilic feeding pattern, with 84.2% feeding on mammalian hosts and 68.5% of these on humans. We concluded that in Japan, Cx. pipiens might play a significant role in the avian-to-mammal transmission of viruses, such as West Nile virus, whereas Ae. albopictus might play a role in the human-human transmission of dengue and Chikungunya viruses.

  11. Outbreak of Culex inatomii in disaster areas of the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami in 2011, with ecological notes on their larval habitats, biting behavior, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Kim, Kyeong Soon

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of Culex inatomii occurred widely in disaster areas of the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011. Mosquitoes were collected in southern Miyagi Prefecture and northern Fukushima Prefecture in August and September 2011, respectively. In southern Miyagi Prefecture, the average number of adult Cx. inatomii collected by a suction trap baited with 1 kg of dry ice ranged between 69.3 and 132.8 per day in locations within 2.6 km from the coast in tsunami areas, while no Cx. inatomii individuals were collected 8.3 km from the coast, where seawater did not reach, and which therefore escaped the tsunami disaster. There were many ground pools of brackish water of various sizes, and larvae of Cx. inatomii were collected in 48% and 36% of the pools examined in Miyagi Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture, respectively. Ecological notes on the larval habitats, biting behavior, seasonal prevalence, and reproduction of Cx. inatomii are presented for reference based on ecological studies conducted in Sakata Wetland, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan, in June and August 2011. Ecological factors relating to the current outbreak and the potential medical importance of Cx. inatomii are discussed.

  12. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction The ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a highly efficient and renewable energy technology for space heating and cooling, with benefits that include energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. One result of the huge Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disasters is that GSHPs are receiving more attention from the media and they are being introduced by some local governments. Heat generated by underground GSHP installation, however, can pollute the geothermal environment or change groundwater flow patterns . In this study, we estimated possible effects from the use of GSHPs in the Tokyo area with a three-dimensional (3D) geological model. 2. Geological model The Tokyo Metropolitan Area is surrounded by the Late Pleistocene terraces called the Musashino uplands. The terrace surfaces are densely populated residential areas. One of these surfaces, the Shimosueyohi surface, formed along the Tama River during the last deglacial period. The CRE-NUCHS-1 core (Funabiki et al., 2011) was obtained from this surface, and the lithology, heat transfer coefficients, and chemical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed. In this study, we used borehole log data from a 5 km2 area surrounding the CRE-NUCHS-1 core site to create a 3D geological model. In this area, the Pleistocene Kazusa Group is overlain by terrace gravels and a volcanic ash layer called the Kanto Loam. The terrace gravels occur mainly beneath the Kanda, Kitazawa, and Karasuyama rivers , which flow parallel to the Tama River, whereas away from the rivers , the Kanto Loam directly overlies the Kazusa Group sediments. 3. Geothermal disturbance and groundwater flow Using the geological model, we calculated the heat transfer coefficients and groundwater flow velocities in the sediments. Within the thick terrace gravels, which are at relatively shallow depth (8-20 m), heat transfer coefficients were high and groundwater flow was relatively fast. The amount

  13. Imaging of multi-geophysical parameters in the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (MJ7.3) in Kyushu of southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Fukao, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic waveform study reveals where the rupture began and how it expanded for the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. We here focus on the investigation of the rupture initiation and their interactions of the earthquake generating and volcanic magmatism. To address these issues, detailed 3D seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio images are determined using 368,340 P-wave and S-wave source-receiver pairs from 6,018 aftershocks and 6,114 background earthquakes. We also estimated the crack density, saturate fracture and bulk-sound velocity under the Kumamoto source and its nearby volcanoes from the inverted seismic models. Our study offers geophysical evidence for that the Kumamoto earthquake was more likely to be triggered by the fluids penetration ascending from the Unzen volcanic magma which intrudes into the Futagawa and Hinagu fault zones. Such a fluids intrusion would decrease Vp and Vs whilst increase Poisson's ratio and saturate fracture in the seismogenic layer, and then lead to high pore pressure there. The multiple geophysical parameter imaging indicate that a strong low-velocity zone with high crack density and high saturate fracture, extending into the 2016 Kumamoto hypocenter, is imaged in the Unzen volcano. This suggests that the mechanical strength in the hypocenter could be vulnerability compared with the normal seismogenic layer, whilst the pore pressure of the fluids in the hypocenter could be high due to fluids accumulation. Our study implies closely relationship between the Unzen volcanic magmatism and the Kumamoto earthquake generation. On the contrary, high-velocity and low-Poisson's ratio zone is clearly imaged under the Aso volcano with low-crack density and low-saturate fracture anomalies in the upper crust. This contrasted feature underneath the Unzen and Aso volcanoes suggests the inequable contributions to earthquake generating and different interactions of the earthquake generating and volcanic magmatism.

  14. Growth History Of Unzen Volcano, Kyushu, Japan _| Results of Two Flank Drillings of Unzen Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshizumi, H.; Uto, K.; Matsumoto, A.; Kurihara, A.

    2004-12-01

    Unzen volcano is an active volcano composed of lava domes, thick lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of hornblende andesite to dacite. Tectonically active Unzen graben dissects volcanic edifices of the volcano. During the phase I of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP), two drillings were conducted at the northeastern (USDP-1: 752 m depth) and eastern (USDP-2: 1463 m depth) flanks of the volcano, respectively, to fully recover accumulated deposits of the volcano hidden beneath the younger eruptives. Extensive K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations have also been conducted on both surface rocks and drilling cores. Unzen volcano starts to grow at 0.5 Ma above the Pre-Unzen pyroxene andesite (0.5-0.8 Ma). Unzen volcano has been divided into three volcanic stages, Early and Late stages of the Older Unzen and the Younger Unzen. The Early stage of the Older Unzen (0.3-0.5 Ma) products consist of pumice-rich pyroclastic flows, block and ash flows, associated volcaniclastic debris flows and thick lava flows. The north- and south-dipping fans spreading outside the graben are sharply cut by the faults. This suggests that Unzen volcano grew rapidly in the first 200,000 years of its history and formed a conical volcanic edifice. The Late stage of the Older Unzen (0.15-0.3 Ma) products mainly fill in the graben. In the western half of the deposits of this stage, thick lava flows cover widely inside the Unzen graben. On the other hand, thick alternated piles of pyroclastic deposits were recovered both from USDP-1 and -2 cores. In the USDP-2 core, phreatomagmatic deposits about 250 m thick with essentially abundant glass materials of ca. 0.3 Ma. These findings suggest that rapid subsidence of the Unzen graben at around 0.3-0.2 Ma led strong interaction between the magma and groundwater. Younger Unzen volcano (0-0.15Ma) is composed of four edifices, Nodake, Myokendake, Fugen-dake and Mayuyama volcanoes, all locate in the eastern half of Unzen volcano. Block-and-ash flow deposits or related debris flow deposits were continuously supplied to the eastern flank of the volcano.

  15. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  16. Meningitis associated with strongyloidiasis in an area endemic for strongyloidiasis and human T-lymphotropic virus-1: a single-center experience in Japan between 1990 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Taniguchi, T; Kinjo, M; McGill, R L; McGill, A T; Tsuha, S; Shiiki, S

    2013-12-01

    Meningitis caused by enteric flora is a known complication of strongyloidiasis, and human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) predisposes individuals to severe strongyloidiasis. We reviewed the clinical features of bacterial meningitis associated with strongyloidiasis seen at a single center in subtropical Japan, in an area endemic for both strongyloidiasis and HTLV-1. We found 33 episodes in 21 patients between 1990 and 2010. The results were remarkable for the high incidence of meningitis due to Gram-positive cocci (27.3 %), especially Streptococcus bovis, and culture-negative cases (42.4 %). Given the high incidence of Gram-positive meningitis, a modified approach to corticosteroid use would be advisable in areas where strongyloidiasis is endemic, due to the potentially adverse consequences of glucocorticoid therapy.

  17. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: results of prospective patient selection by Kyushu University Criteria in 7 years.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hideaki; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Soejima, Yuji; Harada, Noboru; Morita, Kazutoyo; Toshima, Takeo; Motomura, Takashi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-09-07

    Expanding patient selection beyond the Milan criteria in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been a matter for debate. We have used the Kyushu University Criteria - maximum tumor diameter <5 cm or des-γ-carboxy prothrombin <300 mAU/ml - in LDLT for HCC since June 2007. The aim of the present study was to present the results of our prospective patient selection by Kyushu University Criteria and to confirm whether or not our criteria were justified. The entire study period was divided into the pre-Kyushu era (July 1999-May 2007) and the Kyushu era (June 2007-November 2014). Eighty-nine and 90 patients underwent LDLT for HCC in the pre-Kyushu era and the Kyushu era, respectively. In the pre-Kyushu era, there were significant differences in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival between the beyond-Milan and the within-Milan patients. In the Kyushu era, however, the differences in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival between the beyond-Milan and the within-Milan patients disappeared. The 5-year overall patient survival in the Kyushu era was 89.4%. Our selection criteria enabled a considerable number of beyond-Milan patients to undergo LDLT without jeopardizing the recurrence-free, and disease-specific, and overall patient survival. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effects of duration of stay in a temperate area on the thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure of residents from tropical areas, particularly to clarify whether they would lose their heat tolerance during passive heat exposure through residence in a temperate country, Japan. Methods We enrolled 12 males (mean ± SE age 25.7 ± 1.3 years) from south-east Asian countries who had resided in Japan for a mean of 24.5 ± 5.04 months, and 12 Japanese males (age 24.1 ± 0.9 years). Passive heat exposure was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C) for 60 minutes under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. Results Compared with the Japanese group, the tropical group displayed a higher pre-exposure rectal temperature (P < 0.01) and a smaller increase in rectal temperature during 60 minutes of leg immersion (P = 0.03). Additionally, the tropical group showed a tendency towards a lower total sweat rate (P = 0.06) and lower local sweat rate on the forehead (P = 0.07). The tropical group also had a significantly longer sweating onset time on the upper back (P = 0.04) compared with the Japanese groups. The tropical group who stayed in Japan for > 23 months sweated earlier on the forehead and upper back than those who stayed in Japan < 11 months (P < 0.01 and P = 0.03 for the forehead and upper back, respectively). There was a positive correlation between duration of stay in Japan and total sweat rate (r = 0.58, P <0.05), and negative correlations between duration of stay and sweating onset time on the forehead (r = −0.73, P = 0.01) and on the upper back (r = −0.66, P = 0.02). Other physiological indices measured in this study did not show any difference between the subjects in the tropical group who had lived in Japan for a shorter time and those who had lived there for a longer time. Conclusions We

  19. Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-09-13

    In this study, we investigated the effects of duration of stay in a temperate area on the thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure of residents from tropical areas, particularly to clarify whether they would lose their heat tolerance during passive heat exposure through residence in a temperate country, Japan. We enrolled 12 males (mean ± SE age 25.7 ± 1.3 years) from south-east Asian countries who had resided in Japan for a mean of 24.5 ± 5.04 months, and 12 Japanese males (age 24.1 ± 0.9 years). Passive heat exposure was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C) for 60 minutes under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. Compared with the Japanese group, the tropical group displayed a higher pre-exposure rectal temperature (P < 0.01) and a smaller increase in rectal temperature during 60 minutes of leg immersion (P = 0.03). Additionally, the tropical group showed a tendency towards a lower total sweat rate (P = 0.06) and lower local sweat rate on the forehead (P = 0.07). The tropical group also had a significantly longer sweating onset time on the upper back (P = 0.04) compared with the Japanese groups. The tropical group who stayed in Japan for > 23 months sweated earlier on the forehead and upper back than those who stayed in Japan < 11 months (P < 0.01 and P = 0.03 for the forehead and upper back, respectively). There was a positive correlation between duration of stay in Japan and total sweat rate (r = 0.58, P <0.05), and negative correlations between duration of stay and sweating onset time on the forehead (r = -0.73, P = 0.01) and on the upper back (r = -0.66, P = 0.02). Other physiological indices measured in this study did not show any difference between the subjects in the tropical group who had lived in Japan for a shorter time and those who had lived there for a longer time. We conclude that the nature of heat

  20. Eczema and Asthma Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Coastal and Inland Areas after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: The ToMMo Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Masako; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Nakaya, Naoki; Nagami, Fuji; Tomita, Hiroaki; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Sugawara, Junichi; Hozawa, Atsushi; Fuse, Nobuo; Suzuki, Yoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2015-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, there has been a concern about health problems among children. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of wheeze and eczema symptoms and associated factors among children in areas primarily affected by the disaster. From 2012 to 2014, we distributed the parent-administered questionnaire to 25,198 children in all 233 public schools in the 13 municipalities of Miyagi Prefecture in northeast Japan. A total of 7,155 responses (mean age 10.5 ± 2.2 years) were received (response rate: 28.4%). The prevalence of allergic symptoms according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire in 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th graders was 12.4%, 9.9%, 9.3%, and 5.6% for wheeze, and 20.1%, 18.0%, 14.0%, and 12.4% for eczema. In multivariate logistic analysis, younger age, history of hospitalization, and difficulties in children's daily lives as assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), were significantly and consistently associated with both allergic symptoms (both P < 0.05). Living in a coastal municipality was also associated with eczema symptoms (P = 0.0278). The prevalence of eczema symptoms in the 2nd (20.1%) and 8th (12.4%) grades was significantly higher than previously reported in Japan. Living in a coastal municipality was independently associated with eczema symptoms, and psychometric properties were also closely linked to allergic symptoms. These findings are clinically important for understanding the risks of allergic disorders after natural disasters.

  1. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-02-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  2. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-08-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  3. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. PMID:26825298

  4. Numerical simulation of afterslips and slow slip events that occurred in the same area in Hyuga-nada of southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane

    2012-08-01

    We propose a model of numerical simulation for the coexistence of afterslip for ˜M7 earthquake and slow slip events in the Hyuga-nada region of Japan that incorporates 3-D geometry of the Philippine Sea Plate. Coseismic slip events, recurrence of slow slip events and afterslip are qualitatively reproduced using the composite law, which is a type of rate- and state-dependent friction law with higher cut-off velocity. In addition, characteristic slip distances in the area are larger than those in other seismic source areas. In our simulation, afterslip, which occurred at the velocity-weakening regime, triggered an aseismic transient event. After the termination of this event, spontaneous slow slip events repeatedly occurred in the same area. After a similar event sequence was repeated, another afterslip occurrence triggered a larger coseismic slip in a wide area including that of the slow slip events. Following this coseismic slip, the aseismic slip area was locked until the next afterslip propagation, which triggered an aseismic transient event. These results suggest that detailed observation of spatial and temporal distribution within the area of aseismic slip may indicate the potential of recurring slow slip events and future large earthquakes.

  5. Spatially heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2011 Mw 6.6 Fukushima-Hamadori earthquake, NE Japan, probably caused by static stress change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    In order to know whether principal stress orientations in the source area rotated after the 2011 April 11 Mw 6.6 Fukushima-Hamadori earthquake in NE Japan, we investigated detailed spatial distributions of stress orientations for both the pre- and post-main shock periods using a large amount of focal mechanism data. We applied stress tensor inversions to focal mechanism data from Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's F-net broadband seismic network and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The σ3-axes estimated for the pre-main shock period are predominantly oriented WSW-ENE, and are relatively homogeneously in space. In contrast, the orientations of the σ3-axes show a significantly heterogeneous distribution in space for the post-main shock period. In the northern subarea of the focal region, the σ3-axes are oriented NW-SE. In the east and west portions of the central subarea, they are oriented NNW-SSE and WNW-ESE, respectively, almost perpendicular to each other. In the southern subarea, the σ3-axes are oriented WSW-ENE. On the whole, the σ3-axis orientations show concentric circle-like distribution surrounding the large slip area of the Mw Mw 6.6 main shock rupture. The change of principal stress axis orientations after the earthquake is not significant because of the sparse data set for the pre-main shock period. We calculated static stress changes from the Mw 6.6 main shock and three Mw > 5.5 earthquakes to compare with the observed stress axis orientations in the post-main shock period. The σ3-axis orientations of the calculated total static stress change show a concentric circle-like distribution surrounding the large slip area of the main shock, similar to that noted above. This observation strongly suggests that the spatially heterogeneous stress orientations in the post-main shock period were caused by the static stress change from the Mw 6.6 main shock and other large earthquakes. In order to estimate the

  6. Relation between increased numbers of safe playing areas and decreased vehicle related child mortality rates in Japan from 1970 to 1985: a trend analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Ichikawa, M.; Wakai, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine vehicle related mortality trends of children in Japan; and to investigate how environmental modifications such as the installation of public parks and pavements are associated with these trends. Design: Poisson regression was used for trend analysis, and multiple regression modelling was used to investigate the associations between trends in environmental modifications and trends in motor vehicle related child mortality rates. Setting: Mortality data of Japan from 1970 to 1994, defined as E-code 810–23 from 1970 to 1978 and E810–25 from 1979 to 1994, were obtained from vital statistics. Multiple regression modelling was confined to the 1970–1985 data. Data concerning public parks and other facilities were obtained from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport. Subjects: Children aged 0–14 years old were examined in this study and divided into two groups: 0–4 and 5–14 years. Main results: An increased number of public parks was associated with decreased vehicle related mortality rates among children aged 0–4 years, but not among children aged 5–14. In contrast, there was no association between trends in pavements and mortality rates. Conclusions: An increased number of public parks might reduce vehicle related preschooler deaths, in particular those involving pedestrians. Safe play areas in residential areas might reduce the risk of vehicle related child death by lessening the journey both to and from such areas as well as reducing the number of children playing on the street. However, such measures might not be effective in reducing the vehicle related mortalities of school age children who have an expanded range of activities and walk longer distances. PMID:15547055

  7. Distinct control mechanism of fine-grained sediments from Yellow River and Kyushu supply in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Debo; Wan, Shiming; Toucanne, Samuel; Clift, Peter D.; Tada, Ryuji; Révillon, Sidonie; Kubota, Yoshimi; Zheng, Xufeng; Yu, Zhaojie; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Hanchao; Xu, Zhaokai; Shi, Xuefa; Li, Anchun

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution multiproxy records, including clay minerals and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the clay-sized silicate fraction of sediments from IODP Site U1429 in the northern Okinawa Trough, provide reliable evidence for distinct control mechanism on fine-grained sediments input from the Yellow River and the southern Japanese Islands to the northern Okinawa Trough since 34 ka BP. Provenance analysis indicates that the sediments were mainly derived from the Yellow River and the island of Kyushu. Since the last glacial, clay-sized sediments transported from the Yellow River to the study site were strongly influenced by sea-level fluctuation. During low sea-level stage (˜34-14 ka BP), the paleo-Yellow River mouth was positioned closer to the northern Okinawa Trough, favoring large fluvial discharge or even direct input of detrital sediments, which resulted about four times more flux of clay-sized sediments supply to the study area as during the relatively high sea-level stage (˜14-0 ka BP). The input of Kyushu-derived clay-sized sediments to the study site was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current and Tsushima Warm Current intensity, with increased input in phase with weakened Kuroshio Current/Tsushima Warm Current. Our study suggests that the Kuroshio Current was very likely flowed into the Okinawa Trough and thus influenced the fine-grained sediment transport in the area throughout the last glacial and deglacial. During ˜34-11 ka BP, the Kyushu clay-sized sediment input was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current. Since ˜11 ka BP, the occurrence of Tsushima Warm Current became important in influencing the Kyushu fine-grained sediment input to the northern Okinawa Trough.

  8. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-03

    10503« JPRS-JAR-87-001 3 FEBRUARY 1987 Japan Report 19980629 058 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE BTIO QUALITY INSPECTED 6... JAPAN REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL Impact of Miyazawa’s Appointment as Finance Minister (Kenzo Uchida, et al.; ZAIKAI TEMBO, Oct 86...Direct U.S. Investment Discussed (Akio Morita, et? al.; KEIDANREN GEPPO, Sep 86) 30 Japan -PRC Trade Expansion Council Officially Inaugurated

  9. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  10. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-30

    172068 JPRS-JAR-85-0 1 0 3 0 April 198 5 Japan Report 19980722 116 »TIC QUALITY SfSPECTED 3 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE...85-010 30 April 19 85 JAPAN REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL Break Up of Tanaka-Nakasone Alliance Anticipated (Taro Maki; SEKAI, Jan 85...minister. It became "When I was prime minister, Japan was isolated in international society," and although at the U.S.- Japan summit talks President Reagan

  11. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-09

    expenditure . He said that he hoped for greater effort on Japan’s part in regard to the defense of Japan itself and its periphery. This means he clearly set...Forces into real combat forces and their unification with U.S. Forces. They dealt with the mounting defense expenditure , which is also connected with...governments of Japan and the United States on "guidelines for Japan -U.S. cooperation on defense " in 1978. Throughout 1984, even Prime Minister Nakasone

  12. Measurement of radon/thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in granite areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G; Ishikawa, T; Hosoda, M; Sahoo, S K; Kavasi, N; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Uchida, S

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in different places in Hiroshima Prefecture were measured. Exhalation rates were measured using an accumulation chamber method. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 3 to 37 mBq m(-2) s(-1), while the thoron exhalation rate ranged from 40 to 3330 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The highest radon exhalation rate (37 mBq m(-2) s(-1)) and gamma-ray dose rate (92 nGy h(-1)) were found in the same city (Kure City). In Kure City, indoor radon and thoron concentrations were previously measured at nine selected houses using a radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). The indoor radon concentrations varied from 16 to 78 Bq m(-3), which was higher than the average value in Japan (15.5 Bq m(-3)). The indoor thoron concentration ranged from ND (not detected: below a detection limit of approximately 10 Bq m(-3)) to 314 Bq m(-3). The results suggest that radon exhalation rate from the ground is an influential factor for indoor radon concentration.

  13. Enhygromyxa salina gen. nov., sp. nov., a slightly halophilic myxobacterium isolated from the coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Takashi; Jojima, Yasuko; Fudou, Ryosuke; Tokura, Mitsunori; Hiraishi, Akira; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2003-06-01

    Six isolates of novel marine myxobacteria, designated strains SHK-1T, SMK-1-1, SMK-1-3, SMK-10, SKK-2, and SMP-6, were obtained from various coastal samples (mud, sands and algae) collected around Japan. All of the isolates had Gram-negative rod-shaped cells, motile by gliding and grew aerobically. They showed bacteriolytic action, fruiting body formation, and NaCl requirement for growth with an optimum concentration of 1.0-2.0% (w/v). In addition, divalent cationic components of seawater, such as Mg2+ or Ca2+, were also needed for growth. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The G+C content of genomic DNA ranged from 65.6 to 67.4 mol% (by HPLC). The isolates shared almost identical 16S rDNA sequences, and clustered with a recently described marine myxobacterium, Plesiocystis pacifica, as their closest relative on a phylogenetic tree (95.9-96.0% similarity). Physiological and chemotaxonomic differences between the new strains and strains of the genus Plesiocystis justify the proposal of a new genus. Therefore, we propose to classify the six isolates into a new taxon of marine myxobacteria with the name, Enhygromyxa salina gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is SHK-1(T) (JCM 11769(T) = DSM 15217(T) = AJ 110011(T)).

  14. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of 3He/ 4He in hot spring gas released from Unzen volcanic area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notsu, K.; Nakai, S.; Igarashi, G.; Ishibashi, J.; Mori, T.; Suzuki, M.; Wakita, H.

    2001-11-01

    Following the first phreatic explosion on 17 November 1990, hot spring gases were collected periodically over the next 10 years for 3He/ 4He isotopic ratio and chemical analyses from three hot springs (Obanma, Unzen and Shimabara) located around Unzen volcano, Japan. The 3He/ 4He ratios, although showing some scatter at each site, show an increase from west to east (Obama

  15. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The

  16. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  17. Age-dependent accumulation of heavy metals in a pod of killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2007-02-01

    Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle of nine killer whales (including three calves) that stranded together in the northern area of Japan were determined. The Hg and Cd concentrations were found at trace levels in the calf organs, and increased with age. The Fe concentration in the muscle was significantly lower in the calves than in the mature whales and also increased with age. In contrast, Mn and Cu concentrations in the muscle were significantly higher in the calves than in the mature whales, and changes in the Zn concentration relative to age were unclear. These results suggest minimal mother-to-calf transfer of the toxic metals Hg and Cd and accumulation of these metals in the organs with age, while the essential metals Mn and Cu were found at higher concentrations in the muscle of calves than in mature whales.

  18. Evidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans and spotted fever group rickettsiae among rodents in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kenta; Isozumi, Rie; Takami, Kazutoshi; Kimata, Isao; Shiokawa, Kanae; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Nishio, Sanae; Arikawa, Jiro

    2017-07-19

    We examined 33 rodents captured in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan for IgG antibodies against Seoul virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, hepatitis E virus, Leptospira interrogans, Yersinia pestis, spotted fever, typhus and scrub typhus group rickettsiae. We found that 3 (9.1%) and 1 (3.0%) of the 33 rodents had antibodies against L. interrogans and spotted fever group rickettsiae, respectively. DNAs of leptospires were detected from 2 of the 3 seropositive rodents, but DNA of rickettsia was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple locus sequence typing revealed that the 2 leptospires were L. interrogans belonging to a novel sequence type. There is a potential risk for acquiring rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens even in cities in developed countries.

  19. Nocturnal sink of NO x via NO 3 and N 2O 5 in the outflow from a source area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Jun; Imagawa, Kousuke; Imai, Hidekazu; Kosugi, Naohiro; Ideguchi, Masumi; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    To understand the nocturnal sink of NO x in the outflow from the Asian source area, simultaneous observations of NO 3, N 2O 5, and related compounds were conducted utilizing an instrument based on laser-induced fluorescence at Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, during June 2004. Consequently, significant levels of NO 3 and N 2O 5 were successfully observed, particularly in the polluted air mass originating from Tokyo. This observation concurred with the equilibrium among NO 3, NO 2, and N 2O 5 gases. As a result of steady-state analysis, nocturnal NO x losses were evaluated as 1.8 and 0.2 ppbv night -1 for polluted and maritime air, respectively. It was confirmed that the nocturnal NO x sink during the observation was promoted by the NO 3 loss by VOC. DMS is significant for nocturnal loss of NO x over the sea.

  20. A comparison of family care infrastructure for demented elderly in inner cities and regional areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Yatabe, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Ikeda, Manabu

    2012-09-01

    Family members' observations of daily life are important for the diagnosis and treatment of dementia. However, elderly people are increasingly living alone, and family structures tend to differ between inner-city areas and regional areas. We aimed to compare the family caregiving infrastructure of demented elderly visiting a memory clinic. Subjects were consecutive outpatients with dementia at the memory clinic at a university hospital in two different areas. We compared subjects' demographic data, residency status, housemates and companion status at the time of their initial visit. Patients in the inner-city area (n= 99) had more education and higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores than those in the regional area (n= 172). In both areas, the highest proportion of patients lived with their spouse. In the inner city, patients' housemates were either their spouse (34%) or their child (13%); 22% lived alone. In regional areas, patients lived with their spouse only (39%) or in their child's household (23%); 14% lived alone. At their initial consultation, inner-city patients were accompanied by a family member other than their spouse (49%), a spouse (27%), or they were alone (7%). In the regional area, patients' companions were their spouse (35%) or their spouse and other family members (18%); patients rarely arrived alone. Regression analysis showed that education, diagnosis, housemate state (child only), and companion state (alone) significantly influenced the living area. Our results suggest family caregiving infrastructure of demented elderly differ between the two areas. This may reflect changes in social structure and increased awareness regarding dementia in inner-city areas. © 2012 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2012 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. An Approach to Assessing Flood Risk in Low-lying Paddy Areas of Japan considering Economic Damage on Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2013-12-01

    Hiroki Minakawa, Takao Masumoto National Institute for Rural Engineering (NIRE), NARO, Japan Flooding is one type of nature disaster, and is caused by heavy rainfall events. In the future, the risk of flooding is predicted to increase due to global climate change. Immediate measures such as strengthening drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more frequent flooding, so a quantitative evaluation method of flood risks is needed to discuss countermeasure against these problems. At the same time, rice is an important crop for food production in Japan. However, paddy fields are often damaged by flooding because they are principally spread in lower part of the basin. Therefore, it is also important to assess the damages to paddy fields. This study discusses a method for evaluating a relationship between the risk of flood damage and the scale of heavy rainfall. We also developed a method of estimating the economic effect of a reduction in rice yield by flooding. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level in channels and paddies. Next, heavy rainfall data for drainage analyses were generated by using a diurnal rainfall pattern generator. The generator can create hourly data of heavy rainfall, and internal pattern of them is different each. These data were input to the drainage model to estimate flood risk. Simultaneously, we tried to clarify economic losses of a rice yields caused by flooding. Here, the reduction scale in rice yield which shows relations between flooding situation (e.g. water level, duration of submersion etc.) and damage of rice is available to calculate reduction of rice yield. In this study, we created new reduction scales through a pseudo-flooding experiment under real inundation conditions. The methodology of the experiment was as follow: We chose the popular Japanese rice cultivar Koshihikari for this experiment. An experimental arena was

  2. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tsunami Inundation Along Japan's Eastern Coast   ... The extent of inundation from the destructive and deadly tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off ... March 16, 2001 and March 12, 2011 - Before and after tsunami inundation along Japan's eastern coast. project:  ...

  3. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  4. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  5. The Influence of the Climate Change on Landslide Disasters in Western Japan -Hiroshima's case-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Aditian, Aril

    2015-04-01

    In last year 2014 and 2012, tremendous landslides due to heavy rainfalls occurred in western Japan. Especially in August 2014, serious landslide disasters induced by the extremely heavy rainfall caused over 70 people's death in Hiroshima. Most of them were caused by debris flows from shallow landslides on granite forest slopes on August 20. In Hiroshima, long-term increase in rainfalls was not obvious, while this trend was found in other area such as Kyushu district. However, in western Japan, the influence of climate change emerged in the increase of vapor concentration caused by rising water surface temperature in East China Sea and that brought the extreme rainfall. The landslide (debris flow) disasters in Hiroshima have distinctive characteristics in terms of followings: (1) the source of debris flows (directly flowing down from mostly shallow landslides), (2) their usual equivalent friction coefficient "Mf" i.e. relative travel distance for Granite (values between 0.174 and 0.554). (3) the peculiar meteorological condition of frontogenesis with vapor convergence on the stationary front and around the Pacific high pressure that can generate the heavy precipitation (above 101 mm/hr, total 256 mm). (4) Contrary to Mf values above, they caused heavy disaster at downstream area with the urban development on hillside slopes. We found that the Mf becomes bigger (relatively short travel distance) as the return period of disasters"Tr"becomes shorter as evaluating in the next formula: Mf = 0.278 Tr^(-3.32). If the return period becomes shorter due to climate change (it is possible), Mf may become bigger. However, the cities such as Hiroshima, Kobe or Nagasaki in western Japan which have the urban area at hillside will be more prone to severe debris flow disasters. (5) Also, theoretically, we may have more slope failures and debris flows per area "N/A" if the rainfall increment "dR" increases. The "increasing ratio in N/A" is given by next equation: (N/A)/(N0/A)=((R0 + d

  6. Changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake and their effect on economic factors: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2014-11-01

    Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors. Monthly suicide rates were observed from March 2009 to February 2013, during which time the earthquake occurred on March, 2011. Data were included from disaster-stricken (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures) and neighboring (control: Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures) areas. The association between changes in suicide rates and economic variables was evaluated based on the number of bankruptcy cases and ratio of effective job offers. In disaster-stricken areas, post-disaster male suicide rates decreased during the 24 months following the earthquake. This trend differed relative to control areas. Female suicide rates increased during the first seven months. Multiple regression analysis showed that bankruptcy cases (β = 0.386, p = 0.038) and ratio of effective job offers (β = -0.445, p = 0.018) were only significantly associated with male post-disaster suicide rates in control areas. Post-disaster suicide rates differed by gender following the earthquake. Our findings suggest that considering gender differences might be important for developing future post-disaster suicide prevention measures. This ecological study revealed that increasing effective job offers and decreasing bankruptcy cases can affect protectively male suicide rates in control areas.

  7. Long-term simulation of human exposure to atmospheric perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFO) in the Osaka urban area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2010-10-15

    A publicly available atmospheric transport model, the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry Model ( http://ruc.noaa.gov/wrf/WG11/ ), was used to simulate atmospheric perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFO) emitted from a point source in the Osaka urban area (also known as Keihanshin), Japan. The time period of the simulation was from 1983 to 2008. The modeled air concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.91) with the observed air concentrations. Intake levels by inhalation of simulated air concentrations and through the gastrointestinal tract as estimated by the food duplicate method were input to a pharmacokinetic model of the human body to simulate serum concentrations of PFOA and PFO (PFO(A)). For validation of the atmospheric model, simulated values were compared with those observed in serum samples. The simulated values generally agreed with those observed in serum samples from residents of the Keihanshin area (r = 0.93). It was confirmed that the atmospheric model was generally capable of projecting features of atmospheric PFO(A) as well as serum concentrations of PFO(A) in this case. The results indicated a dominant contribution of the atmospheric component to serum PFO(A) in humans near the point source in the Keihanshin area. In 2008, that contribution was about 70%.

  8. [Effects of empathy on fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, focusinig on the residents in the South Kanto area].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Youichi; Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake during the year after the earthquake were investigated in residents of the South Kanto area (N = 749), which is adjacent to the disaster area. The percentage of people that raised funds was 67.4%. We investigated the effects of the following on fundraising activities: demographic variables (sex, age, and educational background), trait empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress), former experience with fund-raising activities, effects of similarity to victims (e.g., experienced inconveniences because of the disaster, or had problems returning home), and psychological closeness to victims (e.g, have family members or acquaintances that suffered from the disaster, or that once lived in the disaster area). The results indicated that fund-raising activities were affected by former experience with fund-raising, similarity to victims, psychological closeness to victims, empathic concern, and being female. The relationship between fund-raising activities for victims and empathy are discussed.

  9. Island-enhanced cooling mechanism in typhoon events revealed by field observations and numerical simulations for a coral reef area, Sekisei Lagoon, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    While widely known for their destructive power, typhoon events can also bring benefit to coral reef ecosystems through typhoon-induced cooling which can mitigate against thermally stressful conditions causing coral bleaching. Sensor deployments in Sekisei Lagoon, Japan's largest coral reef area, during the summer months of 2013, 2014, and 2015 were able to capture local hydrodynamic features of numerous typhoon passages. In particular, typhoons 2015-13 and 2015-15 featured steep drops in near-bottom temperature of 5 °C or more in the north and south sides of Sekisei Lagoon, respectively, indicating local cooling patterns which appeared to depend on the track and intensity of the passing typhoon. This was further investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical simulations conducted for the summer of 2015. The modeling results showed a cooling trend to the north of the Yaeyama Islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-13, and a cooling trend that moved clockwise from north to south of the islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-15. These local cooling events may have been initiated by the Yaeyama Islands acting as an obstacle to a strong typhoon-generated flow which was modulated and led to prominent cooling of waters on the leeward sides. These lower temperature waters from offshore may then be transported to the shallower inner parts of the lagoon area, which may partly be due to density-driven currents generated by the offshore-inner area temperature difference.

  10. Associations of Neighborhood Environmental Attributes with Walking in Japan: Moderating Effects of Area-Level Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Liao, Yung; Oka, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-09-12

    Several studies have examined how the associations of built environment attributes with walking behaviors may be moderated by socioeconomic status (SES). Such understanding is important to address socioeconomic inequalities in health through urban design initiatives. However, to date, there is no study examining the moderation effects of SES in the relationships of environmental attributes and walking in non-Western countries. The current study aims to examine associations of environmental attributes with walking behaviors among Japanese adults, and to test whether these associations were moderated by area-level SES. Data on walking were collected from Japanese adults using a nationwide Internet survey (N = 4605). Built environment measures including population density, street density, distance to the nearest public open space, and distance to the nearest commercial destination were calculated using geographic information systems software. An index of neighborhood deprivation was used as an area-level indicator of SES. Logistic regression models adjusted for clustering and sociodemographic variables were used. It was found that more residents in high SES areas walked for commuting, for errands, and for exercise compared with those who lived in low SES areas. When the whole sample was examined, all environmental attributes were associated with walking behaviors (except for street density not being associated with walking for exercise). Associations of environmental attributes with walking behaviors were moderated by area-level SES only in walking for exercise. Walking for exercise was associated with higher population density, higher street density (marginally significant), and shorter distance to the nearest commercial destination only in high SES areas. Our findings showed that the associations of these environmental attributes and walking behaviors were largely consistent across different SES levels. Therefore, urban design interventions focusing on low SES

  11. Sea Urchin Embryogenesis as Bioindicators of Marine Pollution in Impact Areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.

    PubMed

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Zhuravel, Elena V; Chulchekov, Denis N; Mazur, Andrey A

    2017-08-01

    The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area. The Sea of Okhotsk is the main fishing area for Russia. Anthropogenic impact on the marine ecosystem is caused by fishing and transport vessels mainly. But two shelf areas are considered as "hot spots" due to oil and gas drilling. Offshore oil exploitation on the northeastern Sakhalin Island has been started and at present time oil is being drill on oil-extracting platforms continuously. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are prospected on western Kamchatka shelf, and exploitation drilling in this area was intensified in 2014. A higher number of abnormalities at gastrula and pluteus stages (19-36%) were detected for the stations around oil platforms near Sakhalin Island. On the western Kamchatka shelf number of abnormalities was 7-21%. Such anomalies as exogastrula, incomplete development of pairs of arms were not observed at all; only the delay of development was registered. Eggs, embryos, and larvae of sea urchins are the suitable bioindicators of early disturbances caused by marine pollution in impact ecosystems.

  12. Rearming Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  13. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  14. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Inadomi, John M.; Takayama, Michiyo; Makino, Kanako; Iwao, Yasushi; Sugino, Yoshinori; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. Methods Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46) and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40). Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41) and the presence of Barrett’s esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56). Conclusion Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett’s esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. PMID:26225858

  15. Detailed Gas Chimney Structures in Joetsu Area at Southeastern Margin of Japan Sea, Revealed by High-Resolution 3D Seismic Survey (HR3D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, S.; Hiruta, A.; Yanagimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, R.; Asakawa, E.

    2016-12-01

    To delineate the detailed structure of the gas chimneys, a high-resolution three-dimensional seismic survey (HR3D) was carried out in Joetsu area, at the southeastern margin of Japan Sea where hydrate-related mound and pockmark systems with gas chimneys are widely developed. HR3D data have successfully revealed the fine structure of gas chimneys which were not clearly imaged by the existing seismic data, such as sub-bottom profilers and conventional large-scale 3D surveys for petroleum exploration. HR3D data are also useful to interpolate and extrapolate spatially the geological/geophysical information obtained at wells most of which were drilled into the gas hydrate concentrated zones (GHCZs.) In the areas of low hydrate concentration, the reflections show a parallel-stratified pattern and the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is parallel to the sea floor reflections. On the other hand, GHCZs are seismologically characterized by (1) strong sea floor reflections on the chimney mounds, (2) chaotic reflection patterns in the chimneys, and (3) pull-up of bottom simulating reflector (BSR) as shown in the attached figure. Strong sea floor reflections suggest that solid hydrates deposit in the very shallow part beneath the sea floor and the chaotic reflections indicate the hydrates are not continuously layered but interspersedly distributed. The BSR pull-up phenomena as much as 70 80msec are caused by high-velocity materials existing between the sea floor and the BSR. The sonic logs acquired by LWD at wells drilled into GHCZs show high velocity up to 3,800 m/s in the massive hydrates. The pull-up times estimated from the sonic data are consistent in general with the observed pull-up times on HR3D sections, suggesting the pull-up times could be useful for a preliminary evaluation of hydrate zones before drilling and/or in the areas without well data. This study was conducted under the commission from AIST as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI

  16. Evaluation of the genetic structure of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan's Kanto and Tanzawa mountain areas, based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Sayaka; Hata, Shoko; Matsuda, Sayumi; Arai, Kazushi; Mizoguchi, Yasushi

    2017-06-19

    The browsing habits of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan have caused serious ecological problems. Appropriate management of sika deer populations requires understanding the different genetic structures of local populations. In the present study, we used 10 microsatellite polymorphisms to explore the genetic structures of sika deer populations (162 individuals) living in the Kanto region. The expected heterozygosity of the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I) was lower than that of the populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II). Our results suggest that moderate gene flow has occurred between the sika deer populations in the Kanto mountain areas (Group II), but not to or from the Tanzawa mountain range population (Group I). Also, genetic structure analysis showed that the Tanzawa population was separated from the other populations. This is probably attributable to a genetic bottleneck that developed in the Tanzawa sika deer population in the 1950s. However, we found that the Tanzawa population has since recovered from the bottleneck situation and now exhibits good genetic diversity. Our results show that it is essential to periodically evaluate the genetic structures of deer populations to develop conservation strategies appropriate to the specific structures of individual populations at any given time. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. An Analysis of Background Factors Influencing Selection of Residency Facility for Dental Students in Universities Located in Rural Areas in Japan

    PubMed Central

    H, Kono; H, Sasahara; S, Furukawa; N, Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Japan, since 2006, participation in a 1-year residency programme by all dentists who have passed the National Board Dental Examination has been mandatory. Therefore, a ‘matching system’ has become necessary for dental students in their final year to decide their desired residency facility, but the rate of matching in dental schools located in rural areas is still low. Aim : The principal aim of this study was to elucidate the background factors influencing the selection of residency facilities by dental students in rural areas to facilitate the training of dentists working in local communities. Methods : Using the matching results from 554 final-year students of Kagoshima University Faculty of Dentistry from 2005 to 2013, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on the background factors of the subjects. Results : Concerning the selection of the residency facility, it was verified that there were strong background factors for subjects to select residency facilities in their hometown, but compared with subjects from other regions, those from Kinki and Kanto regions did not select residency facilities in their hometown. Compared with males, a significantly higher number of females selected residency facilities in their hometown. A significantly higher number of subjects who repeated a school year selected the residency facility of their alma mater. Conclusion : In dental schools of national universities located in provinces, the establishment of a quota system for students from the region, where possible, is one of the most effective steps for securing future dental trainees. PMID:26140061

  18. Geospatial analysis of invasion of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: competition with Aedes japonicus japonicus in its northern limit area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Naoko; Komagata, Osamu; Mochizuki, Kan-ichiro; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

    2014-05-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to Southeast Asia and nearby islands, has spread almost worldwide during recent decades. We confirm the invasion of this mosquito, first reported in Yamagata city in northeast Honshu, Japan in 2000. Previously, only Ae. japonicus japonicus had been collected in this place, but 2 years later, the population of Ae. albopictus had increased, so more than 80% of the total number of larval colonies there consisted of this species. In contrast to Yamagata's new residential area, now infested by Ae. albopictus, the original mosquito remains in the city but its habitats are generally closer to the surrounding mountains, where the normalized difference vegetation index is higher. The factors affecting the distribution of both species in Yamagata city were studied using geographical information systems (GIS) based on data derived from field surveys, aerial photographs, satellite images and digital maps. The range of Aedes mosquito habitats was estimated and visualised on polygon maps and no significant differences were noted when the polygon area was calculated by GIS software in comparison with the satellite images. Although Ae. j. japonicus was expected to be rapidly overrun by Ae. albopictus, this did not happen. Currently, both species coexist; not only in separate sites, but also simultaneously in various water bodies, where larvae from both species have frequently been seen. However, the competitive relationship between these two Aedes species within a warming environment is an issue that should be closely monitored.

  19. The administrative project of Helicobacter pylori infection screening among junior high school students in an area of Japan with a high incidence of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Chika; Gotoda, Takuji; Ishikawa, Hideki; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a common chronic infection that is closely associated with gastric cancer, known to be decreasing worldwide. We set up an administrative project of screening examination for H. pylori infection in junior high school students in Akita Prefecture to investigate the current prevalence of H. pylori infection in childhood in an area where the incidence of gastric cancer is particularly high. All students in their second or third year of junior high school (13 to 15 years old) in two cities in Akita Prefecture were recruited. First, a urine-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of H. pylori antibody was performed. Then, a (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) was carried out in students who tested positive on the urinary test. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their parents. A total of 1813 students were recruited in this study; 1765 (97.3%) students agreed to participate in this project and underwent a screening examination. Among 96 students (5.4%) testing positive for H. pylori on the initial screening examination, 90 (93.7%, 90/96) underwent a subsequent (13)C-UBT, and 85 (4.8%, 85/1765) were diagnosed as positive for H. pylori. The current prevalence of H. pylori infection among students was low even in an area of Japan with a high incidence of gastric cancer.

  20. Spinal fractures resulting from the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake of the Kobe-Osaka area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Maruo, S; Matumoto, M

    1996-07-01

    One of the worst earthquakes hit the Hanshin area between Kobe and Osaka, in the early morning at 5:46 AM on January 17th 1995. The destructive force with MG 7.2 severely damaged buildings, houses, roads and railways, leaving 6500 dead, and 34,900 injured. Hyogo College of Medicine located in this area was also severely damaged, thus there was a major challenge to provide post-quake medical support. A post-quake investigation in this area was done by 50 affiliated hospitals. More than 15,000 victim-patients were treated at these hospitals during the first 3 days after the quake. Major injuries were spinal fractures, and other trunk fractures, including rib or pelvis fractures, but fractures of long bones were uncommon, because the quake hit this area in the early morning when most people were asleep. In this study, the mechanisms of these major injuries were analysed by direct interview soon after the quake, with 230 victim-patients who had 140 spinal fractures, and 100 with rib or pelvis fractures. Most of those who had a spinal fracture had either sat up or stood up on their 'Futon' mattresses without bed frames and were struck on their backs by falling furniture or ceilings. On the other hand, patients who had fractures of the ribs or the pelvis had been lying in the supine or lateral position and were hit on their chest or pelvis. This characteristic lifestyle pattern of the Japanese people to lie down on the floor directly beside furniture, resulted in these injuries. From these results, we will emphasize the following precautions:- If an earthquake occurs during sleeping hours at home, do not stand up or sit up. The best position is to crouch on the 'Futon' mattress.

  1. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Industry , says the exhibition of about 70,000 foreign products mainly agricultural goods, household appliances, liquor, confectionaries , industrial ...Fishery Talks Restart (KYODO, 13 Apr 85) 38 Forest Products Industry To Get Government Aid (KYODO, 25 Mar 85) 39 China Asked To Curb Cotton...Customs-Cleared Trade 66 USSR-Japan Fishery Talks 66 Auto Exports 66 Japan, Malaysia Air Service 66 Trade Friction 67 Strategic Aid 67 Trade

  2. Imaging of the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai Trough subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-03-01

    We performed 3D seismic tomography of the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai subduction zone, to investigate the relationship of the subducted part of Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) to coseismic rupture propagation, seismicity, and shallow very low frequency earthquakes. Combining active-source and passive-source data recorded both onshore and offshore, we imaged the deep slab from near the trough axis to the coastal area. Our results show the subducted KPR as a low-velocity belt oriented NW-SE extending down the plate boundary to around 30 km depth. At this depth, we suggest that the subducted KPR detaches from the slab and becomes underplated on the overriding continental plate. As the coseismic slip areas of past large earthquakes do not extend into the subducted KPR, we suggest that it may inhibit rupture propagation. The interior of the subducted KPR shows active intraslab seismicity with a wide depth distribution. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes are continuously active above the location of the subducted KPR, whereas they are intermittent to the northeast of the subducted KPR. Thus, the subducted KPR appears to be an important factor in coseismic rupture propagation and seismic phenomena in this region.

  3. Small repeating earthquakes activity and interplate quasi-static slips in the Hyuga-nada, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Goto, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Hyuga-nada region, a high-angle subduction zone belong the Kyushu-Ryukyu arc, is one of the most seismically active area in Japan and earthquakes with magnitude from 6.5 to 7.5 usually occur at dozens of years interval. In this region, the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) subducts northwestward beneath the Eurasian Plate (EU) at a rate of about 5cm/year [Seno et al. (1993)]. We detected small repeating earthquakes in and around the Hyuga-nada using waveform similarity based on Igarashi et al. (2003). We used about 20,000 earthquakes which occurred in and around the Hyuga-nada and magnitude range is more than 2.0 detected by SEVO, Kyushu University from 1994 to 2008. We identified about 1,000 small repeating earthquakes, and they were compiled 390 groups. Most of small repeating earthquakes occur near the plate boundary between the PHS and the EU. They do not distribute in large moment-release areas of large earthquakes, but they distribute in those areas surrounding them; these characteristics are also found in NE Japan [e.g. Igarashi et al. (2003); Uchida et al. (2003)]. We selected 145 groups of small repeating earthquakes occurring in the plate boundary based on focal mechanism analysis. Almost all of them distribute the southern side from 32.5N, which suggests that an interplate coupling is probably changing near 32.5N. This result is consistent with present study of interplate coupling in and around Hyuga-nada using a geodetic data by GPS observation [e.g., Nishimura et al. (1999)]. We also estimated interplate quasi-static slip rate distribution in the Hyuga-nada using small repeating earthquakes. The result shows that the slip rate of shallow side of plate boundary is relatively larger than deep side of that in the area of 31.3~32N. In the deep side, the Hyuga-nada earthquakes (Mw6.7) occurred in Dec. 1996. It suggests that the interplate coupling of deep side is stronger than that of shallow side. Acknowledgments: In this study, we have used the data of

  4. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  5. Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotopic composition of methane-derived authigenic carbonates in methane seep areas, eastern margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakizaki, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Hiruta, A.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    We report the occurrence, mineralogy, and isotopic composition (δ13C; δ18O) of methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDACs) from three methane seep areas with shallow gas hydrate (Umitaka Spur, Joetsu Knoll, and off-Tobishima Island), in the southeastern margin of Japan Sea. Furthermore, we present strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of MDACs, pore waters, and seawater from Umitaka Spur. MDACs range from a few mm to several tens of cm in diameter. Their shape is quite varied, e.g. nodular, platy, and indetermine form. Most MDACs are composed of high-Mg calcite. The δ13C values of MDACs from Umitaka Spur range from -30 to -4 permil. These isotopic values are higher than those of Joetsu Knoll and off-Tobishima Island. This difference is dependent upon the formation depth of MDACs in the sediment column. It probably indicates a difference in the formation environment of MDACs (e.g. methane flux). Meanwhile, range of the δ18O values of MDACs from those three areas is mostly equal. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in MDACs from shallow sediment depth of Umitaka Spur are equal to those of modern surface seawater just above Umitaka Spur. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of MDACs from deeper sediment depth are lower, and the Sr-isotopic trend indicates an upward increase. This trend can be correlated to the global Sr-isotopic trend of the seawater from late Pleistocene to present. It means that 87Sr/86Sr ratios of MDACs reflect the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater at the formation age. However, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in pore water are lower than those of MDACs, yet follow a parallel trend. This would suggest that the pore water includes a source of light Sr, presumably released from tuff and volcaniclastics during diagenetic processes. This study was conducted under the commission from AIST as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  6. Ambient noise tomography in the Naruko/Onikobe volcanic area, NE Japan: implications for geofluids and seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Jun; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the earthquake generation in volcanic areas, it is important to investigate the presence of geofluids in the uppermost crust. We applied ambient noise tomography to the Naruko/Onikobe volcanic area and constructed a detailed 3-D S-wave velocity ( V s) model using continuous records from a dense seismic network and surrounding stations. The low-velocity zones were found beneath Naruko Volcano, Onikobe Caldera, and Mt. Kurikoma. The low-velocity zone beneath Onikobe Caldera may correspond to a magma reservoir, which is also characterized by surrounding S-wave reflectors. The molten magma originates from the upwelling flows in the mantle wedge. We also conducted the relocation of aftershocks of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake by double-difference tomography based on the obtained velocity model. Beneath Mt. Kurikoma, aftershock distribution delineates one of the unfavorably oriented fault planes of the main shock, which implies that the low-velocity zone around the fault plane is related to the presence of overpressurized fluid.

  7. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image.

  8. Japan's builders study platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.G.

    1984-07-05

    This paper discusses the developing role of Japan as a major supplier of offshore drilling and production equipment. Different firms are discussed along with their capacity. The marketing areas, work experience, and plans for designs are also included. There is special attention payed on the potential for developing Arctic platforms.

  9. Is Japan a military threat to Asia?

    SciTech Connect

    Halloran, R.

    1994-11-01

    The foreign minister of Japan, Yohei Kono, stood in the UN General Assembly in September and sought to reassure delegates that Japan would not again employ military power in the international area. {open_quotes}Japan does not, nor will it, resort to the use of force prohibited by its constitution,{close_quotes} Kono said, {open_quotes}Japan will remain resolutely a nation of peace.{close_quotes}

  10. Spatiotemporal model for crustal deformation around the focal area of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake, northeastern Japan, estimated by GPS and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzono, M.; McCaffrey, R.; Ohta, Y.; Miura, S.; Iinuma, T.; Tachibana, K.; Sato, T.

    2009-12-01

    Applying the program tDEFNODE [McCaffrey, GRL09] to model elastic lithospheric block rotations and strains, and locking or coseismic slip on block-bounding faults, we model GPS and InSAR data of crustal deformation before and after the 2008 M7.2 Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake (IMEQ). The epicenter of the IMEQ is located in a high strain rate zone along the Ou Backbone Range (OBR) in northeastern Japan, where volcanic front runs subparallel to the Japan Trench. Along eastern and western margin of the OBR, major inland active faults have been growing. In order to clarify detailed strain field around these active faults, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) installed 7 new continuous GPS sites with ~5 km spacing across the Dedana Fault (DF), which is a part of the eastern marginal active faults, in October 2007. Because the DF is located at only ~20 km northeast from the hypocenter of the IMEQ, the detailed coseismic and postseismic crustal deformation was obtained at these GPS sites [Ohta et al., EPS08; Iinuma et al., GRL09]. Takada et al. [EPS09] also estimated coseismic faults from InSAR with pixel-offset method. These studies, however, handled each data independently. We unify both GPS and InSAR data to model crustal deformation over inter-, co-, and post-seismic period using tDEFNODE. This code interprets geodetic timeseries data by assuming elastic block rotation, transient phenomena such as slow slip, and coseismic slip, on the block boundary faults. We use timeseries data obtained by continuous GPS networks conducted by JNES, Tohoku University, Geographical Survey Institute (GSI), National Astronomical Observatory (NAO), and IGS from 2006 to June 2009, together with a temporal network for postseismic deformation installed by Japanese University Consortium for GPS Research (JUNCO). InSAR data is obtained by analyzing images of ALOS/PALSAR mission. We presumed three blocks in the study area divided by two boundary faults. We expressed the time

  11. Factors Affecting Initial Intimate Partner Violence-Specific Health Care Seeking in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Bybee, Deborah; Yoshihama, Mieko

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the factors affecting a women's initial intimate partner violence (IPV)-specific health care seeking event which refers to the first health care seeking as a result of IPV in a lifetime. Data were collected using the Life History Calendar method in the Tokyo metropolitan area from 101 women who had experienced IPV. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess the time to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. IPV-related injury was the most significant factor associated with increased likelihood of seeking IPV-specific health care seeking for the first time. In the presence of a strong effect of formal help seeking, physical and sexual IPV were no longer significantly related to initial IPV-specific health care seeking. The results suggest some victims of IPV may not seek health care unless they get injured. The timing of receiving health care would be important to ensure the health and safety of victims.

  12. Weight Gain in Survivors Living in Temporary Housing in the Tsunami-Stricken Area during the Recovery Phase following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yokoyama, Yukari; Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Seichiro; Yamamoto, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survivors who lost their homes in the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami were forced to live in difficult conditions in temporary housing several months after the disaster. Body weights of survivors living in temporary housing for a long period might increase due to changes in their life style and psychosocial state during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences between body weight changes of people living in temporary housing and those not living in temporary housing in a tsunami-stricken area during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. Materials and methods Health check-ups were performed about 7 months after the disaster (in 2011) and about 18 months after the disaster (in 2012) for people living in a tsunami-stricken area (n = 6,601, mean age = 62.3 y). We compared the changes in body weight in people living in temporary housing (TH group, n = 2,002) and those not living in temporary housing (NTH group, n = 4,599) using a multiple linear regression model. Results While there was no significant difference between body weights in the TH and NTH groups in the 2011 survey, there was a significant difference between the mean changes in body weight in both sexes. We found that the changes in body weight were significantly greater in the TH group than in the NTH group in both sexes. The partial regression coefficients of mean change in body weight were +0.52 kg (P-value < 0.001) in males in the TH group and +0.56 kg (P-value < 0.001) in females in the TH group (reference: NTH group). Conclusion Analysis after adjustment for life style, psychosocial factors and cardiovascular risk factors found that people living in temporary housing in the tsunami- stricken area had a significant increase in body weight. PMID:27907015

  13. Weight Gain in Survivors Living in Temporary Housing in the Tsunami-Stricken Area during the Recovery Phase following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shuko; Yonekura, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yokoyama, Yukari; Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Seichiro; Yamamoto, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Survivors who lost their homes in the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami were forced to live in difficult conditions in temporary housing several months after the disaster. Body weights of survivors living in temporary housing for a long period might increase due to changes in their life style and psychosocial state during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences between body weight changes of people living in temporary housing and those not living in temporary housing in a tsunami-stricken area during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. Health check-ups were performed about 7 months after the disaster (in 2011) and about 18 months after the disaster (in 2012) for people living in a tsunami-stricken area (n = 6,601, mean age = 62.3 y). We compared the changes in body weight in people living in temporary housing (TH group, n = 2,002) and those not living in temporary housing (NTH group, n = 4,599) using a multiple linear regression model. While there was no significant difference between body weights in the TH and NTH groups in the 2011 survey, there was a significant difference between the mean changes in body weight in both sexes. We found that the changes in body weight were significantly greater in the TH group than in the NTH group in both sexes. The partial regression coefficients of mean change in body weight were +0.52 kg (P-value < 0.001) in males in the TH group and +0.56 kg (P-value < 0.001) in females in the TH group (reference: NTH group). Analysis after adjustment for life style, psychosocial factors and cardiovascular risk factors found that people living in temporary housing in the tsunami- stricken area had a significant increase in body weight.

  14. Seasonal and spatial variation of bacterial community structure in river-mouth areas of Gokasho bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakami, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated seasonal and spatial dynamics of the bacterial community in Gokasho bay with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. The community structure was related to physico-chemical water conditions in the area examined. The bacterial community clustered into three groups: bacteria collected during January-May; those collected from water at the surface in July and September; and those collected from water at the bottom in July and September and from both depths in November. Canonical correspondence analyses indicated that the seasonal variability in bacterial community was associated with water temperature succession. On the other hand, concentrations of particulate organic matter and nitrite plus nitrate were related to the vertical change in community structure in summer and autumn as well as HNF abundance, suggesting that both top-down and bottom-up control affected the community. The influence of salinity was insignificant though bacterial production was related to salinity. No relationship was observed between the variation in community structure and that in hydrolytic enzyme activity. The results indicate that changes in bacterial activity are not coupled with variation in community structure.

  15. Deep Structure of the Fold-and-Thrust Belt in the Tenpoku Area, Northern Hokkaido Island, Japan, Revealed by Reprocessing of Seismic Reflection Data From the 1990 MITI Geophysical Explorations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokura, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Kano, N.

    2005-12-01

    The Tenpoku area, the northern part of Hokkaido island, Japan, is believed to have hydrocarbon potential in the thick Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI, present Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) and some private companies have conducted many geological and geophysical explorations and test drillings in this area. These surveys have revealed that some anticlines (e.g. Horonobe and Toyotomi anticlines) and faults (e.g. Ohmagari and Horonobe faults) exist in the mountainous area and that a large sedimentary basin extends from the west of the mountainous area to the Japan Sea. The area shows a fold-and-thrust belt structure of west vergence. There is an active Sarobetsu flexural zone in the eastern end of the sedimentary basin. The flexural zone is believed to have become active since the middle Pliocene. In this way, overall geological structure down to around 5km in depth is well known, while there is few information about the deeper part. Japan National Oil Corporation (present Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC)) conducted seismic reflection surveys in this area in 1990 on consignment from MITI. Part of the seismic reflection data was acquired by using dynamite and has long two-way traveltime of 18sec. As the seismic data may provide us deeper information on this fold-and-thrust belt, we tried to reprocess the data with permission by JOGMEC. As a result, we found that two low-angle east-dipping thrusts extend to around 10km in depth, which are related to the Ohmagari fault and Sarobetsu flexural zone. Beneath these thrusts, some other east-dipping thrusts also exist which may be related to micro-earthquake activity of this area.

  16. Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion contamination for a river passing through an agricultural and urban area in Higashi Hiroshima City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-06-15

    A study was conducted on the pesticides Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion in Kurose River water, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan for a period of one year to assess the contribution of agriculture and urban activities on pesticide pollution of the river. Samples were analysed by a reverse phase HPLC system. The maximum pesticide concentrations were; 4620 ng/L, 50 ng/L and 370 ng/L for Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion, respectively. While Diuron and Fenitrothion were detected at all sites, Irgarol 1051 was only present at Izumi, a high density urban and industrial area which also registered the highest concentrations of the pesticides. The pattern showed by Diuron and Fenitrothion was linked to farming activities. Also, Diuron and Fenitrothion concentration correlated with pesticide utilization data for Hiroshima Prefecture. Irgarol 1051 showed a different pattern to that of Diuron and Fenitrothion and its source was attributed to paint. It was noted that 78% and 42% of water samples at Izumi sampling site exceeded the European Union (EU) guidelines for Diuron and Fenitrothion, respectively.

  17. Serum boron concentration from inhabitants of an urban area in Japan. Reference value and interval for the health screening of boron exposure.

    PubMed

    Usuda, K; Kono, K; Yoshida, Y

    1997-02-01

    Boron (B) levels were determined in the serum of 980 healthy inhabitants living in an urban area of Japan by means of inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICPES). The results showed a log-normal distribution of serum B for both sexes, although there are age-related differences. In male subjects, serum B increases rapidly up to 49 yr of age, reaching a plateau between ages 50 and 69 yr old, followed by a gradual increase up to 70 yr or older. Female subjects exhibit a gradual increase up to the age of 70 yr old. The reference value for male and female subjects was 79.8 micrograms/L and 67.9 micrograms/L, and the reference interval was 33.3-191.2 micrograms/L and 29.5-154.9 micrograms/L, respectively. The obtained reference value and interval of the nonexposed group may be useful for health screening for B exposure, either for people living in regions with high levels of B in the environment, or for workers who are exposed to this element.

  18. External effective radiation dose to workers in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant during the third year after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakumi, Akira; Miyagawa, Ryu; Tamari, Yuki; Nawa, Kanabu; Sakura, Osamu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-03-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, Iitate Village has continued to be classified as a deliberate evacuation area, in which residents are estimated to receive an annual additional effective radiation dose of >20 mSv. Some companies still operate in Iitate Village, with a special permit from the Cabinet Office Team in Charge of Assisting the Lives of Disaster Victims. In this study, we measured the annual effective radiation dose to workers in Iitate Village from 15 January to 13 December 2013. The workers stayed in Iitate for 10 h and left the village for the remaining 14 h each working day. They worked for 5 days each week in Iitate Village, but stayed outside of the village for the remaining 2 days each week. We found that the effective radiation dose of 70% of the workers was <2 mSv, including natural radiation; the maximum dose was 3.6 mSv. We estimated the potential annual additional effective radiation dose if people returned full-time to Iitate. Our analysis supports the plan for people to return to their home village at the end of 2017.

  19. Distribution of total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium in pod of killer whales (Orcinus Orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan: comparison of mature females with calves.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi; Kakumoto, Chiharu; Kobayashi, Mari

    2006-11-01

    Total mercury (T-Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales including five mature females and three calves stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed. In the mature female, contamination level of T-Hg in the liver sample (62.2+/-21.9 microg/wet g) was markedly higher than that in kidney sample and muscle sample. The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver sample was approximately 1, and those in the kidney and muscle samples were markedly lower than 1. These results suggest that the formation of HgSe compound increases the hepatic accumulation of mercury (Hg). In contrast, contamination level of T-Hg in the calf organs was much lower than that in the mature female organs. These results suggest that the transfer of Hg from the mother to the fetus via placenta and/or to calf via milk is trace.

  20. External effective radiation dose to workers in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant during the third year after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Sakumi, Akira; Miyagawa, Ryu; Tamari, Yuki; Nawa, Kanabu; Sakura, Osamu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, Iitate Village has continued to be classified as a deliberate evacuation area, in which residents are estimated to receive an annual additional effective radiation dose of >20 mSv. Some companies still operate in Iitate Village, with a special permit from the Cabinet Office Team in Charge of Assisting the Lives of Disaster Victims. In this study, we measured the annual effective radiation dose to workers in Iitate Village from 15 January to 13 December 2013. The workers stayed in Iitate for 10 h and left the village for the remaining 14 h each working day. They worked for 5 days each week in Iitate Village, but stayed outside of the village for the remaining 2 days each week. We found that the effective radiation dose of 70% of the workers was <2 mSv, including natural radiation; the maximum dose was 3.6 mSv. We estimated the potential annual additional effective radiation dose if people returned full-time to Iitate. Our analysis supports the plan for people to return to their home village at the end of 2017. PMID:26661855

  1. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  2. Vertical Seismic Profiling at riser drilling site in the rupture area of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake, Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, R.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D. M.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    A series of scientific drilling expeditions is in operation in the Nankai Trough to reveal the faulting mechanism of the magathrust earthquakes, through clarifying composition, fine structure, mechanical behavior, and environmental variables of the seismogenic faults. In the studied area, extensive seismic surveys for site characterization have been made to image detailed geometry of the fault complex in the accretionary prism as well as Vp distribution around the faults. Although these previous surveys provided invaluable information for understanding seismotectonic processes in this subduction zone, more complete knowledge is needed to be acquired to predict dynamic behavior of the faults, such as geometrical irregularities in short wavelength, Vs and seismic attenuation which are sensitive to fluid distribution in and around fault zones. It is expected that estimation of these parameters would be improved considerably by a seismic exploration using a vertical array of seismographs installed in a deep borehole (VSP: vertical seismic profiling). In July 2009, we made a VSP at one of the drilling sites located just above the rupture area of the 1994 Tonankai Earthquake (M 8.1), during the IODP Exp.319. The well site of our VSP was made by the riser drilling of D/V Chikyu. The seismic array, lowered from Chikyu into the hole, was composed of a three-component accelerometer and vertical separation of the array elements was 15.12 m. The VSP was composed of offset VSP and zero-offset VSP. In the offset VSP, a tuned airgun array towed by R/V Kairei was shot along one straight line (walk-away VSP) and another circular line (walk-around VSP) and seismic signals were recorded by an array consisting of 16 elements installed from 907 to 1,135 m in depth from seafloor. The object of the walk-away VSP is to obtain fine image of the faults using reflection arrivals with less attenuation. It is also expected to obtain spatial variation of Vs from arrival time tomography of

  3. Characteristics of the occurrence of shallow landslides depend on the process of whole-mountain denudation in granitic areas of western Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noike, K.; Matsuzawa, M.; Kinoshita, A.; Takahara, T.; Mizuno, H.; Nishioka, T.; Araki, Y.; Shimada, T.

    2015-12-01

    effects of the degree of mountain denudation on soil layer structure and shallow landslide properties in granite areas in Japan, Japanese Geomorphological Union, 36-1, 23-48, 2015.(in Japanese)

  4. Modeling of marine litter drift and beaching in the Japan Sea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Kawano, Shiro; Igawa, Shuzo

    2010-03-01

    Characteristics of drift and beaching of floating marine litter in the Japan Sea are examined numerically using the reanalysis data of the Japan Sea Forecasting System of Kyushu University. The residence time of model marine litter deployed uniformly over the surface of the Japan Sea strongly depends on the buoyancy ratio. However, almost all litter beaches or flows out through straits within 3years. Experiments with inputs of litter imposed at large cities and the Tsushima Straits as well as river basins of the Japan Sea exhibit a good agreement with beach surveys with regard to country ratios of beached litter along the Japanese coast in cases of lighters. In a case of lighter, almost all lighters originating from Japan beach along the Japanese coast, while almost all lighters originating from a country surrounding the Japan Sea except Japan beach along the coast of that country and the Japanese coast. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kyushu-TCP: Improving Fairness of High-Speed Transport Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimizu, Suguru; Koga, Hiroyuki; Kouyama, Katsushi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Kumazoe, Kazumi; Tsuru, Masato

    With the emergence of bandwidth-greedy application services, high-speed transport protocols are expected to effectively and aggressively use large amounts of bandwidth in current broadband and multimedia networks. However, when high-speed transport protocols compete with other standard TCP flows, they can occupy most of the available bandwidth leading to disruption of service. To deploy high-speed transport protocols on the Internet, such unfair situations must be improved. In this paper, therefore, we propose a method to improve fairness, called Kyushu-TCP (KTCP), which introduces a non-aggressive period in the congestion avoidance phase to give other standard TCP flows more chances of increasing their transmission rates. This method improves fairness in terms of the throughput by estimating the stably available bandwidth-delay product and adjusting its transmission rate based on this estimation. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method through simulations.

  6. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    apprehensions of Europe and America that China would become closely related with Japan alone and that Japan might monopolize the Chinese market . As a...out of the 300 billion yen, 100 billion yen is supplier’s credit from concerted action by the Ex-Im Bank and the Open Market Bank, 130 billion yen is...to launch production in the U.S. in the belief that Japanese automakers will have to continue some form of export restraints for the American market

  7. Separation of the Kuroshio water and its penetration onto the continental shelf west of Kyushu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, Heung-Jae; Cho, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hak; Niiler, Peter; Hu, Jian-Hwa

    1998-02-01

    The separation of Kuroshio water west of Kyushu and its penetration onto the continental shelf of the East China Sea were investigated by analyzing trajectories of satellite-tracked surface drifters deployed during 1989-1996. Conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) data collected in the eastern East China Sea in December 1993 and late April/early May 1995 were also analyzed. Composite trajectories of 172 drogued drifters provided direct evidence of the separation of the northeastward flowing Kuroshio into two parts at the western mouth of the deep trough southwest of Kyushu. The Kuroshio main stream turns to the east toward the Tokara Strait, and a northward flowing branch current penetrates onto the shelf across the continental slope west of the trough. Analysis of the CTD data and drifter trajectories, concurrently observed, shows that the branch current was part of the inshore Kuroshio, just upstream before its separation. During the periods of CTD observations, the separated, inshore Kuroshio water intruded northward in a tongue shape along the shelf break of the trough and penetrated onto the shelf after crossing obliquely the western continental slope of the trough. The water that penetrated onto the shelf continued to flow northward toward the Korea Strait. The main path of this water was easily traced by its high salinity, which is characteristic of the inshore Kuroshio water. Application of an inverse method to the observed CTD data also supports the separation and penetration of the Kuroshio and calculates the volume transport of the northward branch to be about 4.0×106 m3/s for the two different surveys. The tongue-shaped intrusion of the inshore Kuroshio water onto the outer shelf may take place in close association with the eastward turning of the Kuroshio main stream and it might be caused by the vorticity adjustment created by the eastward turning of the Kuroshio.

  8. Characteristics of ammonia gas and fine particulate ammonium from two distinct urban areas: Osaka, Japan, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, Duong Huu; Thanh, Le Tu; Hien, To Thi; Noro, Kazushi; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-03-01

    Continuous and simultaneous measurements of ammonia gas (NH3) and fine particulate ammonium (PM2.5NH4(+)) were performed in two distinct urban areas: Osaka, Japan, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Measurements were performed using a new online instrument. Two measurement periods were conducted during February 11-March 12, 2015 (cold period), and July 1-September 14, 2015 (warm period), at the urban site in Osaka, while 17 days of measurements, from May 21 to June 8, 2015, were conducted at the urban site in HCMC. The average NH3 concentration at the HCMC site was much higher than that at the Osaka site. The differences in the NH3 levels between the two cities are a result of their different emission sources. Traffic emission is a significant contributor to the NH3 levels within the urban area in Osaka. Conversely, the contribution of traffic emission to the NH3 levels in the HCMC urban area is negligible. With a population of around 8.5 million people living in the urban area of HCMC, the high NH3 level is due to human sources and poor waste management systems, especially because of the high temperature (30 °C) and dense population of the city (density up to 42,000 inhabitants per km(2)). In contrast to the NH3 levels, the highest PM2.5NH4(+) level occurred during the cold period at the Osaka site, and the average level at this site was higher than that at the HCMC site. The availability of atmospheric acids, low temperature, and high humidity facilitates the formation of ammonium. Our results indicate that NH3 plays a key role in secondary inorganic aerosol formation; therefore, it contributes to a significant amount of PM2.5 at the Osaka site. In contrast, the high levels of PM2.5 observed at the HCMC site are likely from road traffic emission, mainly motorcycles, rather than secondary inorganic aerosol formation.

  9. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  10. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  11. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  12. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  13. Modeling of Crustal Deformation in SW Japan using GPS Data -Simultaneous Estimation of Interplate Coupling and Block Rotation-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, K.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Wallace, L.; Nakao, S.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    We applied a new method devised by McCaffery [2002] to estimate both slip deficit and block rotation simultaneously to SW Japan where the tectonics is complex and the crustal deformation is not uniform. We estimated the distribution of the slip deficit on the subducting Philippine Sea Plate and other assumed block boundaries in SW Japan together with block rotation parameters simultaneously. As a result we can clarify the along-arc variation of the slip deficit on subduction zone, and relative block motion derived from block rotation. We assume some geological faults, grabens and linearly-aligned hypocenters as block boundaries. We also considered the Okinawa micro-plate (ON) proposed by Bird [2003]. The data used in the analysis is the GPS site velocities obtained from GEONET. The results show the larger slip deficit of the subducting slab in the northern Hyuga-nada and off Shikoku, while smaller in the southern Hyuga-nada. The coupling across the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) and Beppu-Shimabara Graben is very shallow (~10km depth), however, Amurian plate (AM) and Mid-Kyushu block (MK) couple strongly across the other part inland Kyushu on the contrary. The Euler poles of AM-ON and AM-MK are located at long. 133°E, and lat. 29°N with an angular velocity of 3.1°/Ma and at long. 126°E, and lat. 40°N with 0.5°/Ma, respectively. The AM-ON angular velocity obtained in this study is about 1/5 of that estimated by Kodama [1995] and shows fair agreement. It is necessary to perform more detailed analyses by adding more data from the Nansei Islands and Shikoku area. The long-term relative motions between adjacent blocks are also estimated. The result shows grabens inland Kyushu are opening, the blocks across the MTL are moving right-laterally, and the MK and the southernmost Kyushu blocks are also moving right-laterally in long term.

  14. Detection of earthquake swarms in subduction zones around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, T.; Ide, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake swarms in subduction zones are likely to be related with slow slip events (SSEs) and locking on the plate interface. In the Boso-Oki region in central Japan, swarms repeatedly occur accompanying SSEs (e.g, Hirose et al., 2012). It is pointed out that ruptures of great earthquakes tend to terminate in regions with recurring swarm activity because of reduced and heterogeneous locking there (Holtkamp and Brudzinsiki, 2014). Given these observations, we may be able to infer aseismic slips and spatial variations in locking on the plate interface by investigating swarm activity in subduction zones. It is known that swarms do not follow Omori's law and have much higher seismicity rates than predicted by the ETAS model (e.g., Llenos et al., 2009). Here, we devised a statistical method to detect unexpectedly frequent earthquakes using the space-time ETAS model (Zhuang et al., 2002). We applied this method to subduction zones around Japan (Tohoku, Ibaraki-Boso-oki, Hokkaido, Izu, Tonankai, Nankai, and Kyushu) and detected swarms in JMA catalog (M ≥ 3) from 2001 to 2010. We detected recurring swarm activities as expected in the Boso-Oki region and also in the Ibaraki-Oki region (see Figures), where intensive foreshock activity was found by Maeda and Hirose (2011). In Tohoku, regions with intensive foreshock activity also appear to roughly correspond to regions with recurring swarm activity. Given that both foreshocks and swarms are triggered by SSEs (e.g., Bouchon et al., 2013), these results suggest that the regions with foreshock activity and swarm activity such as the Ibaraki-Oki region are characterized by extensive occurrences of SSEs just like the Boso-Oki region. Besides Ibaraki-Oki and Boso-Oki, we detected many swarms in Tohoku, Hokkaido, Izu, and Kyushu. On the other hand, swarms are rare in the rupture areas of the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes. These variations in swarm activity may reflect variations in SSE activity among subduction zones

  15. The 3-D distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in southwestern Japan and the western part of the Nankai subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    waves at high frequencies (>1 Hz) show collapsed and broadened wave trains caused by multiple scattering in the lithosphere. This study analyzed the envelopes of direct S waves in southwestern Japan and on the western side of the Nankai trough and estimated the spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities by assuming a von Kármán type power spectral density function (PSDF). Strongly inhomogeneous media have been mostly imaged at shallow depth (0-20 km depth) in the onshore area of southwestern Japan, and their PSDF is represented as P(m) ≈ 0.05m-3.7 km3, with m being the spatial wave number, whereas most of the other area shows weak inhomogeneities of which PSDF is P(m) ≈ 0.005m-4.5 km3. At Hyuga-nada in Nankai trough, there is an anomaly of inhomogeneity of which PSDF is estimated as P(m) ≈ 0.01m-4.5 km3. This PSDF has the similar spectral gradient with the weakly inhomogeneous media, but has larger power spectral density than other offshore areas. This anomalous region is broadly located in the subducted Kyushu Palau ridge, which was identified by using velocity structures and bathymetry, and it shows no clear correlation with the fault zones of large earthquakes in past decades. These spatial correlations suggest that possible origins of inhomogeneities at Hyuga-nada are ancient volcanic activity in the oceanic plate or deformed structures due to the subduction of the Kyushu Palau ridge.

  16. Millennial coastal uplift rates and the seismic cycle in the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechernich, Silke; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cetin, Esra; Toda, Shinji; Okumura, Koji

    2013-04-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake and the record of major historical seismic events including the AD 869 Jogan earthquake on the Japan trench illustrate the active tectonic capability on the subduction zone. The recent coastal deformation is revealed by the 2011 coseismic subsidence (up to 1.2 m) and postseismic uplift (up to 20 cm within 1.5 years) obtained from leveling and GPS measurements. 100 years before the earthquake, subsidence at a rate of ~1 mm/a was documented. The correlation between these short-term geodetic results and long-term geologic data is decisive for understanding of the tectonic process and the related earthquake cycle on the subducting Pacific slab. Thus, we study the millennial vertical deformation along the coastline of northern Honshu Island (38.2°N to 41.2°N) in the frame of the PALET project (ANR-JST Flash program). The exposure of emerged marine terraces, wave-cut platforms and notches allow us to determine the deformation rate during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Coastline terraces of marine isotope stages MIS5e (124 ka) to MIS19 (~780 ka) indicate uplift rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/a and 0.1-0.2 mm/a in the northern and southern study area, respectively. Numerous younger notches and wave-cut platforms are identified at several height levels between 1 and 10 m above sea level. Two radiocarbon samples of wood remnants yielded an age of ~2.8 cal ka BP for a 3.2 m high terrace in the north (40.7°N), and a shell fragments on a notch in resistant conglomerates (39.7°N) revealed an age of 47.1 ± 2.2 cal ka BP. After correction for sea level change, both data points yield uplift rates of ~1 mm/a, which denotes clear acceleration in uplift during the Late Quaternary. An elastic dislocation model of the co-, post- and interseismic slip distribution shows how the successive coastal subsidence during M9-class earthquakes is concealed by the long-term uplift due to deep creeping deformation. The distribution of lower uplift rates in the

  17. Factors associated with loneliness among mothers with 4-month-old or 18-month-old infants in an urban area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miki; Tadaka, Etsuko; Arimoto, Azusa

    2014-01-01

    The factors associated with loneliness in adults and elderly people have been revealed in previous studies. However, much less is known about these factors for mothers with infants. This article investigates the individual and environmental factors associated with loneliness among mothers with 4-month-old or 18-month-old infants in an urban area in Japan. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire survey. Multiple linear regression analyses were undertaken with loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3) as the dependent variable; and demographics, individual factors (internal working model, child-care burden), and environmental factors (social network) as independent variables. The study population consisted of 125 mothers with 4-month-old infants and 123 mothers with 18-month-old infants who visited a Ward B health center in city A in 2012. Mothers of the 4-month-old infants with higher loneliness scores were significantly more likely to have an ambivalent type (β=.354, P<.001) or avoidant type (β=.331, P<.001) of internal working model, greater child-care burden (β=.180, P<.05), and a smaller social network of family (β=-.144, P<.05) and child-rearing friends (β=-.255, P<.01). Mothers of 18-month-old infants with higher loneliness scores were significantly more likely to have lower subjective health (β=-.191, P<.01), an ambivalent type (β=.297, P<.001) or avoidant type (β=.190, P<.05) of internal working model, greater child-care burden (β=.283, P<.001), and a smaller social network of child-rearing friends (β=-.213, P<.01). To prevent loneliness in mothers, it is important to build mothers' human relations through childcare, to enhance their ability to take advantage of childcare while receiving support, and to support community organizations for mothers with infants.

  18. Cough and asthma diagnosis: physicians’ diagnosis and treatment of patients complaining of acute, subacute and chronic cough in rural areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Akira; Hanaki, Keichi; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Masanari; Hasagawa, Yasuyuki; Okazaki, Ryota; Yamamura, Miki; Fukutani, Kouji; Sugimoto, Yuji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kodani, Masahiro; Ikeda, Toshikazu; Konishi, Tatsuya; Kawasaki, Yuji; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Yajima, Hiroki; Sejima, Hitoshi; Isobe, Takeshi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cough is one of the most common reasons for visiting a clinic. The causes of cough differ according to the duration of cough. Infectious disease is commonly observed in acute cough while noninfectious disease is commonly observed in chronic cough. On the other hand, cough is frequently observed in patients with asthma/cough variant asthma (CVA). Objective: In this study, we investigated the causes of cough in a rural region in Japan and the clinical examination and treatment for the patients diagnosed as asthma/CVA. Methods: We analyzed 124 patients who complained of cough. Results: The most common reason for acute cough was respiratory tract infection while asthma/CVA is the most common reason for subacute and chronic cough. The diagnostic procedure for asthma/CVA depends on clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients with acute cough. While in asthmatic patients with subacute and chronic cough, diagnosis of asthma depends on clinical examinations including chest radiogram, immunoglobulin E, white blood cells counts, sputum examination or spirometry as well as symptoms. For the treatment of asthma, the use of long-acting β2-stimulant was dominant in asthmatic patients with acute cough while the use of leukotriene receptor and inhaled corticosteroid were dominant in asthmatic patients with subacute or chronic cough. Conclusions: Diagnosis and treatment for asthma differs according to the duration of cough. Simple guidelines for asthma/CVA according to the duration of cough might be necessary for diagnosis and treatment of asthma/CVA for general physicians especially in rural areas. PMID:20463827

  19. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  20. Field Observations of Meteotsunami in Kami-koshiki Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, T.; Yamashiro, T.; Nishimura, N.

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Meteotsunami; atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band, are known in Japan by the local term "abiki", literally meaning "net-dragging waves" in Japanese. Large abiki occur in bays and harbors along the west coast of Kyushu almost every year during winter and early spring. On 24-25 February, 2009, Urauchi Bay, located on west coast of Kami-Koshiki Island on the southeast coast of Kyushu, was subjected to a destructive meteotsunami. In this event, a maximum sea surface height of 3.1 m was observed at the inner part of the bay. At least 18 boats capsized and eight houses were flooded. This event surpassed the previous record height for an abiki in Japan: 278 cm in Nagasaki Bay, also located west coast of Kyushu, in 1979. Generally, such an elongated inlet with narrow mouth as Urauchi bay provides calm water conditions even when offshore weather is stormy. Therefore, the area is regarded as a suitable place for the farming of large fish with a high market value. Possible damage to the extensive fish cage system as a result of meteotsunami events is of concern, especially because aquaculture is the main industry in the isolated islands. Forecasting of meteotsunami is a serious request from the local people. AIMS The objectives of the present study are to detect a meteotsunami event in Urauchi Bay and to clarify the meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions related to its occurrence. This work attempts to observe the whole process of a meteotsunami event: generation offshore, resonance while it propagates, and finally amplification in the bay. Observations were conducted over a period of 82 days; 12 January to 4 April, 2010, aiming to record large secondary oscillations. A comprehensive measuring system for sea level, current and barometric pressure fluctuations was deployed covering not only inside and near Urauchi Bay but also further offshore in the vicinity of Mejima in the East China Sea. MAIN RESULTS 1) Large

  1. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.

  2. Revisiting the high temperature metamorphic field gradient of the Ryoke Belt (SW Japan): New constraints from the Iwakuni-Yanai area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Etienne; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Hirajima, Takao; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Ikeda, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    We revisit the origin of the metamorphic field gradient exposed in the Ryoke Belt (SW Japan) - the type locality for low pressure/high temperature (LP/HT) conditions - based on combined structural, petrological and geochronological data from the Iwakuni-Yanai area (W Ryoke). In this area metasedimentary rocks pass from schist in the north to partly migmatitic paragneiss in the south, and are surrounded by numerous granitoid bodies. Three deformation phases are emphasized; an accretionary-stage or burial deformation of weak intensity (D0), a vertical shortening (D1) which generated a subhorizontal, locally extensional foliation in the southern gneiss zone, and E-W upright folding (D2) which reworked both the northern schist and southern gneiss zones. Crystallization-deformation relationships indicate that, in the schist zone, most andalusite, cordierite and mica porphyroblasts formed after D0 and before D1. Syn-D1 mineral assemblages define E-W trending metamorphic zones with increasing grade from north to south, and rare syn-D2 parageneses reveal a similar pattern. Continuous magmatic activity lasted from ca. 105 to 94 Ma. The oldest granitoids (Shimokuhara, Soo, Namera), found in the western part of the belt, were emplaced below schistose rocks at 105-100 Ma. Subsequently, syn- to post-D1 granodiorite (Gamano) intruded concordantly with the foliation of southern, high-grade gneissic rocks from 100 to 94 Ma. A large, syn-D1 pluton (Kibe) intruded the center of the belt at 98 Ma, whereas a younger granite (Iwakuni) and its satellite dykes were emplaced to the northeast at 96-94 Ma. Constraints on the timing of D1 (103-99 Ma) and the likely diachronous D2 phase (100-94 Ma) suggest a deformation continuum during magma intrusion and metamorphism. We conclude that the exposed metamorphic field gradient is an apparent, but fortuitous, alignment of P-T data resulting from spatially and temporally distinct thermal events. Peak temperature conditions in the relatively

  3. Tuberculosis infection among homeless persons and caregivers in a high-tuberculosis-prevalence area in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. The Airin district of Osaka City has a large population of homeless persons and caregivers and is estimated to be the largest TB-endemic area in the intermediate-prevalence country, Japan. However, there have been few studies of homeless persons and caregivers. The objective of this study is to detect active TB and to assess the prevalence and risk factors for latent TB infection among homeless persons and caregivers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study for screening TB infection (active and latent TB infections) using questionnaire, chest X-ray (CXR), newly available assay for latent TB infection (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube; QFT) and clinical evaluation by physicians at the Osaka Socio-Medical Center Hospital between July 2007 and March 2008. Homeless persons and caregivers, aged 30-74 years old, who had not received CXR examination within one year, were recruited. As for risk factors of latent TB infection, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for QFT-positivity were calculated using logistic regression model. Results Complete responses were available from 436 individuals (263 homeless persons and 173 caregivers). Four active TB cases (1.5%) among homeless persons were found, while there were no cases among caregivers. Out of these four, three had positive QFT results. One hundred and thirty-three (50.6%) homeless persons and 42 (24.3%) caregivers had positive QFT results. In multivariate analysis, QFT-positivity was independently associated with a long time spent in the Airin district: ≥10 years versus <10 years for homeless (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.39-4.61) and for caregivers (OR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.05-5.13), and the past exposure to TB patients for caregivers (OR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.30-7.91) but not for homeless persons (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 0.71-3.21). Conclusions Although no active TB was found for caregivers, one-quarter of them had latent TB infection. In addition to

  4. Tuberculosis infection among homeless persons and caregivers in a high-tuberculosis-prevalence area in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Takatorige, Toshio; Hirayama, Yukio; Nakata, Nobuaki; Harihara, Shigeyoshi; Shimouchi, Akira; Fujita, Koshiro; Yoshida, Hiroko; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Takashima, Tetsuya; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. The Airin district of Osaka City has a large population of homeless persons and caregivers and is estimated to be the largest TB-endemic area in the intermediate-prevalence country, Japan. However, there have been few studies of homeless persons and caregivers. The objective of this study is to detect active TB and to assess the prevalence and risk factors for latent TB infection among homeless persons and caregivers. We conducted a cross-sectional study for screening TB infection (active and latent TB infections) using questionnaire, chest X-ray (CXR), newly available assay for latent TB infection (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube; QFT) and clinical evaluation by physicians at the Osaka Socio-Medical Center Hospital between July 2007 and March 2008. Homeless persons and caregivers, aged 30-74 years old, who had not received CXR examination within one year, were recruited. As for risk factors of latent TB infection, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for QFT-positivity were calculated using logistic regression model. Complete responses were available from 436 individuals (263 homeless persons and 173 caregivers). Four active TB cases (1.5%) among homeless persons were found, while there were no cases among caregivers. Out of these four, three had positive QFT results. One hundred and thirty-three (50.6%) homeless persons and 42 (24.3%) caregivers had positive QFT results. In multivariate analysis, QFT-positivity was independently associated with a long time spent in the Airin district: ≥10 years versus <10 years for homeless (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.39-4.61) and for caregivers (OR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.05-5.13), and the past exposure to TB patients for caregivers (OR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.30-7.91) but not for homeless persons (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 0.71-3.21). Although no active TB was found for caregivers, one-quarter of them had latent TB infection. In addition to homeless persons, caregivers need

  5. Iodine intake by adult residents of a farming area in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and the accuracy of estimated iodine intake calculated using the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Chiba, Keiko; Watanabe, Takao; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Seki, Takako

    2016-11-01

    Iodine intake by adults in farming districts in Northeastern Japan was evaluated by two methods: (1) government-approved food composition tables based calculation and (2) instrumental measurement. The correlation between these two values and a regression model for the calibration of calculated values was presented. Iodine intake was calculated, using the values in the Japan Standard Tables of Food Composition (FCT), through the analysis of duplicate samples of complete 24-h food consumption for 90 adult subjects. In cases where the value for iodine content was not available in the FCT, it was assumed to be zero for that food item (calculated values). Iodine content was also measured by ICP-MS (measured values). Calculated and measured values rendered geometric means (GM) of 336 and 279 μg/day, respectively. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference between calculated and measured values. The correlation coefficient was 0.646 (p < 0.05). With this high correlation coefficient, a simple regression line can be applied to estimate measured value from calculated value. A survey of the literature suggests that the values in this study were similar to values that have been reported to date for Japan, and higher than those for other countries in Asia. Iodine intake of Japanese adults was 336 μg/day (GM, calculated) and 279 μg/day (GM, measured). Both values correlated so well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.646, that a regression model (Y = 130.8 + 1.9479X, where X and Y are measured and calculated values, respectively) could be used to calibrate calculated values.

  6. Asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring in East Asia (Toward interdisciplinary education on the climate systems and the "seasonal feeling" such as around the Japan Islands area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Sato, Sari; Akagi, Rikako; Haga, Yuichi; Miyake, Shoji

    2014-05-01

    There are many steps of seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" around the Japan Islands. For example, the "wintertime pressure pattern" begins to prevail already from November due to the seasonal development of the Siberian Air mass and the Siberian High, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher than in midwinter. On the other hand, since the southward retreat of the warm moist air mass in the western Pacific area delays rather greatly to the advances of those northern systems. Thus it would be interesting to re-examine the whole seasonal cycle around the Japan Islands at the view point of how the phase differences among seasonal marches of the Asian monsoon subsystems affect the variety of the seasonal cycle there, together with their effects on the "seasonal feeling". As such, the present study will examine the asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring through midwinter around the Japan Islands as an interesting example, and will also report the joint activity with music, and so on, toward the development of an interdisciplinary study plan on such topics for the students in junior high school, high school and the faculty of education of the university. The wintertime weather pattern, i.e., precipitation in the Japan Sea side and clear day in the Pacific side of the Japan Islands, prevails from early November to early March, reflected by the seasonal cycle of the Siberian Air Mass and the Siberian High. However, the air temperature shows the minimum from late January to early February around the Japan Islands. In other words, although the dominant weather patterns around November and in early March are nearly the same as each other, air temperature is still lower in early March (early spring). In spite of that, the solar radiation is rather stronger in early

  7. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-19

    Bonds 57 Australian Tianium Contract 53 Grants to Mongolia 50 Light-Controlling Glass 58 Host Computer Models 53 New Cancer-Heating Device 53 - b...6 million yen vli) Development studies: increase from 252 to 281 studies: measures to pre- vent desertification (150 million yen); measures for...Tokyo KYODO in English 0357 GMT 25 Jan 85 OW] GRANTS TO MONGOLIA —Tokyo, 25 Jan (KYODO)—Japan will extend grants totaling 16 million yen (63,000 dollars

  8. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-14

    bring exchange rates to a more reasonable level. Prime Minister Nakasone told the Diet Wednesday his government intends to make its utmost efforts to... make the Japanese market more accessible to imports. He suggested stepped up capital exports as one way to whittle down Japan’s huge trade surplus...confirming the agreement. In Bangladesh, shallow wells and rivers are the main supply sources of drinkable water . The Bangladesh Government has

  9. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    KYODO, 23 Apr 85)........ 58 PRC Ensuring Ability To Pay for Imports (KYODO, 7 May 85) 59 OECD Official Interviewed on Trade Surplus...Security Council session, claiming the council has failed to denounce Iraq for using chemical weapons against Iran. De Cuellar and Japanese officials...infarction, a loss of blood supply to the brain , and would require two or three months to recover. Tanaka is regarded as Japan’s most powerful

  10. Japan Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    prayer at the Yasukuni Shinto Shrine in downtown Tokyo, which is dedicated to Japan’s many war dead. The visit, on the occasion of the shrine’s...Visits Yasukini Shrine for War Dead (KYODO, 22 Apr 85) 4 Atlantic Institute Holds Heated Security Debate (KYODO, 19 Apr 85) 5 Disaster...between him and Kakuei Tanaka. 12930 CSO: 4105/198 JPRS-JAR-85-014 24 May 1985 POLITICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL NAKASONE VISITS YASUKINI SHRINE FOR

  11. Japan Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-18

    the government should reduce expenditures for military hardware if it is difficult to hold defense spending within 1 percent of the GNP. Noting... expenditure , as well as a greater contribution to Pacific defense . According to Prior, a conservative parliamentarian and former secretary of state for...Northern Ireland, with Britain’s experience in Asia, it should join with Japan to help the United States with its Asian defense . Japanese Chairman

  12. Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter : seismic and GPS observations near the active summit area of Sakurajima and Kirishima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Iguchi, M.; Honda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are very important from various viewpoints such as understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit. It is, however, highly difficult to install observation sensors near active vents because of the risk of sudden eruptions. We have been developing a safe volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). As an UAV, we adopted an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. These modules are light weight, compact size, and solar powered. For data transmission, a commercial cellular-phone network is used. Our first application of the sensor installation by the UAV is Sakurajima, one of the most active volcanos in Japan. In November 2009, 2010, and 2011, we installed up to four seismic sensors within 2km from the active summit crater. In the 2010 and 2011 operations, we succeeded in pulling up and collecting the sensor modules by using the UAV. In the 2011 experiment, we installed two GPS receivers near the summit area of Sakurajima volcano. We also applied the UAV installation to another active volcano, Shinmoedake in Kirishima volcano group. Since the sub-plinian eruption in February 2011, entering the area 3km from the summit of Shinmoe-dake has been prohibited. In May and November 2011, we installed seismic sensors and GPS receivers in the off-limit zone. Although the ground coupling of the seismic modules is not perfect due to the way they are installed, the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signals recorded by these modules is fairly good. Despite the low antenna height of 50 cm from the ground surface, the location errors in horizontal and vertical GPS components are 1cm and 3cm, respectively. For seismic signals associated with eruptions at Sakurajima from November 2010 to

  13. Efficacy and safety of indacaterol 150 and 300 µg in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from six Asian areas including Japan: a 12-week, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Masaharu; Lee, Sang Haak; Hang, Liang-Wen; Ichinose, Masakazu; Hosoe, Motoi; Okino, Naoko; Prasad, Niyati; Kramer, Benjamin; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of indacaterol, a novel inhaled once daily ultra long-acting β(2) -agonist was evaluated in COPD patients in six Asian countries/areas. This study was primarily designed to obtain the regulatory approval of indacaterol in Japan. Moderate-to-severe COPD patients were randomized to indacaterol 150 µg, indacaterol 300 µg or placebo once daily. Efficacy variables: trough FEV(1) (average of 23 h 10 min and 23 h 45 min post-dose values), health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire) and transition dyspnoea index at week 12. Safety/tolerability was evaluated. A total of 347 patients were randomized (96.5% male, mean (SD) age 66.7 (8.38) years, post-bronchodilator FEV(1) % predicted: 53.7 (12.50)); 88.8% completed. The least squares means (LSM) trough FEV(1) at week 12 for indacaterol 150 µg, indacaterol 300 µg and placebo were 1.34 L, 1.37 L and 1.17 L, respectively, with differences versus placebo exceeding the prespecified minimal clinically important difference of 0.12 L (0.17 L and 0.20 L for indacaterol 150 µg and 300 µg, respectively, both P < 0.001). The week 12 LSM transition dyspnoea index score was statistically superior for both indacaterol doses versus placebo (differences of 1.30 and 1.26, P < 0.001; both exceeding the minimal clinically important difference of 1). At week 12, both indacaterol doses provided statistically significant (P ≤ 0.005) and clinically meaningful (≥4 units) improvements in LSM St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score versus placebo (differences: -4.8 and -5.7 units). Adverse events for indacaterol (49.1%, both doses) were lower than placebo (59.0%) and were mostly mild/moderate in severity; no deaths were reported. Indacaterol provided clinically significant bronchodilation and improvements in dyspnoea and health status in Asian COPD patients. © 2011 Novartis Pharma AG (Basel, Switzerland).

  14. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chaerun, S Khodijah; Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed the inside building and the outside building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  15. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center.

  16. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain

    2017-07-01

    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  17. Seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus and Brassica rapa detected on a riverbank in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aono, Mitsuko; Wakiyama, Seiji; Nagatsu, Masato; Kaneko, Yukio; Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant varieties of Brassica napus, or oilseed rape, from which canola oil is obtained, are imported into Japan, where this plant is not commercially cultivated to a large extent. This study aimed to examine the distribution of herbicide-resistant B. napus and transgene flow to escaped populations of its closely related species, B. rapa and B. juncea. Samples were collected from 12 areas near major ports through which oilseed rape imports into Japan passed--Kashima, Chiba, Yokohama, Shimizu, Nagoya, Yokkaichi, Sakai-Senboku, Kobe, Uno, Mizushima, Kita-Kyushu, and Hakata--and the presence of glyphosate- and/or glufosinate-resistant B. napus was confirmed in all areas except Yokohama, Sakai-Senboku, Uno, and Kita-Kyushu. The Yokkaichi area was the focus because several herbicide-resistant B. napus plants were detected not only on the roadside where oilseed rape spilled during transportation but also on the riverbanks, where escaped populations of B. rapa and B. juncea grew. Samples of B. napus that were tolerant to both herbicides were detected in four continuous years (2005-2008) in this area, suggesting the possibility of intraspecific transgene flow within the escaped B. napus populations. Moreover, in 2008, seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-tolerant B. napus (2n = 38) and B. rapa (2n = 20) were detected; some seedlings derived from the seeds collected at a Yokkaichi site showed glyphosate resistance and had 2n = 29 chromosomes. This observation strongly suggests the occurrence of hybridization between herbicide-resistant B. napus and escaped B. rapa and the probability of introgression of a herbicide-resistance gene into related escaped species.

  18. Water reuse in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogoshi, M; Suzuki, Y; Asano, T

    2001-01-01

    Even though Japan has mean annual precipitation of 1,714 mm and hundreds of dams and reservoirs constructed, frequent and severe droughts have occurred in wide regions of the country. Because of rapid economic growth and concentrations of population in urban areas, water demands in large cities have stressed reliability of water supply systems and necessitated the development of new water resources with considerable economic and environmental costs. To alleviate these situations, wastewater reclamation and reuse have been implemented widely in major cities. This paper summarizes the current status of water reuse in Japan and discusses dominant uses of reclaimed water, emphasizing non-potable urban applications such as toilet flushing, industrial reuse, and environmental water.

  19. Tsunami simulation for the great 1707 Hoei, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumura, T.; Imai, K.; Maeda, T.

    2010-12-01

    Based on recent findings of geodetic and geological investigations, we present a revised source-rupture model for the great 1707 Hoei earthquake that occurred in the Nankai Trough off southwestern Japan. Of the series Nankai Trough M8 earthquakes that recur approximately every 100 to 150 years, the Hoei earthquake is considered to be the largest shock. Its fault rupture extended from Suruga Bay to the westernmost end of Shikoku, more than 700 km. However, many recent findings, such as those based on geodetic data from Japan’s GEONET nationwide GPS network and geological investigations of a tsunami-inundated lake in Kyushu have claimed that the source rupture area of the Hoei earthquake should extend further, to the Hyuga-nada, more than 70 km beyond the currently accepted location. Numerical simulation of the tsunami using a new source-rupture model for the Hoei earthquake explains the distribution of the very high tsunami observed along the Pacific coast from western Shikoku to the Hyuga-nada more consistently than though those derived from former source models. A simulation of the tsunami run-up into Ryujin Lake using the onshore tsunami estimated by the new model demonstrates a tsunami inundation process; a larger tsunami with large amount of water flux transporting sea sand to the lake through a narrow channel connecting the sea and the lake and the sand could leave behind when the tsunami retreated back to the sea. The results of tsunami inundation simulation confirmed that Ryujin Lake could not be inundated by a tsunami unless the fault rupture of the Nankai Trough earthquake extend beyond the westernmost end of Shikoku. This is the most of the case of the Nankai Trough earthquakes such as during the 1854 Ansei Nankai and 1946 Showa Nankai earthquakes and their tsunamis were shorter and the ground surface did not subside in the area around the Ryujin Lake. The irregular sedimentation properties of tsunami-induced deposits in Ryujin Lake with unusually large

  20. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent meta-analysis showed no relationships between light to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), or small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Here, we present the first epidemiological study on this topic in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1565 Japanese mothers with singleton pregnancies and the babies born from these pregnancies. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was classified into three categories (none, < 1 g/day, and ≥ 1 g/day). Results The mean birth weight of the babies was 3006.3 g. 7.7% were classified as LBW, 4.0% as PTB, and 7.8% as SGA. The range of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 0.0 to 11.7 g per day: 1356 (86.7%) mothers were abstainers and the 95th percentile value was 0.84 g per day. Compared with abstinence, alcohol consumption of 1.0 g or more per day during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB with a significant positive linear trend: the adjusted OR for PTB associated with maternal alcohol consumption of 1.0 g or more per day was 2.58 (95% CI: 1.004 - 5.80, P for trend = 0.03). No significant relationships were observed between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of LBW or SGA, and there was no material association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth weight. Conclusions This is the first study in Japan to show that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy of 1.0 g or more per day was significantly positively associated with the risk of PTB, but not LBW or SGA. PMID:24555868

  1. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-02-20

    A recent meta-analysis showed no relationships between light to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), or small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Here, we present the first epidemiological study on this topic in Japan. Study subjects were 1565 Japanese mothers with singleton pregnancies and the babies born from these pregnancies. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was classified into three categories (none, < 1 g/day, and ≥ 1 g/day). The mean birth weight of the babies was 3006.3 g. 7.7% were classified as LBW, 4.0% as PTB, and 7.8% as SGA. The range of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 0.0 to 11.7 g per day: 1356 (86.7%) mothers were abstainers and the 95th percentile value was 0.84 g per day. Compared with abstinence, alcohol consumption of 1.0 g or more per day during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB with a significant positive linear trend: the adjusted OR for PTB associated with maternal alcohol consumption of 1.0 g or more per day was 2.58 (95% CI: 1.004 - 5.80, P for trend = 0.03). No significant relationships were observed between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of LBW or SGA, and there was no material association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth weight. This is the first study in Japan to show that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy of 1.0 g or more per day was significantly positively associated with the risk of PTB, but not LBW or SGA.

  2. Relation of child birth and breast-feeding burden with cadmium and tubular dysfunction marker levels in urine of adult women in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko

    2013-08-01

    Cd absorption may be enhanced in association with iron (Fe) deficiency. Women have increased risks of Fe loss at the time of child birth as well as breast-feeding of children. Possible effects of these two factors were investigated in the present study. Data were drawn from previous publications from this group on Cd and tubular dysfunction markers (i.e., α1-microglobulin, β2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) in urine of adult women in non-polluted areas in Japan. Information including age, smoking, number of children, and types of child feeding was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at the time of urine sampling. In practice, 17,468 cases were available, from which 12,869 cases were employed in the present analyses after exclusion of smokers, former or current patients of anemia or hypertension, and those with incomplete answers. Lactation burden was scored after coding of breast, mixed, and bottle feeding with 2, 1, and 0 for each child followed by summation for all children born to a mother. In order to exclude possible effect of aging, women were stratified by 5 years of age to randomly select equal numbers of cases and controls, followed by summation for all ages for comparison. The arithmetic mean age and the geometric mean Cd (as observed) were 49.7 years and 1.13 μg/l urine. The number of children was 0-7, and lactation burden score ranged from 0-12. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with age and either number of children or lactation burden scores as independent variables and Cd as a dependent variable. The results showed that age was an influential variable. Comparison after matching for age showed that having 1, 2, or 3 children or lactation burden score up to 2 were associated with a significant increase in Cd. Lactation burden score up to 2 was also associated with increased Cd in urine and such trend persisted up to the highest score of 5-12. The results of trend tests were generally in agreement with these

  3. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  4. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  5. US Japan Alliance Confronts the Anti Access and Area Denial Challenge: Toward Building Capacity, Cooperation and Information Sharing in the Western Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    U.S. allies in the Pacific to bolster their side. Aaron Friedberg , a proponent of ASB, writes that frontline states in the Asia-Pacific such as Japan...Taiwan and the Philippines may not be reassured by a distant blockade. Friedberg argues that, “if China conquered Taiwan, or seized disputed islands... Friedberg , Beyond Air-Sea Battle: The Debate over US Military Strategy in Asia. April 2014 (New York, NY: Routledge, 2014), pp.15-21. iii Mark A. Stokes

  6. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  7. Temporal variations of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio in marine brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria longissima, collected in coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takami; Fujimoto, Ken; Kasai, Hiromi; Yamada, Haruya; Nishiuchi, Kou

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides, 90Sr and 137Cs, were measured in two marine algal species, wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) and edible kelp (Laminaria longissima), collected in four coastal areas of Japan during 1998-2008. Although 90Sr and 137Cs could be detected at all sampling sites, the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were at low levels and those in some samples were below the detection limit. These low concentrations and the small variation of both concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio indicate that the source of 90Sr and 137Cs detected in this study originated from the global fallout deposition following atmospheric nuclear-bomb tests in the past. There were no significant differences in both concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in wakame seaweed among three sampling sites. Although wakame seaweed is extensively distributed in southern and central Japan, it does not occur in northern areas and so edible kelp was monitored. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in edible kelp were significantly different from those in wakame seaweed in some sampling sites. These differences could be due to the difference in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the surrounding seawater or the difference in species. The combined data with data from the previous report and the preexisting database showed that wakame seaweed incorporated 137Cs through a different pathway from that of 90Sr. The combined data also suggested that wakame seaweed responded differently to the source of 137Cs.

  8. Reproducibility of spatial and temporal distribution of aseismic slips in Hyuga-nada of southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane

    2014-09-01

    The Hyuga-nada region of southwest Japan, which is located off the east coast of Kyushu Island, may have the potential to generate great interplate earthquakes along the Nankai trough in the future. In this area, thrust earthquakes of M = 6.7-7.2 have occurred with recurrence intervals of approximately 30 years. In association with these earthquakes, possible local heterogeneities of plate coupling may be expected within 100 km from the coast in the Hyuga-nada region. We investigate numerical experiments to determine the spatial and temporal resolution of slip on the plate interface beneath the Hyuga-nada offshore region. For this purpose, we calculated synthetic displacement data from the result of numerical simulation conducted for the afterslip following an Mw 6.8 earthquake, for existing global positioning system stations on land and planned ocean floor seismic network stations. The spatial and temporal distribution of fault slip is then estimated using a Kalman filter-based inversion. The slip distribution estimated by using ocean floor stations demonstrates that the heterogeneity of plate coupling is resolved approximately within 50 km from the coastal area. This heterogeneity corresponds to the coseismic area of an Mw 6.8 earthquake with a radius of 10 km. Our study quantitatively evaluates the spatial resolution of aseismic slip in the Hyuga-nada region. Analysis based on continuous ocean floor data is useful for resolving the spatial variations of heterogeneities in plate couplings.

  9. Stochastic ground-motion simulations for the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Chen, Guangqi; Wu, Yanqiang; Jiang, Han

    2016-11-01

    On April 15, 2016, Kumamoto, Japan, was struck by a large earthquake sequence, leading to severe casualty and building damage. The stochastic finite-fault method based on a dynamic corner frequency has been applied to perform ground-motion simulations for the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. There are 53 high-quality KiK-net stations available in the Kyushu region, and we employed records from all stations to determine region-specific source, path and site parameters. The calculated S-wave attenuation for the Kyushu region beneath the volcanic and non-volcanic areas can be expressed in the form of Q s = (85.5 ± 1.5) f 0.68±0.01 and Q s = (120 ± 5) f 0.64±0.05, respectively. The effects of lateral S-wave velocity and attenuation heterogeneities on the ground-motion simulations were investigated. Site amplifications were estimated using the corrected cross-spectral ratios technique. Zero-distance kappa filter was obtained to be the value of 0.0514 ± 0.0055 s, using the spectral decay method. The stress drop of the mainshock based on the USGS slip model was estimated optimally to have a value of 64 bars. Our finite-fault model with optimized parameters was validated through the good agreement of observations and simulations at all stations. The attenuation characteristics of the simulated peak ground accelerations were also successfully captured by the ground-motion prediction equations. Finally, the ground motions at two destructively damaged regions, Kumamoto Castle and Minami Aso village, were simulated. We conclude that the stochastic finite-fault method with well-determined parameters can reproduce the ground-motion characteristics of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in both the time and frequency domains. This work is necessary for seismic hazard assessment and mitigation.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Polarization properties of aerosol particles over western Japan: classification, seasonal variation, and implications for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Osada, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Wang, Zhe; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Zifa

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based observation of the polarization properties of aerosol particles using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) was made from 27 October 2013, to 31 December 2015, at a suburban site in the Kyushu area of Japan. We found that the depolarization ratio (DR, the fraction of s-polarized signal in the total backward light scattering signal) of aerosol particles showed prominent seasonal variability, with peaks in spring (0.21-0.23) and winter (0.19-0.23), and a minimum value (0.09-0.14) in summer. The aerosol compositions in both fine mode (aerodynamic diameter of particle, Dp < 2.5 µm) and coarse mode (2.5 µm < Dp < 10 µm), and the size-dependent polarization characteristics were analyzed for long-range transport dust particles, sea salt, and anthropogenic pollution-dominant aerosols. The DR value increased with increasing particle size, and DR = 0.1 was a reliable threshold value to identify the sphericity of supermicron (Dp > 1 µm) particles. Occurrence of substandard air quality days in Kyushu was closely related with mixed type (coexistence of anthropogenic pollutants and dust particles in the atmosphere), especially in winter and spring, indicating that dust events in the Asian continent played a key role in the cross-boundary transport of continental pollution. Backward trajectory analysis demonstrated that air masses originating from the western Pacific contained large amounts of spherical particles due to the influence of sea salt, especially in summer; however, for air masses from the Asian continent, the dependence of number fraction of spherical particles on air relative humidity was insignificant, indicating the predominance of less-hygroscopic substances (e.g., mineral dust), although the mass concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants were elevated.

  11. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  12. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  13. Ionospheric anomalies possibly associated with M > 6.0 earthquakes in the Japan area during 1998-2010 and the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Hattori, K.; Kon, S.; Hirooka, S.; Liu, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we examine pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies in time series and perform a statistical test by using total electron content (TEC) derived from global ionosphere maps (GIM) around the Japan area for the first time. The normalized GIM-TEC (GIM-TEC*), which is computed based on 15 days backward running mean of GIM-TEC, have been investigated for minimizing possible confounding effects of consecutive earthquakes and identify the abnormal signals. Meanwhile, to reduce the effect of strong geomagnetic activities such as geomagnetic storms, the criterion for removing the GIM-TEC data have been adapted; that is when Dst index exceeds -60 nT. Temporal variations of GIM-TEC* for large and destructive earthquakes in Japan have been studied; which are the 2004 mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake (M6.8), its aftershock (M6.1), the 2007 offshore mid-Niigata Earthquake (M6.8), and the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake (M7.2). Although there are some positive and negative TEC anomalies before and after the four earthquakes, there is a tendency that positive TEC anomalies appear 1-5 days before all the above earthquakes even during the quiet geomagnetic condition. Superposed epoch analyses have been performed for the statistical analysis of TEC anomalies associated with M>6.0 earthquakes during the 12-year period of May 1998-May 2010. The statistical result indicates the significance of the positive TEC anomalies 1-5 days before earthquakes within 1000 km from the epicenter around Japan. The results of the 20110311 Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) (GPS-TEC, GIM-TEC, and TEC Tomography) will be presented.

  14. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-03-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  15. Speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, Japan, from the viewpoint of the contradictory phylogenetic trees generated from chloroplast and nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Sudarmono; Okada, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    To understand the speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to a special environment (serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, central Honshu, Japan), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were employed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of S. isensis with related species in Japan. Allozymic polymorphisms were also used to analyze genetic relationships among Salvia species. A contradiction in the phylogenetic positions of species studied was detected when phylogenetic trees were constructed using cpDNA or nrDNA, i.e., S. isensis was a sister to the other species in phylogenetic trees generated from cpDNA, while S. japonica was a sister to the other species in the case of nrDNA. Genetic relationships between Salvia species estimated from allozymic polymorphisms did not contradict to the topology for nrDNA. Using the present results, the speciation process of S. isensis is discussed with regard to introgressive gene exchanges between related species.

  16. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  17. Tohoku Tsunami Debris, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-14

    The Mar. 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami devastated a large extent of the northeastern Japan coast, and virtually erased many villages and cities from the map. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Sendai on Mar. 14, 2011.

  18. Permanent disability social insurance programs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Rajnes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Japan's permanent disability social insurance programs. Because there is limited information available about these programs in the literature outside Japan, this analysis helps to further international disability research. Primary public pension systems and their corresponding programs for permanently disabled workers and their families are described, including trends in the number of beneficiaries and benefit expenditures. Importantly, the article analyzes the determination and appeals processes in Japan for claiming permanent social insurance disability pensions. The study also references the Social Security Disability Insurance program operating in the United States and offers comparisons with the system in Japan, which provides insights about operational procedures to researchers and policymakers in both countries. Permanent disability programs in Japan and the United States share similar characteristics, including aspects of their benefit determination and appeals procedures. However, these country program experiences diverge markedly in several areas, making the comparison worthwhile from a policy perspective.

  19. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region of Japan, including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, at a depth of about 10 km, and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 km. This series earthquake killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster. Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters. The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu-Shimabara graben, with epicenters moving from west to east over time. In this study, we analyze the dynamic rupture process of this earthquake. Our analyzing procedure is as follows, 1) Obtain the spatial-temporal stress distribution on the fault surface from the kinematic source model inverted from strong motion data (Zhang & Zhen, the abstract of this meeting, No. EGU2017ASC20162770). Estimate the strength excess (yielding stress) and the frictional stress level for each subfault; 2) Estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc for each subfault assuming a simple slip-weakening law and according to the method of Mikumo et al. (2003); 3) Reconstruct the dynamic source rupture process using those dynamic source parameters with the slip-weakening friction law; and 4) Simultaneously, simulate the near source ground motions based on the

  20. Time series analysis for the estimation of tidal fluctuation effect on different aquifers in a small coastal area of Saijo plain, Ehime prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Tsujimura, Maki; Nakano, Takanori; Minoru, Tokumasu

    2013-04-01

    Considering the current poor understanding of the seawater-freshwater (SW-FW) interaction pattern at dynamic hydro-geological boundary of coastal aquifers, this work strives to study tidal effect on groundwater quality using chemical tracers combined with environmental isotopes. In situ measurement data of electrical conductivity and groundwater level along with laboratory measurement data of hydro-chemical species were compared with tidal level data measured by Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Saijo City, Japan for time series analysis. Result shows that diurnal tides have significant effect on groundwater level as well as its chemical characteristics; however, the magnitude of effect is different in case of different aquifers. Various scatter diagrams were plotted in order to infer mechanisms responsible for water quality change with tidal phase, and results show that cations exchange, selective movement and local SW-FW mixing were likely to be the main processes responsible for water quality changes. It was also found that geological structure of the aquifers is the most important factor affecting the intensity of tidal effect on water quality.

  1. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  2. Changes in the frequency and clinical features of suicide attempts in the midwestern area of Kanagawa after the great East Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Mikami, Katsunaka; Kimoto, Keitaro; Kimoto, Kousuke; Takahashi, Yuki; Sato, Reiko; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical features of suicide attempts and the Great East Japan earthquake in Kanagawa. We enrolled 592 patients who attempted suicide and were hospitalized for inpatient treatment. Clinical features were compared between before the earthquake (A) and after the earthquake (B) groups. The number of suicide attempts increased from 286 to 306. The rate of increase in suicide attempts in men was the highest in the age group of 40-59 years. The frequency of joblessness, family psychiatric histories, precipitating event, and alcohol intake at suicide attempt was significantly higher in the B group than in the A group. The number of patients in serious condition in the B group was significantly higher than that in the A group. Other clinical features related to suicide in people who were indirectly affected by the earthquake disaster should be investigated to develop targeted prevention strategies. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors.

  4. Space Radar Image of Sakura-Jima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The active volcano Sakura-Jima on the island of Kyushu, Japan is shown in the center of this radar image. The volcano occupies the peninsula in the center of Kagoshima Bay, which was formed by the explosion and collapse of an ancient predecessor of today's volcano. The volcano has been in near continuous eruption since 1955. Its explosions of ash and gas are closely monitored by local authorities due to the proximity of the city of Kagoshima across a narrow strait from the volcano's center, shown below and to the left of the central peninsula in this image. City residents have grown accustomed to clearing ash deposits from sidewalks, cars and buildings following Sakura-jima's eruptions. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international 'Decade Volcano' program. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 31.6 degrees North latitude and 130.6 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The area shown measures 37.5 kilometers by 46.5 kilometers (23.3 miles by 28.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received.

  5. Space Radar Image of Sakura-Jima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The active volcano Sakura-Jima on the island of Kyushu, Japan is shown in the center of this radar image. The volcano occupies the peninsula in the center of Kagoshima Bay, which was formed by the explosion and collapse of an ancient predecessor of today's volcano. The volcano has been in near continuous eruption since 1955. Its explosions of ash and gas are closely monitored by local authorities due to the proximity of the city of Kagoshima across a narrow strait from the volcano's center, shown below and to the left of the central peninsula in this image. City residents have grown accustomed to clearing ash deposits from sidewalks, cars and buildings following Sakura-jima's eruptions. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international 'Decade Volcano' program. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 31.6 degrees North latitude and 130.6 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The area shown measures 37.5 kilometers by 46.5 kilometers (23.3 miles by 28.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received.

  6. Space Radar Image of Sakura-Jima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The active volcano Sakura-Jima on the island of Kyushu, Japan is shown in the center of this radar image. The volcano occupies the peninsula in the center of Kagoshima Bay, which was formed by the explosion and collapse of an ancient predecessor of today's volcano. The volcano has been in near continuous eruption since 1955. Its explosions of ash and gas are closely monitored by local authorities due to the proximity of the city of Kagoshima across a narrow strait from the volcano's center, shown below and to the left of the central peninsula in this image. City residents have grown accustomed to clearing ash deposits from sidewalks, cars and buildings following Sakura-jima's eruptions. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international "Decade Volcano" program. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 31.6 degrees North latitude and 130.6 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The area shown measures 37.5 kilometers by 46.5 kilometers (23.3 miles by 28.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01777

  7. Occurrence of human respiratory syncytial virus in summer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shobugawa, Y; Takeuchi, T; Hibino, A; Hassan, M R; Yagami, R; Kondo, H; Odagiri, T; Saito, R

    2017-01-01

    In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007-2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.

  8. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  9. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  10. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Nonaka, Nariaki; Mizuno, Ayako; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2007-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA variation in the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and the control region was examined in the red fox Vulpes vulpes from Japan, with special focus on the population divergence between Hokkaido and northern Honshu. Resultant haplotypes from Hokkaido were subdivided into two distinct groups (I and II), with an average genetic distance of 0.027 for cyt b. Divergence time is roughly estimated to be 1-2 million years ago, given that the conventional divergence rate of the mammalian cyt b gene is 2% per million years. Notably, Group II was only found in Hokkaido, whereas Group I comprised haplotypes from Honshu, Kyushu (Japan), eastern Russia, and Europe, as indicated by a comparison of our own data to the literature. On the other hand, judging from constructed trees, Group I haplotypes from Hokkaido appeared to differ from those from other parts of Japan, i.e., Honshu and Kyushu. This implies that Blakiston's Line, which demarcates the boundary between Hokkaido and Honshu, has been an effective barrier and has allowed the structuring of genetic variation in maternal lineages. Thus, these results suggest that the Hokkaido population, which is sometimes referred to as the distinct subspecies V. v. schrencki, has its own genetic background with multiple migration events and differs from the parapatric subspecies V. v. japonica found in Honshu and Kyushu.

  11. A new species of Laricobius (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) from Japan with phylogeny and a key for native and introduced congeners in North America

    Treesearch

    Montgomery Michael E.; S. Shiyake; Nathan P. Havill

    2011-01-01

    Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake sp. nov., collected from Adelges tsugae Annand on hemlock [Tsuga sieboldii Carr. and Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast.] in Japan, is described and illustrated. The new species was collected from several localities on Honshu, Shikokou, and Kyushu...

  12. Using present-day patterns of interseismic coupling to model the C.E. 1707 Hōei earthquake and simulate tsunami inundation of Lake Ryuuoo in the Bungo Channel, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranes, H. E.; Woodruff, J. D.; Loveless, J. P.; Cheng, W.; Weiss, R.; Kanamaru, K.

    2015-12-01

    The C.E. 1707 Hōei event is often considered the worst-case scenario for a Nankai Trough earthquake and tsunami impacting southwestern Japan, and recent estimates of the earthquake's magnitude have exceeded MW 9. However, when paired with tsunami simulations, previously published earthquake models for the event fail to match sedimentological and historical records of 1707 tsunami height in Shikoku and Kyushu. Specifically, models do not produce a sufficiently large tsunami in the northern Bungo Channel and Seto Inland Sea without also over-predicting tsunami heights along the open Pacific coastlines of Shikoku and Kyushu. Here, we apply a newly developed rupture model that uses present-day patterns of geodetically imaged interseismic coupling to inform patterns in coseismic slip. Along the southwestern extent of the plate interface (the Hyuga-nada area), there is a region of weak coupling up-dip along the trench axis and a region of strong coupling down-dip beneath Shikoku and Kyushu. Following this pattern, the new earthquake model produces less coseismic uplift offshore and greater subsidence in an inland region that includes the Bungo Channel. This combination of regional subsidence and a tsunami wave more focused to the Bungo Channel results in inundation patterns more consistent with historical and sedimentological observations in the Hyuga-nada area. We also run the tsunami simulation on a high-resolution grid around Lake Ryuuoo, a back-barrier lake in the northern Bungo Channel that contains a marine overwash deposit from the 1707 tsunami. We apply a simple sediment transport model to demonstrate that the coupling-based rupture scenario produces flow over Lake Ryuuoo's barrier capable of transporting the maximum grain size observed in the lake's 1707 deposit. These findings suggest that spatial trends in our present-day coupling model are more consistent with inundation patterns observed for large tsunamis generated by coseismic rupture along the Nankai

  13. The trend of imported mycoses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Katsuhiko; Sano, Ayako; Kikuchi, Ken; Makimura, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Suzuki, Kazuo; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi that are non-native in Japan are highly virulent and present a significant health hazard to persons in the environment into which they are introduced. Little is known, however, about the precise trend of infection by imported mycoses in Japan. To clarify this issue, all available cases were collected through a search of MEDLINE and Japana Centra Revuo Medicine and analyzed. Also included in this analysis were cases not reported in the literature for which the authors provided identification of the fungi, diagnosis, or treatment. The analysis revealed that, for three diseases, the number of imported mycoses cases in Japan is much higher than previously reported: 31 cases of coccidioidomycosis, 34 cases of histoplasmosis, and 17 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, one case of penicilliosis marneffei was found. The most rapid increase in the incidence of these mycoses occurred from 1991 to 1995. Analysis of the patients' profiles provided the following information: (1) coccidioidomycosis infection in Japan is increasing very rapidly, (2) Japan might be an endemic area of histoplasmosis infection, (3) histoplasmosis is a potentially fatal disease; and (4) reliable serodiagnostic methods have been used only infrequently. Because of the increase of international travel and immigration, the incidence of imported mycoses in Japan is expected to continue rising, and mycoses that have never been reported in Japan, such as blastomycosis, might also be encountered in the near future. To cope with this newly emerging health problem to residents of Japan, the Japanese medical system must train its members to identify and treat mycoses.

  14. Perfluorinated contaminants in sediments and aquatic organisms collected from shallow water and tidal flat areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan: environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Nasu, Tetsuya; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Sinclair, Ewan; Takemurai, Akira

    2006-08-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Despite studies reporting the occurrence of PFCs in aquatic organisms, the fate of PFCs in tidal flat and marine coastal ecosystems is not known. In this study, we determined concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFHS, and PFOSA in sediments; benthic organisms, including lugworm, mussel, crab, clam, oyster, and mudskipper fish from tidal flat; and shallow water species, such as filefish, bream, flounder, shark, finless porpoise, gull, and mallard collected from the Ariake Sea, Japan. PFOS and PFOA were detected in most of the samples analyzed, followed by PFNA, PFOSA, and PFHS. In shallow water species, PFOS was the dominant contaminant, and elevated concentrations were found in higher trophic level species, such as marine mammals and omnivorous birds. These results suggest biomagnification of PFOS through the coastal food chain. In contrast, PFOA was the most abundant compound in tidal flat organisms and sediments. PFOA concentrations in sediments, lugworms, and omnivorous mudskippers in tidal flat were approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than the levels of PFOS. This indicates differences in exposure pattern and bioavailability of PFOS and PFOA between shallow water and tidal flat organisms. The accumulation profiles of PFCs were compared with those of organochlorines (polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB), organotin (tributyltin,TBT), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flat and shallow water samples collected from the Ariake Sea. Concentrations of PFCs in sediments and in tidal flat organisms were significantly lower than that found for PCBs, TBT, and PAHs. Nevertheless, PFOS concentrations in shallow water species were comparable to and/or significantly greater than those of other classes of

  15. Intercomparison between a single particle soot photometer and evolved gas analysis in an industrial area in Japan: Implications for the consistency of soot aerosol mass concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Taketani, F.; Pan, X.; Irwin, M.; Symonds, J.

    2016-02-01

    Mass concentrations of soot (typically comprising black and elemental carbon; BC and EC, respectively) aerosols, were measured at Yokosuka city, an industrial region in Japan in the early summer of 2014. The results of laser-induced incandescence (LII) and evolved gas analysis (EGA) techniques were compared using a single particle soot photometer (SP2) and semi-continuous elemental/organic carbon analyzer (EC/OC analyzer), respectively. We revisited the procedure of SP2 calibration with a focus on investigating the relationship between LII intensity (SLII) and refractory BC (rBC) mass per particle (mPP) for some BC-proxies in the laboratory, as well as for ambient rBC particles in order to discuss the uncertainty of the SP2. It was found that the mPP-SLII for the fullerene soot and carbon black particles agreed well within 3% and 10%, respectively, with that for ambient rBC particles. This is the first time to suggest the use of carbon black as a reference material. We also found that the mPP-SLII for the aqueous deflocculated Acheson graphite particles with the correction factor given by Baumgardner et al. (2012) was still biased by around +20% to that for ambient rBC particles. EC quantified by the semi-continuous EC/OC analyzer using a thermal-protocol similar to that of Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE-like), systematically showed higher concentrations than rBC measured by the SP2. The uncertainties related to SP2 cannot fully account for this difference. This result was likely caused by the contribution of charred organic materials to EC, which can be affected significantly by thermal-protocols for the EGA. The consistency and differences between rBC and EC are discussed with regard to comparing their respective mass concentrations.

  16. Determining Ionospheric Irregularity Spectral Density Function from Japan GEONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, E. H.; Light, M. E.; Parker, P. A.; Carrano, C. S.; Haaser, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Japan's GEONET GPS network is the densest GPS monitoring network in the world, with 1200+ receivers over the area of Japan. Measuring and calibrating the integrated total electron content (TEC) from each station has been done in many cases to provide detailed maps of ionospheric disturbances over Japan. We use TEC measurements from Japan's GEONET array to determine an empirically derived description of the 2-dimensional scale sizes of spatial irregularities above Japan. The contributions from various scale sizes will be included in a statistical description for the irregularity spectral density (ISD) function. We will compare the statistics of the spatial irregularities between calm and moderately scintillated conditions.

  17. Crustal Fluid Distribution in the Source Area of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, NE Japan Inferred from Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is an important tool for detecting the distibution of magma and other crustal fluids. In this presentation, we show the results of seismic tomography, in an area that includes the Naruko volcano and the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, using data from a dense temporary seismic network, and discuss the crustal fluid distribution related to the volcanic and seismic activity. The seismic velocity structure is complex within the crust and we found distinct seismic low-velocity zones (LVZs). In the shallow crust, the LVZ is located beneath each volcano (Naruko, Onikobe, and Kurikoma) in the focal area of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake.In the middle to deep crust (10-20 km), a distinct LVZ beneath the volcanic front can be observed. This LVZ seems to be continuously distributed in the NNE-SSW direction, from the Yakeishi to the Naruko volcano. The lateral extent of the LVZ in the NNE-SSW direction is almost the same as the lateral extent of the aftershock area of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake. Some low-V areas in the upper crust have high Vp/Vs areas. The aseismic low-V and high-Vp/Vs areas just beneath the volcanoes could correspond to an area with molten magma. We also found some low-V and high Vp/Vs areas with seismicity in the upper crust. Possible reason for this low-V and relatively high-Vp/Vs area could be the presence of overpressurized fluid. For a misoriented compressional inversion fault, reduction of fault strength by overpressurized fluid along the fault is a possible cause for reactivation (Sibson 1990; Sibson 2009). The fault plane of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake is thought to be as compressional inversion fault (Sibson, 2009). Compressional inversion fault is the reverse fault along the pre-existing "normal" fault. The complex distribution of the aftershock alignment (i.e. fault) has been spatially correlated with the distribution of the LVZ. This suggests that the fluid path distribution could have

  18. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  19. A review of liquid rocket propulsion programs in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The primary focus is upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in space plane and related transatmospheric areas. Brief reference is also made to their solid rocket programs, as well as to their supersonic air breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway.

  20. Characterizing long-term radon concentration changes in a geothermal area for correlation with volcanic earthquakes and reservoir temperatures: A case study from Mt. Aso, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Katsuaki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Asaue, Hisafumi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize in detail the temporal changes in Rn (radon-222) concentration in soil gases near fumaroles and clarify its correlation with volcanic earthquakes and temperatures in two geothermal reservoirs. Mt. Aso crater in southwest Japan, which has two reservoirs on its western side estimated by magnetotelluric survey to be at about 2 km in depth, was selected for this study. For the long-term survey, the α scintillation counter method was used weekly for 12.5 years at the three hot springs within a 2-km range. Rn concentrations were calculated using the CRAS method, a calculation method that considers radioactive equilibrium or nonequilibrium state of the soil gas. Rn concentrations generally showed similar fluctuation patterns among the sites. CRAS was used as a new indicator for evaluating the age of the soil gas. This age corresponds to the elapsed time determined from the generation of Rn based on the measurement of the numbers of atoms of Rn and its daughter 218Po at the start of measurement. In comparing the Rn data with the history of earthquakes in the Aso caldera, volcanic seismicity was identified as a major controlling factor in the sudden increase and decrease in Rn concentration as a function of age. For more precise detections of change, Rn concentrations were measured continuously at one site by pumping soil gas from a borehole and using an ionization chamber over 2.5 years. Five chemical components (He, H2, N2, CH4, and CO2) were then measured by gas chromatography at 1-week intervals. Because Rn concentrations are affected strongly by atmospheric temperatures, the residual components were obtained by subtracting the trend of the components from the original data. Chemical component data were used to estimate the temperature and pressure in the reservoir at the site; temperatures ranged from 229 to 280 °C, (average 265 °C, average pressure 80 MPa). Residual Rn concentrations showed a clear correlation with

  1. Quasi-static Slips Around the Source Areas of the 2003 Tokachi-oki (M8.0) and 2005 Miyagi-oki (M7.2) Earthquakes, Japan Estimated From Small Repeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hirahara, S.; Igarashi, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Kasahara, M.

    2005-12-01

    We have estimated spatio-temporal distribution of interplate quasi-static slips around the source areas of the 2003 Tokachi-oki (M8.0) and 2005 Miyagi-oki (M7.2) earthquakes by using small repeating earthquakes. The small repeating earthquakes are thought to be caused by repeated rupture of small asperities surrounded by stable sliding areas on the fault. Here we estimated cumulative slips for small repeating earthquakes assuming that they were equal to the quasi-static slip histories in the surrounding areas on the plate boundaries (Igarashi et al., 2003; Uchida et al., 2003). The 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake occurred on September 26, 2003 off the southeast of Hokkaido, Japan. The present analyses show that the slips in the areas around and to the east of the asperity of the earthquake were slow before the earthquake but that it was significantly accelerated after the earthquake. The slip rate acceleration to the east of the asperity probably triggered a M7.1 event which occurred on November 29, 2004 at the eastern edge of the accelerated area (about 100km east from the hypocenter of the Tokachi-oki earthquake). It seems that the quasi-static slip released the slip deficit in the locked area between the asperities of the 2003 Tokachi-oki and 1973 Nemuro-oki (M7.4) earthquakes. The 2005 Miyagi-oki earthquake occurred on August 16, 2005 in the anticipated source area for the recurrent _eMiyagi-oki earthquake_f. However, it was estimated that the earthquake did not destroyed the whole area of the asperity which caused the previous Miyagi-oki earthquake in 1978 (The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, 2005). Our result shows the quasi-static slips for the period of 20 years before the earthquake was almost constant to the west of the source area of the 2005 earthquake. The slips after the earthquake were not significant for the period of 15 days which suggests the plate boundary around the asperity for the earthquake is still locking.

  2. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei; Nakada, Satoru; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-02-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  3. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  4. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  5. Winds over Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Before World War II, weather forecasters had little knowledge of upper-air wind patterns above 20000 feet. Data were seldom avai able at these heights, and the need was not great because commercial aircraft seldom flew at these altitudes. The war in the Pacific changed all that. Wind forecasts for 30000 feet plus became urgent to support the XXI Bomber Command in its bombing mission over Japan.The U.S. Army Air Force Pacific Ocean Area (AAFPOA) placed a Weather Central in the Marianas Islands in 1944 (Saipan in 1944 and Guam in 1945) to provide forecasting support for this mission. A forecasting procedure was put into operation that combined the elements known as "single-station forecasting" and an advanced procedure that used "altirmeter corrections" to analyze upper-airdata and make prognoses. Upper-air charts were drawn for constant pressure surfaces rather than constant height surfaces. The constant pressure surfaces were tied together by means of the atmospheric temperature field represented by specific temperature anomalies between pressure surfaces. Wind forecasts over the Marianas-Japan route made use of space cross sections that provided the data to forecast winds at each 5000-ft level to 35000 ft along the mission flight path. The new procedures allowed the forecaster to construct internally consistent meteorological charts in three dimensions in regions of sparse data.Army air force pilots and their crews from the Marianas were among the first to experience the extreme wind conditions now known as the "jet stream". Air force forecasters demonstrated that, with experience, such winds could reasonably be forecast under difficult operational conditions.

  6. Oceanic core complexes in the Philippine Sea: results from Japan's extended continental shelf mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Nishizawa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) issued its recommendations on Japan's extended continental shelf in April 2012, confirming Japan's rights over the vast areas within the Philippine Sea and Pacific Plates. Japan submitted information on the limits of its continental shelf beyond the EEZ to the CLCS on November 2008, which was the result of 25 years of nation's continental shelf survey project since 1983, involving all of Japan's agency relevant to geosciences. The huge geological and geophysical data obtained through the project give the scientists unprecedented opportunity to study the geology and tectonics of the Philippine Sea and Pacific Plates. In this contribution, we show such an example from the Philippine Sea Plate, relevant to the global mid-ocean ridge problem. Oceanic core complexes (OCC) are dome-shaped bathymetric highs identified in mid-ocean ridges, interpreted as portions of the lower crust and/or upper mantle denuded via low-angle detachment faulting. OCCs are characterized morphologically by axis-normal striations (corrugations, or mullion structure) on the dome, and exposures of mantle peridotite and/or lower crustal gabbro. A strikingly giant OCC (named 'Godzilla Megamullion') was discovered in the Parece Vela Basin by the continental shelf survey project in 2001. Godzilla Megamullion is morphologically the largest OCC in the world, consisting mainly of fertile mantle peridotite along its entire length of over 125 km. Following its discovery in 2001, several academic cruises investigated the structure in detail, providing numerous important findings relevant to mid-ocean ridge tectono-magmatic processes and Philippine Sea evolution, including the slow- to ultraslow-spreading environment for denudation of the detachment fault (< 2.5 cm/y) and associated decreasing degree of partial melting of the peridotites towards the termination of Godzilla Megamullion. In addition to Godzilla Megamullion, several

  7. Tsunami hazard mitigation in tourism in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas: a case study in the Ryukyu Islands, southwest of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2006-12-01

    Life and economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) are highly relying on the sea. The sea has both "gentle" side to give people healing and "dangerous" side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know all of the sea, including the both sides of the sea: especially the nature of tsunamis. And also we islanders should issue accurate information about the sea towards outsiders, especially tourists visiting the island. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. However, measures against the tsunami disaster by marine tourism industry are still inadequate in these areas. The goal of tsunami hazard mitigation for those engaged in tourism industry in tropical and subtropical coastal areas should be as follows. (1) Preparedness against tsunamis: "Be aware of the characteristics of tsunamis." "Prepare tsunamis when you feel an earthquake." "Prepare tsunamis when an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world." (2) Maintenance of an exact tsunami hazard map under quantitative analyses of the characteristics of tsunamis: "Flooding areas by tsunami attacks are dependent not only on altitude but also on amplification and inundation due to the seafloor topography near the coast and the onland topographic relief." "Tsunami damage happens repeatedly." (3) Maintenance of a tsunami disaster prevention manual and training after the manual: "Who should do what in case of tsunamis?" "How should the resort hotel employees lead the guests to the safe place?" Such a policy for disaster prevention is discussed in the class of the general education of "Ocean Sciences" in University of the Ryukyus (UR) and summer school for high school students. The students (most of them are from Okinawa Prefecture) consider, discuss and make reports about what to do in case of tsunamis as an islander

  8. Hydrogeologic-structure and groundwater-movement imaging in tideland using electrical sounding resistivity: a case study on the Ariake Sea coast, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misonou, Toshiharu; Asaue, Hisafumi; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Matsukuma, Yuta; Koike, Katsuaki; Shimada, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater flow exerts a crucial control on the boundary between the sea and freshwater and is thus a key factor for preserving groundwater resources and preventing seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Although it is highly probable that geological faults in coastal areas affect groundwater flow patterns, the effect has not been described yet in detail. This study is aimed at detecting and imaging groundwater flow and its temporal change around a fault in a coastal area through resistivity and chargeability distributions using electrical sounding. The Okoshiki area in central Kyushu, southwest Japan, was selected as a case study area, because of the presence of Kamiouda Fault. The measurements were conducted along six lines of both parallel and perpendicular orientations to the coastline. A feature suggesting a fault zone was evident on two lines. Through the temporal change of resistivity, movement and mixing processes of the seawater and freshwater during the ebb, low and flood tides were interpreted. A conceptual model of the processes was constructed in which a fault zone and the configuration of bedrock are dominant elements by acting as a selective path and a barrier to the groundwater flow, respectively.

  9. Fever of unknown origin: a review of 80 patients from the Shin'etsu area of Japan from 1986-1992.

    PubMed

    Shoji, S; Imamura, A; Imai, Y; Igarashi, A; Yazawa, M; Hirahara, K; Kagoshima, M; Ono, M; Nakajima, K; Iguchi, K

    1994-02-01

    In this survey involving 10 hospitals, we analyzed data on 80 Japanese patients from the Shin'etsu area (Nagano-ken and Niigata-ken) who were observed for fever of unknown origin (FUO). Our objectives were to identify the underlying causes and the relevant diagnostic methods. Fourteen of the patients died of the underlying illness. The cause of the FUO was infection in 43 patients, allergic or autoimmune disease in 13, neoplasm in 7, miscellaneous causes in 3, and undetermined in 14. FUO was self-limited in 13 patients and persistent in one patient. Methods successfully used to establish the final diagnosis in 66 patients were: evaluation of the clinical course or response to treatment in 16, serologic tests in 12, bacteriologic studies in 10, biopsy in 9, cytologic examination in 6, conventional radiology in 6, necropsy in 3, endoscopy in 2, and biochemical testing in 2.

  10. Japans Defense Program Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Japan and the Republic of Korea, 78.8 percent of Japanese people feel that the relationship is not good. In the case of China, the percentage of those...phenomenon? Japanese observers argue that the reasons why citizens of the Republic of Korea dislike Japan include Confucianism, egoism , biased education

  11. Rehabilitation in Japan, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    The scope of Japan's rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of social and demographic change in that country. An introductory chapter on the current situation in Japan looks at characteristics of the land, the people, the government, industry and the economy, and the culture. The second…

  12. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  13. Higher Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Teiichi

    This paper presents a portrait of the higher education system in Japan. After providing demographic information about Japan, the document outlines the overall educational structure through brief statements about kindergarten education, compulsory education, the elementary school, the lower secondary school, upper secondary education, curriculum,…

  14. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  15. Journey to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Lorraine

    1978-01-01

    Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

  16. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  17. TWELVE DOORS TO JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDSLEY, RICHARD K.; HALL, JOHN WHITNEY

    THE TWELVE DOORS OF THIS COLLEGE-LEVEL TEXT ARE TWELVE CHAPTERS ON ASPECTS OF JAPAN AND JAPANESE CULTURE AS TREATED BY VARIOUS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES. THE AUTHORS' PURPOSE IN CHOOSING THIS FORMAT WAS TO PRESENT INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION ABOUT JAPAN AND TO ACQUAINT STUDENTS WITH THE AIMS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS OF DISCIPLINES OTHER THAN THE ONE THEY…

  18. Widespread Triggered Tremor In Japan Following the 2012 Mw8.6 Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, K.; Obara, K.

    2012-12-01

    Deep "non-volcanic" tremor has been observed at many major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. Recent studies have shown that the tremor triggered by the surface waves of teleseismic earthquake occurs on the same fault patches as the ambient tremor (i.e., those occurring spontaneously). The observations suggest that the triggered tremor can be used as a proxy to estimate the background tremor activity. Triggered and ambient tremors have been well studied along the Nankai subduction zone in southwest Japan. Recently, new identified triggered tremor sources were found in Hokkaido in northernmost Japan (Obara, 2012, submitted manuscript), suggesting, contrary to previous beliefs, that tremor can be observed in various tectonic environments. Here, we systematically search for triggered tremor on the main islands of Japan (i.e., Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Hokkaido) following the 2012/04/11 Mw 8.6 Sumatra earthquake. We examined a total of about 1300 seismic stations from the Hi-net operated by NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention) and other arrays operated by universities and other organizations. We first identified triggered tremor as a high-frequency, non-impulsive signal in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves and then located the triggered tremor sources using a standard envelope cross-correlation technique. We also compared the tremor triggering potential with Love and Rayleigh waves by shifting the seismograms of tremor and surface waves back to the best tremor source. We observed clear triggered tremor following the 2012 Sumatra mainshock in Shikoku, Kii, and Tokai, where ambient tremors are very active and triggered tremors have been identified previously. Moreover, we successfully detected new triggered tremor sources in Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Kanto. In central Hokkaido, tremor triggered by the 2012 Sumatra earthquake was located at the same place where tremor was triggered by the 2004 Sumatra

  19. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations in leaf photosynthesis and canopy leaf area index on gross primary production of a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Takayama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Nasahara, Kenlo N; Noda, Hibiki; Yoshino, Jun; Saitoh, Taku M; Nagai, Shin; Murayama, Shohei; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Revealing the seasonal and interannual variations in forest canopy photosynthesis is a critical issue in understanding the ecological mechanisms underlying the dynamics of carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and deciduous forests. This study examined the effects of temporal variations of canopy leaf area index (LAI) and leaf photosynthetic capacity [the maximum velocity of carboxylation (V (cmax))] on gross primary production (GPP) of a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest for 5 years in Takayama AsiaFlux site, central Japan. We made two estimations to examine the effects of canopy properties on GPP; one is to incorporate the in situ observation of V (cmax) and LAI throughout the growing season, and another considers seasonality of LAI but constantly high V (cmax). The simulations indicated that variation in V (cmax) and LAI, especially in the leaf expansion period, had remarkable effects on GPP, and if V (cmax) was assumed constant GPP will be overestimated by 15%. Monthly examination of air temperature, radiation, LAI and GPP suggested that spring temperature could affect canopy phenology, and also that GPP in summer was determined mainly by incoming radiation. However, the consequences among these factors responsible for interannual changes of GPP are not straightforward since leaf expansion and senescence patterns and summer meteorological conditions influence GPP independently. This simulation based on in situ ecophysiological research suggests the importance of intensive consideration and understanding of the phenology of leaf photosynthetic capacity and LAI to analyze and predict carbon fixation in forest ecosystems.

  20. Frequent High Expression of Kita-Kyushu Lung Cancer Antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) in Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shida, Akiko; Futawatari, Nobue; Fukuyama, Takashi; Ichiki, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Yoshihito; Nishi, Yatsushi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-06-01

    The tumor-associated antigen Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) has been reported as not being expressed in normal tissues, except for the testis, and in the setting of non-small cell lung cancer. The present study demonstrated that KK-LC-1 is expressed in gastric cancer. We analyzed the expression of KK-LC-1 and cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) in surgical specimens of 49 gastric carcinomas. The expression of KK-LC-1 and CTAs was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. KK-LC-1 expression was observed in gastric carcinomas. The number of lesions with expression of KK-LC-1, Melanoma antigen gene encoding-A1 (MAGE-A1), MAGE-A3 and New York Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) was 40 (81.6%), 17 (34.7%), 22 (44.9%) and 8 (16.3%) out of the 49 specimens, respectively. KK-LC-1 should be categorized as a CTA. The frequency of KK-LC-1 expression was higher than that of the other CTAs. KK-LC-1 might be a useful target for immunotherapy and in diagnosis of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Revising the distribution of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (Perciformes, Oxudercidae), in Japan with the discovery of an isolated population

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Atsunobu; Inui, Ryutei; Miki, Ryohei; Miyazaki, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Five specimens of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (21.2–40.1 mm in standard length), were collected at a mudflat site of Kushima City, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, southern Japan over two seasons, autumn (September 2015) and spring (April 2016). A review of distributional records of Apocryptodon punctatus revealed that this population represents the southernmost record of the species in Japanese waters, and is isolated ca. 200 km south-southwest from the nearest point of the main range of the species along the Pacific coast of Japan. Publicising this population will help conserve it and its vulnerable habitat. PMID:28228668

  2. Relationship between diatom thanatocoenoses and anthropogenically-induced environmental changes in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hirose, K.; Sako, M.; Irizuki, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Seto Inland Sea (SIS), which is surrounded by Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku islands, is the largest enclosed sea in Japan. Water and bottom environments there deteriorated due to various anthropogenically-induced environmental changes from 1955 to 1973 (e.g. Yanagi, 2008). Then, several effluents have been regulated since the 1980s. Diatoms are one of important unicellular algae as a primary producer in waters. As diatoms respond rapidly to the nutrient supply in waters, they are good indicator of eutrophication. Thus, we clarified the spatio-temporal changes of diatom thanatocoenoses in Harima-Nada, eastern part of the SIS, and compared them with previous results in other areas in the SIS (Hirose et al., 2008; Hirose and Gotoh, 2009; Sako et al., unpublished data) to discuss the relationship between diatom thanatocoenoses and degree of anthropogenically-induced environmental changes in the SIS. The surface and/or core sediments were collected from the northern, northwestern, and southern parts of Harima-Nada. We conducted 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs dating of cores, diatom analysis, CHNS analysis, and grain size analysis of sediment samples. The results showed that marine environments in all areas of Harima-Nada deteriorated recently and the abundance of planktonic diatoms increased due to intense eutrophication. The comparison with the present and previous studies lead that Neodelphineis pelagica, small Thalassiosira spp., and resting spores of Chaetoceros spp. dominated other taxa in the most areas of the SIS since the mid-20th century, and the relative frequencies of the latter two taxa seem to be useful indicators for evaluating modern marine conditions. References: Yanagi (2008) Kouseisha-Kouseikaku Co., pp. 130; Hirose and Gotoh (2009) Diatom, 25, p. 21-36; Hirose et al. (2008) The Quaternary Research, 47, 287-296.

  3. Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishitoya, Junichi; Sakuma, Yasunori; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2010-09-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term "eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis" (ECRS) was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001. ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States.

  4. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  5. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  6. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  7. Potential accessibility scores for hospital care in a province of Japan: GIS-based ecological study of the two-step floating catchment area method and the number of neighborhood hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Akihisa; Mukuda, Kengo; Harada, Masanori; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-26

    For achieving equity of the accessibility to primary healthcare, measuring potential geographical accessibility is essential. The provider-to-population ratio is the most frequently used measure. However, it is difficult to be used in closer region because it does not take into consideration the people and health services beyond its boundary. In order to overcome this problem, we measured the potential access to hospital, using both distance measures and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. The aim of this study was to compare the number of hospitals in the neighborhood and the E2SFCA score with regard to the amount and equity for access to hospitals. This descriptive study used publicly available data from 2010. The E2SFCA score and number of neighborhood hospitals were obtained from Tochigi province in Japan using a geographic information system. Dataset of four measures by each census tract was obtained. The measures were E2SFCA score, number of hospitals within the 5 km range, number of hospitals within the 10 km range, and number of hospitals within the 15 km range. Correlation and disparity analyses with the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient were performed. The measures were obtained in a smaller area than municipality considering adjacent areas using a geographical approach. The E2SFCA score was 5.3 [3.2-7.3] hospitals/million (median [quantile range]), compared to 5.6 hospitals/million in total for the given district. The median number of hospitals within the 5 km, 10 km, and 15 km ranges were 1, 39, and 47, respectively. There was no hospital within the 5 km range in one third of the blocks. Both the number of hospitals within the 10 km range and those within the 15 km range were well correlated. Regional difference became smaller as the distance to count the number of hospitals increased. The gap between small number of hospitals and the high E2SFCA score indicated the location of community hospital in depopulated areas

  8. [Studies on the massive flights of chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as nuisance insects and plans for their control in the Lake Suwa area, central Japan. 1. Occurrence of massive flights of Tokunagayusurika akamusi].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, K

    1991-06-01

    Adult Chironomidae (Diptera, particularly Chironomus plumosus and Tokunagayusurika akamusi) emerging from eutrophic lakes or polluted bodies of water in Japan have become intolerable because they pose a severe nuisance and cause economic problems. In the Lake Suwa area, massive flights of adult midges of T. akamusi have occurred frequently, and caused problems in the daily life of local residents or for the tourist business. The author tried to clarify the biological and hygienic problems involved in these massive flights. In order to control adult midges, the distribution of larvae in the lake, the period and quantity of emergence from water, the time of flight, and the dispersal range of T. akamusi midges were studied. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Larvae of T. akamusi are distributed over the whole lake, especially in the east and southeast part with high densities. Mean biomass was about 100 g wet weight/m2 in Lake Suwa. On the shore near these areas, dense swarms of adult midges were found. 2. Emergence of T. akamusi from Lake Suwa was observed at the end of September and lasted till the middle of November. The emergence peaked in the middle of October. The time of flight was mainly at 17: 30-19: 30. 3. The dispersal ranges of adult midges were confirmed with two methods, i.e. the ordinary light trap method and a questionnaire survey of 544 residents. The result obtained with the questionnaire survey was consistent with that of the light trap method and the questionnaire survey made it possible to collect information in a wider area than the usual one. 4. T. akamusi midges reached areas over 3 km from the lake, but more than 90 percent of the midges flew within 500 m of the lake's shoreline. However, even in the more distant places where there was a source of bright light there were many adult midges. 5. The wind (at 18: 30) was the main factor which expanded the dispersal range of adults. We observed that many adults appeared after a strong wind (6

  9. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  10. IL5RA polymorphisms, smoking and eczema in Japanese women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    The present case-control study examined the relationship between IL5RA SNPs and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases and control subjects were selected from pregnant women who participated in the baseline survey of the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, which is an ongoing prebirth cohort study. Cases comprised 188 women with eczema in the previous 12 months as defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), regardless of the presence of a doctor's diagnosis of atopic eczema. Control subjects comprised 1130 women without eczema as defined according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor. Compared with the AA genotype of IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the AT genotype, but not the TT genotype, was significantly associated with a decreased risk of eczema. The ATTAGA haplotype and the GTAGCA haplotype of rs17882210, rs3804797, rs334809, rs9831572, rs6771148 and rs17881144 were significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema. In contrast, the GCTGCA haplotype was significantly related to a decreased risk of eczema. Multiplicative interactions between IL5RA SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and smoking with respect to eczema were marginally significant (P = 0.07 and 0.07, respectively). This is the first study to show significant associations between IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the ATTAGA haplotype, the GTAGCA haplotype, and the GCTGCA haplotype and eczema. Smoking may modify the relationships between SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and eczema.

  11. Synoptic climatological analysis on precipitation characteristics and atmospheric water cycle process around the Japan Islands in the midsummer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchida, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kengo; Otani, Kazuo; Kato, Kuranoshin

    2017-04-01

    In East Asia, the remarkable rainy season called the Baiu appears greatly influence by the Asian monsoon. In the midsummer, the Baiu front moves northward and the Japan Islands area in covered with subtropical high climatologically. However, strong precipitation is sometimes brought in association with the southward shift if the Baiu front or often atmospheric situation. The total precipitation itself around Japan is not as small as in summer around Europa. Furthermore, not only rainfall amount but also rainfall characteristic seem to be nether different from the rainy seasons before and after the midsummer. As such, the present study will examine the rainfall in the midsummer. In this study, daily precipitation date together with the daily records of the hourly maximum and 10-minute maximum values at the 87 surface meteorological stations of the JMA from the Kanto to the Kyushu District, and the NCEP / NCAR re-analysis data at the grid points with every 2.5 ° latitude / longitude interval grid were used for analyses. Generally, the large areal averaged precipitation would occur in association with the high occurrence frequency of daily heavy rain or the intense rainfall in a short time such as the large maximum heavily or 10-minute precipitation. However, during the midsummer appearance frequency of the case when the daily areal mean precipitation exceeded the averaged value in August, without the stations with the precipitation equal to on more than 50mm/day, was not so low (here after, referred to as Type A). There appeared anther case when the area averaged precipitation was small, but the number of stations with the maximum 10-minute precipitation equal to or more than 2mm (Type B), together with the case when both and the area average precipitation and the number of stations with such intense maximum 10-minute precipitation were considerable (Type C). Referring to the time series of 1 hourly and 10-minutes maximum rainfall for each day, each type showed

  12. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-10

    The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world at 1991 m. The total length of the bridge is 3911 m. It links the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island, crossing the busy Akashi Strait. The image was acquired April 26, 2014, covers an area of 8.1 by 11.2 km, and is located at 34.6 degrees north, 135 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19747

  13. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  14. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  15. Japan Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Japan is the world's largest liquefied natural gas importer and ranks in the top four countries for the highest coal imports, net imports of petroleum and other liquids, and consumption of crude oil and petroleum products.

  16. GPM Arrives in Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  17. Space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  18. Area Handbook Series: Japan: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Tanizaki Jun’ichir6, who captured the East-West value struggle in Japanese life prior to World War II and Kawabata Yasunari , a master of psychological...34 Yasunari Kawabata (1899-1972)," World Literature Today, 62, No. 3, Summer 1988, 375-79. Carpenter, Juliet Winters. "Tawara Machi: To Create Poetry Is to...of, 325 Katsura Taro, 49, 50 juku, 143, 151-52; academic, 151; atten- Kawabata Yasunari , 190 dance, 151; educational functions of, Kawai Kanjir6, 177

  19. Assessment of nonlinear site response at ocean bottom seismograph sites based on S-wave horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios: a study at the Sagami Bay area K-NET sites in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Yadab P.; Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Suzuki, Wataru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed S-wave horizontal-to-vertical (S-H/V) spectral ratios at six ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) sites of K-NET located in the Sagami Bay area of Japan for nonlinear site responses. The degree of nonlinearity was computed by comparing the S-H/V spectral ratios for strong motions (PGA ≥ 20 cm/s2) with those for weak motions (PGA < 20 cm/s2). Our analyses, which showed that the weak-motion S-H/V spectral ratios differ from site to site, indicate that the underlying site geology is not uniform at the OBS sites. It was found that the threshold PGA causing a nonlinear site response is generally different from site to site. Recordings having horizontal PGAs greater than about 50-150 cm/s2 display clear signatures of nonlinear site effects, i.e., the shift of predominant frequencies to lower ones and/or the decrease in high-frequency spectral ratios. We also found that the degree of nonlinearity is generally larger at the OBS sites due to the smaller threshold motions that cause a nonlinear site response compared with the available data at land sites. The above findings suggest the possibility of a widespread nonlinear site response at the OBS sites for offshore earthquakes with a large magnitude. However, frequencies lower than about 2 Hz are not affected by the nonlinear site response in the analyzed data ranges (PGA < 467 cm/s2). These results indicate the need for careful utilization of recorded strong motions at OBS sites for applications such as real-time ground motion predictions as front detections.

  20. Different study conditions between dental students in China and Japan.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Yi, Zhe; Wang, Xu; Jinno, Yohei; Zhang, Xinwen; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Ai, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the study conditions of dental students towards dental education in China and Japan. 60 students from the Stomatology School of China Medical University and 51 students from the Dental Faculty of Kyushu University, Japan, participated in this study. Information was derived from a self-answered questionnaire consisting